Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F
Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.
Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine
Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.
Montoya, Manuel; Chumbiraico, Robert; Ricalde, Melvin; Cazorla, Ernesto; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo
Esophageal involvement is an extremely rare complication of tuberculosis even in countries with high prevalence of infection. We report the case of a 57 year-old hiv-seronegative patient with simultaneous diagnoses of oral blastomycosis and laryngeal papillomatosis. Both were confirmed by anatomopathological analysis. The esophageal biopsy revealed granulomatous esophagitis with necrosis and ziehl-neelsen stain showed acid-fast alcohol resistant bacilli suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient's history included pulmonary tuberculosis twice and previous abandonment of therapy. Thus, it was necessary to use oral itraconazole combined with second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs administered through a gastrostomy tube. The clinical development was favorable.
Kumar, Virad; Singh, Amit P; Meher, Ravi; Raj, Anoop
Oral lesions of tuberculosis though uncommon, are seen both in the primary as well as the secondary stages of the disease. In secondary tuberculosis, the oral manifestations are accompanied by lesions in the lung, lymph nodes, or any other organ system of the body. This can be detected by the usual clinical history and systemic examination. Primary oral tuberculosis may thus present as a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Amongst the oral lesions also, tongue is the usual site for tubercular infection, with the upper lip and soft palate being the least affected. The authors report two rare cases of children with isolated primary tuberculosis of the lip and uvula. Interestingly, the first case presenting just as a diffuse swelling of the upper lip, and the second as pain in throat with congestion and granulations on the uvula. We suggest a distinct Indian social habit which predisposes to primary lip and uvular tuberculosis, sites not common in the rest of the world. The habit of doing "datoon" i.e. brushing of the teeth with neem twigs in rural India, which at times causes trauma on the palate and thus predisposing to seedling of the wound with mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Kakisi, Ourania K; Kechagia, Argiro S; Kakisis, Ioannis K; Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E
The recent increase in the incidence of tuberculosis, combined with an emerging global resistance to antituberculous drugs, warrants an increased awareness of the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in persistent or atypical lesions in the oral cavity. We sought to review the published reports of mycobacterial infection of the oral cavity found in the literature in otherwise uncompromised patients, from 1950 to the present day, and analyzed the documented manifestations. M. tuberculosis infects all parts of the mouth (soft and hard palate, uvula, buccal mucosa, gingivae, lips, tongue, maxilla, and mandible) more often in men than in women, appearing predominantly in the form of ulcerative lesions. It was found as a secondary infection in 58% (54% pulmonary, 4% extrapulmonary) of patients and as a primary infection in 42% of patients. Carcinomas are found to co-exist in the same lesion site in 3% of patients. In approximately 50% of patients, an oral manifestation of TB has led to the diagnosis of a previously unknown systemic infection, which resulted in a timely and effective treatment. The investigation for tuberculosis should therefore be actively pursued in the dental surgery. Diagnostic work-up for systemic involvement and control of healthcare-associated spread is important, while therapeutic options are still considered adequate.
Khateeb, Dina; Feurdean, Mirela
Tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of death around the world despite advancements in diagnostic testing and medical therapies. It commonly affects the lungs, but isolated extra pulmonary clinical manifestations have been reported. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a patient with dermatomyositis on chronic steroid therapy, who presented with tuberculosis involving the tongue as the only clinical manifestation of disseminated disease. Physicians must be aware of extra pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis in patients at risk, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment and to prevent further contagion. PMID:27895668
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Teens > Tuberculosis A A A What's in this article? TB ... Duration When to Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis TB Basics Tuberculosis (also known as "TB") is ...
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Teens > Tuberculosis Print A A A What's in this article? ... Duration When to Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis TB Basics Tuberculosis (also known as "TB") is ...
Dheda, Keertan; Barry, Clifton E; Maartens, Gary
Although the worldwide incidence of tuberculosis has been slowly decreasing, the global disease burden remains substantial (∼9 million cases and ∼1·5 million deaths in 2013), and tuberculosis incidence and drug resistance are rising in some parts of the world such as Africa. The modest gains achieved thus far are threatened by high prevalence of HIV, persisting global poverty, and emergence of highly drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is also a major problem in health-care workers in both low-burden and high-burden settings. Although the ideal preventive agent, an effective vaccine, is still some time away, several new diagnostic technologies have emerged, and two new tuberculosis drugs have been licensed after almost 50 years of no tuberculosis drugs being registered. Efforts towards an effective vaccine have been thwarted by poor understanding of what constitutes protective immunity. Although new interventions and investment in control programmes will enable control, eradication will only be possible through substantial reductions in poverty and overcrowding, political will and stability, and containing co-drivers of tuberculosis, such as HIV, smoking, and diabetes.
An evaluation of the immunomodulatory peptide SCV-07 was conducted as a possible therapeutic treatment for tuberculosis. This evaluation included mouse models, clinical trials and various forms of the drug such as liquid injection and development of an oral pill. It was found that SCV-07 significantly increased the survival rate of animals infected with lethal doses of Mycobacterium bovis. It enhanced the functional activity of macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion. The combination of SCV-07 with bacteriostatic drugs, such as izoniazid, was particularly effective. Phase II clinical trials in a TB clinic demonstrated that the usage of the injection form of SCV-07 for lung TB treatment in combination with standard chemotherapy decreased the quantity of patients with positive sputum assays for Mycobacteria, promoted healing of cavities in lungs, stabilized parameters of cell immunity, and resulted in a significant improvement in the general condition of patients. Clinical trials results of the oral drug form are still being evaluated.
Palencia, Andrés; Li, Xianfeng; Bu, Wei; Choi, Wai; Ding, Charles Z.; Easom, Eric E.; Feng, Lisa; Hernandez, Vincent; Houston, Paul; Liu, Liang; Meewan, Maliwan; Mohan, Manisha; Rock, Fernando L.; Sexton, Holly; Zhang, Suoming; Zhou, Yasheen; Wan, Baojie; Wang, Yuehong; Franzblau, Scott G.; Woolhiser, Lisa; Gruppo, Veronica; Lenaerts, Anne J.; O'Malley, Theresa; Parish, Tanya; Cooper, Christopher B.; Waters, M. Gerard; Ma, Zhenkun; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.; Rullas, Joaquín; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Mendoza, Alfonso; Barros, David; Cusack, Stephen; Plattner, Jacob J.
The recent development and spread of extensively drug-resistant and totally drug-resistant resistant (TDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlight the need for new antitubercular drugs. Protein synthesis inhibitors have played an important role in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) starting with the inclusion of streptomycin in the first combination therapies. Although parenteral aminoglycosides are a key component of therapy for multidrug-resistant TB, the oxazolidinone linezolid is the only orally available protein synthesis inhibitor that is effective against TB. Here, we show that small-molecule inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs), which are known to be excellent antibacterial protein synthesis targets, are orally bioavailable and effective against M. tuberculosis in TB mouse infection models. We applied the oxaborole tRNA-trapping (OBORT) mechanism, which was first developed to target fungal cytoplasmic leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), to M. tuberculosis LeuRS. X-ray crystallography was used to guide the design of LeuRS inhibitors that have good biochemical potency and excellent whole-cell activity against M. tuberculosis. Importantly, their good oral bioavailability translates into in vivo efficacy in both the acute and chronic mouse models of TB with potency comparable to that of the frontline drug isoniazid. PMID:27503647
Essential facts Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by a bacterium, mycobacterium tuberculosis. While it can affect any part of the body, only pulmonary TB is infectious. According to the charity TB Alert, there were 5,758 cases of TB in the UK in 2015 and 39% of them were in London. This represented a fall from a peak of 8,919 cases in 2011. Left untreated, TB is life-threatening, but is usually curable with antibiotics. The sooner it is diagnosed and treated, the better, both for the person's health and in preventing them from passing the infection on to others.
Essential facts Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by a bacterium, mycobacterium tuberculosis. While it can affect any part of the body, only pulmonary TB is infectious. According to the charity TB Alert, there were 5,758 cases of TB in the UK in 2015 and 39% of them were in London. This represented a fall from a peak of 8,919 cases in 2011. Left untreated, TB is life-threatening, but is usually curable with antibiotics. The sooner it is diagnosed and treated, the better, both for the person's health and in preventing them from passing the infection on to others.
Price, Dominique N.; Kusewitt, Donna F.; Lino, Christopher A.; McBride, Amber A.; Muttil, Pavan
Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is currently the only approved vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) and is administered in over 150 countries worldwide. Despite its widespread use, the vaccine has a variable protective efficacy of 0–80%, with the lowest efficacy rates in tropical regions where TB is most prevalent. This variability is partially due to ubiquitous environmental mycobacteria (EM) found in soil and water sources, with high EM prevalence coinciding with areas of poor vaccine efficacy. In an effort to elucidate the mechanisms underlying EM interference with BCG vaccine efficacy, we exposed mice chronically to Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a specific EM, by two different routes, the oral and intradermal route, to mimic human exposure. After intradermal BCG immunization in mice exposed to oral M. avium, we saw a significant decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ, and an increase in T regulatory cells and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 compared to naïve BCG-vaccinated animals. To circumvent the immunosuppressive effect of oral M. avium exposure, we vaccinated mice by the pulmonary route with BCG. Inhaled BCG immunization rescued IFN-γ levels and increased CD4 and CD8 T cell recruitment into airways in M. avium-presensitized mice. In contrast, intradermal BCG vaccination was ineffective at T cell recruitment into the airway. Pulmonary BCG vaccination proved protective against Mtb infection regardless of previous oral M. avium exposure, compared to intradermal BCG immunization. In conclusion, our data indicate that vaccination against TB by the pulmonary route increases BCG vaccine efficacy by avoiding the immunosuppressive interference generated by chronic oral exposure to EM. This has implications in TB-burdened countries where drug resistance is on the rise and health care options are limited due to economic considerations. A successful vaccine against TB is necessary in these areas as it is both effective and economical. PMID:27153120
Jacobson, Karen R
This issue provides a clinical overview of tuberculosis, focusing on screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.
Tompkins, D. M.; Ramsey, D. S. L.; Cross, M. L.; Aldwell, F. E.; de Lisle, G. W.; Buddle, B. M.
Bovine tuberculosis (Tb) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has proved refractory to eradication from domestic livestock in countries with wildlife disease reservoirs. Vaccination of wild hosts offers a way of controlling Tb in livestock without wildlife culling. This study was conducted in a Tb-endemic region of New Zealand, where the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the main wildlife reservoir of Tb. Possums were trapped and vaccinated using a prototype oral-delivery system to deliver the Tb vaccine bacille Calmette–Guerin. Vaccinated and control possums were matched according to age, sex and location, re-trapped bimonthly and assessed for Tb status by palpation and lesion aspiration; the site was depopulated after 2 years and post-mortem examinations were conducted to further identify clinical Tb cases and subclinical infection. Significantly fewer culture-confirmed Tb cases were recorded in vaccinated possums (1/51) compared with control animals (12/71); the transition probability from susceptible to infected was significantly reduced in both males and females by vaccination. Vaccine efficacy was estimated at 95 per cent (87–100%) for females and 96 per cent (82–99%) for males. Hence, this trial demonstrates that orally delivered live bacterial vaccines can significantly protect wildlife against natural disease exposure, indicating that wildlife vaccination, along with existing control methods, could be used to eradicate Tb from domestic animals. PMID:19493904
Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853
Horita, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Shinji; Kazumi, Yuko
We evaluated the antituberculosis (anti-TB) activity of five β-lactams alone or in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors against 41 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains. Of those, tebipenem, an oral carbapenem, showed the most potent anti-TB activity against clinical isolates, with a MIC range of 0.125 to 8 μg/ml, which is achievable in the human blood. More importantly, in the presence of clavulanate, MIC values of tebipenem declined to 2 μg/ml or less. PMID:25224000
Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian
Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar. PMID:22848869
Chambers, Mark A; Aldwell, Frank; Williams, Gareth A; Palmer, Si; Gowtage, Sonya; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna J; Davé, Dipesh; Weyer, Ute; Salguero, Francisco J; Nunez, Alejandro; Nadian, Allan K; Crawshaw, Timothy; Corner, Leigh A L; Lesellier, Sandrine
The European badger (Meles meles) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badgers and a research priority is the development of an oral vaccine deliverable to badgers in bait. Previous studies reported the successful vaccination of badgers with oral preparations of 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) of both Pasteur and Danish strains of BCG contained within a lipid matrix composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. Protection against TB in these studies was expressed as a reduction in the number and apparent progression of visible lesions, and reductions in the bacterial load and dissemination of infection. To reduce the cost of an oral vaccine and reduce the potential for environmental contamination with BCG, it is necessary to define the minimal efficacious dose of oral BCG for badgers. The objectives of the two studies reported here were to compare the efficacy of BCG Danish strain in a lipid matrix with unformulated BCG given orally, and to evaluate the efficacy of BCG Danish in a lipid matrix at a 10-fold lower dose than previously evaluated in badgers. In the first study, both BCG unformulated and in a lipid matrix reduced the number and apparent progression of visible lesions and the dissemination of infection from the lung. In the second study, vaccination with BCG in the lipid matrix at a 10-fold lower dose produced a similar outcome, but with greater intra-group variability than seen with the higher dose in the first study. Further research is needed before we are able to recommend a final dose of BCG for oral vaccination of badgers against TB
Chambers, Mark A.; Aldwell, Frank; Williams, Gareth A.; Palmer, Si; Gowtage, Sonya; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna J.; Davé, Dipesh; Weyer, Ute; Salguero, Francisco J.; Nunez, Alejandro; Nadian, Allan K.; Crawshaw, Timothy; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Lesellier, Sandrine
The European badger (Meles meles) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badgers and a research priority is the development of an oral vaccine deliverable to badgers in bait. Previous studies reported the successful vaccination of badgers with oral preparations of 108 colony forming units (CFU) of both Pasteur and Danish strains of BCG contained within a lipid matrix composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. Protection against TB in these studies was expressed as a reduction in the number and apparent progression of visible lesions, and reductions in the bacterial load and dissemination of infection. To reduce the cost of an oral vaccine and reduce the potential for environmental contamination with BCG, it is necessary to define the minimal efficacious dose of oral BCG for badgers. The objectives of the two studies reported here were to compare the efficacy of BCG Danish strain in a lipid matrix with unformulated BCG given orally, and to evaluate the efficacy of BCG Danish in a lipid matrix at a 10-fold lower dose than previously evaluated in badgers. In the first study, both BCG unformulated and in a lipid matrix reduced the number and apparent progression of visible lesions and the dissemination of infection from the lung. In the second study, vaccination with BCG in the lipid matrix at a 10-fold lower dose produced a similar outcome, but with greater intra-group variability than seen with the higher dose in the first study. Further research is needed before we are able to recommend a final dose of BCG for oral vaccination of badgers against TB or
Gowtage, Sonya; Williams, Gareth A; Henderson, Ray; Aylett, Paul; MacMorran, Duncan; Palmer, Si; Robertson, Andy; Lesellier, Sandrine; Carter, Stephen P; Chambers, Mark A
The oral vaccination of wild badgers (Meles meles) with live Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is one of the tools being considered for the control of bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in the UK. The design of a product for oral vaccination requires that numerous, and often competing, conditions are met. These include the need for a highly palatable, but physically stable bait that will meet regulatory requirements, and one which is also compatible with the vaccine formulation; in this case live BCG. In collaboration with two commercial bait companies we have developed a highly attractive and palatable bait recipe designed specifically for European badgers (Meles meles) that meets these requirements. The palatability of different batches of bait was evaluated against a standardised palatable control bait using captive badgers. The physical properties of the bait are described e.g. firmness and colour. The microbial load in the bait was assessed against European and US Pharmacopoeias. The bait was combined with an edible vaccine carrier made of hydrogenated peanut oil in which BCG vaccine was stable during bait manufacture and cold storage, demonstrating <0.5 log10 reduction in titre after 117weeks' storage at -20°C. BCG stability in bait was also evaluated at +4°C and under simulated environmental conditions (20°C, 98% Relative Humidity; RH). Finally, iophenoxic acid biomarkers were utilised as a surrogate for the BCG vaccine, to test variants of the vaccine-bait design for their ability to deliver biomarker to the gastrointestinal tract of individual animals. These data provide the first detailed description of a bait-vaccine delivery system developed specifically for the oral vaccination of badgers against Mycobacterium bovis using live BCG.
Clark, Simon O; Kelly, Dominic L F; Badell, Edgar; Castello-Branco, Luiz Roberto; Aldwell, Frank; Winter, Nathalie; Lewis, David J M; Marsh, Philip D
There is a need for an improved vaccine to better control human tuberculosis (TB), as the only currently available TB vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) delivered parenterally, offers variable levels of efficacy. Therefore, recombinant strains expressing additional antigens are being developed alongside alternative routes to parenteral delivery. There is strong evidence that BCG Moreau (RdJ) is a safe and effective vaccine in humans when given by the oral route. This study compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of wild type BCG Moreau Rio de Janeiro (RdJ), or a recombinant RdJ strain expressing Ag85B-ESAT6 fusion protein, formulated with and without lipid to enhance oral delivery, with subcutaneous BCG Danish 1331 and saline control groups in a guinea pig aerosol infection model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Protection was measured as survival at 30 weeks post-challenge and reduced bacterial load and histopathology in lungs and spleen. Results showed that a single oral dose of BCG Moreau (RdJ) or recombinant BCG Moreau (RdJ)-Ag85B-ESAT6, formulated with or without lipid, gave protection equivalent to subcutaneously delivered BCG Danish in the 30 weeks post-challenge survival study. The orally delivered vaccines gave reduced pathology scores in the lungs (three of the four formulations) and spleens (all four formulations) compared to subcutaneously delivered BCG Danish. The oral wild type BCG Moreau (RdJ) in lipid and the unformulated oral wild type BCG Moreau (RdJ) vaccine also gave statistically lower bacterial loads in the lungs and spleens, respectively, compared to subcutaneously delivered BCG Danish. This study provides further evidence to show that lipid formulation does not impair vaccine efficacy and may enhance the delivery and stability of oral vaccines intended for use in countries with poor health infrastructure. Oral delivery also avoids needles (and associated cross-infection risks) and immunisation without the need for specially trained
Robertson, Andrew; Delahay, Richard J; McDonald, Robbie A; Aylett, Paul; Henderson, Ray; Gowtage, Sonya; Chambers, Mark A; Carter, Stephen P
In the UK and the Republic of Ireland, the European badger (Meles meles) is a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and may transmit the infection to cattle causing bovine tuberculosis (TB). Vaccination of badgers using an injectable Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is undertaken in some areas of the UK with the intention of interrupting this transmission, and vaccination research is underway in Ireland. An oral badger TB vaccine is also under development. We investigated the behaviour of badgers and non-target wildlife species towards three candidate baits being considered for delivering BCG to badgers orally. Bait preference was investigated by recording removal rates of baits and through the use of video surveillance at 16 badger setts. We found high variation in rates of bait removal by badgers among setts but no significant differences in removal rates among bait types or in preference behaviour from video footage. Variation in bait removal among setts correlated with the number of nights on which badgers were seen at the sett, with most baits being removed where badgers were seen on >50% of nights during the ten-day study period. Relatively few baits were removed at setts with low levels of recorded badger activity. Monitoring badger activity prior to bait deployment may therefore be useful in increasing bait uptake and vaccine coverage. Bait removal by badgers increased over the ten-day study period, suggesting initial neophobic behaviour at some setts and that a period of 'pre-feeding' may be required prior to vaccine deployment. Our results indicate that all three candidate baits are attractive to badgers. Removal of baits by non-target wildlife species was generally low, but varied among bait types, with smaller baits in packaging less likely to be removed. Enclosing baits in packaging is likely to deter non-target species, although in some cases non-target species did remove up to 13% of packaged baits.
Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K
Trehalose 6'6-dimycolate (TDM) is the most abundant glycolipid on the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). TDM is capable of inducing granulomatous pathology in mouse models that resembles those induced by MTB infection. Using the acute TDM model, this work investigates the effect of recombinant human and mouse lactoferrin to reduce granulomatous pathology. C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with TDM at a dose of 25 μg·mouse(-1). At day 4 and 6, recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin (1 mg·(100 μL)(-1)·mouse(-1)) were delivered by gavage. At day 7 after TDM injection, mice were evaluated for lung pathology, cytokine production, and leukocyte populations. Mice given human or mouse lactoferrin had reduced production of IL-12p40 in their lungs. Mouse lactoferrin increased IL-6 and KC (CXCL1) in lung tissue. Increased numbers of macrophages were observed in TDM-injected mice given human or mouse lactoferrin. Granulomatous pathology, composed of mainly migrated leukocytes, was visually reduced in mice that received human or mouse lactoferrin. Quantitation of granulomatous pathology demonstrated a significant decrease in mice given human or mouse lactoferrin compared with TDM control mice. This report is the first to directly compare the immune modulatory effects of both heterologous recombinant human and homologous mouse lactoferrin on the development of TDM-induced granulomas.
Bricha, Myriem; Slimani, Hajar; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine
Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is rare. It is associated with clinical polymorphism and poses above all a diagnostic problem. We report the case of a 42-year-old male patient with tubercular cheilitis. This study aims to focus attention on tuberculosis that can be detected exceptionally in specific locations, such as the oral lip.
Efficacy of oral and parenteral routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination against experimental bovine tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): a feasibility study.
Nol, P; Palmer, M V; Waters, W R; Aldwell, F E; Buddle, B M; Triantis, J M; Linke, L M; Phillips, G E; Thacker, T C; Rhyan, J C; Dunbar, M R; Salman, M D
We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 10(9) cfu BCG in culture directly to the oropharynx, one group (n=6) was vaccinated with 10(6) cfu BCG subcutaneously, and one group served as a control and received culture media directly to the oropharynx (n=6). All animals were challenged 3 mo after vaccination. Five months postchallenge the animals were examined for lesions. Results indicate that both oral forms of BCG and parenterally administered BCG offered significant protection against M. bovis challenge as compared to controls. This study suggests that oral BCG vaccination may be a feasible means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in wild white-tailed deer populations.
Gormley, Eamonn; Ní Bhuachalla, Deirdre; O'Keeffe, James; Murphy, Denise; Aldwell, Frank E; Fitzsimons, Tara; Stanley, Paul; Tratalos, Jamie A; McGrath, Guy; Fogarty, Naomi; Kenny, Kevin; More, Simon J; Messam, Locksley L McV; Corner, Leigh A L
A field trial was conducted to investigate the impact of oral vaccination of free-living badgers against natural-transmitted Mycobacterium bovis infection. For a period of three years badgers were captured over seven sweeps in three zones and assigned for oral vaccination with a lipid-encapsulated BCG vaccine (Liporale-BCG) or with placebo. Badgers enrolled in Zone A were administered placebo while all badgers enrolled in Zone C were vaccinated with BCG. Badgers enrolled in the middle area, Zone B, were randomly assigned 50:50 for treatment with vaccine or placebo. Treatment in each zone remained blinded until the end of the study period. The outcome of interest was incident cases of tuberculosis measured as time to seroconversion events using the BrockTB Stat-Pak lateral flow serology test, supplemented with post-mortem examination. Among the vaccinated badgers that seroconverted, the median time to seroconversion (413 days) was significantly longer (p = 0.04) when compared with non-vaccinated animals (230 days). Survival analysis (modelling time to seroconversion) revealed that there was a significant difference in the rate of seroconversion between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers in Zones A and C throughout the trial period (p = 0.015). For badgers enrolled during sweeps 1-2 the Vaccine Efficacy (VE) determined from hazard rate ratios was 36% (95% CI: -62%- 75%). For badgers enrolled in these zones during sweeps 3-6, the VE was 84% (95% CI: 29%- 97%). This indicated that VE increased with the level of vaccine coverage. Post-mortem examination of badgers at the end of the trial also revealed a significant difference in the proportion of animals presenting with M. bovis culture confirmed lesions in vaccinated Zone C (9%) compared with non-vaccinated Zone A (26%). These results demonstrate that oral BCG vaccination confers protection to badgers and could be used to reduce incident rates in tuberculosis-infected populations of badgers.
Gormley, Eamonn; Ní Bhuachalla, Deirdre; O’Keeffe, James; Murphy, Denise; Aldwell, Frank E.; Fitzsimons, Tara; Stanley, Paul; Tratalos, Jamie A.; McGrath, Guy; Fogarty, Naomi; Kenny, Kevin; More, Simon J.; Messam, Locksley L. McV.; Corner, Leigh A. L.
A field trial was conducted to investigate the impact of oral vaccination of free-living badgers against natural-transmitted Mycobacterium bovis infection. For a period of three years badgers were captured over seven sweeps in three zones and assigned for oral vaccination with a lipid-encapsulated BCG vaccine (Liporale-BCG) or with placebo. Badgers enrolled in Zone A were administered placebo while all badgers enrolled in Zone C were vaccinated with BCG. Badgers enrolled in the middle area, Zone B, were randomly assigned 50:50 for treatment with vaccine or placebo. Treatment in each zone remained blinded until the end of the study period. The outcome of interest was incident cases of tuberculosis measured as time to seroconversion events using the BrockTB Stat-Pak lateral flow serology test, supplemented with post-mortem examination. Among the vaccinated badgers that seroconverted, the median time to seroconversion (413 days) was significantly longer (p = 0.04) when compared with non-vaccinated animals (230 days). Survival analysis (modelling time to seroconversion) revealed that there was a significant difference in the rate of seroconversion between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers in Zones A and C throughout the trial period (p = 0.015). For badgers enrolled during sweeps 1–2 the Vaccine Efficacy (VE) determined from hazard rate ratios was 36% (95% CI: -62%– 75%). For badgers enrolled in these zones during sweeps 3–6, the VE was 84% (95% CI: 29%– 97%). This indicated that VE increased with the level of vaccine coverage. Post-mortem examination of badgers at the end of the trial also revealed a significant difference in the proportion of animals presenting with M. bovis culture confirmed lesions in vaccinated Zone C (9%) compared with non-vaccinated Zone A (26%). These results demonstrate that oral BCG vaccination confers protection to badgers and could be used to reduce incident rates in tuberculosis-infected populations of badgers. PMID:28121981
... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious and often ... are drug resistant. Why Is the Study of Tuberculosis (TB) a Priority for NIAID? Tuberculosis is one ...
Bruzgielewicz, A; Wysocki, J; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, E
The upper respiratory tract is an unusual site for tuberculous infection. Most of the cases are secondary to active pulmonary tuberculosis. We present thirty five cases of tuberculosis localize in the head and neck region. There were twelve patients with lymphonodular tuberculosis, eleven patients with laryngeal tuberculosis, six patients with oral and pharyngeal tuberculosis, three patients with partoid gland tuberculosis, two patients with nose and paranasal sinuses tuberculosis and one patient with middle ear tuberculosis. This cases exemplifies the difficulty in diagnosis of tuberculosis in such an unusual sites.
Cardona, Paula; Marzo-Escartín, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Díaz, Jorge; García, Vanessa; Varela, Ismael; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan
Low-dose tolerance using heat-killed mycobacteria has been tested as a means of stopping progression toward active tuberculosis (TB) lesions in a human-like murine model using C3HeB/FeJ mice. In the present study, we studied the effect of different treatment schedules with heat-killed non-tuberculous-mycobacteria (NTM) species when given orally, based on the hypothesis of generating oral tolerance. This study included M. manresensis, a new species belonging to the fortuitum group, present in drinking water. Oral treatment with M. manresensis for 2 weeks was able to induce a PPD-specific Tregs population, which has been related to a decrease in the neutrophilic infiltration found in TB lesions. Further mechanistic analysis using PPD-stimulated splenocytes links this 2-week treatment with heat-killed M. manresensis to IL-10 production and memory PPD-specific Tregs, and also to a weak PPD-specific global immune response stimulation, increasing IL-6, TNF, and IFN-γ production. In lungs, this treatment decreased the bacillary load, granulomatous infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17). Oral administration of M. manresensis during standard treatment for TB also significantly reduced the relapse of active TB after ending the treatment. Overall the data suggest that the use of heat-killed M. manresensis could be a new and promising tool for avoiding active TB induction and as adjunctive to TB treatment. This supports the usefulness of generating a new kind of protection based on a complex balanced immune response focused on both destroying the bacilli and including control of an excessive inflammatory response. PMID:26779140
Murphy, Denise; Costello, Eamon; Aldwell, Frank E; Lesellier, Sandrine; Chambers, Mark A; Fitzsimons, Tara; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn
Vaccination of badgers by the subcutaneous, mucosal and oral routes with the Pasteur strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has resulted in significant protection against experimental infection with virulent M. bovis. However, as the BCG Danish strain is the only commercially licensed BCG vaccine for use in humans in the European Union it is the vaccine of choice for delivery to badger populations. As all oral vaccination studies in badgers were previously conducted using the BCG Pasteur strain, this study compared protection in badgers following oral vaccination with the Pasteur and the Danish strains. Groups of badgers were vaccinated orally with 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) BCG Danish 1331 (n = 7 badgers) or 10(8) CFU BCG Pasteur 1173P2 (n = 6). Another group (n = 8) served as non-vaccinated controls. At 12 weeks post-vaccination, the animals were challenged by the endobronchial route with 6 × 10(3) CFU M. bovis, and at 15 weeks post-infection, all of the badgers were euthanased. Vaccination with either BCG strain provided protection against challenge compared with controls. The vaccinated badgers had significantly fewer sites with gross pathology and significantly lower gross pathological severity scores, fewer sites with histological lesions and fewer sites of infection, significantly lower bacterial counts in the thoracic lymph node, and lower bacterial counts in the lungs than the control group. No differences were observed between either of the vaccine groups by any of the pathology and bacteriology measures. The ELISPOT analysis, measuring production of badger interferon - gamma (IFN-γ), was also similar across the vaccinated groups.
Frankel, Amylynne; Penrose, Carolin
Cutaneous tuberculosis occurs rarely, despite a high and increasing prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterrium bovis, and the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine can cause tuberculosis involving the skin. Cutaneous tuberculosis can be acquired exogenously or endogenously and present as a multitude of differing clinical morphologies. Diagnosis of these lesions can be difficult, as they resemble many other dermatological conditions that are often primarily considered. Further, microbiological confirmation is poor, despite scientific advances, such as the more frequent use of polymerase chain reaction. The authors report a case that illustrates the challenges faced by dermatologists when considering a diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis. PMID:20725570
Kouassi, Affiba Florance; Kone, Mawa; Keita, Melalie; Esmel, Akori; Megnassan, Eugene; N’Guessan, Yao Thomas; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav
We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs) inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). Three-dimensional (3D) models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry code: 4U0J), the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50exp). First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50exp. Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom) of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50exp (pIC50exp = −0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R2 = 0.94), which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4). Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL) of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50pre reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:26703572
Kouassi, Affiba Florance; Kone, Mawa; Keita, Melalie; Esmel, Akori; Megnassan, Eugene; N'Guessan, Yao Thomas; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav
We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs) inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). Three-dimensional (3D) models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry code: 4U0J), the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50(exp)). First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50(exp). Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom) of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50(exp) (pIC50(exp) = -0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R² = 0.94), which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4). Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL) of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50(pre) reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles.
Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous catt...
Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jung Hyun; Kang, Ju Wan; Kim, Jeong Hong
Tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a two month history of sore throat without other general or respiratory symptoms. Oral ex- amination revealed ulcerative and granulomatous lesions on the soft palate and tonsils. Histological examination of the lesions showed granulomatous tissue with caseaous necrosis consistent with tuberculosis. A chest x-ray and computed to- mography of the chest showed miliary tuberculosis of both lungs. The oral lesions improved with antituberculous medication by one month. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions which do not respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy. Pulmonary tuberculosis should also be considered in patients with oral tuberculosis even if they do not have respiratory symptoms.
... Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Clinical Trials For more than ...
Ketata, W; Rekik, W K; Ayadi, H; Kammoun, S
Each year, there are more than eight million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.3 million deaths. There is a renewed interest in extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis as its relative frequency increases. Among extrapulmonary organs, pleura and lymph nodes are the most common. Their diagnosis is often difficult and is based on clinical, radiological, bacteriological and histological findings. Extrapulmonary lesions are paucibacillary and samplings, in most cases, difficult to obtain, so diagnosis is often simply presumptive. Nucleic acid amplification tests, which are fast and specific, have greatly facilitated the diagnosis of some forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, their sensitivity is poor and a negative test does not eliminate the diagnosis. Treatment is the same as for pulmonary forms, but its duration is nine to 12 months for central nervous system and for bone tuberculosis. Corticosteroids are indicated in meningeal and pericardial localizations. Complementary surgery is used for certain complicated forms.
Mazza-Stalder, J; Nicod, L; Janssens, J-P
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis represents an increasing proportion of all cases of tuberculosis reaching 20 to 40% according to published reports. Extrapulmonary TB is found in a higher proportion of women, black people and immunosuppressed individuals. A significant proportion of cases have a normal chest X-Ray at the time of diagnosis. The most frequent clinical presentations are lymphadenitis, pleuritis and osteoarticular TB. Peritoneal, urogenital or meningeal tuberculosis are less frequent, and their diagnosis is often difficult due to the often wide differential diagnosis and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests including cultures and genetic amplification tests. The key clinical elements are reported and for each form the diagnostic yield of available tests. International therapeutic recommendations and practical issues are reviewed according to clinical presentation.
Rajan, Jiby; Mathai, Ashok Thomas; Prasad, P V S; Kaviarasan, P K
Tuberculosis has been a well-known affliction of human kind, since antiquity. Cutaneous tuberculosis constitutes only a small proportion of extra pulmonary tuberculosis and multifocal involvement of cutaneous tuberculosis is an even rarer manifestation. We report one such case of multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in a 17-year old male patient in the absence of any primary tuberculous focus. PMID:21772603
Kumar, K.; Ayub, M.; Kumar, Mohan; Keswani, N. K.
Analysis of 5 patients with gallbladder tuberculosis who had open cholecystectomy and review of literature have shown that, although still rare it presents as a part of systemic miliary tuberculosis, abdominal tuberculosis, isolated gallbladder tuberculosis and as acalculus cholecystitis in anergic patients. There are no pathognomonic signs, the diagnosis depends on suspicion of tuberculosis, peroperative findings and histological examination. PMID:10977119
Rosado, Pablo; Fuente, Eduardo; Gallego, Lorena; Calvo, Nicolás
Tuberculosis (TB) is a life-threatening infectious disease with a high world incidence. However, TB with oral expression is considered rare. The importance of recognising this entity lies in its early diagnosis and treatment, as it can be easily confused with neoplastic or traumatic ulcers. We present a case of a primary TB located in the hard palate and gingiva in an 88-year-old woman. PMID:24925532
Rosado, Pablo; Fuente, Eduardo; Gallego, Lorena; Calvo, Nicolás
Tuberculosis (TB) is a life-threatening infectious disease with a high world incidence. However, TB with oral expression is considered rare. The importance of recognising this entity lies in its early diagnosis and treatment, as it can be easily confused with neoplastic or traumatic ulcers. We present a case of a primary TB located in the hard palate and gingiva in an 88-year-old woman.
Active tuberculosis (TB) has a greater burden of TB bacilli than latent TB and acts as an infection source for contacts. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the state in which humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without any clinical symptoms, radiological abnormality, or microbiological evidence. TB is transmissible by respiratory droplet nucleus of 1–5 µm in diameter, containing 1–10 TB bacilli. TB transmission is affected by the strength of the infectious source, infectiousness of TB bacilli, immunoresistance of the host, environmental stresses, and biosocial factors. Infection controls to reduce TB transmission consist of managerial activities, administrative control, engineering control, environmental control, and personal protective equipment provision. However, diagnosis and treatment for LTBI as a national TB control program is an important strategy on the precondition that active TB is not missed. Therefore, more concrete evidences for LTBI management based on clinical and public perspectives are needed. PMID:27790271
Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study
We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...
... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) (Last updated 9/1/2016; last reviewed ... depends on a person’s individual circumstances. What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that can ...
TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...
Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Han-Lim; Kim, Dong-Hyeon
Even in an era of remarkable medical advances, there is an issue of why tuberculosis remains in the list of disastrous diseases, afflicting humans and causing suffering. There has not been a plausible answer to this, and it has been suggested that clinicians and medical scientists could presently not win the war against the tubercle bacilli. With regards to this issue, based on the authors' own clinical and research experiences, in this review, the available literature was revisited in order to address the raised questions and to provide recent information on characteristics of tubercle bacilli and possible ways to more effectively treat tuberculosis. PMID:28243382
du Toit, Lisa Claire; Pillay, Viness; Danckwerts, Michael Paul
Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number of novel implant-, microparticulate-, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit, however, there is a requisite to manufacture an oral system, which directly addresses issues of unacceptable rifampicin bioavailability in fixed-dose combinations. This is fostered by the need to deliver medications to patients more efficiently and with fewer side effects, especially in developing countries. The fabrication of a polymeric once-daily oral multiparticulate fixed-dose combination of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid for improved rifampicin bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance. PMID:16984627
Kapoor, V. K.
Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119
Tuberculosis is still a major health and social problem because, on the one hand, we have witnessed the dismantling of the sanatoriums, with a reduced level of diagnostic suspicion, knowledge and expertise on the management of the disease, while, the other side, are considered migratory flows, the lower socio-economic faced by immigrants, the states of immunosuppression associated with HIV prevalence of malnutrition and other diseases, and the phenomenon of multidrug-resistance, which often turns out to be iatrogenic. The success of the strategy of control/elimination of tuberculosis promoted by the World Health Organization requires a well coordinated multidisciplinary approach in which everyone does their part, the general practitioner, the pulmonologist, the infectious disease specialist, and the microbiologist.
Pathak, Vikas; Shepherd, Ray W.
Tracheobronchial tuberculosis (TBTB) is reported in approximately 10% to 39% of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. It is defined as the tubercle infection of the trachea and or bronchi. Due to its non-specific presentation, insidious onset and normal chest radiography in about 10–20% of the patients, the diagnosis is delayed. Bronchoscopy is the most definite method of diagnosis which provides adequate specimens for microbiological and histopathological diagnosis. Tracheobronchial stenosis is one of the most common long term complications of TBTB resulting in significant morbidity. It is estimated that 90% of patients with TBTB have some degree of tracheal and or bronchial stenosis. In this review article, we will discuss the pathogenesis, symptoms, imaging, bronchoscopic findings, and treatment of TBTB and management of tracheobronchial stenosis. PMID:28149582
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Tuberculosis A A A What's in this article? Signs ... When to You Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease ...
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Tuberculosis Print A A A What's in this article? ... When to You Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease ...
The introduction of ethambutol and rifampicin has modified the therapy of tuberculosis. Therapy in hospitals or sanatoria can be shortened, and intermittent regimens (once or twice weekly under supervision) are possible. Better knowledge of the side effects of particular drugs, particularly rifampicin, (such as allergic reactions in intermittent administration and reduced effect of oral contraceptives) has been gained. Instead of mere supervision, preventive chemotherapy is given in many cases such as in recently discovered fibrotic lesions and in high risk cases (silicosis, treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents)minadequate treatment may lead to functional impairment such as fibrosis and cor pulmonale. These aspects are discussed and the resultant guidelines for the treatment of tuberculosis are presented.
TUBERCULOSIS www.who.int/tb & DIABETES THE DUAL EPIDEMIC OF TB AND DIABETES DEADLY LINKAGES People with ... higher risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis. Diabetes triples a person’s risk of developing TB. ...
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Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso
Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp. PMID:24031759
Mert, Ali; Arslan, Ferhat; Kuyucu, Tülin; Koç, Emine Nur; Yılmaz, Mesut; Turan, Demet; Altın, Sedat; Pehlivanoglu, Filiz; Sengoz, Gonul; Yıldız, Dilek; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Komur, Suheyla; Kurtaran, Behice; Demirdal, Tuna; Erdem, Hüseyin A.; Sipahi, Oguz Resat; Batirel, Ayse; Parlak, Emine; Tekin, Recep; Tunçcan, Özlem Güzel; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Hayran, Osman; Ceylan, Bahadır
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features, and outcome of the patients with miliary tuberculosis (TB). We retrospectively evaluated 263 patients (142 male, 121 female, mean age: 44 years, range: 16–89 years) with miliary TB. Criteria for the diagnosis of miliary TB were at least one of the followings in the presence of clinical presentation suggestive of miliary TB such as prolonged fever, night sweats, anorexia, weight loss: radiologic criterion and pathological criterion and/or microbiological criterion; pathological criterion and/or microbiological criterion. The miliary pattern was seen in 88% of the patients. Predisposing factors were found in 41% of the patients. Most frequent clinical features and laboratory findings were fever (100%), fatigue (91%), anorexia (85%), weight loss (66%), hepatomegaly (20%), splenomegaly (19%), choroid tubercules (8%), anemia (86%), pancytopenia (12%), and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (89%). Tuberculin skin test was positive in 29% of cases. Fifty percent of the patients met the criteria for fever of unknown origin. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in 41% of patients (81/195), and cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were positive in 51% (148/292) of tested specimens (predominantly sputum, CSF, and bronchial lavage). Blood cultures were positive in 20% (19/97). Granulomas in tissue samples of liver, lung, and bone marrow were present in 100% (21/21), 95% (18/19), and 82% (23/28), respectively. A total of 223 patients (85%) were given a quadruple anti-TB treatment. Forty-four (17%) patients died within 1 year after diagnosis established. Age, serum albumin, presence of military pattern, presence of mental changes, and hemoglobin concentration were found as independent predictors of mortality. Fever resolved within first 21 days in the majority (90%) of the cases. Miliary infiltrates on chest X-ray should raise the possibility of miliary TB especially in countries where TB is
Sethuraman, Gomathy; Ramesh, Venkatesh
Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that accounts for 1% to 2% of cases. Childhood skin tuberculosis represents 18% to 82% of all cutaneous tuberculosis cases. Scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris are the two most common clinical forms in children. An increase in the number of tuberculids, especially lichen scrofulosorum, has been observed in the last several years. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children can be severe and have a protracted course. Multiplicity of lesions and multifocal disseminated involvement in scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris is common. Scrofuloderma progressing to gummatous lesions (scrofulous gumma) is mostly described in children. Morbidities and deformities are more severe in children.
Childhood TB is an indication of failing TB control in the community. It allows disease persistence in the population. Mortality and morbidity due to TB is high in children. Moreover, HIV co-infection and multidrug-resistant diseases are as frequent in children as in adults. Infection is more frequent in younger children. Disease risk after primary infection is greatest in infants younger than 2 years. In case of exposure, evidence of infection can be obtained using the tuberculin skin test (TST) or an interferon-gamma assay (IGRA). There is no evidence to support the use of IGRA over TST in young children. TB suspicion should be confirmed whenever possible, using new available tools, particularly in case of pulmonary and lymph node TB. Induced sputum, nasopharyngeal aspiration and fine needle aspiration biopsy provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis of mycobacterial infection in a large proportion of patients. Analysis of paediatric samples revealed higher sensitivity and specificity values of molecular techniques in comparison with the ones originated from adults. Children require higher drugs dosages than adults. Short courses of steroids are associated with TB treatment in case of respiratory distress, bronchoscopic desobstruction is proposed for severe airways involvement and antiretroviral therapy is mandatory in case of HIV infection. Post-exposure prophylaxis in children is a highly effective strategy to reduce the risk of TB disease. The optimal therapy for treatment of latent infection with a presumably multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain is currently not known.
Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination
Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination
Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M bovis , M africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...
Sahu, Kamal Kant; Dhir, Varun; Singh, Surjit
Tuberculosis can infect almost any organ of our body leading to various presentations and its complication. Various haematological manifestations of tuberculosis are well known. But isolated thrombocytopenia and Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) in patients with tuberculosis is very rare. Here we report a case of young man who presented with acute onset of bleeding manifestations in the form of epistaxis and macroscopic haematuria with platelets count of 5×109/L. The patient was diagnosed to have ITP along with clinical and radiological evidence of active tuberculosis. The patient was treated with Anti Tubercular Therapy (ATT) along with Intravenous (IV) pulse of methyl prednisolone followed by tapering dose of oral prednisolone. PMID:27891377
Carrol, E D; Clark, J E; Cant, A J
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease of global importance, with a rising incidence in the developed world in recent years. Tuberculous lymphadenitis, tuberculous meningitis, osteoarticular tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis are some of the more well-recognised manifestations of non-pulmonary TB in childhood. The diagnosis of non-pulmonary TB poses a particular challenge for clinicians because of the protean ways in which the disease presents. The omission of tuberculosis from the differential diagnosis of patients with obscure illnesses and the relatively insensitive bacteriological methods for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis add to the complexity of the problem. A high index of suspicion is required in order to avoid delays in diagnosis which may influence treatment outcome. The advent of DNA amplification techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction may herald a promising new era in the prompt and accurate management of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
Jaganath, Devan; Mupere, Ezekiel
Despite the burden of both malnutrition and tuberculosis in children worldwide, there are few studies on the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. From available research, it appears that malnutrition is a predictor of tuberculosis disease and is associated with worse outcomes. This is supported through several lines of evidence, including the role of vitamin D receptor genotypes, malnutrition's effects on immune development, respiratory infections among malnourished children, and limited work specifically on pediatric tuberculosis and malnutrition. Nutritional supplementation has yet to suggest significant benefits on the course of tuberculosis in children. There is a critical need for research on childhood tuberculosis, specifically on how nutritional status affects the risk and progression of tuberculosis and whether nutritional supplementation improves clinical outcomes or prevents disease.
Baig, Zahid Farooq; Raja, Khalid Mahmood; Abbas, Fahad
Vasculitis (Wegeners Granulomatosis and Microscopic Polyangiitis) and Tuberculosis share many features including constitutional symptoms and respiratory tract involvement. The presence of kidney involvement with new onset azotaemia and active urine sediment support the diagnosis of vasculitis. We describe two cases that were diagnosed to be suffering from tuberculosis and placed on anti-tuberculosis therapy. On further workup they were found to be suffering from pauci- immune glomerulonephritis and recovered well with treatment.
Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K
Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.
Gormley, E; Corner, L A L
The principal domestic maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis is infected cattle. In countries where comprehensive surveillance schemes have been applied, tuberculosis rarely affects an animal to the extent that it presents with clinical disease. In the latter stages of an eradication campaign, the aim is to maintain the disease-free status of clear herds and eliminate foci of infection in herds as well as restricting movement of infected animals from these herds, other than to slaughter. However, the eradication of tuberculosis from cattle herds may be compromised if infected wildlife species, such as Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), share the same environment and contribute to transmission of infection. The options for dealing with tuberculosis in the wildlife reservoir hosts are limited to segregation of domestic animals from the wildlife, culling of the wildlife host or vaccination. Options are further limited by conservation and social reasons, particularly where culling is concerned. In Ireland and the UK, vaccination of badgers against M. bovis, if successfully employed, could directly facilitate the completion of bovine tuberculosis eradication. Programmes of research into vaccination of badgers are being undertaken in both countries, and there is clear evidence that vaccination induces protection. Vaccine trials in captive badgers have established that the M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine can induce a protective response that limits the distribution and severity of tuberculosis disease following experimental challenge. In Ireland, a large-scale field trial of oral BCG vaccination is being conducted to measure the protection generated in wild badgers subjected to natural transmission of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy. The results will provide a framework for the development and implementation of a national strategy to address the disease in badger populations and if successful will remove this major impediment to tuberculosis
Linderman, Jennifer J.; Cilfone, Nicholas A.; Pienaar, Elsje; Gong, Chang; Kirschner, Denise E.
Approximately one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Limited information about how the immune system fights M. tuberculosis and what constitutes protection from the bacteria impact our ability to develop effective therapies for tuberculosis. We present an in vivo systems biology approach that integrates data from multiple model systems and over multiple length and time scales into a comprehensive multi-scale and multi-compartment view of the in vivo immune response to M. tuberculosis. We describe computational models that can be used to study (a) immunomodulation with the cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 10, (b) oral and inhaled antibiotics, and (c) the effect of vaccination. PMID:25924949
Linderman, Jennifer J.; Cilfone, Nicholas A.; Pienaar, Elsje; Gong, Chang; Kirschner, Denise E.
Approximately one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Limited information about how the immune system fights M. tuberculosis and what constitutes protection from the bacteria impact our ability to develop effective therapies for tuberculosis. We present an in vivo systems biology approach that integrates data from multiple model systems and over multiple length and time scales into a comprehensive multi-scale and multi-compartment view of the in vivo immune response to M. tuberculosis. Lastly, we describe computational models that can be used to study (a) immunomodulation with the cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 10, (b) oral and inhaled antibiotics, and (c) the effect of vaccination.
Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771
Sharma, Nalini; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Khonglah, Yookarin; Mishra, Jaya
Background: 95% of Tuberculosis (TB) of the female genital tract (FGT) is located in tissues other than the cervix. A rare case of primary TB of the cervix which was diagnosed coincidently in a patient of endometrioma was reported in this study. Case Presentation: A 34 year old nullipara, a diagnosed case of endometrioma had a small cervical growth. Pap smear and biopsy was taken and sent for histopathological examination. Her histopathological examination revealed multiple epitheloid cell granuloma and langerhans type giant cell caeseation. Ziehl neelsen staining was positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB). The patient was started on antituberculosis under directly observed therapy along with oral contraceptive pills. Patient was on regular follow-up and clinically she was doing well. Conclusion: Although cervical tuberculosis is very rare but for an abnormal looking cervix, cervical tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in woman of all the age groups especially in areas where tuberculosis is rampant since these cases are potentially curable with medical therapy. Many of these patients are in reproductive age group. In young women, early diagnosis prevents further damage in reproductive tract and can improve their reproductive potential. PMID:27921005
The discovery, some nine years ago, of the highly specific antituberculous drug, isoniazid, marked an important advance in the antimicrobial therapy of tuberculosis, first practised successfully with streptomycin and p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in the late 'forties. Isoniazid is relatively non-toxic and, unlike streptomycin, can be administered orally, so that it is eminently suitable for use, either alone or in combination with PAS, in the domiciliary treatment of tuberculous patients. The wisdom of employing it on a large scale in home-treatment programmes, however, has been questioned on the ground that such wide-spread use might result in a spread of tubercle bacilli resistant to the drug. This controversial subject is discussed in some detail in this general review of the chemotherapy of tuberculosis. The author is convinced that, so far, the benefits of isoniazid therapy have outweighed the disadvantages and, though well aware of the possible consequences in terms of isoniazid-resistance, sees no reason at the present time for not making full use of this valuable weapon in the antituberculosis armamentarium. PMID:20604078
Rezgui, Amel; Fredj, Fatma Ben; Mzabi, Anis; Karmani, Monia; Laouani, Chadia
Multifocal tuberculosis is defined as the presence of lesions affecting at least two extrapulmonary sites, with or without pulmonary involvement. This retrospective study of 10 cases aims to investigate the clinical and evolutionary characteristics of multifocal tuberculosis. It included 41 cases with tuberculosis collected between 1999 and 2013. Ten patients had multifocal tuberculosis (24%): 9 women and 1 man, the average age was 50 years (30-68 years). Our patients were correctly BCG vaccinated. The evaluation of immunodepression was negative in all patients. 7 cases had lymph node tuberculosis, 3 cases digestive tuberculosis, 2 cases pericardial tuberculosis, 2 cases osteoarticular tuberculosis, 1 case brain tuberculosis, 2 cases urinary tuberculosis, 4 cases urogenital tuberculosis, 1 case adrenal tuberculosis, 1 case cutaneous and 1 case muscle tuberculosis. All patients received anti-tuberculosis treatment for a mean duration of 10 months, with good evolution. Multifocal tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose. It can affect immunocompetent patients but often has good prognosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy must be initiated as soon as possible to avoid sequelae.
Shang, H; Desgrandchamps, D
In Switzerland, in 1992, 957 persons suffered from tuberculosis; 52.3% were Swiss, 47.7% foreigners. Most of the swiss TB patients were more than 65 years old, whereas the foreigners generally were young patients originating from countries with high TB-infection rates. Asylum seekers had much higher TB-case rates (131 cases per 100,000) than other foreigners (27 cases per 100,000) or Swiss (9 cases per 100,000). Special refuge reception centers have been set up in Switzerland, in charge of tuberculosis screening procedures in this high-risk group on arrival to this country. Although HIV and AIDS patients bear a much higher risk of developing tuberculosis once infected, the HIV epidemic did not lead to an increase of tuberculosis in Switzerland so far, since young Swiss are rarely infected with tuberculosis. HIV-infected, drug addicts, homeless persons and alcoholics run a higher risk of contracting tuberculosis only when congregating with a person suffering from active tuberculosis not yet diagnosed or improperly treated. In order to maintain low levels of tuberculosis in Switzerland DOT (directly observed therapy) must be implemented in all patients with uncertain compliance, especially as cultural and social backgrounds become increasingly complex.
Lidder, Surjit; Lang, Kathryn; Haroon, Mallick; Shahidi, Mitra; El-Guindi, Magdi
Extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are reported in less than one in five cases with the knee affected in 8% after the spine and hip. We report a case of isolated highly erosive tuberculosis of the knee presenting in a previously fit Vietnamese woman. The difficulties of diagnosis, modalities of chemotherapeutic management, and surgical treatment are discussed. PMID:21808686
Knebel, Elisa; Kolodner, Jennifer
The need to isolated health providers with critical knowledge in tuberculosis (TB) case management prompted the development of "Tuberculosis Case Management" CD-ROM. Features include "Learning Center,""Examination Room," and "Library." The combination of audio, video, and graphics allows participants to…
Turpie, I D
This is a description of a tuberculosis treatment programme in a country at war where security and the absence of order pose problems to health care delivery. It is also a description of an epidemic of tuberculosis where treatment and diagnosis are difficult and the methods used have changed little in many years. More international pressure is needed.
Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...
Wise, Gilbert J; Marella, Venkata K
By the 1980s, the availability of antituberculosis chemotherapy reduced the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis. Changing patterns of population emigration and the development of large pools of immune-compromised individuals reversed the downward trend of tuberculosis. The incidence of genitourinary tuberculosis has remained constant. The manifestations of GU TB can be variable and cause a variety of clinical patterns that mimic other diseases. Adrenal insufficiency, renal disease, obstructive uropathy, and chronic cystitis are not uncommon with TB. The patient with TB may have genital disease that simulates STD or scrotal tumors. Infertility can be caused by GU tuberculosis. Awareness of environmental factors and patient history should alert the urologist to the wide array of clinical findings in the genitourinary system that can be caused by tuberculosis.
... Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule; Termination of Rulemaking Respiratory Protection for M. Tuberculosis; Final Rule... Exposure to Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis (TB). Because of a broad range of Federal and community initiatives,...
Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Onajole, Oluseye K.; Pieroni, Marco; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Chen, Gang; Tipparaju, Suresh K.; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Bishai, William R.
Responsible for nearly two million deaths each year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains a serious global health challenge. The emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis confounds control efforts, and new drugs with novel molecular targets are desperately needed. Here we describe lead compounds, the indoleamides, with potent activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis by targeting the mycolic acid transporter MmpL3. We identify a single mutation in mmpL3 which confers high resistance to the indoleamide class while remaining susceptible to currently used first- and second-line tuberculosis drugs, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Importantly, an indoleamide derivative exhibits dose-dependent anti-mycobacterial activity when orally administered to M. tuberculosis-infected mice. The bioavailability of the indoleamides, combined with their ability to kill tubercle bacilli, indicates great potential for translational developments of this structure class for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:24352433
Basu, Sanjay; Galvani, Alison P
The evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents several challenges for public health. HIV and resistance to antimycobacterial medications have evolutionary implications for how Mycobacterium tuberculosis will evolve, as these factors influence the host environment and transmission dynamics of tuberculosis strains. We present an evolutionary invasion analysis of tuberculosis that characterizes the direction of tuberculosis evolution in the context of different natural and human-driven selective pressures, including changes in tuberculosis treatment and HIV prevalence. We find that the evolution of tuberculosis virulence can be affected by treatment success rates, the relative transmissibility of emerging strains, the rate of reactivation from latency among hosts, and the life expectancy of hosts. We find that the virulence of tuberculosis strains may also increase as a consequence of rising HIV prevalence, requiring faster case detection strategies in areas where the epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis collide.
Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015.
Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; do Nascimento, Leninha Valério; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem
Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498
Roelsgaard, E.; Iversen, E.; Bløcher, C.
Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere. In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another. Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes. PMID:14178027
Streltsova, O S; Krupin, V N; Yunusova, K E; Mamonov, M V
Genitourinary tract is the second most common site where extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) occurs. Genitourinary TB is notable for a latent clinical course and difficult diagnosis. The paper presents clinical observations of two patients treated in a urology department of a general public hospital. One of them was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the prostate, MTB+. In the other, TB of the prostate was suspected based on pathologic assessment of the surgical specimen after surgery for prostate cancer.
Tuberculosis is one of the deadliest scourges of mankind and, overall, one third of the global population is infected with this mycobacterium or its variants. The advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has accelerated its spread inexorably whilst the multi-drug resistant strains of the bacillus have hampered disease management. Given the alarming spread of the disease, there appears to be a significant potential for occupationally acquired tuberculous infection amongst health care workers, including dental care workers. This review addresses the basic microbiology and the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, its oral manifestations, mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), management including aspects of the global programme on tuberculosis (DOTS programme), the potential for occupationally acquiring the disease and finally, the infection control measures that are available for dental and other health care workers.
Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...
... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...
... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...
Toujani, S; Ben Salah, N; Cherif, J; Mjid, M; Ouahchy, Y; Zakhama, H; Daghfous, J; Beji, M; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Louzir, B
Tuberculosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Indeed, a third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and more than 8 million new cases of tuberculosis each year. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common location. Its diagnosis is difficult and often established with a delay causing a spread of infection. The diagnosis of tuberculosis infection is mainly based on immunological tests represented by the tuberculin skin test and detection of gamma interferon, while the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is suspected on epidemiological context, lasting general and respiratory symptoms, contrasting usually with normal lung examination, and a chest radiography showing suggestive lesions. The radioclinical feature may be atypical in patients with extreme ages and in case of immunodeficiency. Confirmation of tuberculosis is bacteriological. Conventional bacteriological methods remain the reference. Innovative tests using the technique of molecular biology have improved the diagnosis of tuberculosis in terms of sensitivity and especially speed. However, those techniques are of limited use.
Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...
Gessner, Bradford D.
The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…
Lifeguards run the risk of workplace infection by tuberculosis-carrying swimmers. Even if they work in ventilated, sunlit areas (which reduces risk), they can contract tuberculosis when performing respiratory resuscitation. Without appropriate precautions, lifeguards may be unnecessarily exposed. A tuberculosis infection control plan is needed in…
Chaulet, Pierre; And Others
The first section of this report on childhood tuberculosis in developed and developing countries discusses the epidemiology of tuberculosis in children. Information is presented on: (1) sources and prevalence of infection; (2) risks, frequency, and types of tuberculosis; (3) mortality rates; and (4) the relation of poverty and AIDS to…
Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan
Orofacial tuberculosis (TB) is an uncommon form of extrapulmonary TB and is nonspecific in its clinical presentation. It can be misdiagnosed especially when oral lesions are present before systemic symptoms become apparent. Doctors especially attending dentist who generally is the first among clinicians to come across such pathological entity should be aware of the orofacial lesions of TB and consider them in the differential diagnosis of suspicious oral lesions to ensure early diagnosis of TB and its treatment. In this review, we have discussed in detail the clinical presentation of various forms of orofacial TB, diagnosis, and management of patients. Also, an update is provided about recent anti-TB drug development. PMID:26288770
Zhukova, I I; Kul'chavenia, E V; Kholtobin, D P; Brizhatiuk, E V; Khomiakov, V T; Osadchiĭ, A V
In order to analyze the structure of urogenital tuberculosis, retrospective analysis of medical records of 131 patients with newly diagnosed urogenital tuberculosis observed in the Novosibirsk Regional TB Dispensary from 2009 to 2011 was performed. The renal tuberculosis is main form in the structure is urotuberculosis, detected in 75% of patients, and widespread destructive forms of the disease were diagnosed in more than half of cases. Isolated nephrotuberculosis was more often diagnosed in women--56.8%. 15.9% of patients had asymptomatic nephrotuberculosis; one-third of patients complained of pain in the lumbar region and frequent painful urination (35.2 and 39.8%, respectively); symptoms of intoxication were present in 17% of patients, renal colic--in 9.1%, and gross hematuria--in 7.9% of patients. Mycobacteriuria in isolated nephrotuberculosis was detected in 31.8% of cases. Acute tuberculous orchiepididymitis developed in 35.7% of patients, hemospermia was observed in 7.1% of patients, dysuria was in 35.7% of patients. The pain in the perineum, frequent painful urination (both by 31.6%), hemospermia (26.3%) were main complaints in prostate tuberculosis. Mycobacteria was detected in 10.5% of cases. It was found that urogenital tuberculosis has no pathognomonic symptoms; the most alarming manifestations include long-term dysuria, hematuria, hemospermia.
Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa
The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs.
Fahmy, A. R.; Guindi, R.; Farid, A.
A case of primary tuberculosis of the oesophagus is presented; the patient was successfully treated by oesophagectomy. The condition, being rare, has stimulated the authors to review the literature concerning primary and secondary oesophageal tuberculosis. The history, modes of infection, the pathology, clinical picture, diagnosis, investigations, and methods of treatment are discussed. In contradistinction to the secondary disease, which is terminal, primary tuberculosis of the oesophagus is a curable disease with a fairly good prognosis. The case report shows that the surgeon should pay careful attention to the site of the anastomosis; otherwise post-operative stricture can develop. Even this responds well to dilatations and the patient can regain normal health. PMID:5821628
Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.
Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.
