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Sample records for tsunami propagation models

  1. Tsunami Propagation Models Based on First Principles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-21

    geodesic lines from the epicenter shown in the figure are great circles with a longitudinal separation of 90o, which define a ‘ lune ’ that covers one...past which the waves begin to converge according to Model C. A tsunami propagating in this lune does not encounter any continental landmass until...2011 Japan tsunami in a lune of angle 90o with wavefronts at intervals of 5,000 km The 2011 Japan tsunami was felt throughout the Pacific Ocean

  2. Speeding up tsunami wave propagation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    Trans-oceanic wave propagation is one of the most time/CPU consuming parts of the tsunami modeling process. The so-called Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package, developed at PMEL NOAA USA (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA), is widely used to evaluate the tsunami parameters. However, it takes time to simulate trans-ocean wave propagation, that is up to 5 hours CPU time to "drive" the wave from Chili (epicenter) to the coast of Japan (even using a rather coarse computational mesh). Accurate wave height prediction requires fine meshes which leads to dramatic increase in time for simulation. Computation time is among the critical parameter as it takes only about 20 minutes for tsunami wave to approach the coast of Japan after earthquake at Japan trench or Sagami trench (as it was after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011). MOST solves numerically the hyperbolic system for three unknown functions, namely velocity vector and wave height (shallow water approximation). The system could be split into two independent systems by orthogonal directions (splitting method). Each system can be treated independently. This calculation scheme is well suited for SIMD architecture and GPUs as well. We performed adaptation of MOST package to GPU. Several numerical tests showed 40x performance gain for NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU vs. single core of Intel i7 processor. Results of numerical experiments were compared with other available simulation data. Calculation results, obtained at GPU, differ from the reference ones by 10^-3 cm of the wave height simulating 24 hours wave propagation. This allows us to speak about possibility to develop real-time system for evaluating tsunami danger.

  3. Modeling Extra-Long Tsunami Propagation: Assessing Data, Model Accuracy and Forecast Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Rabinovich, A.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and modeling tsunamis propagating tens of thousands of kilometers from the source is a formidable scientific challenge and seemingly satisfies only scientific curiosity. However, results of such analyses produce a valuable insight into the tsunami propagation dynamics, model accuracy and would provide important implications for tsunami forecast. The Mw = 9.3 megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004 off the coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that devastated Indian Ocean coastlines and spread into the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The tsunami was recorded by a great number of coastal tide gauges, including those located in 15-25 thousand kilometers from the source area. To date, it is still the farthest instrumentally detected tsunami. The data from these instruments throughout the world oceans enabled to estimate various statistical parameters and energy decay of this event. High-resolution records of this tsunami from DARTs 32401 (offshore of northern Chile), 46405 and NeMO (both offshore of the US West Coast), combined with the mainland tide gauge measurements enabled us to examine far-field characteristics of the 2004 in the Pacific Ocean and to compare the results of global numerical simulations with the observations. Despite their small heights (less than 2 cm at deep-ocean locations), the records demonstrated consistent spatial and temporal structure. The numerical model described well the frequency content, amplitudes and general structure of the observed waves at deep-ocean and coastal gages. We present analysis of the measurements and comparison with model data to discuss implication for tsunami forecast accuracy. Model study for such extreme distances from the tsunami source and at extra-long times after the event is an attempt to find accuracy bounds for tsunami models and accuracy limitations of model use for forecast. We discuss results in application to tsunami model forecast and tsunami modeling in general.

  4. Tsunami propagation modelling - a sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, M. H.; Tkalich, P.

    2007-12-01

    Indian Ocean (2004) Tsunami and following tragic consequences demonstrated lack of relevant experience and preparedness among involved coastal nations. After the event, scientific and forecasting circles of affected countries have started a capacity building to tackle similar problems in the future. Different approaches have been used for tsunami propagation, such as Boussinesq and Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE). These approximations were obtained assuming different relevant importance of nonlinear, dispersion and spatial gradient variation phenomena and terms. The paper describes further development of original TUNAMI-N2 model to take into account additional phenomena: astronomic tide, sea bottom friction, dispersion, Coriolis force, and spherical curvature. The code is modified to be suitable for operational forecasting, and the resulting version (TUNAMI-N2-NUS) is verified using test cases, results of other models, and real case scenarios. Using the 2004 Tsunami event as one of the scenarios, the paper examines sensitivity of numerical solutions to variation of different phenomena and parameters, and the results are analyzed and ranked accordingly.

  5. NOAA Propagation Database Value in Tsunami Forecast Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eble, M. C.; Wright, L. M.

    2016-02-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) has developed a tsunami forecasting capability that combines a graphical user interface with data ingestion and numerical models to produce estimates of tsunami wave arrival times, amplitudes, current or water flow rates, and flooding at specific coastal communities. The capability integrates several key components: deep-ocean observations of tsunamis in real-time, a basin-wide pre-computed propagation database of water level and flow velocities based on potential pre-defined seismic unit sources, an inversion or fitting algorithm to refine the tsunami source based on the observations during an event, and tsunami forecast models. As tsunami waves propagate across the ocean, observations from the deep ocean are automatically ingested into the application in real-time to better define the source of the tsunami itself. Since passage of tsunami waves over a deep ocean reporting site is not immediate, we explore the value of the NOAA propagation database in providing placeholder forecasts in advance of deep ocean observations. The propagation database consists of water elevations and flow velocities pre-computed for 50 x 100 [km] unit sources in a continuous series along all known ocean subduction zones. The 2011 Japan Tohoku tsunami is presented as the case study

  6. Role of Compressibility on Tsunami Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, Ali; Kirby, James T.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, we aim to reduce the discrepancies between tsunami arrival times evaluated from tsunami models and real measurements considering the role of ocean compressibility. We perform qualitative studies to reveal the phase speed reduction rate via a modified version of the Mild Slope Equation for Weakly Compressible fluid (MSEWC) proposed by Sammarco et al. (2013). The model is validated against a 3-D computational model. Physical properties of surface gravity waves are studied and compared with those for waves evaluated from an incompressible flow solver over realistic geometry for 2011 Tohoku-oki event, revealing reduction in phase speed.Plain Language SummarySubmarine earthquakes and submarine mass failures (SMFs), can generate long gravitational waves (or <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>) that <span class="hlt">propagate</span> at the free surface. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waves can travel long distances and are known for their dramatic effects on coastal areas. Nowadays, numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> are used to reconstruct the tsunamigenic events for many scientific and socioeconomic aspects i.e. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning Systems, inundation mapping, risk and hazard analysis, etc. A number of typically neglected parameters in these <span class="hlt">models</span> cause discrepancies between <span class="hlt">model</span> outputs and observations. Most of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> predict <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival times at distant stations slightly early in comparison to observations. In this study, we show how ocean compressibility would affect the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> speed. In this framework, an efficient two-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> equation for the weakly compressible ocean has been developed, validated and tested for simplified and real cases against three dimensional and incompressible solvers. Taking the effect of compressibility, the phase speed of surface gravity waves is reduced compared to that of an incompressible fluid. Then, we used the <span class="hlt">model</span> for the case of devastating Tohoku-Oki 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event, improving the <span class="hlt">model</span> accuracy. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdWR..115..273B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdWR..115..273B"><span>A well-balanced meshless <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brecht, Rüdiger; Bihlo, Alexander; MacLachlan, Scott; Behrens, Jörn</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>We present a novel meshless <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">model</span>. We discretize the nonlinear shallow-water equations using a well-balanced scheme relying on radial basis function based finite differences. For the inundation <span class="hlt">model</span>, radial basis functions are used to extrapolate the dry region from nearby wet points. Numerical results against standard one- and two-dimensional benchmarks are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26ES...23a2007Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26ES...23a2007Z"><span>A shallow water <span class="hlt">model</span> for the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> via Lattice Boltzmann method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zergani, Sara; Aziz, Z. A.; Viswanathan, K. K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An efficient implementation of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for the numerical simulation of the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of long ocean waves (e.g. <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>), based on the nonlinear shallow water (NSW) wave equation is presented. The LBM is an alternative numerical procedure for the description of incompressible hydrodynamics and has the potential to serve as an efficient solver for incompressible flows in complex geometries. This work proposes the NSW equations for the irrotational surface waves in the case of complex bottom elevation. In recent time, equation involving shallow water is the current norm in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> operations which include the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> zone estimation. Several test-cases are presented to verify our <span class="hlt">model</span>. Some implications to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">modelling</span> are also discussed. Numerical results are found to be in excellent agreement with theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JPhCS1000a2113Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JPhCS1000a2113Y"><span>Analytical and Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Wave <span class="hlt">Propagation</span> for double layer state in Bore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuvaraj, V.; Rajasekaran, S.; Nagarajan, D.</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> wave enters into the river bore in the landslide. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> are described in two-layer states. The velocity and amplitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> are calculated using the double layer. The numerical and analytical solutions are given for the nonlinear equation of motion of the wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in a bore.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1748M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1748M"><span>Advancing our understanding of the onshore <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> bores over rough surfaces through numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marras, S.; Suckale, J.; Eguzkitza, B.; Houzeaux, G.; Vázquez, M.; Lesage, A. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the open ocean has been studied in detail with many excellent numerical approaches available to researchers. Our understanding of the processes that govern the onshore <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is less advanced. Yet, the reach of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on land is an important predictor of the damage associated with a given event, highlighting the need to investigate the factors that govern <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> onshore. In this study, we specifically focus on understanding the effect of bottom roughness at a variety of scales. The term roughness is to be understood broadly, as it represents scales ranging from small features like rocks, to vegetation, up to the size of larger structures and topography. In this poster, we link applied mathematics, computational fluid dynamics, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> physics to analyze the small scales features of coastal hydrodynamics and the effect of roughness on the motion of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> as they run up a sloping beach and <span class="hlt">propagate</span> inland. We solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flows with free surface, which is tracked by a level set function in combination with an accurate re-distancing scheme. We discretize the equations via linear finite elements for space approximation and fully implicit time integration. Stabilization is achieved via the variational multiscale method whereas the subgrid scales for our large eddy simulations are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using a dynamically adaptive Smagorinsky eddy viscosity. As the geometrical characteristics of roughness in this study vary greatly across different scales, we implement a scale-dependent representation of the roughness elements. We <span class="hlt">model</span> the smallest sub-grid scale roughness features by the use of a properly defined law of the wall. Furthermore, we utilize a Manning formula to compute the shear stress at the boundary. As the geometrical scales become larger, we resolve the geometry explicitly and compute the effective volume drag introduced by large scale</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036889','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036889"><span>Hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from the Currituck landslide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, E.L.; Lynett, P.J.; Chaytor, J.D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> generation from the Currituck landslide offshore North Carolina and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of waves toward the U.S. coastline are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> based on recent geotechnical analysis of slide movement. A long and intermediate wave <span class="hlt">modeling</span> package (COULWAVE) based on the non-linear Boussinesq equations are used to simulate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. This <span class="hlt">model</span> includes procedures to incorporate bottom friction, wave breaking, and overland flow during runup. Potential <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated from the Currituck landslide are analyzed using four approaches: (1) <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave history is calculated from several different scenarios indicated by geotechnical stability and mobility analyses; (2) a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the effects of both landslide failure duration during generation and bottom friction along the continental shelf during <span class="hlt">propagation</span>; (3) wave history is calculated over a regional area to determine the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of energy oblique to the slide axis; and (4) a high-resolution 1D <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed to accurately <span class="hlt">model</span> wave breaking and the combined influence of nonlinearity and dispersion during nearshore <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and runup. The primary source parameter that affects <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> severity for this case study is landslide volume, with failure duration having a secondary influence. Bottom friction during <span class="hlt">propagation</span> across the continental shelf has a strong influence on the attenuation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> during <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. The high-resolution 1D <span class="hlt">model</span> also indicates that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> undergoes nonlinear fission prior to wave breaking, generating independent, short-period waves. Wave breaking occurs approximately 40-50??km offshore where a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> bore is formed that persists during runup. These analyses illustrate the complex nature of landslide <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, necessitating the use of detailed landslide stability/mobility <span class="hlt">models</span> and higher-order hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> to determine their hazard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH51B1700O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH51B1700O"><span>A Study of the Effects of Seafloor Topography on <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Propagation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohata, T.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster mitigation, we consider the phenomena related to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in terms of the generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and run-up to the coast. With consideration for these three phenomena, we have to consider <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> to predict the arrival time and the run-up height of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that <span class="hlt">propagates</span> from the source location to the coast have been widely used to estimate these important parameters. When a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagates</span>, however, reflected and scattered waves arrive as later phases of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. These waves are generated by the changes of water depth, and could influence the height estimation, especially in later phases. The maximum height of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> could be observed not as the first arrivals but as the later phases, therefore it is necessary to consider the effects of the seafloor topography on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. Since many simulations, however, mainly focus on the prediction of the first arrival times and the initial height of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, it is difficult to simulate the later phases that are important for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster mitigation in the conventional methods. In this study, we investigate the effects of the seafloor topography on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> after accommodating a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation to the superposition of reflected and refracted waves caused by the smooth changes of water depths. Developing the new numerical code, we consider how the effects of the sea floor topography affect on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, comparing with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulated by the conventional method based on the liner long wave theory. Our simulation employs the three dimensional in-equally spaced grids in finite difference method (FDM) to introduce the real seafloor topography. In the simulation, we import the seafloor topography from the real bathymetry data near the Sendai-Bay, off the northeast Tohoku region, Japan, and simulate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> over the varying seafloor topography there. Comparing with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulated by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1036M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1036M"><span>New Theory for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Propagation</span> and Estimation of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mindlin, I. M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>In numerical studies based on the shallow water equations for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, vertical accelerations and velocities within the sea water are neglected, so a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is usually supposed to be produced by an initial free surface displacement in the initially still sea. In the present work, new theory for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> across the deep sea is discussed, that accounts for the vertical accelerations and velocities. The theory is based on the solutions for the water surface displacement obtained in [Mindlin I.M. Integrodifferential equations in dynamics of a heavy layered liquid. Moscow: Nauka*Fizmatlit, 1996 (Russian)]. The solutions are valid when horizontal dimensions of the initially disturbed area in the sea surface are much larger than the vertical displacement of the surface, which applies to the earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. It is shown that any <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is a combination of specific basic waves found analytically (not superposition: the waves are nonlinear), and consequently, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source (i.e., the initially disturbed body of water) can be described by the numerable set of the parameters involved in the combination. Thus the problem of theoretical reconstruction of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source is reduced to the problem of estimation of the parameters. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> approximately with the use of a finite number of the parameters. Two-parametric <span class="hlt">model</span> is discussed thoroughly. A method is developed for estimation of the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s parameters using the arrival times of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at certain locations, the maximum wave-heights obtained from tide gauge records at the locations, and the distances between the earthquake's epicentre and each of the locations. In order to evaluate the practical use of the theory, four <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of different magnitude occurred in Japan are considered. For each of the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy (E below), the duration of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source formation T, the maximum water elevation in the wave originating area H, mean radius of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......292W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......292W"><span>Generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and run-up of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> due to the Chicxulub impact event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weisz, R.; Wuennenmann, K.; Bahlburg, H.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The Chicxulub impact event can be investigated in (1) local, (2) regional and in (3) global scales. Our investigations focus on the regional scale, especially on the influence of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the coast around the Gulf of Mexico caused by the impact. During an impact two types of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are generated. The first wave is known as the "rim wave" and is generated in front of the ejecta curtain. The second one is linked to the late modification stage of the impact and results from the collapsing cavity of water. We designate this wave as "collapse wave". The "rim wave" and "collapse wave" are able to <span class="hlt">propagate</span> over long distances, without a significant loss of wave amplitude. Corresponding to the amplitudes, the waves have a potentially large influence on the coastal areas. Run-up distance and run-up height can be used as parameters for describing this influence. We are utilizing a multimaterial hydrocode (SALE) to simulate the generation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. The <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the waves is based on the non-linear shallow water theory, because <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves are defined to be long waves. The position of the coast line varies according to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up and is implemented with open boundary conditions. We show with our investigations (1) the generation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves due to shallow water impacts, (2) wave damping during <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and (3) the influence of the "rim wave" and the "collapse wave" on the coastal areas. Here, we present our first results from numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves owing to a Chicxulub sized impactor. The characteristics of the “rim wave” depend on the size of the bolide and the water depth. However, the amplitude and velocity of the “collapse wave” is only determined by the water depth in the impact area. The numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and run-up is calculated along a section from the impact point towards to the west and gives the moderate damping of both waves and the run-up on the coastal area. As a first</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1170/d/pdf/of2013-1170d.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1170/d/pdf/of2013-1170d.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for the SAFRR <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Scenario-generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, inundation, and currents in ports and harbors: Chapter D in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File report presents a compilation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies for the Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario. These <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies are based on an earthquake source specified by the SAFRR <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source working group (Kirby and others, 2013). The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies in this report are organized into three groups. The first group relates to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. The effects that source discretization and horizontal displacement have on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial conditions are examined in section 1 (Whitmore and others). In section 2 (Ryan and others), dynamic earthquake rupture <span class="hlt">models</span> are explored in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. These <span class="hlt">models</span> calculate slip distribution and vertical displacement of the seafloor as a result of realistic fault friction, physical properties of rocks surrounding the fault, and dynamic stresses resolved on the fault. The second group of papers relates to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Section 3 (Thio) presents a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> study for the entire California coast that includes runup and inundation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> where there is significant exposure and estimates of maximum velocity and momentum flux at the shoreline. In section 4 (Borrero and others), <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and high-resolution inundation of critical locations in southern California is performed using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (MOST) <span class="hlt">model</span> and NOAA’s Community <span class="hlt">Model</span> Interface for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (ComMIT) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tool. Adjustments to the inundation line owing to fine-scale structures such as levees are described in section 5 (Wilson). The third group of papers relates to <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of hydrodynamics in ports and harbors. Section 6 (Nicolsky and Suleimani) presents results of the <span class="hlt">model</span> used at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center for the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, as well as synthetic time series of the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> for other selected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41B1711W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41B1711W"><span>Developing a global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> database and its application for coastal hazard assessments in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, N.; Tang, L.; Titov, V.; Newman, J. C.; Dong, S.; Wei, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The tragedies of the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have increased awareness of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards for many nations, including China. The low land level and high population density of China's coastal areas place it at high risk for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards. Recent research (Komatsubara and Fujiwara, 2007) highlighted concerns of a magnitude 9.0 earthquake on the Nankai trench, which may affect China's coasts not only in South China Sea, but also in the East Sea and Yellow Sea. Here we present our work in progress towards developing a global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> database that can be used for hazard assessments by many countries. The <span class="hlt">propagation</span> scenarios are computed by using NOAA's MOST numerical <span class="hlt">model</span>. Each scenario represents a typical Mw 7.5 earthquake with predefined earthquake parameters (Gica et al., 2008). The <span class="hlt">model</span> grid was interpolated from ETOPO1 at 4 arc-min resolution, covering -80° to72°N and 0 to 360°E. We use this database for preliminary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment along China's coastlines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914824L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914824L"><span>Joint numerical study of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: comparative <span class="hlt">propagation</span> simulations and high resolution coastal <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loevenbruck, Anne; Arpaia, Luca; Ata, Riadh; Gailler, Audrey; Hayashi, Yutaka; Hébert, Hélène; Heinrich, Philippe; Le Gal, Marine; Lemoine, Anne; Le Roy, Sylvestre; Marcer, Richard; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Pons, Kevin; Ricchiuto, Mario; Violeau, Damien</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This study is part of the joint actions carried out within TANDEM (<span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in northern AtlaNtic: Definition of Effects by <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>). This French project, mainly dedicated to the appraisal of coastal effects due to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the French coastlines, was initiated after the catastrophic 2011 Tohoku-Oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. This event, which tragically struck Japan, drew the attention to the importance of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessment, in particular when nuclear facilities are involved. As a contribution to this challenging task, the TANDEM partners intend to provide guidance for the French Atlantic area based on numerical simulation. One of the identified objectives consists in designing, adapting and validating simulation codes for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment. Besides an integral benchmarking workpackage, the outstanding database of the 2011 event offers the TANDEM partners the opportunity to test their numerical tools with a real case. As a prerequisite, among the numerous published seismic source <span class="hlt">models</span> arisen from the inversion of the various available records, a couple of coseismic slip distributions have been selected to provide common initial input parameters for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> computations. After possible adaptations or specific developments, the different codes are employed to simulate the Tohoku-Oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from its source to the northeast Japanese coastline. The results are tested against the numerous <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurements and, when relevant, comparisons of the different codes are carried out. First, the results related to the oceanic <span class="hlt">propagation</span> phase are compared with the offshore records. Then, the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> coastal impacts are tested against the onshore data. Flooding at a regional scale is considered, but high resolution simulations are also performed with some of the codes. They allow examining in detail the runup amplitudes and timing, as well as the complexity of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> interaction with the coastal structures. The work is supported by the Tandem project in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70148006','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70148006"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>: stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> of occurrence and generation mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.; Oglesby, David D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The devastating consequences of the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have led to increased research into many different aspects of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> phenomenon. In this entry, we review research related to the observed complexity and uncertainty associated with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and occurrence described and analyzed using a variety of stochastic methods. In each case, seismogenic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are primarily considered. Stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> are developed from the physical theories that govern <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evolution combined with empirical <span class="hlt">models</span> fitted to seismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations, as well as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalogs. These stochastic methods are key to providing probabilistic forecasts and hazard assessments for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The stochastic methods described here are similar to those described for earthquakes (Vere-Jones 2013) and volcanoes (Bebbington 2013) in this encyclopedia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4736M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4736M"><span>A new physics-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-ionosphere coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meng, X.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Yang, Y.-M.; Deng, Y.; Mannucci, A. J.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> can generate gravity waves <span class="hlt">propagating</span> upward through the atmosphere, inducing total electron content (TEC) disturbances in the ionosphere. To capture this process, we have implemented <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-generated gravity waves into the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GITM) to construct a three-dimensional physics-based <span class="hlt">model</span> WP (Wave Perturbation)-GITM. WP-GITM takes <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave properties, including the wave height, wave period, wavelength, and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> direction, as inputs and time-dependently characterizes the responses of the upper atmosphere between 100 km and 600 km altitudes. We apply WP-GITM to simulate the ionosphere above the West Coast of the United States around the time when the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> associated with the March 2011 Tohuku-Oki earthquke arrived. The simulated TEC perturbations agree with Global Positioning System observations reasonably well. For the first time, a fully self-consistent and physics-based <span class="hlt">model</span> has reproduced the GPS-observed traveling ionospheric signatures of an actual <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP14B..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP14B..07S"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Generated by Deformable Submarine Slides: Parameterisation of Slide Dynamics for Coupling to <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Propagation</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, R. C.; Collins, G. S.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Mouradian, S. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> informs risk assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by submarine slides; however, for large-scale slides <span class="hlt">modelling</span> can be complex and computationally challenging. Many previous numerical studies have approximated slides as rigid blocks that moved according to prescribed motion. However, wave characteristics are strongly dependent on the motion of the slide and previous work has recommended that more accurate representation of slide dynamics is needed. We have used the finite-element, adaptive-mesh CFD <span class="hlt">model</span> Fluidity, to perform multi-material simulations of deformable submarine slide-generated waves at real world scales for a 2D scenario in the Gulf of Mexico. Our high-resolution approach represents slide dynamics with good accuracy, compared to other numerical simulations of this scenario, but precludes tracking of wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> over large distances. To enable efficient <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of further <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the waves, we investigate an approach to extract information about the slide evolution from our multi-material simulations in order to drive a single-layer wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, also using Fluidity, which is much less computationally expensive. The extracted submarine slide geometry and position as a function of time are parameterised using simple polynomial functions. The polynomial functions are used to inform a prescribed velocity boundary condition in a single-layer simulation, mimicking the effect the submarine slide motion has on the water column. The approach is verified by successful comparison of wave generation in the single-layer <span class="hlt">model</span> with that recorded in the multi-material, multi-layer simulations. We then extend this approach to 3D for further validation of this methodology (using the Gulf of Mexico scenario proposed by Horrillo et al., 2013) and to consider the effect of lateral spreading. This methodology is then used to simulate a series of hypothetical submarine slide events in the Arctic Ocean (based on evidence of historic</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.H53B..01F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.H53B..01F"><span>Peru 2007 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup observations and <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> fatalities. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the earthquake source and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from <span class="hlt">propagating</span> northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and Hurricane Katrina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.6865L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.6865L"><span>Impacts of tides on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> due to potential Nankai Trough earthquakes in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Han Soo; Shimoyama, Tomohisa; Popinet, Stéphane</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The impacts of tides on extreme <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> due to potential Nankai Trough earthquakes in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), Japan, are investigated through numerical experiments. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> experiments are conducted based on five scenarios that consider tides at four different phases, such as flood, high, ebb, and low tides. The probes that were selected arbitrarily in the Bungo and Kii Channels show less significant effects of tides on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights and the arrival times of the first waves than those that experience large tidal ranges in inner basins and bays of the SIS. For instance, the maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height and the arrival time at Toyomaesi differ by more than 0.5 m and nearly 1 h, respectively, depending on the tidal phase. The uncertainties defined in terms of calculated maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights due to tides illustrate that the calculated maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights in the inner SIS with standing tides have much larger uncertainties than those of two channels with <span class="hlt">propagating</span> tides. Particularly in Harima Nada, the uncertainties due to the impacts of tides are greater than 50% of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights without tidal interaction. The results recommend simulate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> together with tides in shallow water environments to reduce the uncertainties involved with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and predictions for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards preparedness. This article was corrected on 26 OCT 2015. See the end of the full text for details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH52A..07E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH52A..07E"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Assessment: Source regions of concern to U.S. interests derived from NOAA <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast <span class="hlt">Model</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eble, M. C.; uslu, B. U.; Wright, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Synthetic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated from source regions around the Pacific Basin are analyzed in terms of their relative impact on United States coastal locations.. The region of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> origin is as important as the expected magnitude and the predicted inundation for understanding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard. The NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research has developed high-resolution <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> capable of predicting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival time and amplitude of waves at each location. These <span class="hlt">models</span> have been used to conduct <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessments to assess maximum impact and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation for use by local communities in education and evacuation map development. Hazard assessment studies conducted for Los Angeles, San Francisco, Crescent City, Hilo, and Apra Harbor are combined with results of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> development at each of seventy-five locations. Complete hazard assessment, identifies every possible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> variation from a pre-computed <span class="hlt">propagation</span> database. Study results indicate that the Eastern Aleutian Islands and Alaska are the most likely regions to produce the largest impact on the West Coast of the United States, while the East Philippines and Mariana trench regions impact Apra Harbor, Guam. Hawaii appears to be impacted equally from South America, Alaska and the Kuril Islands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41B1723W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41B1723W"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hockey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weinstein, S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>An important issue that vexes <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning centers (TWCs) is when to cancel a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning once it is in effect. Emergency managers often face a variety of pressures to allow the public to resume their normal activities, but allowing coastal populations to return too quickly can put them at risk. A TWC must, therefore, exercise caution when cancelling a warning. Kim and Whitmore (2013) show that in many cases a TWC can use the decay of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> oscillations in a harbor to forecast when its amplitudes will fall to safe levels. This technique should prove reasonably robust for local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (those that are potentially dangerous within only 100 km of their source region) and for regional <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (whose danger is limited to within 1000km of the source region) as well. For ocean-crossing destructive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> such as the 11 March 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, however, this technique may be inadequate. When a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagates</span> across the ocean basin, it will encounter topographic obstacles such as seamount chains or coastlines, resulting in coherent reflections that can <span class="hlt">propagate</span> great distances. When these reflections reach previously-impacted coastlines, they can recharge decaying <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> oscillations and make them hazardous again. Warning center scientists should forecast sea-level records for 24 hours beyond the initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival in order to observe any potential reflections that may pose a hazard. Animations are a convenient way to visualize reflections and gain a broad geographic overview of their impacts. The Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center has developed tools based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations using the RIFT <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">model</span>. RIFT is a linear, parallelized numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> that runs very efficiently on a multi-CPU system (Wang et al, 2012). It can simulate 30-hours of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in the Pacific Ocean at 4 arc minute resolution in approximately 6 minutes of real time on a 12-CPU system. Constructing a 30-hour animation using 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO12A..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO12A..03M"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, transformation and the impact of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on urban areas using the coupling STOC-ML/IC/CADMAS in nested grids - Application to specific sites of Chile to improve the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> induced loads prediction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mokrani, C.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Arikawa, T.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A large part of coasts around the world are affected by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts, which supposes a challenge when designing coastal protection structures. Numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> provide predictions of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced loads and there time evolution, which can be used to improve sizing rules of coastal structures. However, the numerical assessment of impact loads is an hard stake. Indeed, recent experimental studies have shown that pressure dynamics generated during <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts are highly sensitive to the incident local shape of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Therefore, high numerical resolutions and very accurate <span class="hlt">models</span> are required to <span class="hlt">model</span> all stages during which the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> shape is modified before the impact. Given the large distances involved in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events, this can be disregarded in favor of computing time. The Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI) has recently developed a three-way coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> which allows to accurately <span class="hlt">model</span> the incident <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> shape while maintaining reasonable computational time. This coupling approach uses three <span class="hlt">models</span> used in nested grids (cf. Figure 1). The first one (STOC-ML) solves Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations with hydrostatic pressure. It is used to <span class="hlt">model</span> the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> off the coast. The second one (STOC-IC) is a 3D non-hydrostatic <span class="hlt">model</span>, on which the free-surface position is estimated through the integrated continuity equation. It has shown to accurately describe dispersive and weakly linear effects occurring at the coast vicinity. The third <span class="hlt">model</span> (CADMAS-SURF) solves fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and use a VOF method. Highly nonlinear, dispersive effects and wave breaking processes can be included at the wave scale and therefore, a very accurate description of the incident <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is provided. Each <span class="hlt">model</span> have been separately validated from analytical and/or experimental data. The present objective is to highlight recent advances in Coastal Ocean <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and loads prediction by applying this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157353','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157353"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> of an earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> offshore Ventura, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kenny J. Ryan,; Geist, Eric L.; Barall, Michael; David D. Oglesby,</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Ventura basin in Southern California includes coastal dip-slip faults that can likely produce earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater and significant local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. We construct a 3-D dynamic rupture <span class="hlt">model</span> of an earthquake on the Pitas Point and Lower Red Mountain faults to <span class="hlt">model</span> low-frequency ground motion and the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, with a goal of elucidating the seismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in this area. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> results in an average stress drop of 6 MPa, an average fault slip of 7.4 m, and a moment magnitude of 7.7, consistent with regional paleoseismic data. Our corresponding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> uses final seafloor displacement from the rupture <span class="hlt">model</span> as initial conditions to compute local <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation, resulting in large peak <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes northward and eastward due to site and path effects. <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> inundation in the Ventura area is significantly greater than that indicated by state of California's current reference inundation line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0202N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0202N"><span>A rapid calculation system for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in Japan by using the AQUA-MT/CMT solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, W.; Yamamoto, N.; Kimura, H.; Takahashi, N.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>We developed a rapid calculation system of geodetic deformations and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in and around Japan. The system automatically conducts their forward calculations by using point source parameters estimated by the AQUA system (Matsumura et al., 2006), which analyze magnitude, hypocenter, and moment tensors for an event occurring in Japan in 3 minutes of the origin time at the earliest. An optimized calculation code developed by Nakamura and Baba (2016) is employed for the calculations on our computer server with 12 core processors of Intel Xeon 2.60 GHz. Assuming a homogeneous fault slip in the single fault plane as the source fault, the developed system calculates each geodetic deformation and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> by numerically solving the 2D linear long-wave equations for the grid interval of 1 arc-min from two fault orientations simultaneously; i.e., one fault and its conjugate fault plane. Because fault <span class="hlt">models</span> based on moment tensor analyses of event data are used, the system appropriately evaluate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> even for unexpected events such as normal faulting in the subduction zone, which differs with the evaluation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrivals and heights from a pre-calculated database by using fault <span class="hlt">models</span> assuming typical types of faulting in anticipated source areas (e.g., Tatehata, 1998; Titov et al., 2005; Yamamoto et al., 2016). By the complete automation from event detection to output graphical figures, the calculation results can be available via e-mail and web site in 4 minutes of the origin time at the earliest. For moderate-sized events such as M5 to 6 events, the system helps us to rapidly investigate whether amplitudes of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> at nearshore and offshore stations exceed a noise level or not, and easily identify actual <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> at the stations by comparing with obtained synthetic waveforms. In the case of using source <span class="hlt">models</span> investigated from GNSS data, such evaluations may be difficult because of the low resolution of sources due to a low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..502P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..502P"><span>The 1755 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in Atlantics and its effects on the French West Indies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pelinovsky, E.; Zahibo, N.; Yalciner, A.; Zaitsev, A.; Talipova, T.; Chernov, A.; Insel, I.; Dilmen, D.; Ozer, C.; Nikolkina, I.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The present study examines the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves generated by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake in the Atlantic Ocean and its effects on the coasts of the French West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. Historical data of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> manifestation in the French West Indies are briefly reproduced. The mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> named NAMI DANCE which solves the shallow-water equations has been applied in the computations. Three possible seismic source alternatives of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source are selected for 1755 event in the simulations. The results obtained from the simulations demonstrate that the directivity of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy is divided into two strong beams directed to the southern part of North America (Florida, the Bahamas) and to the northern part of South America (Brazil). The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves reach the Lesser Antilles in 7 hrs. The computed distribution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height along the coasts of Guadeloupe and Martinique are presented. Calculated maximum of wave amplitudes reached 2 m in Guadeloupe and 1.5 m in Martinique. These results are also in agreement with observed data (1.8 - 3 m). The experience and data obtained in this study show that transatlantic events must also be considered in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment and development of mitigation strategies for the French West Indies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3716B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3716B"><span>Development of Parallel Code for the Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahng, B.; Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast <span class="hlt">Model</span> (ATFM) is a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> used to forecast <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by earthquakes and other means in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. At the U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (NTWC), the <span class="hlt">model</span> is mainly used in a pre-computed fashion. That is, results for hundreds of hypothetical events are computed before alerts, and are accessed and calibrated with observations during <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> to immediately produce forecasts. ATFM uses the non-linear, depth-averaged, shallow-water equations of motion with multiply nested grids in two-way communications between domains of each parent-child pair as waves get closer to coastal waters. Even with the pre-computation the task becomes non-trivial as sub-grid resolution gets finer. Currently, the finest resolution Digital Elevation <span class="hlt">Models</span> (DEM) used by ATFM are 1/3 arc-seconds. With a serial code, large or multiple areas of very high resolution can produce run-times that are unrealistic even in a pre-computed approach. One way to increase the <span class="hlt">model</span> performance is code parallelization used in conjunction with a multi-processor computing environment. NTWC developers have undertaken an ATFM code-parallelization effort to streamline the creation of the pre-computed database of results with the long term aim of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasts from source to high resolution shoreline grids in real time. Parallelization will also permit timely regeneration of the forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> database with new DEMs; and, will make possible future inclusion of new physics such as the non-hydrostatic treatment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. The purpose of our presentation is to elaborate on the parallelization approach and to show the compute speed increase on various multi-processor systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1894W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1894W"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Hikurangi Trench M9 Events: Case Study for Napier, New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C. R.; Nyst, M.; Farahani, R.; Bryngelson, J.; Lee, R.; Molas, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>RMS has developed a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for New Zealand for the insurance industry to price and to manage their <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risks. A key tsunamigenic source for New Zealand is the Hikurangi Trench that lies offshore on the eastside of the North Island. The trench is the result of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North Island at a rate of 40-45 mm/yr. Though there have been no M9 historical events on the Hikurangi Trench, events in this magnitude range are considered in the latest version of the National Seismic Hazard Maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2012). The RMS <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> lifecycle in three stages: event generation, ocean wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and coastal inundation. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event generation is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> based on seafloor deformation resulting from an event rupture <span class="hlt">model</span>. The ocean wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and coastal inundation are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using a RMS-developed numerical solver, implemented on graphic processing units using a finite-volume approach to approximate two-dimensional, shallow-water wave equations over the ocean and complex topography. As the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves enter shallow water and approach the coast, the RMS <span class="hlt">model</span> calculates the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the waves along the wet-dry interface considering variable land friction. The initiation and characteristics of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are based on the event rupture <span class="hlt">model</span>. As there have been no historical M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench, this rupture characterization posed unique challenges. This study examined the impacts of a suite of event rupture <span class="hlt">models</span> to understand the key drivers in the variations in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation footprints. The goal was to develop a suite of tsunamigenic event characterizations that represent a range of potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> outcomes for M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench. The focus of this case study is the Napier region as it represents an important exposure concentration in the region and has experience <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundations in the past including during the 1931 Ms7</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH22A..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH22A..03N"><span>Should <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> use a nonzero initial condition for horizontal velocity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nava, G.; Lotto, G. C.; Dunham, E. M.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in the open ocean is most commonly <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require two initial conditions: one on sea surface height and another on depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most <span class="hlt">modelers</span> assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height by a factor of two or more relative to <span class="hlt">models</span> in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the <span class="hlt">model</span> self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (with dispersion at short wavelengths). We run several full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in geometries with a sloping seafloor, using both idealized structures and a more realistic Tohoku structure. Substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean, but almost all momentum is carried away in the form of ocean acoustic waves. We compare <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in each full-physics simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial conditions. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves (from ocean acoustic and seismic waves) at some final time, and backpropagating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017833','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017833"><span>Source parameters controlling the generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of potential local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> along the cascadia margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, E.; Yoshioka, S.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The largest uncertainty in assessing hazards from local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> along the Cascadia margin is estimating the possible earthquake source parameters. We investigate which source parameters exert the largest influence on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and determine how each parameter affects the amplitude of the local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The following source parameters were analyzed: (1) type of faulting characteristic of the Cascadia subduction zone, (2) amount of slip during rupture, (3) slip orientation, (4) duration of rupture, (5) physical properties of the accretionary wedge, and (6) influence of secondary faulting. The effect of each of these source parameters on the quasi-static displacement of the ocean floor is determined by using elastic three-dimensional, finite-element <span class="hlt">models</span>. The <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> both near the coastline using the two-dimensional (x-t) Peregrine equations that includes the effects of dispersion and near the source using the three-dimensional (x-y-t) linear long-wave equations. The source parameters that have the largest influence on local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation are the shallowness of rupture and the amount of slip. In addition, the orientation of slip has a large effect on the directivity of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, especially for shallow dipping faults, which consequently has a direct influence on the length of coastline inundated by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Duration of rupture, physical properties of the accretionary wedge, and secondary faulting all affect the excitation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> but to a lesser extent than the shallowness of rupture and the amount and orientation of slip. Assessment of the severity of the local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard should take into account that relatively large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can be generated from anomalous '<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes' that rupture within the accretionary wedge in comparison to interplate thrust earthquakes of similar magnitude. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G33A0830U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G33A0830U"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> influence of tide stages on forecasts of the 2010 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uslu, B. U.; Chamberlin, C.; Walsh, D.; Eble, M. C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The impact of the 2010 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is studied using the NOAA high-resolution <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> augmented to include <span class="hlt">modeled</span> tide heights in addition to deep-water <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> as boundary-condition input. The Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was observed at the Los Angeles tide station at mean low water, Hilo at low, Pago Pago at mid tide and Wake Island near high tide. Because the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrived at coastal communities at a representative variety of tide stages, 2010 Chile <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> provides opportunity to study the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts at different tide levels to different communities. The current forecast <span class="hlt">models</span> are computed with a constant tidal stage, and this study evaluates techniques for adding an additional varying predicted tidal component in a forecasting context. Computed wave amplitudes, wave currents and flooding are compared at locations around the Pacific, and the difference in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact due to tidal stage is studied. This study focuses on how <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts vary with different tide levels, and helps us understand how the inclusion of tidal components can improve real-time forecast accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..3510604F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..3510604F"><span>The 15 August 2007 Peru <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup observations and <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fritz, Hermann M.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Borrero, Jose C.; Broncano, Pablo; Ortega, Erick</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with locally focused runup heights of up to10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed two weeks after the event and investigated the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects at 51 sites. Three <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> fatalities were reported south of the Paracas Peninsula in a sparsely populated desert area where the largest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup heights were measured. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the earthquake source and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from <span class="hlt">propagating</span> northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> awareness and education efforts to ensure successful self-evacuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210998Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210998Z"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of influence from remote <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at the coast of Sakhalin and Kuriles islands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Yalciner, Ahmet; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Far East coast of Russia (Kuriles islands, Sakhalin, Kamchatka) is the area where the dangerous natural phenomena as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is located. A lot of works are established for decreasing of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>'s influence. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> mapping and mitigation strategy are given for some regions. The centers of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning System are opened, enough plenty of records of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are collected. The properties of local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are studied well. At the same time, the catastrophic event of the Indonesian <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which had happened in December, 2004, when the sufficient waves have reached the coasts of Africa and South America, it is necessary to note, that the coats, which was far from the epicenter of earthquakes can be effected by catastrophic influence. Moreover, it is practically unique case, when using <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning System can reduce the number of human victims to zero. Development of the computer technologies, numerical methods for the solution of systems of the nonlinear differential equations makes computer <span class="hlt">modeling</span> real and hypothetical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is the basic method of studying features of distribution of waves in water areas and their influence at coast. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of distribution of historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from the seismic sources in the Pacific Ocean was observed. The events with an epicenter, remote from Far East coast of Russia were considered. The estimation of the remote <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was developed. Impact force of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> was estimated. The features of passage of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> through Kuril Straits were considered. The spectral analysis of records in settlements of Sakhalin and Kuriles is lead. NAMI-DANCE program was used for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. It is used finite element numerical schemes for Shallow Water Equations and Nonlinear-Dispersive Equations, with use Nested Grid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21A3833H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21A3833H"><span>Multiscale <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> with Fluidity: Coastal Inundation and Run-up.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, J.; Martin-Short, R.; Piggott, M. D.; Candy, A. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-induced flooding represents one of the most dangerous natural hazards to coastal communities around the world, as exemplified by Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of March 2011. In order to further understand this hazard and to design appropriate mitigation it is necessary to develop versatile, accurate software capable of simulating large scale <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and interaction with coastal geomorphology on a local scale. One such software package is Fluidity, an open source, finite element, multiscale, code that is capable of solving the fully three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Such meshes are significantly better at representing complex coastline shapes than structured meshes and have the advantage of allowing variation in element size across a domain. Furthermore, Fluidity incorporates a novel wetting and drying algorithm, which enables accurate, efficient simulation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up over complex, multiscale, topography. Fluidity has previously been demonstrated to accurately simulate the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (Oishi et al 2013) , but its wetting and drying facility has not yet been tested on a geographical scale. This study makes use of Fluidity to simulate the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and its interaction with Japan's eastern shoreline, including coastal flooding. The results are validated against observations made by survey teams, aerial photographs and previous <span class="hlt">modelling</span> efforts in order to evaluate Fluidity's current capabilities and suggest methods of future improvement. The code is shown to perform well at simulating flooding along the topographically complex Tohoku coast of Japan, with major deviations between <span class="hlt">model</span> and observation arising mainly due to limitations imposed by bathymetry resolution, which could be improved in future. In theory, Fluidity is capable of full multiscale <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, thus enabling researchers to understand both wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> across ocean basins and flooding of coastal landscapes down to interaction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918396L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918396L"><span>A review of mechanisms and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> procedures for landslide <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Løvholt, Finn; Harbitz, Carl B.; Glimsdal, Sylfest</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Landslides, including volcano flank collapses or volcanically induced flows, constitute the second-most important cause of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> after earthquakes. Compared to earthquakes, landslides are more diverse with respect to how they generation <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Here, we give an overview over the main <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation mechanisms for landslide <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In the presentation, a mix of results using analytical <span class="hlt">models</span>, numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>, laboratory experiments, and case studies are used to illustrate the diversity, but also to point out some common characteristics. Different numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques for the landslide evolution, and the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, as well as the effect of frequency dispersion, are also briefly discussed. Basic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation mechanisms for different types of landslides, including large submarine translational landslide, to impulsive submarine slumps, and violent subaerial landslides and volcano flank collapses, are reviewed. The importance of the landslide kinematics is given attention, including the interplay between landslide acceleration, landslide velocity to depth ratio (Froude number) and dimensions. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate how landslide deformation and retrogressive failure development influence tsunamigenesis. Generation mechanisms for subaerial landslides, are reviewed by means of scaling relations from laboratory experiments and numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Finally, it is demonstrated how the different degree of complexity in the landslide tsunamigenesis needs to be reflected by increased sophistication in numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH12A..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH12A..08G"><span>Development of algorithms for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection by High Frequency Radar based on <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case studies in the Mediterranean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilli, S. T.; Guérin, C. A.; Grosdidier, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Where coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard is governed by near-field sources, Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs) or earthquakes, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> times may be too small for a detection based on deep or shallow water buoys. To offer sufficient warning time, it has been proposed by others to implement early warning systems relying on High Frequency Radar (HFR) remote sensing, that has a dense spatial coverage far offshore. A new HFR, referred to as STRADIVARIUS, is being deployed by Diginext Inc. (in Fall 2014), to cover the "Golfe du Lion" (GDL) in the Western Mediterranean Sea. This radar uses a proprietary phase coding technology that allows detection up to 300 km, in a bistatic configuration (for which radar and antennas are separated by about 100 km). Although the primary purpose of the radar is vessel detection in relation to homeland security, the 4.5 MHz HFR will provide a strong backscattered signal for ocean surface waves at the so-called Bragg frequency (here, wavelength of 30 m). The current caused by an arriving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> will shift the Bragg frequency, by a value proportional to the current magnitude (projected on the local radar ray direction), which can be easily obtained from the Doppler spectrum of the HFR signal. Using state of the art <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, we <span class="hlt">modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case studies in the western Mediterranean basin (both seismic and SMFs) and simulated the HFR backscattered signal that would be detected for the entire GDL and beyond. Based on simulated HFR signal, we developed two types of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithms: (i) one based on standard Doppler spectra, for which we found that to be detectable within the environmental and background current noises, the Doppler shift requires <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents to be at least 10-15 cm/s, which typically only occurs on the continental shelf in fairly shallow water; (ii) to allow earlier detection, a second algorithm computes correlations of the HFR signals at two distant locations, shifted in time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6564G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6564G"><span>Development of algorithms for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection by High Frequency Radar based on <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case studies in the Mediterranean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilli, Stéphan; Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Grosdidier, Samuel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Where coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard is governed by near-field sources, Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs) or earthquakes, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> times may be too small for a detection based on deep or shallow water buoys. To offer sufficient warning time, it has been proposed by others to implement early warning systems relying on High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) remote sensing, that has a dense spatial coverage far offshore. A new HFSWR, referred to as STRADIVARIUS, has been recently deployed by Diginext Inc. to cover the "Golfe du Lion" (GDL) in the Western Mediterranean Sea. This radar, which operates at 4.5 MHz, uses a proprietary phase coding technology that allows detection up to 300 km in a bistatic configuration (with a baseline of about 100 km). Although the primary purpose of the radar is vessel detection in relation to homeland security, it can also be used for ocean current monitoring. The current caused by an arriving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> will shift the Bragg frequency by a value proportional to a component of its velocity, which can be easily obtained from the Doppler spectrum of the HFSWR signal. Using state of the art <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, we <span class="hlt">modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case studies in the western Mediterranean basin (both seismic and SMFs) and simulated the HFSWR backscattered signal that would be detected for the entire GDL and beyond. Based on simulated HFSWR signal, we developed two types of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithms: (i) one based on standard Doppler spectra, for which we found that to be detectable within the environmental and background current noises, the Doppler shift requires <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents to be at least 10-15 cm/s, which typically only occurs on the continental shelf in fairly shallow water; (ii) to allow earlier detection, a second algorithm computes correlations of the HFSWR signals at two distant locations, shifted in time by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> time between these locations (easily computed based on bathymetry). We found that this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS43D1340U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS43D1340U"><span>Solomon Islands 2007 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Near-Field <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Source Earthquake Deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uslu, B.; Wei, Y.; Fritz, H.; Titov, V.; Chamberlin, C.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The earthquake of 1 April 2007 left behind momentous footages of crust rupture and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact along the coastline of Solomon Islands (Fritz and Kalligeris, 2008; Taylor et al., 2008; McAdoo et al., 2008; PARI, 2008), while the undisturbed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signals were also recorded at nearby deep-ocean tsunameters and coastal tide stations. These multi-dimensional measurements provide valuable datasets to tackle the challenging aspects at the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source directly by inversion from tsunameter records in real time (available in a time frame of minutes), and its relationship with the seismic source derived either from the seismometer records (available in a time frame of hours or days) or from the crust rupture measurements (available in a time frame of months or years). The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurements in the near field, including the complex vertical crust motion and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup, are particularly critical to help interpreting the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. This study develops high-resolution inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> for the Solomon Islands to compute the near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact. Using these <span class="hlt">models</span>, this research compares the tsunameter-derived <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source with the seismic-derived earthquake sources from comprehensive perceptions, including vertical uplift and subsidence, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup heights and their distributional pattern among the islands, deep-ocean tsunameter measurements, and near- and far-field tide gauge records. The present study stresses the significance of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude, source location, bathymetry and topography in accurately <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. This study highlights the accuracy and efficiency of the tsunameter-derived <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact. As the high- resolution <span class="hlt">models</span> developed in this study will become part of NOAA's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast system, these results also suggest expanding the system for potential applications in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment, search and rescue operations</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0255O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0255O"><span>Ionospheric detection of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes: observation, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and ideas for future early warning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Occhipinti, G.; Manta, F.; Rolland, L.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Hill, E.; Astafieva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra and Tohoku earthquakes (e.g., Occhipinti 2015) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves <span class="hlt">propagating</span> within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by <span class="hlt">modelling</span> proved that ionospheric anomalies related to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are deterministic and reproducible by numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic earthquakes from 2004 to 2011 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first 8 min after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains information about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In addition to GNSS-TEC observations close to the epicenter, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by airglow measurement in Hawaii show the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the internal gravity waves induced by the Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (Occhipinti et al., 2011). This revolutionary imaging technique is today supported by two new observations of moderate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>: Queen Charlotte (M: 7.7, 27 October, 2013) and Chile (M: 8.2, 16 September 2015). We finally detail here our recent work (Manta et al., 2017) on the case of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alert failure following the Mw7.8 Mentawai event (25 October, 2010), and its twin <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alert response following the Mw7</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.1621P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.1621P"><span>A Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Study of the Auckland Region, Part I: <span class="hlt">Propagation</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Assessment at the Shoreline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Power, William; Wang, Xiaoming; Lane, Emily; Gillibrand, Philip</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Regional source <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> represent a potentially devastating threat to coastal communities in New Zealand, yet are infrequent events for which little historical information is available. It is therefore essential to develop robust methods for quantitatively estimating the hazards posed, so that effective mitigation measures can be implemented. We develop a probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard posed to the Auckland region of New Zealand from the Kermadec Trench and the southern New Hebrides Trench subduction zones. An innovative feature of our <span class="hlt">model</span> is the systematic analysis of uncertainty regarding the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes in the source regions. The methodology is first used to estimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard at the coastline, and then used to produce a set of scenarios that can be applied to produce probabilistic maps of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation for the study region; the production of these maps is described in part II. We find that the 2,500 year return period regional source <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard for the densely populated east coast of Auckland is dominated by events originating in the Kermadec Trench, while the equivalent hazard to the sparsely populated west coast is approximately equally due to events on the Kermadec Trench and the southern New Hebrides Trench.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.1679L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.1679L"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Numerical Simulations and Energy Considerations by use of 3D-2D Coupled <span class="hlt">Models</span>: The October 11, 1918, Mona Passage <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>López-Venegas, Alberto M.; Horrillo, Juan; Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Huérfano, Victor; Mercado, Aurelio</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The most recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observed along the coast of the island of Puerto Rico occurred on October 11, 1918, after a magnitude 7.2 earthquake in the Mona Passage. The earthquake was responsible for initiating a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that mostly affected the northwestern coast of the island. Runup values from a post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> survey indicated the waves reached up to 6 m. A controversy regarding the source of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has resulted in several numerical simulations involving either fault rupture or a submarine landslide as the most probable cause of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Here we follow up on previous simulations of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from a submarine landslide source off the western coast of Puerto Rico as initiated by the earthquake. Improvements on our previous study include: (1) higher-resolution bathymetry; (2) a 3D-2D coupled numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> specifically developed for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>; (3) use of the non-hydrostatic numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> NEOWAVE (non-hydrostatic evolution of ocean WAVE) featuring two-way nesting capabilities; and (4) comprehensive energy analysis to determine the time of full <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave development. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> solution using the Navier-Stokes algorithm with multiple interfaces for two fluids (water and landslide) was used to determine the initial wave characteristic generated by the submarine landslide. Use of NEOWAVE enabled us to solve for coastal inundation, wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and detailed runup. Our results were in agreement with previous work in which a submarine landslide is favored as the most probable source of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and improvement in the resolution of the bathymetry yielded inundation of the coastal areas that compare well with values from a post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> survey. Our unique energy analysis indicates that most of the wave energy is isolated in the wave generation region, particularly at depths near the landslide, and once the initial wave <span class="hlt">propagates</span> from the generation region its energy begins to stabilize.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70109244','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70109244"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> forecast by joint inversion of real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms and seismic of GPS data: application to the Tohoku 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yong, Wei; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Correctly characterizing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source generation is the most critical component of modern <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source <span class="hlt">models</span> for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> using model–data comparison for the generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">models</span> addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurements and rapid validation of the approximate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH33A1903F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH33A1903F"><span>Landslide-Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Quick Hazard Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franz, M.; Rudaz, B.; Locat, J.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Podladchikov, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Alpine regions are likely to be areas at risk regarding to landslide-induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, because of the proximity between lakes and potential instabilities and due to the concentration of the population in valleys and on the lakes shores. In particular, dam lakes are often surrounded by steep slopes and frequently affect the stability of the banks. In order to assess comprehensively this phenomenon together with the induced risks, we have developed a 2.5D numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> which aims to simulate the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the landslide, the generation and the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the wave and eventually the spread on the shores or the associated downstream flow. To perform this task, the process is done in three steps. Firstly, the geometry of the sliding mass is constructed using the Sloping Local Base Level (SLBL) concept. Secondly, the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of this volume is performed using a <span class="hlt">model</span> based on viscous flow equations. Finally, the wave generation and its <span class="hlt">propagation</span> are simulated using the shallow water equations stabilized by the Lax-Friedrichs scheme. The transition between wet and dry bed is performed by the combination of the two latter sets of equations. The proper behavior of our <span class="hlt">model</span> is demonstrated by; (1) numerical tests from Toro (2001), and (2) by comparison with a real event where the horizontal run-up distance is known (Nicolet landslide, Quebec, Canada). The <span class="hlt">model</span> is of particular interest due to its ability to perform quickly the 2.5D geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> of the landslide, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation and, consequently, the hazard assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S14A..03F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S14A..03F"><span>The Chile <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 27 February 2010: Field survey and <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in the Pacific Ocean is simulated using the benchmarked <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> MOST (Titov and Gonzalez, 1997; Titov and Synolakis, 1998). For initial conditions the inversion <span class="hlt">model</span> of Lorito et al. (2011) is utilized. The <span class="hlt">model</span> results highlight the directivity of the highest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves towards Juan Fernández and Easter Island during the transoceanic <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards since community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0256Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0256Y"><span>Ocean-bottom pressure changes above a fault area for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> observed by a submarine dense network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yomogida, K.; Saito, T.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Conventional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> have been formulated by incompressible fluid with velocity components. This approach is valid in most cases because we usually analyze tunamis as "long gravity waves" excited by submarine earthquakes. Newly developed ocean-bottom <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> networks such as S-net and DONET have dramatically changed the above situation for the following two reasons: (1) <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagations</span> are now directly observed in a 2-D array manner without being suffered by complex "site effects" of sea shore, and (2) initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> features can be directly detected just above a fault area. Removing the incompressibility assumption of sea water, we have formulated a new representation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation based on not velocity but displacement components. As a result, not only dynamics but static term (i.e., the component of zero frequency) can be naturally introduced, which is important for the pressure observed on the ocean floor, which ocean-bottom <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> stations are going to record. The acceleration on the ocean floor should be combined with the conventional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height (that is, the deformation of the sea level above a given station) in the measurement of ocean-bottom pressure although the acceleration exists only during fault motions in time. The M7.2 Off Fukushima earthquake on 22 November 2016 was the first event that excited large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> within the territory of S-net stations. The <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is found to be highly non-uniform, because of the strong velocity (i.e., sea depth) gradient perpendicular to the axis of Japan Trench. The earthquake was located in a shallow sea close to the coast, so that all the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy is reflected by the trench region of high velocity. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> records (pressure gauges) within its fault area recorded clear slow motions of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (i.e., sea level changes) but also large high-frequency signals, as predicted by our theoretical result. That is, it may be difficult to extract <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH23B..05K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH23B..05K"><span>Real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation forecasting and damage mapping towards enhancing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster resiliency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koshimura, S.