Koyama, Sekiya; Sakaguchi, Nobuki; Hotta, Jyunnichi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infects all organs in the body; however, lung infection is the primary lesion. The total number of infections is decreasing, but the percentage of infections in older people is rising. Because this disease is due to infection with M. tuberculosis, the diagnosis requires the presence of M. tuberculosis. Chest X-ray and CT are very powerful tools to suggest the presence of M. tuberculosis infection. Pathological examination of the tissues also shows the typical findings of M. tuberculosis infection; however, the presence of the bacterium was not proven in certain cases of M. tuberculosis infection, and especially in cases of latent infection. Recently, the whole-blood interferon--gamma test (QuantiFERON-TB, QFT) became more popular than the tuberculin skin test. It is reported that the specificity and sensitivity of QFT are similar to or better than the tuberculin skin test. However, it should be noted that QFT positive does not automatically lead to a diagnosis of active M. tuberculosis infection and that QFT is one of the supplementary tests in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection. Currently, massive infection with M. tuberculosis is increasing. The precise responsible linkage in massive infection with M. tuberculosis needs DNA polymorphism analysis using variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) or restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Zhukova, Irina; Kholtobin, Denis
Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) plays an important role because its complications may be fatal, it significantly reduces quality of life, and it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of UGTB is often delayed. We analyzed 131 case histories of UGTB patients from the years 2009-2011. Gender, age, and the clinical form and main features of the disease were taken into account. The most common form was kidney tuberculosis (74.8%). Isolated kidney tuberculosis (KTB) more often occurs in women: 56.8%. Patients of middle and old age more often showed the stage of cavernous KTB; younger patients had smaller forms. Among all cases, an asymptomatic course was seen in 12.2% and, among cases of KTB, in 15.9%. Every third patient complained of flank pain and dysuria (35.2% and 39.8%, respectively); 17% presented with toxicity symptoms, 9.1% with renal colic, and 7.9% with gross hematuria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in urine was found in 31.8% of cases in all levels of isolated KTB. UGTB has no specific symptom; even sterile pyuria occurs only in 25%. The acute onset of tuberculous orchiepididymitis was seen in 35.7% of patients, hemospermia in 7.1%, and dysuria in 35.7%. The most common complaints for prostate tuberculosis were perineal pain (31.6%), dysuria (also 31.6%), and hemospermia (26.3%). MTB in prostate secretion/ejaculate was revealed in 10.5% of this group. All urogenital tract infections should be suspected as UGTB in patients who are living in a region with a high incidence rate, who have had contact with tuberculosis infection, and who have a recurrence of the disease that is resistant to standard therapy.
Rodriguez, G. Marcela; Neyrolles, Olivier
Transition metals are essential constituents of all living organisms, playing crucial structural and catalytic parts in many enzymes and transcription factors. However, transition metals can also be toxic when present in excess. Their uptake and efflux rates must therefore be carefully controlled by biological systems. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge about uptake and efflux systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis for mainly three of these metals, namely iron, zinc and copper. We also propose questions fur future research in the field of metallobiology of host-pathogen interactions in tuberculosis. PMID:26103977
Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos
Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.
... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule... to tuberculosis and is announcing the dates and locations of the informal public hearings to be held...-5986. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OSHA's proposed standard on Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis...
... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice..., 1997, OSHA published its proposed standard to regulate occupational exposure to tuberculosis (TB) (62... preliminary risk assessment for occupational exposure to tuberculosis. DATES: Comments and data...
Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination
Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier
The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells.
Kilani, T; Boudaya, M S; Zribi, H; Ouerghi, S; Marghli, A; Mestiri, T; Mezni, F
Tuberculosis is mainly a medical disease. Surgery has been the unique therapeutic tool for a long time before the advent of specific antituberculous drugs, and the role of surgery was then confined to the treatment of the sequelae of tuberculosis and their complications. The resurgence of tuberculosis and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB combined to immunosuppressed patients represent a new challenge for tuberculosis surgery. Surgery may be indicated for a diagnostic purpose in patients with pulmonary, pleural, mediastinal or thoracic wall involvement, or with a therapeutic purpose (drainage, resection, residual cavity obliteration). Modern imaging techniques and the advent of video-assisted thoracic surgery allowed a new approach of this pathology; the majority of diagnostic interventions and selected cases requiring lung resection can be performed through a mini-invasive approach. Patients proposed for aggressive surgery may be treated with the best results thanks to a good evaluation of the thoracic lesions, of the patients' nutritional, infectious and general status combined with a good coordination between the specialized medical team for an optimal preparation to surgery.
Teo, Harvey E L; Peh, Wilfred C G
The objective of this review is to present the imaging findings of skeletal tuberculosis in children. The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing and skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 10-20% of all extra-pulmonary cases. The most common manifestations of skeletal tuberculosis in children are spondylitis, arthritis and osteomyelitis. Tuberculous spondylitis involves the intervertebral disc only late in the disease. Subligamentous spread of the infection may lead to multiple levels of vertebral body involvement that may either be continuous or skipped. Extension of the disease into the paravertebral or extra-dural space may occur. Tuberculous arthritis usually occurs as a result of metaphyseal spread to the joint. Tuberculous osteomyelitis may appear as cystic, well-defined lesions, infiltrative lesions or spina ventosa. The latter is a term used to describe a form of tuberculous osteomyelitis where underlying bone destruction, overlying periosteal reaction and fusiform expansion of the bone results in cyst-like cavities with diaphyseal expansion. Radiographs are still the mainstay of evaluation of patients with bony lesions. Ultrasonography can detect soft-tissue extension of the bony lesions and guide drainage or biopsy procedures. CT accurately demonstrates bony sclerosis and destruction, especially in areas difficult to assess on radiographs such as the posterior elements of the vertebral body. MRI is the modality of choice in evaluating early marrow involvement and soft-tissue extension of the lesion.
Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...
McIntyre, G T
Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.
After decades of decline, tuberculosis case rates in New York City more than tripled between 1978 and 1992. While the number of cases of those born in the United States declined after 1992, the proportion of immigrant tuberculosis cases continued to increase and reached 58 percent in 1999. This article questions the biomedical explanation of immigrant tuberculosis as being imported from immigrants' countries of origin. Illness narratives of illegal Chinese immigrants with tuberculosis detailing risks associated with migratory journeys are presented. The social and cultural nature of the concept of risk, as well as the adverse implication of biomedical identification of immigrants as being at higher risk of tuberculosis, are also discussed. The author concludes that the dominant biomedical explanation of immigrant tuberculosis could be modified with the incorporation of the migratory process as a risk factor.
COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5
Matsui, Kosuke; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Ohba, Kojiro; Mochizuki, Kota; Tanaka, Takeshi; Takaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya
A 77-year-old man with urinary tuberculosis developed post renal anuria two days after starting an anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. He had bilateral hydronephrosis, and his right kidney was radiologically diagnosed to be non-functioning. A transurethral catheter was placed in the left ureter. No improvement in the ureteral stricture was noted during the initial three weeks of treatment; however, the stricture did thereafter improve after the commencement of oral prednisolone. In cases of urinary tuberculosis, ureteral stricture can deteriorate and result in ureteral obstruction during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Pre-emptive administration of corticosteroids may be beneficial for preventing such stricture in patients with a pre-existing ureteral lesion. PMID:27904125
Altraja, Alan; Jürgenson, Katre; Roosipuu, Retlav; Laisaar, Tanel
Pulmonary foreign body granulomatosis following intravenous administration of medications meant for oral use among drug addicts has been occasionally reported. This condition is often misdiagnosed because of its rarity, but rather due to its similarity to other pulmonary diseases that are more common. Here we report a case of pulmonary intravascular talcosis mimicking miliary tuberculosis in a young male intravenous drug addict from North-Eastern Estonia, known as a hotspot for tuberculosis and drug misuse. The condition was caused by intravenous administration of crushed tablets of diphenhydramine, but miliary tuberculosis was misdiagnosed on patient's demographical, clinical and radiological grounds and a decision to start treatment with four first-line antituberculosis drugs followed. The current report refers to the importance of considering rare causes of pulmonary disseminations with attempts to identify the causative agent and warns against the use of antituberculosis treatment without confirmation of microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:24713715
Altraja, Alan; Jürgenson, Katre; Roosipuu, Retlav; Laisaar, Tanel
Pulmonary foreign body granulomatosis following intravenous administration of medications meant for oral use among drug addicts has been occasionally reported. This condition is often misdiagnosed because of its rarity, but rather due to its similarity to other pulmonary diseases that are more common. Here we report a case of pulmonary intravascular talcosis mimicking miliary tuberculosis in a young male intravenous drug addict from North-Eastern Estonia, known as a hotspot for tuberculosis and drug misuse. The condition was caused by intravenous administration of crushed tablets of diphenhydramine, but miliary tuberculosis was misdiagnosed on patient's demographical, clinical and radiological grounds and a decision to start treatment with four first-line antituberculosis drugs followed. The current report refers to the importance of considering rare causes of pulmonary disseminations with attempts to identify the causative agent and warns against the use of antituberculosis treatment without confirmation of microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Rosenbaum, Marieke; Mendoza, Patricia; Ghersi, Bruno M; Wilbur, Alicia K; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Cavero Yong, Nancy; Kasper, Matthew R; Montano, Silvia; Zunt, Joseph R; Jones-Engel, Lisa
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causes tuberculosis in humans and nonhuman primates and is a global public health concern. Standard diagnostics rely upon host immune responses to detect infection in nonhuman primates and lack sensitivity and specificity across the spectrum of mycobacterial infection in these species. We have previously shown that the Oral Swab PCR (OSP) assay, a direct pathogen detection method, can identify the presence of M. tuberculosis complex in laboratory and free-ranging Old World monkeys. Addressing the current limitations in tuberculosis diagnostics in primates, including sample acquisition and pathogen detection, this paper furthers our understanding of the presence of the tuberculosis-causing bacteria among New World monkeys in close contact with humans. Here we use the minimally invasive OSP assay, which includes buccal swab collection followed by amplification of the IS6110 repetitive nucleic acid sequence specific to M. tuberculosis complex subspecies, to detect the bacteria in the mouths of Peruvian New World monkeys. A total of 220 buccal swabs from 16 species were obtained and positive amplification of the IS6110 sequence was observed in 30 (13.6%) of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a diverse sample of Peruvian Neotropical primates.
Rieder, Hans L
A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future.
Lu, Yu; Zheng, Meiqin; Wang, Bin; Fu, Lei; Zhao, Weijie; Li, Peng; Xu, Jian; Zhu, Hui; Jin, Haixia; Yin, Dali; Huang, Haihong; Upton, Anna M.; Ma, Zhenkun
The global tuberculosis crisis urgently demands new, efficacious, orally available drugs with the potential to shorten and simplify the long and complex treatments for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant disease. Clofazimine, a riminophenazine used for many years to treat leprosy, demonstrates efficacy in animal models of tuberculosis via a novel mode of action. However, clofazimine's physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties contribute to side effects that limit its use; in particular, an extremely long half-life and propensity for tissue accumulation together with clofazimine's dye properties leads to unwelcome skin discoloration. We recently conducted a systematic structure-activity study of more than 500 riminophenazine analogs for anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity. We describe here the characteristics of 12 prioritized compounds in more detail. The new riminophenazine analogs demonstrated enhanced in vitro activity compared to clofazimine against replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv, as well as panels of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant clinical isolates. The new compounds demonstrate at least equivalent activity compared to clofazimine against intracellular M. tuberculosis and, in addition, most of them were active against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. Eleven of these more water-soluble riminophenazine analogs possess shorter half-lives than clofazimine when dosed orally to mice, suggesting that they may accumulate less. Most importantly, the nine compounds that progressed to efficacy testing demonstrated inhibition of bacterial growth in the lungs that is superior to the activity of an equivalent dose of clofazimine when administered orally for 20 days in a murine model of acute tuberculosis. The efficacy of these compounds, along with their decreased potential for accumulation and therefore perhaps also for tissue discoloration, warrants further study. PMID:21844321
Korzeniewska, Anna; Dyła, Tomasz; Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata
Renal transplant recipients carry a relatively high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). In most cases, active TB is the result of reactivation of a latent infection and is located in the lungs. In these patients, clinical presentation of TB can often be atypical and there is a high risk of dissemination and high mortality rates. Therefore, the use of invasive procedures for proper diagnosis is recommended, as well as anti-tuberculosis therapy instituted whenever there is a strong suspicion of TB on clinical grounds, even without microbiological evidence. The treatment of active TB in renal transplant recipients should be the same as in the general population. To avoid graft rejection, blood levels of calcineurin inhibitors should be monitored closely. Prophylaxis is recommended for high-risk patients.
Agrawal, Vinod; Patgaonkar, P. R.; Nagariya, S. P.
Tuberculosis of the spine is one of the most common spine pathology in India. Over last 4 decades a lot has changed in the diagnosis, medical treatment and surgical procedures to treat this disorder. Further developments in diagnosis using molecular genetic techniques, more effective antibiotics and more aggressive surgical protocols have become essential with emergence of multidrug resistant TB. Surgical procedures such as single stage anterior and posterior stabilization, extrapleral dorsal spine anterior stabilization and endoscopic thoracoscopic surgeries have reduced the mortality and morbidity of the surgical procedures. is rapidly progressing. It is a challenge to treat MDR-TB Spine with late onset paraplegia and progressive deformity. Physicians must treat tuberculosis of spine on the basis of Culture and sensitivity. PMID:21572628
Lukšić, Boris; Kljajić, Zlatko; Roje, Zeljka; Forempoher, Gea; Grgić, Duška; Janković-Katalinić, Vera; Goić-Barišić, Ivana
We report a case of a 21-year-old man with recurrent tonsillitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For a period of 5 months, the patient had tonsillitis seven times and was treated with several oral or parenteral antibiotics. On one of these occasions, tonsillitis was complicated with a peritonsillar abscess that was treated by incision. According to relevant bibliographic data, this is the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis confirmed by direct molecular microbiology methods from the tonsillar tissue of a young immunocompetent male reported in Europe. In a case of recurrent tonsillitis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection should be considered as a possible cause.
Bajramović, Nermina; Koluder, Nada; Dautović, Sajma; Muratović, Planinka
Tuberculosis is one of the main causes of serious diseases in developing countries. Despite of decreasing tuberculosis in industrial countries, diseases is not eradicated. In last fifth years the picture of diseases is changed with large number atypical cases. Factor that is responsible for this are variable and includes primary infection in old ages, or problems that are in relation with immigration of populations. Tuberculosis meningitis disease witch appears mostly in childhood with high incidence in first three years of life. Most cases tuberculosis meningitis are caused with human types of tuberculosis bacillus, while bovines type is responsible for less than 5% of cases, but there are also reported cases of tuberculosis meningitis caused 3% atypical mycobacterium. In report is described a girl in age of two years sick of tuberculosis meningitis, she come from Kosovo, with positive epidemiological anamnesis. When she came to the hospital diseases had all clinical manifestation of serious meningoencefalitis. Very soon signs of decompensate hydrocephalus are developed. In the culture of cerebrospinalis fluid isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary resistant on etambutol and rifampicin.
Desai, Chirag S; Josh, Anand G; Abraham, Philip; Desai, Devendra C; Deshpande, Ramesh B; Bhaduri, Anita; Shah, Sudeep R
Liver involvement in tuberculosis in absence of miliary tuberculosis is rare. This study was performed to analyse the spectrum and response to treatment of hepatic tuberculosis in the absence of miliary abdominal tuberculosis. Retrospective analysis of seven cases of hepatic tuberculosis without miliary abdominal tuberculosis who presented at the single tertiary referral center were analyzed. All patients presented with fever and hepatomegaly. Five of them had pain in upper abdomen and vomiting. HIV serology was positive in one patient. All patients had normocytic normochromic anaemia, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Mean 65). Mild elevation of liver enzymes and low albumin (Mean 2.4 gm%) with reversal of albumin globulin ratio (Mean 0.6) were seen in all. Two had jaundice. Prothrombin time was normal in all and lactate dehydrogenase values were elevated in all (Mean 794 IU/L). On ultrasonography, 2 had multiple hypodense lesion, 1 had coarse echotexture of liver, 1 had hyperechoic pattern and 3 had just hepatomegaly. Complete resolution of liver lesions on treatment with 4-drug anti-tuberculosis drug chemotherapy was seen. In conclusion, liver tuberculosis has protean manifestations with nonspecific alteration of liver function tests and is best diagnosed on liver biopsy. Overall response to therapy is satisfactory.
John Keats was trained as an apothecary, the general practitioner of the day. Precocious in his sensibilities and fluent in his imagery, he also was the model of the romantic poet. That he was a physician and a poet makes his early death from tuberculosis poignant and revealing. This history traces his life and death against the backdrop of medicine at the turn of the 19th century.
Swaminathan, S; Ramachandran, G
While tuberculosis (TB) typically causes respiratory disease in adults, the spectrum of disease is different in children, ranging from paucibacillary lymphadenitis or limited intrathoracic disease to severe disseminated disease. Diagnosing pediatric TB and monitoring treatment response is challenging, as collecting respiratory specimens is difficult in children and disease may be extrapulmonary. While basic principles of treatment are similar to adults, developmental differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics require that drug dosages in children be adjusted for body weight and age.
Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl
While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of
Domingo, M; Vidal, E; Marco, A
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous caseous-necrotising inflammatory process that mainly affects the lungs and their draining lymph nodes (Ln.). The pathological changes associated with bTB infection reflect the interplay between the host defence mechanisms and the mycobacterial virulence factors and the balance between the immunologic protective responses and the damaging inflammatory processes. Inhalation is the most common infection route and causes lesions of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract, including its associated lymph nodes. The initial infection (primary complex) may be followed by chronic (post-primary) tuberculosis or may be generalised. Goat tuberculosis often produces liquefactive necrosis and caverns, similarly to human TB. The assessment of the severity of TB lesions is crucial for vaccine trials. Semi-quantitative gross lesion scoring systems have been developed for cattle, but imaging technology has allowed the development of more standardised, objective, and quantitative methods, such as multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which provides quantitative measures of lesion volume.
Ramón-García, Santiago; González del Río, Rubén; Villarejo, Angel Santos; Sweet, Gaye D.; Cunningham, Fraser; Barros, David; Ballell, Lluís; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Ferrer-Bazaga, Santiago; Thompson, Charles J.
While modern cephalosporins developed for broad spectrum antibacterial activities have never been pursued for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, we identified first generation cephalosporins having clinically relevant inhibitory concentrations, both alone and in synergistic drug combinations. Common chemical patterns required for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were identified using structure-activity relationships (SAR) studies. Numerous cephalosporins were synergistic with rifampicin, the cornerstone drug for TB therapy, and ethambutol, a first-line anti-TB drug. Synergy was observed even under intracellular growth conditions where beta-lactams typically have limited activities. Cephalosporins and rifampicin were 4- to 64-fold more active in combination than either drug alone; however, limited synergy was observed with rifapentine or rifabutin. Clavulanate was a key synergistic partner in triple combinations. Cephalosporins (and other beta-lactams) together with clavulanate rescued the activity of rifampicin against a rifampicin resistant strain. Synergy was not due exclusively to increased rifampicin accumulation within the mycobacterial cells. Cephalosporins were also synergistic with new anti-TB drugs such as bedaquiline and delamanid. Studies will be needed to validate their in vivo activities. However, the fact that cephalosporins are orally bioavailable with good safety profiles, together with their anti-mycobacterial activities reported here, suggest that they could be repurposed within new combinatorial TB therapies. PMID:27678056
Zawaideh, Mazen; Chao, Cherng; Poole, Patricia; Naheedy, John
Although the overall prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased in the United States, with the increasing prevalence of tuberculosis globally, higher rates of tuberculosis in some states and localities have been reported, with some component probably related to immigrant populations. We report a case of primary pulmonary tuberculosis in a malnourished adolescent.
Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Pirzadeh, Leila; Mohammadi, Seyed Rahim; Ghaffari, Parisa; Eftekhar, Tahereh
Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. Taking into consideration that genitourinary tuberculosis may be associated with a diversity of presentations, its diagnoses may be difficult. A young woman with an initial presumptive diagnosis of a uterine leiomyoma presented with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass that after further investigations, she was diagnosed with genital tuberculosis.
Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Pirzadeh, Leila; Mohammadi, Seyed Rahim; Ghaffari, Parisa; Eftekhar, Tahereh
Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. Taking into consideration that genitourinary tuberculosis may be associated with a diversity of presentations, its diagnoses may be difficult. A young woman with an initial presumptive diagnosis of a uterine leiomyoma presented with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass that after further investigations, she was diagnosed with genital tuberculosis. PMID:25780530
Semlali, S; El Kharras, A; Mahi, M; Hsaini, Y; Benameur, M; Aziz, N; Chaouir, S; Akjouj, S
CNS tuberculosis remains relatively frequent in endemic regions. Both CT and MRI are valuable for diagnosis. Even though non-specific, MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton spectroscopy is more sensitive than CT for detection of some lesions. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the imaging features of CNS tuberculosis.
Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Gounder, Shakti; Tamani, Talatoka; Daulako, Mary Raori; Underwood, Frank; Mainawalala, Sakiusa; Nawadra-Taylor, Vasiti; Rafai, Eric; Gillini, Laura
During 2002-2013, a total of 1,890 tuberculosis cases were recorded in Fiji. Notification rates per 100,000 population increased from 17.4 cases in 2002 to 28.4 in 2013. Older persons were most affected, but tuberculosis also increased sharply in persons 25-44 years of age.
Iverson, D A; Hurley, B; Pueringer, R
Tuberculosis incidence in the United States has recently increased from its rate of decline resulting in an excess of cases nationwide. The increase has been attributed largely to the HIV epidemic. Although tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota has increased similar to the national trend, South Dakota has not reported a single HIV-associated case of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota has decreased in younger individuals. As a result, the percentage of tuberculosis cases in the elderly has increased. Though the reported cases of pulmonary tuberculosis have decreased, the reported cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis have not changed. Furthermore, the percentage of extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurring in the elderly has increased. Tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota is, in part, increasing because of the persistence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the elderly.
Gardiner, Jennifer L; Karp, Christopher L
The world is in need of more effective approaches to controlling tuberculosis. The development of improved control strategies has been hampered by deficiencies in the tools available for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and defining the dynamic consequences of the interaction of M. tuberculosis with its human host. Key needs include a highly sensitive, specific nonsputum diagnostic; biomarkers predictive of responses to therapy; correlates of risk for disease development; and host response-independent markers of M. tuberculosis infection. Tools able to sensitively detect and quantify total body M. tuberculosis burden might well be transformative across many needed use cases. Here, we review the current state of the field, paying particular attention to needed changes in experimental paradigms that would facilitate the discovery, validation, and development of such tools.
Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational module on tuberculosis screening with second-year professional pharmacy students that improves their knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding tuberculosis screening. Design. A tuberculosis-screening educational module was developed in collaboration with the Washington State Pharmacy Association and Department of Health and incorporated in a core student pharmacist class. Students completed online didactic training and a live practicum, each lasting 90 minutes. Assessment. Students were assessed using a pre/postdidactic assessment, live practicum tuberculin skin testing (TST) administration and evaluation assessment, and postprogram written reflection. Student pre/postknowledge assessment scores improved in all areas except in documentation. Conclusion. The tuberculosis screening educational module significantly improved student knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding tuberculosis screening. PMID:27073277
The world is in need of more effective approaches to controlling tuberculosis. The development of improved control strategies has been hampered by deficiencies in the tools available for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and defining the dynamic consequences of the interaction of M. tuberculosis with its human host. Key needs include a highly sensitive, specific nonsputum diagnostic; biomarkers predictive of responses to therapy; correlates of risk for disease development; and host response–independent markers of M. tuberculosis infection. Tools able to sensitively detect and quantify total body M. tuberculosis burden might well be transformative across many needed use cases. Here, we review the current state of the field, paying particular attention to needed changes in experimental paradigms that would facilitate the discovery, validation, and development of such tools. PMID:26458772
Grobler, Liesl; Nagpal, Sukrti; Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Sinclair, David
Background Tuberculosis and malnutrition are linked in a complex relationship. Tuberculosis may cause undernutrition through increased metabolic demands and decreased intake, and nutritional deficiencies may worsen the disease, or delay recovery by depressing important immune functions. At present, there is no evidence-based nutritional guidance for adults and children being treated for tuberculosis. Objectives To assess the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2016), MEDLINE (from 1946 to 4 February 2016), EMBASE (from 1980 to 4 February 2016), LILACS (from 1982 to 4 February 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis up to 4 February 2016, and checked the reference lists of all included studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that compared any oral nutritional supplement given for at least four weeks with no nutritional intervention, placebo, or dietary advice only for people being treated for active tuberculosis. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause death, and cure at six and 12 months. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We presented the results as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, and mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Main results Thirty-five trials
Ramírez Lapausa, Marta; Pascual Pareja, José Francisco; Noguerado Asensio, Arturo
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a globally emerging problem with a rising incidence. According to the WHO in 2008, 17% of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in untreated cases were resistant to at least one drug and 3.6% were resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid, which is called multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The problem is greater in patients previously treated and in some countries, where rates of multidrug resistance reach 60%. Approximately 5% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients are also resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one injectable drug, being called extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. The treatment of these forms of tuberculosis requires the use of second-line drugs, which causes higher cost, higher toxicity and a longer duration of treatment. There is a need for new compounds with efficacy and safety profiles better than those currently used to treat these forms of tuberculosis. In the last decade different drugs have being reassessed and appeared, which are at different stages of development.
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Declaration of Emergency Because of Bovine Tuberculosis Bovine tuberculosis (tuberculosis) is a chronic debilitating disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The... animal health agencies to eradicate tuberculosis from domestic livestock in the United States...
Peterson, Rachel Ranitha; Agarwal, Indira; Gibikote, Sridhar
A ten-month-old infant who presented with regression of milestones and seizures was noted to have a gibbus deformity in the upper thoracic region. She was diagnosed to have spine and central nervous system tuberculosis by culture of pus from the paravertebral abcess which showed a growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The mother, who had been having recurrent episodes of Urinary tract infection, was diagnosed to have Urinary TB proven by culture. Spinal tuberculosis, though rare, can be encountered in infancy and should be kept in mind while treating infants presenting with related symptoms.
Mori, Giorgia; Chiarelli, Laurent Roberto; Riccardi, Giovanna; Pasca, Maria Rosalia
The term 'prodrug' was first introduced by Albert in 1958. Generally, prodrugs can be utilized for improving active drug solubility and bioavailability, increasing drug permeability and absorption, modifying the distribution profile, preventing fast metabolism and excretion, and reducing toxicity. Previously, the prodrug approach was a final resort during the drug discovery process only after all other approaches had been exhausted. However, this strategy is now considered during the early stages of the drug development process. Most antitubercular agents are defined as 'prodrugs', including isoniazid and ethionamide. Thus, the prodrug approach could provide novel targets for the rational design of more effective treatments for tuberculosis (TB).
Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.
The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.
Forgacs, Pierre; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Hall, Leslie; Zimmerman, Sarah K.; Silverman, Mark L.; Roberts, Glenn D.
The sulfonamides were the first drugs with antituberculous effects. Their use was abandoned and basically forgotten with the advent of streptomycin and isoniazid combination treatment. There is a widespread belief, apparently based on testing a single isolate on questionable media, that Mycobacterium tuberculosis is resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). We saw a complex immunocompromised patient with tuberculosis who was initially treated with TMP-SMX without antituberculous drugs and defervesced on this treatment. An isolate of M. tuberculosis from this patient was found to be sensitive to TMP-SMX. We examined how frequently M. tuberculosis is sensitive to TMP-SMX. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to TMP-SMX on supplemented Middlebrook 7H10 plates. We found that 43 of 44 (98%) isolates of M. tuberculosis were susceptible to the combination of ≤1 μg/ml of TMP and 19 μg/ml of SMX (≤1/19 μg/ml). Thus, the vast majority of our M. tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to TMP-SMX at an MIC similar to that for Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, and sensitive rapidly growing mycobacteria, organisms successfully treated with TMP-SMX as part of the treatment regimen. It is possible that TMP-SMX may be useful in treating patients with multiple-drug-resistant and extended drug-resistant tuberculosis. We feel that a clinical trial looking at the effectiveness of TMP-SMX as an antituberculous drug is worthwhile. PMID:19564358
Sepkowitz, K A; Raffalli, J; Riley, L; Kiehn, T E; Armstrong, D
A resurgence of tuberculosis has occurred in recent years in the United States and abroad. Deteriorating public health services, increasing numbers of immigrants from countries of endemicity, and coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have contributed to the rise in the number of cases diagnosed in the United States. Outbreaks of resistant tuberculosis, which responds poorly to therapy, have occurred in hospitals and other settings, affecting patients and health care workers. This review covers the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. In addition, public health and hospital infection control strategies are detailed. Newer approaches to epidemiologic investigation, including use of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, are discussed. Detailed consideration of the interaction between HIV infection and tuberculosis is given. We also review the latest techniques in laboratory evaluation, including the radiometric culture system, DNA probes, and PCR. Current recommendations for therapy of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, are given. Finally, the special problem of prophylaxis of persons exposed to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is considered. PMID:7621399
Emerson, C R; Goldberg, H; Vollmer-Conna, U; Post, J J
Not all people with tuberculosis have their HIV status ascertained despite the interaction between these infections. We investigated the self-reported HIV testing practice among physicians treating tuberculosis in Australia and New Zealand and used logistic regression to assess factors associated with a routine offer of HIV testing in cases of tuberculosis. Of 290 subjects, 61% always recommended an HIV test for a 38-year-old married man with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. A lower proportion (40%) always tested a 78-year-old man or a female patient (58%), and more always HIV tested a South African case (85%), a patient with oral candidiasis (87%) or an unmarried male patient (66%). No scenario was associated with a universal offer of HIV testing. Clinician factors such as specialty (odds ratio [OR] 3.09), jurisdiction of practice (OR 4.09) and number of HIV tests requested in the past five years (OR 0.29) predicted the self-reported frequency of always HIV testing tuberculosis patients. At least 48% of respondents reported that epidemiological or clinical factors influenced their decision to offer testing. Strategies to increase HIV testing in cases of tuberculosis need to consider clinician factors.
Mbugi, Erasto V; Katale, Bugwesa Z; Kendall, Sharon; Good, Liam; Kibiki, Gibson S; Keyyu, Julius D; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Van Helden, Paul; Matee, Mecky I
For centuries, tuberculosis, which is a chronic infection caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis has remained a global health problem. The global burden of tuberculosis has increased, particularly in the Southern African region, mainly due to HIV, and inadequate health systems which has in turn given rise to emergent drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) strains. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has also emerged as a significant disease with the tendency for inter-species spread. The extent of interspecies BTB transmission both in urban and rural communities has not been adequately assessed. The phenomenon is of particular importance in rural communities where people share habitats with livestock and wildlife (particularly in areas near national parks and game reserves). Aerosol and oral intake are the major routes of transmission from diseased to healthy individuals, with health care workers often contracting infection nosocomially. Although TB control has increasingly been achieved in high-income countries, the disease, like other poverty-related infections, has continued to be a disaster in countries with low income economies. Transmission of infections occurs not only amongst humans but also between animals and humans (and occasionally vice versa) necessitating assessment of the extent of transmission at their interface. This review explores tuberculosis as a disease of humans which can cross-transmit between humans, livestock and wildlife. The review also addresses issues underlying the use of molecular biology, genetic sequencing and bioinformatics as t tools to understand the extent of inter-species cross-transmission of TB in a 'One Health' context.
AD-A269 664 i l•l lI ,iI I i h4Ji PUBLICATION REPORT 1753 SEP TE5195, 31/93EYP CRYPTOGENIC TUBERCULOSIS - 1990 CAIRO - EGYPT BY Z. Farid, M.E...FUNDING NUMBERS Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt PE- 61102A WU- 3M161102BS13.AK.311 6. AUTHORjS) Farid, Z., Kilpatrick, M.E. and Kamal...is unlimited. 13- A8B TRACT %’ 4 , n ;.’ Please see attached. DTIC 7T-3 t A 2-d~~t (r’ oa Dist__ _._ .S pecial. Cryptogenic tuberculosis ; Prolonged
Peck, Mogammad Thabit; Stephen, Lawrence X G; Marnewick, Johan; Majeed, Abdul
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading casues of morbidity and death in a number of countries worldwide. A healthy 42-year-old patient presented with a chronic palatal ulcer that was not responsive to routine antibiotic treatment. A biopsy and further systemic investigation revealed a diagnosis of TB. An eight-month extended course of oral rifampin and isoniazid was instituted successfully resulting in complete resolution of symptoms. It is important that clinicians be aware that chronic oral ulcerations may be the first sign of systemic disease. A biopsy should therefore be mandatory for any chronic oral ulcer not responsive to conventional treatment.
Zychowicz, Michael E
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has affected humans for much of our existence. The incidence of global tuberculosis infection continues to rise, especially in concert with HIV coinfection. Many disease processes, such as diabetes, increase the likelihood of tuberculosis infection. Tuberculosis bacteria can infect any bone, joint, tendon, or bursa; however, the most common musculoskeletal site for infection includes the spine and weight-bearing joints of the hip and knee. Many patients who present with osteoarticular tuberculosis infection will have a gradual onset of pain at the site of infection. Many patients who develop a musculoskeletal tuberculosis infection will have no evidence of a pulmonary tuberculosis infection on x-ray film and many will have very mild symptoms with the initial infection. Healthcare providers must remember that many patients who develop tuberculosis infection do not progress to active tuberculosis disease; however, the latent infection may become active with immune compromise.
Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; St Leger, Judy; Olsen, John H; Burton, Michael S; Ashkin, David; Maslow, Joel N
A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.
Harding, M J; Pilkington, P; Thomas, J
A survey of tuberculosis in Croydon between 1988 and 1991, using Chest Clinic health visitor records, showed that the disease occurred most frequently in those of Indian Sub-Continent (ISC) ethnic origin. Of the 222 cases during the 4-year period, 65% were of ISC ethnic origin, 22% were Caucasian and 11% Afro-Caribbean. Non-Caucasian cases were younger (P < 0.0001), and more likely to be female (P = 0.064) or present with non-pulmonary disease (P = 0.064). One-quarter of ISC patients developed active tuberculosis more than 15 years after immigration into the UK. Only seven cases were children. The contact tracing procedure resulted in three additional cases, all of whom were contacts of smear-positive index cases. There were significantly fewer Heaf or radiologically positive contacts of non-smear positive pulmonary, or non-pulmonary index cases (P = 0.0002). The value of the current contact tracing system is discussed.
Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere. PMID:25408856
Shi, Lanbo; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Subbian, Selvakumar
Immunometabolism, the study of the relationship between bioenergetic pathways and specific functions of immune cells, has recently gained increasing appreciation. In response to infection, activation of the host innate and adaptive immune cells is accompanied by a switch in the bioenergetic pathway from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, a metabolic remodeling known as the Warburg effect, which is required for the production of antimicrobial and pro-inflammatory effector molecules. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the Warburg effect and discuss its association with the expression of host immune responses in tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We also discuss potential mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect with a focus on the expression and regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), the regulatory subunit of HIF-1, a major transcription regulator involved in cellular stress adaptation processes, including energy metabolism and antimicrobial responses. We also propose a novel hypothesis that Mtb perturbs the Warburg effect of immune cells to facilitate its survival and persistence in the host. A better understanding of the dynamics of metabolic states of immune cells and their specific functions during TB pathogenesis can lead to the development of immunotherapies capable of promoting Mtb clearance and reducing Mtb persistence and the emergence of drug resistant strains. PMID:27148269
Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L
A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.
The tuberculosis situation in Portugal justifies the use of a strategy for the genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly as Portugal is part of the global backdrop of human mobility, something which has a knock-on effect on the pandemic. Several international studies have placed spoligotyping and MIRU- VNTR typing as first line techniques for the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as these techniques rely on simple technologies (PCR) and produce patterns which are easily translated into a direct interpretation numerical code. Spoligotyping has been accordingly proposed for all the isolates, while MIRU-VNTR typing should be applied to isolates with a common spoliotype. Other techniques, including IS6110-RFLP, should be reserved for use ill accordance with selected criteria. Previous studies in Portugal using spoligotyping have underlined the advantages of a strategy based on sampling consecutive patient isolates with no prior selection criteria. This allows characterisation of the M. tuberculosis population structure through monitoring the distribution of the genotypes geographically over time and within the various risk groups. On the other hand, the association of spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTF (typing and, possibly, other techniques, needs evaluating as part of bigger pictures, including identifying recent transmission situations, distinguishing between reinfection and relapse episodes and mapping the size and dynamics of disease transmission. The solution to the tuberculosis problem in Portugal implies structuring genotyping's role in tuberculosis prevention and control and its evaluation through concrete examples and results.
Tuberculosis is one of the most important health problems worldwide. In developed countries there is an increased number of cases due to different reasons. The most likely determinant cause is from immigrants coming from high endemic areas. This phenomenon is a direct cause of the increase in extrapulmonary and complicated pulmonary forms of tuberculosis. There are only a few controlled clinical trials evaluating therapies for extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Consequently, documented evidence is scarce, particularly in paediatrics. The majority of therapeutic recommendations are based on series of cases or expert opinions, with a lack of uniformity provided by the different consensus of the main scientific societies. The main objective of this fourth consensus by the Tuberculosis Study Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases (Sociedad Española de Infectología Pediátrica, SEIP) is to perform a thorough revision of the data obtained from scientific literature, in order to establish recommendations for the treatment of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and complicated forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, adapted to the characteristics and drugs available in Spain.
Corner, L A L; Murphy, D; Costello, E; Gormley, E
The eradication of tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis infection) from cattle herds may be compromised if infected wildlife species, such as European badgers (Meles meles), share the same environment and contribute to transfer of infection. Options for dealing with tuberculosis in this wild reservoir host are limited by conservation and social concerns, despite a clear implication that infected badgers are involved with the initiation of tuberculosis in cattle herds. Vaccination of badgers against M. bovis, if successfully employed, would directly facilitate the completion of bovine tuberculosis eradication in affected areas. Vaccine trials in captive badgers have established that the M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine can induce a protective response that limits the distribution and severity of tuberculosis disease following experimental challenge. The protective effect of the vaccine has been demonstrated when the vaccine was delivered by subcutaneous injection, deposited on mucous membranes, and given orally in a lipid formulation. A large-scale field trial of oral BCG vaccine has been designed to measure the protection generated in wild badgers subjected to natural transmission of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy. These parameters will be estimated by comparing the prevalence of M. bovis infection in vaccinated and nonvaccinated badgers. The results will provide a framework for the development and implementation of a national strategy to eliminate the disease in badger populations and if successful will remove this major impediment to bovine tuberculosis eradication.
Niemiec, Brook A
Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.
Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Cláudia Santos; Brito, Ewerton Willian Gomes; Negrão, Oswaldo Gomes Corrêa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa
OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the tuberculosis control program (TCP) is evaluable and to examine the feasibility of building an evaluation model in apriority municipality for the control of tuberculosis. METHOD: this evaluability study was conducted in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. For data collection, documental analysis and interviews with key informants were performed. For indicator validation, the nominal group technique was adopted. RESULTS: the details of TCP were described, and both the logical model and the classification framework for indicators were developed and agreed up on, with the goal of characterizing the structural elements of the program, defining the structure and process indicators, and formulating the evaluation questions. CONCLUSION: TCP is evaluable. Based on logical operational analysis, it was possible to evaluate the adequacy of the program goals for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, the performance of a summative evaluation is recommended, with a focus on the analysis of the effects of tuberculosis control interventions on decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25493675
Raut, Abhijit A; Naphade, Prashant S; Ramakantan, Ravi
The incidence of extrathoracic tuberculosis (ETB) continues to increase slowly, especially in immunocompromised and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) patients. ETB manifests with nonspecific clinical symptoms, and being less frequent, is less familiar to most physicians. Imaging modalities of choice are computed tomography (lymphadenopathy and abdominal TB) and MR imaging (central nervous system and musculoskeletal system TB). ETB commonly involves multiple organ systems with characteristic imaging findings that permit accurate diagnosis and timely management.
Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Bocchino, Marialuisa
Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory skin and joint disease that has a prevalence of 2-3% in the world's population, whereas of 1-2% in Europe. The traditional concept of psoriasis as the "healthy people's" disease has been recently revised because of ever-increasing reports of associations with various pathological conditions (hypertension, Crohn's disease, type II diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, infectious conditions). Particularly, advances in psoriasis therapies have introduced biologic agents. All the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of developing active disease in patients with latent tuberculosis infection, because of TNF-α key role against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For this reason, exclusion of active tuberculosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection are clinical imperatives prior to starting this therapy. Moreover active surveillance for a history of untreated or partially treated tuberculosis or latent form has already been shown to be effective in reducing the number of incident tuberculosis cases.
Perdigão, João; Canto, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Leal, Nuno; Macedo, Rita; Portugal, Isabel; Cunha, Mónica V.
Resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin was detected in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, belonging to the Beijing family lineage, isolated from two nodule exudates of a Yorkshire terrier with generalized tuberculosis. This report alerts medical practitioners to the risk of dissemination of pre-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (preMDR-TB) through exposure to M. tuberculosis-shedding pets. PMID:24153119
Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S
Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.
Wang, Ping-Huai; Wang, Hao-Chien; Liao, Chun-Hsing
Clinical deterioration during the treatment of tuberculosis remains a diagnostic challenge. We describe the case of a 46-year-old man with a history of oral cancer status after a radical operation who had pulmonary tuberculosis with pleura and neck lymph node involvement. The clinical condition improved after antituberculosis therapy. However, the patient suffered from low-grade fever, progressive dyspnea, and cough after 7 weeks of the therapy. The findings of chest plain films were relapse and progression of left lung haziness. The deterioration was caused by disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection. Disseminated P. marneffei in a non-HIV patient with tuberculosis is rarely seen, and the manifestations are similar to a paradoxical response and relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis, thereby making it difficult to establish a diagnosis.
Before discussing the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and particularly urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), unification of the terminology is necessary. The term 'urogenital tuberculosis' is preferable to 'genitourinary tuberculosis', as renal and urinary tract tuberculosis is more common than genital tuberculosis. Some understand the term 'extrapulmonary tuberculosis' as a specific tuberculosis (TB) lesion of all organs excluding the bronchus, lungs, pleura and intrathoracic bronchopulmonary lymph nodes, but others consider pleural TB as one form of EPTB - and it is a reason for very different proportions in the spectrum of EPTB. Enigmatic tendencies have also been revealed in patients' distribution - in neighbouring regions the incidence rate may differ significantly. Although there is no clear explanation for these tendencies, careful study of the epidemiology of EPTB in different conditions will improve early diagnosis.
... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Extension of comment... ``Tuberculosis in the Workplace'' and to request comments on these documents. OSHA is extending the deadline...
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...
Aquilina, Suzanne; Winkelman, Theresa
A recent resurgence of tuberculosis in the world community has brought the disease into the forefront of communicable disease control. Acknowledging the proven benefits of breast-feeding infants, the question of compatibility arises regarding the safety of breast-feeding an infant in the event of active tuberculosis disease in the mother. This article will discuss the emerging trends of tuberculosis disease and review the evidence that addresses the issues of safety while breast-feeding during tuberculosis treatment.
Maiga, Mamoudou; Ahidjo, Bintou Ahmadou; Maiga, Mariama C; Cheung, Laurene; Pelly, Shaaretha; Lun, Shichun; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Bishai, William R
The global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic and the spread of multi- and extensively-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) have been fueled by low adherence to following lengthy treatment protocols, and the rapid spread of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Persistence of the infection in immunocompetent individuals follows from the ability of M.tb to subvert host immune responses in favor of survival within macrophages. Alternative host-directed strategies are therefore being currently sought to improve treatment efficacy and duration. In this study, we evaluated tofacitinib, a new oral Janus kinase (JAK) blocker with anti-inflammatory properties, in shortening tuberculosis treatment. BALB/c mice, which are immunocompetent, showed acceleration of M.tb clearance achieving apparent sterilization after 16 weeks of adjunctive tofacitinib therapy at average exposures higher than recommended in humans, while mice receiving standard treatment alone did not achieve clearance until 24 weeks. True sterilization with tofacitinib was not achieved until five months. C3HeB/FeJ mice, which show reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines during M.tb infection, did not show improved clearance with adjunctive tofacitinib therapy, indicating that the nature of granulomatous lesions and host immunity may influence responsiveness to tofacitinib. Our findings suggest that the JAK pathway could be explored further for host-directed therapy in immunocompetent individuals.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on...) tuberculosis may receive compensation under 38 U.S.C. 1114(q) and 1156 as in effect before August 20,...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on...) tuberculosis may receive compensation under 38 U.S.C. 1114(q) and 1156 as in effect before August 20,...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on...) tuberculosis may receive compensation under 38 U.S.C. 1114(q) and 1156 as in effect before August 20,...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on...) tuberculosis may receive compensation under 38 U.S.C. 1114(q) and 1156 as in effect before August 20,...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on...) tuberculosis may receive compensation under 38 U.S.C. 1114(q) and 1156 as in effect before August 20,...
... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor ACTION: Proposed rule... tuberculosis (62 FR 54160). An informal public hearing was scheduled for Washington, D.C., and deadlines were... a new standard for occupational exposure to tuberculosis on October 17, 1997 (62 FR 54160)....
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 [Docket 91-161-2] Tuberculosis in Cattle and... amending the tuberculosis regulations by adding a definition for States whose accredited-free status has been suspended due to detection of tuberculosis in any cattle or bison in those States, and by...
... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Limited re-opening of the rulemaking record for Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis (TB). SUMMARY: The Agency is re... Sciences/ Institute of Medicine (NAS/IOM) report, ``Tuberculosis in the Workplace'' and the comments by...
... Tuberculosis in Cervids AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We propose to amend the regulations concerning tuberculosis and the interstate movement of... certificate stating that they have tested negative for tuberculosis within 90 days prior to export....
... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice... standard to regulate occupational exposure to tuberculosis (TB). Public hearings on the proposal were held... Tuberculosis'' (Ex. 179-3); ``Laboratory Performance Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators,...
... Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 62, No. 201 / Friday, October 17, 1997 / Proposed... 1218-AB46 Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration... Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 29 U.S.C. 655, to control occupational exposure to tuberculosis...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 77 and 91 RIN 0579-AA53 Tuberculosis in Captive... amending the regulations concerning tuberculosis and the interstate movement of animals by adding... have tested negative for tuberculosis within 90 days prior to export. Captive cervids have...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The... pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses condemned. The...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The... pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses condemned. The...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The... pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses condemned. The...
Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...
Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The... pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses condemned. The...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The... pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses condemned. The...
Samaranayake, Lakshman; Matsubara, Victor H
The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease.
Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya
Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency. PMID:22114438
This Symposium honours the achievements of Dr Karel Styblo. In this presentation, specific epidemiologic insights are reviewed. Studies of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Eskimos showed a picture of tuberculosis at the height of the epidemic. Very high incidence was observed in young people who experienced a high fatality rate. Application of specific control measures were accompanied by rapid decline in rates, greater than observed in any other human population, demonstrating that tuberculosis could be brought under control by specific intervention. Studies of the natural trend of tuberculosis in South India showed that, even in the absence of intervention, a decline was observed in the rates of this disease. In the absence of chemotherapy, 50 per cent of cases die within 5 years, 30 per cent recover spontaneously and 20 per cent remain sputum positive. Studies of the efficacy of BCG in Madras, enabled to study the impact of efficient case-finding associated with poor treatment results showing that such a situation multiplies the number of surviving, infectious cases in the community and, thus, actually deteriorates the epidemiological situation. These various basic studies have shown both how to create success and how to create failure in tuberculosis programmes.
Quenelle, Debra C.; Staas, Jay K.; Winchester, Gary A.; Barrow, Esther L. W.; Barrow, William W.
Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed that by using a single treatment of the large-microsphere formulation, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in M. tuberculosis H37Rv CFUs in the lungs of mice by 26 days postinfection. A combination of small (given as two injections on day 0 and day 7) and large (given as one injection at day 0) rifampin-loaded microsphere formulations resulted in significant reductions in CFUs in the lungs by 26 days, achieving a 1.23 log10 reduction in CFUs. By comparison, oral treatment with 5, 10, or 20 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight, administered every day, resulted in a reduction of 0.42, 1.7, or 1.8 log10 units, respectively. Thus the microsphere formulations, administered in one or two doses, were able to achieve results in mice similar to those obtained with a daily drug regimen within the range of the highest clinically tolerated dosage in humans. These results demonstrate that microsphere formulations of antimycobacterial drugs such as rifampin can be used for therapy of tuberculosis with minimal dosing. PMID:10223927
Albretsen, Jay C
Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.
Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.
The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197
Lakshman, Arjun; Dhir, Varun; Kumar, Narender; Singhal, Manphool
Presence of miliary shadows in chest imaging in the appropriate clinical setting is often taken as a marker of miliary tuberculosis. If sputum is negative for acid -fast bacillus, empirical anti-tubercular therapy is given without securing a histological or microbiological diagnosis. We report a young female with human immunodeficiency virus infection who had miliary infiltrates on chest radiography. She was started on empirical anti-tubercular therapy. But an alternate diagnosis was achieved later with invasive sampling and ATT was stopped. This case illustrates the need for physicians to remain alert to diseases which mimic tuberculosis in presentation. PMID:26628767
Segal, Leopoldo N; Clemente, Jose C; Li, Yonghua; Ruan, Chunhai; Cao, Jane; Danckers, Mauricio; Morris, Alison; Tapyrik, Sarah; Wu, Benjamin G; Diaz, Philip; Calligaro, Gregory; Dawson, Rodney; van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Dheda, Keertan; Rom, William N; Weiden, Michael D
Despite the immune-reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected individuals remain highly susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) and have an enrichment of oral anaerobes in the lung. Products of bacterial anaerobic metabolism, like butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), induce regulatory T cells (Tregs). We tested whether SCFAs contribute to poor TB control in a longitudinal cohort of ART-treated HIV-infected South Africans. Increase in serum SCFAs was associated with increased TB susceptibility. SCFAs inhibited IFN-γ and IL-17A production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected ART-treated individuals in response to M. tuberculosis antigen stimulation. Pulmonary SCFAs correlated with increased oral anaerobes, such as Prevotella in the lung, and with M. tuberculosis antigen-induced Tregs. Metabolites from anaerobic bacterial fermentation may, therefore, increase TB susceptibility by suppressing IFN-γ and IL-17A production during the cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis.
Kant, Surya; Gupta, Harshita; Ahluwalia, Savita
Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems mostly of the developing countries. Tuberculosis can lead to malnutrition and malnutrition may predispose to tuberculosis. Poor nutrition leads to protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies which lead to immunodeficiency. This secondary immunodeficiency increases the host's susceptibility to infection and hence increase the risk for developing tuberculosis. Tuberculosis itself leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting and poor nutritional status. Nutritional status and dietary intake and hence nutritional status of patients get improved during antituberculosis treatment.
de Jong, Bouke C.; Hill, Philip C.; Aiken, Alex; Awine, Timothy; Antonio, Martin; Adetifa, Ifedayo M.; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly J.; Fox, Annette; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Gagneux, Sebastien; Borgdorff, Martien W.; McAdam, Keith P.W.J.; Corrah, Tumani; Small, Peter M.; Adegbola, Richard A.
Considerable variability exists in the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. We hypothesized that M. africanum was less likely than M. tuberculosis to transmit and progress to tuberculosis disease. In a cohort study of tuberculosis patients and their household contacts in the Gambia, we categorized 1,808 HIV negative tuberculosis contacts according to exposure to M. tuberculosis or to M. africanum. A positive skin test indicated transmission and development of tuberculosis during 2 years of follow-up indicated progression to disease. Transmission was similar, but progression to disease was significantly lower in contacts exposed to M. africanum than to M. tuberculosis (1.0% vs 2.9%; Hazard Ratio (HR) 3.1, 95% CI 1.1–8.7). Within M. tuberculosis sensu stricto, contacts exposed to a Beijing family strain were most likely to progress to disease (5.6%; HR 6.7 (2.0–22) relative to M. africanum). M. africanum and M. tuberculosis transmit equally well to household contacts, but contacts exposed to M. africanum are less likely to progress to tuberculosis disease than those exposed to M. tuberculosis. The variable rate of progression by lineage suggests that TB variability matters in clinical settings and should be taken into account in studies evaluating tuberculosis vaccines and treatment regimens for latent tuberculosis infection. PMID:18702608
Yuba, Tatsuya; Hatsuse, Mayumi; Kodama, Mai; Uda, Sayaka; Yoshimura, Akihiro; Kurisu, Naoko
A 79-year-old man with a history of tuberculosis was found to have chronic empyema in the right lung and was diagnosed with malignant diffuse large-cell lymphoma (Ann Arbor stage IIE). After completion of one course of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy, the patient developed lung abscess and sepsis caused by Streptococcus intermedius. This condition was treated with antimicrobial agents, and chemotherapy was resumed. After the second course, the chemotherapy regimen was continued without prednisolone, and after administration of the third course, a chest wall mass was found in the right lung. An acid-fast bacillus smear test of the abscess aspirate was positive, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in a polymerase chain reaction assay, leading to a diagnosis of perithoracic tuberculosis. Chemotherapy for the lymphoma was discontinued, and treatment with four oral antitubercular agents was started. This treatment led to remission of perithoracic tuberculosis. In Japan, tuberculous scar and chronic empyema are relatively common findings, and relapse of tuberculosis should always be considered for patients with these findings during chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy.
Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.
This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.
Ginsberg, Ann M.
Over the past 10 years, tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development has resurged as an active area of investigation. The renewed interest has been stimulated by the recognition that, although BCG is delivered to approximately 90% of all neonates globally through the Expanded Programme on Immunization, Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to cause over 8 million new cases of TB and over 2 million deaths annually. Over one hundred TB vaccine candidates have been developed, using different approaches to inducing protective immunity. Candidate vaccines are typically screened in small animal models of primary TB disease for their ability to protect against a virulent strain of M. tuberculosis. The most promising are now beginning to enter human safety trials, marking real progress in this field for the first time in 80 years. PMID:12132007
Guwatudde, David; Zalwango, Sarah; Kamya, Moses R.; Debanne, Sara M.; Diaz, Mireya I.; Okwera, Alphonse; Mugerwa, Roy D.; King, Charles; Whalen, Christopher C.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis in one of Uganda's poor peri-urban areas. METHODS: Multi-stage sampling was used to select a sample of households whose members were evaluated for presence of signs and/or symptoms of active tuberculosis; history of tuberculosis treatment; and relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and household environment characteristics. Patients with suspected tuberculosis underwent standardized evaluation for active disease. FINDINGS: A sample of 263 households with 1142 individuals was evaluated. Nineteen people were classified as having had tuberculosis during the one-year reference period (May 2001-April 2002): nine (47%) cases already had been diagnosed through the health care system, while 10 cases (53%) were diagnosed through the survey. The prevalences for all forms of tuberculosis and for sputum smear-positive tuberculosis were 14.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8-20.3) and 4.4 (CI = 0.83-7.89) per thousand, respectively. The incidences for all forms of tuberculosis and for sputum smear-positive tuberculosis were 9.2 (CI = 3.97-14.4) and 3.7 (CI = 0.39-6.95) per thousand per year, respectively. CONCLUSION: The rate of tuberculosis in this peri-urban community was exceptionally high and may be underestimated by current surveillance systems. The need for interventions aimed at reducing tuberculosis transmission in this, and other similar communities with high case rates, is urgent. PMID:14758406
Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh
Tuberculosis is probably as old as the human race itself. Cutaneous tuberculosis constitutes a very small proportion of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Extensive, multifocal involvement of cutaneous tuberculosis is a very rare manifestation. We report one such case of extensive, multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in a 30-year-old immunocompetent male patient in the absence of any primary tubercular focus. PMID:25071280
Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip
The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764
Proper, N.; Scherman, M. S.; Jevsevar, K. L.; Stone, J.; McNeil, M. R.; Krapf, D.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a fading threat in the United States, but in the developing world it is still a major health-care concern. Given the rising number of cases and lack of resources, there is a desperate need for an affordable, portable detection system. We are working towards the development of a field-friendly immunological biosensor that utilizes florescence microscopy to undertake this task. We observe fluorescently labeled antibodies/antigens as they bind to a glass slide treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to inhibit non-specific adsorption. Antibodies against the antigens of interest are bound to the PEGylated glass slides via biotin-streptavidin interactions. Then, fluorescently labeled antibodies are mixed with different concentrations of TB antigens and this solution is incubated on the treated glass slides for 30 minutes. The slides are thoroughly rinsed with water following the incubation period. The antigens are then detected by fluorescence using a low-cost biosensor. Our system includes a ``supermarket-scanner'' HeNe laser, home-built electronics, off-the-shelf optics and a Si photodiode. Work is underway to incorporate a flow-cell into the system, in a small portable box.
Glaziou, Philippe; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario
Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) killed 1.3 million people in 2012. Alongside HIV, it remains a top cause of death from an infectious disease. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is the focus of national and international efforts in TB control, and showing whether or not they are achieved is of major importance to guide future and sustainable investments. This article provides a short overview of sources of data to estimate TB disease burden; presents estimates of TB incidence, prevalence, and mortality in 2012 and an assessment of progress toward the 2015 targets for reductions in these indicators based on trends since 1990 and projections up to 2015; analyzes trends in TB notifications and in the implementation of the Stop TB Strategy; and considers prospects for elimination of TB after 2015. PMID:25359550
Sgaragli, Giampietro; Frosini, Maria
The great progress of knowledge of both M. tuberculosis physiology and how human host and bacilli interact has provided fertile ground for improving diagnosis and cure of TB infection. Once M. tuberculosis has infected humans, it elaborates strategies for evading the risk to killing by the cells of the host immune system and by the anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) agents employed to cure infection. These strategies give rise to a bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) status. This stems firstly from genetic mutations targeting a constellation of drug-processing mechanisms that still need full identification, as drug efflux pumps and drug activating/ inactivating enzymes (genetic resistance). Secondly, from the bacterial adaptation to stressful environmental conditions by adopting a temporary dormancy state lasting for decades and characterized by indifference to anti-TB drugs (phenotypic resistance or tolerance). The clarification of the strategies elaborated for surviving by M. tuberculosis has brought to the identification in the last few years of a number of mycobacterial molecular targets worth to exploitation for the development of novel and powerful anti-TB drugs. These targets include drug-efflux pump systems, considered partly responsible for genetic multi-drug resistance, and several enzymes and pump systems, as well, that sustain the metabolic adaptations of M. tuberculosis in the host and give rise to its phenotypic drug resistance.
Xia, Xin; Pethe, Kevin; Kim, Ryangyeo; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Cechetto, Jonathan; Jeon, HeeKyoung; Kim, Kideok; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.
Tuberculosis is a major problem in public health. While new effective treatments to combat the disease are currently under development, they tend suffer from poor solubility often resulting in low and/or inconsistent oral bioavailability. Mesoporous materials are here investigated in an in vitro intracellular assay, for the effective delivery of compound PA-824; a poorly soluble bactericidal agent being developed against Tuberculosis (TB). Mesoporous materials enhance the solubility of PA-824; however, this is not translated into a higher antibacterial activity in TB-infected macrophages after 5 days of incubation, where similar values are obtained. The lack of improved activity may be due to insufficient release of the drug from the mesopores in the context of the cellular environment. However, these results show promising data for the use of mesoporous particles in the context of oral delivery with expected improvements in bioavailability.
Comstock, G W
Tuberculosis has been considered the result of hereditary susceptibility, miasmas in the environment, and contact with contagious patients. During most of the latter half of this century, tuberculosis control efforts have concentrated almost exclusively on contagion by treating patients to make them noninfectious, treating latent tuberculosis to prevent reactivation, and in some countries, vaccinating uninfected persons to protect them from the consequences of infection. With the resurgence of tuberculosis in 1985, interest in all methods of tuberculosis control has been rekindled. Much remains to be discovered and much needs to be done. If renewed efforts succeed in again forcing tuberculosis rates downward, will we have the wisdom to eliminate tuberculosis in the United States, or will we relax and bring about another resurgence? PMID:7977908
Chaudhari, Aunp P; Ranganath, Ravi; Pavan, Malleshappa
Urogenital tuberculosis (TB) is a common late manifestation of an earlier symptomatic or asymptomatic pulmonary TB infection. A latency period ranging from 5 to 40 years between the time of the initial infection and the expression of urogenital TB frequently occurs. As one of the most common sites of involvement of extrapulmonary TB, urogenital TB accounts for 15% to 20% of the infections. We present a patient who had culture-negative active tubercular kidney disease due to silent tuberculous infection. Our case demonstrates the limitations of noninvasive testing in establishing the diagnosis of renal tuberculosis.
Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Altet Gómez, N; Baquero-Artigao, F; Escribano Montaner, A; Gómez-Pastrana Durán, D; González Montero, R; Mellado Peña, M J; Rodrigo-Gonzalo-de-Liria, C; Ruiz Serrano, M J
Tuberculosis is one of the most important health problems worldwide. There are an increasing number of cases, including children, due to different reasons in developed countries. The most likely determining cause is immigration from highly endemic areas. Measures to optimise early and appropriate diagnosis of the different forms of tuberculosis in children are a real priority. Two Societies of the Spanish Paediatric Association (Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectology and Spanish Society of Paediatric Pneumology) have agreed this Consensus Document in order to homogenise diagnostic criteria in paediatric patients.
The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been established as valid for patients at high risk for developing active tuberculosis. Treatment of LTBI is also considered an important strategy for eliminating tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. In recent years, interferon-gamma release assays have come into widespread use; isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy for HIV patients has come to be recommended worldwide; and there have been increases in both types of biologics used in the treatment of immune diseases as well as the diseases susceptible to treatment. In light of the above facts, the Prevention Committee and the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have jointly drafted these guidelines. In determining subjects for LTBI treatment, the following must be considered: 1) risk of TB infection/ development; 2) infection diagnosis; 3) chest image diagnosis; 4) the impact of TB development; 5) the possible manifestation of side effects; and 6) the prospects of treatment completion. LTBI treatment is actively considered when relative risk is deemed 4 or higher, including risk factors such as the following: HIV/AIDS, organ transplants (immunosuppressant use), silicosis, dialysis due to chronic renal failure, recent TB infection (within 2 years), fibronodular shadows in chest radiographs (untreated old TB), the use of biologics, and large doses of corticosteroids. Although the risk is lower, the following risk factors require consideration of LTBI treatment when 2 or more of them are present: use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids, use of other immunosuppressants, diabetes, being underweight, smoking, gastrectomy, and so on. In principle, INH is administered for a period of 6 or 9 months. When INH cannot be used, rifampicin is administered for a period of 4 or 6 months. It is believed that there are no reasons to support long-term LTBI treatment for immunosuppressed patients in Japan, where the risk of infection is not considered markedly high
Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B
Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.