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Musa, A.; Murashima, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>With use of modern computing power and advanced sensor networks, a project is underway to establish a new system of real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation forecasting, damage estimation and mapping to enhance society's resilience in the aftermath of major <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster. The system consists of fusion of real-time crustal deformation monitoring/fault <span class="hlt">model</span> estimation by Ohta et al. (2012), high-performance real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>/inundation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with NEC's vector supercomputer SX-ACE, damage/loss estimation <span class="hlt">models</span> (Koshimura et al., 2013), and geo-informatics. After a major (near field) earthquake is triggered, the first response of the system is to identify the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">model</span> by applying RAPiD Algorithm (Ohta et al., 2012) to observed RTK-GPS time series at GEONET sites in Japan. As performed in the data obtained during the 2011 Tohoku event, we assume less than 10 minutes as the acquisition time of the source <span class="hlt">model</span>. Given the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source, the system moves on to running <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> which was optimized on the vector supercomputer SX-ACE to acquire the estimation of time series of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at offshore/coastal tide gauges to determine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel and arrival time, extent of inundation zone, maximum flow depth distribution. The implemented <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on the non-linear shallow-water equations discretized by finite difference method. The merged bathymetry and topography grids are prepared with 10 m resolution to better estimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inland penetration. Given the maximum flow depth distribution, the system performs GIS analysis to determine the numbers of exposed population and structures using census data, then estimates the numbers of potential death and damaged structures by applying <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> fragility curve (Koshimura et al., 2013). Since the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">model</span> is determined, the <span class="hlt">model</span> is supposed to complete the estimation within 10 minutes. The results are disseminated as mapping products to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6397K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6397K"><span>2011 Great East Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Okhotsk Sea region: numerical <span class="hlt">modelings</span> and observation data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostenko, Irina; Zaytsev, Andrey; Yalciner, Ahmet; Pelinovsky, Efim</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The 11 March, 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake with Mw: 9.0 occurred at 05:46:23 UTC with its epicenter estimated at 38.322_N, 142.369_E, and focal depth of 32 km (USGS, 2011). <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waves <span class="hlt">propagated</span> in Pacific Ocean to all directions. At Russian coast the highest waves were observed in the Kuril Islands (Malokurilskoye, Kunashir Island) which located in between Pacific ocean and the Okhotsk Sea. Kuril island provides limited transmission of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from Pacific ocean. <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> In 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> event, the maximum amplitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was observed as 3 m in Kuril islands. However, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrived Okhotsk Sea losing a significant amount of energy. Therefore the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes at the coast of the Okhotsk Sea were smaller. In order to estimate the level of energy loss while passing through the narrow straits of the Kuril Islands, a series of numerical simulations was done by using <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical code NAMI DANCE. Ten largest earthquake shocks capable of generating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> were used as inputs of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Hence the relation between the transmission of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and the dimensions of the straits are compared and discussed. Finally the characteristics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> (arrival time and coastal amplification) at the coast in the Okhotsk Sea. The varying grid structure is used in numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> in order to make finer analysis of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> passing through narrow straits of the Kuril Islands. This allows to combine exactly the installation locations of stationary and computational gauges. The simulation results are compared with the observations. The linear form of shallow water equations are used in the deep ocean region offshore part of the Sea of Okhotsk. Boussinesq type equations were also used at the near shore area in simulations. Since the Okhotsk Sea Results are a semi enclosed basin, the reflection characteristics at the coastal boundaries may be important. The numerical experiments are also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W7..461D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W7..461D"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Risk Assessment <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> in Chabahar Port, Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delavar, M. R.; Mohammadi, H.; Sharifi, M. A.; Pirooz, M. D.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The well-known historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) region was generated by the earthquake of November 28, 1945 in Makran Coast in the North of Oman Sea. This destructive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> killed over 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan and India, caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran and Oman. According to the report of "Remembering the 1945 Makran <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>", compiled by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO/IOC), the maximum inundation of Chabahar port was 367 m toward the dry land, which had a height of 3.6 meters from the sea level. In addition, the maximum amount of inundation at Pasni (Pakistan) reached to 3 km from the coastline. For the two beaches of Gujarat (India) and Oman the maximum run-up height was 3 m from the sea level. In this paper, we first use Makran 1945 seismic parameters to simulate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation phases. The effect of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on Chabahar port is simulated using the ComMIT <span class="hlt">model</span> which is based on the Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (MOST). In this process the results are compared with the documented eyewitnesses and some reports from researchers for calibration and validation of the result. Next we have used the <span class="hlt">model</span> to perform risk assessment for Chabahar port in the south of Iran with the worst case scenario of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The simulated results showed that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves will reach Chabahar coastline 11 minutes after generation and 9 minutes later, over 9.4 Km2 of the dry land will be flooded with maximum wave amplitude reaching up to 30 meters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1870J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1870J"><span>Sensitivity of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Waves and Coastal Inundation/Runup to Seabed Displacement <span class="hlt">Models</span>: Application to the Cascadia Subduction zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jalali Farahani, R.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Major components of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard <span class="hlt">modeling</span> include earthquake source characterization, seabed displacement, wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and coastal inundation/run-up. Accurate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of these components is essential to identify the disaster risk exposures effectively, which would be crucial for insurance industry as well as policy makers to have <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> resistant design of structures and evacuation planning (FEMA, 2008). In this study, the sensitivity and variability of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> coastal inundation due to Cascadia megathrust subduction earthquake are studied by considering the different approaches for seabed displacement <span class="hlt">model</span>. The first approach is the analytical expressions that were proposed by Okada (1985, 1992) for the surface displacements and strains of rectangular sources. The second approach was introduced by Meade (2006) who introduced analytical solutions for calculating displacements, strains, and stresses on triangular sources. In this study, the seabed displacement using triangular representation of geometrically complex fault surfaces is compared with the Okada rectangular representations for the Cascadia subduction zone. In the triangular dislocation algorithm, the displacement is calculated using superposition of two angular dislocations for each of the three triangle legs. The triangular elements could give a better and gap-free representation of the fault surfaces. In addition, the rectangular representation gives large unphysical vertical displacement along the shallow-depth fault edge that generates unrealistic short-wavelength waves. To study the impact of these two different algorithms on the final <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation, the initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave as well as wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and the coastal inundation are simulated. To <span class="hlt">model</span> the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves and coastal inundation, 2D shallow water equations are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using the seabed displacement as the initial condition for the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> numerical simulation has been performed on high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030843','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030843"><span>A simple <span class="hlt">model</span> for calculating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow speed from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbuam, G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sedimentation that can be applied to calculate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow speed from the thickness and grain size of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit (the inverse problem). For sandy <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits where grain size and thickness vary gradually in the direction of transport, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as a steady, spatially uniform process. The amount of sediment in suspension is assumed to be in equilibrium with the steady portion of the long period, slowing varying uprush portion of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Spatial flow deceleration is assumed to be small and not to contribute significantly to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> deposits are formed from sediment settling from the water column when flow speeds on land go to zero everywhere at the time of maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation. There is little erosion of the deposit by return flow because it is a slow flow and is concentrated in topographic lows. Variations in grain size of the deposit are found to have more effect on calculated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow speed than deposit thickness. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is tested using field data collected at Arop, Papua New Guinea soon after the 1998 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Speed estimates of 14??m/s at 200??m inland from the shoreline compare favorably with those from a 1-D inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> and from application of Bernoulli's principle to water levels on buildings left standing after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. As evidence that the <span class="hlt">model</span> is applicable to some sandy <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits, the <span class="hlt">model</span> reproduces the observed normal grading and vertical variation in sorting and skewness of a deposit formed by the 1998 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112704K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112704K"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation for risk analysis at the Andaman Sea Coast of Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaiser, G.; Kortenhaus, A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The mega-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of Dec. 26, 2004 strongly impacted the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand and devastated coastal ecosystems as well as towns, settlements and tourism resorts. In addition to the tragic loss of many lives, the destruction or damage of life-supporting infrastructure, such as buildings, roads, water & power supply etc. caused high economic losses in the region. To mitigate future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts there is a need to assess the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and vulnerability in flood prone areas at the Andaman Sea coast in order to determine the spatial distribution of risk and to develop risk management strategies. In the bilateral German-Thai project TRAIT research is performed on integrated risk assessment for the Provinces Phang Nga and Phuket in southern Thailand, including a hazard analysis, i.e. <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> to the coast, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave breaking and inundation characteristics, as well as vulnerability analysis of the socio-economic and the ecological system in order to determine the scenario-based, specific risk for the region. In this presentation results of the hazard analysis and the inundation simulation are presented and discussed. Numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation simulation is an inevitable tool for risk analysis, risk management and evacuation planning. While numerous investigations have been made to <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in the Indian Ocean, there is still a lack in determining detailed inundation patterns, i.e. water depth and flow dynamics. However, for risk management and evacuation planning this knowledge is essential. As the accuracy of the inundation simulation is strongly depending on the available bathymetric and the topographic data, a multi-scale approach is chosen in this work. The ETOPO Global Relief <span class="hlt">Model</span> as a bathymetric basis and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM90) have been widely applied in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approaches as these data are free and almost world</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1044Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1044Y"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Casualty <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yeh, H.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>More than 4500 deaths by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard. It is partly because <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events, there exist gender and age discriminations in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty <span class="hlt">model</span> based on humans' limit to withstand the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flows. The application to simple <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> strength increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918772G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918772G"><span>Comparison and Computational Performance of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA and MOST <span class="hlt">Models</span> for the LANTEX 2013 scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González-Vida, Jose M.; Macías, Jorge; Mercado, Aurelio; Ortega, Sergio; Castro, Manuel J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to simulate the Caribbean LANTEX 2013 scenario (LANTEX is the acronym for Large AtlaNtic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> EXercise, which is carried out annually). The numerical simulation of the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation phases, is performed with both <span class="hlt">models</span> but using different mesh resolutions and nested meshes. Some comparisons with the MOST <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> available at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) are made. Both <span class="hlt">models</span> compare well for <span class="hlt">propagating</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in open sea, producing very similar results. In near-shore shallow waters, <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA should be compared with the inundation version of MOST, since the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> version of MOST is limited to deeper waters. Regarding the inundation phase, a 1 arc-sec (approximately 30 m) resolution mesh covering all of Puerto Rico, is used, and a three-level nested meshes technique implemented. In the inundation phase, larger differences between <span class="hlt">model</span> results are observed. Nevertheless, the most striking difference resides in computational time; <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA is coded using the advantages of GPU architecture, and can produce a 4 h simulation in a 60 arcsec resolution grid for the whole Caribbean Sea in less than 4 min with a single general-purpose GPU and as fast as 11 s with 32 general-purpose GPUs. In the inundation stage with nested meshes, approximately 8 hours of wall clock time is needed for a 2-h simulation in a single GPU (versus more than 2 days for the MOST inundation, running three different parts of the island—West, Center, East—at the same time due to memory limitations in MOST). When domain decomposition techniques are finally implemented by breaking up the computational domain into sub-domains and assigning a GPU to each sub-domain (multi-GPU <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA version), we show that the wall clock time significantly decreases, allowing high-resolution inundation <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in very short computational times, reducing, for example, if eight GPUs are used, the wall clock time to around 1 hour</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4765N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4765N"><span>An Earthquake Source Sensitivity Analysis for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Propagation</span> in the Eastern Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>An earthquake source parameter sensitivity analysis for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in the Eastern Mediterranean has been performed based on 8 August 1303 Crete and Dodecanese Islands earthquake resulting in destructive inundation in the Eastern Mediterranean. The analysis involves 23 cases describing different sets of strike, dip, rake and focal depth, while keeping the fault area and displacement, thus the magnitude, same. The main conclusions of the evaluation are drawn from the investigation of the wave height distributions at <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast Points (TFP). The earthquake vs. initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source parameters comparison indicated that the maximum initial wave height values correspond in general to the changes in rake angle. No clear depth dependency is observed within the depth range considered and no strike angle dependency is observed in terms of amplitude change. Directivity sensitivity analysis indicated that for the same strike and dip, 180° shift in rake may lead to 20% change in the calculated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height. Moreover, an approximately 10 min difference in the arrival time of the initial wave has been observed. These differences are, however, greatly reduced in the far field. The dip sensitivity analysis, performed separately for thrust and normal faulting, has both indicated that an increase in the dip angle results in the decrease of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave amplitude in the near field approximately 40%. While a positive phase shift is observed, the period and the shape of the initial wave stays nearly the same for all dip angles at respective TFPs. These affects are, however, not observed at the far field. The resolution of the bathymetry, on the other hand, is a limiting factor for further evaluation. Four different cases were considered for the depth sensitivity indicating that within the depth ranges considered (15-60 km), the increase of the depth has only a smoothing effect on the synthetic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height measurements at the selected TFPs. The strike</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.tmp.1331V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.tmp.1331V"><span>Performance Comparison of NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D® <span class="hlt">Models</span> in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Propagation</span>, Inundation and Currents using NTHMP Benchmark Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Velioglu Sogut, Deniz; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Field observations provide valuable data regarding nearshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact, yet only in inundation areas where <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves have already flooded. Therefore, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is essential to understand <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> behavior and prepare for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation. It is necessary that all numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> used in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> emergency planning be subject to benchmark tests for validation and verification. This study focuses on two numerical codes, NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D®, for validation and performance comparison. NAMI DANCE is an in-house <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> developed by the Ocean Engineering Research Center of Middle East Technical University, Turkey and Laboratory of Special Research Bureau for Automation of Marine Research, Russia. FLOW-3D® is a general purpose computational fluid dynamics software, which was developed by scientists who pioneered in the design of the Volume-of-Fluid technique. The codes are validated and their performances are compared via analytical, experimental and field benchmark problems, which are documented in the ``Proceedings and Results of the 2011 National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) <span class="hlt">Model</span> Benchmarking Workshop'' and the ``Proceedings and Results of the NTHMP 2015 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Current <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Workshop". The variations between the numerical solutions of these two <span class="hlt">models</span> are evaluated through statistical error analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS43D1341B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS43D1341B"><span>Near Source 2007 Peru <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Runup Observations and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borrero, J. C.; Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Broncano, P.; Ortega, E.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed two weeks after the event and investigated the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects at 51 sites. Three <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> fatalities were reported south of the Paracas Peninsula in a sparsely populated desert area where the largest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup heights and massive inundation distances up to 2 km were measured. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the earthquake source and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from <span class="hlt">propagating</span> northward from the high slip region. As with all near field <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, the waves struck within minutes of the massive ground shaking. Spontaneous evacuations coordinated by the Peruvian Coast Guard minimized the fatalities and illustrate the importance of community-based education and awareness programs. The residents of the fishing village Lagunilla were unaware of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard after an earthquake and did not evacuate, which resulted in 3 fatalities. Despite the relatively benign <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects at Pisco from this event, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard for this city (and its liquefied natural gas terminal) cannot be underestimated. Between 1687 and 1868, the city of Pisco was destroyed 4 times by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. Since then, two events (1974 and 2007) have resulted in partial inundation and moderate damage. The fact that potentially devastating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup heights were observed immediately south of the peninsula only serves to underscore this point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH33A1561H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH33A1561H"><span>A comparison between two inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> for the 25 Ooctober 2010 Mentawai Islands <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Z.; Borrero, J. C.; Qiu, Q.; Hill, E. M.; Li, L.; Sieh, K. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>On 25 October 2010, an Mw~7.8 earthquake occurred on the Sumatra megathrust seaward of the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, generating a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> which killed approximately 500 people. Following the event, the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) initiated a post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> field survey, collecting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up data from more than 30 sites on Pagai Selatan, Pagai Utara and Sipora. The strongest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects were observed on several small islands offshore of Pagai Selatan, where runup exceeded 16 m. This presentation will focus on a detailed comparison between two <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">models</span>: COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>) and MOST (Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>). Simulations are initialized using fault <span class="hlt">models</span> based on data from a 1-hz GPS system that measured co-seismic deformation throughout the region. Preliminary simulations suggest that 2-m vertical seafloor deformation over a reasonably large area is required to recreate most of the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects. Since the GPS data suggest that subsidence of the islands is small, this implies that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source region is somewhat narrower and located further offshore than described in recently published earthquake source <span class="hlt">models</span> based on teleseismic inversions alone. We will also discuss issues such as bathymetric and topographic data preparation and the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results due to the lack of high resolution bathymetry and topography in the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.tmp..199P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.tmp..199P"><span>Traveltime delay relative to the maximum energy of the wave train for dispersive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> <span class="hlt">propagating</span> across the Pacific Ocean: the case of 2010 and 2015 Chilean <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poupardin, A.; Heinrich, P.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Jamelot, A.; Reymond, D.; Sugioka, H.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>This paper evaluates the importance of frequency dispersion in the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of recent trans-Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Frequency dispersion induces a time delay for the most energetic waves, which increases for long <span class="hlt">propagation</span> distances and short source dimensions. To calculate this time delay, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is simulated and analyzed from spectrograms of time-series at specific gauges in the Pacific Ocean. One- and two-dimensional simulations are performed by solving either shallow water or Boussinesq equations and by considering realistic seismic sources. One-dimensional sensitivity tests are first performed in a constant-depth channel to study the influence of the source width. Two-dimensional tests are then performed in a simulated Pacific Ocean with a 4000-m constant depth and by considering tectonic sources of 2010 and 2015 Chilean earthquakes. For these sources, both the azimuth and the distance play a major role in the frequency dispersion of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Finally, simulations are performed considering the real bathymetry of the Pacific Ocean. Multiple reflections, refractions as well as shoaling of waves result in much more complex time series for which the effects of the frequency dispersion are hardly discernible. The main point of this study is to evaluate frequency dispersion in terms of traveltime delays by calculating spectrograms for a time window of 6 hours after the arrival of the first wave. Results of the spectral analysis show that the wave packets recorded by pressure and tide sensors in the Pacific Ocean seem to be better reproduced by the Boussinesq <span class="hlt">model</span> than the shallow water <span class="hlt">model</span> and approximately follow the theoretical dispersion relationship linking wave arrival times and frequencies. Additionally, a traveltime delay is determined above which effects of frequency dispersion are considered to be significant in terms of maximum surface elevations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..11412025T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..11412025T"><span>Development, testing, and applications of site-specific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> for real-time forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, L.; Titov, V. V.; Chamberlin, C. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The study describes the development, testing and applications of site-specific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> (forecast <span class="hlt">models</span>) for use in NOAA's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast and warning system. The <span class="hlt">model</span> development process includes sensitivity studies of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave characteristics in the nearshore and inundation, for a range of <span class="hlt">model</span> grid setups, resolutions and parameters. To demonstrate the process, four forecast <span class="hlt">models</span> in Hawaii, at Hilo, Kahului, Honolulu, and Nawiliwili are described. The <span class="hlt">models</span> were validated with fourteen historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and compared with numerical results from reference inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> of higher resolution. The accuracy of the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> maximum wave height is greater than 80% when the observation is greater than 0.5 m; when the observation is below 0.5 m the error is less than 0.3 m. The error of the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> arrival time of the first peak is within 3% of the travel time. The developed forecast <span class="hlt">models</span> were further applied to hazard assessment from simulated magnitude 7.5, 8.2, 8.7 and 9.3 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> based on subduction zone earthquakes in the Pacific. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment study indicates that use of a seismic magnitude alone for a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source assessment is inadequate to achieve such accuracy for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude forecasts. The forecast <span class="hlt">models</span> apply local bathymetric and topographic information, and utilize dynamic boundary conditions from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source function database, to provide site- and event-specific coastal predictions. Only by combining a Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-constrained <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude with site-specific high-resolution <span class="hlt">models</span> can the forecasts completely cover the evolution of earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves: generation, deep ocean <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and coastal inundation. Wavelet analysis of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves suggests the coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> frequency responses at different sites are dominated by the local bathymetry, yet they can be partially related to the locations of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. The study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073331','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073331"><span>Local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and earthquake source parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.; Dmowska, Renata; Saltzman, Barry</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This chapter establishes the relationship among earthquake source parameters and the generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and run-up of local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In general terms, displacement of the seafloor during the earthquake rupture is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using the elastic dislocation theory for which the displacement field is dependent on the slip distribution, fault geometry, and the elastic response and properties of the medium. Specifically, nonlinear long-wave theory governs the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and run-up of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. A parametric study is devised to examine the relative importance of individual earthquake source parameters on local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, because the physics that describes <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from generation through run-up is complex. Analysis of the source parameters of various tsunamigenic earthquakes have indicated that the details of the earthquake source, namely, nonuniform distribution of slip along the fault plane, have a significant effect on the local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up. Numerical methods have been developed to address the realistic bathymetric and shoreline conditions. The accuracy of determining the run-up on shore is directly dependent on the source parameters of the earthquake, which provide the initial conditions used for the hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913813V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913813V"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the 16 September 2015 Chile <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source with the inversion of deep-ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records by means of the r - solution method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voronina, Tatyana; Romanenko, Alexey; Loskutov, Artem</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The key point in the state-of-the-art in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting is constructing a reliable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. In this study, we present an application of the original numerical inversion technique to <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources of the 16 September 2015 Chile <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The problem of recovering a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source from remote measurements of the incoming wave in the deep-water tsunameters is considered as an inverse problem of mathematical physics in the class of ill-posed problems. This approach is based on the least squares and the truncated singular value decomposition techniques. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is considered within the scope of the linear shallow-water theory. As in inverse seismic problem, the numerical solutions obtained by mathematical methods become unstable due to the presence of noise in real data. A method of r-solutions makes it possible to avoid instability in the solution to the ill-posed problem under study. This method seems to be attractive from the computational point of view since the main efforts are required only once for calculating the matrix whose columns consist of computed waveforms for each harmonic as a source (an unknown <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source is represented as a part of a spatial harmonics series in the source area). Furthermore, analyzing the singular spectra of the matrix obtained in the course of numerical calculations one can estimate the future inversion by a certain observational system that will allow offering a more effective disposition for the tsunameters with the help of precomputations. In other words, the results obtained allow finding a way to improve the inversion by selecting the most informative set of available recording stations. The case study of the 6 February 2013 Solomon Islands <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> highlights a critical role of arranging deep-water tsunameters for obtaining the inversion results. Implementation of the proposed methodology to the 16 September 2015 Chile <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has successfully produced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">model</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176333','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176333"><span>Uncertainty in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jaffe, Bruce E.; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sugawara, Daisuke; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Erosion and deposition from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> record information about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamics and size that can be interpreted to improve <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment. We explore sources and methods for quantifying uncertainty in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Uncertainty varies with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, study site, available input data, sediment grain size, and <span class="hlt">model</span>. Although uncertainty has the potential to be large, published case studies indicate that both forward and inverse <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">models</span> perform well enough to be useful for deciphering <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> characteristics, including size, from deposits. New techniques for quantifying uncertainty, such as Ensemble Kalman Filtering inversion, and more rigorous reporting of uncertainties will advance the science of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Uncertainty may be decreased with additional laboratory studies that increase our understanding of the semi-empirical parameters and physics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport, standardized benchmark tests to assess <span class="hlt">model</span> performance, and development of hybrid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches to exploit the strengths of forward and inverse <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033941','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033941"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> with adaptively refined finite volume methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>LeVeque, R.J.; George, D.L.; Berger, M.J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, together with the detailed <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of inundation of small-scale coastal regions, poses a number of algorithmic challenges. The depth-averaged shallow water equations can be used to reduce this to a time-dependent problem in two space dimensions, but even so it is crucial to use adaptive mesh refinement in order to efficiently handle the vast differences in spatial scales. This must be done in a 'wellbalanced' manner that accurately captures very small perturbations to the steady state of the ocean at rest. Inundation can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> by allowing cells to dynamically change from dry to wet, but this must also be done carefully near refinement boundaries. We discuss these issues in the context of Riemann-solver-based finite volume methods for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Several examples are presented using the GeoClaw software, and sample codes are available to accompany the paper. The techniques discussed also apply to a variety of other geophysical flows. ?? 2011 Cambridge University Press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH53D..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH53D..04R"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> normal modes with solid earth and atmospheric coupling and inversion of the TEC data to estimate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> water height in the case of the Queen Charlotte <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rolland, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Large underwater earthquakes (Mw > 7) can transmit part of their energy to the surrounding ocean through large sea-floor motions, generating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that <span class="hlt">propagate</span> over long distances. The forcing effect of long period ocean surface vibrations due to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the atmosphere trigger atmospheric internal gravity waves (IGWs) that induce ionospheric disturbances when they reach the upper atmosphere. In this poster, we study the IGWs associated to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> using a normal modes 1D <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> is first applied to the case of the October 2012 Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observed offshore Hawaii. We found three resonances between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modes and the atmospheric gravity modes occurring around 1.5 mHz, 2 mHz and 2.5 mHz, with a large fraction of the energy of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modes transferred from the ocean to the atmosphere. At theses frequencies, the gravity branches are interacting with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> one and have large amplitude in the ocean. As opposed to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, a fraction of their energy is therefore transferred from the atmosphere to the ocean. We also show that the fundamental of the gravity waves should arrive before the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> due to higher group velocity below 1.6 mHz. We demonstrate that only the 1.5 mHz resonance of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mode can trigger observable ionospheric perturbations, most often monitored using GPS dual-frequency measurements. Indeed, we show that the modes at 2 mHz and 2.5 mHz are already evanescent at the height of the F2 peak and have little energy in the ionosphere. This normal modes <span class="hlt">modeling</span> offers a novel and comprehensive study of the transfer function from a <span class="hlt">propagating</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to the upper atmosphere. In particular, we can invert the perturbed TEC data induced by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in order to estimate the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform using a least square method. This method has been performed in the case of the Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The results showed a good agreement with the measurement of the dart buoy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO14B2759C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO14B2759C"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Defense Efforts at Samcheok Port, Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Y. S.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> mainly triggered by impulsive undersea motions are long waves and can <span class="hlt">propagate</span> a long distance. Thus, they can cause huge casualties not only neighboring countries but also distant countries. Recently, several devastating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the Great East Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurred on March 11, 2011 is probably recorded as one of the most destructive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> during last several decades. The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> killed more than 20,000 people (including missing people) and deprived of property damage of approximately 300 billion USD. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked historically by unexpected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events. These <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> were generated by undersea earthquakes occurred off the west coast of Japan. For example, the Central East Sea <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> occurred on May 26, 1983 killed 3 people and caused serious property damage at Samcheok Port located at the eastern coast of Korea. Thus, a defense plan against unexpected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> strikes is an essential task for the port authority to protect lives of human beings and port facilities. In this study, a master plan of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> defense is introduced at Samcheok Port. A <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard map is also made by employing both <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">models</span>. Detailed defense efforts are described including the procedure of development of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard map. Keywords: <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, hazard map, run-up height, emergency action plan</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0203S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0203S"><span>Estimation of the Characterized <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source <span class="hlt">Model</span> considering the Complicated Shape of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source by Using the observed waveforms of GPS Buoys in the Nankai Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seto, S.; Takahashi, T.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>In the 2011 Tohoku earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster, the delay of understanding damage situation increased the human damage. To solve this problem, it is important to search the severe damaged areas. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is useful to estimate damages and the accuracy of simulation depends on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. Seto and Takahashi (2017) proposed a method to estimate the characterized <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">model</span> by using the limited observed data of GPS buoys. The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of Large slip zone (LSZ), Super large slip zone (SLSZ) and background rupture zone (BZ) as the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (below COGJ) reported after the Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. At the beginning of this method, the rectangular fault <span class="hlt">model</span> is assumed based on the seismic magnitude and hypocenter reported right after an earthquake. By using the fault <span class="hlt">model</span>, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is simulated numerically, and the fault <span class="hlt">model</span> is improved after comparing the computed data with the observed data repeatedly. In the comparison, correlation coefficient and regression coefficient are used as indexes. They are calculated with the observed and the computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave profiles. This repetition is conducted to get the two coefficients close to 1.0, which makes the precise of the fault <span class="hlt">model</span> higher. However, it was indicated as the improvement that the <span class="hlt">model</span> did not examine a complicated shape of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. In this study, we proposed an improved <span class="hlt">model</span> to examine the complicated shape. COGJ(2012) assumed that possible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source region in the Nankai trough consisted of the several thousands small faults. And, we use these small faults to estimate the targeted <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source in this <span class="hlt">model</span>. Therefore, we can estimate the complicated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source by using these small faults. The estimation of BZ is carried out as a first step, and LSZ and SLSZ are estimated next as same as the previous <span class="hlt">model</span>. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> by using GPS buoy was applied for a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario in the Nankai Trough. As a result</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176416','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176416"><span>Source characterization and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of submarine landslides along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, southern Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chaytor, Jason D.; Geist, Eric L.; Paull, Charles K.; Caress, David W; Gwiazda, Roberto; Urrutia Fucugauchi, Jaime; Rebolledo Vieyra, Mario</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Submarine landslides occurring along the margins of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) represent a low-likelihood, but potentially damaging source of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. New multibeam bathymetry coverage reveals that mass wasting is pervasive along the Yucatán Shelf edge with several large composite landslides possibly removing as much as 70 km3 of the Cenozoic sedimentary section in a single event. Using GIS-based analysis, the dimensions of six landslides from the central and northern sections of the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment were determined and used as input for preliminary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is performed to compare the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> characteristics and distribution of maximum amplitudes throughout the GOM among the different landslide scenarios. Various factors such as landslide geometry, location along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, and refraction during <span class="hlt">propagation</span> result in significant variations in the affected part of the Mexican and US Gulf Coasts. In all cases, however, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes are greatest along the northern Yucatán Peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614829A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614829A"><span>A <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Catastrophe <span class="hlt">models</span> help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including <span class="hlt">models</span> with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often <span class="hlt">modelled</span>. This paper presents some key <span class="hlt">modelling</span> aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe <span class="hlt">model</span> for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> component. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has the capability to <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented in the IF catastrophe <span class="hlt">modelling</span> platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of earthquake-induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation depths at the coast. The source <span class="hlt">modelling</span> software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations. Deep and shallow water wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using the Delft3D <span class="hlt">modelling</span> suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1545S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1545S"><span>Odessa <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> of 27 June 2014: Observations and Numerical <span class="hlt">Modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Šepić, Jadranka; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Sytov, Victor N.</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>On 27 June, a 1-2-m high wave struck the beaches of Odessa, the third largest Ukrainian city, and the neighbouring port-town Illichevsk (northwestern Black Sea). Throughout the day, prominent seiche oscillations were observed in several other ports of the Black Sea. Tsunamigenic synoptic conditions were found over the Black Sea, stretching from Romania in the west to the Crimean Peninsula in the east. Intense air pressure disturbances and convective thunderstorm clouds were associated with these conditions; right at the time of the event, a 1.5-hPa air pressure jump was recorded at Odessa and a few hours earlier in Romania. We have utilized a barotropic ocean numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> to test two hypotheses: (1) a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like wave was generated by an air pressure disturbance <span class="hlt">propagating</span> directly over Odessa ("Experiment 1"); (2) a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like wave was generated by an air pressure disturbance <span class="hlt">propagating</span> offshore, approximately 200 km to the south of Odessa, and along the shelf break ("Experiment 2"). Both experiments decisively confirm the meteorological origin of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves on the coast of Odessa and imply that intensified long ocean waves in this region were generated via the Proudman resonance mechanism while <span class="hlt">propagating</span> over the northwestern Black Sea shelf. The "Odessa <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>" of 27 June 2014 was identified as a "beach meteotsunami", similar to events regularly observed on the beaches of Florida, USA, but different from the "harbour meteotsunamis", which occurred 1-3 days earlier in Ciutadella (Baleares, Spain), Mazara del Vallo (Sicily, Italy) and Vela Luka (Croatia) in the Mediterranean Sea, despite that they were associated with the same atmospheric system moving over the Mediterranean/Black Sea region on 23-27 June 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41A1700L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41A1700L"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By <span class="hlt">modeling</span> various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we <span class="hlt">modeled</span> the 1957 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> using GeoCLAW, a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> that simulates <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. <span class="hlt">Model</span> results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037131','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037131"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> and splay fault dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wendt, J.; Oglesby, D.D.; Geist, E.L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The geometry of a fault system can have significant effects on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, but most <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to date have not investigated the dynamic processes that determine which path rupture will take in a complex fault system. To gain insight into this problem, we use the 3D finite element method to <span class="hlt">model</span> the dynamics of a plate boundary/splay fault system. We use the resulting ground deformation as a time-dependent boundary condition for a 2D shallow-water hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> calculation. We find that if me stress distribution is homogeneous, rupture remains on the plate boundary thrust. When a barrier is introduced along the strike of the plate boundary thrust, rupture <span class="hlt">propagates</span> to the splay faults, and produces a significantly larger <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> man in the homogeneous case. The results have implications for the dynamics of megathrust earthquakes, and also suggest mat dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">modeling</span> may be a useful tool in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> researcn. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH52A..04T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH52A..04T"><span>The Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GTM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thio, H. K.; Løvholt, F.; Harbitz, C. B.; Polet, J.; Lorito, S.; Basili, R.; Volpe, M.; Romano, F.; Selva, J.; Piatanesi, A.; Davies, G.; Griffin, J.; Baptista, M. A.; Omira, R.; Babeyko, A. Y.; Power, W. L.; Salgado Gálvez, M.; Behrens, J.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kanoglu, U.; Pekcan, O.; Ross, S.; Parsons, T.; LeVeque, R. J.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Paris, R.; Shäfer, A.; Canals, M.; Fraser, S. A.; Wei, Y.; Weiss, R.; Zaniboni, F.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Didenkulova, I.; Necmioglu, O.; Suppasri, A.; Lynett, P. J.; Mokhtari, M.; Sørensen, M.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aguirre Ayerbe, I.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Guillas, S.; Macias, J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disasters of the last two decades have highlighted the need for a thorough understanding of the risk posed by relatively infrequent but disastrous <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and the importance of a comprehensive and consistent methodology for quantifying the hazard. In the last few years, several methods for probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis have been developed and applied to different parts of the world. In an effort to coordinate and streamline these activities and make progress towards implementing the Sendai Framework of Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) we have initiated a Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GTM) working group with the aim of i) enhancing our understanding of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk on a global scale and developing standards and guidelines for it, ii) providing a portfolio of validated tools for probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk assessment at a range of scales, and iii) developing a global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard reference <span class="hlt">model</span>. This GTM initiative has grown out of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> component of the Global Assessment of Risk (GAR15), which has resulted in an initial global <span class="hlt">model</span> of probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk. Started as an informal gathering of scientists interested in advancing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis, the GTM is currently in the process of being formalized through letters of interest from participating institutions. The initiative has now been endorsed by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and the World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). We will provide an update on the state of the project and the overall technical framework, and discuss the technical issues that are currently being addressed, including earthquake source recurrence <span class="hlt">models</span>, the use of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty, and preliminary results for a probabilistic global hazard assessment, which is an update of the <span class="hlt">model</span> included in UNISDR GAR15.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0246L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0246L"><span>The Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GTM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorito, S.; Basili, R.; Harbitz, C. B.; Løvholt, F.; Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurred worldwide in the last two decades have highlighted the need for a thorough understanding of the risk posed by relatively infrequent but often disastrous <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and the importance of a comprehensive and consistent methodology for quantifying the hazard. In the last few years, several methods for probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis have been developed and applied to different parts of the world. In an effort to coordinate and streamline these activities and make progress towards implementing the Sendai Framework of Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) we have initiated a Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GTM) working group with the aim of i) enhancing our understanding of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk on a global scale and developing standards and guidelines for it, ii) providing a portfolio of validated tools for probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk assessment at a range of scales, and iii) developing a global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard reference <span class="hlt">model</span>. This GTM initiative has grown out of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> component of the Global Assessment of Risk (GAR15), which has resulted in an initial global <span class="hlt">model</span> of probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk. Started as an informal gathering of scientists interested in advancing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis, the GTM is currently in the process of being formalized through letters of interest from participating institutions. The initiative has now been endorsed by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and the World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). We will provide an update on the state of the project and the overall technical framework, and discuss the technical issues that are currently being addressed, including earthquake source recurrence <span class="hlt">models</span>, the use of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty, and preliminary results for a probabilistic global hazard assessment, which is an update of the <span class="hlt">model</span> included in UNISDR GAR15.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7811L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7811L"><span>The Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GTM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Løvholt, Finn</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disasters of the last two decades have highlighted the need for a thorough understanding of the risk posed by relatively infrequent but disastrous <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and the importance of a comprehensive and consistent methodology for quantifying the hazard. In the last few years, several methods for probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis have been developed and applied to different parts of the world. In an effort to coordinate and streamline these activities and make progress towards implementing the Sendai Framework of Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) we have initiated a Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GTM) working group with the aim of i) enhancing our understanding of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk on a global scale and developing standards and guidelines for it, ii) providing a portfolio of validated tools for probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk assessment at a range of scales, and iii) developing a global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard reference <span class="hlt">model</span>. This GTM initiative has grown out of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> component of the Global Assessment of Risk (GAR15), which has resulted in an initial global <span class="hlt">model</span> of probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and risk. Started as an informal gathering of scientists interested in advancing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis, the GTM is currently in the process of being formalized through letters of interest from participating institutions. The initiative has now been endorsed by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and the World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). We will provide an update on the state of the project and the overall technical framework, and discuss the technical issues that are currently being addressed, including earthquake source recurrence <span class="hlt">models</span>, the use of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty, and preliminary results for a probabilistic global hazard assessment, which is an update of the <span class="hlt">model</span> included in UNISDR GAR15.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH23B..06H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH23B..06H"><span>A Hybrid <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Risk <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake <span class="hlt">model</span> is a fully probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> which includes a seismo-tectonic <span class="hlt">model</span> describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion <span class="hlt">model</span>; and a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. Within the much larger set of all <span class="hlt">modeled</span> earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> footprints using the numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flood depths on 30 m grids together with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> vulnerability and financial <span class="hlt">models</span> are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affected area. <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> loss in Japan from the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887769','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887769"><span>Physical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by three-dimensional deformable granular landslides on planar and conical island slopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events recorded, yet critically important field data related to the landslide motion and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evolution remain lacking. Landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> scenarios are physically <span class="hlt">modelled</span> in a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave basin. A unique pneumatic landslide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generator was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The landslides were generated on a planar hill slope and divergent convex conical hill slope to study lateral hill slope effects on the wave characteristics. The leading wave crest amplitude generated on a planar hill slope is larger on average than the leading wave crest generated on a convex conical hill slope, whereas the leading wave trough and second wave crest amplitudes are smaller. Between 1% and 24% of the landslide kinetic energy is transferred into the wave train. Cobble landslides transfer on average 43% more kinetic energy into the wave train than corresponding gravel landslides. Predictive equations for the offshore <span class="hlt">propagating</span> wave amplitudes, periods, celerities and lengths generated by landslides on planar and divergent convex conical hill slopes are derived, which allow an initial rapid <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment. PMID:27274697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27274697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27274697"><span>Physical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by three-dimensional deformable granular landslides on planar and conical island slopes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McFall, Brian C; Fritz, Hermann M</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events recorded, yet critically important field data related to the landslide motion and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evolution remain lacking. Landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> scenarios are physically <span class="hlt">modelled</span> in a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave basin. A unique pneumatic landslide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generator was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The landslides were generated on a planar hill slope and divergent convex conical hill slope to study lateral hill slope effects on the wave characteristics. The leading wave crest amplitude generated on a planar hill slope is larger on average than the leading wave crest generated on a convex conical hill slope, whereas the leading wave trough and second wave crest amplitudes are smaller. Between 1% and 24% of the landslide kinetic energy is transferred into the wave train. Cobble landslides transfer on average 43% more kinetic energy into the wave train than corresponding gravel landslides. Predictive equations for the offshore <span class="hlt">propagating</span> wave amplitudes, periods, celerities and lengths generated by landslides on planar and divergent convex conical hill slopes are derived, which allow an initial rapid <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESS..13.1795T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESS..13.1795T"><span>The UBO-TSUFD <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">model</span>: validation and application to a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case study focused on the city of Catania, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Nowadays numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> are a powerful tool in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research since they can be used (i) to reconstruct modern and historical events, (ii) to cast new light on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources by inverting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data and observations, (iii) to build scenarios in the frame of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mitigation plans, and (iv) to produce forecasts of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact and inundation in systems of early warning. In parallel with the general recognition of the importance of numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations, the demand has grown for reliable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> codes, validated through tests agreed upon by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> community. This paper presents the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> code UBO-TSUFD that has been developed at the University of Bologna, Italy, and that solves the non-linear shallow water (NSW) equations in a Cartesian frame, with inclusion of bottom friction and exclusion of the Coriolis force, by means of a leapfrog (LF) finite-difference scheme on a staggered grid and that accounts for moving boundaries to compute sea inundation and withdrawal at the coast. Results of UBO-TSUFD applied to four classical benchmark problems are shown: two benchmarks are based on analytical solutions, one on a plane wave <span class="hlt">propagating</span> on a flat channel with a constant slope beach; and one on a laboratory experiment. The code is proven to perform very satisfactorily since it reproduces quite well the benchmark theoretical and experimental data. Further, the code is applied to a realistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case: a scenario of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threatening the coasts of eastern Sicily, Italy, is defined and discussed based on the historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 11 January 1693, i.e. one of the most severe events in the Italian history.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH32A..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH32A..04K"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecasting in the Atlantic Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.; Sterling, K.; Hale, D. A.; Bahng, B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The mission of the West Coast and Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (WCATWC) is to provide advance <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning and guidance to coastal communities within its Area-of-Responsibility (AOR). Predictive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, based on the shallow water wave equations, are an important part of the Center's guidance support. An Atlantic-based counterpart to the long-standing forecasting ability in the Pacific known as the Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast <span class="hlt">Model</span> (ATFM) is now developed. The Atlantic forecasting method is based on ATFM version 2 which contains advanced capabilities over the original <span class="hlt">model</span>; including better handling of the dynamic interactions between grids, inundation over dry land, new forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> products, an optional non-hydrostatic approach, and the ability to pre-compute larger and more finely gridded regions using parallel computational techniques. The wide and nearly continuous Atlantic shelf region presents a challenge for forecast <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our solution to this problem has been to develop a single unbroken high resolution sub-mesh (currently 30 arc-seconds), trimmed to the shelf break. This allows for edge wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and for kilometer scale bathymetric feature resolution. Terminating the fine mesh at the 2000m isobath keeps the number of grid points manageable while allowing for a coarse (4 minute) mesh to adequately resolve deep water <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> dynamics. Higher resolution sub-meshes are then included around coastal forecast points of interest. The WCATWC Atlantic AOR includes eastern U.S. and Canada, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are in very close proximity to well-known <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. Because travel times are under an hour and response must be immediate, our focus is on pre-computing many <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source "scenarios" and compiling those results into a database accessible and calibrated with observations during an event. Seismic source evaluation determines the order of <span class="hlt">model</span> pre</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EP%26S...69..117L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EP%26S...69..117L"><span>Should <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in the open ocean is most commonly <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most <span class="hlt">modelers</span> assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height by a factor of two or more relative to <span class="hlt">models</span> in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the <span class="hlt">model</span> self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. We also compare <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves to their initial state by solving the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH53D..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH53D..03B"><span>Applications of acoustic-gravity waves numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signals observed by gravimetry satellites in very low orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Sladen, A.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Acoustic and gravity waves <span class="hlt">propagating</span> in planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physics behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves <span class="hlt">propagation</span> should be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground all the way to the upper thermosphere. Thus, in order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or global scale we introduce a high-order finite-difference time domain (FDTD) approach that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with spatially non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). We present applications of these simulations to the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of gravity waves generated by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> for realistic cases for which atmospheric <span class="hlt">models</span> are extracted from empirical <span class="hlt">models</span> including variations with altitude of atmospheric parameters, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forcing at the ocean surface is extracted from shallow water simulations. We describe the specific difficulties induced by the size of the simulation, the boundary conditions and the spherical geometry and compare the simulation outputs to data gathered by gravimetric satellites crossing gravity waves generated by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1863G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1863G"><span>Development of new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithms for high frequency radars and application to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning in British Columbia, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilli, S. T.; Guérin, C. A.; Shelby, M. R.; Grilli, A. R.; Insua, T. L.; Moran, P., Jr.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A High-Frequency (HF) radar was installed by Ocean Networks Canada in Tofino, BC, to detect <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from far- and near-field seismic sources; in particular, from the Cascadia Subduction Zone. This HF radar can measure ocean surface currents up to a 70-85 km range, depending on atmospheric conditions, based on the Doppler shift they cause in ocean waves at the Bragg frequency. In earlier work, we showed that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents must be at least 0.15 m/s to be directly detectable by a HF radar, when considering environmental noise and background currents (from tide/mesoscale circulation). This limits a direct <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection to shallow water areas where currents are sufficiently strong due to wave shoaling and, hence, to the continental shelf. It follows that, in locations with a narrow shelf, warning times using a direct inversion method will be small. To detect <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in deeper water, beyond the continental shelf, we proposed a new algorithm that does not require directly inverting currents, but instead is based on observing changes in patterns of spatial correlations of the raw radar signal between two radar cells located along the same wave ray, after time is shifted by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> time along the ray. A pattern change will indicate the presence of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. We validated this new algorithm for idealized <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave trains <span class="hlt">propagating</span> over a simple seafloor geometry in a direction normally incident to shore. Here, we further develop, extend, and validate the algorithm for realistic case studies of seismic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources impacting Vancouver Island, BC. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> currents, computed with a state-of-the-art long wave <span class="hlt">model</span> are spatially averaged over cells aligned along individual wave rays, located within the radar sweep area, obtained by solving the wave geometric optic equation; for long waves, such rays and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> times along those are only function of the seafloor bathymetry, and hence can be precalculated for different incident <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH51C..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH51C..01H"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-Generated Atmospheric Gravity Waves and Their Atmospheric and Ionospheric Effects: a Review and Some Recent <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickey, M. P.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> <span class="hlt">propagate</span> on the ocean surface at the shallow water phase speed which coincides with the phase speed of fast atmospheric gravity waves. The forcing frequency also corresponds with those of internal atmospheric gravity waves. Hence, the coupling and effective forcing of gravity waves due to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is particularly effective. The fast horizontal phase speeds of the resulting gravity waves allows them to <span class="hlt">propagate</span> well into the thermosphere before viscous dissipation becomes strong, and the waves can achieve nonlinear amplitudes at these heights resulting in large amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Additionally, because the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> represents a moving source able to traverse large distances across the globe, the gravity waves and associated TIDs can be detected at large distances from the original <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (earthquake) source. Although it was during the mid 1970s when the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source of gravity waves was first postulated, only relatively recently (over the last ten to fifteen years) has there has been a surge of interest in this research arena, driven largely by significant improvements in measurement technologies and computational capabilities. For example, the use of GPS measurements to derive total electron content has been a particularly powerful technique used to monitor the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and evolution of TIDs. Monitoring airglow variations driven by atmospheric gravity waves has also been a useful technique. The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of specific events and comparison with the observed gravity waves and/or TIDs has been quite revealing. In this talk I will review some of the most interesting aspects of this research and also discuss some interesting and outstanding issues that need to be addressed. New <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results relevant to the Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23C2280G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23C2280G"><span>Forecasting database for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning regional center for the western Mediterranean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gailler, A.; Hebert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques are increasing the potential for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warnings to be based on numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> forecasts. Numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> are well developed, but they present a challenge to run in real-time, partly due to computational limitations and also to a lack of detailed knowledge on the earthquake rupture parameters. Through the establishment of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning regional center for NE Atlantic and western Mediterranean Sea, the CEA is especially in charge of providing rapidly a map with uncertainties showing zones in the main axis of energy at the Mediterranean scale. The strategy is based initially on a pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios database, as source parameters available a short time after an earthquake occurs are preliminary and may be somewhat inaccurate. Existing numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> are good enough to provide a useful guidance for warning structures to be quickly disseminated. When an event will occur, an appropriate variety of offshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> scenarios by combining pre-computed <span class="hlt">propagation</span> solutions (single or multi sources) may be recalled through an automatic interface. This approach would provide quick estimates of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> offshore <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and aid hazard assessment and evacuation decision-making. As numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> accuracy is inherently limited by errors in bathymetry and topography, and as inundation maps calculation is more complex and expensive in term of computational time, only <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> offshore <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> will be included in the forecasting database using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid for the numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Because of too much variability in the mechanism of tsunamigenic earthquakes, all possible magnitudes cannot be represented in the scenarios database. In principle, an infinite number of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> scenarios can be constructed by linear combinations of a finite number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170..433I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170..433I"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> to Validate Slip <span class="hlt">Models</span> of the 2007 M w 8.0 Pisco Earthquake, Central Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ioualalen, M.; Perfettini, H.; Condo, S. Yauri; Jimenez, C.; Tavera, H.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Following the 2007, August 15th, M w 8.0, Pisco earthquake in central Peru, Sladen et al. (J Geophys Res 115: B02405, 2010) have derived several slip <span class="hlt">models</span> of this event. They inverted teleseismic data together with geodetic (InSAR) measurements to look for the co-seismic slip distribution on the fault plane, considering those data sets separately or jointly. But how close to the real slip distribution are those inverted slip <span class="hlt">models</span>? To answer this crucial question, the authors generated some <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records based on their slip <span class="hlt">models</span> and compared them to DART buoys, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records, and available runup data. Such an approach requires a robust and accurate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> (non-linear, dispersive, accurate bathymetry and topography, etc.) otherwise the differences between the data and the <span class="hlt">model</span> may be attributed to the slip <span class="hlt">models</span> themselves, though they arise from an incomplete <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation. The accuracy of a numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation strongly depends, among others, on two important constraints: (i) A fine computational grid (and thus the bathymetry and topography data sets used) which is not always available, unfortunately, and (ii) a realistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> including dispersion. Here, we extend Sladen's work using newly available data, namely a tide gauge record at Callao (Lima harbor) and the Chilean DART buoy record, while considering a complete set of runup data along with a more realistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical that accounts for dispersion, and also considering a fine-resolution computational grid, which is essential. Through these accurate numerical simulations we infer that the InSAR-based <span class="hlt">model</span> is in better agreement with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data, studying the case of the Pisco earthquake indicating that geodetic data seems essential to recover the final co-seismic slip distribution on the rupture plane. Slip <span class="hlt">models</span> based on teleseismic data are unable to describe the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, suggesting that a significant amount of co-seismic slip may have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712540C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712540C"><span>Mathematical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts. The 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and overland impact of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH32B..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH32B..04B"><span>Development of Physics and Control of Multiple Forcing Mechanisms for the Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahng, B.; Whitmore, P.; Macpherson, K. A.; Knight, W. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast <span class="hlt">Model</span> (ATFM) is a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> used to forecast <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by earthquakes or other mechanisms in either the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. At the U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (NTWC), the use of the <span class="hlt">model</span> has been mainly for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> pre-computation due to earthquakes. That is, results for hundreds of hypothetical events are computed before alerts, and are accessed and calibrated with observations during <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> to immediately produce forecasts. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has also been used for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hindcasting due to submarine landslides and due to atmospheric pressure jumps, but in a very case-specific and somewhat limited manner. ATFM uses the non-linear, depth-averaged, shallow-water equations of motion with multiply nested grids in two-way communications between domains of each parent-child pair as waves approach coastal waters. The shallow-water wave physics is readily applicable to all of the above <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> as well as to tides. Recently, the <span class="hlt">model</span> has been expanded to include multiple forcing mechanisms in a systematic fashion, and to enhance the <span class="hlt">model</span> physics for non-earthquake events.ATFM is now able to handle multiple source mechanisms, either individually or jointly, which include earthquake, submarine landslide, meteo-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and tidal forcing. As for earthquakes, the source can be a single unit source or multiple, interacting source blocks. Horizontal slip contribution can be added to the sea-floor displacement. The <span class="hlt">model</span> now includes submarine landslide physics, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the source either as a rigid slump, or as a viscous fluid. Additional shallow-water physics have been implemented for the viscous submarine landslides. With rigid slumping, any trajectory can be followed. As for meteo-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the forcing mechanism is capable of following any trajectory shape. Wind stress physics has also been implemented for the meteo-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case, if required. As an example of multiple</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615964M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615964M"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Generation and <span class="hlt">Propagation</span> by 3D deformable Landslides and Application to Scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McFall, Brian C.; Fritz, Hermann M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse account for some of the most catastrophic natural disasters recorded and can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 <F <4. Two different materials are used to simulate landslides to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24399356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24399356"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>: ocean dynamo generator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sugioka, Hiroko; Hamano, Yozo; Baba, Kiyoshi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Tada, Noriko; Suetsugu, Daisuke</p> <p>2014-01-08</p> <p>Secondary magnetic fields are induced by the flow of electrically conducting seawater through the Earth's primary magnetic field ('ocean dynamo effect'), and hence it has long been speculated that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flows should produce measurable magnetic field perturbations, although the signal-to-noise ratio would be small because of the influence of the solar magnetic fields. Here, we report on the detection of deep-seafloor electromagnetic perturbations of 10-micron-order induced by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which <span class="hlt">propagated</span> through a seafloor electromagnetometer array network. The observed data extracted <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> characteristics, including the direction and velocity of <span class="hlt">propagation</span> as well as sea-level change, first to verify the induction theory. Presently, offshore observation systems for the early forecasting of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are based on the sea-level measurement by seafloor pressure gauges. In terms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting accuracy, the integration of vectored electromagnetic measurements into existing scalar observation systems would represent a substantial improvement in the performance of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early-warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3895G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3895G"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Detection by High-Frequency Radar Beyond the Continental Shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grosdidier, Samuel; Guérin, Charles-Antoine</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Where coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard is governed by near-field sources, such as submarine mass failures or meteo-<span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> times may be too small for a detection based on deep or shallow water buoys. To offer sufficient warning time, it has been proposed to implement early warning systems relying on high-frequency (HF) radar remote sensing, that can provide a dense spatial coverage as far offshore as 200-300 km (e.g., for Diginext Ltd.'s Stradivarius radar). Shore-based HF radars have been used to measure nearshore currents (e.g., CODAR SeaSonde® system; http://www.codar.com/), by inverting the Doppler spectral shifts, these cause on ocean waves at the Bragg frequency. Both <span class="hlt">modeling</span> work and an analysis of radar data following the Tohoku 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, have shown that, given proper detection algorithms, such radars could be used to detect <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced currents and issue a warning. However, long wave physics is such that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents will only rise above noise and background currents (i.e., be at least 10-15 cm/s), and become detectable, in fairly shallow water which would limit the direct detection of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents by HF radar to nearshore areas, unless there is a very wide shallow shelf. Here, we use numerical simulations of both HF radar remote sensing and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> to develop and validate a new type of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithm that does not have these limitations. To simulate the radar backscattered signal, we develop a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> including second-order effects in both wind waves and radar signal, with the wave angular frequency being modulated by a time-varying surface current, combining <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and background currents. In each "radar cell", the <span class="hlt">model</span> represents wind waves with random phases and amplitudes extracted from a specified (wind speed dependent) energy density frequency spectrum, and includes effects of random environmental noise and background current; phases, noise, and background current are extracted from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1757J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1757J"><span>Uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Sediment Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jaffe, B. E.; Sugawara, D.; Goto, K.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; La Selle, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Erosion and deposition from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> record information about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamics and size that can be interpreted to improve <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment. A recent study (Jaffe et al., 2016) explores sources and methods for quantifying uncertainty in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Uncertainty varies with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> properties, study site characteristics, available input data, sediment grain size, and the <span class="hlt">model</span> used. Although uncertainty has the potential to be large, case studies for both forward and inverse <span class="hlt">models</span> have shown that sediment transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span> provides useful information on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation and hydrodynamics that can be used to improve <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment. New techniques for quantifying uncertainty, such as Ensemble Kalman Filtering inversion, and more rigorous reporting of uncertainties will advance the science of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Uncertainty may be decreased with additional laboratory studies that increase our understanding of the semi-empirical parameters and physics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport, standardized benchmark tests to assess <span class="hlt">model</span> performance, and the development of hybrid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches to exploit the strengths of forward and inverse <span class="hlt">models</span>. As uncertainty in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is reduced, and with increased ability to quantify uncertainty, the geologic record of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> will become more valuable in the assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard. Jaffe, B., Goto, K., Sugawara, D., Gelfenbaum, G., and La Selle, S., "Uncertainty in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Sediment Transport <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>", Journal of Disaster Research Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 647-661, 2016, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p0647 https://www.fujipress.jp/jdr/dr/dsstr001100040647/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1846G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1846G"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment at Port Alberni, BC, Canada: preliminary <span class="hlt">model</span> results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilli, S. T.; Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Douglas, K. L.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Located in the heart of Vancouver Island, BC, Port Alberni has a well-known history of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Many of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth First Nations share oral stories about a strong fight between a thunderbird and a whale that caused big waves in a winter night, a story that is compatible with the recently recognized great Cascadia <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in January, 1700. Port Alberni, with a total population of approximately 20,000 people, lies beside the Somass River, at the very end of Barkley Sound Inlet. The narrow canal connecting this town to the Pacific Ocean runs for more than 64 km ( 40 miles) between steep mountains, providing an ideal setting for the amplification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves through funnelling effects. The devastating effects of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are still fresh in residents' memories from the impact of the 1964 Alaska <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that caused serious damage to the city. In June 2016, Emergency Management BC ran a coastal exercise in Port Alberni, simulating the response to an earthquake and a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. During three days, the emergency teams in the City of Port Alberni practiced and learned from the experience. Ocean Networks Canada contributed to this exercise with the development of preliminary simulations of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact on the city from a buried rupture of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, including the Explorer segment. Wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was simulated with the long-wave <span class="hlt">model</span> FUNWAVE-TVD. Preliminary results indicate a strong amplification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in the Port Alberni area. The inundation zone in Port Alberni had a footprint similar to that of the 1700 Cascadia and 1964 Alaska <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, inundating the area surrounding the Somass river and preferentially following the Kitsuksis and Roger Creek river margins into the city. Several other <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source scenarios, including splay faulting and trench-breaching ruptures are currently being <span class="hlt">modeled</span> for the city of Port Alberni following a similar approach. These results will be presented at the conference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215694Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215694Z"><span>February 27, 2010 Chilean <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The initial amplitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves <span class="hlt">propagated</span> far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> can be effective even if it <span class="hlt">propagates</span> far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>) areas of the Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and development of the mitigation strategies against <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to be an efficient tool in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems. In this study the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference <span class="hlt">model</span> in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and its <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1754B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1754B"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Prediction Using a Data Assimilation Technique with Kalman Filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnier, G.; Dunham, E. M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Earthquake-induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> cause dramatic damages along densely populated coastlines. It is difficult to predict and anticipate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in advance, but if the earthquake occurs far enough from the coast, there may be enough time to evacuate the zones at risk. Therefore, any real-time information on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield (as it <span class="hlt">propagates</span> towards the coast) is extremely valuable for early warning systems. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, a dense <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-monitoring network (S-net) based on cabled ocean-bottom pressure sensors has been deployed along the Pacific coast in Northeastern Japan. Maeda et al. (GRL, 2015) introduced a data assimilation technique to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield in real time by combining numerical solution of the shallow water wave equations with additional terms penalizing the numerical solution for not matching observations. The penalty or gain matrix is determined though optimal interpolation and is independent of time. Here we explore a related data assimilation approach using the Kalman filter method to evolve the gain matrix. While more computationally expensive, the Kalman filter approach potentially provides more accurate reconstructions. We test our method on a 1D <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> derived from the Kozdon and Dunham (EPSL, 2014) dynamic rupture simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. For appropriate choices of <span class="hlt">model</span> and data covariance matrices, the method reconstructs the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield prior to wave arrival at the coast. We plan to compare the Kalman filter method to the optimal interpolation method developed by Maeda et al. (GRL, 2015) and then to implement the method for 2D.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030665','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030665"><span>Probabilistic analysis of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Determining the likelihood of a disaster is a key component of any comprehensive hazard assessment. This is particularly true for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, even though most <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type <span class="hlt">models</span>. We discuss probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis (PTHA) from the standpoint of integrating computational methods with empirical analysis of past <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup. PTHA is derived from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), with the main difference being that PTHA must account for far-field sources. The computational methods rely on numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> rather than empirical attenuation relationships as in PSHA in determining ground motions. Because a number of source parameters affect local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup height, PTHA can become complex and computationally intensive. Empirical analysis can function in one of two ways, depending on the length and completeness of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalog. For site-specific studies where there is sufficient <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup data available, hazard curves can primarily be derived from empirical analysis, with computational methods used to highlight deficiencies in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalog. For region-wide analyses and sites where there are little to no <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data, a computationally based method such as Monte Carlo simulation is the primary method to establish <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards. Two case studies that describe how computational and empirical methods can be integrated are presented for Acapulco, Mexico (site-specific) and the U.S. Pacific Northwest coastline (region-wide analysis).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5812H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5812H"><span>Large Historical Earthquakes and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazards in the Western Mediterranean: Source Characteristics and <span class="hlt">Modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harbi, Assia; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Belabbes, Samir; Maouche, Said</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The western Mediterranean region was the site of numerous large earthquakes in the past. Most of these earthquakes are located at the East-West trending Africa-Eurasia plate boundary and along the coastline of North Africa. The most recent recorded tsunamigenic earthquake occurred in 2003 at Zemmouri-Boumerdes (Mw 6.8) and generated ~ 2-m-high <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave. The destructive wave affected the Balearic Islands and Almeria in southern Spain and Carloforte in southern Sardinia (Italy). The earthquake provided a unique opportunity to gather instrumental records of seismic waves and tide gauges in the western Mediterranean. A database that includes a historical catalogue of main events, seismic sources and related fault parameters was prepared in order to assess the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard of this region. In addition to the analysis of the 2003 records, we study the 1790 Oran and 1856 Jijel historical tsunamigenic earthquakes (Io = IX and X, respectively) that provide detailed observations on the heights and extension of past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and damage in coastal zones. We performed the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> using NAMI-DANCE code and tested different fault sources from synthetic tide gauges. We observe that the characteristics of seismic sources control the size and directivity of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> on both northern and southern coasts of the western Mediterranean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1852S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1852S"><span>Benchmarking on <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Currents with ComMIT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There were no standards for the validation and verification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> before 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Even, number of numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> has been used for inundation mapping effort, evaluation of critical structures, etc. without validation and verification. After 2004, NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research (NCTR) established standards for the validation and verification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> (Synolakis et al. 2008 Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228), which will be used evaluation of critical structures such as nuclear power plants against <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> attack. NCTR presented analytical, experimental and field benchmark problems aimed to estimate maximum runup and accepted widely by the community. Recently, benchmark problems were suggested by the US National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program Mapping & <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Benchmarking Workshop: <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Currents on February 9-10, 2015 at Portland, Oregon, USA (http://nws.weather.gov/nthmp/index.html). These benchmark problems concentrated toward validation and verification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents. Three of the benchmark problems were: current measurement of the Japan 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, USA and in Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand, and single long-period wave <span class="hlt">propagating</span> onto a small-scale experimental <span class="hlt">model</span> of the town of Seaside, Oregon, USA. These benchmark problems were implemented in the Community <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Interface for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (ComMIT) (Titov et al. 2011 Pure Appl. Geophys. 168, 2121-2131), which is a user-friendly interface to the validated and verified Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (MOST) (Titov and Synolakis 1995 J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Eng. 121, 308-316) <span class="hlt">model</span> and is developed by NCTR. The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results are compared with the required benchmark data, providing good agreements and results are discussed. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170005214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170005214"><span>Asteroid Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Workshop: Summary of NASA/NOAA Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morrison, David; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A two-day workshop on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by asteroid impacts in the ocean resulted in a broad consensus that the asteroid impact <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat is not as great as previously thought, that airburst events in particular are unlikely to produce significant damage by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> contribution to the global ensemble impact hazard is substantially less than the contribution from land impacts. The workshop, led by Ethiraj Venkatapathy and David Morrison of NASA Ames, was organized into three sessions: 1) Near-field wave generation by the impact; 2) Long distance wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span>; 3) Damage from coastal run-up and inundation, and associated hazard. Workshop approaches were to compare simulations to understand differences in the results and gain confidence in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for both formation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from asteroid impacts, and to use this information for preliminary global risk assessment. The workshop focus was on smaller asteroids (diameter less than 250m), which represent the most frequent impacts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4118M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4118M"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA <span class="hlt">model</span> validation for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> current predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macías, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; González-Vida, José Manuel; Ortega, Sergio</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model</span> ability to compute and predict <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be produced by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Besides, an accurate simulation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow velocities and accelerations is fundamental for advancing in the study of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport. These considerations made the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) proposing a benchmark exercise focussed on <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents. Until recently, few direct measurements of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> velocities were available to compare and to validate <span class="hlt">model</span> results. After Tohoku 2011 many current meters measurement were made, mainly in harbors and channels. In this work we present a part of the contribution made by the EDANYA group from the University of Malaga to the NTHMP workshop organized at Portland (USA), 9-10 of February 2015. We have selected three out of the five proposed benchmark problems. Two of them consist in real observed data from the Tohoku 2011 event, one at Hilo Habour (Hawaii) and the other at Tauranga Bay (New Zealand). The third one consists in laboratory experimental data for the inundation of Seaside City in Oregon. Acknowledgements: This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069) and the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012-38383-C02-01) and Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Excelencia Andalucía TECH. The GPU and multi-GPU computations were performed at the Unit of Numerical Methods (UNM) of the Research Support Central Services (SCAI) of the University of Malaga.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11C1651A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11C1651A"><span>Errors in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Estimation from Tide Gauges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arcas, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Linearity of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in deep water can be assessed as a comparison of flow speed, u to wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> speed √gh. In real <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios this evaluation becomes impractical due to the absence of observational data of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow velocities in shallow water. Consequently the extent of validity of the linear regime in the ocean is unclear. Linearity is the fundamental assumption behind <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source inversion processes based on linear combinations of unit <span class="hlt">propagation</span> runs from a deep water <span class="hlt">propagation</span> database (Gica et al., 2008). The primary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> elevation data for such inversion is usually provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric (NOAA) deep-water <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection systems known as DART. The use of tide gauge data for such inversions is more controversial due to the uncertainty of wave linearity at the depth of the tide gauge site. This study demonstrates the inaccuracies incurred in source estimation using tide gauge data in conjunction with a linear combination procedure for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1819G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1819G"><span>Multiple Solutions of Real-time <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecasting Using Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gica, E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (SIFT) tool, developed by NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research (NCTR) at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), is used in forecast operations at the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The SIFT tool relies on a pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> database, real-time DART buoy data, and an inversion algorithm to define the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> database is composed of 50×100km unit sources, simulated basin-wide for at least 24 hours. Different combinations of unit sources, DART buoys, and length of real-time DART buoy data can generate a wide range of results within the defined <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. For an inexperienced SIFT user, the primary challenge is to determine which solution, among multiple solutions for a single <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event, would provide the best forecast in real time. This study investigates how the use of different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources affects simulated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> at tide gauge locations. Using the tide gauge at Hilo, Hawaii, a total of 50 possible solutions for the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are considered. Maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave amplitude and root mean square error results are used to compare tide gauge data and the simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> time series. Results of this study will facilitate SIFT users' efforts to determine if the simulated tide gauge <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> time series from a specific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source solution would be within the range of possible solutions. This study will serve as the basis for investigating more historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events and tide gauge locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8561H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8561H"><span>Landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in a perialpine lake: Historical events and numerical <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Many of the perialpine lakes in Central Europe - the large, glacier-carved basins formed during the Pleistocene glaciations of the Alps - have proven to be environments prone to subaquatic landsliding. Among these, Lake Lucerne (Switzerland) has a particularly well-established record of subaquatic landslides and related <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Its sedimentary archive documents numerous landslides over the entire Holocene, which have either been triggered by earthquakes, or which occurred apparently spontaneously, possibly due to rapid sediment accumulation on delta slopes. Due to their controlled boundary conditions and the possibility to be investigated on a complete basinal scale, such lacustrine <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> may be used as textbook analogons for their marine counterparts. Two events in the 17th century illustrate these processes and their consequences: In AD 1601, an earthquake (Mw ~ 5.9) led to widespread failure of the sediment drape covering the lateral slopes in several basins. The resulting landslides generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves that reached a runup of several metres, as reported in historical accounts. The waves caused widespread damage as well as loss of lives in communities along the shores. In AD 1687, the apparently spontaneous collapse of a river delta in the lake led to similar waves that damaged nearby villages. Based on detailed information on topography, bathymetry and the geometry of the landslide deposits, numerical simulations combining two-dimensional, depth-averaged <span class="hlt">models</span> for landslide <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, as well as for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation, are able to reproduce most of the reported <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects for these events. Calculated maximum runup of the waves is 6 to >10 m in the directly affected lake basins, but significantly less in neighbouring basins. Flat alluvial plains adjacent to the most heavily affected areas are inundated over distances of several hundred metres. Taken as scenarios for possible future events, these past events suggest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S31E..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S31E..06B"><span>Uncertainty Estimation in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Initial Condition From Rapid Bayesian Finite Fault <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benavente, R. F.; Dettmer, J.; Cummins, P. R.; Urrutia, A.; Cienfuegos, R.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>It is well known that kinematic rupture <span class="hlt">models</span> for a given earthquake can present discrepancies even when similar datasets are employed in the inversion process. While quantifying this variability can be critical when making early estimates of the earthquake and triggered <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact, "most likely <span class="hlt">models</span>" are normally used for this purpose. In this work, we quantify the uncertainty of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial condition for the great Illapel earthquake (Mw = 8.3, 2015, Chile). We focus on utilizing data and inversion methods that are suitable to rapid source characterization yet provide meaningful and robust results. Rupture <span class="hlt">models</span> from teleseismic body and surface waves as well as W-phase are derived and accompanied by Bayesian uncertainty estimates from linearized inversion under positivity constraints. We show that robust and consistent features about the rupture kinematics appear when working within this probabilistic framework. Moreover, by using static dislocation theory, we translate the probabilistic slip distributions into seafloor deformation which we interpret as a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial condition. After considering uncertainty, our probabilistic seafloor deformation <span class="hlt">models</span> obtained from different data types appear consistent with each other providing meaningful results. We also show that selecting just a single "representative" solution from the ensemble of initial conditions for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> may lead to overestimating information content in the data. Our results suggest that rapid, probabilistic rupture <span class="hlt">models</span> can play a significant role during emergency response by providing robust information about the extent of the disaster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.9605W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.9605W"><span>How Do Tides and <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Interact in a Highly Energetic Channel? The Case of Canal Chacao, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winckler, Patricio; Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Aron, Felipe; Contreras-López, Manuel</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>This study aims at understanding the role of tidal level, speed, and direction in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in highly energetic tidal channels. The main goal is to comprehend whether tide-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> interactions enhance/reduce elevation, currents speeds, and arrival times, when compared to pure <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and to simulations in which tides and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are linearly superimposed. We designed various numerical experiments to compute the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> along Canal Chacao, a highly energetic channel in the Chilean Patagonia lying on a subduction margin prone to megathrust earthquakes. Three <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches were implemented under the same seismic scenario: a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> with a constant tide level, a series of six composite <span class="hlt">models</span> in which independent tide and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations are linearly superimposed, and a series of six tide-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> nonlinear interaction <span class="hlt">models</span> (full <span class="hlt">models</span>). We found that hydrodynamic patterns differ significantly among approaches, being the composite and full <span class="hlt">models</span> sensitive to both the tidal phase at which the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is triggered and the local depth of the channel. When compared to full <span class="hlt">models</span>, composite <span class="hlt">models</span> adequately predicted the maximum surface elevation, but largely overestimated currents. The amplitude and arrival time of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-leading wave computed with the full <span class="hlt">model</span> was found to be strongly dependent on the direction of the tidal current and less responsive to the tide level and the tidal current speed. These outcomes emphasize the importance of addressing more carefully the interactions of tides and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on hazard assessment studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED53A0323L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED53A0323L"><span>The Waves and <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Frashure, K.; Micozzi, N.; Stephen, R. A.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The goals of the Waves and <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Project are "to make waves real" to middle school students and to teach them some fundamental concepts of waves. The curriculum was designed in Fall 2004 (before the Sumatra <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) and involves an ocean scientist classroom visit, hands-on demonstrations, and an interactive website designed to explain ocean wave properties. The website is called 'The Plymouth Wave Lab' and it has had more than 40,000 hits since the Sumatra event. One inexpensive and interesting demonstration is based on a string composed of alternating elastic bands and paper clips. Washers can be added to the paper clips to construct strings with varying mass. For example, a tapered string with mass decreasing in the wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> direction is an analog of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves <span class="hlt">propagating</span> from deep to shallow water. The Waves and <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Project evolved as a collaborative effort involving an ocean science researcher and middle school science teachers. It was carried out through the direction of the Centers of Ocean Science Education Excellence New England (COSEE-NE) Ocean Science Education Institute (OSEI). COSEE-NE is involved in developing <span class="hlt">models</span> for sustainable involvement of ocean science researchers in K-12 education ( http://necosee.net ). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7776B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7776B"><span>Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behrens, Joern</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-Earthquakes represent natural catastrophes threatening lives and well-being of societies in a solitary and unexpected extreme event as tragically demonstrated in Sumatra (2004), Samoa (2009), Chile (2010), or Japan (2011). Both phenomena are consequences of the complex system of interactions of tectonic stress, fracture mechanics, rock friction, rupture dynamics, fault geometry, ocean bathymetry, and coastline geometry. The ASCETE project forms an interdisciplinary research consortium that couples the most advanced simulation technologies for earthquake rupture dynamics and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> to understand the fundamental conditions of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. We report on the latest research results in physics-based dynamic rupture and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> simulation, using unstructured and adaptive meshes with continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization approaches. Coupling both simulation tools - the physics-based dynamic rupture simulation and the hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> - will give us the possibility to conduct highly realistic studies of the interaction of rupture dynamics and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21251344-application-nonlinear-shallow-water-model-tsunami-using-adomian-decomposition-method','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21251344-application-nonlinear-shallow-water-model-tsunami-using-adomian-decomposition-method"><span>Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water <span class="hlt">Model</span> of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> by using Adomian Decomposition Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>One of the most important questions in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is the estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, tmore » is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized <span class="hlt">model</span> with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PApGe.168.2043I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PApGe.168.2043I"><span>Anatomy of Historical <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>: Lessons Learned for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the wave from source to shore. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> event data collected over the last two decades through international <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> science surveys have led to more realistic <span class="hlt">models</span> for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> reminded us that <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system is coordinated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22308064-post-fukushima-tsunami-simulations-malaysian-coasts','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22308064-post-fukushima-tsunami-simulations-malaysian-coasts"><span>Post Fukushima <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations for Malaysian coasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koh, Hock Lye, E-mail: kohhl@ucsiuniversity.edu.my; Teh, Su Yean, E-mail: syteh@usm.my; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che</p> <p></p> <p>The recent recurrences of mega <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre formore » <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and runup of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation plays a critical role in the development of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation towards the achievement of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threats. The choice of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030808','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030808"><span>Case study: Mapping <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards associated with debris flow into a reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Walder, J.S.; Watts, P.; Waythomas, C.F.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Debris-flow generated impulse waves (<span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>) pose hazards in lakes, especially those used for hydropower or recreation. We describe a method for assessing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related hazards for the case in which inundation by coherent water waves, rather than chaotic splashing, is of primary concern. The method involves an experimentally based initial condition (<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source) and a Boussinesq <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation. <span class="hlt">Model</span> results are used to create hazard maps that offer guidance for emergency planners and responders. An example application explores <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards associated with potential debris flows entering Baker Lake, a reservoir on the flanks of the Mount Baker volcano in the northwestern United States. ?? 2006 ASCE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..04W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..04W"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Speed Variations in Density-stratified Compressible Global Oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watada, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations in the deep ocean have accumulated unequivocal evidence that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> traveltime delays compared with the linear long-wave <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations occur during <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in the deep ocean. The delay is up to 2% of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> traveltime. Watada et al. [2013] investigated the cause of the delay using the normal mode theory of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and attributed the delay to the compressibility of seawater, the elasticity of the solid earth, and the gravitational potential change associated with mass motion during the passage of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed <span class="hlt">propagator</span> matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4-km deep ocean, the total <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> speed reduction is 0.45% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles and characteristic structures are discussed. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except for in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> traveltime should be included for precise <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of trans-oceanic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Data locations where a vertical ocean profile deeper than 2500 m is available in World Ocean Atlas 2009. The dark gray area indicates the Pacific Ocean defined in WOA09. a) <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> speed variations. Red, gray and black bars represent global, Pacific, and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. b) Regression lines of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> velocity reduction for all oceans. c)Vertical ocean profiles at grid points indicated by the stars in Figure 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA21B..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA21B..01M"><span>Imaging, radio, and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results pertaining to the ionospheric signature of the 11 March 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> over the Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makela, J. J.; Lognonne, P.; Occhipinti, G.; Hebert, H.; Gehrels, T.; Coisson, P.; Rolland, L. M.; Allgeyer, S.; Kherani, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Mw=9.0 earthquake that occurred off the east coast of Honshu, Japan on 11 March 2011 launched a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that traveled across the Pacific Ocean, in turn launching vertically <span class="hlt">propagating</span> atmospheric gravity waves. Upon reaching 250-350 km in altitude, these waves impressed their signature on the thermosphere/ionosphere system. We present observations of this signature obtained using a variety of radio instruments and an imaging system located on the islands of Hawaii. These measurements represent the first optical images recorded of the airglow signature resulting from the passage of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Results from these instruments clearly show wave structure <span class="hlt">propagating</span> in the upper atmosphere with the same velocity as the ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, emphasizing the coupled nature of the ocean, atmosphere, and ionosphere. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> results are also presented to highlight current understandings of this coupling process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0218O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0218O"><span>Landslide <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard in Madeira Island, NE Atlantic - Numerical Simulation of the 4 March 1930 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Quartau, R.; Ramalho, M. I.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Madeira, the main Island of the Madeira Archipelago with an area of 728 km2, is a North East Atlantic volcanic Island highly susceptible to cliff instability. Historical records contain accounts of a number of mass-wasting events along the Island, namely in 1969, 1804, 1929 and 1930. Collapses of cliffs are major hazards in oceanic Islands as they involve relatively large volumes of material, generating fast running debris avalanches, and even cause destructive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> when entering the sea. On March 4th, 1930, a sector of the Cape Girão cliff, located in the southern shore of Madeira Island, collapsed into the sea and generated an 8 m <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height. The landslide-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagated</span> along Madeirás south coast and flooded the Vigário beach, 200-300 m of inundation extent, causing 20 casualties. In this study, we investigate the 1930 subaerial landslide-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and its impact on the nearest coasts using numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. We first reconstruct the pre-event morphology of the area, and then simulate the initial movement of the sliding mass, the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave and the inundation of the coast. We use a multi-layer numerical <span class="hlt">model</span>, in which the lower layer represents the deformable slide, assumed to be a visco-plastic fluid, and bounded above by air, in the subaerial motion phase, and by seawater governed by shallow water equations. The results of the simulation are compared with the historical descriptions of the event to calibrate the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> and evaluate the coastal impact of a similar event in present-day coastline configuration of the Island. This work is supported by FCT- project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz and by TROYO project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U33C..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U33C..04G"><span>Issues and Advances in Understanding Landslide-Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>: Toward a Unified <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geist, E. L.; Locat, J.; Lee, H. J.; Lynett, P. J.; Parsons, T.; Kayen, R. E.; Hart, P. E.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p> matrix affects the overall rheologic behavior during slide dynamics. For more rigid materials, such as carbonate and volcanic rocks, <span class="hlt">models</span> are being developed that encompass the initial fracturing and eventual disintegration associated with debris avalanches. Lastly, the physics dictating the hydrodynamics of landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is equally complex. The effects of non-linearity and dispersion are not necessarily negligible for landslides (in contrast to most earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>), indicating that numerical implementation of the non-linear Boussinesq equations is often needed. Moreover, we show that for near-field landslide <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> <span class="hlt">propagating</span> across the continental shelf, bottom friction (bottom boundary layer turbulence) and wave breaking can be important energy sinks. Detailed geophysical surveys can dissect landslide complexes to determine the geometry of individual events and help estimate rheological properties of the flowing mass, whereas cores in landslide provinces can determine the mechanical properties and pore-pressure distribution for pre- and post-failure sediment. This information is critical toward developing well-documented case histories for validating physics-based landslide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.4075Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.4075Z"><span>Benchmarking an Unstructured-Grid <span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Current <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yinglong J.; Priest, George; Allan, Jonathan; Stimely, Laura</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">model</span> results derived from a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> current benchmarking workshop held by the NTHMP (National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program) in February 2015. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> was undertaken using our own 3D unstructured-grid <span class="hlt">model</span> that has been previously certified by the NTHMP for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation. Results for two benchmark tests are described here, including: (1) vortex structure in the wake of a submerged shoal and (2) impact of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on Hilo Harbor in the 2011 Tohoku event. The <span class="hlt">modeled</span> current velocities are compared with available lab and field data. We demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to accurately capture the velocity field in the two benchmark tests; in particular, the 3D <span class="hlt">model</span> gives a much more accurate wake structure than the 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> for the first test, with the root-mean-square error and mean bias no more than 2 cm s-1 and 8 mm s-1, respectively, for the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U11A0807F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U11A0807F"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake inferred from Tide Gauge and Satellite Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujii, Y.; Satake, K.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation process of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake were estimated from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms recorded on tide gauges and sea surface heights captured by satellite altimetry measurements over the Indian Ocean. The earthquake (0:58:53, 26, Dec., 2004, UTC), the largest in the last 40 years, caused devastating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damages to the countries around the Indian Ocean. One of the important questions is the source length; the aftershocks were distributed along the Sunda trench for 1000 to 1200 km, from off northwestern part of Sumatra island through Nicobar islands to Andaman island, while seismic wave analyses indicate much shorter source length (several hundred km). We used instrumental data of this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, tide gauges and sea surface heights. Tide gauge data have been collected by Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). We have also used another tide gauges data for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation analysis. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was captured as sea surface heights of Jason-1 satellite altimetry measurements over the Indian Ocean for the first time (Gower, 2005). We numerically compute <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> on actually bathymetry. ETOPO2 (Smith and Sandwell, 1997), the gridded data of global ocean depth from bathymetry soundings and satellite gravity data, are less reliable in the shallow ocean. To improve the accuracy, we have digitized the charts near coasts and merged the digitized data with the ETOPO2 data. The long-wave equation and the equation of motion were numerically solved by finite-difference method (Satake, 1995). As the initial condition, a static deformation of seafloor has been calculated using rectangular fault <span class="hlt">model</span> (Okada, 1985). The source region is divided into 22 subfaults. We fixed the size and geometry of each subfault, and varied the slip amount and rise time (or slip duration) for each subfault, and rupture velocity. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waveforms or Greens functions for each subfault were calculated for the rise times of 3, 10, 30 and 60 minutes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH13B..03Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH13B..03Y"><span>Hydraulic experiment on formation mechanism of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit and verification of sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, A.; Takahashi, T.; Harada, K.; Sakuraba, M.; Nojima, K.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>An underestimation of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused serious damage in coastal area. Reconsideration for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> estimation needs knowledge of paleo <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The historical records of giant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are limited, because they had occurred infrequently. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> deposits may include many of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records and are expected to analyze paleo <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. However, present research on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits are not able to estimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source and its magnitude. Furthermore, numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and its sediment transport are also important. Takahashi et al. (1999) proposed a <span class="hlt">model</span> of movable bed condition due to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, although it has some issues. Improvement of the <span class="hlt">model</span> needs basic data on sediment transport and deposition. This study investigated the formation mechanism of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit by hydraulic experiment using a two-dimensional water channel with slope. In a fixed bed condition experiment, velocity, water level and suspended load concentration were measured at many points. In a movable bed condition, effects of sand grains and bore wave on the deposit were examined. Yamamoto et al. (2016) showed deposition range varied with sand grain sizes. In addition, it is revealed that the range fluctuated by number of waves and wave period. The measurements of velocity and water level showed that flow was clearly different near shoreline and in run-up area. Large velocity by return flow was affected the amount of sand deposit near shoreline. When a cutoff wall was installed on the slope, the amount of sand deposit repeatedly increased and decreased. Especially, sand deposit increased where velocity decreased. Takahashi et al. (1999) adapted the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> into Kesennuma bay when the 1960 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrived, although the amount of sand transportation was underestimated. The cause of the underestimation is inferred that the velocity of this <span class="hlt">model</span> was underestimated. A relationship between velocity and sediment transport has to be studied in detail, but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1763L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1763L"><span>Scenario-based numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and the palaeo-historic record of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in Wallis and Futuna, Southwest Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lamarche, G.; Popinet, S.; Pelletier, B.; Mountjoy, J.; Goff, J.; Delaux, S.; Bind, J.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We investigated the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in the remote French territory of Wallis and Futuna, Southwest Pacific, using the Gerris flow solver to produce numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation. Wallis consists of the inhabited volcanic island of Uvéa that is surrounded by a lagoon delimited by a barrier reef. Futuna and the island of Alofi form the Horn Archipelago located ca. 240 km east of Wallis. They are surrounded by a narrow fringing reef. Futuna and Alofi emerge from the North Fiji Transform Fault that marks the seismically active Pacific-Australia plate boundary. We generated 15 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios. For each, we calculated maximum wave elevation (MWE), inundation distance and expected time of arrival (ETA). The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources were local, regional and distant earthquake faults located along the Pacific Rim. In Wallis, the outer reef may experience 6.8 m-high MWE. Uvéa is protected by the barrier reef and the lagoon, but inundation depths of 2-3 m occur in several coastal areas. In Futuna, flow depths exceeding 2 m are <span class="hlt">modelled</span> in several populated areas, and have been confirmed by a post-September 2009 South Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> survey. The channel between the islands of Futuna and Alofi amplified the 2009 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which resulted in inundation distance of almost 100 m and MWE of 4.4 m. This first ever <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard <span class="hlt">modelling</span> study of Wallis and Futuna compares well with palaeotsunamis recognised on both islands and observation of the impact of the 2009 South Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The study provides evidence for the mitigating effect of barrier and fringing reefs from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESD...3.2283L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESD...3.2283L"><span>Scenario-based numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and the palaeo-historic record of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in Wallis and Futuna, Southwest Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lamarche, G.; Popinet, S.; Pelletier, B.; Mountjoy, J.; Goff, J.; Delaux, S.; Bind, J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We investigated the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in the remote French territory of Wallis and Futuna, Southwest Pacific, using the Gerris flow solver to produce numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation. Wallis consists of the inhabited volcanic island of Uvéa that is surrounded by a lagoon delimited by a barrier reef. Futuna and the island of Alofi forms the Horn Archipelago located ca. 240 km east of Wallis. They are surrounded by a narrow fringing reef. Futuna and Alofi emerge from the North Fiji Transform Fault that marks the seismically active Pacific-Australia plate boundary. We generated fifteen <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios. For each, we calculated maximum wave elevation (MWE), inundation distance, and Expected Time of Arrival (ETA). The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources were local, regional and distant earthquake faults located along the Pacific Rim. In Wallis, the outer reef may experience 6.8 m-high MWE. Uvéa is protected by the barrier reef and the lagoon, but inundation depths of 2-3 m occur in several coastal areas. In Futuna, flow depths exceeding 2 m are <span class="hlt">modelled</span> in several populated areas, and have been confirmed by a post-September 2009 South Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> survey. The channel between the islands of Futuna and Alofi amplified the 2009 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which resulted in inundation distance of almost 100 m and MWE of 4.4 m. This first-ever <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard <span class="hlt">modelling</span> study of Wallis and Futuna compares well with palaeotsunamis recognised on both islands and observation of the impact of the 2009 South Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The study provides evidence for the mitigating effect of barrier and fringing reefs from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031901','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031901"><span>Implications of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast and assessment <span class="hlt">models</span> for great subduction-zone earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.; Titov, Vasily V.; Arcas, Diego; Pollitz, Fred F.; Bilek, Susan L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Results from different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting and hazard assessment <span class="hlt">models</span> are compared with observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights from the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Forecast <span class="hlt">models</span> are based on initial earthquake information and are used to estimate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights during <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. An empirical forecast relationship based only on seismic moment provides a close estimate to the observed mean regional and maximum local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup heights for the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> but underestimates mean regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights at azimuths in line with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> beaming pattern (e.g., Sri Lanka, Thailand). Standard forecast <span class="hlt">models</span> developed from subfault discretization of earthquake rupture, in which deep- ocean sea level observations are used to constrain slip, are also tested. Forecast <span class="hlt">models</span> of this type use <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> time-series measurements at points in the deep ocean. As a proxy for the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, a transect of deep-ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes recorded by satellite altimetry is used to constrain slip along four subfaults of the M >9 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. This proxy <span class="hlt">model</span> performs well in comparison to observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights, travel times, and inundation patterns at Banda Aceh. Hypothetical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessments <span class="hlt">models</span> based on end- member estimates for average slip and rupture length (Mw 9.0–9.3) are compared with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations. Using average slip (low end member) and rupture length (high end member) (Mw 9.14) consistent with many seismic, geodetic, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inversions adequately estimates <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup in most regions, except the extreme runup in the western Aceh province. The high slip that occurred in the southern part of the rupture zone linked to runup in this location is a larger fluctuation than expected from standard stochastic slip <span class="hlt">models</span>. In addition, excess moment release (∼9%) deduced from geodetic studies in comparison to seismic moment estimates may generate additional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy, if the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1857M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1857M"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Wave Generation Using a Two-layer Granular Landslide <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, G.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Shi, F.; Grilli, S. T.; Hsu, T. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> can be generated by subaerial or submarine landslides in reservoirs, lakes, fjords, bays and oceans. Compared to seismogenic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, landslide or submarine mass failure (SMF) <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are normally characterized by relatively shorter wave lengths and stronger wave dispersion, and potentially may generate large wave amplitudes locally and high run-up along adjacent coastlines. Due to a complex interplay between the landslide and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, accurate simulation of landslide motion as well as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation is a challenging task. We develop and test a new two-layer <span class="hlt">model</span> for granular landslide motion and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave generation. The landslide is described as a saturated granular flow, accounting for intergranular stresses governed by Coulomb friction. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> wave generation is simulated by the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic wave <span class="hlt">model</span> NHWAVE, which is capable of capturing wave dispersion efficiently using a small number of discretized vertical levels. Depth-averaged governing equations for the granular landslide are derived in a slope-oriented coordinate system, taking into account the dynamic interaction between the lower-layer granular landslide and upper-layer water motion. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is tested against laboratory experiments on impulsive wave generation by subaerial granular landslides. <span class="hlt">Model</span> results illustrate a complex interplay between the granular landslide and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, and they reasonably predict not only the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave generation but also the granular landslide motion from initiation to deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611818R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611818R"><span>Operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with TsunAWI - Examples for Indonesia and Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakowsky, Natalja; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Fuchs, Annika; Behrens, Jörn; Danilov, Sergey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The numerical simulation code TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System (GITEWS). The numerical simulation of prototypical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios plays a decisive role in the a priory risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. TsunAWI is based on a finite element discretization, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast, and includes inundation. This contribution gives an overview of the <span class="hlt">model</span> itself and presents two applications. For GITEWS, the existing scenario database covering 528 epicenters / 3450 scenarios from Sumatra to Bali was extended by 187 epicenters / 1100 scenarios in the Eastern Sunda Arc. Furthermore, about 1100 scenarios for the Western Sunda Arc were recomputed on the new <span class="hlt">model</span> domain covering the whole Indonesian Seas. These computations would not have been feasible in the beginning of the project. The unstructured computational grid contains 7 million nodes and resolves all coastal regions with 150m, some project regions and the surrounding of tide gauges with 50m, and the deep ocean with 12km edge length. While in the Western Sunda Arc, the large islands of Sumatra and Java shield the Northern Indonesian Archipelago, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Eastern Sunda Arc can <span class="hlt">propagate</span> to the North. The unstructured grid approach allows TsunAWI to easily simulate the complex <span class="hlt">propagation</span> patterns with the self-interactions and the reflections at the coastal regions of myriads of islands. For the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), we calculated a small scenario database of 100 scenarios (sources by Universidad de Chile) to provide data for a lightweight decision support system prototype (built by DLR). This work is part of the initiation project "Multi hazard information and early warning system in cooperation with Chile" and aims at sharing our experience from GITEWS with the Chilean partners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAESc..62..568U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAESc..62..568U"><span>Comparison of the seafloor displacement from uniform and non-uniform slip <span class="hlt">models</span> on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulutas, Ergin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The numerical simulations of recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused by 11 March 2011 off-shore Pacific coast of Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) using diverse co-seismic source <span class="hlt">models</span> have been performed. Co-seismic source <span class="hlt">models</span> proposed by various observational agencies and scholars are further used to elucidate the effects of uniform and non-uniform slip <span class="hlt">models</span> on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> stages. Non-linear shallow water equations are solved with a finite difference scheme, using a computational grid with different cell sizes over GEBCO30 bathymetry data. Overall results obtained and reported by various <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> are compared together with the available real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) buoys, cabled deep ocean-bottom pressure gauges (OBPG), and Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (DART) buoys. The purpose of this study is to provide a brief overview of major differences between point-source and finite-fault methodologies on generation and simulation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Tests of the assumptions of uniform and non-uniform slip <span class="hlt">models</span> designate that the average uniform slip <span class="hlt">models</span> may be used for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations off-shore, and far from the source region. Nevertheless, the heterogeneities of the slip distribution within the fault plane are substantial for the wave amplitude in the near field which should be investigated further.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OcMod.114...14L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OcMod.114...14L"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">model</span> analysis of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced coastal currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lynett, Patrick J.; Gately, Kara; Wilson, Rick; Montoya, Luis; Arcas, Diego; Aytore, Betul; Bai, Yefei; Bricker, Jeremy D.; Castro, Manuel J.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; David, C. Gabriel; Dogan, Gozde Guney; Escalante, Cipriano; González-Vida, José Manuel; Grilli, Stephan T.; Heitmann, Troy W.; Horrillo, Juan; Kânoğlu, Utku; Kian, Rozita; Kirby, James T.; Li, Wenwen; Macías, Jorge; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Ortega, Sergio; Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Park, Yong Sung; Roeber, Volker; Sharghivand, Naeimeh; Shelby, Michael; Shi, Fengyan; Tehranirad, Babak; Tolkova, Elena; Thio, Hong Kie; Velioğlu, Deniz; Yalçıner, Ahmet Cevdet; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zhang, Y. J.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>To help produce accurate and consistent maritime hazard products, the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program organized a benchmarking workshop to evaluate the numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents. Thirteen teams of international researchers, using a set of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> currently utilized for hazard mitigation studies, presented results for a series of benchmarking problems; these results are summarized in this paper. Comparisons focus on physical situations where the currents are shear and separation driven, and are thus de-coupled from the incident <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform. In general, we find that <span class="hlt">models</span> of increasing physical complexity provide better accuracy, and that low-order three-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> are superior to high-order two-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span>. Inside separation zones and in areas strongly affected by eddies, the magnitude of both <span class="hlt">model</span>-data errors and inter-<span class="hlt">model</span> differences can be the same as the magnitude of the mean flow. Thus, we make arguments for the need of an ensemble <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for areas affected by large-scale turbulent eddies, where deterministic simulation may be misleading. As a result of the analyses presented herein, we expect that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelers</span> now have a better awareness of their ability to accurately capture the physics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents, and therefore a better understanding of how to use these simulation tools for hazard assessment and mitigation efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH13E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH13E..01S"><span>Role of sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> to improve the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugawara, D.; Yamashita, K.; Takahashi, T.; Imamura, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Are we overlooking an important factor for improved numerical prediction of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in shallow sea to onshore? In this presentation, several case studies on numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced sediment transport are reviewed, and the role of sediment transport <span class="hlt">models</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation simulation is discussed. Large-scale sediment transport and resulting geomorphological change occurred in the coastal areas of Tohoku, Japan, due to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>. Datasets obtained after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, including geomorphological and sedimentological data as well as hydrodynamic records, allows us to validate the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> in detail. The numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the sediment transport by the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> depicted the severest erosion of sandy beach, as well as characteristic spatial patterns of erosion and deposition on the seafloor, which have taken place in Hirota Bay, Sanriku Coast. Quantitative comparisons of observation and simulation of the geomorphological changes in Sanriku Coast and Sendai Bay showed that the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> can predict the volumes of erosion and deposition with a right order. In addition, comparison of the simulation with aerial video footages demonstrated the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> is capable of tracking the overall processes of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport. Although <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced sediment erosion and deposition sometimes cause significant geomorphological change, and may enhance <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamic impact to the coastal zones, most <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations do not include sediment transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. A coupled <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamics and sediment transport draws a different picture of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard, comparing with simple hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation. Since <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced erosion, deposition and geomorphological change sometimes extend more than several kilometers across the coastline, two-dimensional horizontal <span class="hlt">model</span> are typically used for the computation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamics and sediment transport</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215692T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215692T"><span>Preliminary numerical simulations of the 27 February 2010 Chile <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: first results and hints in a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Gallazzi, Sara; Bressan, Lidia</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The tsunamigenic earthquake (M 8.8) that occurred offshore central Chile on 27 February 2010 can be classified as a typical subduction-zone earthquake. The effects of the ensuing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> have been devastating along the Chile coasts, and especially between the cities of Valparaiso and Talcahuano, and in the Juan Fernandez islands. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagated</span> across the entire Pacific Ocean, hitting with variable intensity almost all the coasts facing the basin. While the far-field <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was quite well tracked almost in real-time by the warning centres and reasonably well reproduced by the forecast <span class="hlt">models</span>, the toll of lives and the severity of the damage caused by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the near-field occurred with no local alert nor warning and sadly confirms that the protection of the communities placed close to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources is still an unresolved problem in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning field. The purpose of this study is two-fold. On one side we perform numerical simulations of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> starting from different earthquake <span class="hlt">models</span> which we built on the basis of the preliminary seismic parameters (location, magnitude and focal mechanism) made available by the seismological agencies immediately after the event, or retrieved from more detailed and refined studies published online in the following days and weeks. The comparison with the available records of both offshore DART buoys and coastal tide-gauges is used to put some preliminary constraints on the best-fitting fault <span class="hlt">model</span>. The numerical simulations are performed by means of the finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research Team of the University of Bologna, Italy, which can solve both the linear and non-linear versions of the shallow-water equations on nested grids. The second purpose of this study is to use the conclusions drawn in the previous part in a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning perspective. In the framework of the EU-funded project DEWS (Distant Early Warning System), we will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811036L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811036L"><span>Implementation of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>LaBrecque, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Global Geodetic Observing System has issued a Call for Participation to research scientists, geodetic research groups and national agencies in support of the implementation of the IUGG recommendation for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning Systems. The call seeks to establish a working group to be a catalyst and motivating force for the definition of requirements, identification of resources, and for the encouragement of international cooperation in the establishment, advancement, and utilization of GNSS for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning. During the past fifteen years the populations of the Indo-Pacific region experienced a series of mega-thrust earthquakes followed by devastating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that claimed nearly 300,000 lives. The future resiliency of the region will depend upon improvements to infrastructure and emergency response that will require very significant investments from the Indo-Pacific economies. The estimation of earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation are critical to rapid <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning. Geodetic research groups have demonstrated the use of GNSS data to estimate earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation sufficient for the accurate and timely prediction of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by mega-thrust earthquakes. GNSS data have also been used to measure the formation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> via ionospheric disturbances acoustically coupled to the <span class="hlt">propagating</span> surface waves; thereby providing a new technique to track <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> across ocean basins, opening the way for improving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, and providing accurate warning to communities in the far field. These two new advancements can deliver timely and accurate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warnings to coastal communities in the near and far field of mega-thrust earthquakes. This presentation will present the justification for and the details of the GGOS Call for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12...38M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12...38M"><span>Influence of source extension of 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake on character of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazova, Raissa; Kisel'Man, Broneslav; Baranova, Natalya; Lobkovsky, Leopold</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The analysis of the Indian Ocean earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on 26 December 2004 carried out in a number of works demonstrates that rupture process in the seismic source was realized during several minutes. In some works, there was suggested that a source probably consists of several segments with width near above hundred of kilometers and with total length more than 1000 km. Such a picture is consistent with subduction keyboard <span class="hlt">model</span> of tsunamigenic earthquake (see, e.g. [1]) which treats the anomalously long source of Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, caused by oblique subduction, as a multiblock piston mechanism with non-simultaneous realization of each block. Because of existing in literature uncertainty with source structure and movements at all its extent, it is interesting for given event to study in details the dependence of characteristics of surface water wave induced by seismic source on its extent [1,2]. In the work it was studied the influence of submarine seismic source extention to wave field distribution in basin of Bengal bay and central part of Indian ocean. To analyze, it was considered separately the influence of large segment of seismic source for given <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. On the basis of keyboard <span class="hlt">model</span> it is considered the earthquake origin with extension near 1200 km comprises 3 seismic source: Sumatran, Andaman and Nicobar ones, each of which comprises 6, 4 and 3 keyboard blocks, respectively (1, 2 and 3 scenarios). It was calculated the maximal vertical displacement of these segments on 2-5 meters. The velocity of block movement was taken in correspondence with available data on characteristic times in the source. For scenario 1 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source, formed at the ocean surface, generates almost circular wave which, due to bathymetry of given basin, preserve its form and <span class="hlt">propagates</span> most quickly in west and south-west direction. To north-east, to Indian coast, the wave came with large delay, as compared with records of real mareographs. As follows from the wave field picture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3823L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3823L"><span>Possible worst-case <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios around the Marmara Sea from combined earthquake and landslide sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Latcharote, Panon; Suppasri, Anawat; Imamura, Fumihiko; Aytore, Betul; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This study evaluates <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards in the Marmara Sea from possible worst-case <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios that are from submarine earthquakes and landslides. In terms of fault-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, seismic ruptures can <span class="hlt">propagate</span> along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), which has produced historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Marmara Sea. Based on the past studies, which consider fault-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> individually, future scenarios are expected to generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, and submarine landslides could be triggered by seismic motion. In addition to these past studies, numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> has been applied to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> from combined earthquake and landslide sources. In this study, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards are evaluated from both individual and combined cases of submarine earthquakes and landslides through numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations with a grid size of 90 m for bathymetry and topography data for the entire Marmara Sea region and validated with historical observations from the 1509 and 1894 earthquakes. This study implements TUNAMI <span class="hlt">model</span> with a two-layer <span class="hlt">model</span> to conduct numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations, and the numerical results show that the maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height could reach 4.0 m along Istanbul shores for a full submarine rupture of the NAF, with a fault slip of 5.0 m in the eastern and western basins of the Marmara Sea. The maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height for landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from small, medium, and large of initial landslide volumes (0.15, 0.6, and 1.5 km3, respectively) could reach 3.5, 6.0, and 8.0 m, respectively, along Istanbul shores. Possible <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from submarine landslides could be significantly higher than those from earthquakes, depending on the landslide volume significantly. These combined earthquake and landslide sources only result in higher <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes for small volumes significantly because of amplification within the same <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude scale (3.0-4.0 m). Waveforms from all the coasts around the Marmara Sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817332C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817332C"><span>Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport of large debris by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conde, Daniel A. S.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are notorious for the large disruption they can cause on coastal environments, not only due to the imparted momentum of the incoming wave but also due to its capacity to transport large quantities of solid debris, either from natural or human-made sources, over great distances. A 2DH numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> under development at CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Conde, 2013) - STAV2D - capable of simulating solid transport in both Eulerian and Lagrangian paradigms will be used to assess the relevance of Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling when <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the transport of solid debris by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has been previously validated and applied to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios (Conde, 2013), being well-suited for overland <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and capable of handling morphodynamic changes in estuaries and seashores. The discretization scheme is an explicit Finite Volume technique employing flux-vector splitting and a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver. Source term formulations are employed in a semi-implicit way, including the two-way coupling of the Lagrangian and Eulerian solvers by means of conservative mass and momentum transfers between fluid and solid phases. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was applied to Sines Port, a major commercial port in Portugal, where two tsunamigenic scenarios are considered: an 8.5 Mw scenario, consistent with the Great Lisbon Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> of the 1st November 1755 (Baptista, 2009), and an hypothetical 9.5 Mw worst-case scenario based on the same historical event. Open-ocean <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of these scenarios were simulated with GeoClaw <span class="hlt">model</span> from ClawPack (Leveque, 2011). Following previous efforts on the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of debris transport by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in seaports (Conde, 2015), this work discusses the sensitivity of the obtained results with respect to the phenomenological detail of the employed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation and the resolution of the mesh used in the Eulerian solver. The results have shown that the fluid to debris mass ratio is the key parameter regarding the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919608B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919608B"><span>A Benchmarking setup for Coupled Earthquake Cycle - Dynamic Rupture - <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behrens, Joern; Bader, Michael; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Uphoff, Carsten; Vater, Stefan; Wollherr, Stephanie; van Zelst, Iris</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We developed a simulation framework for coupled physics-based earthquake rupture generation with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation on a simplified subduction zone system for the project "Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Events" (ASCETE, funded by the Volkswagen Foundation). Here, we present a benchmarking setup that can be used for complex rupture <span class="hlt">models</span>. The workflow begins with a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle <span class="hlt">model</span> representing long term deformation along a planar, shallowly dipping subduction zone interface. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this <span class="hlt">model</span>. The absolute stress field and material properties for a single slip event are used as initial conditions for a dynamic earthquake rupture <span class="hlt">model</span>.The rupture simulation is performed with SeisSol, which uses an ADER discontinuous Galerkin discretization scheme with an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. The seafloor displacements resulting from this rupture are transferred to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> with a simple coastal run-up profile. An adaptive mesh discretizing the shallow water equations with a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme subsequently allows for an accurate and efficient representation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evolution and inundation at the coast. This workflow allows for evaluation of how the rupture behavior affects the hydrodynamic wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and coastal inundation. We present coupled results for differing earthquake scenarios. Examples include megathrust only ruptures versus ruptures with splay fault branching off the megathrust near the surface. Coupling to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation component is performed either dynamically (time dependent) or statically, resulting in differing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave and inundation behavior. The simplified topographical setup allows for systematic parameter studies and reproducible physical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..148a2003J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..148a2003J"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">modelling</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation route in Parangtritis Village</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Juniansah, A.; Tyas, B. I.; Tama, G. C.; Febriani, K. R.; Farda, N. M.</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> is a series of huge sea waves that commonly occurs because of the oceanic plate movement or tectonic activity under the sea. As a sudden hazard, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has damaged many people over the years. Parangtritis village is one of high <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard risk area in Indonesia which needs an effective <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk reduction. This study aims are <span class="hlt">modelling</span> a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> susceptibility map, existing assembly points evaluation, and suggesting effective evacuation routes. The susceptibility map was created using ALOS PALSAR DEM and surface roughness coefficient. The method of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> employed inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> developed by Berryman (2006). The results are used to determine new assembly points based on the Sentinel 2A imagery and to determine the most effective evacuation route by using network analyst. This <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used to create detailed scale of evacuation route, but unrepresentative for assembly point that far from road network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1845M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1845M"><span>A computationally fast, reduced <span class="hlt">model</span> for simulating landslide dynamics and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by landslides in natural terrains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohammed, F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Landslide hazards such as fast-moving debris flows, slow-moving landslides, and other mass flows cause numerous fatalities, injuries, and damage. Landslide occurrences in fjords, bays, and lakes can additionally generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> with locally extremely high wave heights and runups. Two-dimensional depth-averaged <span class="hlt">models</span> can successfully simulate the entire lifecycle of the three-dimensional landslide dynamics and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> efficiently and accurately with the appropriate assumptions. Landslide rheology is defined using viscous fluids, visco-plastic fluids, and granular material to account for the possible landslide source materials. Saturated and unsaturated rheologies are further included to simulate debris flow, debris avalanches, mudflows, and rockslides respectively. The <span class="hlt">models</span> are obtained by reducing the fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with the internal rheological definition of the landslide material, the water body, and appropriate scaling assumptions to obtain the depth-averaged two-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span>. The landslide and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are coupled to include the interaction between the landslide and the water body for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. The reduced <span class="hlt">models</span> are solved numerically with a fast semi-implicit finite-volume, shock-capturing based algorithm. The well-balanced, positivity preserving algorithm accurately accounts for wet-dry interface transition for the landslide runout, landslide-water body interface, and the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave flooding on land. The <span class="hlt">models</span> are implemented as a General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Unit-based (GPGPU) suite of <span class="hlt">models</span>, either coupled or run independently within the suite. The GPGPU implementation provides up to 1000 times speedup over a CPU-based serial computation. This enables simulations of multiple scenarios of hazard realizations that provides a basis for a probabilistic hazard assessment. The <span class="hlt">models</span> have been successfully validated against experiments, past studies, and field data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA33B..04T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA33B..04T"><span>Earthquake- and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced ionospheric disturbances detected by GPS total electron content observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsugawa, T.; Nishioka, M.; Matsumura, M.; Shinagawa, H.; Maruyama, T.; Ogawa, T.; Saito, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Nagatsuma, T.; Murata, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Ionospheric disturbances induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> were studied by the high-resolution GPS total electron content (TEC) observation in Japan and in the world. The initial ionospheric disturbance appeared as sudden depletions by about 6 TEC unit (20%) about seven minutes after the earthquake onset, near the epicenter. From 06:00UT to 06:15UT, circular waves with short <span class="hlt">propagation</span> distance <span class="hlt">propagated</span> in the radial direction in the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> velocity of 3,457, 783, 423 m/s for the first, second, third peak, respectively. Following these waves, concentric waves with long <span class="hlt">propagation</span> distance appeared to <span class="hlt">propagate</span> at the velocity of 138-288 m/s. In the vicinity of the epicenter, shortperiod oscillations with period of about 4 minutes were observed after 06:00 UT for 3 hours or more. We focus on the the circular and concentric waves in this paper. The circular or concentric structures indicate that these ionospheric disturbances had a point source. The center of these structures, termed as "ionospheric epicenter", was located around 37.5 deg N of latitude and 144.0 deg E of longitude, 170 km far from the epicenter to the southeast direction, and corresponded to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. Comparing to the results of a numerical simulation using non-hydrostatic compressible atmosphere-ionosphere <span class="hlt">model</span>, the first peak of circular wave would be caused by the acoustic waves generated from the <span class="hlt">propagating</span> Rayleigh wave. The second and third waves would be caused by atmospheric gravity waves excited in the lower ionosphere due to the acoustic wave <span class="hlt">propagations</span> from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. The fourth and following waves are considered to be caused by the atmospheric gravity waves induced by the wavefronts of traveling <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Long-<span class="hlt">propagation</span> of these TEC disturbances were studied also using high-resolution GPS-TEC data in North America and Europe. Medium-scale wave structures with wavelengths of several 100 km appeared in the west part of North America at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1848V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1848V"><span>Validation and Performance Comparison of Numerical Codes for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Inundation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Velioglu, D.; Kian, R.; Yalciner, A. C.; Zaytsev, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In inundation zones, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> motion turns from wave motion to flow of water. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of this phenomenon is a complex problem since there are many parameters affecting the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow. In this respect, the performance of numerical codes that analyze <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation patterns becomes important. The computation of water surface elevation is not sufficient for proper analysis of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> behaviour in shallow water zones and on land and hence for the development of mitigation strategies. Velocity and velocity patterns are also crucial parameters and have to be computed at the highest accuracy. There are numerous numerical codes to be used for simulating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation. In this study, FLOW 3D and NAMI DANCE codes are selected for validation and performance comparison. Flow 3D simulates linear and nonlinear <span class="hlt">propagating</span> surface waves as well as long waves by solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (3D-NS) equations. FLOW 3D is used specificaly for flood problems. NAMI DANCE uses finite difference computational method to solve linear and nonlinear forms of shallow water equations (NSWE) in long wave problems, specifically <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In this study, these codes are validated and their performances are compared using two benchmark problems which are discussed in 2015 National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Annual meeting in Portland, USA. One of the problems is an experiment of a single long-period wave <span class="hlt">propagating</span> up a piecewise linear slope and onto a small-scale <span class="hlt">model</span> of the town of Seaside, Oregon. Other benchmark problem is an experiment of a single solitary wave <span class="hlt">propagating</span> up a triangular shaped shelf with an island feature located at the offshore point of the shelf. The computed water surface elevation and velocity data are compared with the measured data. The comparisons showed that both codes are in fairly good agreement with each other and benchmark data. All results are presented with discussions and comparisons. The research leading to these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH12A..04T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH12A..04T"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Inundation Mapping for the Upper East Coast of the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tehranirad, B.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Callahan, J. A.; Shi, F.; Banihashemi, S.; Grilli, S. T.; Grilli, A. R.; Tajalli Bakhsh, T. S.; O'Reilly, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We describe the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation for the Upper US East Coast (USEC) from Ocean City, MD up to Nantucket, MA. and the development of inundation maps for use in emergency management and hazard analysis. Seven <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources were used as initial conditions in order to develop inundation maps based on a Probable Maximum <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> approach. Of the seven, two coseismic sources were used; the first being a large earthquake in the Puerto Rico Trench, in the well-known Caribbean Subduction Zone, and the second, an earthquake close to the Azores Gibraltar plate boundary known as the source of the biggest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recorded in the North Atlantic Basin. In addition, four Submarine Mass Failure (SMF) sources located at different locations on the edge of the shelf break were simulated. Finally, the Cumbre Vieja Volcanic (CVV) collapse, located in the Canary Islands, was studied. For this presentation, we discuss <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results for nearshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and onshore inundation. A fully nonlinear Boussinesq <span class="hlt">model</span> (FUNWAVE-TVD) is used to capture the characteristics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, both nearshore and inland. In addition to the inundation line as the main result of this work, other <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> quantities such as inundation depth and maximum velocities will be discussed for the whole USEC area. Moreover, a discussion of most vulnerable areas to a possible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the USEC will be provided. For example, during the inundation simulation process, it was observed that coastal environments with barrier islands are among the hot spots to be significantly impacted by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. As a result, areas like western Long Island, NY and Atlantic City, NJ are some of the locations that will get extremely affected in case of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurrence in the Atlantic Ocean. Finally, the differences between various <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources <span class="hlt">modeled</span> here will be presented. Although inundation lines for different sources usually follow a similar pattern, there are clear distinctions between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43A1726G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43A1726G"><span>Rapid inundation estimates at harbor scale using <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights offshore simulation and coastal amplification laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gailler, A.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hebert, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> are well developed and have now reached an impressive level of accuracy, especially in locations such as harbors where the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves are mostly amplified. In the framework of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning under real-time operational conditions, the main obstacle for the routine use of such numerical simulations remains the slowness of the numerical computation, which is strengthened when detailed grids are required for the precise <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the coastline response of an individual harbor. Thus only <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> offshore <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid are presently included within the French <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (CENALT), providing rapid estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning at western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins scale. We present here a preliminary work that performs quick estimates of the inundation at individual harbors from these high sea forecasting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations. The method involves an empirical correction based on theoretical amplification laws (either Green's or Synolakis laws). The main limitation is that its application to a given coastal area would require a large database of previous observations, in order to define the empirical parameters of the correction equation. As no such data (i.e., historical tide gage records of significant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>) are available for the western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins, we use a set of synthetic mareograms, calculated for both fake and well-known historical tsunamigenic earthquakes in the area. This synthetic dataset is obtained through accurate numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by using several nested bathymetric grids of increasingly fine resolution close to the shores (down to a grid cell size of 3m in some Mediterranean harbors). Non linear shallow water <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> performed on a single 2' coarse bathymetric grid are compared to the values given by time-consuming nested grids simulations (and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.7992R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.7992R"><span>The 2004 Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean: New Global Insight from Observations and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabinovich, A. B.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Eblé, M. C.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The 2004 Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was an unprecedented global disaster measured throughout the world oceans. The present study focused on a region of the southeastern Pacific Ocean where the "westward" circumferentially <span class="hlt">propagating</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> branch converged with the "eastward" branch, based on data from fortuitously placed Chilean DART 32401 and tide gauges along the coast of South America. By comparison of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and background spectra, we suppressed the influence of topography and reconstructed coastal "spectral ratios" that were in close agreement with a ratio at DART 32401 and spectral ratios in other oceans. Findings indicate that even remote <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records carry spectral source signatures ("birth-marks"). The 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves were found to occupy the broad frequency band of 0.25-10 cph with the prominent ratio peak at period of 40 min related to the southern fast-slip source domain. This rupture "hot-spot" of ˜350 km was responsible for the global impact of the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Data from DART 32401 provided validation of <span class="hlt">model</span> results: the simulated maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height of 2.25 cm was a conservative approximation to the measured height of 2.05 cm; the computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel time of 25 h 35 min to DART 32401, although 20 min earlier than the actual travel time, provided a favorable result in comparison with 24 h 25 min estimated from classical kinematic theory. The numerical simulations consistently reproduced the wave height changes observed along the coast of South America, including local amplification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves at the northern stations of Arica (72 cm) and Callao (67 cm).