Rangaka, Molebogeng X; Cavalcante, Solange C; Marais, Ben J; Thim, Sok; Martinson, Neil A; Swaminathan, Soumya; Chaisson, Richard E
The billions of people with latent tuberculosis infection serve as the seedbeds for future cases of active tuberculosis. Virtually all episodes of tuberculosis disease are preceded by a period of asymptomatic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; therefore, identifying infected individuals most likely to progress to disease and treating such subclinical infections to prevent future disease provides a crucial opportunity to interrupt tuberculosis transmission and reduce the global burden of tuberculosis disease. Programmes focusing on single strategies rather than comprehensive programmes that deliver an integrated arsenal for tuberculosis control might continue to struggle. Tuberculosis preventive therapy is a poorly used method that is essential for controlling the reservoirs of disease that drive the epidemic. Comprehensive control strategies that combine preventive therapy for the most high-risk populations and communities with improved case-finding and treatment, control of transmission, and health systems strengthening could ultimately lead to worldwide tuberculosis elimination. In this Series paper we outline challenges to implementation of preventive therapy and provide pragmatic suggestions for overcoming them. We further advocate for tuberculosis preventive therapy as the core of a renewed worldwide focus to implement a comprehensive epidemic control strategy that would reduce new tuberculosis cases to elimination targets. This strategy would be underpinned by accelerated research to further understand the biology of subclinical tuberculosis infections, develop novel diagnostics and drug regimens specifically for subclinical tuberculosis infection, strengthen health systems and community engagement, and enhance sustainable large scale implementation of preventive therapy programmes.
Bento, João; Duarte, Raquel; Brito, Maria Céu; Leite, Sónia; Lobato, Maria Rosário; do Carmo Caldeira, Maria; Carvalho, Aurora
Malabsorption of oral antimycobacterial drugs is a rare cause of treatment failure in tuberculosis (TB). Several predisposing comorbidities have been recognised. HIV infection is the most important risk factor referred in the literature. There are few reports about antimycobacterial drugs malabsorption, particularly in the absence of predisposing comorbidities. The authors present a clinical case of oral treatment failure in TB due to malabsorption; however, what caused the failure remained unclear. Possible causes of malabsorption are discussed under various sections. Purpose of this case report is to point to this rare situation that can easily go unnoticed unless a very high level of suspicion is present. PMID:22778380
Schito, Marco; Hanna, Debra; Zumla, Alimuddin
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 10.4 million people died of tuberculosis (TB) in 2015, and the disease is now the number one cause of death from a preventable infectious disease worldwide. A bold vision is needed from global leaders to end the TB epidemic and plans to this end have been proposed. However enthusiasm must be matched by tangible and achievable goals based on the science and available funding. In order to reach the target and goals set by the WHO End TB Strategy, the challenges for TB eradication need to be addressed. In order to achieve the targets, several areas need to be bolstered, including the requirement to better identify and treat existing drug-susceptible cases and diagnose all the drug-resistant forms of the disease. Although treatment is available for most TB patients, stock-outs and other delays are problematic in some settings, resulting in ongoing transmission, especially for the drug-resistant forms of the disease. Despite the fact that a majority of multidrug-resistant cases are linked to treatment, the cure rate is only 50%, which highlights the need for safer, shorter, and more efficacious drug regimens that are more tolerable to patients. Prospects for a more efficacious vaccine are limited, with no correlates of protection identified; thus the availability of a vaccine by 2025 is highly improbable. Support for instituting infection control methods should be prioritized to subvert transmission while patients seek treatment and care. Finally, more adequate financial mechanisms should be instituted to reduce patient expenditures and support national TB programs. Moreover, funding to support basic science, drug development, clinical trials, vaccine development, diagnostics, and implementation research needs to be secured in order to reduce global TB incidence in the future.
Huaman, Moises A; Henson, David; Ticona, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Garvy, Beth A
The burden of tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is enormous worldwide. CVD rates are rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Public health programs have been challenged with the overlapping tuberculosis and CVD epidemics. Monocyte/macrophages, lymphocytes and cytokines involved in cellular mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also main drivers of atherogenesis, suggesting a potential pathogenic role of tuberculosis in CVD via mechanisms that have been described for other pathogens that establish chronic infection and latency. Studies have shown a pro-atherogenic effect of antibody-mediated responses against mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 through cross reaction with self-antigens in human vessels. Furthermore, subsets of mycobacteria actively replicate during latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and recent studies suggest that LTBI is associated with persistent chronic inflammation that may lead to CVD. Recent epidemiologic work has shown that the risk of CVD in persons who develop tuberculosis is higher than in persons without a history of tuberculosis, even several years after recovery from tuberculosis. Together, these data suggest that tuberculosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of CVD. Further research to investigate a potential link between tuberculosis and CVD is warranted.
Seung, K J; Bai, G H; Kim, S J; Lew, W J; Park, S K; Kim, J Y
South Korea's complex system of tuberculosis control has never been fully described. The prevalence of tuberculosis has dropped dramatically since 1965, partly because of farsighted governmental policy that provided low-cost, accessible tuberculosis treatment to the entire population. Within the tuberculosis control system, public and private sector entities provide a wide variety of treatment options. The National Tuberculosis Program focuses on improving cure rates for new cases, while the private sector has taken more of a role in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis and other types of complicated cases. There has been a decrease in drug-resistant tuberculosis since 1980 for multiple reasons, including increased cure rates from the introduction of rifampin-based regimens, improved nutrition and living standards, and the treatment of drug-resistant cases in the private sector. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, however, still poses a significant threat to public health. The limited outcomes data that exist in South Korea for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment suggest that cure rates are low and failure and abandonment rates are high. New public health measures are needed to improve the control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Haas, Charles; Le Jeunne, Claire
In transplant recipients, immunosuppressive treatment affects cell-mediated immunity and increases the risk of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis may be transmitted by the donor organ or occur de novo, but such cases are rare. The vast majority of cases of active tuberculosis in transplant recipients result from reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The incidence varies from one region of the globe to another, from 0.5-1.0% in North America, to 0.36-5.5% in Europe and 7.0-11.8% in India. The incidence of tuberculosis among transplant recipients is much higher than in the general population. Diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic liver disease and AIDS all increase the risk of post-transplant tuberculosis. Extrapulmonary and disseminated forms are frequent in this setting. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in transplant recipients is often difficult, and treatment is frequently delayed. Tuberculosis can be life-threatening in such cases. Treatment is difficult because rifampicin is a cytochrome P450 inducer (leading to reduced levels of cyclosporine), and because the hepatotoxicity of isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide is frequently increased in transplant recipients. Treatment of latent tuberculosis before transplantation markedly reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis after transplantation.
Huaman, Moises A.; Henson, David; Ticona, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R.; Garvy, Beth A.
The burden of tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is enormous worldwide. CVD rates are rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Public health programs have been challenged with the overlapping tuberculosis and CVD epidemics. Monocyte/macrophages, lymphocytes and cytokines involved in cellular mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also main drivers of atherogenesis, suggesting a potential pathogenic role of tuberculosis in CVD via mechanisms that have been described for other pathogens that establish chronic infection and latency. Studies have shown a pro-atherogenic effect of antibody-mediated responses against mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 through cross reaction with self-antigens in human vessels. Furthermore, subsets of mycobacteria actively replicate during latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and recent studies suggest that LTBI is associated with persistent chronic inflammation that may lead to CVD. Recent epidemiologic work has shown that the risk of CVD in persons who develop tuberculosis is higher than in persons without a history of tuberculosis, even several years after recovery from tuberculosis. Together, these data suggest that tuberculosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of CVD. Further research to investigate a potential link between tuberculosis and CVD is warranted. PMID:26835156
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease. Pulmonary TB cases have decreased; yet, extrapulmonary cases such as genitourinary TB have not (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005). Health care awareness of the clinical features of genitourinary TB is necessary to effectively treat patients with this disease.
Since after the first streptomycin 1944 trials, anti-tuberculous chemotherapy research has been focused upon establishing drug combination regimens capable of overcoming drug resistance and amenable to ambulatory treatment in resource strapped countries. The first milestone being the 1959 Madras trial comparing home and sanatorium treatment in South India. Subsequently, the MRC trials led Fox and Mitchison to indicate rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide as the first line drugs for short course, 6 month, regimens and the 1982 Hong Kong Chest Service trials established intermittent therapy as the ambulatory treatment standard for directly observed therapy (DOT). The rising of the HIV epidemic at the beginning of the 1980s has refuelled tuberculosis spread in Africa and Asia and contributed to the expansion of drug-resistant tuberculosis worldwide making the development of new drugs and drug regimens for ambulatory treatment a top priority. Led by biotechnological advances, molecular biology has been brought into TB laboratory diagnosis for the highly sensitive and specific rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in biological samples. The field of immunological diagnosis of TB infection, dominated since the early 1900s by the intradermal tuberculin reaction has been put back in motion by the discovery of M. tuberculosis-specific proteins and peptides, now employed in blood tests of high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of latent TB which may help with the identification of contacts at higher risk of active disease and the eradication of epidemic cases.
Woessner, J; Receveur, M C; Malvy, D; Taytard, A
Mayotte is a French territory island, part of the Comoros Archipelago in the Indian Ocean with 200,000 inhabitants. The tuberculosis control program started in 1976, although available epidemiological data remains incomplete. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based survey in 202 outpatients and hospital medical records from the Hospital Centre of the main city to contribute to the epidemiological evaluation of tuberculosis patterns. The tuberculosis frequency remains unchanged since 2000. It affects a young population partly coming from the other neighbouring Comoro Islands (69%) with illegal immigrate status (53% in 2004). The systematic diagnostic screening efficiency of the condition appears marginal. Pulmonary involvement is the most frequent clinical manifestation (78%), although severe extrapulmonary manifestations are not exceptional. Co-infection with HIV and multi resistance to antituberculosis agents are not frequent. Up to 60% of cases have been proven to be bacteriologically linked. The notification rate remains critically low with an estimate of 39% of notifications to the local sanitary authorities in charge of secondary cases screening. The case coverage seems limited both by low socio-economical status and poor health facility accessibility The loss of follow up is dramatically high, 41% on the overall period, and up to 51% in 2004. Our results make mandatory the reinforcement of a tuberculosis survey and control involvement within the context of this French territory. Screening, care and follow up are to be implemented particularly for vulnerable and precarious groups and for patients.
Lerman, Stephen J.; Bernardo, John; Daly, Jennifer S.; Husson, Robert
To help college health services in all parts of the country improve their approach to latent tuberculosis, two Listservs were provided for them to post their questions on dealing with TB infection. In this article, the authors present some of the questions posted in the Listservs and their corresponding answers. In their answers, the authors have…
Hermans, P W; van Soolingen, D; Dale, J W; Schuitema, A R; McAdam, R A; Catty, D; van Embden, J D
IS986 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis belongs to the IS3-like family of insertion sequences, and it has previously been shown to be present in multiple copies in the chromosome of M. tuberculosis. In this study we investigated the value of a IS986-based DNA probe in the diagnosis and epidemiology of tuberculosis. IS986 was found only in species belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex. Independent isolates of M. tuberculosis complex strains showed a very high degree of polymorphism of restriction fragments which contained IS986 DNA. In contrast, Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains as well as clinical isolates of M. bovis BCG contained one copy of IS986, which was present at the same location in the chromosome. Different M. tuberculosis isolates from a recent M. tuberculosis outbreak showed an identical banding pattern. We concluded that IS986 is an extremely suitable tool for the diagnosis and epidemiology of tuberculosis. Images PMID:1977765
Vetrugno, G.; De-Giorgio, F.; D’Alessandro, F.; Scafetta, I.; Berloco, F.; Buonsenso, D.; Abbate, F.; Scalise, G.; Pascali, V.L.; Valentini, P
Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90–95%) of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—and in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006
The fight against tuberculosis in the German Democratic Republic was performed from the very beginning as a task of the state and the society; it was developed according to the progress of economic possibilities and the epidemiological situation. The contribution of the community and of the social-economic development on tuberculosis epidemiology has proved to be decisively important factors in tuberculosis control. The specific methods applied in tuberculosis control in the course of more than 30 years have changed in their importance effectiveness and efficiency with the reduction of the tuberculosis problem and the development of new techniques. Therefore a continuous evaluation of the tuberculosis situation is necessary to recognize the most effective approach. By reducing the estimated annual infection rate to less than 0.05%, the incidence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis to less than 5/100,000 and the practical disappearance of tuberculosis among children tuberculosis has become an endemic localized disease among predominantly old citizens. People's mass x-ray examinations have considerably lost their value for finding tuberculosis. Early coverage and examination of persons with respiratory symptoms (21-days-coughers), of contact persons and high risk groups will determine the future activities of the chest clinics. Their integration into the system of outpatient clinics and the system of primary health care were an important step on this way. Successful treatment of each case of tuberculosis is now possible and must be attained. Early case finding + treatment considered as an united activity has become the decisively important measure in the control of tuberculosis. The endemic foci of tuberculosis in some communities have to be surveyed and eliminated with priority. Moreover, the cooperation of all physicians of public health is necessary. Only by this way tuberculosis can be eradicated in GDR in a defined time. (Aim of WHO and IUaT: 1 case of
Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H
Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.
Maclennan, A H
Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen
Dua, Ruchi; Sindhwani, Girish; Rawat, Jagdish
Exfoliative dermatitis to all four first line drugs singly or rarely in combination has been reported. Here we report a rare case of pulmonary tuberculosis with exfoliative dermatitis to all four oral first line antitubercular drugs. (Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case.
Noguchi, S; Shuin, T; Kitajima, N; Ishizuka, E
A clinical observation was made on 30 cases of urogenital tuberculosis diagnosed and treated at the urological department of our Hospital between January, 1976 and December, 1984. Furthermore, 20 of them were examined for drug resistance and investigated for this tendency. They accounted for 0.23% of the outpatients. Male to female ratio was 2 to 1, but on urological tuberculosis this ratio was even. The average age was 43.7 and 50% of the patients who had a history of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be detected in 24 of the 30 cases (80%) and 18 of the 21 cases (85.4%) of urological tuberculosis. Drug resistance was examined in 20 patients. The resistant ratio of M. tuberculosis against primary drugs such as SM, PAS, INAH was low and a high resistant ratio was observed on secondary drugs such as EB, RFP, TH. These clinical observations are reported and herein discussed.
Vicente, Esther; Villar, Raquel; Burguete, Asunción; Solano, Beatriz; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Maddry, Joseph A; Lenaerts, Anne J; Franzblau, Scott G; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Monge, Antonio; Goldman, Robert C
This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro efficacies of the 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has led to the discovery of a derivative with in vivo efficacy in the mouse model of tuberculosis. Quinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives were tested in vitro against a broad panel of single-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The susceptibilities of these strains to some compounds were comparable to those of strain H(37)Rv, as indicated by the ratios of MICs for resistant and nonresistant strains, supporting the premise that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives have a novel mode of action unrelated to those of the currently used antitubercular drugs. Specific derivatives were further evaluated in a series of in vivo assays, including evaluations of the maximum tolerated doses, the levels of oral bioavailability, and the efficacies in a low-dose aerosol model of tuberculosis in mice. One compound, ethyl 7-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-dioxide, was found to be (i) active in reducing CFU counts in both the lungs and spleens of infected mice following oral administration, (ii) active against PA-824-resistant Mycobacterium bovis, indicating that the pathway of bioreduction/activation is different from that of PA-824 (a bioreduced nitroimidazole that is in clinical trials), and (iii) very active against nonreplicating bacteria adapted to low-oxygen conditions. These data indicate that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalines hold promise for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Montejo, M; Alonso, M; Aguirrebengoa, K; Moreno, G; Goicoetxea, J; Petreñas, E; Bañuelos, S; Vergez, A
We report 11 patients with laryngeal tuberculosis seen in our hospital, January 1990 to July 2000. Eight were men and all cases presented with dysphonia and/or disphagia. In 8 pulmonary tuberculosis was associated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from the sputum in 7 patients. Granulomatous laryngitis was demonstrated in the eight patients with laryngeal biopsy. The evolution with medical treatment was favourable in all patients.
Sarker, Malabika; Barua, Mrittika; Guerra, Fiona; Saha, Avijit; Aftab, Afzal; Latif, A. H. M. Mahbub; Islam, Shayla; Islam, Akramul
Background Diabetes among tuberculosis patients increases the risk of tuberculosis treatment failure, death, and development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Yet, there is no data is available in Bangladesh on the prevalence of diabetes among tuberculosis patients. The objective of the current study was to estimate prevalence and identify factors associated with tuberculosis-diabetes co-morbidity among TB patients enrolled in the Directly Observed Treatment, Short course program. Methods A community based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among 1910 tuberculosis patients living in six urban and eleven rural areas among whom Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (those who fasted) and Random Blood Sugar test (those who did not fast) were performed. Besides glucose levels, data on socio-demographic information, family history of diabetes and anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were also collected. Result Among the 1910 TB patients who participated in screening for diabetes, 245 (12.8%) were found to have diabetes and 296 (15.5%) to have pre-diabetes. Out of those who had diabetes, 34.7% were newly diagnosed through the current study and 65.3% already knew their status. Among those who were found to have prediabetes, 27 (9.1%) had impaired Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), 230 (77.7%) had Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT), and 39 (13.2%) had both Impaired FBG and IGT. Older age, higher BMI, higher education (secondary level and above), being married, participation in less active work, and family history of diabetes are associated with higher prevalence of diabetes. Conclusion We observed a higher prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in TB patients than reported previously in Bangladesh among the general population which may challenge TB and diabetes control in Bangladesh. Diabetes diagnosis, treatment and care should be integrated in the National TB Program. PMID:27798659
Randall, Philippa J.; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619
Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston; Jacobs, Muazzam
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system.
The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka
Tuberculosis (TB) continues as a major public health challenge worldwide. HIV-TB coinfection is especially concerning as it accelerates progression of infection to active disease and amplifies spread of TB including drug resistant disease. Application of molecular biology and insights from classic microbiology to TB control have resulted in important innovations in diagnosis and treatment. Radiometric assay and, particularly, PCR, with nucleic acid probing, have reduced the time to diagnosis. Moreover, the sensitivity of these techniques is potentially log orders of magnitude more sensitive. Molecular techniques can be adapted to drug susceptibility testing. The differential activity and post-antibiotic effect of various drugs against TB have led to highly effective briefer regimens and to directly observed therapy. Insights into basic host defense against TB and description of the M. tuberculosis genome have created optimism for developing new treatments and effective vaccines in the years to come. PMID:16555622
Sharma, Malay; Ecka, Ruth Shifa; Somasundaram, Aravindh; Shoukat, Abid; Kirnake, Vijendra
Background: Tubercular lymphadenitis is the commonest extra pulmonary manifestation in cervical and mediastinal locations. Normal characteristics of lymph nodes (LN) have been described on ultrasonography as well as by Endoscopic Ultrasound. Many ultrasonic features have been described for evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. The inter and intraobserver agreement of the endosonographic features have not been uniformly established. Methods and Results: A total of 266 patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and 134 cases were diagnosed as mediastinal tuberculosis. The endoscopic ultrasound location and features of these lymph nodes are described. Conclusion: Our series demonstrates the utility of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration as the investigation of choice for diagnosis of mediastinal tuberculosis and also describes various endoscopic ultrasound features of such nodes. PMID:27051097
Kronfol, N M; Mansour, Z
In the past decade, the number of new cases of tuberculosis worldwide has barely declined and national tuberculosis control and elimination programmes in many high-income countries worldwide are increasingly challenged to address the problem of disease in foreign-born residents and migrant workers. Routine immigration medical screening, either before or after arrival in the recipient country, is designed to avoid the admission of migrants who pose a public health threat. Screening measures, however, have changed with time largely based on respect for individuals' rights. This paper reviews the measures that are being used by countries to screen immigrants and improve their health well-being, and presents cases studies from two Eastern Mediterranean Region countries.
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Brigden, Grania; Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick P J; Balasegaram, Manica
Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen.
Kolk, Arend H. J.; Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Gibson, Tim; Anthony, Richard; Claassens, Mareli M.; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd
The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.
Kul'chavenia, E V; Kholtobin, D P
A comparative analysis of cystoscopic and pathologic patterns in 190 patients hospitalized for differential diagnosis or treatment of genitourinary tuberculosis in 2008-2011 was performed. All patients underwent polyfocal biopsy followed by pathologic examination of biopsy specimens. Furthermore, a comparison of results ofpathomorphological studies of tissue obtained by biopsy and after cystectomy was conducted. Cystoscopy in all patients with tuberculosis of the bladder (TB) revealed the reduced bladder capacity in contrast to patients with other urological diseases. Deformation of orifices, trabecularity and contact bleeding were observed in 66.7 to 94.4% of cases in patients with TB, which were significantly more common than in other diseases. Polymorphism of pathological pattern and the lack of specific changes in the majority of patients with TB were noted; multinucleated Pirogov-Langhans cells were found only in 11.8% of cases, and only in biopsies, whereas in the tissues obtained after cystectomy in same patients, lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis were observed. The algorithm of diagnosis of tuberculosis of the bladder is suggested.
Rieder, Hans L
In the western industrialized world tuberculosis has receded from its peak with an annual mortality of 1 % some 150 to 250 years ago to currently 10 to 20 new cases annually per 100,000 population. The introduction of chemotherapy in the 1950s reduced case fatality from some 70 % to a small fraction. Nowadays, the indigenous elderly and immigrants from high-prevalence countries contribute most of tuberculosis morbidity in the industrialized world. In contrast, tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in most resource-constrained countries and has substantially increased in sub-Saharan Africa as a result of the impact of HIV infection. The World Health Organization estimates that each year over 9 million new cases emerge in the world. Because of weak infrastructures low-income countries continue to experience shortages in the drug supply, facilitating the emergence of strains resistant to first-line drugs which are difficult or impossible to treat. The primordial task for the international community is to assist in strengthening the necessary infrastructures and to help ensuring that patients have unrestricted and uninterrupted access to antituberculosis medications and antiretroviral drugs.
Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Ramandeep; Gupta, Suruchi; Kumar, Abhiraj; Kakkar, Nandita
Panophthalmitis is one of rare manifestations of tuberculosis described in atypical situations such as children, immune compromised patients, or drug abuse. The present report describes the first case of tubercular panophthalmitis developing after trauma in an otherwise healthy adult patient. A 46-year-old female patient presented with corneal infiltrate and endophthalmitis that developed after an injury to right eye with wooden object. Corneal scrapings and vitreous tap were sterile. The patient did not improve with antibiotics and developed panophthalmitis. On evisceration of the painful blind eye, histopathology showed the presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacilli. The patient had no other systemic focus of tubercular infection. The patient was managed with anti-tubercular therapy for 6 months. Atypical presentations of tuberculosis like panophthalmitis pose a difficult problem in diagnosis as well as treatment. Direct inoculation of bacilli during trauma is a rare source of infection. This case report presents unusual development of tubercular panophthalmitis following direct inoculation of bacilli during trauma. Ocular tuberculosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of posttraumatic endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in endemic regions like India. PMID:27013830
Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Minic, Rajna; Moen, Lars F; Øverland, Lise; Tjåland, Rannei; Carlsen, Harald; Lea, Tor; Mathiesen, Geir; Eijsink, Vincent G H
Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the most deadly diseases in the world. The only available vaccine against tuberculosis is the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which does not ensure full protection in adults. There is a global urgency for the development of an effective vaccine for preventing disease transmission, and it requires novel approaches. We are exploring the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a vector for antigen delivery to mucosal sites. Here, we demonstrate the successful expression and surface display of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis fusion antigen (comprising Ag85B and ESAT-6, referred to as AgE6) on Lactobacillus plantarum The AgE6 fusion antigen was targeted to the bacterial surface using two different anchors, a lipoprotein anchor directing the protein to the cell membrane and a covalent cell wall anchor. AgE6-producing L. plantarum strains using each of the two anchors induced antigen-specific proliferative responses in lymphocytes purified from TB-positive donors. Similarly, both strains induced immune responses in mice after nasal or oral immunization. The impact of the anchoring strategies was reflected in dissimilarities in the immune responses generated by the two L. plantarum strains in vivo The present study comprises an initial step toward the development of L. plantarum as a vector for M. tuberculosis antigen delivery.
A major problem with tuberculosis (TB) control is the long duration of drug therapy–both for latent and for active TB. Therapeutic vaccination has been postulated to improve this situation, and to this end there are several candidates already in clinical phases of development. These candidates follow two main designs, namely bacilli-directed therapy based on inactivated -whole or -fragmented bacillus (Mycobacterium w and RUTI) or fusion proteins that integrate non-replicating bacilli -related antigens (H56 vaccine), and host-directed therapy to reduce the tissue destruction. The administration of inactivated Mycobacterium vaccae prevents the “Koch phenomenon” response, and oral administration of heat-killed Mycobacterium manresensis prevents excessive neutrophilic infiltration of the lesions. This review also tries to explain the success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by reviewing its evolution from infection to disease, and highlights the lack of a definitive understanding of the natural history of TB pathology and the need to improve our knowledge on TB immunology and pathogenesis. PMID:27733848
Martins, Maria Conceição; Giampaglia, Carmen Maria Saraiva; Chimara, Erica; Oliveira, Rosângela Siqueira; Vedovello, Danielle; Sakamoto, Sidnei Miyoshi; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine
This study investigated biological characteristics of recovered stressed M. tuberculosis isolates that failed to grow in differential culture media for phenotypic identification and in culture media containing anti-tuberculosis drugs for drug-susceptibility testing, despite of having grown in primary culture. It represents an improvement in the diagnosis of MDR tuberculosis and tuberculosis control. PMID:24294238
Gupta, Ranju; Bienenstock, Harry; Morano, Placido; Gupta, Anil
A 25-year-old man presented with low back pain and fever. After an initial delay, a diagnosis of tuberculosis of left sacroiliac joint was established by fine-needle aspiration of the joint. Awareness of extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis and high index of suspicion will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16173335
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis are closely related (>99% genetic identity), inducing similar host responses and disease expression upon infection. There is a rich history of co-discovery in the development of control measures applicable to both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB) including s...
Akram, Sami; Waqar, Sana
In the absence of coexisting immunocompromised state and lack of specific symptoms a reactivation of treated mycobacterial tuberculosis (MTB) infection is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis of leg pain. We present a unique case of disseminated tuberculosis presenting as an infected Baker's cyst in a 73-year-old immunocompetent male. PMID:28163945
Roffe, T.J.; Smith, B.
Tuberculosis! Just the name conjures up images of a devastating, chronic, debilitating disease. And so it is in both humans and animals. Tuberculosis (TB) is not known to be present to any significant degree in the free-ranging elk herds of North America. But increasing reports of TB in deer species-including elk-on game ranches prompt grave concern.
McCue, Maureen; Afifi, Larry Anna
Describes a peer helper program initiated by the University of Iowa Student Health Services to prevent active tuberculosis development among foreign national students. Before instituting the program, compliance with tuberculosis prevention efforts for those students was less than 5%. Since the peer program was instituted, compliance has risen to…
Rosner-David, Irene; Ilusorio, Shereen
Tuberculosis is reappearing with increasing prevalence and presenting new treatment challenges. Art therapy, which partly originated in a tuberculosis sanatoria, again serves to assist patients in coping with their illness and confinement. Case examples illustrate aspects of the disease and related emotions and highlight the potential for such an…
Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Cole, Stewart T.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Rubin, Eric; Nathan, Carl
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances reported at a recent international meeting highlight insights and controversies in the genetics of M. tuberculosis and the infected host, the nature of protective immune responses, adaptation of the bacillus to host-imposed stresses, animal models, and new techniques. PMID:15939785
Woodworth, Joshua S.; Andersen, Peter
Recently, Coscolla, Copin et al. use comparative genomics of M.tuberculosis strains to show that most human T cell-recognized epitopes are hyperconserved, but bona fide variable epitopes also exist. This identification of two sets of antigens implies opposing evolutionary processes and has an important impact on Tuberculosis vaccine strategy and design. PMID:26777728
Wilms, G.E.; Baert, A.L.; Kint, E.J.; Pringot, J.H.; Goddeeris, P.G.
The computed tomographic (CT) features of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis are reported in two cases that demonstrate two typical different clinical and morphological manifestations of the disease. The incidence and CT appearance of adrenal tuberculosis are discussed, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
Bone and joint tuberculosis is common in developing countries, and surgeons in these countries are often faced with the dual problem of diagnosing and treating this disease. However, bone and joint tuberculosis has not yet completely disappeared from industrialized countries, either. This book discusses this issue.
Fahy, Ruairi J; Morales, Juan; King, Mark
The injection of oil into the pleural cavity was a widely used treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis until the advent of effective anti-tuberculous therapy. Long-term complications of oleothorax can occur when the oil is not removed. The authors present an unusual complication of oleothorax, reactivation of tuberculosis, 54 years after oil instillation.
Skinner, M A; Keen, D L; Parlane, N A; Hamel, K L; Yates, G F; Buddle, B M
Possums are a wildlife vector of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand. Vaccination of possums with BCG is being considered as a measure to control the spread of bovine tuberculosis to cattle and deer. Delivery via oral bait is feasible but BCG is degraded in the stomach. The aim was to determine whether ranitidine (Zantac) would reduce gastric acidity and enhance the efficacy of intragastrically administered BCG. A dose of 75 mg reduced gastric acidity for at least 4 h. Thus, possums were vaccinated intragastrically with BCG after receiving 75 mg ranitidine or ranitidine or BCG alone, as controls, before challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Proliferative responses of blood lymphocytes to M. bovis antigens after vaccination were significantly higher in possums given ranitidine/BCG compared to controls and seven weeks after challenge they had significantly lower lung weights and spleen bacterial counts than ranitidine alone controls. Vaccination with BCG alone only gave a reduction in loss in body weight. Agents that reduce gastric acidity may be useful in formulating BCG for oral bait delivery to wildlife for vaccination against bovine tuberculosis.
Piqueras, A R; Marruecos, L; Artigas, A; Rodriguez, C
Although, miliary tuberculosis is an unusual cause of severe acute respiratory failure, we describe nine patients with miliary tuberculosis who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome. This complication occurred in seven patients despite treatment with antituberculous drugs. In two patients who developed the syndrome, miliary tuberculosis was diagnosed only at postmortem. The presence of pulmonary hypertension in all cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in seven cases suggests a possible pathophysiologic relationship with severe pulmonary vascular damage. The high mortality rate (88.8%) was associated with nonpulmonary organ system failure. Miliary tuberculosis should be considered in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome of unknown etiology, and simple diagnostic procedures such as sputum, bronchial brushing, and gastric examination should be followed by invasive diagnostic procedures to confirm this etiology. Since untreated miliary tuberculosis is usually fatal, early recognition of this disease is of great importance, and specific therapy may play a lifesaving role.
Wallis, Robert S.