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1890I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1890I"><span>Preliminary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations are underway for the BC coast. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD <span class="hlt">model</span>, for a suite of new source <span class="hlt">models</span> representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested <span class="hlt">model</span> grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source <span class="hlt">models</span> developed using the best available data. We will also present a <span class="hlt">model</span> validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH14A..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH14A..03L"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> induced by retrogressive submarine landslides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Løvholt, F.; Kim, J.; Harbitz, C. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Enormous submarine landslides having volumes up to thousands of km3 and long run-out may cause <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> with widespread effects. Clay-rich landslides, such as Trænadjupet and Storegga offshore Norway commonly involve retrogressive mass and momentum release mechanisms that affect the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. Therefore, such landslides may involve a large amount of smaller blocks. As a consequence, the failure mechanisms and release rate of the individual blocks are of importance for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. Previous attempts to <span class="hlt">model</span> the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation due to retrogressive landslides are few, and limited to idealized conditions. Here, we review the basic effects of retrogression on tsunamigenesis in simple geometries. To this end, two different methods are employed for the landslide motion, a series block with pre-scribed time lags and kinematics, and a dynamic retrogressive <span class="hlt">model</span> where the inter-block time lag is determined by the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The effect of parameters such as time lag on wave-height, wave-length, and dispersion are discussed. Finally, we discuss how the retrogressive effects may have influenced the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> due to large landslides such as the Storegga slide. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>Land) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1212469-first-tsunami-gravity-wave-detection-ionospheric-radio-occultation-data','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1212469-first-tsunami-gravity-wave-detection-ionospheric-radio-occultation-data"><span>First <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> gravity wave detection in ionospheric radio occultation data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lognonné, Philippe; Walwer, Damian; ...</p> <p>2015-05-09</p> <p>After the 11 March 2011 earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> off the coast of Tohoku, the ionospheric signature of the displacements induced in the overlying atmosphere has been observed by ground stations in various regions of the Pacific Ocean. We analyze here the data of radio occultation satellites, detecting the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-driven gravity wave for the first time using a fully space-based ionospheric observation system. One satellite of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) recorded an occultation in the region above the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> 2.5 h after the earthquake. The ionosphere was sounded from top to bottom, thus providing themore » vertical structure of the gravity wave excited by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, observed as oscillations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC). The observed vertical wavelength was about 50 km, with maximum amplitude exceeding 1 total electron content unit when the occultation reached 200 km height. We compared the observations with synthetic data obtained by summation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-coupled gravity normal modes of the Earth/Ocean/atmosphere system, which <span class="hlt">models</span> the associated motion of the ionosphere plasma. These results provide experimental constraints on the attenuation of the gravity wave with altitude due to atmosphere viscosity, improving the understanding of the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-driven gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. They demonstrate that the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> can be estimated to within 20% by the recorded ionospheric data.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3502A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3502A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Generation <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> for Early Warning Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Annunziato, A.; Matias, L.; Ulutas, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Carrilho, F.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>In the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre and the Institute of Meteorology in Portugal, a complete analytical tool to support Early Warning Systems is being developed. The tool will be part of the Portuguese National Early Warning System and will be used also in the frame of the UNESCO North Atlantic Section of the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System. The system called <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Analysis Tool (TAT) includes a worldwide scenario database that has been pre-calculated using the SWAN-JRC code (Annunziato, 2007). This code uses a simplified fault generation mechanism and the hydraulic <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on the SWAN code (Mader, 1988). In addition to the pre-defined scenario, a system of computers is always ready to start a new calculation whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismic networks (such as USGS or EMSC) and is judged capable to generate a <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>. The calculation is performed using minimal parameters (epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake): the programme calculates the rupture length and rupture width by using empirical relationship proposed by Ward (2002). The database calculations, as well the newly generated calculations with the current conditions are therefore available to TAT where the real online analysis is performed. The system allows to analyze also sea level measurements available worldwide in order to compare them and decide if a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is really occurring or not. Although TAT, connected with the scenario database and the online calculation system, is at the moment the only software that can support the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> analysis on a global scale, we are convinced that the fault generation mechanism is too simplified to give a correct <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> prediction. Furthermore short <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival times especially require a possible earthquake source parameters data on tectonic features of the faults like strike, dip, rake and slip in order to minimize real time uncertainty of rupture parameters. Indeed the earthquake</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0194A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0194A"><span>Preliminary Hazard Assessment for Tectonic <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in the Eastern Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aydin, B.; Bayazitoglu, O.; Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>There are many critical industrial facilities such as energy production units and energy transmission lines along the southeast coast of Turkey. This region is also active on tourism, and agriculture and aquaculture production. There are active faults in the region, i.e. the Cyprus Fault, which extends along the Mediterranean basin in the east-west direction and connects to the Hellenic Arc. Both the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc are seismologically active and are capable of generating earthquakes with tsunamigenic potential. Even a small <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the region could cause confusion as shown by the recent 21 July 2017 earthquake of Mw 6.6, which occurred in the Aegean Sea, between Bodrum, Turkey and Kos Island, Greece since region is not prepared for such an event. Moreover, the Mediterranean Sea is one of the most vulnerable regions against sea level rise due to global warming, according to the 5th Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For these reasons, a marine hazard such as a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> can cause much worse damage than expected in the region (Kanoglu et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 2015). Hence, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment is required for the region. In this study, we first characterize earthquakes which have potential to generate a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Eastern Mediterranean. Such study is a prerequisite for regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mitigation studies. For fast and timely predictions, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems usually employ databases that store pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> resulting from hypothetical earthquakes with pre-defined parameters. These pre-defined sources are called <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> unit sources and they are linearly superposed to mimic a real event, since wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is linear offshore. After investigating historical earthquakes along the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc, we identified tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and proposed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> unit sources for the region. We used the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> MOST (Titov et al</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0228I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0228I"><span>Numerical experiment on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit distribution process by using <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> in historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event of megathrust Nankai trough earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Imai, K.; Sugawara, D.; Takahashi, T.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>A large flow caused by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> transports sediments from beach and forms <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits in land and coastal lakes. A <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit has been found in their undisturbed on coastal lakes especially. Okamura & Matsuoka (2012) found some <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits in the field survey of coastal lakes facing to the Nankai trough, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits due to the past eight Nankai Trough megathrust earthquakes they identified. The environment in coastal lakes is stably calm and suitable for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits preservation compared to other topographical conditions such as plains. Therefore, there is a possibility that the recurrence interval of megathrust earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> will be discussed with high resolution. In addition, it has been pointed out that small events that cannot be detected in plains could be separated finely (Sawai, 2012). Various aspects of past <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is expected to be elucidated, in consideration of topographical conditions of coastal lakes by using the relationship between the erosion-and-sedimentation process of the lake bottom and the external force of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In this research, numerical examination based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> (Takahashi et al., 1999) was carried out on the site Ryujin-ike pond of Ohita, Japan where <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit was identified, and deposit migration analysis was conducted on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit distribution process of historical Nankai Trough earthquakes. Furthermore, examination of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source conditions is possibly investigated by comparison studies of the observed data and the computation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit distribution. It is difficult to clarify details of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source from indistinct information of paleogeographical conditions. However, this result shows that it can be used as a constraint condition of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source scale by combining <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit distribution in lakes with computation data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41A1698T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41A1698T"><span>Simulations of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Triggered by the 1883 Krakatau Volcanic Eruption: Implications for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard in the South China Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Y.; Lin, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The 1883 Krakatau eruption in Indonesia is one of the largest recorded volcanic eruptions in recent history. The associated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> claimed about 36,000 lives and recorded run-up heights up to 30 m along the coastal regions in the Sunda Straits between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Our study aims to better understand the generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> mechanisms of this volcano-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> through <span class="hlt">modeling</span> quantitatively the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> triggering processes at the source region. Comparison of non-linear simulations using the Cornell Multi-grid Coupled <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (COMCOT) with observations reveals that a donut-shape 'hole and ring' initial condition for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source is able to explain the key characteristics of the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: A 'hole' of about 6 km in diameter and 270 m in depth corresponds to the collapse of the Krakatau volcano on August 27, 1883, while a 'ring' of uplift corresponds to the deposition of the erupted volcanic materials. We found that the shallowness and narrowness of the entrance pathway of the Sunda Straits limited the northward transfer of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy from the source region into the South China Sea. Instead, the topographic and bathymetric characteristics favored the southward transfer of the energy into the Indian Ocean. This might explain why Sri Lanka and India suffered casualties from this event, while areas inside the South China Sea, such as Singapore, did not record significant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signals. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> results further suggest that the shallow topography of the surrounding islands around the Krakatau source region might have contributed to a reduction in maximum run-up heights in the coastal regions of the Sunda Straits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1839G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1839G"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Grain Size Distribution of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Sand Deposits in V-shaped Valley of Numanohama During the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.; Goto, T.; Takahashi, T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Estimating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sand deposit has been a challenge. The grain size distribution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sand deposit may have correlation with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation process, and further with its source characteristics. In order to test this hypothesis, we need a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> that can accurately estimate grain size distribution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit. Here, we built and validate a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> that can simulate grain size distribution. Our numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> has three layers which are suspended load layer, active bed layer, and parent bed layer. The two bed layers contain information about the grain size distribution. This numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> can handle a wide range of grain sizes from 0.063 (4 ϕ) to 5.657 mm (-2.5 ϕ). We apply the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate the sedimentation process during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Numanohama, Iwate prefecture, Japan. The grain size distributions at 15 sample points along a 900 m transect from the beach are used to validate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span>. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits are dominated by coarse sand with diameter of 0.5 - 1 mm and their thickness are up to 25 cm. Our <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can well reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-ups that are ranged from 16 to 34 m along the steep valley in Numanohama. The shapes of the simulated grain size distributions at many sample points located within 300 m from the shoreline are similar to the observations. The differences between observed and simulated peak of grain size distributions are less than 1 ϕ. Our result also shows that the simulated sand thickness distribution along the transect is consistent with the observation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1911W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1911W"><span><em>Optimizing <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast <span class="hlt">Model</span> Accuracy</em></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitmore, P.; Nyland, D. L.; Huang, P. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> provide a means to determine the accuracy that can be expected of real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">models</span>. Forecast accuracy using two different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">models</span> are compared for seven events since 2006 based on both real-time application and optimized, after-the-fact "forecasts". Lessons learned by comparing the forecast accuracy determined during an event to modified applications of the <span class="hlt">models</span> after-the-fact provide improved methods for real-time forecasting for future events. Variables such as source definition, data assimilation, and <span class="hlt">model</span> scaling factors are examined to optimize forecast accuracy. Forecast accuracy is also compared for direct forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> based on earthquake source parameters versus accuracy obtained by assimilating sea level data into the forecast <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results show that including assimilated sea level data into the <span class="hlt">models</span> increases accuracy by approximately 15% for the events examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1916874C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1916874C"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulators in Physical <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> - Concept to Practical Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chandler, Ian; Allsop, William; Robinson, David; Rossetto, Tiziana; McGovern, David; Todd, David</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Whilst many researchers have conducted simple '<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact' studies, few engineering tools are available to assess the onshore impacts of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, with no agreed methods available to predict loadings on coastal defences, buildings or related infrastructure. Most previous impact studies have relied upon unrealistic waveforms (solitary or dam-break waves and bores) rather than full-duration <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, or have used simplified <span class="hlt">models</span> of nearshore and over-land flows. Over the last 10+ years, pneumatic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulators for the hydraulic laboratory have been developed into an exciting and versatile technology, allowing the forces of real-world <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to be reproduced and measured in a laboratory environment for the first time. These devices have been used to <span class="hlt">model</span> generic elevated and N-wave <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> up to and over simple shorelines, and at example coastal defences and infrastructure. They have also reproduced full-duration <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> including Mercator 2004 and Tohoku 2011, both at 1:50 scale. Engineering scale <span class="hlt">models</span> of these <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have measured wave run-up on simple slopes, forces on idealised sea defences, pressures / forces on buildings, and scour at idealised buildings. This presentation will describe how these <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulators work, demonstrate how they have generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves longer than the facilities within which they operate, and will present research results from three generations of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulators. Highlights of direct importance to natural hazard <span class="hlt">modellers</span> and coastal engineers include measurements of wave run-up levels, forces on single and multiple buildings and comparison with previous theoretical predictions. Multiple buildings have two malign effects. The density of buildings to flow area (blockage ratio) increases water depths and flow velocities in the 'streets'. But the increased building densities themselves also increase the cost of flow per unit area (both personal and monetary). The most recent study with the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPA43B2041B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPA43B2041B"><span>Scientific Animations for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation: The Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center's YouTube Channel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Shiro, B.; Ward, B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning operations, such as those about earthquake magnitudes, how earthquakes are located, where and how often earthquakes occur, and fault rupture length. The second group uses the PTWC-developed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">model</span>, RIFT (Wang et al., 2012), to show how various historic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> <span class="hlt">propagated</span> through the world's oceans. These animations illustrate important concepts about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> behavior such as their speed, how they bend around and bounce off of seafloor features, how their wave heights vary from place to place and in time, and how their behavior is strongly influenced by the type of earthquake that generated them. PTWC's YouTube channel also includes an animation that simulates both seismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> phenomena together as they occurred for the 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> including actual sea-level measurements and proper timing for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alert status, thus serving as a video 'time line' for that event and showing the time scales involved in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning operations. Finally, PTWC's scientists can use their YouTube channel to communicate with their colleagues in the research community by supplementing their peer-reviewed papers with video 'figures' (e.g., Wang et al., 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10466E..4VS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10466E..4VS"><span>Cloud manifestations of atmospheric gravity waves over the water area of the Kuril Islands during the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of powerful transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skorokhodov, A. V.; Shevchenko, G. V.; Astafurov, V. G.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The investigation results of atmospheric gravity waves cloudy manifestations observed over the water area of the Kuril Island ridge during the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of powerful transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> 2009-2010 are shown. The description of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> characteristics is based on the use of information from autonomous deep-water stations of the Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics FEB RAS in the Southern Kuril Islands and the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Service telemetering recorder located in one of the ports on Paramushir Island. The environment condition information was extracted from the results of remote sensing of the Earth from space by the MODIS sensor and aerological measurements at the meteorological station of Severo-Kurilsk. The results of analyzing the characteristics of wave processes in the atmosphere and the ocean are discussed and their comparison is carried out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1870d0009K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1870d0009K"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the mitigation effect of coastal forests on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kh'ng, Xin Yi; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>As we have learned from the 26 Dec 2004 mega Andaman <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that killed 250, 000 lives worldwide, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is a devastating natural disaster that can cause severe impacts including immense loss of human lives and extensive destruction of properties. The wave energy can be dissipated by the presence of coastal mangrove forests, which provide some degree of protection against <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. On the other hand, costly artificial structures such as reinforced walls can substantially diminish the aesthetic value and may cause environmental problems. To quantify the effectiveness of coastal forests in mitigating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, an in-house 2-D <span class="hlt">model</span> TUNA-RP is developed and used to quantify the reduction in wave heights and velocities due to the presence of coastal forests. The degree of reduction varies significantly depending on forest flow-resistant properties such as vegetation characteristics, forest density and forest width. The ability of coastal forest in reducing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights along the west coast of Penang Island is quantified by means of <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations. Comparison between measured <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights for the 2004 Andaman <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and 2-D TUNA-RP <span class="hlt">model</span> simulated values demonstrated good agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5702K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5702K"><span>The July 17, 2006 Java <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>: <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and the Probable Causes of the Extreme Run-up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kongko, W.; Schlurmann, T.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>On 17 July 2006, an Earthquake magnitude Mw 7.8 off the south coast of west Java, Indonesia generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that affected over 300 km of south Java coastline and killed more than 600 people. Observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights and field measurement of run-up distributions were uniformly scattered approximately 5 to 7 m along a 200 km coastal stretch; remarkably, a locally focused <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up height exceeding 20 m at Nusakambangan Island has been observed. Within the framework of the German Indonesia <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project, a high-resolution near-shore bathymetrical survey equipped by multi-beam echo-sounder has been recently conducted. Additional geodata have been collected using Intermap Technologies STAR-4 airborne interferometric SAR data acquisition system on a 5 m ground sample distance basis in order to establish a most-sophisticated Digital Terrain <span class="hlt">Model</span> (DTM). This paper describes the outcome of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approaches using high resolution data of bathymetry and topography being part of a general case study in Cilacap, Indonesia, and medium resolution data for other area along coastline of south Java Island. By means of two different seismic deformation <span class="hlt">models</span> to mimic the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source generation, a numerical code based on the 2D nonlinear shallow water equations is used to simulate probable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up scenarios. Several <span class="hlt">model</span> tests are done and virtual points in offshore, near-shore, coastline, as well as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up on the coast are collected. For the purpose of validation, the <span class="hlt">model</span> results are compared with field observations and sea level data observed at several tide gauges stations. The performance of numerical simulations and correlations with observed field data are highlighted, and probable causes for the extreme wave heights and run-ups are outlined. References Ammon, C.J., Kanamori, K., Lay, T., and Velasco, A., 2006. The July 2006 Java <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Earthquake, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(L24308). Fritz, H</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1246Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1246Y"><span>Assessment of Efficiency and Performance in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> with GPU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yalciner, Bora; Zaytsev, Andrey</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Non-linear shallow water equations (NSWE) are used to solve the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and coastal amplification of long waves and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Leap Frog scheme of finite difference technique is one of the satisfactory numerical methods which is widely used in these problems. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> are necessary for not only academic but also operational purposes which need faster and accurate solutions. Recent developments in information technology provide considerably faster numerical solutions in this respect and are becoming one of the crucial requirements. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> numerical code NAMI DANCE uses finite difference numerical method to solve linear and non-linear forms of shallow water equations for long wave problems, specifically for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In this study, the new code is structured for Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) using CUDA API. The new code is applied to different (analytical, experimental and field) benchmark problems of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> for tests. One of those applications is 2011 Great East Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> which was instrumentally recorded on various types of gauges including tide and wave gauges and offshore GPS buoys cabled Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) gauges and DART buoys. The accuracy of the results are compared with the measurements and fairly well agreements are obtained. The efficiency and performance of the code is also compared with the version using multi-core Central Processing Unit (CPU). Dependence of simulation speed with GPU on linear or non-linear solutions is also investigated. One of the results is that the simulation speed is increased up to 75 times comparing to the process time in the computer using single 4/8 thread multi-core CPU. The results are presented with comparisons and discussions. Furthermore how multi-dimensional finite difference problems fits towards GPU architecture is also discussed. The research leading to this study has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..422K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..422K"><span>Mathematics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivorotko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (long waves in the deep water) motion caused by underwater earthquakes is described by shallow water equations ( { ηtt = div (gH (x,y)-gradη), (x,y) ∈ Ω, t ∈ (0,T ); η|t=0 = q(x,y), ηt|t=0 = 0, (x,y) ∈ Ω. ( (1) Bottom relief H(x,y) characteristics and the initial perturbation data (a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source q(x,y)) are required for the direct simulation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The main difficulty problem of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is a very big size of the computational domain (Ω = 500 × 1000 kilometres in space and about one hour computational time T for one meter of initial perturbation amplitude max|q|). The calculation of the function η(x,y,t) of three variables in Ω × (0,T) requires large computing resources. We construct a new algorithm to solve numerically the problem of determining the moving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height S(x,y) which is based on kinematic-type approach and analytical representation of fundamental solution. Proposed algorithm of determining the function of two variables S(x,y) reduces the number of operations in 1.5 times than solving problem (1). If all functions does not depend on the variable y (one dimensional case), then the moving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height satisfies of the well-known Airy-Green formula: S(x) = S(0)° --- 4H (0)/H (x). The problem of identification parameters of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source using additional measurements of a passing wave is called inverse <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> problem. We investigate two different inverse problems of determining a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source q(x,y) using two different additional data: Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (DART) measurements and satellite altimeters wave-form images. These problems are severely ill-posed. The main idea consists of combination of two measured data to reconstruct the source parameters. We apply regularization techniques to control the degree of ill-posedness such as Fourier expansion, truncated singular value decomposition, numerical regularization. The algorithm of selecting the truncated number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4346147','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4346147"><span>Method of calculating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel times in the Andaman Sea region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Visuthismajarn, Parichart; Tanavud, Charlchai; Robson, Mark G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">model</span> to calculate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel times in the Andaman Sea region has been developed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> specifically provides more accurate travel time estimates for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> <span class="hlt">propagating</span> to Patong Beach on the west coast of Phuket, Thailand. More generally, the <span class="hlt">model</span> provides better understanding of the influence of the accuracy and resolution of bathymetry data on the accuracy of travel time calculations. The dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on solitary wave theory, and a lookup function is used to perform bilinear interpolation of bathymetry along the ray trajectory. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was calibrated and verified using data from an echosounder record, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> photographs, satellite altimetry records, and eyewitness accounts of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on 26 December 2004. Time differences for 12 representative targets in the Andaman Sea and the Indian Ocean regions were calculated. The <span class="hlt">model</span> demonstrated satisfactory time differences (<2 min/h), despite the use of low resolution bathymetry (ETOPO2v2). To improve accuracy, the dynamics of wave elevation and a velocity correction term must be considered, particularly for calculations in the nearshore region. PMID:25741129</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741129','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741129"><span>Method of calculating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel times in the Andaman Sea region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kietpawpan, Monte; Visuthismajarn, Parichart; Tanavud, Charlchai; Robson, Mark G</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">model</span> to calculate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel times in the Andaman Sea region has been developed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> specifically provides more accurate travel time estimates for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> <span class="hlt">propagating</span> to Patong Beach on the west coast of Phuket, Thailand. More generally, the <span class="hlt">model</span> provides better understanding of the influence of the accuracy and resolution of bathymetry data on the accuracy of travel time calculations. The dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on solitary wave theory, and a lookup function is used to perform bilinear interpolation of bathymetry along the ray trajectory. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was calibrated and verified using data from an echosounder record, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> photographs, satellite altimetry records, and eyewitness accounts of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on 26 December 2004. Time differences for 12 representative targets in the Andaman Sea and the Indian Ocean regions were calculated. The <span class="hlt">model</span> demonstrated satisfactory time differences (<2 min/h), despite the use of low resolution bathymetry (ETOPO2v2). To improve accuracy, the dynamics of wave elevation and a velocity correction term must be considered, particularly for calculations in the nearshore region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH13A1763B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH13A1763B"><span>Asteroid-Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> and Impact Risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boslough, M.; Aftosmis, M.; Berger, M. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Gisler, G.; Jennings, B.; LeVeque, R. J.; Mathias, D.; McCoy, C.; Robertson, D.; Titov, V. V.; Wheeler, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The justification for planetary defense comes from a cost/benefit analysis, which includes risk assessment. The contribution from ocean impacts and airbursts is difficult to quantify and represents a significant uncertainty in our assessment of the overall risk. Our group is currently working toward improved understanding of impact scenarios that can generate dangerous <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The importance of asteroid-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research has increased because a new Science Definition Team, at the behest of NASA's Planetary Defense Coordinating Office, is now updating the results of a 2003 study on which our current planetary defense policy is based Our group was formed to address this question on many fronts, including asteroid entry <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> simulations, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of coastal run-ups, inundation, and consequences, infrastructure damage estimates, and physics-based probabilistic impact risk assessment. We also organized the Second International Workshop on Asteroid Threat Assessment, focused on asteroid-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and associated risk (Aug. 23-24, 2016). We will summarize our progress and present the highlights of our workshop, emphasizing its relevance to earth and planetary science. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH21C1598G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH21C1598G"><span>An evaluation of onshore digital elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Kongko, W.; Harig, S.; Horspool, N.; Hanung, R.; Rojali, A.; Maher, N.; Fountain, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hossen, J.; Upi, S.; Dewanto, S. E.; Cummins, P. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> provide fundamental information about coastal areas that may be inundated in the event of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> along with additional parameters such as flow depth and velocity. This can inform disaster management activities including evacuation planning, impact and risk assessment and coastal engineering. A fundamental input to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> is adigital elevation <span class="hlt">model</span> (DEM). Onshore DEMs vary widely in resolution, accuracy, availability and cost. A proper assessment of how the accuracy and resolution of DEMs translates into uncertainties in <span class="hlt">modelled</span> inundation is needed to ensure results are appropriately interpreted and used. This assessment can in turn informdata acquisition strategies depending on the purpose of the inundation <span class="hlt">model</span>. For example, lower accuracy elevation data may give inundation results that are sufficiently accurate to plan a community's evacuation route but not sufficient to inform engineering of a vertical evacuation shelters. A sensitivity study is undertaken to assess the utility of different available onshore digital elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. We compare airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR), ASTER and SRTM against high resolution (<1 m horizontal resolution, < 0.15 m vertical accuracy) LiDAR or stereo-camera data in three Indonesian locations with different coastal morphologies (Padang, West Sumatra; Palu, Central Sulawesi; and Maumere, Flores), using three different computational codes (ANUGA, TUNAMI-N3 and TsunAWI). <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> inundation extents <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with IFSAR are comparable with those <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with the high resolution datasets and with historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up data. Large vertical errors (> 10 m) and poor resolution of the coastline in the ASTER and SRTM elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> cause <span class="hlt">modelled</span> inundation to be much less compared with <span class="hlt">models</span> using better data and with observations. Therefore we recommend that ASTER and SRTM should not be used for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9246R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9246R"><span>Operational <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> with TsunAWI for the German-Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System: Recent Developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakowsky, N.; Harig, S.; Androsov, A.; Fuchs, A.; Immerz, A.; Schröter, J.; Hiller, W.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Starting in 2005, the GITEWS project (German-Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System) established from scratch a fully operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system at BMKG in Jakarta. Numerical simulations of prototypic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios play a decisive role in a priori risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. Repositories with currently 3470 regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios for GITEWS and 1780 Indian Ocean wide scenarios in support of Indonesia as a Regional <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Service Provider (RTSP) were computed with the non-linear shallow water <span class="hlt">modell</span> TsunAWI. It is based on a finite element discretisation, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast and includes inundation. This contribution gives an overview on the <span class="hlt">model</span> itself, the enhancement of the <span class="hlt">model</span> physics, and the experiences gained during the process of establishing an operational code suited for thousands of <span class="hlt">model</span> runs. Technical aspects like computation time, disk space needed for each scenario in the repository, or post processing techniques have a much larger impact than they had in the beginning when TsunAWI started as a research code. Of course, careful testing on artificial benchmarks and real events remains essential, but furthermore, quality control for the large number of scenarios becomes an important issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.3237T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.3237T"><span>Method to Determine Appropriate Source <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Large Earthquakes Including <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Earthquakes for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning in Central America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault <span class="hlt">models</span> before large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault <span class="hlt">model</span> was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault <span class="hlt">models</span>. We found that the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault <span class="hlt">model</span> which reproduces <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH21D..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH21D..02W"><span>Evaluation of W Phase CMT Based PTWC Real-Time <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast <span class="hlt">Model</span> Using DART Observations: Events of the Last Decade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, D.; Becker, N. C.; Weinstein, S.; Duputel, Z.; Rivera, L. A.; Hayes, G. P.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Bouchard, R. H.; Mungov, G.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (PTWC) began forecasting <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in real-time using source parameters derived from real-time Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions in 2009. Both the USGS and PTWC typically obtain W-Phase CMT solutions for large earthquakes less than 30 minutes after earthquake origin time. Within seconds, and often before waves reach the nearest deep ocean bottom pressure sensor (DARTs), PTWC then generates a regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> forecast using its linear shallow water <span class="hlt">model</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is initialized by the sea surface deformation that mimics the seafloor deformation based on Okada's (1985) dislocation <span class="hlt">model</span> of a rectangular fault with a uniform slip. The fault length and width are empirical functions of the seismic moment. How well did this simple <span class="hlt">model</span> perform? The DART records provide a very valuable dataset for <span class="hlt">model</span> validation. We examine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events of the last decade with earthquake magnitudes ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 including some deep events for which <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> were not expected. Most of the forecast results were obtained during the events. We also include events from before the implementation of the WCMT method at USGS and PTWC, 2006-2009. For these events, WCMTs were computed retrospectively (Duputel et al. 2012). We also re-ran the <span class="hlt">model</span> with a larger domain for some events to include far-field DARTs that recorded a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with identical source parameters used during the events. We conclude that our <span class="hlt">model</span> results, in terms of maximum wave amplitude, are mostly within a factor of two of the observed at DART stations, with an average error of less than 40% for most events, including the 2010 Maule and the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. However, the simple fault <span class="hlt">model</span> with a uniform slip is too simplistic for the Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. We note <span class="hlt">model</span> results are sensitive to centroid location and depth, especially if the earthquake is close to land or inland. For the 2016 M7.8 New Zealand earthquake the initial forecast underestimated the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034454','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034454"><span>Nearshore <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Inundation <span class="hlt">Model</span> Validation: Toward Sediment Transport Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Apotsos, Alex; Buckley, Mark; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jaffe, Bruce; Vatvani, Deepak</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model</span> predictions from a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span>, Delft3D, based on the nonlinear shallow water equations are compared with analytical results and laboratory observations from seven <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like benchmark experiments, and with field observations from the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately predicts the magnitude and timing of the measured water levels and flow velocities, as well as the magnitude of the maximum inundation distance and run-up, for both breaking and non-breaking waves. The shock-capturing numerical scheme employed describes well the total decrease in wave height due to breaking, but does not reproduce the observed shoaling near the break point. The maximum water levels observed onshore near Kuala Meurisi, Sumatra, following the 26 December 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are well predicted given the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">model</span> setup. The good agreement between the <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions and the analytical results and observations demonstrates that the numerical solution and wetting and drying methods employed are appropriate for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation for breaking and non-breaking long waves. Extension of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to include sediment transport may be appropriate for long, non-breaking <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. Using available sediment transport formulations, the sediment deposit thickness at Kuala Meurisi is predicted generally within a factor of 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=tsunami&id=EJ825962','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=tsunami&id=EJ825962"><span>Alternative <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 "Eur. J. Phys." 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 "Eur. J. Phys." 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave <span class="hlt">model</span>, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915970A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915970A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard maps of spanish coast at national scale from seismic sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; González, Mauricio; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; García, Pablo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are a moderately frequent phenomenon in the NEAM (North East Atlantic and Mediterranean) region, and consequently in Spain, as historic and recent events have affected this area. I.e., the 1755 earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affected the Spanish Atlantic coasts of Huelva and Cadiz and the 2003 Boumerdés earthquake triggered a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that reached Balearic island coast in less than 45 minutes. The risk in Spain is real and, its population and tourism rate makes it vulnerable to this kind of catastrophic events. The Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in 2004 and the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Japan in 2011 launched the worldwide development and application of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk reduction measures that have been taken as a priority in this field. On November 20th 2015 the directive of the Spanish civil protection agency on planning under the emergency of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was presented. As part of the Spanish National Security strategy, this document specifies the structure of the action plans at different levels: National, regional and local. In this sense, the first step is the proper evaluation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard at National scale. This work deals with the assessment of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in Spain, by means of numerical simulations, focused on the elaboration of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard maps at National scale. To get this, following a deterministic approach, the seismic structures whose earthquakes could generate the worst <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> affecting the coast of Spain have been compiled and characterized. These worst sources have been <span class="hlt">propagated</span> numerically along a reconstructed bathymetry, built from the best resolution available data. This high-resolution bathymetry was joined with a 25-m resolution DTM, to generate continuous offshore-onshore space, allowing the calculation of the flooded areas prompted by each selected source. The numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> applied for the calculation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagations</span> was COMCOT. The maps resulting from the numerical simulations show not only the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude at coastal areas but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH52A..03O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH52A..03O"><span>From Sumatra 2004 to Today, through Tohoku-Oki 2011: what we learn about <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> detection by ionospheric sounding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Bablet, A.; Coisson, P.; Lognonne, P. H.; Hebert, H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The tsunamigenic Tohoku earthquake (2011) strongly affirms, after the 26 December 2004, the necessity to open new paradigms in oceanic monitoring. Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (Occhipinti et al. 2006) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves <span class="hlt">propagating</span> within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by <span class="hlt">modelling</span> proved that tsunamigenic ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic eartquakes from 2004 to 2011 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). Additionally, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by Airglow measurement in Hawaii: those measurements show the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the IGWs induced by the Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Pacific Ocean (Occhipinti et al., 2011), as well as by two new recent <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>: the Queen Charlotte (27 October, 2013, Mw 7,7) and Chili (16 September, 2015, Mw 8.2). The detection of those two new events strongly confirm the potential interest and perspective of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> monitoring by airglow camera, ground-located or potentially onboard on satelites. Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first hour after the seismic rupture (Occhipinti et al., 2013). This perturbation contains informations about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In this talk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70195105','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70195105"><span>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis: Multiple sources and global applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Grezio, Anita; Babeyko, Andrey; Baptista, Maria Ana; Behrens, Jörn; Costa, Antonio; Davies, Gareth; Geist, Eric L.; Glimsdal, Sylfest; González, Frank I.; Griffin, Jonathan; Harbitz, Carl B.; LeVeque, Randall J.; Lorito, Stefano; Løvholt, Finn; Omira, Rachid; Mueller, Christof; Paris, Raphaël; Parsons, Thomas E.; Polet, Jascha; Power, William; Selva, Jacopo; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Thio, Hong Kie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Applying probabilistic methods to infrequent but devastating natural events is intrinsically challenging. For <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> analyses, a suite of geophysical assessments should be in principle evaluated because of the different causes generating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity, meteorological events, and asteroid impacts) with varying mean recurrence rates. Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Analyses (PTHAs) are conducted in different areas of the world at global, regional, and local scales with the aim of understanding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard to inform <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk reduction activities. PTHAs enhance knowledge of the potential tsunamigenic threat by estimating the probability of exceeding specific levels of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> intensity metrics (e.g., run-up or maximum inundation heights) within a certain period of time (exposure time) at given locations (target sites); these estimates can be summarized in hazard maps or hazard curves. This discussion presents a broad overview of PTHA, including (i) sources and mechanisms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, emphasizing the variety and complexity of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources and their generation mechanisms, (ii) developments in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and impact of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, and (iii) statistical procedures for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard estimates that include the associated epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties. Key elements in understanding the potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard are discussed, in light of the rapid development of PTHA methods during the last decade and the globally distributed applications, including the importance of considering multiple sources, their relative intensities, probabilities of occurrence, and uncertainties in an integrated and consistent probabilistic framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RvGeo..55.1158G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RvGeo..55.1158G"><span>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Analysis: Multiple Sources and Global Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grezio, Anita; Babeyko, Andrey; Baptista, Maria Ana; Behrens, Jörn; Costa, Antonio; Davies, Gareth; Geist, Eric L.; Glimsdal, Sylfest; González, Frank I.; Griffin, Jonathan; Harbitz, Carl B.; LeVeque, Randall J.; Lorito, Stefano; Løvholt, Finn; Omira, Rachid; Mueller, Christof; Paris, Raphaël.; Parsons, Tom; Polet, Jascha; Power, William; Selva, Jacopo; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Thio, Hong Kie</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Applying probabilistic methods to infrequent but devastating natural events is intrinsically challenging. For <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> analyses, a suite of geophysical assessments should be in principle evaluated because of the different causes generating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity, meteorological events, and asteroid impacts) with varying mean recurrence rates. Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Analyses (PTHAs) are conducted in different areas of the world at global, regional, and local scales with the aim of understanding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard to inform <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk reduction activities. PTHAs enhance knowledge of the potential tsunamigenic threat by estimating the probability of exceeding specific levels of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> intensity metrics (e.g., run-up or maximum inundation heights) within a certain period of time (exposure time) at given locations (target sites); these estimates can be summarized in hazard maps or hazard curves. This discussion presents a broad overview of PTHA, including (i) sources and mechanisms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, emphasizing the variety and complexity of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources and their generation mechanisms, (ii) developments in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and impact of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, and (iii) statistical procedures for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard estimates that include the associated epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties. Key elements in understanding the potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard are discussed, in light of the rapid development of PTHA methods during the last decade and the globally distributed applications, including the importance of considering multiple sources, their relative intensities, probabilities of occurrence, and uncertainties in an integrated and consistent probabilistic framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13B2594K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13B2594K"><span>Source <span class="hlt">models</span> of M-7 class earthquakes in the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake by near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kubota, T.; Hino, R.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Iinuma, T.; Suzuki, S.; Ito, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Suzuki, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We estimated source <span class="hlt">models</span> of small amplitude <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> associated with M-7 class earthquakes in the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake using near-field records of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recorded by ocean bottom pressure gauges (OBPs). The largest (Mw=7.3) foreshock of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, occurred on 9 Mar., two days before the mainshock. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> associated with the foreshock was clearly recorded by seven OBPs, as well as coseismic vertical deformation of the seafloor. Assuming a planer fault along the plate boundary as a source, the OBP records were inverted for slip distribution. As a result, the most of the coseismic slip was found to be concentrated in the area of about 40 x 40 km in size and located to the north-west of the epicenter, suggesting downdip rupture <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. Seismic moment of our <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform inversion is 1.4 x 10^20 Nm, equivalent to Mw 7.3. On 2011 July 10th, an earthquake of Mw 7.0 occurred near the hypocenter of the mainshock. Its relatively deep focus and strike-slip focal mechanism indicate that this earthquake was an intraslab earthquake. The earthquake was associated with small amplitude <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. By using the OBP records, we estimated a <span class="hlt">model</span> of the initial sea-surface height distribution. Our <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inversion showed that a pair of uplift/subsiding eyeballs was required to explain the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform. The spatial pattern of the seafloor deformation is consistent with the oblique strike-slip solution obtained by the seismic data analyses. The location and strike of the hinge line separating the uplift and subsidence zones correspond well to the linear distribution of the aftershock determined by using local OBS data (Obana et al., 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS43D1334S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS43D1334S"><span>The Contribution of Coseismic Displacements due to Splay Faults Into the Local Wavefield of the 1964 Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suleimani, E.; Ruppert, N.; Fisher, M.; West, D.; Hansen, R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Alaska Earthquake Information Center conducts <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska. For many locations in the Gulf of Alaska, the 1964 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by the Mw9.2 Great Alaska earthquake may be the worst-case <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario. We use the 1964 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations to verify our numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and runup, therefore it is essential to use an adequate source function of the 1964 earthquake to reduce the level of uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results. It was shown that the 1964 co-seismic slip occurred both on the megathrust and crustal splay faults (Plafker, 1969). Plafker (2006) suggested that crustal faults were a major contributor to vertical displacements that generated local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. Using eyewitness arrival times of the highest observed waves, he suggested that the initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave was higher and closer to the shore, than if it was generated by slip on the megathrust. We conduct a numerical study of two different source functions of the 1964 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to test whether the crustal splay faults had significant effects on local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup heights and arrival times. The first source function was developed by Johnson et al. (1996) through joint inversion of the far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms and geodetic data. The authors did not include crustal faults in the inversion, because the contribution of these faults to the far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was negligible. The second is the new coseismic displacement <span class="hlt">model</span> developed by Suito and Freymueller (2008, submitted). This <span class="hlt">model</span> extends the Montague Island fault farther along the Kenai Peninsula coast and thus reduces slip on the megathrust in that region. We also use an improved geometry of the Patton Bay fault based on the deep crustal seismic reflection and earthquake data. We <span class="hlt">propagate</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves generated by both source <span class="hlt">models</span> across the Pacific Ocean and record wave amplitudes at the locations of the tide gages that recorded the 1964 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. As expected, the two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035272','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035272"><span>Near-field hazard assessment of March 11, 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> sources inferred from different methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wei, Y.; Titov, V.V.; Newman, A.; Hayes, G.; Tang, L.; Chamberlin, C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> source is the origin of the subsequent transoceanic water waves, and thus the most critical component in modern <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast methodology. Although impractical to be quantified directly, a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source can be estimated by different methods based on a variety of measurements provided by deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some in real time, some in post real-time. Here we assess these different sources of the devastating March 11, 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> by <span class="hlt">model</span>-data comparison for generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation in the near field of Japan. This study provides a comparative study to further understand the advantages and shortcomings of different methods that may be potentially used in real-time warning and forecast of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards, especially in the near field. The <span class="hlt">model</span> study also highlights the critical role of deep-ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurements for high-quality <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast, and its combination with land GPS measurements may lead to better understanding of both the earthquake mechanisms and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation process. ?? 2011 MTS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0240B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0240B"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Scenario in the Nankai Trough, Japan, Based on the GPS-A and GNSS Velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bock, Y.; Watanabe, S. I.; Melgar, D.; Tadokoro, K.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>We present two local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios for the Nankai trough, Japan, an area of significant seismic risk, using GPS-A and GNSS velocities and two different plate interface geometries to better assess the slip deficit rate. We expand on the work of Yokota et al. [2016, Nature] by: (1) Adding seafloor data collected by Nagoya University [Tadokoro et al., 2012 GRL] at the Kumano basin, (2) Aligning the geodetic data to the Nankai block (forearc sliver) to the tectonic <span class="hlt">model</span> of Loveless and Meade [2010 JGR] - the earlier work ignored block boundaries such as the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) and may have overestimated the slip deficit rate, (3) Considering two different plate interface geometries - it is essential to use the accurate depth of the plate interface, especially for the offshore region where the faults are located near the observation sites, (4) Estimating and correcting for the postseismic displacements of the 2004 southeastern off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes (MJMA 7.1, 7.4). Based upon the refined <span class="hlt">model</span>, we calculate the coseismic displacements and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> assuming that a hundred years of constant slip deficit accumulation is released instantaneously. We used the open source software GeoClaw v5.3.1, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations with the finite volume technique [LeVeque, 2002 Cambridge University Press], for the local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios. We present the expected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and wave profiles based on the geodetically-derived distribution of slip, stressing the importance of identifying fault locations and geometries. The location of the downdip edge of the coseismic rupture is essential to assess whether the coastal area would subside or not. The sensitivity to the plate interface geometries is increased in the near-trough region. From the point of view of disaster prevention, subsidence at the southern coast would heighten the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup distance (e.g., at gauges in Shimotsu and Irago). Further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611137L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611137L"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of <span class="hlt">modelled</span> signals with observations. For <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W7.1291M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W7.1291M"><span>Spatiotemporal Visualization of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Waves Using Kml on Google Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohammadi, H.; Delavar, M. R.; Sharifi, M. A.; Pirooz, M. D.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Disaster risk is a function of hazard and vulnerability. Risk is defined as the expected losses, including lives, personal injuries, property damages, and economic disruptions, due to a particular hazard for a given area and time period. Risk assessment is one of the key elements of a natural disaster management strategy as it allows for better disaster mitigation and preparation. It provides input for informed decision making, and increases risk awareness among decision makers and other stakeholders. Virtual globes such as Google Earth can be used as a visualization tool. Proper spatiotemporal graphical representations of the concerned risk significantly reduces the amount of effort to visualize the impact of the risk and improves the efficiency of the decision-making process to mitigate the impact of the risk. The spatiotemporal visualization of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves for disaster management process is an attractive topic in geosciences to assist investigation of areas at <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk. In this paper, a method for coupling virtual globes with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave arrival time <span class="hlt">models</span> is presented. In this process we have shown 2D+Time of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves for <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, both coastal line deformation, and the flooded areas. In addition, the worst case scenario of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on Chabahar port derived from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is also presented using KML on google earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH14A..04T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH14A..04T"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Waves Joint Inversion Using <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Inundation, <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Deposits Distribution and Marine-Terrestrial Sediment Signal in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Deposit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, H.; WANG, J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Population living close to coastlines is increasing, which creates higher risks due to coastal hazards, such as the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. However, the generation of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is not fully understood yet, especially for paleo-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> deposits are one of the concrete evidence in the geological record which we can apply for studying paleo-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The understanding of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits has significantly improved over the last decades. There are many inversion <span class="hlt">models</span> (e.g. TsuSedMod, TSUFLIND, and TSUFLIND-EnKF) to study the overland-flow characteristics based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits. However, none of them tries to reconstruct offshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave characteristics (wave form, wave height, and length) based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits. Here we present a state-of-the-art inverse approach to reconstruct offshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave based on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation data, the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits and Marine-terrestrial sediment signal in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits. Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) Method is used for assimilating both sediment transport simulations and the field observation data. While more computationally expensive, the EnKF approach potentially provides more accurate reconstructions for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform. In addition to the improvement of inversion results, the ensemble-based method can also quantify the uncertainties of the results. Meanwhile, joint inversion improves the resolution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves compared with inversions using any single data type. The method will be tested by field survey data and gauge data from the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on Sendai plain area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH22A..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH22A..02S"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessments with consideration of uncertain earthquakes characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sepulveda, I.; Liu, P. L. F.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Pritchard, M. E.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The uncertainty quantification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> assessments due to uncertain earthquake characteristics faces important challenges. First, the generated earthquake samples must be consistent with the properties observed in past events. Second, it must adopt an uncertainty <span class="hlt">propagation</span> method to determine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> uncertainties with a feasible computational cost. In this study we propose a new methodology, which improves the existing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> uncertainty assessment methods. The methodology considers two uncertain earthquake characteristics, the slip distribution and location. First, the methodology considers the generation of consistent earthquake slip samples by means of a Karhunen Loeve (K-L) expansion and a translation process (Grigoriu, 2012), applicable to any non-rectangular rupture area and marginal probability distribution. The K-L expansion was recently applied by Le Veque et al. (2016). We have extended the methodology by analyzing accuracy criteria in terms of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial conditions. Furthermore, and unlike this reference, we preserve the original probability properties of the slip distribution, by avoiding post sampling treatments such as earthquake slip scaling. Our approach is analyzed and justified in the framework of the present study. Second, the methodology uses a Stochastic Reduced Order <span class="hlt">model</span> (SROM) (Grigoriu, 2009) instead of a classic Monte Carlo simulation, which reduces the computational cost of the uncertainty <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. The methodology is applied on a real case. We study <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated at the site of the 2014 Chilean earthquake. We generate earthquake samples with expected magnitude Mw 8. We first demonstrate that the stochastic approach of our study generates consistent earthquake samples with respect to the target probability laws. We also show that the results obtained from SROM are more accurate than classic Monte Carlo simulations. We finally validate the methodology by comparing the simulated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8859G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8859G"><span>Rapid inundation estimates at harbor scale using <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights offshore simulation and Green's law approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène; Loevenbruck, Anne</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques are increasing the potential for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warnings to be based on numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> forecasts. Numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> are well developed and have now reached an impressive level of accuracy, especially in locations such as harbors where the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves are mostly amplified. In the framework of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning under real-time operational conditions, the main obstacle for the routine use of such numerical simulations remains the slowness of the numerical computation, which is strengthened when detailed grids are required for the precise <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the coastline response on the scale of an individual harbor. In fact, when facing the problem of the interaction of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield with a shoreline, any numerical simulation must be performed over an increasingly fine grid, which in turn mandates a reduced time step, and the use of a fully non-linear code. Such calculations become then prohibitively time-consuming, which is clearly unacceptable in the framework of real-time warning. Thus only <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> offshore <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid are presently included within the French <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (CENALT), providing rapid estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights in high seas, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning maps at western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins scale. We present here a preliminary work that performs quick estimates of the inundation at individual harbors from these deep wave heights simulations. The method involves an empirical correction relation derived from Green's law, expressing conservation of wave energy flux to extend the gridded wave field into the harbor with respect to the nearby deep-water grid node. The main limitation of this method is that its application to a given coastal area would require a large database of previous observations, in order to define the empirical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70055623','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70055623"><span>Simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation for a range of Cascadia megathrust earthquake scenarios at Bandon, Oregon, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Witter, Robert C.; Zhang, Yinglong J.; Wang, Kelin; Priest, George R.; Goldfinger, Chris; Stimely, Laura; English, John T.; Ferro, Paul A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Characterizations of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards along the Cascadia subduction zone hinge on uncertainties in megathrust rupture <span class="hlt">models</span> used for simulating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation. To explore these uncertainties, we constructed 15 megathrust earthquake scenarios using rupture <span class="hlt">models</span> that supply the initial conditions for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations at Bandon, Oregon. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> inundation varies with the amount and distribution of fault slip assigned to rupture <span class="hlt">models</span>, including <span class="hlt">models</span> where slip is partitioned to a splay fault in the accretionary wedge and <span class="hlt">models</span> that vary the updip limit of slip on a buried fault. Constraints on fault slip come from onshore and offshore paleoseismological evidence. We rank each rupture <span class="hlt">model</span> using a logic tree that evaluates a model’s consistency with geological and geophysical data. The scenarios provide inputs to a hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span>, SELFE, used to simulate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and inundation on unstructured grids with <5–15 m resolution in coastal areas. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> simulations delineate the likelihood that Cascadia <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> will exceed mapped inundation lines. Maximum wave elevations at the shoreline varied from ∼4 m to 25 m for earthquakes with 9–44 m slip and Mw 8.7–9.2. Simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation agrees with sparse deposits left by the A.D. 1700 and older <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> simulations for large (22–30 m slip) and medium (14–19 m slip) splay fault scenarios encompass 80%–95% of all inundation scenarios and provide reasonable guidelines for land-use planning and coastal development. The maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation simulated for the greatest splay fault scenario (36–44 m slip) can help to guide development of local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1893G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1893G"><span>Analysis of geodetic interseismic coupling <span class="hlt">models</span> to estimate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation and runup: a study case of Maule seismic gap, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González-Carrasco, J. F.; Gonzalez, G.; Aránguiz, R.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Urrutia, A.; Shrivastava, M. N.; Yagi, Y.; Moreno, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> inundation maps are a powerful tool to design evacuation plans of coastal communities, additionally can be used as a guide to territorial planning and assessment of structural damages in port facilities and critical infrastructure (Borrero et al., 2003; Barberopoulou et al., 2011; Power et al., 2012; Mueller et al., 2015). The accuracy of inundation estimation is highly correlated with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial conditions, e.g. seafloor vertical deformation, displaced water volume and potential energy (Bolshakova et al., 2011). Usually, the initial conditions are estimated using homogeneous rupture <span class="hlt">models</span> based in historical worst-case scenario. However tsunamigenic events occurred in central Chilean continental margin showed a heterogeneous slip distribution of source with patches of high slip, correlated with fully-coupled interseismic zones (Moreno et al., 2012). The main objective of this work is to evaluate the predictive capacity of interseismic coupling <span class="hlt">models</span> based on geodetic data comparing them with homogeneous fault slip <span class="hlt">model</span> constructed using scaling laws (Blaser et al., 2010) to estimate inundation and runup in coastal areas. To test our hypothesis we select a seismic gap of Maule, where occurred the last large tsunamigenic earthquake in the chilean subduction zone, using the interseismic coupling <span class="hlt">models</span> (ISC) proposed by Moreno et al., 2011 and Métois et al., 2013. We generate a slip deficit distribution to build a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source supported by geological information such as slab depth (Hayes et al., 2012), strike, rake and dip (Dziewonski et al., 1981; Ekström et al., 2012) to <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and shoreline impact using Neowave 2D (Yamazaki et al., 2009). We compare the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario of Mw 8.8, Maule based in coseismic slip distribution proposed by Moreno et al., 2012 with homogeneous and heterogeneous <span class="hlt">models</span> to identify the accuracy of our results with sea level time series and regional runup data (Figure 1). The estimation of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1746A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1746A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulators in Physical <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Laboratories - From Concept to Proven Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allsop, W.; Chandler, I.; Rossetto, T.; McGovern, D.; Petrone, C.; Robinson, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Before 2004, there was little public awareness around Indian Ocean coasts of the potential size and effects of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Even in 2011, the scale and extent of devastation by the Japan East Coast <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> was unexpected. There were very few engineering tools to assess onshore impacts of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, so no agreement on robust methods to predict forces on coastal defences, buildings or related infrastructure. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> generally used substantial simplifications of either solitary waves (far too short durations) or dam break (unrealistic and/or uncontrolled wave forms).This presentation will describe research from EPI-centre, HYDRALAB IV, URBANWAVES and CRUST projects over the last 10 years that have developed and refined pneumatic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulators for the hydraulic laboratory. These unique devices have been used to <span class="hlt">model</span> generic elevated and N-wave <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> up to and over simple shorelines, and at example defences. They have reproduced full-duration <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> including the Mercator trace from 2004 at 1:50 scale. Engineering scale <span class="hlt">models</span> subjected to those <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have measured wave run-up on simple slopes, forces on idealised sea defences and pressures / forces on buildings. This presentation will describe how these pneumatic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulators work, demonstrate how they have generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves longer than the facility within which they operate, and will highlight research results from the three generations of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulator. Of direct relevance to engineers and <span class="hlt">modellers</span> will be measurements of wave run-up levels and comparison with theoretical predictions. Recent measurements of forces on individual buildings have been generalized by separate experiments on buildings (up to 4 rows) which show that the greatest forces can act on the landward (not seaward) buildings. Continuing research in the 70m long 4m wide Fast Flow Facility on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> defence structures have also measured forces on buildings in the lee of a failed defence wall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S33G2942G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S33G2942G"><span>Far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 2017 Mw 8.1 Tehuantepec, Mexico earthquake recorded by Chilean tide gauge network: Implications for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González-Carrasco, J. F.; Benavente, R. F.; Zelaya, C.; Núñez, C.; Gonzalez, G.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The 2017 Mw 8.1, Tehuantepec earthquake generated a moderated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which was registered in near-field tide gauges network activating a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat state for Mexico issued by PTWC. In the case of Chile, the forecast of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves indicate amplitudes less than 0.3 meters above the tide level, advising an informative state of threat, without activation of evacuation procedures. Nevertheless, during sea level monitoring of network we detect wave amplitudes (> 0.3 m) indicating a possible change of threat state. Finally, NTWS maintains informative level of threat based on mathematical filtering analysis of sea level records. After 2010 Mw 8.8, Maule earthquake, the Chilean National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning System (NTWS) has increased its observational capabilities to improve early response. Most important operational efforts have focused on strengthening tide gauge network for national area of responsibility. Furthermore, technological initiatives as Integrated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Prediction and Warning System (SIPAT) has segmented the area of responsibility in blocks to focus early warning and evacuation procedures on most affected coastal areas, while maintaining an informative state for distant areas of near-field earthquake. In the case of far-field events, NTWS follow the recommendations proposed by Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (PTWC), including a comprehensive monitoring of sea level records, such as tide gauges and DART (Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) buoys, to evaluate the state of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat in the area of responsibility. The main objective of this work is to analyze the first-order physical processes involved in the far-field <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and coastal impact of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, including implications for decision-making of NTWS. To explore our main question, we construct a finite-fault <span class="hlt">model</span> of the 2017, Mw 8.1 Tehuantepec earthquake. We employ the rupture <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate a transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by Neowave2D. We generate synthetic time series at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S14A..03G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S14A..03G"><span>Mega <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> of the World Ocean and Their Implication for the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gusiakov, V. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mega <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are the strongest tsunamigenic events of tectonic origin that are characterized by run-up heights up to 40-50 m measured along a considerable part of the coastline (up to 1000 km). One of the most important features of mega-<span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is their ability to cross the entire oceanic basin and to cause an essential damage to its opposite coast. Another important feature is their ability to penetrate into the marginal seas (like the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea) and cause dangerous water level oscillations along the parts of the coast, which are largely protected by island arcs against the impact of the strongest regional <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Among all known historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (nearly 2250 events during the last 4000 years) they represent only a small fraction (less than 1%) however they are responsible for more than half the total <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> fatalities and a considerable part of the overall <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damage. The source of all known mega <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is subduction submarine earthquakes with magnitude 9.0 or higher having a return period from 200-300 years to 1000-1200 years. The paper presents a list of 15 mega <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events identified so far in historical catalogs with their basic source parameters, near-field and far-field impact effects and their generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> features. The far-field impact of mega <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is largely controlled by location and orientation of their earthquake source as well as by deep ocean bathymetry features. We also discuss the problem of the long-term <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment when the occurrence of mega <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2687(09)05108-5','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2687(09)05108-5"><span>Chapter 3 – Phenomenology of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>: Statistical Properties from Generation to Runup</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Observations related to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and runup are reviewed and described in a phenomenological framework. In the three coastal regimes considered (near-field broadside, near-field oblique, and far field), the observed maximum wave amplitude is associated with different parts of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield. The maximum amplitude in the near-field broadside regime is most often associated with the direct arrival from the source, whereas in the near-field oblique regime, the maximum amplitude is most often associated with the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of edge waves. In the far field, the maximum amplitude is most often caused by the interaction of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> coda that develops during basin-wide <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and the nearshore response, including the excitation of edge waves, shelf modes, and resonance. Statistical distributions that describe <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations are also reviewed, both in terms of spatial distributions, such as coseismic slip on the fault plane and near-field runup, and temporal distributions, such as wave amplitudes in the far field. In each case, fundamental theories of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> physics are heuristically used to explain the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911503H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911503H"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We carried out <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">models</span> along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">models</span> although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 <span class="hlt">models</span> along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these <span class="hlt">models</span> exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> we simulated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.7742B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.7742B"><span>Origin of the ahead of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> traveling ionospheric disturbances during Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and offshore forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagiya, Mala S.; Kherani, E. A.; Sunil, P. S.; Sunil, A. S.; Sunda, S.; Ramesh, D. S.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The presence of ionospheric disturbances associated with Sumatra 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that <span class="hlt">propagated</span> ahead of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> itself has previously been identified. However, their origin remains unresolved till date. Focusing on their origin mechanism, we document these ionospheric disturbances referred as Ahead of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (ATIDs). Using total electron content (TEC) data from GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation GPS receivers located near the Indian east coast, we first confirm the ATIDs presence in TEC that appear 90 min ahead of the arrival of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at the Indian east coast. We propose here a simulation study based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-atmospheric-ionospheric coupling that considers tsunamigenic acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) to excite these disturbances. We explain the ATIDs generation based on the dissipation of transverse mode of the primary AGWs. The simulation corroborates the excitation of ATIDs with characteristics similar to the observations. Therefore, we offer an alternative theoretical tool to monitor the offshore ATIDs where observations are either rare or not available and could be potentially important for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156824','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156824"><span>Earthquake mechanism and seafloor deformation for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.; Oglesby, David D.; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are generated in the ocean by rapidly displacing the entire water column over a significant area. The potential energy resulting from this disturbance is balanced with the kinetic energy of the waves during <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. Only a handful of submarine geologic phenomena can generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>: large-magnitude earthquakes, large landslides, and volcanic processes. Asteroid and subaerial landslide impacts can generate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from above the water. Earthquakes are by far the most common generator of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Generally, earthquakes greater than magnitude (M) 6.5–7 can generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> if they occur beneath an ocean and if they result in predominantly vertical displacement. One of the greatest uncertainties in both deterministic and probabilistic hazard assessments of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is computing seafloor deformation for earthquakes of a given magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41B1702S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41B1702S"><span>Issues of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard maps revealed by the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugimoto, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> scientists are imposed responsibilities of selection for people's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation place after the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Japan. A lot of matured people died out of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard zone based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard map though students made a miracle by evacuation on their own judgment in Kamaishi city. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard maps were based on numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> smaller than actual magnitude 9. How can we bridge the gap between hazard map and future disasters? We have to discuss about using <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> better enough to contribute <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard map. How do we have to improve <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard map? <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard map should be revised included possibility of upthrust or downthrust after earthquakes and social information. Ground sank 1.14m below sea level in Ayukawa town, Tohoku. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's research shows around 10% people know about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard map in Japan. However, people know about their evacuation places (buildings) through experienced drills once a year even though most people did not know about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard map. We need wider spread of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard with contingency of science (See the botom disaster handbook material's URL). California Emergency Management Agency (CEMA) team practically shows one good practice and solution to me. I followed their field trip in Catalina Island, California in Sep 2011. A team members are multidisciplinary specialists: A geologist, a GIS specialist, oceanographers in USC (<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeler</span>) and a private company, a local policeman, a disaster manager, a local authority and so on. They check field based on their own specialties. They conduct an on-the-spot inspection of ambiguous locations between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> and real field conditions today. The data always become older. They pay attention not only to topographical conditions but also to social conditions: vulnerable people, elementary schools and so on. It takes a long time to check such field</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1841F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1841F"><span>A consistent <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> actions on buildings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Foster, A.; Rossetto, T.; Eames, I.; Chandler, I.; Allsop, W.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Japan (2011) and Indian Ocean (2004) <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> resulted in significant loss of life, buildings, and critical infrastructure. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forces imposed upon structures in coastal regions are initially due to wave slamming, after which the quasi-steady flow of the sea water around buildings becomes important. An essential requirement in both design and loss assessment is a consistent <span class="hlt">model</span> that can accurately predict these forces. A <span class="hlt">model</span> suitable for predicting forces in the in the quasi-steady range has been established as part of a systematic programme of research by the UCL EPICentre to understand the fundamental physical processes of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> actions on buildings, and more generally their social and economic consequences. Using the pioneering <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generator at HR Wallingford, this study considers the influence of unsteady flow conditions on the forces acting upon a rectangular building occupying 10-80% of a channel for 20-240 second wave periods. A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> based upon basic open-channel flow principles is proposed, which provides empirical estimates for drag and hydrostatic coefficients. A simple force prediction equation, requiring only basic flow velocity and wave height inputs is then developed, providing good agreement with the experimental results. The results of this study demonstrate that the unsteady forces from the very long waves encountered during <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events can be predicted with a level of accuracy and simplicity suitable for design and risk assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1851L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1851L"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazards in Kuwait from Possible Earthquake and Landslide Sources considering Effect of Natural Tide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Latcharote, P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Kuwait is one of the most important oil producers to the world and most of population and many vital facilities are located along the coasts. However, even with low or unknown <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk, it is important to investigate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards in this country to ensure safety of life and sustain the global economy. This study aimed to evaluate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards along the coastal areas of Kuwait from both earthquake and landslide sources using numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was simulated using the two-layer <span class="hlt">model</span> and the TUNAMI <span class="hlt">model</span>. Four cases of earthquake scenarios are expected to generate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> along the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) based on historical events and worst cases possible to simulate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> to the coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf. Case 1 (Mw 8.3) and Case 2 (Mw 8.3) are the replication of the 1945 Makran earthquake, whereas Case 3 (Mw 8.6) and Case 4 (Mw 9.0) are the worst-case scenarios. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> numerical simulation was <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with mesh size 30 arc-second using bathymetry and topography data from GEBCO. Preliminary results suggested that <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by Case 1 and Case 2 will impose very small effects to Kuwait (< 0.1 m) while Case 3 and Case 4 can generate maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude up to 0.3 m to 1.0 m after 12 hours from the earthquake. In addition, this study considered <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by landslide along the opposite Iranian coast of Kuwait bay. To preliminarily assess <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards, coastal landslides were assumed occurred at the volume of 1.0-2.0 km3 at three possible locations from their topographic features. The preliminary results revealed that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by coastal landslides could impose a significant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact to Kuwait having maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude at the Falika Island in front of Kuwait bay and Azzour power and desalination plant about 0.5 m- 1.1 m depending on landslide volume and energy dissipation. Future works will include more accuracy of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulation with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4388R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4388R"><span>New Perspective of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Deposit Investigations: Insight from the 1755 Lisbon <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Martinique, Lesser Antilles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roger, J.; Clouard, V.; Moizan, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The recent devastating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> having occurred during the last decades have highlighted the essential necessity to deploy operationnal warning systems and educate coastal populations. This could not be prepared correctly without a minimum knowledge about the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> history. That is the case of the Lesser Antilles islands, where a few handfuls of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have been reported over the past 5 centuries, some of them leading to notable destructions and inundations. But the lack of accurate details for most of the historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and the limited period during which we could find written information represents an important problem for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment in this region. Thus, it is of major necessity to try to find other evidences of past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> by looking for sedimentary deposits. Unfortunately, island tropical environments do not seem to be the best places to keep such deposits burried. In fact, heavy rainfalls, storms, and all other phenomena leading to coastal erosion, and associated to human activities such as intensive sugarcane cultivation in coastal flat lands, could caused the loss of potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits. Lots of places have been accurately investigated within the Lesser Antilles (from Sainte-Lucia to the British Virgin Islands) the last 3 years and nothing convincing has been found. That is when archeaological investigations excavated a 8-cm thick sandy and shelly layer in downtown Fort-de-France (Martinique), wedged between two well-identified layers of human origin (Fig. 1), that we found new hope: this sandy layer has been quickly attributed without any doubt to the 1755 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, using on one hand the information provided by historical reports of the construction sites, and on the other hand by numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (wave heights, velocity fields, etc.) showing the ability of this transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to wrap around the island after ~7 hours of <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, enter Fort-de-France's Bay with enough energy to carry sediments, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..3323612K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..3323612K"><span>Coral reefs reduce <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact in <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kunkel, Catherine M.; Hallberg, Robert W.; Oppenheimer, Michael</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Significant buffering of the impact of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> by coral reefs is suggested by limited observations and some anecdotal reports, particularly following the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Here we simulate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up on idealized topographies in one and two dimensions using a nonlinear shallow water <span class="hlt">model</span> and show that a sufficiently wide barrier reef within a meter or two of the surface reduces run-up on land on the order of 50%. We studied topographies representative of volcanic islands (islands with no continental shelf) but our conclusions may pertain to other topographies. Effectiveness depends on the amplitude and wavelength of the incident <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, as well as the geometry and health of the reef and the offshore distance of the reef. Reducing the threat to reefs from anthropogenic nutrients, sedimentation, fishing practices, channel-building, and global warming would help to protect some islands against <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4412H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4412H"><span>Web-based <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System with instant <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Propagation</span> Calculations in the GPU Cloud</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammitzsch, M.; Spazier, J.; Reißland, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Usually, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning and mitigation systems (TWS or TEWS) are based on several software components deployed in a client-server based infrastructure. The vast majority of systems importantly include desktop-based clients with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operators in early warning centers. However, in times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms, introduced by continuously evolving approaches in information and communications technology (ICT), have to be considered even for early warning systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in three research projects - 'German Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System' (GITEWS), 'Distant Early Warning System' (DEWS), and 'Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises' (TRIDEC) - new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based prototype to open up new prospects for EWS. This prototype, named 'TRIDEC Cloud', merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services into one platform for automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The prototype in its current version addresses <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning and mitigation. The integration of GPU accelerated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation computations have been an integral part of this prototype to foster early warning with on-demand <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> predictions based on actual source parameters. However, the platform is meant for researchers around the world to make use of the cloud-based GPU computation to analyze other types of geohazards and natural hazards and react upon the computed situation picture with a web-based GUI in a web browser at remote sites. The current website is an early alpha version for demonstration purposes to give the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRB..123.2448W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRB..123.2448W"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Scenarios Based on Interseismic <span class="hlt">Models</span> Along the Nankai Trough, Japan, From Seafloor and Onshore Geodesy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego; Tadokoro, Keiichi</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The recent availability of Global Positioning System-Acoustic seafloor geodetic observations enables us to resolve the spatial distribution of the slip deficit rate near the Nankai trough, southwestern Japan. Considering a tectonic block <span class="hlt">model</span> and the transient deformation due to the major earthquakes in this area, the slip deficit rate between the two relevant blocks can be estimated. In this study, we remove the time-dependent postseismic deformation of the 2004 southeastern off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes (MJMA 7.1, 7.4), which had led to the underestimation of the slip deficit rate in earlier studies. We <span class="hlt">model</span> the postearthquake viscoelastic relaxation using the 3D finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> with bi-viscous Burgers rheology, as well as the afterslip on the finite faults. The corrected Global Positioning System-Acoustic and land-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems data are aligned to the existing tectonic <span class="hlt">model</span> and used to estimate the slip deficit rate on the plate boundary. We then calculate the coseismic displacements and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> with the simple assumption that a hundred years of constant slip deficit accumulation was released instantaneously. To evaluate the influence of uncertainties in the plate interface geometry on a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for the Nankai trough, we investigated two different geometries and performed checkerboard inversion simulations. Although the two <span class="hlt">models</span> indicate roughly similar results, the peak height of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave and its arrival time at several points are significantly different in terms of the expected hazard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH11C..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH11C..02M"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Evacuation Issues Using Agent Based <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>. A Case Study of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Yuriage, Natori.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mas, E.; Takagi, H.; Adriano, B.; Hayashi, S.; Koshimura, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> reminded that nature can exceed structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people to find nearby haven. This event, as many others before, confirmed the importance of early evacuation, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> awareness and the need for developing much more resilient communities with effective evacuation plans. To support reconstruction activities and efforts on developing resilient communities in areas at risk, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation simulation can be applied to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mitigation and evacuation planning. In this study, using the compiled information related to the evacuation behavior at Yuriage in Natori during the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, we simulated the evacuation process and explored the reasons for the large number of fatalities in the area. It was found that residents did evacuate to nearby shelter areas, however after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning was increased some evacuees decided to conduct a second step evacuation to a far inland shelter. Simulation results show the consequences of such decision and the outcomes when a second evacuation would not have been performed. The actual reported number of fatalities in the event and the results from simulation are compared to verify the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The case study shows the contribution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation <span class="hlt">models</span> as tools to be applied for the analysis of evacuees' decisions and the related outcomes. In addition, future evacuation plans and activities for reconstruction process and urban planning can be supported by the results provided from this kind of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PApGe.144..875I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PApGe.144..875I"><span>Field survey of the 1994 Mindoro Island, Philippines <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas E.; Gica, Edison; Titov, Vasily; Listanco, Eddie; Lee, Ho Jun</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>This is a report of the field survey of the November 15, 1994 Mindoro Island, Philippines, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by an earthquake ( M=7.0) with a strike-slip motion. We will report runup heights from 54 locations on Luzon, Mindoro and other smaller islands in the Cape Verde passage between Mindoro and Luzon. Most of the damage was concentrated along the northern coast of Mindoro. Runup height distribution ranged 3 4 m at the most severely damaged areas and 2 4 in neighboring areas. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-affected area was limited to within 10 km of the epicenter. The largest recorded runup value of 7.3 m was measured on the southwestern coast of Baco Island while a runup of 6.1 m was detected on its northern coastline. The earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> killed 62 people, injured 248 and destroyed 800 houses. As observed in other recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disasters, most of the casualties were children. Nearly all eyewitnesses interviewed described the first wave as a leading-depression wave. Eyewitnesses reported that the main direction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was SW in Subaang Bay, SE in Wawa and Calapan, NE on Baco Island and N on Verde Island, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source area was in the southern Pass of Verde Island and that the wave <span class="hlt">propagated</span> rapidly in all directions. The fault plane extended offshore to the N of Mindoro Island, with its rupture originating S of Verde Island and <span class="hlt">propagating</span> almost directly south to the inland of Mindoro, thereby accounting for the relatively limited damage area observed on the N of Mindoro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.2945C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.2945C"><span>Numerical Simulations of the 1991 Limón <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>, Costa Rica Caribbean Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; Zamora, Natalia</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The second largest recorded <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> along the Caribbean margin of Central America occurred 25 years ago. On April 22nd, 1991, an earthquake with magnitude Mw 7.6 ruptured along the thrust faults that form the North Panamá Deformed Belt (NPDB). The earthquake triggered a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that affected the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and Panamá within few minutes, generating two casualties. These are the only deaths caused by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Costa Rica. Coseismic uplift up to 1.6 m and runup values larger than 2 m were measured along some coastal sites. Here, we consider three solutions for the seismic source as initial conditions to <span class="hlt">model</span> the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, each considering a single rupture plane. We performed numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and runup using NEOWAVE numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> (Yamazaki et al. in Int J Numer Methods Fluids 67:2081-2107, 2010, doi: 10.1002/fld.2485 ) on a system of nested grids from the entire Caribbean Sea to Limón city. The <span class="hlt">modeled</span> surface deformation and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup agreed with the measured data along most of the coastal sites with one preferred <span class="hlt">model</span> that fits the field data. The <span class="hlt">model</span> results are useful to determine how the 1991 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> could have affected regions where <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records were not preserved and to simulate the effects of the coastal surface deformations as buffer to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. We also performed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to simulate the consequences if a similar event with larger magnitude Mw 7.9 occurs offshore the southern Costa Rican Caribbean coast. Such event would generate maximum wave heights of more than 5 m showing that Limón and northwestern Panamá coastal areas are exposed to moderate-to-large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. These simulations considering historical events and maximum credible scenarios can be useful for hazard assessment and also as part of studies leading to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation maps and mitigation plans, even when that is not the scope of this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRB..123.1711T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRB..123.1711T"><span>Sensitivities of Near-field <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecasts to Megathrust Deformation Predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tung, S.; Masterlark, T.</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>This study reveals how <span class="hlt">modeling</span> configurations of forward and inverse analyses of coseismic deformation data influence the estimations of seismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. We illuminate how the predictions of near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> change when (1) a heterogeneous (HET) distribution of crustal material is introduced to the elastic dislocation <span class="hlt">model</span>, and (2) the near-trench rupture is either encouraged or suppressed to invert spontaneous coseismic displacements. Hypothetical scenarios of megathrust earthquakes are studied with synthetic Global Positioning System displacements in Cascadia. Finite-element <span class="hlt">models</span> are designed to mimic the subsurface heterogeneity across the curved subduction margin. The HET lithospheric domain modifies the seafloor displacement field and alters <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> predictions from those of a homogeneous (HOM) crust. Uncertainties persist as the inverse analyses of geodetic data produce nonrealistic slip artifacts over the HOM domain, which <span class="hlt">propagates</span> into the prediction errors of subsequent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival and amplitudes. A stochastic analysis further shows that the uncertainties of seismic tomography <span class="hlt">models</span> do not degrade the solution accuracy of HET over HOM. Whether the source ruptures near the trench also controls the details of the seafloor disturbance. Deeper subsurface slips induce more seafloor uplift near the coast and cause an earlier arrival of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves than surface-slipping events. We suggest using the solutions of zero-updip-slip and zero-updip-slip-gradient rupture boundary conditions as end-members to constrain the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> behavior for forecasting purposes. The findings are important for the near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning that primarily relies on the near-real-time geodetic or seismic data for source calibration before megawaves hit the nearest shore upon tsunamigenic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3903K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3903K"><span>Integrated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Database: simulation and identification of seismic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources, 3D visualization and post-disaster assessment on the shore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivorot'ko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey; Marinin, Igor; Karas, Adel; Khidasheli, David</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>One of the most important problems of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> investigation is the problem of seismic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source reconstruction. Non-profit organization WAPMERR (http://wapmerr.org) has provided a historical database of alleged <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources around the world that obtained with the help of information about seaquakes. WAPMERR also has a database of observations of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in coastal areas. The main idea of presentation consists of determining of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source parameters using seismic data and observations of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the shore, and the expansion and refinement of the database of presupposed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources for operative and accurate prediction of hazards and assessment of risks and consequences. Also we present 3D visualization of real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and loss assessment, characterizing the nature of the building stock in cities at risk, and monitoring by satellite images using modern GIS technology ITRIS (Integrated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research and Information System) developed by WAPMERR and Informap Ltd. The special scientific plug-in components are embedded in a specially developed GIS-type graphic shell for easy data retrieval, visualization and processing. The most suitable physical <span class="hlt">models</span> related to simulation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are based on shallow water equations. We consider the initial-boundary value problem in Ω := {(x,y) ?R2 : x ?(0,Lx ), y ?(0,Ly ), Lx,Ly > 0} for the well-known linear shallow water equations in the Cartesian coordinate system in terms of the liquid flow components in dimensional form Here ?(x,y,t) defines the free water surface vertical displacement, i.e. amplitude of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave, q(x,y) is the initial amplitude of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave. The lateral boundary is assumed to be a non-reflecting boundary of the domain, that is, it allows the free passage of the <span class="hlt">propagating</span> waves. Assume that the free surface oscillation data at points (xm, ym) are given as a measured output data from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records: fm(t) := ? (xm, ym,t), (xm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0231S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0231S"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the 2015 Volcanic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Earthquake near Torishima, South of Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandanbata, O.; Watada, S.; Satake, K.; Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shiobara, H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>An abnormal earthquake occurred at a submarine volcano named Smith Caldera, near Torishima Island on the Izu-Bonin arc, on May 2, 2015. The earthquake, which hereafter we call "the 2015 Torishima earthquake," has a CLVD-type focal mechanism with a moderate seismic magnitude (M5.7) but generated larger <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves with an observed maximum height of 50 cm at Hachijo Island [JMA, 2015], so that the earthquake can be regarded as a "<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake." In the region, similar <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes were observed in 1984, 1996 and 2006, but their physical mechanisms are still not well understood. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waves generated by the 2015 earthquake were recorded by an array of ocean bottom pressure (OBP) gauges, 100 km northeastern away from the epicenter. The waves initiated with a small downward signal of 0.1 cm and reached peak amplitude (1.5-2.0 cm) of leading upward signals followed by continuous oscillations [Fukao et al., 2016]. For <span class="hlt">modeling</span> its <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source, or sea-surface displacement, we perform <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform simulations, and compare synthetic and observed waveforms at the OBP gauges. The linear Boussinesq equations are adapted with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation code, JAGURS [Baba et al., 2015]. We first assume a Gaussian-shaped sea-surface uplift of 1.0 m with a source size comparable to Smith Caldera, 6-7 km in diameter. By shifting source location around the caldera, we found the uplift is probably located within the caldera rim, as suggested by Sandanbata et al. [2016]. However, synthetic waves show no initial downward signal that was observed at the OBP gauges. Hence, we add a ring of subsidence surrounding the main uplift, and examine sizes and amplitudes of the main uplift and the subsidence ring. As a result, the <span class="hlt">model</span> of a main uplift of around 1.0 m with a radius of 4 km surrounded by a ring of small subsidence shows good agreement of synthetic and observed waveforms. The results yield two implications for the deformation process that help us to understanding</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3385H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3385H"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Impact Computed from Offshore <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Coastal Amplification Laws: Insights from the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> gave the opportunity to gather unprecedented <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observation databases for various coastlines. We present here an analysis of such databases gathered for 3 coastlines, among the most impacted in 2004 in the intermediate- and far field: Thailand-Myanmar, SE India-Sri Lanka, and SE Madagascar. Non-linear shallow water <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> performed on a single 4' coarse bathymetric grid is compared to these observations, in order to check to which extent a simple approach based on the usual energy conservation laws (either Green's or Synolakis laws) can explain the data. The idea is to fit <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data with numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> carried out without any refined coastal bathymetry/topography. To this end several parameters are discussed, namely the bathymetric depth to which <span class="hlt">model</span> results must be extrapolated (using the Green's law), or the mean bathymetric slope to consider near the studied coast (when using the Synolakis law). Using extrapolation depths from 1 to 10 m generally allows a good fit; however, a 0.1 m is required for some others, especially in the far field (Madagascar) possibly due to enhanced numerical dispersion. Such a method also allows describing the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact variability along a given coastline. Then, using a series of scenarios, we propose a preliminary statistical assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact for a given earthquake magnitude along the Indonesian subduction. Conversely, the sources mostly contributing to a specific hazard can also be mapped onto the sources, providing a first order definition of which sources are threatening the 3 studied coastlines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0214T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0214T"><span>How much does geometry of seismic sources matter in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>? A sensitivity analysis for the Calabrian subduction interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tonini, R.; Maesano, F. E.; Tiberti, M. M.; Romano, F.; Scala, A.; Lorito, S.; Volpe, M.; Basili, R.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The geometry of seismogenic sources could be one of the most important factors concurring to control the generation and the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and their effects on the coasts. Since the majority of potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes occur offshore, the corresponding faults are generally poorly constrained and, consequently, their geometry is often oversimplified as a planar fault. The rupture area of mega-thrust earthquakes in subduction zones, where most of the greatest <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have occurred, extends for tens to hundreds of kilometers both down dip and along strike, and generally deviates from the planar geometry. Therefore, the larger the earthquake size is, the weaker the planar fault assumption become. In this work, we present a sensitivity analysis aimed to explore the effects on <span class="hlt">modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by seismic sources with different degrees of geometric complexities. We focused on the Calabrian subduction zone, located in the Mediterranean Sea, which is characterized by the convergence between the African and European plates, with rates of up to 5 mm/yr. This subduction zone has been considered to have generated some past large earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, despite it shows only in-slab significant seismic activity below 40 km depth and no relevant seismicity in the shallower portion of the interface. Our analysis is performed by defining and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> an exhaustive set of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios located in the Calabrian subduction and using different <span class="hlt">models</span> of the subduction interface with increasing geometrical complexity, from a planar surface to a highly detailed 3D surface. The latter was obtained from the interpretation of a dense network of seismic reflection profiles coupled with the analysis of the seismicity distribution. The more relevant effects due to the inclusion of 3D complexities in the seismic source geometry are finally highlighted in terms of the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PrOce.159..296R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PrOce.159..296R"><span>The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> phenomenon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Röbke, B. R.; Vött, A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>With human activity increasingly concentrating on coasts, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (from Japanese tsu = harbour, nami = wave) are a major natural hazard to today's society. Stimulated by disastrous <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts in recent years, for instance in south-east Asia (2004) or in Japan (2011), <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> science has significantly flourished, which has brought great advances in hazard assessment and mitigation plans. Based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research of the last decades, this paper provides a thorough treatise on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> phenomenon from a geoscientific point of view. Starting with the wave features, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are introduced as long shallow water waves or wave trains crossing entire oceans without major energy loss. At the coast, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> typically show wave shoaling, funnelling and resonance effects as well as a significant run-up and backflow. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waves are caused by a sudden displacement of the water column due to a number of various trigger mechanisms. Such are earthquakes as the main trigger, submarine and subaerial mass wastings, volcanic activity, atmospheric disturbances (meteotsunamis) and cosmic impacts, as is demonstrated by giving corresponding examples from the past. <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are known to have a significant sedimentary and geomorphological off- and onshore response. So-called tsunamites form allochthonous high-energy deposits that are left at the coast during <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> landfall. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> deposits show typical sedimentary features, as basal erosional unconformities, fining-upward and -landward, a high content of marine fossils, rip-up clasts from underlying units and mud caps, all reflecting the hydrodynamic processes during inundation. The on- and offshore behaviour of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and related sedimentary processes can be simulated using hydro- and morphodynamic numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>. The paper provides an overview of the basic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques, including discretisation, guidelines for appropriate temporal and spatial resolution as well as the nesting method. Furthermore, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51A1605H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51A1605H"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Numerical Simulation for Hypothetical Giant or Great Earthquakes along the Izu-Bonin Trench</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harada, T.; Ishibashi, K.; Satake, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with Corioli's force (Satake, 1995, PAGEOPH) in the area of 130 - 145°E and 25 - 37°N. The 15-seconds gridded bathymetry data are used. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagations</span> for eight hours since the faulting of the various fault <span class="hlt">models</span> were computed. As a result, large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from assumed giant/great both interplate and outer-rise earthquakes reach the Ryukyu Islands' coasts and the Pacific coasts of Kyushu, Shikoku and western Honshu west of Kanto. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations support the Ishibashi and Harada's hypothesis. At the time of writing, the best yet preliminary <span class="hlt">model</span> to reproduce the 1605 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights is an outer-rise steep fault <span class="hlt">model</span> which extends 26.5 - 29.0°N (300 km of length) and with 16.7 m of average slip (Mw 8.6). We will examine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> behavior in the Pacific Ocean from this fault <span class="hlt">model</span>. To examine our results, field investigations of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits in the Bonin Islands and discussions on plate dynamics and seismogenic characteristics along the Izu-Bonin trench are necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027428','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027428"><span>Rapid <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and earthquake source parameters: Far-field and local applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, E.L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Rapid <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> have recently been developed to forecast far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes from initial earthquake information (magnitude and hypocenter). Earthquake source parameters that directly affect <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation as used in rapid <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are examined, with particular attention to local versus far-field application of those <span class="hlt">models</span>. First, validity of the assumption that the focal mechanism and type of faulting for tsunamigenic earthquakes is similar in a given region can be evaluated by measuring the seismic consistency of past events. Second, the assumption that slip occurs uniformly over an area of rupture will most often underestimate the amplitude and leading-wave steepness of the local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Third, sometimes large magnitude earthquakes will exhibit a high degree of spatial heterogeneity such that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources will be composed of distinct sub-events that can cause constructive and destructive interference in the wavefield away from the source. Using a stochastic source <span class="hlt">model</span>, it is demonstrated that local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes vary by as much as a factor of two or more, depending on the local bathymetry. If other earthquake source parameters such as focal depth or shear modulus are varied in addition to the slip distribution patterns, even greater uncertainty in local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude. Because of the short amount of time available to issue local warnings and because of the high degree of uncertainty associated with local, <span class="hlt">model</span>-based forecasts as suggested by this study, direct wave height observations and a strong public education and preparedness program are critical for those regions near suspected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1643C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1643C"><span>Validation of NEOWAVE with Measurements from the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>An accurate and reliable numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> is essential in mapping <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards for mitigation and preparedness. The <span class="hlt">model</span> NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs) is being used for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation mapping in Hawaii, American Samoa, the Gulf coast states, and Puerto Rico. In addition to the benchmarks established by the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program, we have been conducting a thorough investigation of NEOWAVE's capability in reproducing the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and its impact across the Pacific. The shock-capturing non-hydrostatic <span class="hlt">model</span> is well suited to handle <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> conditions in a variety of coastal environments in the near and far field. It describes dispersive waves through non-hydrostatic pressure and vertical velocity, which also account for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation from time histories of seafloor deformation. The semi-implicit, staggered finite difference <span class="hlt">model</span> captures flow discontinuities associated with bores or hydraulic jumps through a momentum conservation scheme. The <span class="hlt">model</span> supports up to five levels of two-way nested grids in spherical coordinates to describe <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> processes of varying time and spatial scales from the open ocean to the coast. We first define the source mechanism through forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recorded by coastal and deep-ocean buoys. A finite-fault solution based on teleseismic P-wave inversion serves as the starting point of the iterative process, in which the source parameters are systematically adjusted to achieve convergence of the computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with the near-field records. The capability of NEOWAVE in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is evaluated with DART data across the Pacific as well as water-level and current measurements in Hawaii. These far-field water-level records, which are not considered in the forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, also provide an independently assessment of the source <span class="hlt">model</span>. The computed runup and inundation are compared with measurements along Northeastern Japan coasts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.5786B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.5786B"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> and infragravity waves impacting Antarctic ice shelves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bromirski, P. D.; Chen, Z.; Stephen, R. A.; Gerstoft, P.; Arcas, D.; Diez, A.; Aster, R. C.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The responses of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) to the 16 September 2015 8.3 (Mw) Chilean earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (>75 s period) and to oceanic infragravity (IG) waves (50-300 s period) were recorded by a broadband seismic array deployed on the RIS from November 2014 to November 2016. Here we show that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and IG-generated signals within the RIS <span class="hlt">propagate</span> at gravity wave speeds (˜70 m/s) as water-ice coupled flexural-gravity waves. IG band signals show measureable attenuation away from the shelf front. The response of the RIS to Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrivals is compared with <span class="hlt">modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forcing to assess ice shelf flexural-gravity wave excitation by very long period (VLP; >300 s) gravity waves. Displacements across the RIS are affected by gravity wave incident direction, bathymetry under and north of the shelf, and water layer and ice shelf thicknesses. Horizontal displacements are typically about 10 times larger than vertical displacements, producing dynamical extensional motions that may facilitate expansion of existing fractures. VLP excitation is continuously observed throughout the year, with horizontal displacements highest during the austral winter with amplitudes exceeding 20 cm. Because VLP flexural-gravity waves exhibit no discernable attenuation, this energy must <span class="hlt">propagate</span> to the grounding zone. Both IG and VLP band flexural-gravity waves excite mechanical perturbations of the RIS that likely promote tabular iceberg calving, consequently affecting ice shelf evolution. Understanding these ocean-excited mechanical interactions is important to determine their effect on ice shelf stability to reduce uncertainty in the magnitude and rate of global sea level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRB..123.1435Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRB..123.1435Y"><span>A Self-Consistent Fault Slip <span class="hlt">Model</span> for the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Lay, Thorne</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>The unprecedented geophysical and hydrographic data sets from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> have facilitated numerous <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and inversion analyses for a wide range of dislocation <span class="hlt">models</span>. Significant uncertainties remain in the slip distribution as well as the possible contribution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation from submarine slumping or anelastic wedge deformation. We seek a self-consistent <span class="hlt">model</span> for the primary teleseismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations through an iterative approach that begins with downsampling of a finite fault <span class="hlt">model</span> inverted from global seismic records. Direct adjustment of the fault displacement guided by high-resolution forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform and runup measurements improves the features that are not satisfactorily accounted for by the seismic wave inversion. The results show acute sensitivity of the runup to impulsive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves generated by near-trench slip. The adjusted finite fault <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to reproduce the DART records across the Pacific Ocean in forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> as well as the global seismic records through a finer-scale subfault moment- and rake-constrained inversion, thereby validating its ability to account for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and teleseismic observations without requiring an exotic source. The upsampled final <span class="hlt">model</span> gives reasonably good fits to onshore and offshore geodetic observations albeit early after-slip effects and wedge faulting that cannot be reliably accounted for. The large predicted slip of over 20 m at shallow depth extending northward to 39.7°N indicates extensive rerupture and reduced seismic hazard of the 1896 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake zone, as inferred to varying extents by several recent joint and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-only inversions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..05G"><span>Observations and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Environmental and Human Damages by the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goto, K.; Imamura, F.; Koshimura, S.; Yanagisawa, H.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>On 26 December 2004, one of the largest <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in human history (the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>) struck coastal areas of countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, causing severe property damage and loss of life and causing us to think anew about the fearful consequences of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> devastated more than 10 countries around the ocean including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. Since its energy remains almost constant, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height grows tremendously in shallow water. It ranged in runups of ~48m on the western shore of Sumatra, ~18m in Thailand, and ~15m in Sri Lanka. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> killed nearly 230,000 people, including visitors from foreign countries, resulting in great economic losses. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was also affected coastal environment at these countries and induced severe topographic change, and damages to the marine ecosystems as well as vegetations on land. Immediately following the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, number of research teams has investigated damages of environment and human communities by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Numerical analyses of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> have also been carried out to understand the behavior and wave properties of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. However, there are few studies that focused on the integration of the field observations and numerical results, nevertheless that such analysis is critically important to evaluate the environmental and human damages by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In this contribution, we first review damages to the environment and humans due to the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka based on our field observations, and then we evaluate these damages based on high resolution numerical results. For example, we conducted field observation as well as high-resolution (17 m grid cells) numerical calculation for damages of corals (reef rocks) and mangroves at Pakarang Cape, Thailand. We found that hundreds of reef rocks were emplaced on the tidal bench, and 70 % of mangroves were destroyed at the cape. Our numerical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5810O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5810O"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport <span class="hlt">models</span> (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Correct computations of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced <span class="hlt">model</span> is an urgent need</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.S21B2728R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.S21B2728R"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Earthquake Rupture and Corresponding <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Along a Segment of the Alaskan-Aleutian Megathrust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryan, K. J.; Geist, E. L.; Oglesby, D. D.; Kyriakopoulos, C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Motivated by the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-Oki event, we explore the effects of realistic fault dynamics on slip, free surface deformation, and the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and local <span class="hlt">propagation</span> from a hypothetical Mw 9 megathrust earthquake along the Alaskan-Aleutian (A-A) Megathrust. We demonstrate three scenarios: a spatially-homogenous prestress and frictional parameter <span class="hlt">model</span> and two <span class="hlt">models</span> with rate-strengthening-like friction (e.g., Dieterich, 1992). We use a dynamic finite element code to <span class="hlt">model</span> 3-D ruptures, using time-weakening friction (Andrews, 2004) as a proxy for rate-strengthening friction, along a portion of the A-A subduction zone. Given geometric, material, and plate-coupling data along the A-A megathrust assembled from the Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) team (e.g., Bruns et al., 1987; Hayes et al., 2012; Johnson et al., 2004; Santini et al., 2003; Wells at al., 2003), we are able to dynamically <span class="hlt">model</span> rupture. Adding frictional-strengthening to a region of the fault reduces both average slip and free surface displacement above the strengthening zone, with the magnitude of the reductions depending on the strengthening zone location. Corresponding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, which use a finite difference method to solve the long-wave equations (e.g., Liu et al., 1995; Satake, 2002; Shuto, 1991), match sea floor displacement, in time, to the free surface displacement from the rupture <span class="hlt">models</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> show changes in local peak amplitudes and beaming patterns for each slip distribution. Given these results, other heterogeneous parameterizations, with respect to prestress and friction, still need to be examined. Additionally, a more realistic fault geometry will likely affect the rupture dynamics. Thus, future work will incorporate stochastic stress and friction distributions as well as a more complex fault geometry based on Slab 1.0 (Hayes et al., 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5283F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5283F"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulation using CIP Method with Characteristic Curve Equations and TVD-MacCormack Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukazawa, Souki; Tosaka, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>After entering 21st century, we already had two big <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disasters associated with Mw9 earthquakes in Sumatra and Japan. To mitigate the damages of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the numerical simulation technology combined with information technologies could provide reliable predictions in planning countermeasures to prevent the damage to the social system, making safety maps, and submitting early evacuation information to the residents. Shallow water equations are still solved not only for global scale simulation of the ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> but also for local scale simulation of overland inundation in many <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulators though three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> starts to be used due to improvement of CPU. One-dimensional shallow water equations are below: partial bm{Q}/partial t+partial bm{E}/partial x=bm{S} in which bm{Q}=( D M )), bm{E}=( M M^2/D+gD^2/2 )), bm{S}=( 0 -gDpartial z/partial x-gn2 M|M| /D7/3 )). where D[m] is total water depth; M[m^2/s] is water flux; z[m] is topography; g[m/s^2] is the gravitational acceleration; n[s/m1/3] is Manning's roughness coefficient. To solve these, the staggered leapfrog scheme is used in a lot of wide-scale <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulator. But this scheme has a problem that lagging phase error occurs when courant number is small. In some practical simulation, a kind of diffusion term is added. In this study, we developed two wide-scale <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulators with different schemes and compared usual scheme and other schemes in practicability and validity. One is a total variation diminishing modification of the MacCormack method (TVD-MacCormack method) which is famous for the simulation of compressible fluids. The other is the Cubic Interpolated Profile (CIP) method with characteristic curve equations transformed from shallow water equations. Characteristic curve equations derived from shallow water equations are below: partial R_x±/partial t+C_x±partial R_x±/partial x=∓ g/2partial z/partial x in which R_x±=√{gD}± u/2, C_x±=u± √{gD}. where u</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034155','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034155"><span>International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mosher, D.C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> processes and sophisticated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70148035','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70148035"><span>Explanation of temporal clustering of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources using the epidemic-type aftershock sequence <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Temporal clustering of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources is examined in terms of a branching process <span class="hlt">model</span>. It previously was observed that there are more short interevent times between consecutive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources than expected from a stationary Poisson process. The epidemic‐type aftershock sequence (ETAS) branching process <span class="hlt">model</span> is fitted to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalog events, using the earthquake magnitude of the causative event from the Centennial and Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) catalogs and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sizes above a completeness level as a mark to indicate that a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was generated. The ETAS parameters are estimated using the maximum‐likelihood method. The interevent distribution associated with the ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a better fit to the data than the Poisson <span class="hlt">model</span> or other temporal clustering <span class="hlt">models</span>. When tsunamigenic conditions (magnitude threshold, submarine location, dip‐slip mechanism) are applied to the Global CMT catalog, ETAS parameters are obtained that are consistent with those estimated from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalog. In particular, the dip‐slip condition appears to result in a near zero magnitude effect for triggered <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. The overall consistency between results from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalog and that from the earthquake catalog under tsunamigenic conditions indicates that ETAS <span class="hlt">models</span> based on seismicity can provide the structure for understanding patterns of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source occurrence. The fractional rate of triggered <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources on a global basis is approximately 14%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..916W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..916W"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> using adaptive unstructured meshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Cian; Collins, Gareth; Desousa Costa, Patrick; Piggott, Matthew</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Landslides impacting into or occurring under water generate waves, which can have devastating environmental consequences. Depending on the characteristics of the landslide the waves can have significant amplitude and potentially <span class="hlt">propagate</span> over large distances. Linear <span class="hlt">models</span> of classical earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> cannot reproduce the highly nonlinear generation mechanisms required to accurately predict the consequences of landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Also, laboratory-scale experimental investigation is limited to simple geometries and short time-scales before wave reflections contaminate the data. Computational fluid dynamics <span class="hlt">models</span> based on the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations can simulate landslide-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation at realistic scales. However, traditional chessboard-like structured meshes introduce superfluous resolution and hence the computing power required for such a simulation can be prohibitively high, especially in three dimensions. Unstructured meshes allow the grid spacing to vary rapidly from high resolution in the vicinity of small scale features to much coarser, lower resolution in other areas. Combining this variable resolution with dynamic mesh adaptivity allows such high resolution zones to follow features like the interface between the landslide and the water whilst minimising the computational costs. Unstructured meshes are also better suited to representing complex geometries and bathymetries allowing more realistic domains to be simulated. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> multiple materials, like water, air and a landslide, on an unstructured adaptive mesh poses significant numerical challenges. Novel methods of interface preservation must be considered and coupled to a flow <span class="hlt">model</span> in such a way that ensures conservation of the different materials. Furthermore this conservation property must be maintained during successive stages of mesh optimisation and interpolation. In this paper we validate a new multi-material adaptive unstructured fluid dynamics <span class="hlt">model</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16123264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16123264"><span>The global reach of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Titov, Vasily; Rabinovich, Alexander B; Mofjeld, Harold O; Thomson, Richard E; González, Frank I</p> <p>2005-09-23</p> <p>Numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations, combined with tide-gauge and satellite altimetry data, reveal that wave amplitudes, directionality, and global <span class="hlt">propagation</span> patterns of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> were primarily determined by the orientation and intensity of the offshore seismic line source and subsequently by the trapping effect of mid-ocean ridge topographic waveguides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3351F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3351F"><span>Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific Ocean. A description of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-ocean atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations in the deep ocean. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signal simulated by two numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or <span class="hlt">modelled</span> in the deep ocean. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1857i0007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1857i0007B"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> validation and error estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup using high resolution data in Sadeng Port, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basith, Abdul; Prakoso, Yudhono; Kongko, Widjo</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> using high resolution geometric data is indispensable in efforts to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mitigation, especially in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> prone areas. It is one of the factors that affect the accuracy results of numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Sadeng Port is a new infrastructure in the Southern Coast of Java which could potentially hit by massive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from seismic gap. This paper discusses validation and error estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> created using high resolution geometric data in Sadeng Port. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> validation uses the height wave of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Pangandaran 2006 recorded by Tide Gauge of Sadeng. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> will be used to accommodate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> involves the parameters of earthquake-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> which is derived from the seismic gap. The validation results using t-test (student) shows that the height of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results and observation in Tide Gauge of Sadeng are considered statistically equal at 95% confidence level and the value of the RMSE and NRMSE are 0.428 m and 22.12%, while the differences of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave travel time is 12 minutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022128','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022128"><span>Analysis of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by the MW 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, E.L.; Zoback, M.L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We examine possible sources of a small <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, recorded at a single tide gauge station situated at the opening to San Francisco Bay. Coseismic vertical displacement fields were calculated using elastic dislocation theory for geodetically constrained horizontal slip along a variety of offshore fault geometries. <span class="hlt">Propagation</span> of the ensuing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was calculated using a shallow-water hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> that takes into account the effects of bottom friction. The observed amplitude and negative pulse of the first arrival are shown to be inconsistent with small vertical displacements (~4-6 cm) arising from pure horizontal slip along a continuous right bend in the San Andreas fault offshore. The primary source region of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was most likely a recently recognized 3 km right step in the San Andreas fault that is also the probable epicentral region for the 1906 earthquake. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> that include the 3 km right step with pure horizontal slip match the arrival time of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, but underestimate the amplitude of the negative first-arrival pulse. Both the amplitude and time of the first arrival are adequately matched by using a rupture geometry similar to that defined for the 1995 MW (moment magnitude) 6.9 Kobe earthquake: i.e., fault segments dipping toward each other within the stepover region (83??dip, intersecting at 10 km depth) and a small component of slip in the dip direction (rake=-172??). Analysis of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> provides confirming evidence that the 1906 San Francisco earthquake initiated at a right step in a right-lateral fault and <span class="hlt">propagated</span> bilaterally, suggesting a rupture initiation mechanism similar to that for the 1995 Kobe earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1860G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1860G"><span>Quantification of uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard for Cascadia using statistical emulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guillas, S.; Day, S. J.; Joakim, B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present new high resolution <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and coastal inundation for the Cascadia region in the Pacific Northwest. The coseismic representation in this analysis is novel, and more realistic than in previous studies, as we jointly parametrize multiple aspects of the seabed deformation. Due to the large computational cost of such simulators, statistical emulation is required in order to carry out uncertainty quantification tasks, as emulators efficiently approximate simulators. The emulator replaces the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> VOLNA by a fast surrogate, so we are able to efficiently <span class="hlt">propagate</span> uncertainties from the source characteristics to wave heights, in order to probabilistically assess <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard for Cascadia. We employ a new method for the design of the computer experiments in order to reduce the number of runs while maintaining good approximations properties of the emulator. Out of the initial nine parameters, mostly describing the geometry and time variation of the seabed deformation, we drop two parameters since these turn out to not have an influence on the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves at the coast. We <span class="hlt">model</span> the impact of another parameter linearly as its influence on the wave heights is identified as linear. We combine this screening approach with the sequential design algorithm MICE (Mutual Information for Computer Experiments), that adaptively selects the input values at which to run the computer simulator, in order to maximize the expected information gain (mutual information) over the input space. As a result, the emulation is made possible and accurate. Starting from distributions of the source parameters that encapsulate geophysical knowledge of the possible source characteristics, we derive distributions of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights along the coastline.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH31D..08T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH31D..08T"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment along the U. S. East Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tajalli Bakhsh, T.; Grilli, S. T.; Harris, J. C.; Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Tehranirad, B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In 2005, the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) was tasked by Congress to develop <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation maps for the entire US coastline. This work provides an overview of the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> work related to the development inundation maps along the US east coast. In this region the paucity of historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records and lack of paleotsunami observations yields a large uncertainty on the source and magnitude of potential extreme <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events, and their related coastal hazard. In the Atlantic Ocean basin significant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard may result from far-field earthquakes, such as a repeat of the M8.9 Lisbon 1755 event in the Azores convergence zone, or a hypothetical extreme M9 earthquake in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). Additionally, it is believed that a repeat of one of the large historical collapses, identified at the toe of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma (Canary Islands; i.e., with a maximum volume of 450 km3), could pose a major <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard to the entire US east coast. Finally, in the near-field, large submarine mass failure (SMF) scars have been mapped by USGS, particularly North of the Carolinas (e.g., Currituck), which are believed to have caused past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Large SMFs can be triggered by moderate seismicity (M7 or so), such as can occur on the east coast. In fact, one of the few historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that significantly affected this region was caused by the 1929 Grand Bank underwater slide, which was triggered by a M7.2 earthquake. In this work we identify and parameterize all potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources affecting the US east coast, and perform simulations of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and coastal impact in a series of increasingly resolved nested grids. Following this methodology, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation maps are currently being developed for a few of the most affected areas. In simulations, we use a robust and well-validated Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq long-wave <span class="hlt">model</span> (FUNWAVE-TVD), on Cartesian or spherical grids. Coseismic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0248G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0248G"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Run-Up on Coastal Areas at Regional Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González, M.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez, O.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment is tackled by means of numerical simulations, giving as a result, the areas flooded by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave inland. To get this, some input data is required, i.e., the high resolution topobathymetry of the study area, the earthquake focal mechanism parameters, etc. The computational cost of these kinds of simulations are still excessive. An important restriction for the elaboration of large scale maps at National or regional scale is the reconstruction of high resolution topobathymetry on the coastal zone. An alternative and traditional method consists of the application of empirical-analytical formulations to calculate run-up at several coastal profiles (i.e. Synolakis, 1987), combined with numerical simulations offshore without including coastal inundation. In this case, the numerical simulations are faster but some limitations are added as the coastal bathymetric profiles are very simply idealized. In this work, we present a complementary methodology based on a hybrid numerical <span class="hlt">model</span>, formed by 2 <span class="hlt">models</span> that were coupled ad hoc for this work: a non-linear shallow water equations <span class="hlt">model</span> (NLSWE) for the offshore part of the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and a Volume of Fluid <span class="hlt">model</span> (VOF) for the areas near the coast and inland, applying each numerical scheme where they better reproduce the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave. The run-up of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario is obtained by applying the coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> to an ad-hoc numerical flume. To design this methodology, hundreds of worldwide topobathymetric profiles have been parameterized, using 5 parameters (2 depths and 3 slopes). In addition, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves have been also parameterized by their height and period. As an application of the numerical flume methodology, the coastal parameterized profiles and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves have been combined to build a populated database of run-up calculations. The combination was tackled by means of numerical simulations in the numerical flume The result is a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up database that considers real profiles shape</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3631M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3631M"><span>Towards a robust framework for Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for local and regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is conceptually closely related to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA). The main difference is that PTHA needs to simulate <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves through the ocean and cannot rely on attenuation relationships, which makes PTHA computationally more expensive. The wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> process can be assumed to be linear as long as water depth is much larger than the wave amplitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Beyond this limit a non-linear scheme has to be employed with significantly higher algorithmic run times. PTHA considering far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources typically uses unit source simulations, and relies on the linearity of the process by later scaling and combining the wave fields of individual simulations to represent the intended earthquake magnitude and rupture area. Probabilistic assessments are typically made for locations offshore but close to the coast. Inundation is calculated only for significantly contributing events (de-aggregation). For local and regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> it has been demonstrated that earthquake rupture complexity has a significant effect on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude distribution offshore and also on inundation. In this case PTHA has to take variable slip distributions and non-linearity into account. A unit source approach cannot easily be applied. Rupture complexity is seen as an aleatory uncertainty and can be incorporated directly into the rate calculation. We have developed a framework that manages the large number of simulations required for local PTHA. As an initial case study the effect of rupture complexity on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation and the statistics of the distribution of wave heights have been investigated for plate-interface earthquakes in the Hawke's Bay region in New Zealand. Assessing the probability that water levels will be in excess of a certain threshold requires the calculation of empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDF). We compare our results with traditional estimates for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH14A..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH14A..05C"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the 2011 Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> and its Impacts on Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Roeber, V.; Lay, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a destructive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> along the entire Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which registered 6.7 m amplitude at a coastal GPS gauge and 1.75 m at an open-ocean DART buoy, triggered warnings across the Pacific. The waves reached Hawaii 7 hours after the earthquake and caused localized damage and persistent coastal oscillations along the island chain. Several tide gauges and a DART buoy west of Hawaii Island recorded clear signals of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Observer Program of Hawaii State Civil Defense immediately conducted field surveys to gather runup and inundation data on Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii Island. The extensive global seismic networks and geodetic instruments allows evaluation and validation of finite fault solutions for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. We reconstruct the 2011 Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> using the long-wave <span class="hlt">model</span> NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs) and a finite fault solution based on inversion of teleseismic P waves. The depth-integrated <span class="hlt">model</span> describes dispersive waves through the non-hydrostatic pressure and vertical velocity, which also account for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation from time histories of seafloor deformation. The semi-implicit, staggered finite difference <span class="hlt">model</span> captures flow discontinuities associated with bores or hydraulic jumps through the momentum-conserved advection scheme. Four levels of two-way nested grids in spherical coordinates allow description of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evolution processes of different time and spatial scales for investigation of the impacts around the Hawaiian Islands. The <span class="hlt">model</span> results are validated with DART data across the Pacific as well as tide gauge and runup measurements in Hawaii. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals a series of resonance modes over the insular shelf and slope complex along the archipelago. Resonance oscillations provide an explanation for the localized impacts and the persistent wave activities in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/"><span>Confirmation and calibration of computer <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> produced by Augustine volcano, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Beget, James E.; Kowalik, Zygmunt</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> has been used to calculate the characteristics of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by a landslide into Cook Inlet from Augustine Volcano. The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> predicts travel times of ca. 50-75 minutes to the nearest populated areas, and indicates that significant wave amplification occurs near Mt. Iliamna on the western side of Cook Inlet, and near the Nanwelak and the Homer-Anchor Point areas on the east side of Cook Inlet. Augustine volcano last produced a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> during an eruption in 1883, and field evidence of the extent and height of the 1883 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can be used to test and constrain the results of the computer <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> deposits on Augustine Island indicate waves near the landslide source were more than 19 m high, while 1883 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits in distal sites record waves 6-8 m high. Paleotsunami deposits were found at sites along the coast near Mt. Iliamna, Nanwelak, and Homer, consistent with numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> indicating significant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave amplification occurs in these areas. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NHESS..11.2371R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NHESS..11.2371R"><span>High resolution <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> for the evaluation of potential risk areas in Setúbal (Portugal)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, J.; Silva, A.; Leitão, P.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The use of high resolution hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> to simulate the potential effects of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas. Moreover, the consideration of complementary data such as the type of buildings, location of priority equipment, type of roads, enables mapping of the most vulnerable zones, computing of the expected damage on man-made structures, constrain of the definition of rescue areas and escape routes, adaptation of emergency plans and proper evaluation of the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipment. Such an approach was used to evaluate the specific risks associated with a potential occurrence of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event in the region of Setúbal (Portugal), which was one of the areas most seriously affected by the 1755 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In order to perform an evaluation of the hazard associated with the occurrence of a similar event, high resolution wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> simulations were performed considering different potential earthquake sources with different magnitudes. Based on these simulations, detailed inundation maps associated with the different events were produced. These results were combined with the available information on the vulnerability of the local infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, priority buildings) in order to impose restrictions in the production of high-scale potential damage maps, escape routes and emergency routes maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRA..123.4329R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRA..123.4329R"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Wave Height Estimation from GPS-Derived Ionospheric Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakoto, Virgile; Lognonné, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Coïsson, P.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Large underwater earthquakes (Mw>7) can transmit part of their energy to the surrounding ocean through large seafloor motions, generating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that <span class="hlt">propagate</span> over long distances. The forcing effect of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the atmosphere generates internal gravity waves that, when they reach the upper atmosphere, produce ionospheric perturbations. These perturbations are frequently observed in the total electron content (TEC) measured by multifrequency Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS, GLONASS, and, in the future, Galileo. This paper describes the first inversion of the variation in sea level derived from GPS TEC data. We used a least squares inversion through a normal-mode summation <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. This technique was applied to three <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in far field associated to the 2012 Haida Gwaii, 2006 Kuril Islands, and 2011 Tohoku events and for Tohoku also in close field. With the exception of the Tohoku far-field case, for which the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> reconstruction by the TEC inversion is less efficient due to the ionospheric noise background associated to geomagnetic storm, which occurred on the earthquake day, we show that the peak-to-peak amplitude of the sea level variation inverted by this method can be compared to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height measured by a DART buoy with an error of less than 20%. This demonstrates that the inversion of TEC data with a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> normal-mode summation approach is able to estimate quite accurately the amplitude and waveform of the first <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.S52A..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.S52A..08M"><span>Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in the Caribbean Sea Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mercado-Irizarry, A.; Schmidt, W.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>After the 2004 Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the USA Congress gave a mandate to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat for all USA interests, and adapt to them the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (SIFT) methodology first developed for the USA Pacific seaboard states. This methodology would be used with the DART buoys deployed in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The first step involved the evaluation and characterization of the major tsunamigenic regions in both regions, work done by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This was followed by the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> due to unit slip tsunamigenic earthquakes located at different locations along the tsunamigenic zones identified by the USGS. These pre-computed results are stored and are used as sources (in an inverse <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach using the DART buoys) for so-called Standby Inundation <span class="hlt">Models</span> (SIM's) being developed for selected coastal cities in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and others along the Atlantic seaboard of the USA. It is the purpose of this presentation to describe the work being carried out in the Caribbean Sea region, where two SIM's for Puerto Rico have already being prepared, allowing for near real-time assessment (less than 10 minutes after detection by the DART buoys) of the expected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact for two major coastal cities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23E..07W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23E..07W"><span>Pedestrian flow-path <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to support <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-evacuation planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, N. J.; Jones, J. M.; Schmidtlein, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> potentially arriving in a matter of minutes following a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. We developed a geospatial-<span class="hlt">modeling</span> method for characterizing pedestrian-evacuation flow paths and evacuation basins to support evacuation and relief planning efforts for coastal communities in this region. We demonstrate this approach using the coastal communities of Aberdeen, Hoquiam, and Cosmopolis in southwestern Grays Harbor County, Washington (USA), where previous research suggests approximately 20,500 people (99% of the residents in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-hazard zones) will likely have enough time to evacuate before <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-wave arrival. Geospatial, anisotropic, path distance <span class="hlt">models</span> were developed to map the most efficient pedestrian paths to higher ground from locations within the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-hazard zone. This information was then used to identify evacuation basins, outlining neighborhoods sharing a common evacuation pathway to safety. We then estimated the number of people traveling along designated evacuation pathways and arriving at pre-determined safe assembly areas, helping determine shelter demand and relief support (e.g., for elderly individuals or tourists). Finally, we assessed which paths may become inaccessible due to earthquake-induced ground failures, a factor which may impact an individual's success in reaching safe ground. The presentation will include a discussion of the implications of our analysis for developing more comprehensive coastal community <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-evacuation planning strategies worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.tmp.1271C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.tmp.1271C"><span>The 2017 México <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Record, Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Threat Assessment in Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>An M w 8.2 earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurred offshore the Pacific coast of México on 2017-09-08, at 04:49 UTC. Costa Rican tide gauges have registered a total of 21 local, regional and far-field <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The Quepos gauge registered 12 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> between 1960 and 2014 before it was relocated inside a harbor by late 2014, where it registered two more <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. This paper analyzes the 2017 México <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> as recorded by the Quepos gauge. It took 2 h for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to arrive to Quepos, with a first peak height of 9.35 cm and a maximum amplitude of 18.8 cm occurring about 6 h later. As a decision support tool, this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> for Quepos in real time using ComMIT (Community <span class="hlt">Model</span> Interface for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) with the finer grid having a resolution of 1 arcsec ( 30 m). However, the <span class="hlt">model</span> did not replicate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> record well, probably due to the lack of a finer and more accurate bathymetry. In 2014, the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Monitoring System of Costa Rica (SINAMOT) was created, acting as a national <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning center. The occurrence of the 2017 México <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> raised concerns about warning dissemination mechanisms for most coastal communities in Costa Rica, due to its short travel time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH11B1552T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH11B1552T"><span>Improved <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact assessments: validation, comparison and the integration of hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarbotton, C.; Walters, R. A.; Goff, J. R.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Turner, I. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>As communities become increasingly aware of the risks posed by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, it is important to develop methods for predicting the damage they can cause to the built environment. This will provide the information needed to make informed decisions regarding land-use, building codes, and evacuation. At present, a number of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-building vulnerability assessment <span class="hlt">models</span> are available, however, the relative infrequency and destructive nature of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> has long made it difficult to obtain the data necessary to adequately validate and compare them. Further complicating matters is that the inundation of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the built environment is very difficult <span class="hlt">model</span>, as is the response of a building to the hydraulic forces that a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generates. Variations in building design and condition will significantly affect a building's susceptibility to damage. Likewise, factors affecting the flow conditions at a building (i.e. surrounding structures and topography), will greatly affect its exposure. This presents significant challenges for practitioners, as they are often left in the dark on how to use hazard <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and vulnerability assessment techniques together to conduct the community-scale impact studies required for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> planning. This paper presents the results of an in-depth case study of Yuriage, Miyagi Prefecture - a coastal city in Japan that was badly damaged by the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The aim of the study was twofold: 1) To test and compare existing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> vulnerability assessment <span class="hlt">models</span> and 2) To more effectively utilize hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> in the context of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact studies. Following the 2011 Tohoku event, an unprecedented quantity of field data, imagery and video emerged. Yuriage in particular, features a comprehensive set of street level Google Street View imagery, available both before and after the event. This has enabled the collection of a large dataset describing the characteristics of the buildings existing before the event as well the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6421H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6421H"><span>Project TANDEM (<span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in the Atlantic and the English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>) (2014-2018): a French initiative to draw lessons from the Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on French coastal nuclear facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hébert, Hélène; Abadie, Stéphane; Benoit, Michel; Créach, Ronan; Frère, Antoine; Gailler, Audrey; Garzaglia, Sébastien; Hayashi, Yutaka; Loevenbruck, Anne; Macary, Olivier; Marcer, Richard; Morichon, Denis; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Rebour, Vincent; Ricchiuto, Mario; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo; Terrier, Monique; Toucanne, Samuel; Traversa, Paola; Violeau, Damien</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>TANDEM (<span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in the Atlantic and the English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>) is a French research project dedicated to the appraisal of coastal effects due to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the French coastlines, with a special focus on the Atlantic and Channel coastlines, where French civil nuclear facilities have been operating since about 30 years. This project aims at drawing conclusions from the 2011 catastrophic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and will allow, together with a Japanese research partner, to design, adapt and validate numerical methods of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment, using the outstanding database of the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Then the validated methods will be applied to estimate, as accurately as possible, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard for the French Atlantic and Channel coastlines, in order to provide guidance for risk assessment on the nuclear facilities. The project TANDEM follows the recommendations of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to analyse the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> exposure of the nuclear facilities, as well as the recommendations of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire, ASN) in the aftermath of the 2011 catastrophe, which required the licensee of nuclear facilities to conduct complementary safety assessments (CSA), also including "the robustness beyond their design basis". The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard deserves an appraisal in the light of the 2011 catastrophe, to check whether any unforeseen <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact can be expected for these facilities. TANDEM aims at defining the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects expected for the French Atlantic and Channel coastlines, basically from numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methods, through adaptation and improvement of numerical methods, in order to study <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts down to the interaction with coastal structures (thus sometimes using 3D approaches) (WP1). Then the methods will be tested to better characterize and quantify the associated uncertainties (in the source, the <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and the coastal impact) (WP2). The project will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.S52A..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.S52A..01B"><span>Chilean <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Rocks the Ross Ice Shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Chen, Z.; Stephen, R. A.; Diez, A.; Arcas, D.; Wiens, D.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The response of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) to the September 16, 2015 9.3 Mb Chilean earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (> 75 s period) and infragravity (IG) waves (50 - 300 s period) were recorded by a broadband seismic array deployed on the RIS from November 2014 to November 2015. The array included two linear transects, one approximately orthogonal to the shelf front extending 430 km southward toward the grounding zone, and an east-west transect spanning the RIS roughly parallel to the front about 100 km south of the ice edge (https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/iceshelfvibes/). Signals generated by both the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and IG waves were recorded at all stations on floating ice, with little ocean wave-induced energy reaching stations on grounded ice. Cross-correlation and dispersion curve analyses indicate that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and IG wave-generated signals <span class="hlt">propagate</span> across the RIS at gravity wave speeds (about 70 m/s), consistent with coupled water-ice flexural-gravity waves <span class="hlt">propagating</span> through the ice shelf from the north. Gravity wave excitation at periods > 100 s is continuously observed during the austral winter, providing mechanical excitation of the RIS throughout the year. Horizontal displacements are typically about 3 times larger than vertical displacements, producing extensional motions that could facilitate expansion of existing fractures. The vertical and horizontal spectra in the IG band attenuate exponentially with distance from the front. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> data are used to assess variability of excitation of the RIS by long period gravity waves. Substantial variability across the RIS roughly parallel to the front is observed, likely resulting from a combination of gravity wave amplitude variability along the front, signal attenuation, incident angle of the wave forcing at the front that depends on wave generation location as well as bathymetry under and north of the shelf, and water layer and ice shelf thickness and properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12.1855U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12.1855U"><span>Web-based <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System: a case study of the 2010 Kepulaunan Mentawai Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulutas, E.; Inan, A.; Annunziato, A.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>This study analyzes the response of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in relation to a case study: the Kepulaunan Mentawai earthquake and related <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which occurred on 25 October 2010. The GDACS, developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center, combines existing web-based disaster information management systems with the aim to alert the international community in case of major disasters. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation system is an integral part of the GDACS. In more detail, the study aims to assess the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard on the Mentawai and Sumatra coasts: the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights and arrival times have been estimated employing three <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> based on the long wave theory. The analysis was performed in three stages: (1) pre-calculated simulations by using the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario database for that region, used by the GDACS system to estimate the alert level; (2) near-real-time simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasts, automatically performed by the GDACS system whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismological data providers; and (3) post-event <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> calculations using GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor) fault mechanism solutions proposed by US Geological Survey (USGS) for this event. The GDACS system estimates the alert level based on the first type of calculations and on that basis sends alert messages to its users; the second type of calculations is available within 30-40 min after the notification of the event but does not change the estimated alert level. The third type of calculations is performed to improve the initial estimations and to have a better understanding of the extent of the possible damage. The automatic alert level for the earthquake was given between Green and Orange Alert, which, in the logic of GDACS, means no need or moderate need of international humanitarian assistance; however, the earthquake generated 3 to 9 m <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up along southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands where 431 people died. The post</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.tmp..437G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.tmp..437G"><span>Coastal Amplification Laws for the French <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center: Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Fast Estimate of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Wave Heights Along the French Riviera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Reymond, D.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools in the French <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> Warning Center operational context provide rapidly derived warning levels with a dimensionless variable at basin scale. A new forecast method based on coastal amplification laws has been tested to estimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> onshore height, with a focus on the French Riviera test-site (Nice area). This fast prediction tool provides a coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height distribution, calculated from the numerical simulation of the deep ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude and using a transfer function derived from the Green's law. Due to a lack of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations in the western Mediterranean basin, coastal amplification parameters are here defined regarding high resolution nested grids simulations. The preliminary results for the Nice test site on the basis of nine historical and synthetic sources show a good agreement with the time-consuming high resolution <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: the linear approximation is obtained within 1 min in general and provides estimates within a factor of two in amplitude, although the resonance effects in harbors and bays are not reproduced. In Nice harbor especially, variation in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude is something that cannot be really assessed because of the magnitude range and maximum energy azimuth of possible events to account for. However, this method is well suited for a fast first estimate of the coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat forecast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0198G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0198G"><span>Coastal amplification laws for the French <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> Warning Center: numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and fast estimate of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights along the French Riviera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gailler, A.; Schindelé, F.; Hebert, H.; Reymond, D.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools in the French <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> Warning Center operational context provide for now warning levels with a no dimension scale, and at basin scale. A new forecast method based on coastal amplification laws has been tested to estimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> onshore height, with a focus on the French Riviera test-site (Nice area). This fast prediction tool provides a coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height distribution, calculated from the numerical simulation of the deep ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude and using a transfer function derived from the Green's law. Due to a lack of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observation in the western Mediterranean basin, coastal amplification parameters are here defined regarding high resolution nested grids simulations. The first encouraging results for the Nice test site on the basis of 9 historical and fake sources show a good agreement with the time-consuming high resolution <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: the linear approximation provides within in general 1 minute estimates less a factor of 2 in amplitude, although the resonance effects in harbors and bays are not reproduced. In Nice harbor especially, variation in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude is something that cannot be really appreciated because of the magnitude range and maximum energy azimuth of possible events to account for. However, this method suits well for a fast first estimate of the coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat forecast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1429G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1429G"><span>Coastal Amplification Laws for the French <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center: Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Fast Estimate of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Wave Heights Along the French Riviera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Reymond, D.</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools in the French <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> Warning Center operational context provide rapidly derived warning levels with a dimensionless variable at basin scale. A new forecast method based on coastal amplification laws has been tested to estimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> onshore height, with a focus on the French Riviera test-site (Nice area). This fast prediction tool provides a coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height distribution, calculated from the numerical simulation of the deep ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude and using a transfer function derived from the Green's law. Due to a lack of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations in the western Mediterranean basin, coastal amplification parameters are here defined regarding high resolution nested grids simulations. The preliminary results for the Nice test site on the basis of nine historical and synthetic sources show a good agreement with the time-consuming high resolution <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: the linear approximation is obtained within 1 min in general and provides estimates within a factor of two in amplitude, although the resonance effects in harbors and bays are not reproduced. In Nice harbor especially, variation in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude is something that cannot be really assessed because of the magnitude range and maximum energy azimuth of possible events to account for. However, this method is well suited for a fast first estimate of the coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat forecast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH51A1923R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH51A1923R"><span>Contribution of ionospheric monitoring to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning: results from a benchmark exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolland, L.; Makela, J. J.; Drob, D. P.; Occhipinti, G.; Lognonne, P. H.; Kherani, E. A.; Sladen, A.; Rakoto, V.; Grawe, M.; Meng, X.; Komjathy, A.; Liu, T. J. Y.; Astafyeva, E.; Coisson, P.; Budzien, S. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Deep ocean pressure sensors have proven very effective to quantify <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in real-time. Yet, the cost of these sensors and maintenance strongly limit the extensive deployment of dense networks. Thus a complete observation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave-field is not possible so far. In the last decade, imprints of moderate to large transpacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave-fields have been registered in the ionosphere through the atmospheric internal gravity wave coupled with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> during its <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. Those ionospheric observations could provide a an additional description of the phenomenon with a high spatial coverage. Ionospheric observations have been supported by numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the ocean-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, developed by different groups. We present here the first results of a cross-validation exercise aimed at testing various forward simulation techniques. In particular, we compare different approaches for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced gravity waves including a pseudo-spectral method, finite difference schemes, a fully coupled normal modes <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach, a Fourier-Laplace compressible ray-tracing solution, and a self-consistent, three-dimensional physics-based wave perturbation (WP) <span class="hlt">model</span> based on the augmented Global Thermosphere-Ionosphere <span class="hlt">Model</span> (WP-GITM). These <span class="hlt">models</span> and other existing <span class="hlt">models</span> use either a realistic sea-surface motion input <span class="hlt">model</span> or a simple analytic <span class="hlt">model</span>. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the different methods and setup common inputs to the <span class="hlt">models</span> so that meaningful comparisons of <span class="hlt">model</span> outputs can be made to higlight physical conclusions and understanding. Nominally, we highlight how the different <span class="hlt">models</span> reproduce or disagree for two study cases: the ionospheric observations related to the 2012 Mw7.7 Haida Gwaii, Canada, and 2015 Mw8.3 Illapel, Chile, events. Ultimately, we explore the possibility of computing a transfer function in order to convert ionospheric perturbations directly into <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1742K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1742K"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Focusing and Leading Amplitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanoglu, U.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> transform substantially through spatial and temporal spreading from their source region. This substantial spreading might result unique maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights which might be attributed to the source configuration, directivity, the waveguide structures of mid-ocean ridges and continental shelves, focusing and defocusing through submarine seamounts, random focusing due to small changes in bathymetry, dispersion, and, most likely, combination of some of these effects. In terms of the maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height, after Okal and Synolakis (2016 Geophys. J. Int. 204, 719-735), it is clear that dispersion would be one of the reasons to drive the leading wave amplitude in a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave train. Okal and Synolakis (2016), referring to this phenomenon as sequencing -later waves in the train becoming higher than the leading one, considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp) formalism, in addition to LeMéhauté and Wang's (1995 Water waves generated by underwater explosion, World Scientific, 367 pp), to evaluate linear dispersive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> from a circular plug uplifted on an ocean of constant depth. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, performing parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean. Here, we extend Okal and Synolakis' (2016) analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial wave form of N-wave (Tadepalli and Synolakis, 1994 Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 445, 99-112). First, we investigate the focusing feature in the leading-depression side, which enhance <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013 Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 469, 20130015). We then discuss the results in terms of leading wave amplitude presenting a parametric study and identify a simple relation for the transition distance. The solution presented here could be used to better analyze dispersive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3162O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3162O"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Impact in Morocco due to Most Credible <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Scenarios in the Gulf of Cadiz.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Toto, E. A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>In the Gulf of Cadiz, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk should be considered major due to the peculiar geological context close to the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary and also to the high vulnerability of the coastlines in the region. The extensive occupation of coastal areas in the surrounding countries - Portugal, Spain and Morocco, the enormous influxes of tourists during high season and the large economic value of harbors and other coastal facilities increase considerably the vulnerability to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact. In order to establish the Most Credible <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Scenarios we used the earthquake scenarios in the Gulf of Cadiz area. Each scenario has an associated typical fault/or faults and a set of fault parameters that are used as input to compute the sea bottom deformation using Okada's equations. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> uses COMCOT-LX, modified version of the COMCOT Cornnell University code. Maximum wave height (MWH) and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy direction are computed, for each tsunamigenic scenario for the north Atlantic coast of Morocco. Finally we selected the harbor of Casablanca for the production of inundation maps for Casablanca This research was funded by NEAREST and TRANSFER, 6FP-European Union.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1029L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1029L"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Detection Systems for International Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lawson, R. A.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system would be reliable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves as they <span class="hlt">propagate</span> past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/TE-1767_web.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/TE-1767_web.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> geology in paleoseismology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. For the assessment of future risk posed by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> it is necessary to understand past <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events. Recent work on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (e.g. [187–189]). <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. These non-earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occur less frequently than earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelers</span> use as a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>'s initial condition. The <span class="hlt">modelers</span> then let the simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events [190, 191]. In some cases, a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and are called ‘<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits’ (Figs. 26</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3021L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3021L"><span>Computerized Workstation for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavrentiev-Jr, Mikhail; Marchuk, Andrey; Romanenko, Alexey; Simonov, Konstantin; Titov, Vasiliy</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We present general structure and functionality of the proposed Computerized Workstation for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Monitoring (CWTHM). The tool allows interactive monitoring of hazard, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessment, and mitigation - at all stages, from the period of strong tsunamigenic earthquake preparation to inundation of the defended coastal areas. CWTHM is a software-hardware complex with a set of software applications, optimized to achieve best performance on hardware platforms in use. The complex is calibrated for selected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source zone(s) and coastal zone(s) to be defended. The number of zones (both source and coastal) is determined, or restricted, by available hardware resources. The presented complex performs monitoring of selected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source zone via the Internet. The authors developed original algorithms, which enable detection of the preparation zone of the strong underwater earthquake automatically. For the so-determined zone the event time, magnitude and spatial location of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source are evaluated by means of energy of the seismic precursors (foreshocks) analysis. All the above parameters are updated after each foreshock. Once preparing event is detected, several scenarios are forecasted for wave amplitude parameters as well as the inundation zone. Estimations include the lowest and the highest wave amplitudes and the least and the most inundation zone. In addition to that, the most probable case is calculated. In case of multiple defended coastal zones, forecasts and estimates can be done in parallel. Each time the simulated <span class="hlt">model</span> wave reaches deep ocean buoys or tidal gauge, expected values of wave parameters and inundation zones are updated with historical events information and pre-calculated scenarios. The Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (MOST) software package is used for mathematical simulation. The authors suggest code acceleration for deep water wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. As a result, performance is 15 times faster compared to MOST, original version</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NHESS..17.1871A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NHESS..17.1871A"><span>High-resolution <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up flooding: a case study of flooding in Kamaishi city, Japan, induced by the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akoh, Ryosuke; Ishikawa, Tadaharu; Kojima, Takashi; Tomaru, Mahito; Maeno, Shiro</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Run-up processes of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> into the city of Kamaishi, Japan, were simulated numerically using 2-D shallow water equations with a new treatment of building footprints. The <span class="hlt">model</span> imposes an internal hydraulic condition of permeable and impermeable walls at the building footprint outline on unstructured triangular meshes. Digital data of the building footprint approximated by polygons were overlaid on a 1.0 m resolution terrain <span class="hlt">model</span>. The hydraulic boundary conditions were ascertained using conventional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> calculation from the seismic center to nearshore areas. Run-up flow calculations were conducted under the same hydraulic conditions for several cases having different building permeabilities. Comparison of computation results with field data suggests that the case with a small amount of wall permeability gives better agreement than the case with impermeable condition. Spatial mapping of an indicator for run-up flow intensity (IF = (hU2)max, where h and U respectively denote the inundation depth and flow velocity during the flood, shows fairly good correlation with the distribution of houses destroyed by flooding. As a possible mitigation measure, the influence of the buildings on the flow was assessed using a numerical experiment for solid buildings arrayed alternately in two lines along the coast. Results show that the buildings can prevent seawater from flowing straight to the city center while maintaining access to the sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH52A..01W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH52A..01W"><span>Interdisciplinary <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and analysis to reduce loss of life from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, N. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Recent disasters have demonstrated the significant loss of life and community impacts that can occur from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Minimizing future losses requires an integrated understanding of the range of potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threats, how individuals are specifically vulnerable to these threats, what is currently in place to improve their chances of survival, and what risk-reduction efforts could be implemented. This presentation will provide a holistic perspective of USGS research enabled by recent advances in geospatial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to assess and communicate population vulnerability to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and the range of possible interventions to reduce it. Integrated research includes efforts to characterize the magnitude and demography of at-risk individuals in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-hazard zones, their evacuation potential based on landscape conditions, nature-based mitigation to improve evacuation potential, evacuation pathways and population demand at assembly areas, siting considerations for vertical-evacuation refuges, community implications of multiple evacuation zones, car-based evacuation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for distant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, and projected changes in population exposure to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> over time. Collectively, this interdisciplinary research supports emergency managers in their efforts to implement targeted risk-reduction efforts based on local conditions and needs, instead of generic regional strategies that only focus on hazard attributes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.5076L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.5076L"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-driven gravity waves in the presence of vertically varying background and tidal wind structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laughman, B.; Fritts, D. C.; Lund, T. S.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Many characteristics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-driven gravity waves (TDGWs) enable them to easily <span class="hlt">propagate</span> into the thermosphere and ionosphere with appreciable amplitudes capable of producing detectable perturbations in electron densities and total electron content. The impact of vertically varying background and tidal wind structures on TDGW <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is investigated with a series of idealized background wind profiles to assess the relative importance of wave reflection, critical-level approach, and dissipation. These numerical simulations employ a 2-D nonlinear anelastic finite-volume neutral atmosphere <span class="hlt">model</span> which accounts for effects accompanying vertical gravity wave (GW) <span class="hlt">propagation</span> such as amplitude growth with altitude. The GWs are excited by an idealized <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forcing with a 50 cm sea surface displacement, a 400 km horizontal wavelength, and a phase speed of 200 ms-1 consistent with previous studies of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake. Results indicate that rather than partial reflection and trapping, the dominant process governing TDGW <span class="hlt">propagation</span> to thermospheric altitudes is refraction to larger and smaller vertical scales, resulting in respectively larger and smaller vertical group velocities and respectively reduced and increased viscous dissipation. Under all considered background wind profiles, TDGWs were able to attain ionospheric altitudes with appreciable amplitudes. Finally, evidence of nonlinear effects is observed and the conditions leading to their formation is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH14A..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH14A..01H"><span>Local <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warnings using GNSS and Seismic Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirshorn, B. F.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p> solutions, coseismic crustal deformation, and fault slip <span class="hlt">models</span> within a few minutes after earthquake initiation. The sea floor deformation associated with the earthquake slip can then be used as an initial condition for an automatically generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and coastal inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> for coastal warnings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3657L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3657L"><span>Towards a probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis for the Gulf of Cadiz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Løvholt, Finn; Urgeles, Roger</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> put into a regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for computing the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. We devote attention to discussing the epistemic uncertainty and sensitivity of the landslide input parameters, and how these may affect the hazard assessment. As the full variability of the landslide parameters cannot be endured, we show that there is a considerable challenge related to the multiple landslide parameter variability. Finally, we discuss some logical next steps in the analysis, as well as possible sources of error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4417O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4417O"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment in the Colombian Caribbean Coast with a deterministic approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otero Diaz, L.; Correa, R.; Ortiz R, J. C.; Restrepo L, J. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>For the Caribbean Sea, we propose six potential tectonic sources of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, defining for each source the worst credible earthquake from the analysis of historical seismicity, tectonics, pasts <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and review of IRIS, PDE, NOAA, and CMT catalogs. The generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in the selected sources were simulated with COMCOT 1.7, which is a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> that solves the linear and nonlinear long wave equations in finite differences in both Cartesian, and spherical coordinates. The results of the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are presented in maps of maximum displacement of the free surface for the Colombian Caribbean coast and the island areas, and they show that the event would produce greater impact is generated in the source of North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), where the first wave train reaches the central Colombian coast in 40 minutes, generating wave heights up to 3.7 m. In San Andrés and Providencia island, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves reach more than 4.5 m due effects of edge waves caused by interactions between waves and a barrier coral reef around of each island. The results obtained in this work are useful for planning systems and future regional and local warning systems and to identify priority areas to conduct detailed research to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1822G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1822G"><span>New Methodology for Computing Subaerial Landslide-<span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>: Application to the 2015 Tyndall Glacier Landslide, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>George, D. L.; Iverson, R. M.; Cannon, C. M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> pose significant hazards to coastal communities and infrastructure, but developing <span class="hlt">models</span> to assess these hazards presents challenges beyond those confronted when <span class="hlt">modeling</span> seismically generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. We present a new methodology in which our depth-averaged two-phase <span class="hlt">model</span> D-Claw (Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 2014, doi: 10.1098/rspa.2013.0819 and doi:10.1098/rspa.2013.0820) is used to simulate all stages of landslide dynamics and subsequent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. D-Claw was developed to simulate landslides and debris-flows, but if granular solids are absent, then the D-Claw equations reduce to the shallow-water equations commonly used to <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Because the <span class="hlt">model</span> describes the evolution of solid and fluid volume fractions, it treats both landslides and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> as special cases of a more general class of phenomena, and the landslide and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> can be simulated as a single-layer continuum with spatially and temporally evolving solid-grain concentrations. This seamless approach accommodates wave generation via mass displacement and longitudinal momentum transfer, the dominant mechanisms producing impulse waves when large subaerial landslides impact relatively shallow bodies of water. To test our methodology, we used D-Claw to <span class="hlt">model</span> a large subaerial landslide and resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that occurred on October, 17, 2015, in Taan Fjord near the terminus of Tyndall Glacier, Alaska. The estimated landslide volume derived from radiated long-period seismicity (C. Stark (2015), Abstract EP51D-08, AGU Fall Meeting) was about 70-80 million cubic meters. Guided by satellite imagery and this volume estimate, we inferred an approximate landslide basal slip surface, and we used material property values identical to those used in our previous <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the 2014 Oso, Washington, landslide. With these inputs the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation patterns on shorelines compare well with observations derived from satellite imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22004076-tsunami-evacuation-mathematical-model-city-padang','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22004076-tsunami-evacuation-mathematical-model-city-padang"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> evacuation mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for the city of Padang</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kusdiantara, R.; Hadianti, R.; Badri Kusuma, M. S.</p> <p>2012-05-22</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> is a series of wave trains which travels with high speed on the sea surface. This traveling wave is caused by the displacement of a large volume of water after the occurrence of an underwater earthquake or volcano eruptions. The speed of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> decreases when it reaches the sea shore along with the increase of its amplitudes. Two large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> had occurred in the last decades in Indonesia with huge casualties and large damages. Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System has been installed along the west coast of Sumatra. This early warning system will give about 10-15 minutes to evacuatemore » people from high risk regions to the safe areas. Here in this paper, a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> evacuation is presented with the city of Padang as a study case. In the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the safe areas are chosen from the existing and selected high rise buildings, low risk region with relatively high altitude and (proposed to be built) a flyover ring road. Each gathering points are located in the radius of approximately 1 km from the ring road. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is formulated as an optimization problem with the total normalized evacuation time as the objective function. The constraints consist of maximum allowable evacuation time in each route, maximum capacity of each safe area, and the number of people to be evacuated. The optimization problem is solved numerically using linear programming method with Matlab. Numerical results are shown for various evacuation scenarios for the city of Padang.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919099T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919099T"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> simulation method initiated from waveforms observed by ocean bottom pressure sensors for real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast; Applied for 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanioka, Yuichiro</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>After <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake, improvement of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast has been an urgent issue in Japan. National Institute of Disaster Prevention is installing a cable network system of earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observation (S-NET) at the ocean bottom along the Japan and Kurile trench. This cable system includes 125 pressure sensors (<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> meters) which are separated by 30 km. Along the Nankai trough, JAMSTEC already installed and operated the cable network system of seismometers and pressure sensors (DONET and DONET2). Those systems are the most dense observation network systems on top of source areas of great underthrust earthquakes in the world. Real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast has depended on estimation of earthquake parameters, such as epicenter, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes. Recently, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast method has been developed using the estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensors. However, when we have many pressure sensors separated by 30km on top of the source area, we do not need to estimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source or earthquake source to compute <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Instead, we can initiate a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation from those dense <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observed data. Observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height differences with a time interval at the ocean bottom pressure sensors separated by 30 km were used to estimate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height distribution at a particular time. In our new method, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulation was initiated from those estimated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height distribution. In this paper, the above method is improved and applied for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">model</span> of the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake estimated using observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms, coseimic deformation observed by GPS and ocean bottom sensors by Gusman et al. (2012) is used in this study. The ocean surface deformation is computed from the source <span class="hlt">model</span> and used as an initial condition of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1857i0005P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1857i0005P"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Eastern Indonesia: 1674 Ambon and 1992 Flores case studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Cummins, Phil; Griffin, Jonathan; Davies, Gareth; Latief, Hamzah</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In order to reliably assess <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in eastern Indonesia, we need to understand how historical events were generated. Here we consider two such events: the 1674 Ambon and the 1992 Flores <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Firstly, Ambon Island suffered a devastating earthquake that generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with 100 m run-up height on the north coast of the island in 1674. However, there is no known active fault around the island capable of generating such a gigantic wave. Rumphius' report describes that the initial wave was coming from three villages that collapsed immediately after the earthquake with width as far as a musket shot. Moreover, a very high <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was only observed locally. We suspect that a submarine landslide was the main cause of the gigantic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the north side of Ambon Island. Unfortunately, there is no data available to confirm if landslide have occurred in this region. Secondly, several <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">models</span> for the 1992 Flores event have been suggested. However, the fault strike is quite different compare to the existing Flores back-arc thrust and has not been well validated against a tide gauge waveform at Palopo, Sulawesi. We considered a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> based on Griffin, et al., 2015, extended with high resolution bathymetry laround Palopo, in order to validate the latest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source <span class="hlt">model</span> available. In general, the <span class="hlt">model</span> produces a good agreement with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms, but arrives 10 minutes late compared to observed data. In addition, the source overestimates the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation west of Maumere, and does not account for the presumed landslide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the east side of Flores Island.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH31D..01W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH31D..01W"><span>The U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program: Successes in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Preparedness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R. I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Formed in 1995 by Congressional Action, the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP) provides the framework for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness activities in the United States. The Program consists of the 28 U.S. coastal states, territories, and commonwealths (STCs), as well as three Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Since its inception, the NTHMP has advanced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness in the United States through accomplishments in many areas of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness: - Coordination and funding of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis and preparedness activities in STCs; - Development and execution of a coordinated plan to address education and outreach activities (materials, signage, and guides) within its membership; - Lead the effort to assist communities in meeting National Weather Service (NWS) <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>Ready guidelines through development of evacuation maps and other planning activities; - Determination of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard zones in most highly threatened coastal communities throughout the country by detailed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation studies; - Development of a benchmarking procedure for numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to ensure <span class="hlt">models</span> used in the inundation studies meet consistent, NOAA standards; - Creation of a national <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> exercise framework to test <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system response; - Funding community <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning dissemination and reception systems such as sirens and NOAA Weather Radios; and, - Providing guidance to NOAA's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Centers regarding warning dissemination and content. NTHMP activities have advanced the state of preparedness of United States coastal communities, and have helped save lives and property during recent <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Program successes as well as future plans, including maritime preparedness, are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH13A0111T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH13A0111T"><span>Quantifying Coastal Hazard of Airburst-Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Titov, V. V.; Boslough, M.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The effort to prevent or mitigate the effects of an impact on Earth is known as planetary defense. A significant component of planetary defense research involves risk assessment. Much of our understanding of the risk from near-Earth objects comes from the geologic record in the form of impact craters, but not all asteroid impacts are crater-forming events. Small asteroids explode before reaching the surface, generating an airburst, and most impacts into the ocean do not penetrate the water to form a crater in the sea floor. The risk from these non-crater-forming ocean impacts and airbursts is difficult to quantify and represents a significant uncertainty in our assessment of the overall threat. One of the suggested mechanisms for the production of asteroid-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is by direct coupling of the pressure wave to the water, analogous to the means by which a moving weather front can generate a meteotsunami. To test this hypothesis, we have run a series of airburst simulations and provided time-resolved pressure and wind profiles for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelers</span> to use as source functions. We used hydrocodes to <span class="hlt">model</span> airburst scenarios and provide time dependent boundary conditions as input to shallow-water wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> codes. The strongest and most destructive meteotsunami are generated by atmospheric pressure oscillations with amplitudes of only a few hPa, corresponding to changes in sea level of a few cm. The resulting wave is strongest when there is a resonance between the ocean and the atmospheric forcing. The blast wave from an airburst <span class="hlt">propagates</span> at a speed close to a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> speed only in the deepest part of the ocean, and a Proudman resonance cannot be usually achieved even though the overpressures are orders of magnitude greater. However, blast wave profiles are N-waves in which a sharp shock wave leading to overpressure is followed by a more gradual rarefaction to a much longer-duration underpressure phase. Even though the blast outruns the water wave it is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH24A..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH24A..07S"><span>Research to Operations: From Point Positions, Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> to GNSS-augmented <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stough, T.; Green, D. S.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>This collaborative research to operations demonstration brings together the data and algorithms from NASA research, technology, and applications-funded projects to deliver relevant data streams, algorithms, predictive <span class="hlt">models</span>, and visualization tools to the NOAA National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (NTWC) and Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (PTWC). Using real-time GNSS data and <span class="hlt">models</span> in an operational environment, we will test and evaluate an augmented capability for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning. Each of three research groups collect data from a selected network of real-time GNSS stations, exchange data consisting of independently processed 1 Hz station displacements, and merge the output into a single, more accurate and reliable set. The resulting merged data stream is delivered from three redundant locations to the TWCs with a latency of 5-10 seconds. Data from a number of seismogeodetic stations with collocated GPS and accelerometer instruments are processed for displacements and seismic velocities and also delivered. Algorithms for locating and determining the magnitude of earthquakes as well as algorithms that compute the source function of a potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> using this new data stream are included in the demonstration. The delivered data, algorithms, <span class="hlt">models</span> and tools are hosted on NOAA-operated machines at both warning centers, and, once tested, the results will be evaluated for utility in improving the speed and accuracy of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warnings. This collaboration has the potential to dramatically improve the speed and accuracy of the TWCs local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> information over the current seismometer-only based methods. In our first year of this work, we have established and deployed an architecture for data movement and algorithm installation at the TWC's. We are addressing data quality issues and porting algorithms into the TWCs operating environment. Our initial module deliveries will focus on estimating moment magnitude (Mw) from Peak Ground Displacement (PGD), within 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1807Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1807Q"><span>Multi-scale <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flows and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, X.; Motley, M. R.; LeVeque, R. J.; Gonzalez, F. I.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flows and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced forces in coastal communities with the incorporation of the constructed environment is challenging for many numerical <span class="hlt">modelers</span> because of the scale and complexity of the physical problem. A two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged <span class="hlt">model</span> can be efficient for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of waves offshore but may not be accurate enough to predict the complex flow with transient variance in vertical direction around constructed environments on land. On the other hand, using a more complex three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> is much more computational expensive and can become impractical due to the size of the problem and the meshing requirements near the built environment. In this study, a 2D depth-integrated <span class="hlt">model</span> and a 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) <span class="hlt">model</span> are built to <span class="hlt">model</span> a 1:50 <span class="hlt">model</span>-scale, idealized community, representative of Seaside, OR, USA, for which existing experimental data is available for comparison. Numerical results from the two numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> are compared with each other as well as experimental measurement. Both <span class="hlt">models</span> predict the flow parameters (water level, velocity, and momentum flux in the vicinity of the buildings) accurately, in general, except for time period near the initial impact, where the depth-averaged <span class="hlt">models</span> can fail to capture the complexities in the flow. Forces predicted using direct integration of predicted pressure on structural surfaces from the 3D <span class="hlt">model</span> and using momentum flux from the 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> with constructed environment are compared, which indicates that force prediction from the 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> is not always reliable in such a complicated case. Force predictions from integration of the pressure are also compared with forces predicted from bare earth momentum flux calculations to reveal the importance of incorporating the constructed environment in force prediction <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1405C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1405C"><span>A Collaborative Effort Between Caribbean States for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: Case Study CaribeWave15</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; López-Venegas, Alberto; Sánchez-Escobar, Rónald; Luque-Vergara, Néstor</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Historical records have shown that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> have affected the Caribbean region in the past. However infrequent, recent studies have demonstrated that they pose a latent hazard for countries within this basin. The Hazard Assessment Working Group of the ICG/CARIBE-EWS (Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Early Warning System for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> and Other Coastal Threats for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions) of IOC/UNESCO has a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> subgroup, which seeks to develop a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> platform to assess the effects of possible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources within the basin. The CaribeWave <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> exercise is carried out annually in the Caribbean region to increase awareness and test <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness of countries within the basin. In this study we present results of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation using the CaribeWave15 exercise scenario for four selected locations within the Caribbean basin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá and Puerto Rico), performed by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> researchers from those selected countries. The purpose of this study was to provide the states with additional results for the exercise. The results obtained here were compared to co-seismic deformation and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights within the basin (energy plots) provided for the exercise to assess the performance of the decision support tools distributed by PTWC (Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center), the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> service provider for the Caribbean basin. However, comparison of coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights was not possible, due to inconsistencies between the provided fault parameters and the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results within the provided exercise products. Still, the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> performed here allowed to analyze <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> characteristics at the mentioned states from sources within the North Panamá Deformed Belt. The occurrence of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Caribbean may affect several countries because a great variety of them share coastal zones in this basin. Therefore, collaborative efforts similar to the one presented in this study, particularly between neighboring</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.tmp..406C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.tmp..406C"><span>A Collaborative Effort Between Caribbean States for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: Case Study CaribeWave15</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; López-Venegas, Alberto; Sánchez-Escobar, Rónald; Luque-Vergara, Néstor</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Historical records have shown that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> have affected the Caribbean region in the past. However infrequent, recent studies have demonstrated that they pose a latent hazard for countries within this basin. The Hazard Assessment Working Group of the ICG/CARIBE-EWS (Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Early Warning System for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> and Other Coastal Threats for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions) of IOC/UNESCO has a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> subgroup, which seeks to develop a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> platform to assess the effects of possible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources within the basin. The CaribeWave <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> exercise is carried out annually in the Caribbean region to increase awareness and test <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness of countries within the basin. In this study we present results of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation using the CaribeWave15 exercise scenario for four selected locations within the Caribbean basin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá and Puerto Rico), performed by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> researchers from those selected countries. The purpose of this study was to provide the states with additional results for the exercise. The results obtained here were compared to co-seismic deformation and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights within the basin (energy plots) provided for the exercise to assess the performance of the decision support tools distributed by PTWC (Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center), the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> service provider for the Caribbean basin. However, comparison of coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights was not possible, due to inconsistencies between the provided fault parameters and the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results within the provided exercise products. Still, the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> performed here allowed to analyze <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> characteristics at the mentioned states from sources within the North Panamá Deformed Belt. The occurrence of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Caribbean may affect several countries because a great variety of them share coastal zones in this basin. Therefore, collaborative efforts similar to the one presented in this study, particularly between neighboring</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5562L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5562L"><span>Toward the Real-Time <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Parameters Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Marchuk, Andrey</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Today, a wide well-developed system of deep ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detectors operates over the Pacific. Direct measurements of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-wave time series are available. However, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-warning systems fail to predict basic parameters of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on time. Dozens examples could be provided. In our view, the lack of computational power is the main reason of these failures. At the same time, modern computer technologies such as, GPU (graphic processing unit) and FPGA (field programmable gates array), can dramatically improve data processing performance, which may enhance timely <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-warning prediction. Thus, it is possible to address the challenge of real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting for selected geo regions. We propose to use three new techniques in the existing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems to achieve real-time calculation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave parameters. First of all, measurement system (DART buoys location, e.g.) should be optimized (both in terms of wave arriving time and amplitude parameter). The corresponding software application exists today and is ready for use [1]. We consider the example of the coastal line of Japan. Numerical tests show that optimal installation of only 4 DART buoys (accounting the existing sea bed cable) will reduce the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave detection time to only 10 min after an underwater earthquake. Secondly, as was shown by this paper authors, the use of GPU/FPGA technologies accelerates the execution of the MOST (method of splitting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>) code by 100 times [2]. Therefore, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> over the ocean area 2000*2000 km (wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> simulation: time step 10 sec, recording each 4th spatial point and 4th time step) could be calculated at: 3 sec with 4' mesh 50 sec with 1' mesh 5 min with 0.5' mesh The algorithm to switch from coarse mesh to the fine grain one is also available. Finally, we propose the new algorithm for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source parameters determination by real-time processing the time series, obtained at DART. It is possible to approximate</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.2127A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.2127A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on <span class="hlt">propagation</span> numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> for earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding <span class="hlt">models</span>. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. We used a hybrid finite differences - finite volumes numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained with the high resolution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESS..13.2927A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESS..13.2927A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on <span class="hlt">propagation</span> numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> for earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding <span class="hlt">models</span>. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1835W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1835W"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat to Sydney Harbour, Australia, with comparisons to historical events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, O.; Power, H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Sydney Harbour is an iconic location with a dense population and low-lying development. On the east coast of Australia, facing the Pacific Ocean it is exposed to several tsunamigenic trenches. To date, this is the most detailed assessment of the potential for earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact on Sydney Harbour. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave trains <span class="hlt">modelled</span> include <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modelled</span> from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5, 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0 MW from the Puysegur and New Hebrides trenches. Historical events from Chile in 1960 and Japan in 2011 are also <span class="hlt">modelled</span> for comparison. Using the hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> ANUGA, results show that the events <span class="hlt">modelled</span> have the potential to cause high current speeds, hazardous waves and rapid changes in water level. These effects are most dramatic at pinch points such as Spit Bridge and Anzac Bridge, particularly with regard to current speeds. Large waves are shown to be a particular threat at the mouth of the harbour, where the bathymetry causes the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave train to shoal. Inundation is less of a hazard for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events modlled, although some inundation is evident at several low-lying embayments in the south of the harbour. These results will provide an evidence base for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat emergency management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513112G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513112G"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the 1958 Lituya Bay mega-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with a PVM-IFCP GPU-based <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González-Vida, José M.; Arcas, Diego; de la Asunción, Marc; Castro, Manuel J.; Macías, Jorge; Ortega, Sergio; Sánchez-Linares, Carlos; Titov, Vasily</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this work we present a numerical study, performed in collaboration with the NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research (USA), that uses a GPU version of the PVM-IFCP landslide <span class="hlt">model</span> for the simulation of the 1958 landslide generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of Lituya Bay. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, a layer composed of fluidized granular material is assumed to flow within an upper layer of an inviscid fluid (e. g. water). The <span class="hlt">model</span> is discretized using a two dimensional PVM-IFCP [Fernández - Castro - Parés. On an Intermediate Field Capturing Riemann Solver Based on a Parabolic Viscosity Matrix for the Two-Layer Shallow Water System, J. Sci. Comput., 48 (2011):117-140] finite volume scheme implemented on GPU cards for increasing the speed-up. This <span class="hlt">model</span> has been previously validated by using the two-dimensional physical laboratory experiments data from H. Fritz [Lituya Bay Landslide Impact Generated Mega-<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> 50th Anniversary. Pure Appl. Geophys., 166 (2009) pp. 153-175]. In the present work, the first step was to reconstruct the topobathymetry of the Lituya Bay before this event ocurred, this is based on USGS geological surveys data. Then, a sensitivity analysis of some <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters has been performed in order to determine the parameters that better fit to reality, when <span class="hlt">model</span> results are compared against available event data, as run-up areas. In this presentation, the reconstruction of the pre-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario will be shown, a detailed simulation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> presented and several comparisons with real data (runup, wave height, etc.) shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH12A..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH12A..08S"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> on Sanriku Coast in 1586: Orphan or Ghost <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> ?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satake, K.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The Peruvian earthquake on July 9, 1586 was the oldest earthquake that damaged Lima. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height was assigned as 24 m in Callao and 1-2 m in Miyagi prefecture in Japan by Soloviev and Go (1975). Dorbath et al. (1990) studied historical earthquakes in Peru and estimated that the 1586 earthquake was similar to the 1974 event (Mw 8.1) with source length of 175 km. They referred two different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights, 3. 7m and 24 m, in Callao, and judged that the latter was exaggerated. Okal et al. (2006) could not make a source <span class="hlt">model</span> to explain both <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights in Callao and Japan. More recently, Butler et al. (2017) estimated the age of coral boulders in Hawaii as AD 1572 +/- 21, speculated the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source in Aleutians, and attributed it to the source of the 1586 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Japan. Historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, both near-field and far-field, have been documented along the Sanriku coast since 1586 (e.g., Watanabe, 1998). However, there is no written document for the 1586 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (Tsuji et al., 2013). Ninomiya (1960) compiled the historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records on the Sanriku coast soon after the 1960 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and correlated the legend of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Tokura with the 1586 Peruvian earthquake, although he noted that the dates were different. About the legend, he referred to Kunitomi(1933) who compiled historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data after the 1933 Showa Sanriku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Kunitomi referred to "<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> history of Miyagi prefecture" published after the 1896 Meiji Sanriku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. "<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> history" described the earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damage of Tensho earthquake on January 18 (Gregorian),1586 in central Japan, and correlated the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> legend in Tokura on June 30, 1586 (G). Following the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> legend in Tokura was studied again (Ebina, 2015). A local person published a story he heard from his grandfather that many small valleys were named following the 1611 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which inundated further inland than the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Ebina (2015), based on historical documents</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1525B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1525B"><span>Airburst-Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berger, Marsha; Goodman, Jonathan</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>This paper examines the questions of whether smaller asteroids that burst in the air over water can generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that could pose a threat to distant locations. Such airburst-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are qualitatively different than the more frequently studied earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, and differ as well from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by asteroids that strike the ocean. Numerical simulations are presented using the shallow water equations in several settings, demonstrating very little <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat from this scenario. A <span class="hlt">model</span> problem with an explicit solution that demonstrates and explains the same phenomena found in the computations is analyzed. We discuss the question of whether compressibility and dispersion are important effects that should be included, and show results from a more sophisticated <span class="hlt">model</span> problem using the linearized Euler equations that begins to addresses this.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH43B1648D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH43B1648D"><span>2011 Tohoku, Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Geophysical Data Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunbar, P. K.; Mccullough, H. L.; Mungov, G.; Harris, E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility for providing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warnings to the Nation, and a leadership role in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations and research. A key component of this effort is easy access to authoritative data on past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, a responsibility of the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and collocated World Service for Geophysics. Archive responsibilities include the global historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> database, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (DART®) data, damage photos, as well as other related hazards data. Taken together, this integrated archive supports <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast, warning, research, mitigation and education efforts of NOAA and the Nation. Understanding the severity and timing of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects is important for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard mitigation and warning. The global historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> database includes the date, time, and location of the source event, magnitude of the source, event validity, maximum wave height, the total number of fatalities and dollar damage. The database contains additional information on run-ups (locations where <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves were observed by eyewitnesses, field reconnaissance surveys, tide gauges, or deep ocean sensors). The run-up table includes arrival times, distance from the source, measurement type, maximum wave height, and the number of fatalities and damage for the specific run-up location. Tide gauge data are required for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the interaction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves with the coast and for verifying <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">models</span>. NGDC is the long-term archive for all NOAA coastal tide gauge data and is currently archiving 15-second to 1-minute water level data from the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) and the NOAA <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Centers. DART® buoys, which are essential components of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems, are now deployed in all oceans, giving coastal communities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14.1155O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14.1155O"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment in the southern Colombian Pacific basin and a proposal to regenerate a previous barrier island as protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Gonzalez, M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In this study, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard posed to 120 000 inhabitants of Tumaco (Colombia) is assessed, and an evaluation and analysis of regenerating the previous El Guano Island for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> protection is conducted. El Guano Island was a sandy barrier island in front of the city of Tumaco until its disappearance during the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 1979; the island is believed to have played a protective role, substantially reducing the scale of the disaster. The analysis is conducted by identifying seismotectonic parameters and focal mechanisms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation in the area, determining seven potential generation sources, applying a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and evaluating the effect of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on Tumaco. The results show that in the current situation, this area is vulnerable to impact and flooding by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> originating nearby. El Guano Island was found to markedly reduce flood levels and the energy flux of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in Tumaco during the 1979 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. By reducing the risk of flooding due to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, the regeneration and morphological modification of El Guano Island would help to protect Tumaco.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.1173O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.1173O"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment in the southern Colombian Pacific Basin and a proposal to regenerate a previous barrier island as protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Gonzalez, M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this study, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard posed to 120 000 inhabitants of Tumaco (Colombia) is assessed, and an evaluation and analysis of regenerating the previous El Guano Island for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> protection is conducted. El Guano Island was a sandy barrier island in front of the city of Tumaco until its disappearance during the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 1979; the island is believed to have played a protective role, substantially reducing the scale of the disaster. The analysis is conducted by identifying seismotectonic parameters and focal mechanisms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation in the area, determining seven potential generation sources, applying a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and evaluating the effect of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on Tumaco. The results show that in the current situation, this area is vulnerable to impact and flooding by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> originating nearby. El Guano Island was found to markedly reduce flood levels and the energy flux of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in Tumaco during the 1979 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. To reduce the risk of flooding due to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, the regeneration and morphological modification of El Guano Island would help to protect Tumaco.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6373A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6373A"><span>Advanced Geospatial Hydrodynamic Signals Analysis for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Event Detection and Warning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe; Sabeur, Zoheir</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Current early <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning can be issued upon the detection of a seismic event which may occur at a given location offshore. This also provides an opportunity to predict the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and run-ups at potentially affected coastal zones by selecting the best matching seismic event from a database of pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios. Nevertheless, it remains difficult and challenging to obtain the rupture parameters of the tsunamigenic earthquakes in real time and simulate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> with high accuracy. In this study, we propose a supporting approach, in which the hydrodynamic signal is systematically analysed for traces of a tsunamigenic signal. The combination of relatively low amplitudes of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signal at deep waters and the frequent occurrence of background signals and noise contributes to a generally low signal to noise ratio for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signal; which in turn makes the detection of this signal difficult. In order to improve the accuracy and confidence of detection, a re-identification framework in which a tsunamigenic signal is detected via the scan of a network of hydrodynamic stations with water level sensing is performed. The aim is to attempt the re-identification of the same signatures as the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave spatially <span class="hlt">propagates</span> through the hydrodynamic stations sensing network. The re-identification of the tsunamigenic signal is technically possible since the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signal at the open ocean itself conserves its birthmarks relating it to the source event. As well as supporting the initial detection and improving the confidence of detection, a re-identified signal is indicative of the spatial range of the signal, and thereby it can be used to facilitate the identification of certain background signals such as wind waves which do not have as large a spatial reach as <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In this paper, the proposed methodology for the automatic detection of tsunamigenic signals has been achieved using open data from NOAA with a recorded</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH54A..05W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH54A..05W"><span>New Activities of the U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program, Mapping and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Subcommittee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, R. I.; Eble, M. C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is comprised of representatives from coastal states and federal agencies who, under the guidance of NOAA, work together to develop protocols and products to help communities prepare for and mitigate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards. Within the NTHMP are several subcommittees responsible for complimentary aspects of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> assessment, mitigation, education, warning, and response. The Mapping and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Subcommittee (MMS) is comprised of state and federal scientists who specialize in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source characterization, numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, inundation map production, and warning forecasting. Until September 2012, much of the work of the MMS was authorized through the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning and Education Act, an Act that has since expired but the spirit of which is being adhered to in parallel with reauthorization efforts. Over the past several years, the MMS has developed guidance and best practices for states and territories to produce accurate and consistent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation maps for community level evacuation planning, and has conducted benchmarking of numerical inundation <span class="hlt">models</span>. Recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events have highlighted the need for other types of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analyses and products for improving evacuation planning, vertical evacuation, maritime planning, land-use planning, building construction, and warning forecasts. As the program responsible for producing accurate and consistent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> products nationally, the NTHMP-MMS is initiating a multi-year plan to accomplish the following: 1) Create and build on existing demonstration projects that explore new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis techniques and products, such as maps identifying areas of strong currents and potential damage within harbors as well as probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis for land-use planning. 2) Develop benchmarks for validating new numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques related to current velocities and landslide sources. 3) Generate guidance and protocols for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH13G..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH13G..04M"><span>An unified numerical simulation of seismic ground motion, ocean acoustics, coseismic deformations and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of 2011 Tohoku earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maeda, T.; Furumura, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takemura, S.; Iwai, K.; Lee, S.; Sakai, S.; Shinohara, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The fault rupture of the 2011 Tohoku (Mw9.0) earthquake spread approximately 550 km by 260 km with a long source rupture duration of ~200 s. For such large earthquake with a complicated source rupture process the radiation of seismic wave from the source rupture and initiation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> due to the coseismic deformation is considered to be very complicated. In order to understand such a complicated process of seismic wave, coseismic deformation and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, we proposed a unified approach for total <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of earthquake induced phenomena in a single numerical scheme based on a finite-difference method simulation (Maeda and Furumura, 2011). This simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> solves the equation of motion of based on the linear elastic theory with equilibrium between quasi-static pressure and gravity in the water column. The height of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is obtained from this simulation as a vertical displacement of ocean surface. In order to simulate seismic waves, ocean acoustics, coseismic deformations, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we assembled a high-resolution 3D heterogeneous subsurface structural <span class="hlt">model</span> of northern Japan. The area of simulation is 1200 km x 800 km and 120 km in depth, which have been discretized with grid interval of 1 km in horizontal directions and 0.25 km in vertical direction, respectively. We adopt a source-rupture <span class="hlt">model</span> proposed by Lee et al. (2011) which is obtained by the joint inversion of teleseismic, near-field strong motion, and coseismic deformation. For conducting such a large-scale simulation, we fully parallelized our simulation code based on a domain-partitioning procedure which achieved a good speed-up by parallel computing up to 8192 core processors with parallel efficiency of 99.839%. The simulation result demonstrates clearly the process in which the seismic wave radiates from the complicated source rupture over the fault plane and <span class="hlt">propagating</span> in heterogeneous structure of northern Japan. Then, generation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from coseismic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3941S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3941S"><span>Real-Time Detection of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: An Integration of GPS and Galileo Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Wei, Yong; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> can produce gravity waves that <span class="hlt">propagate</span> up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances are studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and for the first time, we estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario from GPS and Galileo constellations. Specifically, we study the 2016 New Zealand <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event using GNSS receivers with multi-constellation tracking capabilities located in the Pacific region. We compare sTEC estimates obtained using GPS and Galileo constellations. The efficiency of the real-time sTEC estimation using the VARION algorithm has been demonstrated for the 2012 Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. TEC variations induced by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event are computed using 56 GPS receivers in Hawai'i. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric disturbances moving away from the epicenter at a speed of about 316 m/s. We present comparisons with the real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> MOST (Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) provided by the NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research. We observe variations in TEC that correlate well in time and space with the <span class="hlt">propagating</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. We conclude that the integration of different satellite constellations is a crucial step forward to increasing the reliability of real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection systems using ground-based GNSS receivers as an augmentation to existing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH54A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH54A..06S"><span>Specification of Tectonic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Sources Along the Eastern Aleutian Island Arc and Alaska Peninsula for Inundation Mapping and Hazard Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.; Freymueller, J. T.; Koehler, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Alaska Earthquake Information Center conducts <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska along several segments of the Aleutian Megathrust, each having a unique seismic history and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation potential. Accurate identification and characterization of potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources is a critical component of our project. As demonstrated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, correct estimation of the maximum size event for a given segment of the subduction zone is particularly important. In that event, unexpectedly large slip occurred approximately updip of the epicenter of the main shock, based on seafloor GPS and seafloor pressure gage observations, generating a much larger <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> than anticipated. This emphasizes the importance of the detailed knowledge of the region-specific subduction processes, and using the most up-to-date geophysical data and research <span class="hlt">models</span> that define the magnitude range of possible future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events. Our study area extends from the eastern half of the 1957 rupture zone to Kodiak Island, covering the 1946 and 1938 rupture areas, the Shumagin gap, and the western part of the 1964 rupture area. We propose a strategy for generating worst-case credible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios for locations that have a short or nonexistent paleoseismic/paleotsunami record, and in some cases lack modern seismic and GPS data. The potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios are built based on a discretized plate interface <span class="hlt">model</span> fit to the Slab 1.0 <span class="hlt">model</span> geometry. We employ estimates of slip deficit along the Aleutian Megathrust from GPS campaign surveys, the Slab 1.0 interface surface, empirical magnitude-slip relationships, and a numerical code that distributes slip among the subfault elements, calculates coseismic deformations and solves the shallow water equations of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and runup. We define hypothetical asperities along the megathrust and in down-dip direction, and perform a set of sensitivity <span class="hlt">model</span> runs to identify coseismic deformation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1866S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1866S"><span>Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Version 4.0 Brings Forecasting Speed, Accuracy, and Capability Improvements to NOAA's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sterling, K.; Denbo, D. W.; Eble, M. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (SIFT) software was developed by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) for use in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting and has been used by both U.S. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Centers (TWCs) since 2012, when SIFTv3.1 was operationally accepted. Since then, advancements in research and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> have resulted in several new features being incorporated into SIFT forecasting. Following the priorities and needs of the TWCs, upgrades to SIFT forecasting were implemented into SIFTv4.0, scheduled to become operational in October 2016. Because every minute counts in the early warning process, two major time saving features were implemented in SIFT 4.0. To increase processing speeds and generate high-resolution flooding forecasts more quickly, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation codes were modified to run on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). To reduce time demand on duty scientists during an event, an automated DART inversion (or fitting) process was implemented. To increase forecasting accuracy, the forecasted amplitudes and inundations were adjusted to include dynamic tidal oscillations, thereby reducing the over-estimates of flooding common in SIFTv3.1 due to the static tide stage conservatively set at Mean High Water. Further improvements to forecasts were gained through the assimilation of additional real-time observations. Cabled array measurements from Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPRs) in the Oceans Canada NEPTUNE network are now available to SIFT for use in the inversion process. To better meet the needs of harbor masters and emergency managers, SIFTv4.0 adds a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents graphical product to the suite of disseminated forecast results. When delivered, these new features in SIFTv4.0 will improve the operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting speed, accuracy, and capabilities at NOAA's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Centers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH21A1395B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH21A1395B"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Inundation in the City of Lisbon (portugal)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baptista, M.; Miranda, J.; Omira, R.; Catalao Fernandes, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Lisbon city is located inside the estuary of Tagus river, 20 km away from the Atlantic ocean. The city suffered great damage from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and its downtown was flooded at least twice in 1531 and 1755. Since the installation of the tide-gage network, in the area, three <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> caused by submarine earthquakes, were recorded in November 1941, February 1969 and May 1975. The most destructive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> listed along Tagus Estuary are the 26th January 1531, a local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event restricted to the Tagus Estuary, and the well known 1st November 1755 transoceanic event, both following highly destructive earthquakes, which deeply affected Lisbon. The economic losses due to the impact of the 1755 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in one of Europe’s 18t century main harbor and commercial fleets were enormous. Since then the Tagus estuary suffered strong morphologic changes manly due to dredging works, construction of commercial and industrial facilities and recreational docks, some of them already projected to preserve Lisbon. In this study we present preliminary inundation maps for the Tagus estuary area in the Lisbon County, for conditions similar to the 1755 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event, but using present day bathymetric and topographic maps. Inundation <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is made using non linear shallow water theory and the numerical code is based upon COMCOT code. Nested grids resolutions used in this study are 800 m, 200 m and 50 m, respectively. The inundation is discussed in terms of flow depth, run up height, maximum inundation area and current flow velocity. The effects of estuary modifications on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> are also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.458..213L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.458..213L"><span>The effect of compliant prisms on subduction zone earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lotto, Gabriel C.; Dunham, Eric M.; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Tobin, Harold J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Earthquakes generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> by coseismically deforming the seafloor, and that deformation is largely controlled by the shallow rupture process. Therefore, in order to better understand how earthquakes generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, one must consider the material structure and frictional properties of the shallowest part of the subduction zone, where ruptures often encounter compliant sedimentary prisms. Compliant prisms have been associated with enhanced shallow slip, seafloor deformation, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights, particularly in the context of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes. To rigorously quantify the role compliant prisms play in generating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, we perform a series of numerical simulations that directly couple dynamic rupture on a dipping thrust fault to the elastodynamic response of the Earth and the acoustic response of the ocean. Gravity is included in our simulations in the context of a linearized Eulerian description of the ocean, which allows us to <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, including dispersion and related nonhydrostatic effects. Our simulations span a three-dimensional parameter space of prism size, prism compliance, and sub-prism friction - specifically, the rate-and-state parameter b - a that determines velocity-weakening or velocity-strengthening behavior. We find that compliant prisms generally slow rupture velocity and, for larger prisms, generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> more efficiently than subduction zones without prisms. In most but not all cases, larger, more compliant prisms cause greater amounts of shallow slip and larger <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Furthermore, shallow friction is also quite important in determining overall slip; increasing sub-prism b - a enhances slip everywhere along the fault. Counterintuitively, we find that in simulations with large prisms and velocity-strengthening friction at the base of the prism, increasing prism compliance reduces rather than enhances shallow slip and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5965K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5965K"><span>Sensitivity study of the Storegga Slide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> using retrogressive and visco-plastic rheology <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jihwan; Løvholt, Finn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Enormous submarine landslides having volumes up to thousands of km3 and long run-out may cause <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> with widespread effects. Clay-rich landslides, such as Trænadjupet and Storegga offshore Norway commonly involve retrogressive mass and momentum release mechanisms that affect the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. As a consequence, the failure mechanisms, soil parameters, and release rate of the retrogression are of importance for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. Previous attempts to <span class="hlt">model</span> the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation due to retrogressive landslides are few, and limited to idealized conditions. Here, a visco-plastic <span class="hlt">model</span> including additional effects such as remolding, time dependent mass release, and hydrodynamic resistance, is employed for simulating the Storegga Slide. As landslide strength parameters and their evolution in time are uncertain, it is necessary to conduct a sensitivity study to shed light on the tsunamigenic processes. The induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is simulated using Geoclaw. We also compare our <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations with recent analysis conducted using a pure retrogressive <span class="hlt">model</span> for the landslide, as well as previously published results using a block <span class="hlt">model</span>. The availability of paleotsunami run-up data and detailed slide deposits provides a suitable background for improved understanding of the slide mechanics and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>Land) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..636K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..636K"><span>Transformation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves passing through the Straits of the Kuril Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostenko, Irina; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Zaytsev, Andrey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Pacific ocean and themselves Kuril Islands are located in the zone of high seismic activity, where underwater earthquakes cause <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. They <span class="hlt">propagate</span> across Pacific ocean and penetrates into the Okhotsk sea. It is natural to expect that the Kuril Islands reflect the Okhotsk sea from the Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. It has long been noted that the historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> appeared less intense in the sea of Okhotsk in comparison with the Pacific coast of the Kuril Islands. Despite the fact that in the area of the Kuril Islands and in the Pacific ocean earthquakes with magnitude more than 8 occur, in the entire history of observations on the Okhotsk sea coast catastrophic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was not registered. The study of the peculiarities of the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of historical and hypothetical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the North-Eastern part of the Pacific ocean was carried out in order to identify level of effect of the Kuril Islands and Straits on them. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> sources were located in the Okhotsk sea and in the Pacific ocean. For this purpose, we performed a series of computational experiments using two bathymetries: 1) with use Kuril Islands; 2) without Kuril Islands. Magnitude and intensity of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, obtained during numerical simulation of height, were analyzed. The simulation results are compared with the observations. Numerical experiments have shown that in the simulation without the Kuril Islands <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Okhotsk sea have higher waves, and in the Central part of the sea relatively quickly damped than in fact. Based on shallow-water equation <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for numerical simulations. This work was supported by ASTARTE project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U54A..02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U54A..02A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard in the Algerian Coastline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amir, L. A.