The natural history of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is highly variable, as is the response to treatment of active tuberculosis. There is presently no direct means to identify individuals in whom Mtb infection has been eradicated, whether by a bactericidal immune response or sterilizing antimicrobial chemotherapy. Mathematical models can assist in such circumstances by measuring or predicting events that cannot be directly observed. The 3 models discussed in this review illustrate instances in which mathematical models were used to identify individuals with innate resistance to Mtb infection, determine the etiologic mechanism of tuberculosis in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor blockers, and predict the risk of relapse in persons undergoing tuberculosis treatment. These examples illustrate the power of various types of mathematic models to increase knowledge and thereby inform interventions in the present global tuberculosis epidemic. PMID:27242697
Scherr, Nicole; Jayachandran, Rajesh; Mueller, Philipp; Pieters, Jean
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has become an important health and economic burden, with more than four thousand people succumbing to the disease every day. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the molecular basis of this pathogen's success in causing disease in humans, in order to develop new drugs superior to conventional drugs available at present. One reason why M. tuberculosis is such a dangerous microbe lies within its ability to survive within infected hosts, thereby efficiently circumventing host immune responses. Over the past few years, a number of mechanisms have been unravelled that are utilized by M. tuberculosis to survive within hosts and to avoid immune defence mechanisms. Several of these mechanisms have been described in this communication that may be useful for the development of novel compounds to treat tuberculosis.
Nayar, Ravi C; Al Kaabi, Juma; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala
During the past 2 decades, tuberculosis--both pulmonary and extrapulmonary--has re-emerged as a major health problem worldwide. Nasal tuberculosis--either primary or secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis or facial lupus--is rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal granulomas. We describe a case of primary nasal tuberculosis in an adult male who presented with a polypoid lesion in one nasal cavity. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the patient's successful response to antituberculous drug treatment. Given the rising incidence of tuberculosis, it is prudent that otolaryngologists remain cognizant of this infection as a potential cause of unusual lesions in the head and neck.
Samanovic, Marie I.; Darwin, K. H.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) resides mainly inside macrophages, which produce nitric oxide (NO) to combat microbial infections. Earlier studies revealed that proteasome-associated genes are required for M. tuberculosis to resist NO via a previously uncharacterized mechanism. Twelve years later, we elucidated the link between proteasome function and NO resistance in M. tuberculosis in Molecular Cell, 57 (2015), pp. 984-994. In a proteasome degradation-defective mutant, Rv1205, a homologue of the plant enzyme LONELY GUY (LOG) that is involved in the synthesis of phytohormones called cytokinins, accumulates and as a consequence results in the overproduction of cytokinins. Cytokinins break down into aldehydes that kill mycobacteria in the presence of NO. Importantly, this new discovery reveals for the first time that a mammalian bacterial pathogen produces cytokinins and leaves us with the question: why is M. tuberculosis, an exclusively human pathogen, producing cytokinins? PMID:28357289
The case was 71-year-old woman. She was diagnosed as drug sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis (bII3 by the GAKKAI classification) and the chemotherapy with INH, RFP, EB and PZA was started. Two months later back pain and hemiparesis of both lower limbs appeared and it was diagnosed as caries of the 10th thoracic vertebrae. Because she was confined to bed and impossible to eat orally, the parenteral-hyperalimentaiton therapy was started with the central vein catheter. Howerer, nutritional state, pulmonary tuberculosis lesions and caries symptoms deteriorated. Then percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed and enteral nutrition was started. Since then nutritional state and tuberculosis lesions including caries improved gradually. It was estimated that the enteral nutrition brought about recovery of function and immunity of her digestive tract. For patients with advanced tuberculosis with poor nutritional state, the enteral nutrition is a useful adjuvant therapy, and the gastrostoma is considered to be one of the effective administrational routes when oral ingestion is difficult.
Kovaleva, S I
The trends in tuberculosis morbidity for the recent 30 years and factors that caused tuberculosis incidence to rise by 13.5% in 1992 are analyzed. Infiltrative-disseminated, disseminated and fibrous-cavernous tuberculosis were diagnosed in 58.7%, 11.7% and 1.8% of cases, respectively. Destructive lesion was found in 50% of the patients. Tuberculosis mortality reached in 1992 4.6 per 100,000. Measures to control tuberculosis spread in Moscow are suggested.
Wilson, Douglas; Howell, Victoria; Toppozini, Christina; Dong, Krista; Clark, Michael; Hurtado, Rocio
Clinical and logistic systems to support the timely diagnosis of tuberculosis are currently not preventing large numbers of tuberculosis deaths in South Africa. Context-appropriate systems for the diagnosis of tuberculosis are entirely dependent on effective and responsive management of human resources and an uninterrupted supply of clinical materials. Attention to these components of the tuberculosis program is urgently needed before new diagnostic technologies can be expected to impact on tuberculosis mortality in resource constrained settings.
Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.
... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM... tuberculosis regulations by establishing two separate zones with different tuberculosis risk classifications... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. William Hench, Senior Staff Veterinarian, National Tuberculosis...
About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.
Podany, Anthony T.; Swindells, Susan
Tuberculosis (TB) has been a leading cause of death for more than a century. While effective therapies exist, treatment is long and cumbersome. TB control is complicated by the overlapping problems created by global inadequacy of public health infrastructures, the interaction of the TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, and the emergence of drug-resistant TB. After a long period of neglect, there is now significant progress in the development of novel treatment regimens for TB. Focusing on treatment for active disease, we review pathways to TB regimen development and the new and repurposed anti-TB agents in clinical development. PMID:27853505
van Leeuwen, Lisanne M.; van der Sar, Astrid M.; Bitter, Wilbert
Over the past decade the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an attractive new vertebrate model organism for studying mycobacterial pathogenesis. The combination of medium-throughput screening and real-time in vivo visualization has allowed new ways to dissect host pathogenic interaction in a vertebrate host. Furthermore, genetic screens on the host and bacterial sides have elucidated new mechanisms involved in the initiation of granuloma formation and the importance of a balanced immune response for control of mycobacterial pathogens. This article will highlight the unique features of the zebrafish–Mycobacterium marinum infection model and its added value for tuberculosis research. PMID:25414379
Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree. The exact pathogenesis is unclear, and it has a heterogenous clinical course. Its diagnosis requires the clinician to have a high index of suspicion based on clinical symptoms and radiological features. Computed tomography and bronchoscopy are useful tools in its evaluation. The goal of treatment is in the eradication of tuberculous bacilli with appropriate anti-tuberculous therapy. Use of corticosteroids is controversial for the prevention of tracheobronchial stenosis. Interventional bronchoscopy or surgical intervention is employed to restore airway patency once significant stenosis occurs. PMID:28203440
Matteelli, Alberto; Sulis, Giorgia; Capone, Susanna; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Getahun, Haileyesus
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) affects one third to one fourth of the human population and is the reservoir for a significant proportion of emerging active tuberculosis (TB) cases, especially in low incidence countries. The World Health Organization launched in 2015 the END-TB strategy that aims at TB elimination and promotes, for the first time ever, the management of LTBI. The preventive package, basically consisting of testing and treatment for LTBI in groups at high risk of reactivation, is a mainstay of the first pillar of the strategy, alongside prompt diagnosis and early treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB disease. Testing and treatment for LTBI should be pursued with a programmatic perspective. This implies strong political commitment, adequate funding and an effective monitoring and evaluation system. People living with HIV and children under five years of age who are household contact of a contagious TB cases are primarily targeted in all epidemiological setting. In high resource and low incidence setting, additional at risk populations should also be the target for systematic LTBI testing and treatment. Research is urgently needed to develop diagnostic tests with higher predictive value to identify individuals that progress from infection to disease. Similarly, shorter and safer treatment regimens are needed to make the trade-off between potential benefits and harms more favourable for an increasing proportion of infected individuals.
Lamrabet, Otmane; Drancourt, Michel
Genetic engineering has been used for decades to mutate and delete genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome with the translational goal of producing attenuated mutants with conserved susceptibility to antituberculous antibiotics. The development of plasmids and mycobacteriophages that can transfer DNA into the M. tuberculosis chromosome has effectively overcome M. tuberculosis slow growth rate and the capsule and mycolic acid wall, which limit DNA uptake. The use of genetic engineering techniques has shed light on many aspects of pathogenesis mechanisms, including cellular growth, mycolic acid biosynthesis, metabolism, drug resistance and virulence. Moreover, such research gave clues to the development of new vaccines or new drugs for routine clinical practice. The use of genetic engineering tools is mainly based on the underlying concept that altering or reducing the M. tuberculosis genome could decrease its virulence. A contrario, recent post-genomic analyses indicated that reduced bacterial genomes are often associated with increased bacterial virulence and that M. tuberculosis acquired genes by lateral genetic exchange during its evolution. Therefore, ancestors utilizing genetic engineering to add genes to the M. tuberculosis genome may lead to new vaccines and the availability of M. tuberculosis isolates with increased susceptibility to antituberculous antibiotics.
PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354
We investigated the causes of death of late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis. Chronic respiratory failure is one of the most frequent cause of death in the patients of late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis. We compared the long term prognosis of chronic respiratory failure in case of emphysema and pulmonary tuberculosis. In the patients with chronic respiratory failure by pulmonary emphysema, the prognosis was poor in those with pulmonary hypertension. But in case of late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis, prognosis was not affected by presence or absence of pulmonary hypertension. The determinants of prognosis of late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis are the indication of home oxygen therapy, malnutrition, and hypoxemia. Fungal infection, especially aspergilloma, is a common secondary infection of late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis. We investigated forty-two cases of aspergilloma as late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis, and of those 15 patients died. The causes of death were pneumonia and respiratory failure. Measurement of galactomannan antigen of aspergillus in serum using ELISA or PCR, it was apparent that the outcome was poor in the patients positive for antigen. It suggested that the prognosis of the patients with aspergilloma related with some degree of invasion of Aspergillus in parenchyma. It was reported that neoplasm is closely related to chronic tuberculous empyema. Lymphoma is most frequently complicated with chronic tuberculous empyema, and squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sarcoma and carcinoid were reported as complication of chronic empyema. We reported the case of angiosarcoma, originated from chronic empyema in left thoracic cavity formed after being treated for tuberculosis with artificial pneumothorax. Recently, the number of patients with late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis have been decreased, but some severe cases of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis will suffer from late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis, and
Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho
Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in whi...
Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês S; Villela, Anne D; Gonçalves, Raoni S B; Abbadi, Bruno Lopes; Trindade, Rogério Valim; López-Gavín, Alexandre; Tudó, Griselda; González-Martín, Julian; Basso, Luiz Augusto; de Souza, Marcus V N; Campos, Maria Martha; Santos, Diógenes Santiago
Repurposing of drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) has been considered an alternative to overcome the global TB epidemic, especially to combat drug-resistant forms of the disease. Mefloquine has been reported as a potent drug to kill drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, mefloquine-derived molecules have been synthesised and their effectiveness against mycobacteria has been assessed. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the activities of mefloquine and its oxazolidine derivative compound 1E in a murine model of TB infection following administration of both drugs by the oral route. The effects of associations between mefloquine or 1E with the clinically used antituberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, moxifloxacin and streptomycin were also investigated. Importantly, combination of mefloquine with isoniazid and of 1E with streptomycin showed a two-fold decrease in their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Moreover, no tested combinations demonstrated antagonist interactions. Here we describe novel evidence on the activity of mefloquine and 1E against a series of quinolone-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. These data show MICs against quinolone-resistant strains (0.5-8 µg/mL) similar to or lower than those previously reported for multidrug-resistant strains. Taking these results together, we can suggest the use of mefloquine or 1E in combination with clinically available drugs, especially in the case of resistant forms of TB.
Russell, David G; VanderVen, Brian C; Lee, Wonsik; Abramovitch, Robert B; Kim, Mi-jeong; Homolka, Susanne; Niemann, Stefan; Rohde, Kyle H
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most pernicious of human pathogens. Current vaccines are ineffective, and drugs, although efficacious, require prolonged treatment with constant medical oversight. Overcoming these problems requires a greater appreciation of M. tuberculosis in the context of its host. Upon infection of either macrophages in culture or animal models, the bacterium realigns its metabolism in response to the new environments it encounters. Understanding these environments, and the stresses that they place on M. tuberculosis, should provide insights invaluable for the development of new chemo- and immunotherapeutic strategies.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an old enemy of the human race, with evidence of infection observed as early as 5000 years ago. Although more host-restricted than Mycobacterium bovis, which can infect all warm-blooded vertebrates, M. tuberculosis can infect, and cause morbidity and mortality in, several veterinary species as well. As M. tuberculosis is one of the earliest described bacterial pathogens, the literature describing this organism is vast and overwhelming. This review strives to distill what is currently known about this bacterium and the disease it causes for the veterinary pathologist.
Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Sharma, Surendra K
Antimycobacterial chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB). A large body of evidence from clinical trials suggests that short-course chemotherapy regimens, employing four drugs including rifampicin and pyrazinamide, achieve cure in most of the patients with tuberculosis (TB) and are associated with the lowest rates of relapse. Standard six-month regimens are adequate for the treatment of GUTB. Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) is the internationally recommended comprehensive strategy to control TB, and directly observed treatment is just one of its five elements. DOTS cures not only the individual with TB but also reduces the incidence of TB as well as the prevalence of primary drug-resistance in the community. Corticosteroids have no proven role in the management of patients with GUTB. Errors in prescribing anti-TB drugs are common in clinical practice. Standardized treatment regimens at correct doses and assured completion of treatment have made DOTS the present-day standard of care for the management of all forms of TB including GUTB.
Master, Sharon S; Rampini, Silvana K; Davis, Alexander S; Keller, Christine; Ehlers, Stefan; Springer, Burkhard; Timmins, Graham S; Sander, Peter; Deretic, Vojo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) parasitizes host macrophages and subverts host innate and adaptive immunity. Several cytokines elicited by Mtb are mediators of mycobacterial clearance or are involved in tuberculosis pathology. Surprisingly, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a major proinflammatory cytokine, has not been implicated in host-Mtb interactions. IL-1beta is activated by processing upon assembly of the inflammasome, a specialized inflammatory caspase-activating protein complex. Here, we show that Mtb prevents inflammasome activation and IL-1beta processing. An Mtb gene, zmp1, which encodes a putative Zn(2+) metalloprotease, is required for this process. Infection of macrophages with zmp1-deleted Mtb triggered activation of the inflammasome, resulting in increased IL-1beta secretion, enhanced maturation of Mtb containing phagosomes, improved mycobacterial clearance by macrophages, and lower bacterial burden in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice. Thus, we uncovered a previously masked role for IL-1beta in the control of Mtb and a mycobacterial system that prevents inflammasome and, therefore, IL-1beta activation.
Bates, Matthew; Ahmed, Yusuf; Kapata, Nathan; Maeurer, Markus; Mwaba, Peter; Zumla, Alimuddin
Tuberculosis (TB) has been recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy for nearly a century, but research and efforts to roll out comprehensive TB screening and treatment in high-risk populations such as those with a high prevalence of HIV or other diseases of poverty, have lagged behind similar efforts to address HIV infection in pregnancy and the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission. Immunological changes during pregnancy make the activation of latent TB infection or de novo infection more likely than among non-pregnant women. TB treatment in pregnancy poses several problems that have been under-researched, such as contraindications to anti-TB and anti-HIV drugs and potential risks to the neonate, which are particularly important with respect to second-line TB treatment. Whilst congenital TB is thought to be rare, data from high HIV burden settings suggest this is not the case. There is a need for more studies screening for TB in neonates and observing outcomes, and testing preventative or curative actions. National tuberculosis control programmes (NTPs) should work with antenatal and national HIV programmes in high-burden populations to provide screening at antenatal clinics, or to establish functioning systems whereby pregnant women at high risk can drop in to routine NTP screening stations.
Proper, Nathan; Stone, Jeremy; Jevsevar, Kristen L.; Scherman, Michael; McNeil, Michael R.; Krapf, Diego
Tuberculosis is a fading threat in the United States, but in the developing world it is still a major health-care concern. With the rising number of cases and lack of resources, there is a desperate need for an affordable, portable detection system. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a field-friendly immunological biosensor that utilizes florescence and specialized surface chemistries. We observe fluorescently labeled antibodies as they bind to a glass slide. Slides are treated with biotinylated polyethylene glycol to inhibit non-specific interactions and facilitate the binding of primary antibodies allowing for a high degree of specificity. Solutions of tuberculosis-specific antigens where mixed with fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies and incubated on the treated surfaces. An array of different concentrations of antigens bound to fluorescent tags is then read in an epifluorescnece microscope. This assay was used in the portable detector to show that higher concentrations of bound labeled antigens produce a greater emission when excited by a HeNe laser. Home-built electronics, off-the-shelf optics, and a Si photodiode (PD) were used. The data collected from multiple concentrations show a measurable photocurrent. Work is now underway to incorporate a avalanche (PD), flow-cell technology, in a portable box.
Gengenbacher, Martin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health threat, killing near to 2 million individuals around this globe, annually. The sole vaccine developed almost a century ago, provides limited protection only during childhood. After decades without the introduction of new antibiotics, several candidates are currently undergoing clinical investigation. Curing TB requires prolonged combination chemotherapy with several drugs. Moreover, monitoring the success of therapy is questionable due to the lack of reliable biomarkers. To substantially improve the situation, a detailed understanding of the crosstalk between human host and the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is vital. Principally, Mtb’s enormous success is based on three capacities: First, reprogramming of macrophages after primary infection/phagocytosis in order to prevent its own destruction; second, initiating the formation of well-organized granulomas, comprising different immune cells to create a confined environment for the host–pathogen standoff; third, the capability to shut down its own central metabolism, terminate replication and thereby transit into a stage of dormancy rendering itself extremely resistant to host defense and drug treatment. Here we review the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, draw conclusions in a working model of mycobacterial dormancy and highlight gaps in our understanding to be addressed in future research. PMID:22320122
The problems of diagnosis, treatment and management of tuberculosis associated with HIV infection in Africa are placed in perspective by the former director of the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Tuberculosis (TB) has increased as much as 3-fold in many African countries due to heightened susceptibility of HIV patients. HIV infection may both re-activate latent TB, which virtually all Africans harbor, or increase the likelihood of exogenous infection or re-infection by TB. In most of Africa diagnosis by stained sputum smear is standard: in late AIDS, this method may yield false negatives due to non-pulmonary TB, or pulmonary TB with a negative smear. Chest x-rays are also atypical, since cavitation of the upper zones is not as common, but lobar consolidation and lower zone involvement, and various unusual findings are likely. There is no evidence that mycobacterium avium intracellular has occurred in Africa. Treatment in Africa often centers on long-term thiazina (thiacetazone and isoniazid combined). HIV+ patients are more prone to skin rashes or even lethal epidermal neurolysis as a complication of treatment. Treated patients should be monitored for other symptoms such as diarrhea, recurrent fevers, other chest infections, cerebral space occupying lesions, urinary infections. Many can be treated with broad spectrum antibiotics such as chloramphenicol. Nursing HIV-infected young adults is an expensive and burdensome prospect for overworked and underpaid staff, but curing TB in AIDS patients is possible and worthwhile because of the public health advantages.
Kim, Kyung Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho; Park, Jee Soo; Lee, Seung-Sin
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is not rare and occurs mainly in the head and neck region. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenopathy is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Sinonasal tuberculosis is known to occur very rarely due to the protective functions of sinonasal mucosa. Although some signs of sinonasal tuberculosis may be present, such as associated facial abscesses, the symptoms and signs are usually nonspecific. Clinical suspicion is important for timely diagnosis and proper management of sinonasal tuberculosis due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. We report a case of tuberculosis confined to the unilateral maxillary sinus that was first misdiagnosed as recurrent rhinosinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery.
Patkar, Deepak; Narang, Jayant; Yanamandala, Rama; Lawande, Malini; Shah, Gaurang V
With the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic, the incidence of tuberculosis, including central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis, has increased in developed countries. It is no longer a disease confined to underdeveloped and developing countries. The imaging appearance has become more complex with the onset of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Imaging plays an important role in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. This article presents an extensive review of typical and atypical imaging appearances of intracranial tuberculosis, and discusses pathogenesis, patterns of involvement, and advances in imaging of intracranial tuberculosis.
Schopfer, K; Rieder, H L; Steinlin-Schopfer, J F; van Soolingen, D; Bodmer, T; Chantana, Y; Studer, P; Laurent, D; Zwahlen, M; Richner, B
SUMMARY We analysed Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from children, hospitalized from January 2004 to July 2008 in the largest paediatric hospital complex in Cambodia. Specimens were tested for drug susceptibility and genotypes. From the 260 children, 161 strains were available. The East African-Indian genotype family was the most common (59.0%), increasing in frequency with distance from the Phnom Penh area, while the frequency of the Beijing genotype family strains decreased. The drug resistance pattern showed a similar geographical gradient: lowest in the northwest (4.6%), intermediate in the central (17.1%), and highest in the southeastern (30.8%) parts of the country. Three children (1.9%) had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The Beijing genotype and streptomycin resistance were significantly associated (P < 0.001). As tuberculosis in children reflects recent transmission patterns in the community, multidrug resistance levels inform about the current quality of the tuberculosis programme.
Forrellad, Marina A.; Klepp, Laura I.; Gioffré, Andrea; Sabio y García, Julia; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Cataldi, Angel A.; Bigi, Fabiana
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of closely related species that cause tuberculosis in both humans and animals. This illness, still today, remains to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The mycobacteria enter the host by air, and, once in the lungs, are phagocytated by macrophages. This may lead to the rapid elimination of the bacillus or to the triggering of an active tuberculosis infection. A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction. The aim of this review is to describe the bacterial genes/proteins that are essential for the virulence of MTBC species, and that have been demonstrated in an in vivo model of infection. Knowledge of MTBC virulence factors is essential for the development of new vaccines and drugs to help manage the disease toward an increasingly more tuberculosis-free world. PMID:23076359
Siroka, A; Law, I; Macinko, J; Floyd, K; Banda, R P; Hoa, N B; Tsolmon, B; Chanda-Kapata, P; Gasana, M; Lwinn, T; Senkoro, M; Tupasi, T; Ponce, N A
pSETTING: Households in Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Rwanda, Tanzania, Viet Nam and Zambia.OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between household socio-economic level, both relative and absolute, and individual tuberculosis (TB) disease.
Ubaĭdullaev, A M; Khamrakulov, R Sh; Stoianovskiĭ, E A; Ataullaeva, D E
The tuberculosis situation is complicated in Uzbekistan and in other countries of the world. In the past 5 years, due to the transition from mass prophylactic examinations to the differential surveys of population groups, the annual coverage of the population to be examined by fluorographic studies has reduced from 6 to 3.5 million along with a simultaneous rise in tuberculosis detection rates from 0.1 to 0.24% and in its incidence by 33.3%. Searches for new organizational forms of tuberculosis control work are under way. The State programme on tuberculosis control and the draft law of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which regulate associated measures have been developed.
Yari, Sh; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, A; Fateh, A; Karimi, A; Yari, F; Sakhai, F; Ghazanfari, M; Bahrmand, A
Tuberculosis has been declared a global emergency. The mainstay for its control is the rapid and accurate identification of infected individual. Antibodies to A60, one of the macromolecular antigen complexes of mycobacteria were commonly used in the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to prepare specific antibodies against A60 for detection of tuberculosis infection. Specific polyclonal antibodies against A60, (A60-Ab) were prepared in rabbits using 2 boosted injections of the antigen (A60). The antibodies were purified and treated with normal oral flora to remove any non-specific and cross-reactive antibodies. These antibodies were conjugated to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B and used to isolate subunits of A60 with more specificity for M. tuberculosis. A new affinity column was designed to prepare modified (purified) A60 antigen. Purified A60 antigen (PA60-Ag) was used to develop antibody production by Immunoaffinity chromatography. 113 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary TB at Pasteur Institute were selected for the study. The specificity of the results was analyzed with TB-rapid test by using PA60-antibodies. TB-rapid test revealed that normal oral flora-absorbed antibodies could lead to more specific results than that of the non-absorbed antibodies. The developed, modified A60 antibodies, (PA60-Ab)-rapid test showed higher sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and overall efficiency (93.0%, 86.0%, 90.0%, 91.0%, and 90.0% respectively) for the detection of the Mycobacterium antigen. Moreover, PA60-Ag showed only two protein bands of molecular weight 45 and 66kDa in SDS-PAGE while untreated A60 showed multiple bands. Thus, our study helped in the purification of a novel and well characterized A60 antigen and good diagnostic potential for detecting tuberculosis infection.
Vicente, Esther; Villar, Raquel; Burguete, Asunción; Solano, Beatriz; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Maddry, Joseph A.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang-hyun; Monge, Antonio; Goldman, Robert C.
This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro efficacies of the 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has led to the discovery of a derivative with in vivo efficacy in the mouse model of tuberculosis. Quinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives were tested in vitro against a broad panel of single-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The susceptibilities of these strains to some compounds were comparable to those of strain H37Rv, as indicated by the ratios of MICs for resistant and nonresistant strains, supporting the premise that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives have a novel mode of action unrelated to those of the currently used antitubercular drugs. Specific derivatives were further evaluated in a series of in vivo assays, including evaluations of the maximum tolerated doses, the levels of oral bioavailability, and the efficacies in a low-dose aerosol model of tuberculosis in mice. One compound, ethyl 7-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-dioxide, was found to be (i) active in reducing CFU counts in both the lungs and spleens of infected mice following oral administration, (ii) active against PA-824-resistant Mycobacterium bovis, indicating that the pathway of bioreduction/activation is different from that of PA-824 (a bioreduced nitroimidazole that is in clinical trials), and (iii) very active against nonreplicating bacteria adapted to low-oxygen conditions. These data indicate that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalines hold promise for the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:18625764
Drug-resistant tuberculosis has brought back the spectre of pre-antibiotic days. WHO surveillance data from 2007 showed multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)-tubercle bacillus resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin accounting for 4.8% of all new and subsequent cases of tuberculosis. India and China-the two most populated countries of the world, house the maximum number of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases. In eastern European and central Asian countries, more than 6% of new TB cases are MDR-TB, whereas the number is <3% in the countries of the western world. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged with the prospect of tuberculosis becoming an incurable disease. A surveillance spreading over the six continents showed 10% of MDR-TB cases were also XDR-TB. The fact that tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected patients in developing countries makes the challenge almost insurmountable. The mortality of HIV and MDR-TB co-infected patients is exceedingly high. The absence of guidelines for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis and of infrastructure for delivery of DOT program and rapid laboratory diagnostic facilities, including drug susceptibility testing for both first and second-line drugs, and lack of trained human resource in most of the developing world account for the emergence and perpetuation of this menacing problem. WHO along with partnership with Green Light Committee and individual national governments has started DOT plus program to control this global epidemic.
Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure
Johnson, Benjamin K; Abramovitch, Robert B
Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonizes, survives, and grows inside macrophages. In vitro macrophage infection models, using both primary macrophages and cell lines, enable the characterization of the pathogen response to macrophage immune pressure and intracellular environmental cues. We describe methods to propagate and infect primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and J774 and THP-1 macrophage-like cell lines. We also present methods on the characterization of M. tuberculosis intracellular survival and the preparation of infected macrophages for imaging.
Silverman, Joshua Anton; Patel, Kunal; Hotston, Matthew
Tuberculosis of the bladder is a rare pathology in the western world and often not considered as a differential when seeing patients with common urological presentations. This case illustrates a 69-year-old woman in rural England who presented with visible haematuria and was subsequently diagnosed with tuberculosis of the bladder. The case aims to highlight the significance of early diagnosis and treatment, which in turn may help prevent disease progression and organ dysfunction.
Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C.; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramón A.; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines. PMID:21935486
[Recommendations for the preparation and administration of antituberculosis drugs in children. Second phase of the Magistral Project of the Spanish Network for the Study of Paediatric Tuberculosis (pTBred)].
Piñeiro Pérez, Roi; Santiago García, Begoña; Rodríguez Marrodán, Belén; Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Fernández-Llamazares, Cecilia M; Goretti López-Ramos, María; Vinent Genestar, Joan; Gómez-Pastrana Durán, David; Mellado Peña, María José
The Spanish Network for the Study of Paediatric Tuberculosis has shown a lack of national consensus on the treatment of tuberculosis in children, partly due to the unavailability of paediatric presentations of antituberculosis drugs. The harmonisation of tuberculosis treatment in children is a priority in Spain. A joint action is proposed by a group of Spanish experts in childhood tuberculosis and in the area of Paediatric Pharmacology. To this end, a pTBred-led workgroup of members from five scientific bodies has been created. Drug pharmaceutical compounding in oral suspensions or oral solutions are recommended as follows: isoniazid 50mg/mL, pyrazinamide 100mg/mL, and ethambutol 50mg/mL. Raw materials, period of validity, and storage conditions are specified. Recommendations for the use of fixed-dose combination drugs are also established. If oral solutions/suspensions or fixed-dose combination drugs are not appropriate, the use of crushed tablets is recommended. Adherence to treatment and optimal dosing of antituberculosis drugs are critical in the control and eradication of TB. This multidisciplinary document provides an opportunity to promote the appropriate treatment of paediatric tuberculosis in Spain, and should become a useful tool for paediatricians and pharmacists.
Verma, Rahul Kumar; Germishuizen, Willem A.; Motheo, M. Portia; Agrawal, Atul Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mohan, Mradul; Gupta, Pushpa; Gupta, Umesh Datta; Cholo, Moloko; Anderson, Ronald
Inhalable clofazimine-containing dry powder microparticles (CFM-DPI) and native clofazimine (CFM) were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and in mice infected with a low-dose aerosol. Both formulations resulted in 99% killing at 2.5 μg/ml in vitro. In mice, 480 μg and 720 μg CFM-DPI inhaled twice per week over 4 weeks reduced numbers of CFU in the lung by as much as log10 2.6; 500 μg oral CFM achieved a log10 0.7 reduction. PMID:23183441
Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario
The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases.
Bumbic, S; Zegarac, D; Lukac, R
A group of sixteen children suffering from osteoarticular tuberculosis were seen over the past five years in the Belgrade Paediatric Surgery Clinic. This disease is now extremely rare and effects chiefly children born outside maternity departments and not receiving BCG vaccination at birth for different reasons. The osteoarticular tuberculosis rate in the Socialist Republic of Serbia over this period was thus one in 500,000 children. The disease is three times as common in male children, most often affecting the hip and presenting above all at about the age of nine. At the time of admission, eight children had tuberculosis lesions affecting the lungs, visible and active or latent, partially or completely. In five children, one of the parents was receiving treatment for active pulmonary tuberculosis at the time of onset of the disease. Conservative treatment (immobilisation, tuberculous bacteriostatic therapy and general measures) was used in fifteen children and only one underwent surgery, in addition to the standard treatment described. In only one child, there was ankylosis of the hip and the end of treatment, the others having less sequelae of returning completely to normal. In one girl, osteoarticular tuberculosis was complicated by exsudative tuberculosis pericarditis.
In 2008, incidence of tuberculosis in Europe was 52.2 cases per 100,000 population, with lower rates in European Union (average 16.7 per 100.000) e and rates above 100 per 100.000 in the former Soviet Union. In Italy, incidence rates of tuberculosis have been fairly stable in the last two decades around 7 reported cases per 100.000 population. However, the epidemiological picture has clearly changed. Spread of HIV infection and immigration from high incidence countries had a major impact on epidemiological dynamics. In particular, the proportion of reported cases occurring among persons born in high incidence countries increase during the last decade, and it is now close to 50%. A similar trend has been observed in most Western European countries. Strategies for tuberculosis control should include: a general approach to tuberculosis which favor access to care and ensures rapid detection and treatment of all the cases; screening and provision of preventive treatment for contacts of contagious cases and for persons in other high risk groups. Upstream social determinants of tuberculosis need also to be addressed in order to move towards the goal of tuberculosis elimination.
Al-Otaibi, Fawzia; El Hazmi, Malak M
Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 248 (57.5%) extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA) (86.3%) and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA) 59 (13.7%). The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years). The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9%) compared to SA patients (55.1%). Females had higher proportion (59.5%) of EPTB than males (55.6%). The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%). In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB) control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.
Hijjar, Miguel Aiub; Gerhardt, Germano; Teixeira, Gilmário M; Procópio, Maria José
The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis), promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920), the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National Service of Tuberculosis - 1940), and the Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (National Campaign Against Tuberculosis - 1946), coordinated national policies such as chemotherapy, beginning with the discovery of streptomycin in 1944. The emergence of bacterial resistance led to the development of several therapeutic schemes. The Scheme 1 (rifampycin, hydrazide and pyrazinamid), which was the main one in 1979 and is still used nowadays, had a great epidemiological effect. The WHO declared TB a public health emergency in 1993. In response, Brazil developed some strategies; the first one was the Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (Emergency Plan for Tuberculosis Control - 1994), prioritizing 230 municipalities. The current prospects are an effective municipalization of actions and their greater integration with the Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família (Humanitarian Agents and Family Health Programs).
Şen, Velat; Selimoğlu Şen, Hadice; Aktar, Fesih; Uluca, Ünal; Karabel, Müsemma; Fuat Gürkan, Mehmet
Congenital tuberculosis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Congenital tuberculosis is considered the result of mother-to-child transmission from the placenta to the fetus, through the ingestion of the amniotic fluid, or via transplacental transmission through the umbilical vein. Given the non-specific clinical signs of tuberculosis, it is usually difficult to diagnose it. The case of a 48-day-old male infant hospitalized due to weight loss, fever, cough, hemoptysis, and respiratory distress for the past 20 days, is presented. In this period, he had received broad spectrum antibiotics but with no improvement. A chest x-ray showed the presence of consolidation and a cavitary lesion in the upper and middle left lung fields. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by polymerase chain reaction in a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Congenital tuberculosis was diagnosed based on this finding; hence, a tuberculostatic regimen was started accordingly. The patient died 13 days after treatment initiation. Congenital tuberculosis should be considered in infants with weight loss, fever, cough, hemoptysis and respiratory distress.
Chile's tuberculosis morbidity notification statistics suggest that there has been a 3% average annual decrease in tuberculosis cases in the last 5 years (1978-82). In addition, over the period 1974-83, there was a 50% decline in the number of deaths from tuberculosis. In 1982, there were 6941 recorded cases of tuberculosis in Chile, only 6.5% of which involved children under 15 years of age; in that same year, there were 984 deaths from tuberculosis, 14.4% of which occurred in children. The majority of cases reported (78%) involve pulmonary tuberculosis. Over 90% of children under 15 years of age are covered by Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. This was achieved by immunizing 91% of all newborns, 83% of children in their first year of school, and 98% of those in their final year. Laboratories capable of case-finding now cover 95% of Chile's total area. Since 1975, an average of 47 bacilloscopies have been performed per 1000 consultations. Abandonment of treatment has been reduced to 12% and fewer than 20% of cases require hospitalization. Finally, the introduction of shortened rifampicin treatment has reduced the case-fatality rate from 6% to 3%.
Cell-surface saccharides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear to be crucial factors in tuberculosis pathogenicity and could be useful antigens in tuberculosis immunodiagnosis. In the present study, we report the successful antigenic and immunogenic mimicry of mannose-containing cell-wall compounds of M. tuberculosis by dodecamer peptides identified by phage-display technology. Using a rabbit antiserum raised against M. tuberculosis cell-surface saccharides as a target for biopanning, peptides with three different consensus sequences were identified. Phage-displayed and chemically synthesized peptides bound to the anticarbohydrate antiserum. Rabbit antibodies elicited against the peptide QEPLMGTVPIRAGGGS recognize the mannosylated M. tuberculosis cell-wall antigens arabinomannan and lipoarabinomannan, and the glycosylated recombinant protein alanine/proline-rich antigen. Furthermore, antibodies were also able to react with mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not with phosphatidylinositol dimannosides or arabinogalactan from mycobacteria. These results suggest that the immunogenic peptide mimics oligomannosidic epitopes. Interestingly, this report provides evidence that, in contrast with previously known carbohydrate mimotopes, no aromatic residues are necessary in a peptide sequence for mimicking unusual glycoconjugates synthesized by mycobacteria. The possible usefulness of the identified peptide mimotopes as surrogate reagents for immunodiagnosis and for the study of functional roles of the native non-peptide epitopes is discussed. PMID:15560754
Elkington, Paul T; Friedland, Jon S
Tuberculosis remains a global health pandemic. The current depiction of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis life cycle proposes that airborne bacilli are inhaled and phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, resulting in the formation of a granuloma that ruptures into the airways to reinitiate the infectious cycle. However, this widely proposed model overlooks the fact, established 100 years ago, that the initial site of M tuberculosis implantation is in the lower zones of the lungs, whereas infectious cavitary pulmonary disease develops at the lung apices. The immunological events at these two pulmonary locations are different--cavitation only occurs in the apices and not in the bases. Yet the current conceptual model of tuberculosis renders the immunology of these two temporally and spatially separated events identical. One key consequence is that prevention of primary childhood tuberculosis at the lung bases is regarded as adequate immunological protection, but extensive evidence shows that greater immunity could predispose to immunopathology and transmission at the lung apex. A much greater understanding of time and place in the immunopathological mechanisms underlying human tuberculosis is needed before further pre-exposure vaccination trials can be done.
Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.
Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely “culprits” in its spread.
Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, is a classic model of the One Health Concept. M. bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) was first proven effective in cattle prior to use in humans. Recent experimental trials with cattle have d...
Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, is a classic model for demonstration of the One Health Concept. Early studies with cattle were instrumental in the development of the use of Koch’s tuberculin as an in vivo measure of cell-med...
Ueyama, Masako; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Murase, Yoshiro; Kuse, Naoyuki; Morimoto, Kozo; Okumura, Masao; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ogata, Hideo; Yoshimori, Kozo; Kudoh, Shoji; Azuma, Arata; Gemma, Akihiko; Mitarai, Satoshi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major causative agent of tuberculosis in humans. It is well known that Mycobacterium bovis and other species in the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) can cause respiratory diseases as zoonosis. We analyzed the MTC isolates collected from tuberculosis patients from Japan in 2002 using a multiplex PCR system that detected cfp32, RD9 and RD12. A total of 970 MTC isolates that were representative of the tuberculosis cases throughout Japan, were examined using this method. As a result, 966 (99.6%) M. tuberculosis, two Mycobacterium africanum and two Mycobacterium canettii were identified using a multiplex PCR system, while no M. bovis was detected. Two isolates that lacked RD9 were initially considered to be M. canettii, but further analysis of the hsp65 sequence revealed them to be M. tuberculosis. Also two M. africanum were identified as M. tuberculosis using the -215 narG nucleotide polymorphism. Though PCR-linked methods have been used for a rapid differentiation of MTC and NTM, from our cases we suggest careful interpretation of RD based identification.
Renoux, E; Matan, A Barreh; Sevre, J P; Mohamed Ali, I; Chami, D; Vincent, V
Based on analysis of data collected from the national tuberculosis prevention program in Djibouti between 1990 and 1996, the authors analyzed the relationship between HIV infection and tuberculosis. The study cohort comprised a total of 22,000 patients including 14,000 with documented HIV infection. Although HIV infection probably worsened the situation, it was neither the only nor the main factor involved in the resurgence of tuberculosis. Demographic growth, higher population density, and increasing poverty as well as the quality of the national tuberculosis prevention program must be taken into account. The incidence of smear-negative tuberculosis was not significantly higher in HIV-infected patients (incidence of smear positive cases, > 92%). Extrapulmonary tuberculosis especially of pleural involvement was more common (15% versus 9.4%). Treatment was effective in HIV-infected patients. If directly observed (DOT) therapy was used, there was no risk of emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains. Drug side-effects associated with the protocols used in Djibouti were not greater in HIV-infected patients. Most additional mortality observed in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients (10.5% versus 2%) was due to progression of HIV infection.
The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.
Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K
Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.
Cottrell, June, Ed.
This speech communication curriculum guide is designed to provide a comprehensive oral language curriculum, to suggest ways for integrating oral activities into other curriculum areas, and to stimulate ideas for using oral language in a holistic rather than a fragmentary learning environment. Following an introductory chapter on "creating the…
Moon, W. Jay
A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…
Rahim, Mohd Jazman Che; Ghazali, Wan Syamimee Wan
We report a case of a 19-year-old immunocompetent Malay woman who presented with a worsening psychotic disorder of 1-year duration. She initially presented with social isolation with subsequent mutism and stupor. Physical examination revealed a stuporous, emaciated, dehydrated woman with Glasgow Coma Scale of 11/15 (E4V2M5). She had a blank stare, mutism and akinesia. Motor examination revealed upper motor neuron findings. Neck stiffness was present, however, Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs were negative. There were no other findings on other systems. Brain imaging and EEG were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid investigations revealed positive cerebrospinal fluid Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR (MTB PCR). The patient was treated with empirical antituberculosis drugs and steroids. On follow-up visit 1 month later, her psychotic symptoms had fully resolved. She was able to ambulate and care for herself; she was unable to recall the symptoms she had experienced before and during admission.
Rasouli, Mohammad R; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions.
Orme, I M; McMurray, D N; Belisle, J T
Recent years have seen a renewed effort to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. As a result, several promising avenues of research have developed, including the production of recombinant vaccines, auxotrophic vaccines, DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines. In this article we briefly review this work, as well as consider the pros and cons of the animal models needed to test these new vaccines. Screening to date has been carried out in mouse and guinea pig models, which have been used to obtain basic information such as the effect of the vaccine on bacterial load, and whether the vaccine can prevent or reduce lung pathology. The results to date lead us to be optimistic that new candidate vaccines could soon be considered for evaluation in clinical trials.
DiNardo, Andrew R; Guy, Elizabeth
The incidence and death rates from tuberculosis (TB) have declined through concerted efforts in the diagnosis and treatment of active disease. Despite this, 9.6 million new cases and 1.1 million deaths in 2014 are unacceptably high. To decrease the rates of TB further, the huge number of persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) from whom new cases will arise has to be addressed with a sense of priority. Identifying the highest risk groups and providing effective treatment has been shown to decrease active TB. Further research to refine the predictors of reactivation and shorter effective treatments are urgently needed. Implementing intensified case finding, testing and treatment for LTBI will require continued investment in health care capacity at multiple levels.
Lall, Mahima; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Rajput, A K
Infection caused by the lung fluke is endemic in north eastern parts of India. Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus heterotremus are known to be endemic in eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland. The infection is related to eating habits of the locals and is acquired by ingestion of raw, inadequately cooked crabs or crayfish containing encysted metacercariae which act as second intermediate hosts during the life cycle of the lung fluke. Diagnosis is generally delayed due to lack of suspicion and presentation similar to tuberculosis which is endemic in the population. We report pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis in a soldier from eastern India who presented with chest pain, haemoptysis, and eosinophilia. He gave history of consumption of raw crabs while on leave at his native village in Nagaland. Ova morphologically resembling Paragonimus heterotremus were detected in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Symptoms resolved with praziquantel treatment. PMID:23432864
Padayatchi, Nesri; Naidu, Naressa; Friedland, Gerald; Naidoo, Kasavan; Conradie, Francesca; Naidoo, Kogieleum; O'Donnell, Max Roe
Despite affecting men, women, and children for millennia, tuberculosis (TB) is the most neglected disease. In contrast, the global response to HIV has reached a defining moment. By uniting efforts, promptly integrating major scientific findings for both treatment and prevention, and scaling up services, the once inconceivable end to the HIV epidemic may no longer be an illusion. "The world has made defeating AIDS a top priority. This is a blessing. But TB remains ignored" - Nelson Mandela. While there is no doubt that revolutionary diagnostics and new and repurposed drugs have provided some hope in the fight against TB, it is evident that scientific advances on their own are inadequate to achieve the World Health Organization's ambitious goal to end TB by 2035. In this article, the consequences of a myopic and conventional biomedical approach to TB, which has ultimately permeated to the level of individual patient care, are highlighted.
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Bajaj, Darshan K.; Verma, Ajay K.; Jaiswal, Riddhi; Kant, Surya; Patel, Anand; Asnani, Mona
Summary Tuberculosis is notorious that it affects various sites of the human body and presents in different ways. One of the uncommon or rather rare presentation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis is nasal tuberculosis. The nose apart from its physiological functions also contributes to facial aesthetics and gives a defined appearance and its deformity imparts cosmetic disfigurement and unsightly appearance. Both primary and secondary forms of nasal tuberculosis are rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative or crusting lesions of the nose. Here we report such a case of nasal tuberculosis, which presented as an ulcerative and crusting lesion over the tip of the nose in a female child. The patient was given antituberculous chemotherapy after establishing the diagnosis and responded well to treatment. PMID:27195200
Chopra, Dimple; Sharma, Aastha; Chopra, Siddharth; Aggarwal, Shivali; Goyal, Deepak
Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is an uncommon small subset of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, comprising 1–1.5% of all extrapulmonary tuberculosis manifestations, which manifests only in 8.4–13.7% of all tuberculosis cases. Lupus vulgaris (LV) and tuberculosis verrucosa cutis (TBVC) are forms of reinfection tuberculosis and often occur in presensitized patients, by exogenous inoculation. We report two cases of cutaneous tuberculosis at unusual sites. A 35-year-old female having a forehead lesion for 2 years was diagnosed as having tuberculosis verrucosa cutis and another 16-year-old girl with lesion in left axilla for 10 years was proven to have lupus vulgaris. The delayed diagnosis was possibly due to lower clinical suspicion due to the presentation of CTB at unusual sites. This highlights the importance of keeping TB as an important differential as misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of this entity can lead to prolonged morbidity. PMID:28348900
... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms & Risk Factors Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...
The Tuberculosis Surveillance Center (TSC) at the Research Institute of Tuberculosis has published a series of annual reports on tuberculosis (TB) statistics in Japan since 2008. These reports are based on information on the nationwide computerized TB surveillance system database, which has been in operation since 1987. This is the first of a new series of reports for the "TB Annual Report 2011" that includes a summary of TB statistics and an overview of TB cases with foreign nationality in 2011. A total of 22,681 cases with all types of TB were notified in 2011 with a notification rate of 17.7 per 100,000 population. The TB notification rates decreased to less than 20 per 100,000 population in 2007 and continued to decline until 2011. A total of 8,654 sputum-smear positive pulmonary TB were notified in 2011, at a rate of 6.8 per 100,000 population. The number of latent TB infection (LTBI) cases requiring prophylactic treatment drastically increased from 4,930 cases in 2010 to 10,046 cases in 2011. Surveillance data on TB cases with foreign nationality in Japan have been collected since 1998. The number of TB cases with foreign nationality increased from 739 in 1998 to 931 in 2004 but has been stagnated since then, that indicated 921 in 2011. The TB cases with foreign nationality accounted for 2.1 % of all new TB cases in 1998, and this percentage increased to 4.1% in 2011. Of note, new TB cases with foreign nationality aged 20-29 years accounted for 30.0% of all new TB cases among the same age group in 2011. Among the TB cases with foreign nationality, more than half were from China (29.6%) and the Philippines (23.7%) taken together. In most cases, foreign nationals developed TB within 5 years of entry into Japan, including 80.0% of those aged 10-19 years and 80.8% of those aged 20-29 years. Of these TB cases with foreign nationality, 27% were noted in full-time employees, followed by unemployed persons (21%) and students (20%). With an increase in the number of
Tuberculosis (TB) can involve any organ system in the body. Extrapulmonary involvement can occur in isolation or along with a pulmonary focus as in the case of patients with disseminated tuberculosis. Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. TBM a medical emergency, is still a major cause of serious illness in many parts of the world. TBM remains difficult to diagnose, and it is usually due to hematogenous dissemination of the tubercle bacillus. The exact incidence and prevalence are not known. The clinical spectrum is broad and may be non-specific making early diagnosis difficult. Improved outcome requires early recognition and treatment of these conditions. Clinical features included fever for more than 7 days, headache, or neck stiffness. While TBM is a disease of childhood, tuberculomas and spinal tuberculosis are invariably an adult manifestation. In HIV infection, TB is often atypical in presentation, frequently causing extrapulmonary disease, and patients have a high incidence of TBM. Clinical response to antituberculous therapy in all forms of neurotuberculosis is excellent if the diagnosis is made early before irreversible neurological deficit is established. Diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinical picture, neuroimaging abnormalities, cerebrospinal fluid changes and the response to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Diagnosis is best made with lumbar puncture and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Suspect TBM if there is a CSF leucocytosis (predominantly lymphocytes), the CSF protein is raised, and the CSF plasma glucose is <50%. Rapid techniques based on nucleic acid amplification such as PCR are more sensitive and specific as they attempt to detect specific DNA sequences of the organism. The hallmark pathological processes are meningeal inflammation, basal exudates, vasculitis and hydrocephalus. Treatment delay is strongly associated with death and empirical anti-tuberculosis therapy should be
Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R
Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.
Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.
Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944
Kolla, Gautham; Acharya, Vishak; Balanthimogru, Prashantha; Mani, Arun; Ruman, Shehzad
Haematological manifestations are one of the rarer presentations of tuberculosis and are usually of normocytic normochromic type. An association of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia (AIHA) with active pulmonary tuberculosis is an exceeding rare entity, though anaemia and tuberculosis commonly co-exist. We report a patient with sputum negative pulmonary tuberculosis with associated Coomb's positive AIHA. The patient responded well to Anti- Tubercular Therapy (ATT) and low dose steroids tapered over a month.
Acharya, Vishak; Balanthimogru, Prashantha; Mani, Arun; Ruman, Shehzad
Haematological manifestations are one of the rarer presentations of tuberculosis and are usually of normocytic normochromic type. An association of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia (AIHA) with active pulmonary tuberculosis is an exceeding rare entity, though anaemia and tuberculosis commonly co-exist. We report a patient with sputum negative pulmonary tuberculosis with associated Coomb’s positive AIHA. The patient responded well to Anti- Tubercular Therapy (ATT) and low dose steroids tapered over a month. PMID:27656489
After AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer worldwide due to a single infectious agent. Recently, drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis elicited even more severe versions of TB. Bedaquiline inhibits mycobacterial ATP synthase. It shows potent and selective activity in vitro against M. tuberculosis, and in vivo against murine models of TB. Bedaquiline can be combined with antituberculosis and antiretroviral agents. The product displays good oral absorption, has a long terminal half-life and is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 3A4. In a phase II clinical trial in patients with multidrug-resistant TB, bedaquiline (combined with the standard five-drug, second-line TB regimen), showed a time to 50% culture negative conversion of 78 days, with 81.0% and 52.4% efficacy at weeks 24 and 104, respectively. Bedaquiline was generally safe and well tolerated. At the end of 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved bedaquiline (Sirturo®) as part of a combination therapy to treat adults with multidrug-resistant TB.
Ashtekar, D R; Costa-Perira, R; Nagrajan, K; Vishvanathan, N; Bhatt, A D; Rittel, W
CGI 17341 (2-ethyl-5-nitro-2,3-dihydro[2-1b]imidazo-oxazole) is a novel orally active representative of the 5-nitroimidazole series of antimicrobial agents. At concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 micrograms/ml, CGI 17341 inhibited the drug-susceptible and multi-drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. CGI 17341 had no cross-resistance with isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, or ethambutol. While the in vitro activity of CGI 17341 against M. tuberculosis was comparable to those of isoniazid and rifampin, it was superior to those of streptomycin, ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin, and oxazolidinone DuP 721. The MIC of CGI 17341 was not affected when the pH of the medium was decreased from 6.8 to 5.6, while four- to sixfold increases in the MICs of ciprofloxacin and isoniazid were observed. In mice infected with M. tuberculosis, the 50% effective dose for CGI 17341 was 7.7 mg/kg of body weight (95% confidence limits, 3.5 and 10.27) when administered on days 11 and 12 postinfection. CGI 17341 gave a dose-dependent (r = 0.995) and significant increase in the survival time. Our data indicate that the 5-nitroimidazole CGI 17341 is a promising and novel antituberculosis compound with potent in vitro and in vivo activities. Further investigations on this compound are warranted. PMID:8452346
Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa
The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure.
Berta, Mariana; Sturm, Gabriela; Juri, Leticia; Cosiansi, Maria C; Barzón, Silvia; Barnes, Ana I; Rojo, Silvia C
Given the incidence of renal tuberculosis in patients suffering of pulmonary tuberculosis, we seek to study both the frequency of this association in diagnosed cases of renal tuberculosis and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species that were identified (period 1997-2009), observing its incidence by sex, demonstrating the importance of serial culture of urine samples and evaluating the convenience of using solid and liquid media. The analysis of urine samples from 383 patients indicated renal tuberculosis in 24 cases; in most cases, (95.8 %) Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species prevailed, whereas the presence of Mycobacterium bovis accounted for 4.2 % of the cases. The association of pulmonary and renal tuberculosis was found in 6 cases. The isolation of Mycobacterium bovis indicates the importance of including Stonebrink medium along with Lowenstein- Jensen medium. The liquid medium made no significant contribution to the diagnosis of renal tuberculosis, but indeed, cultivating serial samples increases sensitivity.
... Sites Podcasts QR Codes RSS Feeds Social Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing ... possible, and that people whose initial test is negative and who are at high risk for TB ...
Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide scourge and its incidence appears to be increasing due to various factors, such as the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The insidious onset and non-specific constitutional symptoms of genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) often lead to delayed diagnosis and rapid progression to a non-functioning kidney. Due to hematogenous dissemination of TB, there is a potential risk of involvement of the contralateral kidney too. Imaging plays an important role in the making of a timely diagnosis and in the planning of treatment, and thus helps to avoid complications such as renal failure. Imaging of GUTB still remains a challenge, mainly on account of the dearth of literature, especially related to the use of the newer modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This two-part article is a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging findings in renal TB. Various imaging features of GUTB are outlined, from the pathognomonic lobar calcification on plain film, to finer early changes such as loss of calyceal sharpness and papillary necrosis on intravenous urography (IVU); to uneven caliectasis and urothelial thickening, in the absence of renal pelvic dilatation, as well as the hitherto unreported ‘lobar caseation’ on ultrasonography (USG). Well-known complications of GUTB such as sinus tracts, fistulae and amyloidosis are described, along with the relatively less well-known complications such as tuberculous interstitial nephritis (TIN), which may remain hidden because of its ‘culture negative’ nature and thus lead to renal failure. The second part of the article reviews the computed tomography (CT) and MRI features of GUTB and touches upon future imaging techniques along with imaging of TB in transplant recipients and in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986618
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes agents such as M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, the cause of tuberculosis in most animals and a zoonotic pathogen. Mycobacterium bovis has one of the broadest host ranges of any pathogen, infecting most mammals, including humans. Models are used to study ...
MacLean, S; Kulkarni, S
Tuberculosis of bone is an uncommon entity in the western world. We present a case of tuberculosis of the patella mimicking prepatellar bursitis in an otherwise fit and well woman of Bangladeshi origin. We believe tuberculosis of bone should form a differential diagnosis of the swollen knee in high-risk patients.
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official tuberculosis tests. 77.34... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.34 Official tuberculosis tests. (a) Single cervical tuberculin (SCT) test. (1) The SCT...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official tuberculosis tests. 77.34... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.34 Official tuberculosis tests. (a) Single cervical tuberculin (SCT) test. (1) The SCT...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... (USDA) is currently developing proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB)...
... AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 [Docket No. 94-068-1] Tuberculosis in...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the tuberculosis regulations concerning.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Bovine tuberculosis is the contagious, infectious, and...
... Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Times and Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., October 6, 2004. 8... Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). Specifically, the Council...
... CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State Designation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the tuberculosis regulations concerning the...-18729, Docket No. 95-020-1), we amended the tuberculosis regulations in 9 CFR part 77 by removing...
... Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... following council meeting. Name: Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Times and... tuberculosis (TB). Specifically, the Council makes recommendations regarding policies, strategies,...
...] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State Designation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... change, an interim rule that amended the tuberculosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of... (59 FR 36691-36692, Docket No. 94-068-1), we amended the tuberculosis regulations in 9 CFR part 77...
... Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Times and Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., June 17, 2008. 8:30 a.m.-2... Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...
... Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Times and Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., July 26, 2006. 8:30... Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). Specifically, the Council...
...] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State Designation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the tuberculosis regulations... designation as a modified accredited State. This change is necessary to prevent the spread of tuberculosis...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Tuberculosis Elimination and Laboratory... Tuberculosis (TB) Elimination Cooperative Agreement Program is to assist the current efforts of State and local... in tuberculosis to State and local health agencies and other partners. Working with State and...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the tuberculosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of...) State. This change is necessary to prevent the spread of tuberculosis in cattle and bison....
... Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Times and Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., December 5, 2006; 8... the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). Specifically, the Council makes recommendations...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis; Amend the.... SUMMARY: We are proposing to amend the tuberculosis regulations by removing the two different definitions... Beals, National Tuberculosis Program Coordinator, Eradication and Surveillance Team, National Center...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Public Meetings; National Tuberculosis Program Listening... challenges and new approaches for future tuberculosis control methods and eradication in view of budgetary..., Program Manager, National Tuberculosis Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD,...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State... tuberculosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of cattle and bison by raising the designation of... tuberculosis regulations in 9 CFR part 77 by removing Oklahoma from the list of modified accredited States...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the tuberculosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of...-7727; or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Bovine tuberculosis...
... and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 [Docket No. 94-053-1] Tuberculosis in Cattle and... and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the tuberculosis regulations concerning the... accredited-free (suspended) State. This change is necessary to prevent the spread of tuberculosis in...
... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 Tuberculosis in Cattle; Import Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... horn growth that are entering the United States meet the same tuberculosis testing requirements as... CONTACT: Dr. Terry Beals, National Tuberculosis Program Coordinator, Eradication and Surveillance...
...] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State Designation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... change, an interim rule that amended the tuberculosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of... FR 29185-29186, Docket No. 94-047-1), we amended the tuberculosis regulations in 9 CFR part 77...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations regarding official tuberculosis tests for captive cervids to remove the CervidTB Stat- Pak as an official bovine tuberculosis test for the following...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State... tuberculosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of cattle and bison by raising the designation of... (60 FR 33100-33101, Docket No. 93-058-1), we amended the tuberculosis regulations in 9 CFR part 77...
... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...; to require certification regarding the tuberculosis history of the herds from which a group of cattle... necessary to help us better ensure that imported cattle are free of tuberculosis, thereby protecting...
... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 Cattle Exportations; Tuberculosis and Brucellosis Test... requirements for pre- export diagnostic tests for tuberculosis and brucellosis in certain cattle being exported... tuberculosis and brucellosis test requirements for slaughter cattle exported from States free of brucellosis...
... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 Cattle Exportations; Tuberculosis and Brucellosis Test... requirements for pre-export diagnostic tests for tuberculosis and brucellosis in certain cattle being exported... States free of brucellosis or tuberculosis and those exported to countries that have a...
... Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Times and Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., June 8, 2005., 8:30... Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). Specifically, the Council...
... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 Tuberculosis in Cattle; Import Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... entering the United States meet the same tuberculosis testing requirements as sexually intact animals... to tuberculosis, it will contract the disease, develop generalized disease, and spread it to...
... CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State Designation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the tuberculosis regulations concerning the... a modified accredited State. This change was necessary to prevent the spread of tuberculosis...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Community Preparation for Tuberculosis (TB..., , as amended. Purpose: The purpose of the program is for CDC to test new Tuberculosis (TB) vaccines... limited to, World Health Organization (WHO), International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 Tuberculosis in Cattle... heifers with any evidence of horn growth that are entering the United States meet the same tuberculosis... animal, the greater the chances are that, if exposed to tuberculosis, it will contract the...
... Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Times and Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., June 23, 2004. 8:30... the Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). Specifically, the Council...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 [Docket No. 94-047-1] Tuberculosis in Cattle and... and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the tuberculosis regulations concerning the... INFORMATION: Background Bovine tuberculosis is the contagious, infectious, and communicable disease caused...
... Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Times and Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., November 16, 2005... Secretary for Health, and the Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically,...
... CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State Designation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... tuberculosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of cattle and bison by raising the designation of...-1231, (301) 734-7727. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Bovine tuberculosis is the...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Georgia Tuberculosis Outbreak Among Homeless... Department of Public Health, Tuberculosis (TB) Program. This award will be in the amount of $419,095.00. The purpose of this award is to halt the further spread of a drug- resistant strain of tuberculosis...
... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State Designation AGENCY.... SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the tuberculosis...), we amended the tuberculosis regulations in 9 CFR part 77 by removing Virginia from the list...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations to allow zones within a State to be... bovine tuberculosis. We are also amending the regulations to increase the amount of testing that must...
... Tuberculosis In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET). Times and Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., February 15, 2006... elimination of tuberculosis (TB). Specifically, the council makes recommendations regarding...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State... because of tuberculosis by raising the designation of Kansas from a modified accredited State to an...-1231, (301) 734-7727. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The ``Tuberculosis'' regulations,...
.... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule; revocation. SUMMARY: OSHA is revoking ``Respiratory Protection for M. Tuberculosis'' (29 CFR 1910.139) which... Protection for M. tuberculosis''. However, in a document published elsewhere in this separate part of...
... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis; Amend the Definition of Affected Herd AGENCY... INFORMATION: Background The regulations in 9 CFR part 77, ``Tuberculosis'' (referred to below as the regulations), and the ``Uniform Methods and Rules--Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication'' (UMR), January 22,...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State... tuberculosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of cattle and bison by raising the designation of...-093-1), we amended the tuberculosis regulations in 9 CFR part 77 by removing Wisconsin from the...
... provider of tuberculosis services; and (3) Will implement infection control procedures established by the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis....
... provider of tuberculosis services; and (3) Will implement infection control procedures established by the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis....
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in... comments. SUMMARY: We are adding the CervidTB Stat-Pak and DPP tests as official tuberculosis tests for the... of antibodies to bovine tuberculosis in certain species of captive cervids. This action is...
... provider of tuberculosis services; and (3) Will implement infection control procedures established by the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis....
1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0149 TITLE: Real Time Measurement of Host Bioenergetics During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection ... Tuberculosis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Infection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0149 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...resistant state, sometimes reactivating to cause tuberculosis (TB) decades after the primary infection , has puzzled scientists for years. This
... provider of tuberculosis services; and (3) Will implement infection control procedures established by the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis....
... provider of tuberculosis services; and (3) Will implement infection control procedures established by the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis....