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The Algerian coastline is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian tectonic plates. The collision between these two plates is approximately 4 to 7 mm/yr. The Alps and the tellian Atlas result from this convergence. Historical and present day data show the occurrence of earthquakes with magnitude up to 7 degrees on Richter scale in the northern part of the country. Cities were destroyed and the number of victims reached millions of people. Recently, small seismic waves generated by a destructive earthquake (Epicenter: 36.90N, 3.71E; Mw=6.8; Algeria, 2003, NEIC) were recorded in the French and Spanish coasts. This event raised again the issue of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in western Mediterranean region. For the Algerian study case, the assessment of seismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard is a matter of great interest because of fast urban development of cities like Algiers. This study aims to provide scientific arguments to help in the elaboration of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alert program. This is a real complex issue because (1) the western part of the sea is narrow, (2) constructions on the Algerian coastline do not respect safety standards and (3) the seismic hazard is important. The present work is based on a numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach. Firstly, a database is created to gather and list information related to seismology, tectonic, abnormal sea level's variations recorded/observed, submarine and coastal topographic data for the western part of the Mediterranean margin. This database helped to propose series of scenario that could trigger <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Mediterranean sea. Seismic moment, rake and focal depth are the major parameters that constrain the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> input seismic data. Then, the undersea earthquakes <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and the seabed deformations are computed with a program adapted from the rngchn code based on Okada's analytic equations. The last task of this work consisted to calculate the initial water surface displacement and simulate the triggered <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20995674-evaluation-numerical-simulation-tsunami-coastal-nuclear-power-plants-india','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20995674-evaluation-numerical-simulation-tsunami-coastal-nuclear-power-plants-india"><span>Evaluation and Numerical Simulation of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> for Coastal Nuclear Power Plants of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sharma, Pavan K.; Singh, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-genic earthquakes. The <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of themore » seabed. There are three phases of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source generation, its <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. (authors)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMNH51A..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMNH51A..03M"><span>Hydrodynamics of the 1868 and 1877 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in Southern Peru and Northern Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morales, S.; Soto-Sandoval, J.; Monardez, P.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurred on 27th February 2010 offshore central Chile due to a mega-thrust earthquake (Mw=8.8), showed a complex hydrodynamic behavior in the near field that is not completely understood and could not be well characterized using linear <span class="hlt">models</span> (Cox 2011, Fujima 2011). Several floods separated by several minutes that lasted over eight hours, which flowed parallel to the coast were reported. A reasonable physical explication for this phenomena has been published. Due to the distance from the rupture zone to the coast is shorter than a complete <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave, the latter cannot be created then secondary effects are triggered (Monárdez and Salinas, 2011). This was validated using numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> based on RANS equations and measurements and field observations in the 2010 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Due to this knowledge, the 1868 and 1877 last mega-thrust earthquakes in the Southern Peru and Northern Chile are analyzed. This became necessary, since this zone is known as one the major seismic gap in the area. Scenarios with different fault parameters were implemented for the 1868 and 1877 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and important results were obtained. In both of the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, several floods were observed and the arrival time and direction of flow <span class="hlt">propagation</span> were according to historical reports. In the 1868 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the effects on the Chilean coast are due to secondary effects such as it is described in historical observations, e.g. in Arica port three main floods 40, 120 and 156 minutes after the earthquakes are observed. In the 1877 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> secondary effects were present mainly on the Peruvian coast. Finally, a new classification for near and far field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511690K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511690K"><span>GPS-TEC of the Ionospheric Disturbances as a Tool for Early <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kunitsyn, Viacheslav E.; Nesterov, Ivan A.; Shalimov, Sergey L.; Krysanov, Boris Yu.; Padokhin, Artem M.; Rekenthaler, Douglas</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Recently, the GPS measurements were used for retrieving the information on the various types of ionospheric responses to seismic events (earthquakes, seismic Rayleigh waves, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>) which generate atmospheric waves <span class="hlt">propagating</span> up to the ionospheric altitudes where the collisions between the neutrals and charge particles give rise to the motion of the ionospheric plasma. These experimental results can well be used in architecture of the future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system. The point is an earlier (in comparison with seismological methods) detection of the ionospheric signal that can indicate the moment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. As an example we consider the two-dimensional distributions of the vertical total electron content (TEC) variations in the ionosphere both close to and far from the epicenter of the Japan undersea earthquake of March 11, 2011 using radio tomographic (RT) reconstruction of high-temporal-resolution (2-minute) data from the Japan and the US GPS networks. Near-zone TEC variations shows a diverging ionospheric perturbation with multi-component spectral composition emerging after the main shock. The initial phase of the disturbance can be used as an indicator of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and subsequently for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning. Far-zone TEC variations reveals distinct wave train associated with gravity waves generated by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. According to observations <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrives at Hawaii and further at the coast of Southern California with delay relative to the gravity waves. Therefore the gravity wave pattern can be used in the early <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning. We support this scenario by the results of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with the parameters of the ocean surface perturbation corresponding to the considered earthquake. In addition it was observed in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> that at long distance from the source the gravity wave can pass ahead of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 11-05-01157 and 12-05-33065).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH22A..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH22A..03H"><span>Application and Validation of a GIS <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Local <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Vulnerability and Mortality Risk Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harbitz, C. B.; Frauenfelder, R.; Kaiser, G.; Glimsdal, S.; Sverdrup-thygeson, K.; Løvholt, F.; Gruenburg, L.; Mc Adoo, B. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The 2011 Tōhoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused a high number of fatalities and massive destruction. Data collected after the event allow for retrospective analyses. Since 2009, NGI has developed a generic GIS <span class="hlt">model</span> for local analyses of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> vulnerability and mortality risk. The mortality risk convolves the hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The hazard is represented by the maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow depth (with a corresponding likelihood), the exposure is described by the population density in time and space, while the vulnerability is expressed by the probability of being killed as a function of flow depth and building class. The analysis is further based on high-resolution DEMs. Normally a certain <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario with a corresponding return period is applied for vulnerability and mortality risk analysis. Hence, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was first employed for a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast scenario affecting Bridgetown, Barbados, and further developed in a forecast study for the city of Batangas in the Philippines. Subsequently, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was tested by hindcasting the 2009 South Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in American Samoa. This hindcast was based on post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> information. The GIS <span class="hlt">model</span> was adapted for optimal use of the available data and successfully estimated the degree of mortality.For further validation and development, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was recently applied in the RAPSODI project for hindcasting the 2011 Tōhoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Sendai and Ishinomaki. With reasonable choices of building vulnerability, the estimated expected number of fatalities agree well with the reported death toll. The results of the mortality hindcast for the 2011 Tōhoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> substantiate that the GIS <span class="hlt">model</span> can help to identify high <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mortality risk areas, as well as identify the main risk drivers.The research leading to these results has received funding from CONCERT-Japan Joint Call on Efficient Energy Storage and Distribution/Resilience against Disasters (http://www.concertjapan.eu; project RAPSODI - Risk Assessment and design of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032904','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032904"><span>The role of deposits in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jaffe, B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An incomplete catalogue of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the written record hinders <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessment. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> deposits, hard evidence of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, can be used to extend the written record. The two primary factors in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> frequency and magnitude, can be addressed through field and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits. Recent research has increased the utility of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessment by improving the ability to identify <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits and developing <span class="hlt">models</span> to determine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude from deposit characteristics. Copyright ASCE 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7301Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7301Q"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast : detailed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts for the ALDES project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hébert, H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The catastrophic 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> drew the international community's attention to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk in all basins where <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them : the French Riviera. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard related to seismic sources using numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have affected the west Mediterranean coast but are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order <span class="hlt">models</span>. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> scenarios performed with the CEA code. The 3 sites have been chosen according to the regional hazard studies, coastal typology elements and the appropriate DTMs (Digital Terrain <span class="hlt">Models</span>). The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH34A..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH34A..08S"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-induced morphological change of a coastal lake: comparing hydraulic experiment with numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugawara, D.; Imai, K.; Mitobe, Y.; Takahashi, T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Coastal lakes are one of the promising environments to identify deposits of past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, and such deposits have been an important key to know the recurrence of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events. In contrast to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits on the coastal plains, however, relationship between deposit geometry and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamic character in the coastal lakes has poorly been understood. Flume experiment and numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> will be important measures to clarify such relationship. In this study, data from a series of flume experiment were compared with simulations by an existing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> to examine applicability of the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced morphological change in a coastal lake. A coastal lake with a non-erodible beach ridge was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as the target geomorphology. The ridge separates the lake from the offshore part of the flume, and the lake bottom was filled by sand. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> bore was generated by a dam-break flow, which is capable of generating a maximum near-bed flow speed of 2.5 m/s. Test runs with varying magnitude of the bore demonstrated that the duration of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> overflow controls the scouring depth of the lake bottom behind the ridge. The maximum scouring depth reached up to 7 cm, and sand deposition occurred mainly in the seaward-half of the lake. A conventional depth-averaged <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> coupled with the sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to compare the simulation and experimental results. In the Simulation, scouring depth behind the ridge reached up to 6 cm. In addition, the width of the scouring was consistent between the simulation and experiment. However, sand deposition occurred mainly in a zone much far from the ridge, showing a considerable deviation from the experimental results. This may be associated with the lack of <span class="hlt">model</span> capability to resolve some important physics, such as vortex generation behind the ridge and shoreward migration of hydraulic jump. In this presentation, the results from the flume experiment and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA627138','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA627138"><span>Observation and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-08</p> <p>Observation and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ABSTRACT Build a compatible set of <span class="hlt">models</span> which 1) calculate the spectrum of atmospheric GWs excited by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (using ocean <span class="hlt">model</span> data as input...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observation and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21D1528Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21D1528Q"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment in La Reunion and Mayotte Islands in the Indian Ocean : detailed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts for the PREPARTOI project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Sahal, A.; Lavigne, F.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Significant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have often affected the southwest Indian Ocean. The scientific project PREPARTOI (Prévention et REcherche pour l'Atténuation du Risque <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> dans l'Océan Indien), partly founded by the MAIF foundation, aims at assessing the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk on both french islands of this region, La Réunion and Mayotte. Further purpose of this project is the detailed hazard and vulnerability study for specific places of these islands, selected according to their environmental and human issues and observed impacts of past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard in this region, recently highlighted by major events in the southwest Indian Ocean, has never been thoroughly evaluated. Our study, within the PREPARTOI project, contributes to fill in this lack. It aims at examining transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard related to earthquakes by <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the scenarios of major historical events. We consider earthquakes with magnitude greater than Mw 7.7 located on the Sumatra (1833, 2004, 2010), Java (2006) and Makran (1945) subduction zones. First, our simulations allow us to compare the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact at regional scale according to the seismic sources; we thus identify earthquakes locations which most affect the islands and describe the impact distribution along their coastline. In general, we note that, for the same magnitude, events coming from the southern part of Sumatra subduction zone induce a larger impact than the north events. The studied <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> initiated along the Java and Makran subduction zones have limited effects on both French islands. Then, detailed <span class="hlt">models</span> for the selected sites are performed based on high resolution bathymetric and topographic data; they provide estimations of the water currents, the water heights and the potential inundations. When available, field measurements and maregraphic records allow testing our <span class="hlt">models</span>. Arrival time, amplitude of the first wave and impact on the tide gauge time series are well reproduced. <span class="hlt">Models</span> are consistent with the observations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.2925G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.2925G"><span>Fault Slip Distribution of the 2016 Fukushima Earthquake Estimated from <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Waveforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Satake, Kenji; Shinohara, Masanao; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Tanioka, Yuichiro</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The 2016 Fukushima normal-faulting earthquake (Mjma 7.4) occurred 40 km off the coast of Fukushima within the upper crust. The earthquake generated a moderate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> which was recorded by coastal tide gauges and offshore pressure gauges. First, the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms to fault dimensions and depths was examined and the best size and depth were determined. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waveforms computed based on four available focal mechanisms showed that a simple fault striking northeast-southwest and dipping southeast (strike = 45°, dip = 41°, rake = -95°) yielded the best fit to the observed waveforms. This fault geometry was then used in a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform inversion to estimate the fault slip distribution. A large slip of 3.5 m was located near the surface and the major slip region covered an area of 20 km × 20 km. The seismic moment, calculated assuming a rigidity of 2.7 × 1010 N/m2 was 3.70 × 1019 Nm, equivalent to Mw = 7.0. This is slightly larger than the moments from the moment tensor solutions (Mw 6.9). Large secondary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> peaks arrived approximately an hour after clear initial peaks were recorded by the offshore pressure gauges and the Sendai and Ofunato tide gauges. Our <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> suggests that the large secondary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signals were from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves reflected off the Fukushima coast. A rather large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude of 75 cm at Kuji, about 300 km north of the source, was comparable to those recorded at stations located much closer to the epicenter, such as Soma and Onahama. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> simulations and ray tracing for both real and artificial bathymetry indicate that a significant portion of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave was refracted to the coast located around Kuji and Miyako due to bathymetry effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113137N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113137N"><span>Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>: a movie and a book for seismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk reduction in Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nostro, C.; Baroux, E.; Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Tertulliani, A.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Casale, P.; Ciaccio, M. G.; Frepoli, A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Italy is a country well known for the seismic and volcanic hazard. However, a similarly great hazard, although not well recognized, is posed by the occurrence of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves along the Italian coastline. This is testified by a rich catalogue and by field evidence of deposits left over by pre- and historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, even in places today considered safe. This observation is of great importance since many of the areas affected by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the past are today touristic places. The Italian <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can be caused by different sources: 1- off-shore or near coast in-land earthquakes; 2- very large earthquakes on distant sources in the Mediterranean; 3- submarine volcanic explosion in the Tyrrhenian sea; 4- submarine landslides triggered by earthquakes and volcanic activity. The consequence of such a wide spectrum of sources is that an important part of the more than 7000 km long Italian coast line is exposed to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk, and thousands of inhabitants (with numbers increasing during summer) live near hazardous coasts. The main historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are the 1783 and 1908 events that hit Calabrian and Sicilian coasts. The recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is that caused by the 2002 Stromboli landslide. In order to reduce this risk and following the emotional impact of the December 2004 Sumatra earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, we developed an outreach program consisting in talks given by scientists and in a movie and a book, both exploring the causes of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, how do they <span class="hlt">propagate</span> in deep and shallow waters, and what are the effects on the coasts. Hints are also given on the most dangerous Italian coasts (as deduced by scientific studies), and how to behave in the case of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> approaching the coast. These seminars are open to the general public, but special programs are developed with schools of all grades. In this talk we want to present the book and the movie used during the seminars and scientific expositions, that was realized from a previous 3D version originally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4667M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4667M"><span>Rapid processing of data based on high-performance algorithms for solving inverse problems and 3D-simulation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marinin, I. V.; Kabanikhin, S. I.; Krivorotko, O. I.; Karas, A.; Khidasheli, D. G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We consider new techniques and methods for earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> related problems, particularly - inverse problems for the determination of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source parameters, numerical simulation of long wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in soil and water and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk estimations. In addition, we will touch upon the issue of database management and destruction scenario visualization. New approaches and strategies, as well as mathematical tools and software are to be shown. The long joint investigations by researchers of the Institute of Mathematical Geophysics and Computational Mathematics SB RAS and specialists from WAPMERR and Informap have produced special theoretical approaches, numerical methods, and software <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and earthquake <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (<span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and run-up of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on coastal areas), visualization, risk estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and earthquakes. Algorithms are developed for the operational definition of the origin and forms of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. The system TSS numerically simulates the source of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and/or earthquakes and includes the possibility to solve the direct and the inverse problem. It becomes possible to involve advanced mathematical results to improve <span class="hlt">models</span> and to increase the resolution of inverse problems. Via TSS one can construct maps of risks, the online scenario of disasters, estimation of potential damage to buildings and roads. One of the main tools for the numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is the finite volume method (FVM), which allows us to achieve stability with respect to possible input errors, as well as to achieve optimum computing speed. Our approach to the inverse problem of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and earthquake determination is based on recent theoretical results concerning the Dirichlet problem for the wave equation. This problem is intrinsically ill-posed. We use the optimization approach to solve this problem and SVD-analysis to estimate the degree of ill-posedness and to find the quasi-solution. The software system we developed is intended to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAMTP..58.1192K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAMTP..58.1192K"><span>The Numerical Technique for the Landslide <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulations Based on Navier-Stokes Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozelkov, A. S.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The paper presents an integral technique simulating all phases of a landslide-driven <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The technique is based on the numerical solution of the system of Navier-Stokes equations for multiphase flows. The numerical algorithm uses a fully implicit approximation method, in which the equations of continuity and momentum conservation are coupled through implicit summands of pressure gradient and mass flow. The method we propose removes severe restrictions on the time step and allows simulation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> to arbitrarily large distances. The landslide origin is simulated as an individual phase being a Newtonian fluid with its own density and viscosity and separated from the water and air phases by an interface. The basic formulas of equation discretization and expressions for coefficients are presented, and the main steps of the computation procedure are described in the paper. To enable simulations of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> across wide water areas, we propose a parallel algorithm of the technique implementation, which employs an algebraic multigrid method. The implementation of the multigrid method is based on the global level and cascade collection algorithms that impose no limitations on the paralleling scale and make this technique applicable to petascale systems. We demonstrate the possibility of simulating all phases of a landslide-driven <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, including its generation, <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and uprush. The technique has been verified against the problems supported by experimental data. The paper describes the mechanism of incorporating bathymetric data to simulate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in real water areas of the world ocean. Results of comparison with the nonlinear dispersion theory, which has demonstrated good agreement, are presented for the case of a historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of volcanic origin on the Montserrat Island in the Caribbean Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911871N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911871N"><span>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment in Greece for seismic sources along the segmented Hellenic Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Novikova, Tatyana; Babeyko, Andrey; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Greece and adjacent coastal areas are characterized by a high population exposure to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard. The Hellenic Arc is the most active geotectonic structure for the generation of earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. We performed probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment for selected locations of Greek coastlines which are the forecasting points officially used in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning operations by the Hellenic National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center and the NEAMTWS/IOC/UNESCO. In our analysis we considered seismic sources for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation along the western, central and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc. We first created a synthetic catalog as long as 10,000 years for all the significant earthquakes with magnitudes in the range from 6.0 to 8.5, the real events being included in this catalog. For each event included in the synthetic catalog a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was generated and <span class="hlt">propagated</span> using Boussinesq <span class="hlt">model</span>. The probability of occurrence for each event was determined by Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency distribution. The results of our study are expressed as hazard curves and hazard maps. The hazard curves were obtained for the selected sites and present the annual probability of exceedance as a function of pick coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude. Hazard maps represent the distribution of peak coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes corresponding to a fixed annual probability. In such forms our results can be easily compared to the ones obtained in other studies and further employed for the development of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk management plans. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1025832-uncertainty-quantification-techniques-scale-tsunami','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1025832-uncertainty-quantification-techniques-scale-tsunami"><span>Uncertainty Quantification Techniques of SCALE/<span class="hlt">TSUNAMI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rearden, Bradley T; Mueller, Don</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (<span class="hlt">TSUNAMI</span>). The <span class="hlt">TSUNAMI</span> code suite can quantify the predicted change in system responses, such as k{sub eff}, reactivity differences, or ratios of fluxes or reaction rates, due to changes in the energy-dependent, nuclide-reaction-specific cross-section data. Where uncertainties in the neutron cross-section data are available, the sensitivity of the system to the cross-section data can be applied to <span class="hlt">propagate</span> the uncertainties in the cross-section data to an uncertainty in the system response. Uncertainty quantification ismore » useful for identifying potential sources of computational biases and highlighting parameters important to code validation. Traditional validation techniques often examine one or more average physical parameters to characterize a system and identify applicable benchmark experiments. However, with <span class="hlt">TSUNAMI</span> correlation coefficients are developed by <span class="hlt">propagating</span> the uncertainties in neutron cross-section data to uncertainties in the computed responses for experiments and safety applications through sensitivity coefficients. The bias in the experiments, as a function of their correlation coefficient with the intended application, is extrapolated to predict the bias and bias uncertainty in the application through trending analysis or generalized linear least squares techniques, often referred to as 'data adjustment.' Even with advanced tools to identify benchmark experiments, analysts occasionally find that the application <span class="hlt">models</span> include some feature or material for which adequately similar benchmark experiments do not exist to support validation. For example, a criticality safety analyst may want to take credit for the presence of fission products in spent nuclear fuel. In such cases, analysts sometimes rely on 'expert judgment' to select</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3805R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3805R"><span>DTWT (Dispersive <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Wave Tool): a new tool for computing the complete dispersion of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel time.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reymond, Dominique</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We present a tool for computing the complete arrival times of the dispersed wave-train of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The calculus is made using the exact formulation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> dispersion (and without approximations), at any desired periods between one hour or more (concerning the gravity waves <span class="hlt">propagation</span>) until 10s (the highly dispersed mode). The computation of the travel times is based on the a summation of the necessary time for a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to cross all the elementary blocs of a grid of bathymetry following a path between the source and receiver at a given period. In addition the source dimensions and the focal mechanism are taken into account to adjust the minimum travel time to the different possible points of emission of the source. A possible application of this tool is to forecast the arrival time of late arrivals of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves that could produce the resonnance of some bays and sites at higher frequencies than the gravity mode. The theoretical arrival times are compared to the observed ones and to the results obtained by TTT (P. Wessel, 2009) and the ones obtained by numerical simulations. References: Wessel, P. (2009). Analysis of oberved and predicted <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel times for the Pacic and Indian oceans. Pure Appl. Geophys., 166:301-324.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...67a2030K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...67a2030K"><span>Validation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> TUNA-RP using OAR-PMEL-135 benchmark problem set</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koh, H. L.; Teh, S. Y.; Tan, W. K.; Kh'ng, X. Y.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>A standard set of benchmark problems, known as OAR-PMEL-135, is developed by the US National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> validation. Any <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> must be tested for its accuracy and capability using this standard set of benchmark problems before it can be gainfully used for inundation simulation. The authors have previously developed an in-house <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> known as TUNA-RP. This inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> solves the two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water equations coupled with a wet-dry moving boundary algorithm. This paper presents the validation of TUNA-RP against the solutions provided in the OAR-PMEL-135 benchmark problem set. This benchmark validation testing shows that TUNA-RP can indeed perform inundation simulation with accuracy consistent with that in the tested benchmark problem set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4411S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4411S"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>.gov: NOAA's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Information Portal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiro, B.; Carrick, J.; Hellman, S. B.; Bernard, M.; Dildine, W. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present the new <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>.gov website, which delivers a single authoritative source of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> information for the public and emergency management communities. The site efficiently merges information from NOAA's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Centers (TWC's) by way of a comprehensive XML feed called <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Event XML (TEX). The resulting unified view allows users to quickly see the latest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alert status in geographic context without having to understand complex TWC areas of responsibility. The new site provides for the creation of a wide range of products beyond the traditional ASCII-based <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> messages. The publication of modern formats such as Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) can drive geographically aware emergency alert systems like FEMA's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Supported are other popular information delivery systems, including email, text messaging, and social media updates. The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>.gov portal allows NOAA staff to easily edit content and provides the facility for users to customize their viewing experience. In addition to access by the public, emergency managers and government officials may be offered the capability to log into the portal for special access rights to decision-making and administrative resources relevant to their respective <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems. The site follows modern HTML5 responsive design practices for optimized use on mobile as well as non-mobile platforms. It meets all federal security and accessibility standards. Moving forward, we hope to expand <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>.gov to encompass <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related content currently offered on separate websites, including the NOAA <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Website, National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research, National Geophysical Data Center's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Database, and National Data Buoy Center's DART Program. This project is part of the larger <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Information Technology Modernization Project, which is consolidating the software architectures of NOAA's existing TWC's into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5627378','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5627378"><span>Uncertainties in the 2004 Sumatra–Andaman source through nonlinear stochastic inversion of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Venugopal, M.; Roy, D.; Rajendran, K.; Guillas, S.; Dias, F.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Numerical inversions for earthquake source parameters from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave data usually incorporate subjective elements to stabilize the search. In addition, noisy and possibly insufficient data result in instability and non-uniqueness in most deterministic inversions, which are barely acknowledged. Here, we employ the satellite altimetry data for the 2004 Sumatra–Andaman <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event to invert the source parameters. We also include kinematic parameters that improve the description of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, especially near the source. Using a finite fault <span class="hlt">model</span> that represents the extent of rupture and the geometry of the trench, we perform a new type of nonlinear joint inversion of the slips, rupture velocities and rise times with minimal a priori constraints. Despite persistently good waveform fits, large uncertainties in the joint parameter distribution constitute a remarkable feature of the inversion. These uncertainties suggest that objective inversion strategies should incorporate more sophisticated physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of seabed deformation in order to significantly improve the performance of early warning systems. PMID:28989311</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28989311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28989311"><span>Uncertainties in the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman source through nonlinear stochastic inversion of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gopinathan, D; Venugopal, M; Roy, D; Rajendran, K; Guillas, S; Dias, F</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Numerical inversions for earthquake source parameters from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave data usually incorporate subjective elements to stabilize the search. In addition, noisy and possibly insufficient data result in instability and non-uniqueness in most deterministic inversions, which are barely acknowledged. Here, we employ the satellite altimetry data for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event to invert the source parameters. We also include kinematic parameters that improve the description of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, especially near the source. Using a finite fault <span class="hlt">model</span> that represents the extent of rupture and the geometry of the trench, we perform a new type of nonlinear joint inversion of the slips, rupture velocities and rise times with minimal a priori constraints. Despite persistently good waveform fits, large uncertainties in the joint parameter distribution constitute a remarkable feature of the inversion. These uncertainties suggest that objective inversion strategies should incorporate more sophisticated physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of seabed deformation in order to significantly improve the performance of early warning systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1641M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1641M"><span>A culture of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness and applying knowledge from recent <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> affecting California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, K. M.; Wilson, R. I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>It is the mission of the California <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Program to ensure public safety by protecting lives and property before, during, and after a potentially destructive or damaging <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In order to achieve this goal, the state has sought first to use finite funding resources to identify and quantify the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard using the best available scientific expertise, <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, data, mapping, and methods at its disposal. Secondly, it has been vital to accurately inform the emergency response community of the nature of the threat by defining inundation zones prior to a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event and leveraging technical expertise during ongoing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alert notifications (specifically incoming wave heights, arrival times, and the dangers of strong currents). State scientists and emergency managers have been able to learn and apply both scientific and emergency response lessons from recent, distant-source <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> affecting coastal California (from Samoa in 2009, Chile in 2010, and Japan in 2011). Emergency managers must understand and plan in advance for specific actions and protocols for each alert notification level provided by the NOAA/NWS West Coast/Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center. Finally the state program has provided education and outreach information via a multitude of delivery methods, activities, and end products while keeping the message simple, consistent, and focused. The goal is a culture of preparedness and understanding of what to do in the face of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> by residents, visitors, and responsible government officials. We provide an update of results and findings made by the state program with support of the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program through important collaboration with other U.S. States, Territories and agencies. In 2009 the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) completed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and mapping for all low-lying, populated coastal areas of California to assist local jurisdictions on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4971W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4971W"><span>Run-up of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the Chicxulub Impact Event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weisz, R.; Wünnenmann, K.; Bahlburg, H.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The Chicxulub impact event can be investigated on (1) local, (2) regional and in (3) global scales. Our investigations focus on the regional scale, especially on the run-up of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the coast around the Gulf of Mexico caused by the impact. An impact produces two types of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves: (1) the rim wave, (2) the collapse wave. Both waves <span class="hlt">propagate</span> over long distances and reach coastal areas. Depending on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave characteristics, they have a potentionally large influence on the coastal areas. Run-up distance and run-up height can be used as parameters for assessing this influence. To calculate these parameters, we are using a multi-material hydrocode (SALE) to simulate the generation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave, a non-linear shallow water approach for the <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, and we implemented a special open boundary for considering the run-up of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. With the help of the one-dimensional shallow water approach, we will give run-up heights and distances for the coastal area around the Gulf of Mexico. The calculations are done along several sections from the impact site towards the coast. These are a first approximation to run-up calculations for the entire coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The bathymetric data along the sections, used in the wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and run-up, correspond to a linearized bathymetry of the recent Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, we will present preliminary results from our first two-dimensional experiments of <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and run-up. These results will be compared with the one-dimensional approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214306T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214306T"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast Progress Five Years After Indonesian Disaster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Titov, Vasily V.; Bernard, Eddie N.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas E.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Almost five years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warnings are finally benefiting from decades of research toward effective <span class="hlt">model</span>-based forecasts. Since the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, two seminal advances have been (i) deep-ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurements with tsunameters and (ii) their use in accurately forecasting <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has been generated. Using direct measurements of deep-ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights, assimilated into numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> for specific locations, greatly improves the real-time forecast accuracy over earthquake-derived magnitude estimates of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact. Since 2003, this method has been used to forecast <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> at specific harbors for different events in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Recent <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> illustrated how this technology is being adopted in global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning operations. The U.S. forecasting system was used by both research and operations to evaluate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard. Tests demonstrated the effectiveness of operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast <span class="hlt">models</span>. Several examples also showed potential of distributed forecast tools. With IOC and USAID funding, NOAA researchers at PMEL developed the Community <span class="hlt">Model</span> Interface for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (ComMIT) tool and distributed it through extensive capacity-building sessions in the Indian Ocean. Over hundred scientists have been trained in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> for many Indian Ocean shorelines. These same inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> can also be used for real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasts as was demonstrated during several events. Contact Information Vasily V. Titov, Seattle, Washington, USA, 98115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21D1531L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21D1531L"><span>Contribution to the top-down alert system associated with the upcoming French <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning center (CENALT): <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast for the ALDES project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loevenbruck, A.; Quentel, E.; Hebert, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The catastrophic 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> drew the international community's attention to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk in all basins where <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard related to seismic sources using numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> have already affected the west Mediterranean coast; however past events are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order <span class="hlt">models</span>. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> scenarios performed with the CEA code. <span class="hlt">Models</span> of <span class="hlt">propagation</span> in the basin and off the French coast allow evaluating the potential threat at regional scale in terms of sources location and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4219G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4219G"><span>Ionospheric manifestations of earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in a dynamic atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Godin, Oleg A.; Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Zabotina, Liudmila</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Observations of the ionosphere provide a new, promising modality for characterizing large-scale physical processes that occur on land and in the ocean. There is a large and rapidly growing body of evidence that a number of natural hazards, including large earthquakes, strong <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, and powerful tornadoes, have pronounced ionospheric manifestations, which are reliably detected by ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. As the focus shifts from detecting the ionospheric features associated with the natural hazards to characterizing the hazards for the purposes of improving early warning systems and contributing to disaster recovery, it becomes imperative to relate quantitatively characteristics of the observed ionospheric disturbances and the underlying natural hazard. The relation between perturbations at the ground level and their ionospheric manifestations is strongly affected by parameters of the intervening atmosphere. In this paper, we employ the ray theory to <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of acoustic-gravity waves in three-dimensionally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Huygens' wavefront-tracing and Hamiltonian ray-tracing algorithms are used to simulate <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of body waves from an earthquake hypocenter through the earth's crust and ocean to the upper atmosphere. We quantify the influence of temperature stratification and winds, including their seasonal variability, and air viscosity and thermal conductivity on the geometry and amplitude of ionospheric disturbances that are generated by seismic surface waves and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> results are verified by comparing observations of the velocity fluctuations at altitudes of 150-160 km by a coastal Dynasonde HF radar system with theoretical predictions of ionospheric manifestations of background infragravity waves in the ocean. Dynasonde radar systems are shown to be a promising means for monitoring acoustic-gravity wave activity and observing ionospheric perturbations due to earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. We will discuss</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1755M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1755M"><span>Numerical tool for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessment in the southern coast of Dominican Republic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macias Sanchez, J.; Llorente Isidro, M.; Ortega, S.; Gonzalez Vida, J. M., Sr.; Castro, M. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The southern coast of Dominican Republic is a very populated region, with several important cities including Santo Domingo, its capital. Important activities are rooted in the southern coast including tourism, industry, commercial ports, and, energy facilities, among others. According to historical reports, it has been impacted by big earthquakes accompanied by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> as in Azua in 1751 and recently Pedernales in 2010, but their sources are not clearly identified. The aim of the present work is to develop a numerical tool to simulate the impact in the southern coast of the Dominican Republic of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated in the Caribbean Sea. This tool, based on the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA <span class="hlt">model</span> from EDANYA group (University of Malaga, Spain), could be used in the framework of a <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning Systems due the very short computing times when only <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is computed or it could be used to assess inundation impact, computing inundation with a initial 5 meter resolution. Numerical results corresponding to three theoretical sources are used to test the numerical tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S32A..02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S32A..02A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> simulation using submarine displacement calculated from simulation of ground motion due to seismic source <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akiyama, S.; Kawaji, K.; Fujihara, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Since fault fracturing due to an earthquake can simultaneously cause ground motion and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, it is appropriate to evaluate the ground motion and the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> by single fault <span class="hlt">model</span>. However, several source <span class="hlt">models</span> are used independently in the ground motion simulation or the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation, because of difficulty in evaluating both phenomena simultaneously. Many source <span class="hlt">models</span> for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake are proposed from the inversion analyses of seismic observations or from those of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations. Most of these <span class="hlt">models</span> show the similar features, which large amount of slip is located at the shallower part of fault area near the Japan Trench. This indicates that the ground motion and the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> can be evaluated by the single source <span class="hlt">model</span>. Therefore, we examine the possibility of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> prediction, using the fault <span class="hlt">model</span> estimated from seismic observation records. In this study, we try to carry out the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation using the displacement field of oceanic crustal movements, which is calculated from the ground motion simulation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We use two fault <span class="hlt">models</span> by Yoshida et al. (2011), which are based on both the teleseismic body wave and on the strong ground motion records. Although there is the common feature in those fault <span class="hlt">models</span>, the amount of slip near the Japan trench is lager in the fault <span class="hlt">model</span> from the strong ground motion records than in that from the teleseismic body wave. First, the large-scale ground motion simulations applying those fault <span class="hlt">models</span> used by the voxel type finite element method are performed for the whole eastern Japan. The synthetic waveforms computed from the simulations are generally consistent with the observation records of K-NET (Kinoshita (1998)) and KiK-net stations (Aoi et al. (2000)), deployed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Next, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations are performed by the finite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH12A..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH12A..02W"><span>Develop Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Design Maps for ASCE 7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Y.; Thio, H. K.; Chock, G.; Titov, V. V.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A national standard for engineering design for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects has not existed before and this significant risk is mostly ignored in engineering design. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 7 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Loads and Effects Subcommittee is completing a chapter for the 2016 edition of ASCE/SEI 7 Standard. Chapter 6, <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Loads and Effects, would become the first national <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> design provisions. These provisions will apply to essential facilities and critical infrastructure. This standard for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> loads and effects will apply to designs as part of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness. The provisions will have significance as the post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recovery tool, to plan and evaluate for reconstruction. Maps of 2,500-year probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation for Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii need to be developed for use with the ASCE design provisions. These new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> resistance and community resilience. The NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research (NCTR) has developed 75 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> as part of the operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> forecast capability for the U.S. coastline. NCTR, UW, and URS are collaborating with ASCE to develop the 2,500-year <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> design maps for the Pacific states using these <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. This ensures the probabilistic criteria are established in ASCE's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> design maps. URS established a Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Assessment approach consisting of a large amount of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios that include both epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability (Thio et al., 2010). Their study provides 2,500-year offshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights at the 100-m water depth, along with the disaggregated earthquake sources. NOAA's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are used to identify a group of sources that produce these 2,500-year <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation limits and runup heights derived from these sources establish the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> design map</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611633C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611633C"><span>High Resolution <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Assessment of Harbor Resilience; Case Study in Istanbul</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Aytore, Betul; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Kanoglu, Utku; Duzgun, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey; Arikawa, Taro; Tomita, Takashi; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Ports and harbors are the major vulnerable coastal structures under <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> attack. Resilient harbors against <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts are essential for proper, efficient and successful rescue operations and reduction of the loss of life and property by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disasters. There are several critical coastal structures as such in the Marmara Sea. Haydarpasa and Yenikapi ports are located in the Marmara Sea coast of Istanbul. These two ports are selected as the sites of numerical experiments to test their resilience under <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact. Cargo, container and ro-ro handlings, and short/long distance passenger transfers are the common services in both ports. Haydarpasa port has two breakwaters with the length of three kilometers in total. Yenikapi port has one kilometer long breakwater. The accurate resilience analysis needs high resolution <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and careful assessment of the site. Therefore, building data with accurate coordinates of their foot prints and elevations are obtained. The high resolution bathymetry and topography database with less than 5m grid size is developed for <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The metadata of the several types of structures and infrastructure of the ports and environs are processed. Different resistances for the structures/buildings/infrastructures are controlled by assigning different friction coefficients in a friction matrix. Two different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> conditions - high expected and moderate expected - are selected for numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The hybrid <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation and visualization codes NAMI DANCE, STOC-CADMAS System are utilized to solve all necessary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> parameters and obtain the spatial and temporal distributions of flow depth, current velocity, inundation distance and maximum water level in the study domain. Finally, the computed critical values of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> parameters are evaluated and structural performance of the port components are discussed in regard to a better resilience. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Support by EU 603839 ASTARTE Project, UDAP-Ç-12</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/13411','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/13411"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damage in Aceh: a reply</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In reply to the critique of Baird and Kerr, we emphasize that our <span class="hlt">model</span> is a generalized vulnerability <span class="hlt">model</span>, built from easily acquired data from anywhere in the world, to identify areas with probable susceptibility to large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>--and discuss their other criticisms in detail. We also show that a rejection of the role of trees in helping protect vulnerable areas is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119833"><span>Widespread <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves of 23-27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander B; Monserrat, Sebastian</p> <p>2015-06-29</p> <p>A series of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves of non-seismic origin struck several southern European countries during the period of 23 to 27 June 2014. The event caused considerable damage from Spain to Ukraine. Here, we show that these waves were long-period ocean oscillations known as meteorological <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> which are generated by intense small-scale air pressure disturbances. An unique atmospheric synoptic pattern was tracked <span class="hlt">propagating</span> eastward over the Mediterranean and the Black seas in synchrony with onset times of observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. This pattern favoured generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of atmospheric gravity waves that induced pronounced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves through the Proudman resonance mechanism. This is the first documented case of a chain of destructive meteorological <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurring over a distance of thousands of kilometres. Our findings further demonstrate that these events represent potentially dangerous regional phenomena and should be included in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4483776','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4483776"><span>Widespread <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves of 23-27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Monserrat, Sebastian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A series of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves of non-seismic origin struck several southern European countries during the period of 23 to 27 June 2014. The event caused considerable damage from Spain to Ukraine. Here, we show that these waves were long-period ocean oscillations known as meteorological <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> which are generated by intense small-scale air pressure disturbances. An unique atmospheric synoptic pattern was tracked <span class="hlt">propagating</span> eastward over the Mediterranean and the Black seas in synchrony with onset times of observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. This pattern favoured generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of atmospheric gravity waves that induced pronounced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves through the Proudman resonance mechanism. This is the first documented case of a chain of destructive meteorological <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurring over a distance of thousands of kilometres. Our findings further demonstrate that these events represent potentially dangerous regional phenomena and should be included in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning systems. PMID:26119833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGC41B1057T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGC41B1057T"><span>Standards and Guidelines for Numerical <span class="hlt">Models</span> for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some <span class="hlt">models</span> were used to <span class="hlt">model</span> inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span>, validation (the process of ensuring that the <span class="hlt">model</span> solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the <span class="hlt">model</span> used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the <span class="hlt">model</span> performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH51B0120R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH51B0120R"><span>Signals in the ionosphere generated by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes: observations and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> suppor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolland, L.; Sladen, A.; Mikesell, D.; Larmat, C. S.; Rakoto, V.; Remillieux, M.; Lee, R.; Khelfi, K.; Lognonne, P. H.; Astafyeva, E.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Forecasting systems failed to predict the magnitude of the 2011 great <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Japan due to the difficulty and cost of instrumenting the ocean with high-quality and dense networks. Melgar et al. (2013) show that using all of the conventional data (inland seismic, geodetic, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> gauges) with the best inversion method still fails to predict the correct height of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> before it breaks onto a coast near the epicenter (< 500 km). On the other hand, in the last decade, scientists have gathered convincing evidence of transient signals in the ionosphere Total Electron Content (TEC) observations that are associated to open ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. Even though typical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves are only a few centimeters high, they are powerful enough to create atmospheric vibrations extending all the way to the ionosphere, 300 kilometers up in the atmosphere. Therefore, we are proposing to incorporate the ionospheric signals into <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early-warning systems. We anticipate that the method could be decisive for mitigating "<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes" which trigger <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> larger than expected from their short-period magnitude. These events are challenging to characterize as they rupture the near-trench subduction interface, in a distant region less constrained by onshore data. As a couple of devastating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes happens per decade, they represent a real threat for onshore populations and a challenge for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early-warning systems. We will present the TEC observations of the recent Java 2006 and Mentawaii 2010 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes and base our analysis on acoustic ray tracing, normal modes summation and the simulation code SPECFEM, which solves the wave equation in coupled acoustic (ocean, atmosphere) and elastic (solid earth) domains. Rupture histories are entered as finite source <span class="hlt">models</span>, which will allow us to evaluate the effect of a relatively slow rupture on the surrounding ocean and atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613353C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613353C"><span>Severity and exposure associated to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> actions in urban waterfronts. The case of Lisbon, Portugal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conde, Daniel; Telhado, Maria J.; Viana Baptista, Maria A.; Antunes, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Tagus estuary is recognized as an exposed location to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurrences, given its proximity to tsunamigenic faults such as the Marquês de Pombal and the Horseshoe fault system. Lisbon, bordered by the Tagus estuary, is a critical point of Portugal's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard map, having been affected by several <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (Baptista and Miranda, 2009) including the notorious event of November 1st 1755, the last major natural disaster known to have inflicted massive destruction in Portugal. The main objective of this work, a joint initiative of CEHIDRO (IST - Universidade de Lisboa) and the Municipal Civil Protection Services of Lisbon, is to contribute to the quantification of severity and exposure of Lisbon waterfront to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events. For that purpose, the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> similar to that of the 1st November of 1755 in the Tagus estuary was numerically simulated. Several scenarios were considered, articulating the influence of tidal (low and high tides), atmospheric (increase in water level due to storm surges) and hydrological (flow discharge in Tagus river) conditions. Different initial and boundary conditions were defined for each <span class="hlt">modelling</span> scenario but the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> remained what is believed to be an exceptional event. The extent of the inundation and relevant hydrodynamic quantities were registered for all scenarios. The employed simulation tool - STAV-2D - was developed at CEHIDRO (IST) and is based on a 2DH spatial (Eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013, Conde et al. 2013). STAV-2D features conservation equations for the finer solid phase of the flow and also a Lagrangian <span class="hlt">model</span> for the advection of larger debris elements. The urban meshwork was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than average street width. This fine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3421B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3421B"><span>Observations and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Following the event, local and international <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> teams surveyed the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results using initial conditions of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation based on finite-fault earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inversions and a uniform slip <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4945R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4945R"><span>Source location impact on relative <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> strength along the U.S. West Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, L.; Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, A. J.; Arcas, D.; Flick, R. E.; Hendershott, M. C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> simulations are used to identify which <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source locations would produce the highest amplitude waves on approach to key population centers along the U.S. West Coast. The reasons for preferential influence of certain remote excitation sites are explored by examining <span class="hlt">model</span> time sequences of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave patterns emanating from the source. Distant bathymetric features in the West and Central Pacific can redirect <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy into narrow paths with anomalously large wave height that have disproportionate impact on small areas of coastline. The source region generating the waves can be as little as 100 km along a subduction zone, resulting in distinct source-target pairs with sharply amplified wave energy at the target. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> spectral ratios examined for transects near the source, after crossing the West Pacific, and on approach to the coast illustrate how prominent bathymetric features alter wave spectral distributions, and relate to both the timing and magnitude of waves approaching shore. To contextualize the potential impact of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from high-amplitude source-target pairs, the source characteristics of major historical earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in 1960, 1964, and 2011 are used to generate comparable events originating at the highest-amplitude source locations for each coastal target. This creates a type of "worst-case scenario," a replicate of each region's historically largest earthquake positioned at the fault segment that would produce the most incoming <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy at each target port. An amplification factor provides a measure of how the incoming wave height from the worst-case source compares to the historical event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH43A0183K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH43A0183K"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-Induced Nearshore Hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> using a 3D VOF Method: A Gulf of Mexico Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kian, R.; Horrillo, J. J.; Fang, N. Z.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Long-term morphology changes can be interrupted by extreme events such as hurricanes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In particular, the impact of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on coastal erosion and accretion patterns is presently not well understood. In order to understand the sediment movement during coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact a numerical sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> is added to a 3D VOF <span class="hlt">model</span>. This <span class="hlt">model</span> allows for spatially varying bottom sediment characteristics and entails functions for entrainment, bedload, and suspended load transport. As a case study, a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal study site is selected to investigate the effect of a landslide-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the coastal morphology. The GOM is recognized as a vast and productive body of water with great ecologic and economic value. The morphodynamic response of the nearshore environment to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamic forcing is influenced by many factors including bathymetry, topography, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave and current magnitude, and the characteristics of the local bottom substrate. The 3D <span class="hlt">model</span> addition can account for all these factors. Finally, necessary strategies for reduction of the potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact and management of the morphological changes are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/ts261.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/ts261.pdf"><span>Preliminary analysis of the earthquake (MW 8.1) and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of April 1, 2007, in the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fisher, Michael A.; Geist, Eric L.; Sliter, Ray; Wong, Florence L.; Reiss, Carol; Mann, Dennis M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>On April 1, 2007, a destructive earthquake (Mw 8.1) and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> struck the central Solomon Islands arc in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The earthquake had a thrust-fault focal mechanism and occurred at shallow depth (between 15 km and 25 km) beneath the island arc. The combined effects of the earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused dozens of fatalities and thousands remain without shelter. We present a preliminary analysis of the Mw-8.1 earthquake and resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Multichannel seismic-reflection data collected during 1984 show the geologic structure of the arc's frontal prism within the earthquake's rupture zone. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> indicates that some of the islands are so close to the earthquake epicenter that they were hard hit by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves as soon as 5 min. after shaking began, allowing people scant time to react.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011aogs...26..165P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011aogs...26..165P"><span>Regional Impact <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Propogation Into Mercury Bay, Whitianga, New Zealand — Implications for Hazard and Disaster Management at a Local Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pickett, Vernon; Prasetya, Gegar</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Whitianga is a small coastal town located on the eastern coastline of the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Historical evidence has shown that the town and surrounding area is susceptible to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events, in particular to those <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated in the far field, with up to three events occurring since European settlement in the middle to late 19th Century (1868, 1877, and 1960). The last event in May 1960 impacted much of the North Island's eastern coastline and resulted in waves of ˜1.8-C2.5m at Whitianga that inundated waterfront roads, several houses, and buildings, and resulted in many boats being swept from their moorings. However, more recent work identified that the area is also susceptible to locally generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from sources located along the Kermadec subduction system and associated volcanic arc that extends north eastward from New Zealand toward Tonga. The core of the study involves the application of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> to provide detailed wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and inundation information using a range of likely scenarios and to present this information so that that the community can understand the associated risks involved as a prelude to the development of a local emergency plan. This study shows that while source definition requires careful consideration, high resolution bathymetry and topographic data are also necessary to adequately assess the risk at a local level. The <span class="hlt">model</span> used in this study incorporates a combination of multibeam, and ground and non-ground striking LIDAR data, with the results of the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> providing useful information for stakeholders involved in the emergency planning process.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392614"><span>The meteorite impact-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wünnemann, K; Weiss, R</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>When a cosmic object strikes the Earth, it most probably falls into an ocean. Depending on the impact energy and the depth of the ocean, a large amount of water is displaced, forming a temporary crater in the water column. Large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves originate from the collapse of the cavity in the water and the ejecta splash. Because of the far-reaching destructive consequences of such waves, an oceanic impact has been suggested to be more severe than a similar-sized impact on land; in other words, oceanic impacts may punch over their weight. This review paper summarizes the process of impact-induced wave generation and subsequent <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, whether the wave characteristic differs from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by other classical mechanisms, and what methods have been applied to quantify the consequences of an oceanic impact. Finally, the impact-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard will be evaluated by means of the Eltanin impact event. © 2015 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0244J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0244J"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Amplitude Estimation from Real-Time GNSS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeffries, C.; MacInnes, B. T.; Melbourne, T. I.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> early warning systems currently comprise <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of observations from the global seismic network, deep-ocean DART buoys, and a global distribution of tide gauges. While these tools work well for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> traveling teleseismic distances, saturation of seismic magnitude estimation in the near field can result in significant underestimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation for local warning. Moreover, DART buoy and tide gauge observations cannot be used to rectify the underestimation in the available time, typically 10-20 minutes, before local runup occurs. Real-time GNSS measurements of coseismic offsets may be used to estimate finite faulting within 1-2 minutes and, in turn, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation for local warning purposes. We describe here a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude estimation algorithm; implemented for the Cascadia subduction zone, that uses continuous GNSS position streams to estimate finite faulting. The system is based on a time-domain convolution of fault slip that uses a pre-computed catalog of hydrodynamic Green's functions generated with the GeoClaw shallow-water wave simulation software and maps seismic slip along each section of the fault to points located off the Cascadia coast in 20m of water depth and relies on the principle of the linearity in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span>. The system draws continuous slip estimates from a message broker, convolves the slip with appropriate Green's functions which are then superimposed to produce wave amplitude at each coastal location. The maximum amplitude and its arrival time are then passed into a database for subsequent monitoring and display. We plan on testing this system using a suite of synthetic earthquakes calculated for Cascadia whose ground motions are simulated at 500 existing Cascadia GPS sites, as well as real earthquakes for which we have continuous GNSS time series and surveyed runup heights, including Maule, Chile 2010 and Tohoku, Japan 2011. This system has been implemented in the CWU Geodesy Lab for the Cascadia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1152/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1152/"><span>Program and abstracts of the Second <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Workshop; July 19-20, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lee, W.H.K.; Kirby, S.H.; Diggles, M.F.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In response to a request by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for computing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagations</span> in the western Pacific, Eric Geist asked Willie Lee for assistance in providing parameters of earthquakes which may be future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Working Group (TSWG) was initiated in August 2005. An ad hoc group of diverse expertise was formed, with Steve Kirby as the leader. The founding members are: Rick Blakely, Eric Geist, Steve Kirby, Willie Lee, George Plafker, Dave Scholl, Roland von Huene, and Ray Wells. Half of the founding members are USGS emeritus scientists. A report was quickly completed because of NOAA's urgent need to precalculate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> paths for early warning purposes. It was clear to the group that much more work needed to be done to improve our knowledge about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources worldwide. The group therefore started an informal research program on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources and meets irregularly to share ideas, data, and results. Because our group activities are open to anyone, we have more participants now, including, for example, Harley Benz and George Choy (USGS, Golden, Colo.), Holly Ryan and Stephanie Ross (USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.), Hiroo Kanamori (Caltech), Emile Okal (Northwestern University), and Gerard Fryer and Barry Hirshorn (Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center, Hawaii). To celebrate the fifth anniversary of the TSWG, a workshop is being held in the Auditorium of Building 3, USGS, Menlo Park, on July 19-20, 2010 (Willie Lee and Steve Kirby, Conveners). All talks (except one) will be video broadcast. The first <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source workshop was held in April 2006 with about 100 participants from many institutions. This second workshop (on a much smaller scale) will be devoted primarily to recent work by the USGS members. In addition, Hiroo Kanamori (Caltech) will present his recent work on the 1960 and 2010 Chile earthquakes, Barry Hirshorn and Stuart Weinstein (Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036505','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036505"><span>Combined effects of tectonic and landslide-generated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Runup at Seward, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.J.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Hansen, R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We apply a recently developed and validated numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and runup to study the inundation of Resurrection Bay and the town of Seward by the 1964 Alaska <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Seward was hit by both tectonic and landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves during the Mw 9.2 1964 mega thrust earthquake. The earthquake triggered a series of submarine mass failures around the fjord, which resulted in land sliding of part of the coastline into the water, along with the loss of the port facilities. These submarine mass failures generated local waves in the bay within 5 min of the beginning of strong ground motion. Recent studies estimate the total volume of underwater slide material that moved in Resurrection Bay to be about 211 million m3 (Haeussler et al. in Submarine mass movements and their consequences, pp 269-278, 2007). The first tectonic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave arrived in Resurrection Bay about 30 min after the main shock and was about the same height as the local landslide-generated waves. Our previous numerical study, which focused only on the local land slide generated waves in Resurrection Bay, demonstrated that they were produced by a number of different slope failures, and estimated relative contributions of different submarine slide complexes into <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes (Suleimani et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 166:131-152, 2009). This work extends the previous study by calculating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation in Resurrection Bay caused by the combined impact of landslide-generated waves and the tectonic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and comparing the composite inundation area with observations. To simulate landslide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup in Seward, we use a viscous slide <span class="hlt">model</span> of Jiang and LeBlond (J Phys Oceanogr 24(3):559-572, 1994) coupled with nonlinear shallow water equations. The input data set includes a high resolution multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR topography grid of Resurrection Bay, and an initial thickness of slide material based on pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry difference maps. For</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.U22A..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.U22A..02B"><span>Development of a GNSS-Enhanced <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bawden, G. W.; Melbourne, T. I.; Bock, Y.; Song, Y. T.; Komjathy, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The past decade has witnessed a terrible loss of life and economic disruption caused by large earthquakes and resultant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> impacting coastal communities and infrastructure across the Indo-Pacific region. NASA has funded the early development of a prototype real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (RT-GNSS) based rapid earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning (GNSS-TEW) system that may be used to enhance seismic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning systems for large earthquakes. This prototype GNSS-TEW system geodetically estimates fault parameters (earthquake magnitude, location, strike, dip, and slip magnitude/direction on a gridded fault plane both along strike and at depth) and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source parameters (seafloor displacement, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy scale, and 3D <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initials) within minutes after the mainshock based on dynamic numerical inversions/regressions of the real-time measured displacements within a spatially distributed real-time GNSS network(s) spanning the epicentral region. It is also possible to measure fluctuations in the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) in the RT-GNSS data caused by the pressure wave from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. This TEC approach can detect if a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has been triggered by an earthquake, track its waves as they <span class="hlt">propagate</span> through the oceanic basins, and provide upwards of 45 minutes early warning. These combined real-time geodetic approaches will very quickly address a number of important questions in the immediate minutes following a major earthquake: How big was the earthquake and what are its fault parameters? Could the earthquake have produced a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and was a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.5574Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.5574Y"><span>Rupture process of the 2010 Mw 7.8 Mentawai <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake from joint inversion of near-field hr-GPS and teleseismic body wave recordings constrained by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, Han; Lay, Thorne; Rivera, Luis; Bai, Yefei; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Hill, Emma M.; Sieh, Kerry; Kongko, Widjo; Muhari, Abdul</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The 25 October 2010 Mentawai <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake (Mw 7.8) ruptured the shallow portion of the Sunda megathrust seaward of the Mentawai Islands, offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia, generating a strong <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that took 509 lives. The rupture zone was updip of those of the 12 September 2007 Mw 8.5 and 7.9 underthrusting earthquakes. High-rate (1 s sampling) GPS instruments of the Sumatra GPS Array network deployed on the Mentawai Islands and Sumatra mainland recorded time-varying and static ground displacements at epicentral distances from 49 to 322 km. Azimuthally distributed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recordings from two deepwater sensors and two tide gauges that have local high-resolution bathymetric information provide additional constraints on the source process. Finite-fault rupture <span class="hlt">models</span>, obtained by joint inversion of the high-rate (hr)-GPS time series and numerous teleseismic broadband P and S wave seismograms together with iterative forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recordings, indicate rupture <span class="hlt">propagation</span> ~50 km up dip and ~100 km northwest along strike from the hypocenter, with a rupture velocity of ~1.8 km/s. Subregions with large slip extend from 7 to 10 km depth ~80 km northwest from the hypocenter with a maximum slip of 8 m and from ~5 km depth to beneath thin horizontal sedimentary layers beyond the prism deformation front for ~100 km along strike, with a localized region having >15 m of slip. The seismic moment is 7.2 × 1020 N m. The rupture <span class="hlt">model</span> indicates that local heterogeneities in the shallow megathrust can accumulate strain that allows some regions near the toe of accretionary prisms to fail in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3999S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3999S"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment in the Hudson River Estuary based on dynamic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-tide simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shelby, Michael; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grilli, Annette R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>-way coupling. Four levels of nested grids are used, from a 1 arc-min spherical coordinate grid in the deep ocean down to a 39-m Cartesian grid in the HRE. Bottom friction coefficients in the finer grids are calibrated for the tide to achieve the local spatially averaged MHW level at high tide in the HRE. Combined <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-tide simulations are then performed for four phases of the tide corresponding to each <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arriving at Sandy Hook (NJ): 1.5 h ahead, concurrent with, 1.5 h after, and 3 h after the local high tide. These simulations are forced along the offshore boundary of the third-level grid by linearly superposing time series of surface elevation and horizontal currents of the calibrated tide and each <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave train; this is done in deep enough water for a linear superposition to be accurate. Combined <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-tide simulations are then performed with FUNWAVE-TVD in this and the finest nested grids. Results show that, for the 3 PMTs, depending on the tide phase, the dynamic simulations lead to no or to a slightly increased inundation in the HRE (by up to 0.15 m depending on location), and to larger currents than for the simulations over a static level; the CRT SMF proxy <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is the PMT leading to maximum inundation in the HRE. For all tide phases, nonlinear interactions between tide and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents modify the elevation, current, and celerity of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave trains, mostly in the shallower water areas of the HRE where bottom friction dominates, as compared to a linear superposition of wave elevations and currents. We note that, while dynamic simulations predict a slight increase in inundation, this increase may be on the same order as, or even less than sources of uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources, such as their initial water elevation, and in bottom friction and bathymetry used in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> grids. Nevertheless, results in this paper provide insight into the magnitude and spatial variability of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and impact in the complex inland</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH23C..07G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH23C..07G"><span>Incorporating <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Projections to Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Assessments -A Case Study for Midway Atoll-</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gica, E.; Reynolds, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> Research's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting tool. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting tool was used to generate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios from different source regions and served as boundary conditions for inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> to project the coastal impact at Midway Atoll. Underlying the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast tool is a database of pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> runs for discrete sections of the earth's subduction zones that are the principal locus of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-generating activity. The new LiDAR topographic data, which is the first high resolution elevation data for three individual islands of Midway Atoll, was used for both the passive sea level rise <span class="hlt">model</span> and inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> for Midway Atoll. Results of the study will indicate how the combined climate change and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurrence will affect Midway Atoll and can therefore be used for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for vulnerable species and areas of the Atoll.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1916564R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1916564R"><span>Inversion of the perturbation GPS-TEC data induced by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in order to estimate the sea level anomaly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakoto, Virgile; Lognonné, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Drilleau, Mélanie</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Large underwater earthquakes (Mw > 7) can transmit part of their energy to the surrounding ocean through large sea-floor motions, generating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that <span class="hlt">propagate</span> over long distances. The forcing effect of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the atmosphere generate internal gravity waves which produce detectable ionospheric perturbations when they reach the upper atmosphere. Theses perturbations are frequently observed in the total electron content (TEC) measured by the multi-frequency Global navigation Satellite systems (GNSS) data (e.g., GPS,GLONASS). In this paper, we performed for the first time an inversion of the sea level anomaly using the GPS TEC data using a least square inversion (LSQ) through a normal modes summation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technique. Using the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of the 2012 Haida Gwaii in far field as a test case, we showed that the amplitude peak to peak of the sea level anomaly inverted using this method is below 10 % error. Nevertheless, we cannot invert the second wave arriving 20 minutes later. This second wave is generaly explain by the coastal reflection which the normal <span class="hlt">modeling</span> does not take into account. Our technique is then applied to two other <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> : the 2006 Kuril Islands <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in far field, and the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in closer field. This demonstrates that the inversion using a normal mode approach is able to estimate fairly well the amplitude of the first arrivals of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In the future, we plan to invert in real the TEC data in order to retrieve the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92Q.143S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92Q.143S"><span>Concerns over <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and warning capabilities in wake of Tohoku Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Improved earthquake <span class="hlt">models</span>, better <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and warning capabilities, and a review of nuclear power plant safety are all greatly needed following the 11 March Tohoku earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, according to scientists at the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held 3-8 April in Vienna, Austria. EGU quickly organized a morning session of oral presentations and an afternoon panel discussion less than 1 month after the earthquake and the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and the resulting crisis at Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant, which has now been identified as having reached the same level of severity as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. Many of the scientists at the EGU sessions expressed concern about the inability to have anticipated the size of the earthquake and the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which appears likely to have caused most of the fatalities and damage, including damage to the nuclear plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/11522','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/11522"><span>Using landscape analysis to assess and <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damage in Aceh province, Sumatra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Louis R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The nearly unprecedented loss of life resulting from the earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of December 26,2004, was greatest in the province of Aceh, Sumatra (Indonesia). We evaluated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damage and built empirical vulnerability <span class="hlt">models</span> of damage/no damage based on elevation, distance from shore, vegetation, and exposure. We found that highly predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> are possible and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.1635L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.1635L"><span>A Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Study of the Auckland Region, Part II: Inundation <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> and Hazard Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lane, E. M.; Gillibrand, P. A.; Wang, X.; Power, W.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Regional source <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> pose a potentially devastating hazard to communities and infrastructure on the New Zealand coast. But major events are very uncommon. This dichotomy of infrequent but potentially devastating hazards makes realistic assessment of the risk challenging. Here, we describe a method to determine a probabilistic assessment of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard by regional source <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> with an "Average Recurrence Interval" of 2,500-years. The method is applied to the east Auckland region of New Zealand. From an assessment of potential regional tsunamigenic events over 100,000 years, the inundation of the Auckland region from the worst 100 events is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using a hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> and probabilistic inundation depths on a 2,500-year time scale were determined. Tidal effects on the potential inundation were included by coupling the predicted wave heights with the probability density function of tidal heights at the inundation site. Results show that the more exposed northern section of the east coast and outer islands in the Hauraki Gulf face the greatest hazard from regional <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Auckland region. Incorporating tidal effects into predictions of inundation reduced the predicted hazard compared to <span class="hlt">modelling</span> all the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> arriving at high tide giving a more accurate hazard assessment on the specified time scale. This study presents the first probabilistic analysis of dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation for the New Zealand coast and as such provides the most comprehensive assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation of the Auckland region from regional source <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> available to date.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213241R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213241R"><span>High Resolution <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> for the Evaluation of Potential Risk Areas in Setubal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, João.; Silva, Adélio; Leitão, Paulo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p> the site vulnerability to a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event based on the consideration of the wave heights, buildings type and access routes characteristics was performed. The wave height and most probable inundation areas was made on the basis of the simulation of three earthquake potential sources with different level of impact (extreme, moderate and weak) in the Setúbal area. In the case of the extreme event the selected source for simulation corresponds to an interpretation of the origins of the 1755 earthquake proposed by Baptista et al (2003).In this study it is suggest that the 1755 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event had two sources: one located in the Marques de Pombal thrust (MPTF) and a second one located in the Guadalquivir Bank. The other two sources are based on a study done by Omira et al (2009) regarding the design of a Sea-level <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Detection Network for the Gulf of Cadiz. In the framework of this study there are analyzed different areas of seismic activity in the South of Portugal and proposed some possible earthquake sources and characteristics. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">propagation</span> simulations were performed using MOHID <span class="hlt">modelling</span> system which is an open source three-dimensional water <span class="hlt">modelling</span> system, developed by Hidromod and MARETEC (Marine and Environmental Technology Research Center - Technical University of Lisbon). As a result of the study detailed inundation maps associated to the different events and to different tide levels were produced. As a result of the combination of these maps with the available information of the city infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, prioritary buildings, etc.) there were also produced high scale vulnerability maps, escape routes, emergency routes maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5399489','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5399489"><span>Real-Time Detection of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can produce gravity waves that <span class="hlt">propagate</span> up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> MOST (Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) <span class="hlt">model</span> produced by the NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. PMID:28429754</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...746607S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...746607S"><span>Real-Time Detection of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can produce gravity waves that <span class="hlt">propagate</span> up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> MOST (Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) <span class="hlt">model</span> produced by the NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28429754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28429754"><span>Real-Time Detection of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J</p> <p>2017-04-21</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can produce gravity waves that <span class="hlt">propagate</span> up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> MOST (Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) <span class="hlt">model</span> produced by the NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS33B1071W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS33B1071W"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Identification on the 1867 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Event Based on the Impact Intensity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, T. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The 1867 Keelung <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event has drawn significant attention from people in Taiwan. Not only because the location was very close to the 3 nuclear power plants which are only about 20km away from the Taipei city but also because of the ambiguous on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. This event is unique in terms of many aspects. First, it was documented on many literatures with many languages and with similar descriptions. Second, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit was discovered recently. Based on the literatures, earthquake, 7-meter <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height, volcanic smoke, and oceanic smoke were observed. Previous studies concluded that this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was generated by an earthquake with a magnitude around Mw7.0 along the Shanchiao Fault. However, numerical results showed that even a Mw 8.0 earthquake was not able to generate a 7-meter <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Considering the steep bathymetry and intense volcanic activities along the Keelung coast, one reasonable hypothesis is that different types of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources were existed, such as the submarine landslide or volcanic eruption. In order to confirm this scenario, last year we proposed the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Reverse Tracing Method (TRTM) to find the possible locations of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. This method helped us ruling out the impossible far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. However, the near-field sources are still remain unclear. This year, we further developed a new method named 'Impact Intensity Analysis' (IIA). In the IIA method, the study area is divided into a sequence of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources, and the numerical simulations of each source is conducted by COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span>) <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. After that, the resulting wave height from each source to the study site is collected and plotted. This method successfully helped us to identify the impact factor from the near-field potential sources. The IIA result (Fig. 1) shows that the 1867 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event was a multi-source event. A mild <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was trigged by a Mw7.0 earthquake, and then followed by the submarine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1856G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1856G"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> evacuation analysis, <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and planning: application to the coastal area of El Salvador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Aniel-Quiroga, Iñigo; Abad Herrero, Sheila; González Rodriguez, Mauricio; Larreynaga, Jeniffer; Gavidia, Francisco; Quetzalcoalt Gutiérrez, Omar; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose Antonio; Medina Santamaría, Raúl</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Advances in the understanding and prediction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-prone areas. Conducting adequate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessments is essential, as the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment results allow the identification of adequate, site-specific and vulnerability-oriented risk management options, with the formulation of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation plan being one of the main expected results. An evacuation plan requires the analysis of the territory and an evaluation of the relevant elements (hazard, population, evacuation routes, and shelters), the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the evacuation, and the proposal of alternatives for those communities located in areas with limited opportunities for evacuation. Evacuation plans, which are developed by the responsible authorities and decision makers, would benefit from a clear and straightforward connection between the scientific and technical information from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessments and the subsequent risk reduction options. Scientifically-based evacuation plans would translate into benefits for the society in terms of mortality reduction. This work presents a comprehensive framework for the formulation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation plans based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> vulnerability assessment and evacuation <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process, such as the potential location for vertical evacuation shelters and alternative routes. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge the gap between risk assessment and risk management in terms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43B1753M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43B1753M"><span>Physical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Generated By 3D Deformable Landslides in Various Scenarios From Fjords to Conical Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. Two different materials are used to simulate landslides to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 <F <4. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G31B..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G31B..03S"><span>Observations and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the 27 February 2010 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Synolakis, C. E.; Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J. C.; Barrientos, S. E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> from the 2007 Solomon Islands event. Preliminary <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results, field observations, video recordings and satellite imagery are presented. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards as community-based education and awareness are essential to save lives in locales at risk.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1371S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1371S"><span>Ray Tracing for Dispersive <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> and Source Amplitude Estimation Based on Green's Law: Application to the 2015 Volcanic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Earthquake Near Torishima, South of Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandanbata, Osamu; Watada, Shingo; Satake, Kenji; Fukao, Yoshio; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shiobara, Hajime</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Ray tracing, which has been widely used for seismic waves, was also applied to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> to examine the bathymetry effects during <span class="hlt">propagation</span>, but it was limited to linear shallow-water waves. Green's law, which is based on the conservation of energy flux, has been used to estimate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude on ray paths. In this study, we first propose a new ray tracing method extended to dispersive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. By using an iterative algorithm to map two-dimensional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> velocity fields at different frequencies, ray paths at each frequency can be traced. We then show that Green's law is valid only outside the source region and that extension of Green's law is needed for source amplitude estimation. As an application example, we analyzed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves generated by an earthquake that occurred at a submarine volcano, Smith Caldera, near Torishima, Japan, in 2015. The ray-tracing results reveal that the ray paths are very dependent on its frequency, particularly at deep oceans. The validity of our frequency-dependent ray tracing is confirmed by the comparison of arrival angles and travel times with those of observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms at an array of ocean bottom pressure gauges. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude at the source is nearly twice or more of that just outside the source estimated from the array <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data by Green's law.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816169G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816169G"><span>Performance Benchmarking of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-HySEA for NTHMP Inundation Mapping Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González Vida, Jose M.; Castro, Manuel J.; Ortega Acosta, Sergio; Macías, Jorge; Millán, Alejandro</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>According to the 2006 USA <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning and Education Act, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> used in the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) projects must be validated against some existing standard problems (see [OAR-PMEL-135], [Proceedings of the 2011 NTHMP <span class="hlt">Model</span> Benchmarking Workshop]). These Benchmark Problems (BPs) cover different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> processes related to the inundation stage that the <span class="hlt">models</span> must meet to achieve the NTHMP Mapping and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Subcommittee (MMS) approval. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA solves the two-dimensional shallow-water system using a high-order path-conservative finite volume method. Values of h, qx and qy in each grid cell represent cell averages of the water depth and momentum components. The numerical scheme is conservative for both mass and momentum in flat bathymetries, and, in general, is mass preserving for arbitrary bathymetries. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA implements a PVM-type method that uses the fastest and the slowest wave speeds, similar to HLL method (see [Castro et al, 2012]). A general overview of the derivation of the high order methods is performed in [Castro et al, 2009]. For very big domains, <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA also implements a two-step scheme similar to leap-frog for the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> step and a second-order TVD-WAF flux-limiter scheme described in [de la Asunción et al, 2013] for the inundation step. Here, we present the results obtained by the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-HySEA against the proposed BPs. BP1: Solitary wave on a simple beach (non-breaking - analytic experiment). BP4: Solitary wave on a simple beach (breaking - laboratory experiment). BP6: Solitary wave on a conical island (laboratory experiment). BP7 - Runup on Monai Valley beach (laboratory experiment) and BP9: Okushiri Island <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (field experiment). The analysis and results of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-HySEA <span class="hlt">model</span> are presented, concluding that the <span class="hlt">model</span> meets the required objectives for all the BP proposed. References - Castro M.J., E.D. Fernández, A.M. Ferreiro, A. García, C. Parés (2009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4408W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4408W"><span>Characterizing Mega-Earthquake Related <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> on Subduction Zones without Large Historical Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C. R.; Lee, R.; Astill, S.; Farahani, R.; Wilson, P. S.; Mohammed, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Due to recent large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events (e.g., Chile 2010 and Japan 2011), the insurance industry is very aware of the importance of managing its exposure to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk. There are currently few tools available to help establish policies for managing and pricing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk globally. As a starting point and to help address this issue, Risk Management Solutions Inc. (RMS) is developing a global suite of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation footprints. This dataset will include both representations of historical events as well as a series of M9 scenarios on subductions zones that have not historical generated mega earthquakes. The latter set is included to address concerns about the completeness of the historical record for mega earthquakes. This concern stems from the fact that the Tohoku Japan earthquake was considerably larger than had been observed in the historical record. Characterizing the source and rupture pattern for the subduction zones without historical events is a poorly constrained process. In many case, the subduction zones can be segmented based on changes in the characteristics of the subducting slab or major ridge systems. For this project, the unit sources from the NOAA <span class="hlt">propagation</span> database are utilized to leverage the basin wide <span class="hlt">modeling</span> included in this dataset. The length of the rupture is characterized based on subduction zone segmentation and the slip per unit source can be determined based on the event magnitude (i.e., M9) and moment balancing. As these events have not occurred historically, there is little to constrain the slip distribution. Sensitivity tests on the potential rupture pattern have been undertaken comparing uniform slip to higher shallow slip and tapered slip <span class="hlt">models</span>. Subduction zones examined include the Makran Trench, the Lesser Antilles and the Hikurangi Trench. The ultimate goal is to create a series of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> footprints to help insurers understand their exposures at risk to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation around the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3720C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3720C"><span>A rapid estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up based on finite fault <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campos, J.; Fuentes, M. A.; Hayes, G. P.; Barrientos, S. E.; Riquelme, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Many efforts have been made to estimate the maximum run-up height of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task, because of the time it takes to construct a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> using real time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> a priori. However, such <span class="hlt">models</span> are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify our knowledge of the earthquake source. Instead, we can use finite fault <span class="hlt">models</span> of earthquakes to give a more accurate prediction of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up. Here we show how to accurately predict <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up from any seismic source <span class="hlt">model</span> using an analytic solution found by Fuentes et al, 2013 that was especially calculated for zones with a very well defined strike, i.e, Chile, Japan, Alaska, etc. The main idea of this work is to produce a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for quickness. Our solutions for three large earthquakes are promising. Here we compute <span class="hlt">models</span> of the run-up for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake, and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. Our maximum rup-up predictions are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 15 to 20 m for Maule, 40 m for Tohoku, and 2,1 m for the Iquique earthquake. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first five minutes after the occurrence of any such event. Such calculations will thus provide more accurate run-up information than is otherwise available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH43A0182B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH43A0182B"><span>Geodetic Imaging and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the 2017 Coupled Landslide-<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Event in Karrat Fjord, West Greenland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barba, M.; Willis, M. J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Lynett, P. J.; Mätzler, E.; Thorsøe, K.; Higman, B. M.; Thompson, J. A.; Morin, P. J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>We use a combination of geodetic imaging techniques and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> efforts to examine the June 2017 Karrat Fjord, West Greenland, landslide and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. Our efforts include analysis of pre-cursor motions extracted from Sentinal SAR interferometry that we improved with high-resolution Digital Surface <span class="hlt">Models</span> derived from commercial imagery and geo-coded Structure from Motion analyses. We produce well constrained estimates of landslide volume through DSM differencing by improving the ArcticDEM coverage of the region, and provide <span class="hlt">modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up estimates at villages around the region, constrained with in-situ observations provided by the Greenlandic authorities. Estimates of run-up at unoccupied coasts are derived using a blend of high resolution imagery and elevation <span class="hlt">models</span>. We further detail post-failure slope stability for areas of interest around the Karrat Fjord region. Warming trends in the region from <span class="hlt">model</span> and satellite analysis are combined with optical imagery to ascertain whether the influence of melting permafrost and the formation of small springs on a slight bench on the mountainside that eventually failed can be used as indicators of future events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4565975','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4565975"><span>Characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> and introduction of two level <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>SATO, Shinji</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> have been revealed by collaborative <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> surveys extensively performed under the coordination of the Joint <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Survey Group. The complex behaviors of the mega-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> were characterized by the unprecedented scale and the low occurrence frequency. The limitation and the performance of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> countermeasures were described on the basis of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> surveys, laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. These findings contributed to the introduction of two-level <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards to establish a new strategy for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster mitigation, combining structure-based flood protection designed by the Level-1 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and non-structure-based damage reduction planned by the Level-2 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. PMID:26062739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062739"><span>Characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> and introduction of two level <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster mitigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Shinji</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> have been revealed by collaborative <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> surveys extensively performed under the coordination of the Joint <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Survey Group. The complex behaviors of the mega-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> were characterized by the unprecedented scale and the low occurrence frequency. The limitation and the performance of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> countermeasures were described on the basis of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> surveys, laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. These findings contributed to the introduction of two-level <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards to establish a new strategy for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster mitigation, combining structure-based flood protection designed by the Level-1 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and non-structure-based damage reduction planned by the Level-2 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1834T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1834T"><span>Seismic probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard: from regional to local analysis and use of geological and historical observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tonini, R.; Lorito, S.; Orefice, S.; Graziani, L.; Brizuela, B.; Smedile, A.; Volpe, M.; Romano, F.; De Martini, P. M.; Maramai, A.; Selva, J.; Piatanesi, A.; Pantosti, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Site-specific probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analyses demand very high computational efforts that are often reduced by introducing approximations on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources and/or <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. On one hand, the large variability of source parameters implies the definition of a huge number of potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios, whose omission could easily lead to important bias in the analysis. On the other hand, detailed inundation maps computed by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulations require very long running time. When <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> effects are calculated at regional scale, a common practice is to <span class="hlt">propagate</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in deep waters (up to 50-100 m depth) neglecting non-linear effects and using coarse bathymetric meshes. Then, maximum wave heights on the coast are empirically extrapolated, saving a significant amount of computational time. However, moving to local scale, such assumptions drop out and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> would require much greater computational resources. In this work, we perform a local Seismic Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Analysis (SPTHA) for the 50 km long coastal segment between Augusta and Siracusa, a touristic and commercial area placed along the South-Eastern Sicily coast, Italy. The procedure consists in using the outcomes of a regional SPTHA as input for a two-step filtering method to select and substantially reduce the number of scenarios contributing to the specific target area. These selected scenarios are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using high resolution topo-bathymetry for producing detailed inundation maps. Results are presented as probabilistic hazard curves and maps, with the goal of analyze, compare and highlight the different results provided by regional and local hazard assessments. Moreover, the analysis is enriched by the use of local observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data, both geological and historical. Indeed, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data-sets available for the selected target areas are particularly rich with respect to the scarce and heterogeneous data-sets usually available elsewhere. Therefore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3557D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3557D"><span>Evaluation of the Relationship Between Coral Damage and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Dynamics; Case Study: 2009 Samoa <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dilmen, Derya I.; Titov, Vasily V.; Roe, Gerard H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>On September 29, 2009, an Mw = 8.1 earthquake at 17:48 UTC in Tonga Trench generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga islands. Tutuila island, which is located 250 km from the earthquake epicenter, experienced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flooding and strong currents on the north and east coasts, causing 34 fatalities (out of 192 total deaths from this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>) and widespread structural and ecological damage. The surrounding coral reefs also suffered heavy damage. The damage was formally evaluated based on detailed surveys before and immediately after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. This setting thus provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> dynamics and coral damage. In this study, estimates of the maximum wave amplitudes and coastal inundation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are obtained with the MOST <span class="hlt">model</span> (T itov and S ynolakis, J. Waterway Port Coast Ocean Eng: pp 171, 1998; T itov and G onzalez, NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL 112:11, 1997), which is now the operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast tool used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The earthquake source function was constrained using the real-time deep-ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data from three DART® (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>) systems in the far field, and by tide-gauge observations in the near field. We compare the simulated run-up with observations to evaluate the simulation performance. We present an overall synthesis of the tide-gauge data, survey results of the run-up, inundation measurements, and the datasets of coral damage around the island. These data are used to assess the overall accuracy of the <span class="hlt">model</span> run-up prediction for Tutuila, and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">model</span> accuracy over the coral reef environment during the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. Our primary findings are that: (1) MOST-simulated run-up correlates well with observed run-up for this event ( r = 0.8), it tends to underestimated amplitudes over coral reef environment around Tutuila (for 15 of 31 villages, run</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170004626','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170004626"><span>Contribution of Asteroid Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> to the Impact Hazard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morrison, David; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The long-standing uncertainty about the importance of asteroid-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was addressed at a workshop in August 2016, co-sponsored by NASA and NOAA. Experts from NASA, NOAA, the DoE tri-labs (LLNL, SNL, and LANL), DHS, FEMA, and academia addressed the hazard of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> created by asteroid impacts, focusing primarily on NEAs with diameter less than 250m. Participants jointly identified key issues and shared information for nearly a year to coordinate their results for discussion at the workshop. They used modern computational tools to examine 1) Near-field wave generation by the impact; 2) Long-distance wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span>; 3) Damage from coastal run-up and inundation, and associated hazard. The workshop resulted in broad consensus that the asteroid impact <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat is not as great as previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.U21B..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.U21B..07A"><span>Near Field <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for the Maule <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> from DART, GPS and Finite Fault Solutions (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arcas, D.; Chamberlin, C.; Lagos, M.; Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Tang, L.; Wei, Y.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of February, 27, 2010 in central Chile has rekindled an interest in developing techniques to predict the impact of near field <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> along the Chilean coastline. Following the earthquake, several initiatives were proposed to increase the density of seismic, pressure and motion sensors along the South American trench, in order to provide field data that could be used to estimate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact on the coast. However, the precise use of those data in the elaboration of a quantitative assessment of coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damage has not been clarified. The present work makes use of seismic, Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (DART®) systems, and GPS measurements obtained during the Maule earthquake to initiate a number of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation <span class="hlt">models</span> along the rupture area by expressing different versions of the seismic crustal deformation in terms of NOAA’s <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> unit source functions. Translation of all available real-time data into a feasible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source is essential in near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact prediction in which an impact assessment must be generated under very stringent time constraints. Inundation results from each different source are then contrasted with field and tide gauge data by comparing arrival time, maximum wave height, maximum inundation and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> decay rate, using field data collected by the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615777F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615777F"><span>The Solomon Islands <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The field observations in the Santa Cruz Islands present an important dataset to assess <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact in the near-source region. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was also recorded at deep-ocean tsunameters and tide gauges throughout the Pacific. These observations allow us to further investigate the physics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation caused by the seismic process (or other non-seismic mechanisms). We use numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> MOST to analyze the large runup and complex impact distribution caused by the Santa Cruz <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Source <span class="hlt">models</span> obtained using seismic data / <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data are carried out to initialize the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. MOST uses two sets of numerical grids to investigate both the near- and far-field aspects of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The basin-scale <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results are computed using a spatial resolution of 4 arc min (approx. 7,200 m) and compared with measurements at deep-ocean tsunameters. The near-field <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is carried out using a series of telescoped grids up to a grid resolution of tens of meters to compare with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup and flooding extent obtained through the field survey in the Solomon Islands. The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results emphasize the contrast between the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact on the exposed coastline and the sheltered Lata Bay stressing the problematic interpretation of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in progress based solely on near-source tide-gauge measurements. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860032177&hterms=tsunami&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtsunami','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860032177&hterms=tsunami&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtsunami"><span>The origin of the 1883 Krakatau <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Francis, P. W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Three hypotheses proposed to explain possible causes of the Aug. 27, 1883 Krakatau <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> were analyzed: (1) large-scale collapse of the northern part of Krakatau island (Verbeek, 1884), (2) submarine explosion (Yokoyama, 1981), and (3) emplacement of pyroclastic flows (Latter, 1981). A study of timings of the air and sea waves between Krakatau and Batavia, showing that no precise sea wave travel times can be obtained, and a study of the tide and pressure gage records made on August 27, indicating that the air and sea waves were <span class="hlt">propagated</span> from the focus of eruption on Krakatau island, suggest that neither hypothesis 2 or 3 are sufficiently substantiated. In addition, the event that caused the major air and sea wave was preceded (by 40 min) by a similar, smaller event which generated the second largest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and an air wave. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism for the eruption is a Mt. St. Helens scenario, close to the hypothesis of Verbeek, in which collapse of part of the original volcanic edifice <span class="hlt">propagated</span> a major explosion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..08W"><span>Stakeholder-driven geospatial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for assessing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> vertical-evacuation strategies in the U.S. Pacific Northwest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, N. J.; Schmidtlein, M.; Schelling, J.; Jones, J.; Ng, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disasters, such as the 2010 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku events, demonstrate the significant life loss that can occur from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Many coastal communities in the world are threatened by near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards that may inundate low-lying areas only minutes after a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> begins. Geospatial integration of demographic data and hazard zones has identified potential impacts on populations in communities susceptible to near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threats. Pedestrian-evacuation <span class="hlt">models</span> build on these geospatial analyses to determine if individuals in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-prone areas will have sufficient time to reach high ground before <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-wave arrival. Areas where successful evacuations are unlikely may warrant vertical-evacuation (VE) strategies, such as berms or structures designed to aid evacuation. The decision of whether and where VE strategies are warranted is complex. Such decisions require an interdisciplinary understanding of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards, land cover conditions, demography, community vulnerability, pedestrian-evacuation <span class="hlt">models</span>, land-use and emergency-management policy, and decision science. Engagement with the at-risk population and local emergency managers in VE planning discussions is critical because resulting strategies include permanent structures within a community and their local ownership helps ensure long-term success. We present a summary of an interdisciplinary approach to assess VE options in communities along the southwest Washington coast (U.S.A.) that are threatened by near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards generated by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes. Pedestrian-evacuation <span class="hlt">models</span> based on an anisotropic approach that uses path-distance algorithms were merged with population data to forecast the distribution of at-risk individuals within several communities as a function of travel time to safe locations. A series of community-based workshops helped identify potential VE options in these communities, collectively known as "Project Safe Haven" at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1508L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1508L"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced groundwater salinization and its temporal change: a numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> study on the Niijima Island, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jiaqi; Tokunaga, Tomochika</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Groundwater is vulnerable to many natural hazards, including <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. As reported after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, the generated massive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundations resulted in unexpected groundwater salinization in coastal areas. Water supply was strongly disturbed due to the significantly elevated salinity in groundwater. Supplying fresh water is one of the prioritized concerns in the immediate aftermath of disaster, and during long-term post-disaster reconstruction as well. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on coastal groundwater system and provide guidelines on managing water resources in post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> period. We selected the study area as the Niijima Island, a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-prone area in Japan, which is under the risk of being attacked by a devastated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with its wave height up to 30 m. A three-dimension (3-D) numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the groundwater system on the Niijima Island was developed by using the simulation code FEFLOW which can handle both density- dependent groundwater flow and saturated-unsaturated flow processes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was justified by the measured water table data obtained from the field work in July, 2015. By using this <span class="hlt">model</span>, we investigated saltwater intrusion and aquifer recovery process under different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> results showed that saltwater could fully saturate the vadose zone and come into contact with groundwater table in just 10 mins. The 0.6 km2 of inundation area introduced salt mass equivalent to approximately 9×104 t of NaCl into the vadose zone. After the retreat of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, the remained saltwater in vadose zone continuously intruded into the groundwater and dramatically salinized the aquifer up to about 10,000 mg/L. In the worst <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario, it took more than 10 years for the polluted aquifer to be entirely recovered by natural rainfall. Given that the groundwater is the only freshwater source on the Niijima Island, we can provide suggestions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA07219.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA07219.html"><span>NASA/French Satellite Data Reveal New Details of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-12</p> <p>Displayed in blue color is the height of sea surface (shown in blue) measured by the Jason satellite two hours after the initial magnitude 9 earthquake hit the region (shown in red) southwest of Sumatra on December 26, 2004. The data were taken by a radar altimeter onboard the satellite along a track traversing the Indian Ocean when the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves had just filled the entire Bay of Bengal (see the <span class="hlt">model</span> simulation inset image). The data shown are the changes of sea surface height from previous observations made along the same track 20-30 days before the earthquake, reflecting the signals of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. The maximum height of the leading wave crest was about 50 cm (or 1.6 ft), followed by a trough of sea surface depression of 40 cm. The directions of wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> along the satellite track are shown by the blue arrows. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhTea..44..585D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhTea..44..585D"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the 2004Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> for Introductory Physics Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DiLisi, Gregory A.; Rarick, Richard A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>In this paper we develop materials to address student interest in the Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of December 2004. We discuss the physical characteristics of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and some of the specific data regarding the 2004 event. Finally, we create an easy-to-make <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> tank to run simulations in the classroom. The simulations exhibit three dramatic signatures of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, namely, as a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> moves into shallow water its amplitude increases, its wavelength and speed decrease, and its leading edge becomes increasingly steep as if to "break" or "crash." Using our <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> tank, these realistic features were easy to observe in the classroom and evoked an enthusiastic response from our students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.4089V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.4089V"><span>The New Method of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Reconstruction With r-Solution Inversion Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voronina, T. A.; Romanenko, A. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Application of the r-solution method to reconstructing the initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform is discussed. This methodology is based on the inversion of remote measurements of water-level data. The wave <span class="hlt">propagation</span> is considered within the scope of a linear shallow-water theory. The ill-posed inverse problem in question is regularized by means of a least square inversion using the truncated Singular Value Decomposition method. As a result of the numerical process, an r-solution is obtained. The method proposed allows one to control the instability of a numerical solution and to obtain an acceptable result in spite of ill posedness of the problem. Implementation of this methodology to reconstructing of the initial waveform to 2013 Solomon Islands <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> validates the theoretical conclusion for synthetic data and a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source: the inversion result strongly depends on data noisiness, the azimuthal and temporal coverage of recording stations with respect to the source area. Furthermore, it is possible to make a preliminary selection of the most informative set of the available recording stations used in the inversion process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0208T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0208T"><span>Real-time correction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> site effect by frequency-dependent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-amplification factor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsushima, H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning, I developed frequency-dependent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-amplification factor and used it to design a recursive digital filter that can be applicable for real-time correction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> site response. In this study, I assumed that a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform at an observing point could be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by convolution of source, path and site effects in time domain. Under this assumption, spectral ratio between offshore and the nearby coast can be regarded as site response (i.e. frequency-dependent amplification factor). If the amplification factor can be prepared before tsunamigenic earthquakes, its temporal convolution to offshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform provides <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> prediction at coast in real time. In this study, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms calculated by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulations were used to develop frequency-dependent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-amplification factor. Firstly, I performed numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations based on nonlinear shallow-water theory from many tsuanmigenic earthquake scenarios by varying the seismic magnitudes and locations. The resultant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms at offshore and the nearby coastal observing points were then used in spectral-ratio analysis. An average of the resulted spectral ratios from the tsunamigenic-earthquake scenarios is regarded as frequency-dependent amplification factor. Finally, the estimated amplification factor is used in design of a recursive digital filter that can be applicable in time domain. The above procedure is applied to Miyako bay at the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The averaged <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-height spectral ratio (i.e. amplification factor) between the location at the center of the bay and the outside show a peak at wave-period of 20 min. A recursive digital filter based on the estimated amplification factor shows good performance in real-time correction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-height amplification due to the site effect. This study is supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant 15K16309.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..752K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..752K"><span>Display of historical and hypothetical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the coast of Sakhalin Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostenko, Irina; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey; Yalciner, Ahmet</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waves achieve the coast of the Sakhalin Island and their sources are located in the Japan Sea, in the Okhotsk Sea, in Kuril Islands region and in the Pacific Ocean. Study of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation characteristics and its <span class="hlt">propagation</span> allows studying display of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the various parts of the island coast. For this purpose the series of computational experiments of some historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> was carried out. Their sources located in Japan Sea and Kuril Islands region. The simulation results are compared with the observations. Analysis of all recorded historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on coast of Sakhalin Island was done. To identify the possible display of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the coast of Sakhalin Island the series of computational experiments of hypothetical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> was carried out. Their sources located in the Japan Sea and in the Okhotsk Sea. There were used hydrodynamic sources. There were used different parameters of sources (length, width, height, raising and lowering of sea level), which correspond to earthquakes of various magnitudes. The analysis of the results was carried out. Pictures of the distribution of maximum amplitudes from each <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> were done. Areas of Okhotsk Sea, Japan Sea and offshore strip of Sakhalin Island with maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes were defined. Graphs of the distribution of maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights along the coast of the Sakhalin Island were plotted. Based on shallow-water equation <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for numerical simulations. This work was supported by ASTARTE project.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130008672','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130008672"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Vulnerabilities of Geographies with Shallow Water Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> preparedness is crucial for saving human lives in case of disasters that involve massive water movement. In this work, we develop a framework for visual assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness of geographies. Shallow water equations (also called Saint Venant equations) are a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations that are derived by depth-integrating the Navier-Stokes equations and provide a great abstraction of water masses that have lower depths compared to their free surface area. Our specific contribution in this study is to use Microsoft's XNA Game Studio to import underwater and shore line geographies, create different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios, and visualize the <span class="hlt">propagation</span> of the waves and their impact on the shore line geography. Most importantly, we utilized the computational power of graphical processing units (GPUs) as HLSL based shader files and delegated all of the heavy computations to the GPU. Finally, we also conducted a validation study, in which we have tested our <span class="hlt">model</span> against a controlled shallow water experiment. We believe that such a framework with an easy to use interface that is based on readily available software libraries, which are widely available and easily distributable, would encourage not only researchers, but also educators to showcase ideas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH31C3878R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH31C3878R"><span>Inversion of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height using ionospheric observations. The case of the 2012 Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rolland, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Large and moderate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generate atmospheric internal gravity waves that are detectable using ionospheric monitoring. Indeed <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of height 2cm and more in open ocean were detected with GPS (Rolland et al. 2010). We present a new method to retrieve the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height from GPS-derived Total Electron Content observations. We present the case of the Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii earthquake that occured the 28 october 2012 offshore the Queen Charlotte island near the canadian west coast. This event created a moderate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 4cm offshore the Hawaii archipelago. Equipped with more than 50 receivers it was possible to image the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced ionospheric perturbation. First, our forward <span class="hlt">model</span> leading to the TEC perturbation follows three steps : (1) 3D <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the neutral atmosphere perturbation by summation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced gravity waves normal modes. (2) Coupling of the neutral atmosphere perturbation with the ionosphere to retrieve the electron density perturbation. (3) Integration of the electron density perturbation along each satellite-station ray path. Then we compare this results to the data acquired by the Hawaiian GPS network. Finally, we examine the possibility to invert the TEC data in order to retrieve the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height and waveform. For this we investigate the link between the height of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and the perturbed TEC in the ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1524P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1524P"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of marine Gravity data for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard zone mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porwal, Nipun</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> is a series of ocean wave with very high wavelengths ranges from 10 to 500 km. Therefore <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> act as shallow water waves and hard to predict from various methods. Bottom Pressure Recorders of Poseidon class considered as a preeminent method to detect <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves but Acoustic Modem in Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) sensors placed in the vicinity of trenches having depth of more than 6000m fails to propel OBP data to Surface Buoys. Therefore this paper is developed for numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of Gravity field coefficients from Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) which do not play a central role in the study of geodesy, satellite orbit computation, & geophysics but by mathematical transformation of gravity field coefficients using Normalized Legendre Polynomial high resolution ocean bottom pressure (OBP) data is generated. Real time sea level monitored OBP data of 0.3° by 1° spatial resolution using Kalman filter (kf080) for past 10 years by Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) has been correlated with OBP data from gravity field coefficients which attribute a feasible study on future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection system from space and in identification of most suitable sites to place OBP sensors near deep trenches. The Levitus Climatological temperature and salinity are assimilated into the version of the MITGCM using the ad-joint method to obtain the sea height segment. Then TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter, surface momentum, heat, and freshwater fluxes from NCEP reanalysis product and the dynamic ocean topography DOT_DNSCMSS08_EGM08 is used to interpret sea-bottom elevation. Then all datasets are associated under raster calculator in ArcGIS 9.3 using Boolean Intersection Algebra Method and proximal analysis tools with high resolution sea floor topographic map. Afterward <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> prone area and suitable sites for set up of BPR as analyzed in this research is authenticated by using Passive microwave radiometry system for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Zone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH22A..05T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH22A..05T"><span>Rapid Determination of Appropriate Source <span class="hlt">Models</span> for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early Warning using a Depth Dependent Rigidity Curve: Method and Numerical Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanioka, Y.; Miranda, G. J. A.; Gusman, A. R.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Recently, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning technique has been improved using <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure gauges such as NOAA DART system or DONET and S-NET systems in Japan. However, for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early warning of near field <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, it is essential to determine appropriate source <span class="hlt">models</span> using seismological analysis before large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> hit the coast, especially for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes which generated significantly large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In this paper, we develop a technique to determine appropriate source <span class="hlt">models</span> from which appropriate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation along the coast can be numerically computed The technique is tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off Central America. In this study, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, then the fault length and width were determined from scaling relationships. At first, the slip amount was calculated from the seismic moment with a constant rigidity of 3.5 x 10**10N/m2. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulation was carried out and compared with the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. For the 1992 Nicaragua <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake, the computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was much smaller than the observed one. For the 2004 El Astillero earthquake, the computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was overestimated. In order to solve this problem, we constructed a depth dependent rigidity curve, similar to suggested by Bilek and Lay (1999). The curve with a central depth estimated by the W-phase inversion was used to calculate the slip amount of the fault <span class="hlt">model</span>. Using those new slip amounts, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulation was carried out again. Then, the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas for the 1992 Nicaragua <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake were well explained by the computed one. The other <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from the other three earthquakes were also reasonably well explained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH34A..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH34A..01K"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Numerical <span class="hlt">Model</span> Considering the Disaster Debris such as Cars, Ships and Collapsed Buildings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozono, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Sakuraba, M.; Nojima, K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A lot of debris by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, such as cars, ships and collapsed buildings were generated in the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. It is useful for rescue and recovery after <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster to predict the amount and final position of disaster debris. The transport form of disaster debris varies as drifting, rolling and sliding. These transport forms need to be considered comprehensively in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation. In this study, we focused on the following three points. Firstly, the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> considering various transport forms of disaster debris was developed. The proposed numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> was compared with the hydraulic experiment by Okubo et al. (2004) in order to verify transport on the bottom surface such as rolling and sliding. Secondly, a numerical experiment considering transporting on the bottom surface and drifting was studied. Finally, the numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> was applied for Kesennuma city where serious damage occurred by the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, the influence of disaster debris was considered as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow energy loss. The hydraulic experiments conducted in a water tank which was 10 m long by 30 cm wide. The gate confined water in a storage tank, and acted as a wave generator. A slope was set at downstream section. The initial position of a block (width: 3.2 cm, density: 1.55 g/cm3) assuming the disaster debris was placed in front of the slope. The proposed numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> simulated well the maximum transport distance and the final stop position of the block. In the second numerical experiment, the conditions were the same as the hydraulic experiment, except for the density of the block. The density was set to various values (from 0.30 to 4.20 g/cm3). This <span class="hlt">model</span> was able to estimate various transport forms including drifting and sliding. In the numerical simulation of the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the condition of buildings was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as follows: (i)the resistance on the bottom using Manning roughness coefficient (conventional method), and (ii)structure of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70119386','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70119386"><span>Improving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> resiliency: California's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Policy Working Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Real, Charles R.; Johnson, Laurie; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Kontar, Y.A.; Santiago-Fandiño, V.; Takahashi, T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>California has established a <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Policy Working Group to facilitate development of policy recommendations for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard mitigation. The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Policy Working Group brings together government and industry specialists from diverse fields including <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering. The group is acting on findings from two parallel efforts: The USGS SAFRR <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Scenario project, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> originating from an M 9.1 earthquake in the Aleutian Islands Subduction Zone striking California’s coastline, and the State’s <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Program. The unique dual-track approach provides a comprehensive assessment of vulnerability and risk within which the policy group can identify gaps and issues in current <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard mitigation and risk reduction, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments, and provide advice that will assist development and implementation of effective <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard risk communication products to improve community resiliency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2588G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2588G"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Charles Darwin's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galiev, Shamil</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great 1835 earthquake. He described his impressions and results of the earthquake-induced natural catastrophe in The Voyage of the Beagle. His description of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> could easily be read as a report from Indonesia or Sri Lanka, after the catastrophic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 26 December 2004. In particular, Darwin emphasised the dependence of earthquake-induced waves on a form of the coast and the coastal depth: ‘… Talcuhano and Callao are situated at the head of great shoaling bays, and they have always suffered from this phenomenon; whereas, the town of Valparaiso, which is seated close on the border of a profound ocean... has never been overwhelmed by one of these terrific deluges…' . He reports also, that ‘… the whole body of the sea retires from the coast, and then returns in great waves of overwhelming force ...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). The coastal evolution of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was analytically studied in many publications (see, for example, Synolakis, C.E., Bernard, E.N., 2006. Philos. Trans. R. Soc., Ser. A, 364, 2231-2265; Tinti, S., Tonini, R. 205. J.Fluid Mech., 535, 11-21). However, the Darwin's reports and the influence of the coastal depth on the formation and the evolution of the steep front and the profile of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> did not practically discuss. Recently, a mathematical theory of these phenomena was presented in researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474. The theory describes the waves which are excited due to nonlinear effects within a shallow coastal zone. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> elevation is described by two components: . Here is the linear (prime) component. It describes the wave coming from the deep ocean. is the nonlinear component. This component may become very important near the coastal line. After that the theory of the shallow waves is used. This theory yields the linear equation for and the weakly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH21D..07G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH21D..07G"><span>Rapid <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Inundation Forecast from Near-field or Far-field Earthquakes using Pre-computed <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Database: Pelabuhan Ratu, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gusman, A. R.; Setiyono, U.; Satake, K.; Fujii, Y.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>We built pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation database in Pelabuhan Ratu, one of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-prone areas on the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> database can be employed for a rapid estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation during an event. The pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms and inundations are from a total of 340 scenarios ranging from 7.5 to 9.2 in moment magnitude scale (Mw), including simple fault <span class="hlt">models</span> of 208 thrust faults and 44 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes on the plate interface, as well as 44 normal faults and 44 reverse faults in the outer-rise region. Using our <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation forecasting algorithm (NearTIF), we could rapidly estimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation in Pelabuhan Ratu for three different hypothetical earthquakes. The first hypothetical earthquake is a megathrust earthquake type (Mw 9.0) offshore Sumatra which is about 600 km from Pelabuhan Ratu to represent a worst-case event in the far-field. The second hypothetical earthquake (Mw 8.5) is based on a slip deficit rate estimation from geodetic measurements and represents a most likely large event near Pelabuhan Ratu. The third hypothetical earthquake is a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake type (Mw 8.1) which often occur south off Java. We compared the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation maps produced by the NearTIF algorithm with results of direct forward inundation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for the hypothetical earthquakes. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation maps produced from both methods are similar for the three cases. However, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation map from the inundation database can be obtained in much shorter time (1 min) than the one from a forward inundation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (40 min). These indicate that the NearTIF algorithm based on pre-computed inundation database is reliable and useful for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning purposes. This study also demonstrates that the NearTIF algorithm can work well even though the earthquake source is located outside the area of fault <span class="hlt">model</span> database because it uses a time shifting procedure for the best-fit scenario searching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH11C..07B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH11C..07B"><span>The First Real-Time <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Animation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C.; Weinstein, S.; Ward, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>For the first time a U.S. <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning center created and issued a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> animation while the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was still crossing an ocean. Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Warning Center (PTWC) scientists had predicted they would have this ability (Becker et al., 2012) with their RIFT forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> (Wang et al., 2009) by using rapidly-determined W-phase centroid-moment tensor earthquake focal mechanisms as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources in the RIFT <span class="hlt">model</span> (Wang et al., 2012). PTWC then acquired its own YouTube channel in 2013 for its outreach efforts that showed animations of historic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (Becker et al., 2013), but could also be a platform for sharing future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> animations. The 8.2 Mw earthquake of 1 April 2014 prompted PTWC to issue official warnings for a dangerous <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Chile, Peru and Ecuador. PTWC ended these warnings five hours later, then issued its new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> marine hazard product (i.e., no coastal evacuations) for the State of Hawaii. With the international warning canceled but with a domestic hazard still present PTWC generated a forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> animation and uploaded it to its YouTube channel six hours before the arrival of the first waves in Hawaii. PTWC also gave copies of this animation to television reporters who in turn passed it on to their national broadcast networks. PTWC then created a version for NOAA's Science on a Sphere system so it could be shown on these exhibits as the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was still crossing the Pacific Ocean. While it is difficult to determine how many people saw this animation since local, national, and international news networks showed it in their broadcasts, PTWC's YouTube channel provides some statistics. As of 1 August 2014 this animation has garnered more than 650,000 views. Previous animations, typically released during significant anniversaries, rarely get more than 10,000 views, and even then only when external websites share them. Clearly there is a high demand for a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> graphic that shows both the speed and the severity of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205.1780S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205.1780S"><span>Quantification of source uncertainties in Seismic Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Analysis (SPTHA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selva, J.; Tonini, R.; Molinari, I.; Tiberti, M. M.; Romano, F.; Grezio, A.; Melini, D.; Piatanesi, A.; Basili, R.; Lorito, S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We propose a procedure for uncertainty quantification in Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Analysis (PTHA), with a special emphasis on the uncertainty related to statistical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the earthquake source in Seismic PTHA (SPTHA), and on the separate treatment of subduction and crustal earthquakes (treated as background seismicity). An event tree approach and ensemble <span class="hlt">modelling</span> are used in spite of more classical approaches, such as the hazard integral and the logic tree. This procedure consists of four steps: (1) exploration of aleatory uncertainty through an event tree, with alternative implementations for exploring epistemic uncertainty; (2) numerical computation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and <span class="hlt">propagation</span> up to a given offshore isobath; (3) (optional) site-specific quantification of inundation; (4) simultaneous quantification of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty through ensemble <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. The proposed procedure is general and independent of the kind of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source considered; however, we implement step 1, the event tree, specifically for SPTHA, focusing on seismic source uncertainty. To exemplify the procedure, we develop a case study considering seismic sources in the Ionian Sea (central-eastern Mediterranean Sea), using the coasts of Southern Italy as a target zone. The results show that an efficient and complete quantification of all the uncertainties is feasible even when treating a large number of potential sources and a large set of alternative <span class="hlt">model</span> formulations. We also find that (i) treating separately subduction and background (crustal) earthquakes allows for optimal use of available information and for avoiding significant biases; (ii) both subduction interface and crustal faults contribute to the SPTHA, with different proportions that depend on source-target position and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> intensity; (iii) the proposed framework allows sensitivity and deaggregation analyses, demonstrating the applicability of the method for operational assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP13A3500J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP13A3500J"><span>Reconstructing <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Flow Speed from Sedimentary Deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jaffe, B. E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Paleotsunami deposits contain information about the flow that created them that can be used to reconstruct <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow speed and thereby improving assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard. We applied an inverse <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span> to sandy deposits near Sendai Airport, Japan, that formed during the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to test <span class="hlt">model</span> performance and explore the spatial variations in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow speed. The inverse <span class="hlt">model</span> assumes the amount of suspended sediment in the water column is in equilibrium with local flow speed and that sediment transport convergences, primarily from bedload transport, do not contribute significantly to formation of the portion of the deposit we identify as formed by sediment settling out of suspension. We interpret massive or inversely graded intervals as forming from sediment transport convergences and do not <span class="hlt">model</span> them. Sediment falling out of suspension forms a specific type of normal grading, termed 'suspension' grading, where the entire grain size distribution shifts to finer sizes higher up in a deposit. Suspension grading is often observed in deposits of high-energy flows, including turbidity currents and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The inverse <span class="hlt">model</span> calculates <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow speed from the thickness and bulk grain size of a suspension-graded interval. We identified 24 suspension-graded intervals from 7 trenches located near the Sendai Airport from ~250-1350 m inland from the shoreline. Flow speeds were highest ~500 m from the shoreline, landward of the forested sand dunes where the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> encountered lower roughness in a low-lying area as it traveled downslope. <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow speeds range from 2.2 to 9.0 m/s. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> flow speeds are sensitive to roughness, which is unfortunately poorly constrained. Flow speed calculated by the inverse <span class="hlt">model</span> was similar to those calculated from video taken from a helicopter about 1-2 km inland. Deposit reconstructions of suspension-graded intervals reproduced observed upward shifts in grain size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812085D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812085D"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment of the submarine volcano Kick 'em Jenny in high resolution are</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dondin, Frédéric; Dorville, Jean-Francois Marc; Robertson, Richard E. A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Landslide-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are infrequent phenomena that can be potentially highly hazardous for population located in the near-field domain of the source. The Lesser Antilles volcanic arc is a curved 800 km chain of volcanic islands. At least 53 flank collapse episodes have been recognized along the arc. Several of these collapses have been associated with underwater voluminous deposits (volume > 1 km3). Due to their momentum these events were likely capable of generating regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. However no clear field evidence of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> associated with these voluminous events have been reported but the occurrence of such an episode nowadays would certainly have catastrophic consequences. Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA), with a current edifice volume estimated to 1.5 km3. It is the southernmost edifice of the LAA with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. The volcano appears to have undergone three episodes of flank failure. Numerical simulations of one of these episodes associated with a collapse volume of ca. 4.4 km3 and considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with amplitude of 30 m. In the present study we applied a detailed hazard assessment on KeJ submarine volcano (KeJ) form its collapse to its waves impact on high resolution coastal area of selected island of the LAA in order to highlight needs to improve alert system and risk mitigation. We present the assessment process of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (i.e. run-up) and flood dynamic (i.e. duration, height, speed...) at the coast of LAA island in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. After quantification of potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA, VolcanoFit 2.0 & SSAP 4.5) based on seven geomechanical <span class="hlt">models</span>, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source have been simulate by St-Venant equations-based code</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3437H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3437H"><span>The El Salvador and Philippines <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> of August 2012: Insights from Sea Level Data Analysis and Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Satake, Kenji</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We studied two <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from 2012, one generated by the El Salvador earthquake of 27 August ( Mw 7.3) and the other generated by the Philippines earthquake of 31 August ( Mw 7.6), using sea level data analysis and numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. For the El Salvador <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the largest wave height was observed in Baltra, Galapagos Islands (71.1 cm) located about 1,400 km away from the source. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> governing periods were around 9 and 19 min. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> indicated that most of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy was directed towards the Galapagos Islands, explaining the relatively large wave height there. For the Philippines <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the maximum wave height of 30.5 cm was observed at Kushimoto in Japan located about 2,700 km away from the source. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> governing periods were around 8, 12 and 29 min. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> showed that a significant part of the far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy was directed towards the southern coast of Japan. Fourier and wavelet analyses as well as numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> suggested that the dominant period of the first wave at stations normal to the fault strike is related to the fault width, while the period of the first wave at stations in the direction of fault strike is representative of the fault length.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMNG41B0526G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMNG41B0526G"><span>Non-Poissonian Distribution of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Waiting Times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Analysis of the global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalog indicates that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waiting times deviate from an exponential distribution one would expect from a Poisson process. Empirical density distributions of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waiting times were determined using both global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> origin times and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival times at a particular site with a sufficient catalog: Hilo, Hawai'i. Most sources for the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the catalog are earthquakes; other sources include landslides and volcanogenic processes. Both datasets indicate an over-abundance of short waiting times in comparison to an exponential distribution. Two types of probability <span class="hlt">models</span> are investigated to explain this observation. <span class="hlt">Model</span> (1) is a universal scaling law that describes long-term clustering of sources with a gamma distribution. The shape parameter (γ) for the global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> distribution is similar to that of the global earthquake catalog γ=0.63-0.67 [Corral, 2004]. For the Hilo catalog, γ is slightly greater (0.75-0.82) and closer to an exponential distribution. This is explained by the fact that <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from smaller triggered earthquakes or landslides are less likely to be recorded at a far-field station such as Hilo in comparison to the global catalog, which includes a greater proportion of local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. <span class="hlt">Model</span> (2) is based on two distributions derived from Omori's law for the temporal decay of triggered sources (aftershocks). The first is the ETAS distribution derived by Saichev and Sornette [2007], which is shown to fit the distribution of observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waiting times. The second is a simpler two-parameter distribution that is the exponential distribution augmented by a linear decay in aftershocks multiplied by a time constant Ta. Examination of the sources associated with short <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waiting times indicate that triggered events include both earthquake and landslide <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that begin in the vicinity of the primary source. Triggered seismogenic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> do not necessarily originate from the same fault zone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21A3829M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21A3829M"><span>Village Level <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Threat Maps for Tamil Nadu, SE Coast of India: Numerical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MP, J.; Kulangara Madham Subrahmanian, D.; V, R. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (IOT) devastated several countries of North Indian Ocean. India is one of the worst affected countries after Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In India, Tamil Nadu suffered maximum with fatalities exceeding 8,000 people. Historical records show that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has invaded the shores of Tamil Nadu in the past and has made people realize that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat looms over Tamil Nadu and it is necessary to evolve strategies for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat management. The IOT has brought to light that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation and runup varied within short distances and for the disaster management for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, large scale maps showing areas that are likely to be affected by future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are identified. Therefore threat assessment for six villages including Mamallapuram (also called Mahabalipuram) which is famous for its rock-cut temples, from the northern part of Tamil Nadu state of India has been carried out and threat maps categorizing the coast into areas of different degree of threat are prepared. The threat was assessed by numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> using TUNAMI N2 code considering different tsunamigenic sources along the Andaman - Sumatra trench. While GEBCO and C-Map data was used for bathymetry and for land elevation data was generated by RTK - GPS survey for a distance of 1 km from shore and SRTM for the inland areas. The <span class="hlt">model</span> results show that in addition to the Sumatra source which generated the IOT in 2004, earthquakes originating in Car Nicobar and North Andaman can inflict more damage. The North Andaman source can generate a massive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and an earthquake of magnitude more than Mw 9 can not only affect Tamil Nadu but also entire south east coast of India. The runup water level is used to demarcate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat zones in the villages using GIS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH51C..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH51C..04R"><span>Atmospheric resonances of the Rayleigh and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> normal modes and its sensitivity to local time and geographical location.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakoto, V.; Astafyeva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>It is known that natural hazard events, such as earthquakes, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, volcano eruptions, etc. can generate atmospheric/ionospheric perturbations. During earthquakes, vertical displacements of the ground or of the ocean floor generate acoustic-gravity waves that further <span class="hlt">propagate</span> upward in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. In turn, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> <span class="hlt">propagating</span> in the open sea, generate gravity waves which <span class="hlt">propagate</span> obliquely and reach the ionosphere in 45-60 min. The properties of the atmospheric "channel" in the vertical and oblique <span class="hlt">propagation</span> depend on a variety of factors such as solar and geomagnetic conditions, latitude, local time, season, and their influence on <span class="hlt">propagation</span> and properties of co-seismic and co-tsunamic perturbations is not well understood yet. In this work, we use present a detailed study of the coupling efficiency between solid earth, ocean and atmosphere. For this purpose, we use the normal mode technique extended to the whole solid Earth-ocean-atmosphere system. In our study, we focus on the Rayleigh modes (solid modes) and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modes (oceanic modes). As the normal modes amplitude are also depending on the spatial and temporal variation of the structure of the atmosphere, we also performed a sensitivity study location of the normal modes amplitude with local time and geographical position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/987290','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/987290"><span>Science and Engineering of an Operational <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecasting System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Frank</p> <p>2009-04-06</p> <p>After a review of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> statistics and the destruction caused by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, a means of forecasting <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is discussed as part of an overall program of reducing fatalities through hazard assessment, education, training, mitigation, and a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system. The forecast is accomplished via a concept called Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (DART). Small changes of pressure at the sea floor are measured and relayed to warning centers. Under development is an international <span class="hlt">modeling</span> network to transfer, maintain, and improve <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987290','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987290"><span>Science and Engineering of an Operational <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecasting System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Frank</p> <p>2017-12-09</p> <p>After a review of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> statistics and the destruction caused by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, a means of forecasting <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is discussed as part of an overall program of reducing fatalities through hazard assessment, education, training, mitigation, and a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> warning system. The forecast is accomplished via a concept called Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (DART). Small changes of pressure at the sea floor are measured and relayed to warning centers. Under development is an international <span class="hlt">modeling</span> network to transfer, maintain, and improve <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512984M','NASAA