Simpson, Gary; Zimmerman, Ralph; Shashkina, Elena; Chen, Liang; Richard, Michael; Bradford, Carol M.; Dragoo, Gwen A.; Saiers, Rhonda L.; Peloquin, Charles A.; Daley, Charles L.; Planet, Paul; Narachenia, Apurva; Mathema, Barun
Although awareness of tuberculosis among captive elephants is increasing, antituberculosis therapy for these animals is not standardized. We describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between captive elephants based on whole genome analysis and report a successful combination treatment. Infection control protocols and careful monitoring of treatment of captive elephants with tuberculosis are warranted. PMID:28221115
Lenaerts, Anne J; Gruppo, Veronica; Marietta, Karen S; Johnson, Christine M; Driscoll, Diane K; Tompkins, Nicholas M; Rose, Jerry D; Reynolds, Robert C; Orme, Ian M
This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of the nitroimidazopyran PA-824 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PA-824 was tested in vitro against a broad panel of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates and was found to be highly active against all isolates (MIC<1 microg/ml). The activity of PA-824 against M. tuberculosis was also assessed grown under conditions of oxygen depletion. PA-824 showed significant activity at 2, 10, and 50 microg/ml, similar to that of metronidazole, in a dose-dependent manner. In a short-course mouse infection model, the efficacy of PA-824 at 50, 100, and 300 mg/kg of body weight formulated in methylcellulose or cyclodextrin/lecithin after nine oral treatments was compared with those of isoniazid, rifampin, and moxifloxacin. PA-824 at 100 mg/kg in cyclodextrin/lecithin was as active as moxifloxacin at 100 mg/kg and isoniazid at 25 mg/kg and was slightly more active than rifampin at 20 mg/kg. Long-term treatment with PA-824 at 100 mg/kg in cyclodextrin/lecithin reduced the bacterial load below 500 CFU in the lungs and spleen. No significant differences in activity between PA-824 and the other single drug treatments tested (isoniazid at 25 mg/kg, rifampin at 10 mg/kg, gatifloxacin at 100 mg/kg, and moxifloxacin at 100 mg/kg) could be observed. In summary, its good activity in in vivo models, as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes PA-824 an attractive drug candidate for the therapy of tuberculosis. These data indicate that there is significant potential for effective oral delivery of PA-824 for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Rahman, Md Aejazur; Sobia, Parveen; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Bhawsar, Aakansha; Singh, Dhiraj Kumar; Sharma, Pawan; Moodley, Prashini; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an ancient pathogen and a major cause of death worldwide. Although various virulence factors of M. tuberculosis have been identified, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. TlyA is a virulence factor in several bacterial infections and is evolutionarily conserved in many Gram-positive bacteria, but its function in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we report that TlyA significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. We show that a TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis strain induces increased IL-12 and reduced IL-1β and IL-10 cytokine responses, which sharply contrasts with the immune responses induced by wild type M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, compared with wild type M. tuberculosis, TlyA-deficient M. tuberculosis bacteria are more susceptible to autophagy in macrophages. Consequently, animals infected with the TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis organisms exhibited increased host-protective immune responses, reduced bacillary load, and increased survival compared with animals infected with wild type M. tuberculosis. Thus, M. tuberculosis employs TlyA as a host evasion factor, thereby contributing to its virulence.
Mazhar, Humaira; Muhammad, Niaz; Abbas, Muhammad Nasser
Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) that causes tuberculosis (TB) kills millions of infected people annually especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). On infection, macrophages recognize the mycobacteria by toll-like receptor (TLR) followed by phagocytosis and control of mycobacteria. In addition, macrophages also secrete IL-12 to induce IFN-γ production by T, which, in turn, increases the phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Individuals with defects in innate or adaptive immunity exhibit increased susceptibility to M. tuberculosis. Understanding these immunologic mechanisms will help in TB control. We aimed to investigate the immunopathologic mechanisms in MDR-TB and role of recombinant human interferon-gamma (rhIFN-γ). Study Design and Methods. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MDR-TB patients and healthy subjects and were investigated for immunologic response by ELISA and flow cytometry. Results. Different functional and molecular anomalies were observed in macrophages. In addition, a defective immune response to M. tuberculosis from the patient's MDMs was characterized, which in turn improved by pretreatment with rhIFN-γ. Conclusion. This work highlights the fact that rhIFN-γ improves macrophages function against M. tuberculosis and treatment of patients with poor responsiveness to TB therapy may be needed in future to include IFN-γ as adjuvant therapy after the full characterization of pathological and molecular mechanisms in these and in other more multidrug-resistant TB patients. PMID:27478636
Hall, Lindsay J.; Clare, Simon; Pickard, Derek; Clark, Simon O.; Kelly, Dominic L.F.; Ghany, Moataz Abd El; Hale, Christine; Dietrich, Jes; Andersen, Peter; Marsh, Philip D.; Dougan, Gordon
A recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) vaccine strain was constructed that stably expressed the Mycobacterium tuberculosis fusion antigen Ag85B–ESAT6 from the chromosome. Live oral vaccination of mice with the Salmonella/Ag85B–ESAT6 strain generated a potent anti-Ag85B–ESAT6 TH1 response with high antibody titres with a IgG2a-bias and significant IFN-γ production lasting over a 120-day period. When mice primed with the Salmonella/Ag85B–ESAT6 vaccine were mucosally boosted with the Ag85B–ESAT6 antigen and adjuvant the IFN-γ responses increased markedly. To determine the protective efficacy of this vaccine strain, guinea pigs were immunised and followed for a 30-week period after aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis. The heterologous prime-boost strategy of live Salmonella vaccine followed by a systemic boost of antigen and adjuvant reduced the levels of M. tuberculosis bacteria in the lungs and spleen to the same extent as BCG. Additionally, this vaccination regimen was observed to be statistically equivalent in terms of protection to immunisation with BCG. Thus, live oral priming with the recombinant Salmonella/Ag85B–ESAT6 and boosting with Ag85B–ESAT6 plus the adjuvant LTK63 represents an effective mucosal vaccination regimen. PMID:19755145
Ramos, Eric; Schumacher, Samuel G.; Siedner, Mark; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Alvarado, Jessica; Montoya, Rosario; Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Sherman, Jonathan M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.
Optimal tuberculosis testing usually involves sputum centrifugation followed by broth culture. However, centrifuges are biohazardous and scarce in the resource-limited settings where most tuberculosis occurs. To optimize tuberculosis testing for these settings, centrifugation of 111 decontaminated sputum samples was compared with syringe-aspiration through polycarbonate membrane-filters that were then cultured in broth. To reduce the workload of repeated microscopic screening of broth cultures for tuberculosis growth, the colorimetric redox indicator 2,3-diphenyl-5-(2-thienyl) tetrazolium chloride was added to the broth, which enabled naked-eye detection of culture positivity. This combination of filtration and colorimetric growth-detection gave similar results to sputum centrifugation followed by culture microscopy regarding mean colony counts (43 versus 48; P = 0.6), contamination rates (0.9% versus 1.8%; P = 0.3), and sensitivity (94% versus 95%; P = 0.7), suggesting equivalency of the two methods. By obviating centrifugation and repeated microscopic screening of cultures, this approach may constitute a more appropriate technology for rapid and sensitive tuberculosis diagnosis in basic laboratories. PMID:20889887
Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos
An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs. PMID:23339199
Altaf Mir, Mohd; Ahmad, Imran; Yaseen, Mihd
The musculoskeletal extrapulmonary tuberculosis is uncommon, the upper extremity tuberculosis is not common and the mycobacterial involvement of skin of hands and synovial sheath of tendons is rare. This prospective observational study was undertaken between August 2014 and December 2015 in a tertiary referral hospital. Patients attending with suspected primary tuberculosis of soft tissue of the hand were included. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the hand, wrist and lung and MRI were undertaken. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was made based on histology, and positive culture for Mycobacterium. Split thickness skin grafting was done after excision of tubercular cutaneous ulcers of hand. Postoperatively patients were treated with home based anti-tubercular chemotherapy. Lesions of synovial sheath of tendons were excised. Splints or plaster slabs were used in all patients. There were 3 males and 2 females with a mean age of 44.75±6.61 years (19-48 years). Based on clinical suspicion, plain radiographs and MRI, there were 3 patients with involvement of synovial sheath of tendons and 2 patients with involvement of skin of hand. Tuberculosis was confirmed histologically and Mycobacterium bovis was confirmed microbiologically. The delayed diagnosis is often due to slow progression and numerous differential diagnoses, which often leads to complications. Early radical excision of the infected tissues combined with anti- tubercular multidrug therapy gives good functional results and prevents recurrence. PMID:27853698
Bello, A K; Njoku, C H; Njoku, A K
Among communicable diseases, tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death worldwide, killing nearly 2 million people each year. It is estimated that about one-third of the world population are infected with TB (2 billion people) and about 10% of this figure will progress to disease state. Most cases are in the less-developed countries of the world. Tuberculosis incidence has been on the increase in Africa, mainly as a result of the burden of HIV infection. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis remains based on culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but rapid diagnosis of infectious tuberculosis by simple sputum smear for acid fast bacilli remains an important tool, as more rapid molecular techniques are being developed. Treatment with several drugs for 6 months or more can cure more than 95% of patients. Direct observation of treatment, a component of the recommended five-element DOTS strategy, is judged to be the standard of care by most authorities. Currently only a third of cases worldwide are treated using this approach. There may be need to modify the treatment modalities especially with the choice of drugs and duration of therapy when TB infection occurs in special situation like pregnancy, liver disease, renal failure or even in coexistence with HlV/AIDS or the drug resistant state.
Vijay, Vipul; Sud, Alok; Mehtani, Anil
Tuberculosis, or phthisis (consumption) as it was popularly known in the Greek era, has been endemic in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa; however, the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic has seen the re-emergence of this disease in the areas in which it was not very commonly reported. With this, the need for understanding and treatment of rare presentations of tuberculosis has become of paramount importance to achieve the World Health Organization millennium goal of a "reversal of incidence by 2015." Foot involvement has been reported in 0.1% to 0.3% of extrapulmonary cases. Multifocal lesions have an incidence of <10% in osteoarticular tuberculosis. Bilateral feet involvement in multifocal tuberculosis has not yet been reported in either children or adults in published studies. We report a case of tuberculosis with lesions in the bilateral metatarsals, the occurrence of which is very rare. The diagnosis was mainly histopathologic owing to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. Early identification and treatment with antitubercular drugs will normally result in a good cosmetic and functional result.
Rawal, Tejal; Butani, Shital
After 50 years drought, several drugs are looming from the pipeline to combat tuberculosis. They will serve as a boon to the field that has been burdened with primitive, inadequate treatments and drug-resistant bacterial strains. From the decades, due to lack of interest and resources, the field has suffered a lot. Learning from the flaws, scientists have renovated their approaches to the finding of new antitubercular drugs. The first line drugs take about six months or more for the entire treatment. The second line remedy for resistant-tuberculosis requires daily injections which carry severe side effects. Drug resistance remains a constant menace because patients stop the medication once they start feeling better. So new drugs are required to be explored which are effective against tuberculosis especially drug resistant tuberculosis. These drugs need to work well with other drugs as well as with antivirals used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus. It is also very important to be considered that the treatments need to be cheap, as tuberculosis primarily affects people more in the developing countries. Further, new drugs must cure the disease in short span of time than the current six to nine month regimen. Recently a few new and potent drugs such as bedaquiline, delamanid, teixobactin have been evolved which may serve as a nice step forward, with a better outcome. Teixobactin, a new antibiotic has been found to have promising action against resistant strains, is also under consideration. PMID:27168676
Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David
Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice.
Bento, Carla F; Empadinhas, Nuno; Mendes, Vítor
Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the world's deadliest diseases that has afflicted humanity since ancient times. Although the number of people falling ill with TB each year is declining, its incidence in many developing countries is still a major cause of concern. Upon invading host cells by phagocytosis, M. tuberculosis can replicate within infected cells by arresting the maturation of the phagosome whose function is to target the pathogen for elimination. Host cells have mechanisms of controlling this evasion by inducing autophagy, an elaborate cellular process that targets bacteria for progressive elimination, decreasing bacterial loads within infected cells. In addition, autophagy activation also aids in the control of inflammation, contributing to a more efficient innate immune response against M. tuberculosis. Several innovative TB therapies have been envisaged based on autophagy manipulation, with some of them revealing high potential for future clinical trials and eventual implementation in healthcare systems. Thus, this review highlights the recent advances on the innate immune response regulation by autophagy upon M. tuberculosis infection and the promising new autophagy-based therapies for TB.
Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos
An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs.
Slim-Saidi, L; Mehiri-Zeghal, E; Ghariani, A; Tritar, F
Bacteriological diagnosis of tuberculosis has benefited in recent years from many technological advances to improve rapidity and sensitivity of the techniques. Thus, new LED fluorescence microscopes are in the process of replacing the optical microscopes and the Ziehl-Neelsen technique, making the examination more precise, faster and easier. The manual and automatic liquid culture has improved Lowenstein-Jensen culture and helped shorten antibiotic sensitivity test, allowing appropriate management of patients. The development and standardization of molecular biology methods led to the rapid detection and identification of mycobacterium directly in clinical samples but also of resistance genes for early diagnosis of MDR-TB and dealing with them quickly. However, the performance of these techniques does not sufficiently cover the diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis, extrapulmonary forms, children- and immune-compromised tuberculosis where sensitivity is limited. The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis is reinforced by the in vitro release testing of gamma interferon overcoming the lack of specificity of the tuberculin skin test. Despite considerable progress, more amelioration is still needed to improve these techniques in order to extend them to the paucibacillary tuberculosis and to facilitate their access to low-resource countries.
Tritar, F; Daghfous, H; Ben Saad, S; Slim-Saidi, L
The emergence of drug-resistant TB in many countries has become a major public health problem and an obstacle to effective tuberculosis control. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is most often the result of poor adherence, is a particularly dangerous form of tuberculosis because it is caused by bacilli resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective anti-tuberculosis drugs. Techniques for rapid diagnosis of resistance have greatly improved the care of patients by allowing early treatment which remains complex and costly establishment, and requires skills and resources. The treatment is not standardized but it includes in all cases attack phase with five drugs (there must be an injectable agent and a fluoroquinolone that form the basis of the regimen) for eight months and a maintenance phase (without injectable agent) with a total duration of 20 months on average. Surgery may be beneficial as long as the lesions are localized and the patient has a good cardiorespiratory function. Evolution of MDR-TB treated is less favorable than tuberculosis with germ sensitive. The cure rate varies from 60 to 75% for MDR-TB, and drops to 30 to 40% for XDR-TB. Mortality remains high, ranging from 20 to 40% even up to 70-90% in people co-infected with HIV.
Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad
Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA) test. Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence rate of 2.6%). The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis. PMID:23795272
Bento, Carla F.; Empadinhas, Nuno
Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the world's deadliest diseases that has afflicted humanity since ancient times. Although the number of people falling ill with TB each year is declining, its incidence in many developing countries is still a major cause of concern. Upon invading host cells by phagocytosis, M. tuberculosis can replicate within infected cells by arresting the maturation of the phagosome whose function is to target the pathogen for elimination. Host cells have mechanisms of controlling this evasion by inducing autophagy, an elaborate cellular process that targets bacteria for progressive elimination, decreasing bacterial loads within infected cells. In addition, autophagy activation also aids in the control of inflammation, contributing to a more efficient innate immune response against M. tuberculosis. Several innovative TB therapies have been envisaged based on autophagy manipulation, with some of them revealing high potential for future clinical trials and eventual implementation in healthcare systems. Thus, this review highlights the recent advances on the innate immune response regulation by autophagy upon M. tuberculosis infection and the promising new autophagy-based therapies for TB. PMID:25607549
Pollock, Katrina M.; Whitworth, Hilary S.; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J.; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S.; Kapembwa, Moses S.; Kon, Onn M.; Sampson, Robert D.; Taylor, Graham P.; Lalvani, Ajit
Background. Changes in the phenotype and function of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to stage of infection may allow discrimination between active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. Methods. A prospective comparison of M. tuberculosis-specific cellular immunity in subjects with active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subset phenotype and secretion of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Results. Frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ cells secreting IFN-γ-only, TNF-α-only and dual IFN-γ/TNF-α were greater in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection. All M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ subsets, with the exception of IL-2-only cells, switched from central to effector memory phenotype in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection, accompanied by a reduction in IL-7 receptor α (CD127) expression. The frequency of PPD-specific CD4+ TNF-α-only-secreting T cells with an effector phenotype accurately distinguished active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection with an area under the curve of 0.99, substantially more discriminatory than measurement of function alone. Conclusions. Combined measurement of T-cell phenotype and function defines a highly discriminatory biomarker of tuberculosis disease activity. Unlocking the diagnostic and monitoring potential of this combined approach now requires validation in large-scale prospective studies. PMID:23966657
Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Fielding, Katherine L.; Malden, Justin L.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.; Charalambous, Salome
Background Tuberculosis is a major health concern in prisons, particularly where HIV prevalence is high. Our objective was to determine the undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (“undiagnosed tuberculosis”) prevalence in a representative sample of prisoners in a South African prison. In addition we investigated risk factors for undiagnosed tuberculosis, to explore if screening strategies could be targeted to high risk groups, and, the performance of screening tools for tuberculosis. Methods and Findings In this cross-sectional survey, male prisoners were screened for tuberculosis using symptoms, chest radiograph (CXR) and two spot sputum specimens for microscopy and culture. Anonymised HIV antibody testing was performed on urine specimens. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of symptoms and investigations were calculated, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated on sputum culture as the gold standard. From September 2009 to October 2010, 1046 male prisoners were offered enrolment to the study. A total of 981 (93.8%) consented (median age was 32 years; interquartile range [IQR] 27–37 years) and were screened for tuberculosis. Among 968 not taking tuberculosis treatment and with sputum culture results, 34 (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4–4.9%) were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HIV prevalence was 25.3% (242/957; 95% CI 22.6–28.2%). Positive HIV status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–4.2) and being an ex-smoker (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2–5.9) were independently associated with undiagnosed tuberculosis. Compared to the gold standard of positive sputum culture, cough of any duration had a sensitivity of 35.3% and specificity of 79.6%. CXR was the most sensitive single screening modality (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 92.2%). Adding CXR to cough of any duration gave a tool with sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 73.8%. Conclusions Undiagnosed tuberculosis and HIV prevalence was high in this prison
David, S; Sutre, A F; Sanca, A; Mané, A; Henriques, V; Portugal, C; Sancho, L; Cardoso, A; Paixão, E; Duarte, E L; Leite, C Q F; Salem, J I; Antunes, A
The diagnosis of tuberculosis is seriously hampered in the absence of standard biosafety laboratory facilities for specimen concentration and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. Within a laboratory twinning arrangement, heat-fixed direct smear and sediment from 74 bleach-processed and 20 non-processed specimens from Cumura Hospital, Guinea-Bissau, were sent to Lisbon for molecular evaluation of rifampicin resistance. Sequence analysis of a 369 base-pair rpoB locus detected 3.2% (3/94) resistant specimens. To our knowledge, this represents the first report on the molecular analysis of M. tuberculosis from bleach-processed sputum, an alternative to current diagnostic practice in low-resource settings.
van Helden, Paul D.; Wilson, Douglas; Colijn, Caroline; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Warren, Robin M.
Summary: Numerous studies have reported that individuals can simultaneously harbor multiple distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To date, there has been limited discussion of the consequences for the individual or the epidemiological importance of mixed infections. Here, we review studies that documented mixed infections, highlight challenges associated with the detection of mixed infections, and discuss possible implications of mixed infections for the diagnosis and treatment of patients and for the community impact of tuberculosis control strategies. We conclude by highlighting questions that should be resolved in order to improve our understanding of the importance of mixed-strain M. tuberculosis infections. PMID:23034327
Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Patel, Nikhil D; Amarapurkar, Anjali D
Background Gastric tuberculosis is rare, and usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis or an immunodeficient state. Here, we report five cases of gastric tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients without evidence of pulmonary involvement. Case presentation Three patients presented with gastric outlet obstruction that required surgery to relieve the obstruction as well as to confirm the diagnosis. The remaining two had involvement of gastroesophageal junction. All of them responded well to standard antitubercular treatment. Conclusion Though gastric tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered a possibility when patients present with gastric outlet obstruction or with endoscopic evidence of diffuse chronic inflammatory activity, particularly in areas endemic for tuberculosis. PMID:12703983
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly efficient pathogen, killing millions of infected people annually. The capacity of M. tuberculosis to survive and cause disease is strongly correlated to their ability to escape immune defense mechanisms. In particular, M. tuberculosis has the remarkable capacity to survive within the hostile environment of the macrophage. Understanding M. tuberculosis virulence strategies will not only define novel targets for drug development but will also help to uncover previously unknown signaling pathways related to the host's response to M. tuberculosis infection.
Tuberculosis is the chronic consumptive disease and currently the world's leading cause of death. Tuberculous spondylitis is a less common yet the most dangerous form of skeletal tuberculosis. The recent re-emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) hints at a possible resurgence of tuberculosis in the coming years. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculous spondylitis, and updates material that the author has previously published on the subject. Treatment should be individualized according to different indications which is essential to recovery. A treatment model is suggested on the basis of the author's vast personal experiences. PMID:24596613
Amedia, C; Oettinger, C W
Four patients developed miliary tuberculosis while undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Two patients had diabetes mellitus. Three of the four patients were hemodialyzed 18--24 months prior to the onset of symptoms. Signs and symptoms included prolonged fever, pleural effusion, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, abdominal pain, weight loss, and ascites. All patients were PPD negative and without historical or radiographic evidence of latent tuberculosis. Disseminated tuberculosis was proven at autopsy in three patients. M. tuberculosis was eventually recovered from pleural fluid and urine in the fourth patient. The immune deficiencies of chronic renal failure and diabetes mellitus are suspected predisposing factors to the development of miliary tuberculosis in these patients.
Hühns, Maja; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Obliers, Annette; Röpenack, Paula
University anatomical-pathological collections represent huge sources of human tissues and preparations from a variety of different diseases. With the help of modern genetic and histological methods, preserved fixed tissues from pathological collections can be used to re-evaluate former diagnoses. We analysed 25 specimens from our pathological collection with ages ranging from 78 to 112 years. The tissues originated from the oral cavity, lip, tongue, lung, bone, kidney, spleen, thymus, larynx, lymph node, penis and uterine cervix with an original diagnosis of epithelial cancers or tuberculosis. Amplifiable DNA was extracted and in epithelial cancers, potential HPV infection was investigated. Specimens with an original diagnosis of tuberculosis were examined for mycobacterial infection. The tissues were also examined using modern histological methods. Our data showed that in 24/25 specimens the histological structure was preserved and in 10/11 specimens the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma could be confirmed. Additionally, HPV type 16 was detected in 8 specimens. The histological pattern of tuberculosis was found in 11/14 specimens and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was ascertained in four specimens. Our study showed that pathogens such as HPV or Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be detected in historical pathological preparations, and that these collections are suitable for further epidemiological research. PMID:28114406
PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky
Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585
Mayer-Barber, Katrin D.; Sher, Alan
Summary A major approach for immunologic intervention in tuberculosis involves redirecting the outcome of the host immune response from the induction of disease to pathogen control. Cytokines and lipid mediators known as eicosanoids play key roles in regulating this balance and as such represent important targets for immunologic intervention. While the evidence for cytokine/eicosanoid function derives largely from the investigation of murine and zebra fish experimental infection models, clinical studies have confirmed the existence of many of the same pathways in tuberculosis patients. Here we summarize new data that reveal important intersections between the cytokine and eicosanoid networks in the host response to mycobacteria and discuss how targeting this crosstalk can promote resistance to lethal Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. This approach could lead to new host-directed therapies to be used either as an adjunct for improving the efficacy of standard antibiotic treatment or for the management of drug-resistant infections. PMID:25703565
Sen, Tiyas; Joshi, Shashank R; Udwadia, Zarir F
The link between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has occupied the center stage of discussion. Experts have raised concern about the merging epidemics of tuberculosis and diabetes particularly in the low to medium income countries like India and China that have the highest burden of TB in the world, and are experiencing the fastest increase in the prevalence of DM. There is good evidence that DM makes a substantial contribution to TB incidence. The huge prevalence of DM in India, may be contributing to the increasing prevalence of TB. This review looks at the link between these two merging epidemics. We discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, microbiology and radiology, and management and treatment outcomes of patients with tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus.
Foley, M E; Ehr, A P; Raza, B; Devlin, C J
Tuberculosis, a chronic communicable bacterial infection of epidemic proportions in the United States, is more common among debilitated and immunocompromised persons, for example, alcoholics, drug abusers, and HIV/AIDS patients, than among the general population. Daytop Village Inc., a drug free therapeutic community for chemical dependency treatment, initiated a program of tuberculosis (TB) surveillance and prevention education with grant support. Continuous educational sessions for staff and residents have raised awareness of the threat of TB. From March 1991 until September 1992, 2,932 clients screened for TB found 272 (9.2%) PPD positive. Of these 272, 125 also tested for HIV found 28 (22.4%) HIV positive. The TB screening program had no negative impact on the retention rate of Daytop residents. With sufficient fiscal and personnel support, tuberculosis education, screening, and treatment has been naturally integrated into the primary care agenda within the therapeutic community model of drug abuse rehabilitation.
New effective drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are necessary for two main reasons: firstly, it would be desirable to reduce the duration of TB treatment from 6 to 4 months and secondly, new drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For the first time since 1960 the two new drugs bedaquiline and delamanid were approved and licensed in 2014 for the treatment of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis; however, efforts to reduce the duration of treatment to 4 months using fluoroquinolones have not been successful. Further new drugs are currently in phase 2 and phase 3 studies; therefore, new treatment options can be expected within the next few years.
Weil, D E
In developing nations, diverse health reform programs are affecting the design, financing and delivery of health care services as well as public health practice. This paper summarizes the characteristics of major reform strategies seeking to improve efficiency, equity and quality. Opportunities and risks for tuberculosis control are identified, as are responses in managing the reform transition. Recommendations are provided to advance tuberculosis control in this dynamic environment. These include participation in the planning process; demonstration of synergy between reform objectives and tuberculosis control; articulation of core functions to be protected; technical, managerial and leadership capacity-building; documentation of effects and best practices; and collaboration with those pursuing other public health priorities and reform analysis.
Goyal, P; Mittal, D; Ghosh, S; Agrawal, D; Sehgal, S; Singh, S
Primary thyroid tuberculosis is an extremely rare disease, even in countries where other forms of tuberculosis are abundant. TT has no age bar but usually affects women in fourth and fifth decade. Hereby, we report a case of 16-years-old girl presented with complaint of progressively increasing, painful thyroid swelling. Diagnosis of TT was made on cytology and there was no evidence of involvement of any other organ by tuberculosis. Despite of its rarity, TT is usually misdiagnosed. So, a clinician should always consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology is the best diagnostic method and can result in the avoidance of unnecessary thyroid surgeries.
Ishibatake, H; Onizuka, R
We experienced small outbreaks of M. tuberculosis infection in two bars. 9 patients were diagnosed as tuberculosis by identifying M. tuberculosis from their sputa. Six of them were regular customers or employees of the bar, one of them was a family members. Each outbreak within the two bars was suspected of the common source of infection, because one patient was a regular customer of the both bars. The analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was done on 5 strains of M. tuberculosis which were isolated from five of 9 patients. The result unexpectedly showed that 5 isolates were classified into 3 groups. Within each group, identical fingerprints were shown. It does mean that each outbreak in two bars was originated from independent source. There was also one relapsed case of tuberculosis. He was suspected of relapsed tuberculosis after a period of 7 years because of the similarity of drug resistance compared with his primary tuberculosis. It was cleared up that 3 different strains of M. tuberculosis were concerned with these outbreaks in the two bars. In this case, almost all patients were heavy drinkers, however, liver dysfunction and malnutrition were not recognized among them. These experiences indicate that a place like bar may be a space of infection of M. tuberculosis. We should always keep in mind a spread of tuberculosis in a place like a bar as one of problems in tuberculosis control.
... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence...
... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence...
... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence...
...-AD65 Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis; Update of General Provisions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... tuberculosis and those governing brucellosis and revise the bovine tuberculosis- and brucellosis-related import... bovine tuberculosis and those governing brucellosis, as well as to revise the bovine tuberculosis-...
Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul
The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives.
Jenkins, Helen E.
In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) to be responsible for more deaths than any other single infectious disease. The burden of TB among children has frequently been dismissed as relatively low with resulting deaths contributing very little to global under-five all-cause mortality, although without rigorous estimates of these statistics, the burden of childhood TB was, in reality, unknown. Recent work in the area has resulted in a WHO estimate of 1 million new cases of childhood TB in 2014 resulting in 136,000 deaths. Around 3% of these cases likely have multidrug-resistant TB and at least 40,000 are in HIV-infected children. TB is now thought to be a major or contributory cause of many deaths in children under five years old, despite not being recorded as such, and is likely in the top ten causes of global mortality in this age group. In particular, recent work has shown that TB is an under-lying cause of a substantial proportion of pneumonia deaths in TB-endemic countries. Childhood TB should be given higher priority: we need to identify children at greatest risk of TB disease and death and make more use of tools such as active case-finding and preventive therapy. TB is a preventable and treatable disease from which no child should die. PMID:28003956
Schwartz, Nadav; Wagner, Sarah A; Keeler, Sean M; Mierlak, Julian; Seubert, David E; Caughey, Aaron B
We reviewed our practice of universal tuberculosis (TB) screening in an at-risk pregnant population with regards to utility and patient compliance. The Gouverneur Healthcare Services prenatal database was analyzed for compliance with TB screening. Age, ethnicity, country of origin, and education level were also analyzed. Of 4049 patients, 95.0% were compliant with their purified protein derivative (PPD) testing. Universal screening identified 1935 (50.4%) PPD+ patients, with chest X-rays (CXR) available for 95.1%. Only one patient had a CXR consistent with active TB, although sputum testing was negative for acid-fast bacilli. Asian women were more likely to be PPD-compliant (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.34 to 10.45). Similarly, PPD+ Asian women were more likely to be compliant with CXR (aOR: 12.67, 95% CI: 3.44 to 46.7). U.S.-born women were significantly less likely to be compliant with PPD (aOR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.64) or with CXR (aOR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.61). Universal prenatal TB screening is associated with excellent compliance rates and is an effective way to identify a high prevalence of latent TB, but not active disease.
Jayachandran, Rajesh; BoseDasgupta, Somdeb; Pieters, Jean
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has evolved to withstand one of the most inhospitable cells within the human body, namely the macrophage, a cell that is normally geared toward the destruction of any invading microbe. How M. tuberculosis achieves this is still incompletely understood; however, a number of mechanisms are now known that provide advantages to M. tuberculosis for its survival and proliferation inside the macrophage. While some of these mechanisms are mediated by factors released by M. tuberculosis, others rely on host components that are being hijacked to benefit survival of M. tuberculosis within the macrophage as well to avoid the generation of an effective immune response. Here, we describe several of these mechanisms, also pointing out the potential usage of this knowledge toward the development of novel strategies to treat tuberculosis. Furthermore, we attempt to put the 'macrophage niche' into context with other intracellular pathogens and discuss some of the generalities as well as specializations that M. tuberculosis employs to survive.
Steinbrück, P; Herrmann, H
The development of tuberculosis in GDR is analysed upon the different points of view. After assessing the validity of the parameters for evaluating the tuberculosis problem (mortality, incidence and prevalence of disease and infection) some aspects remarkable for tuberculosis control are discussed. Tuberculosis has been vastly reduced in all parameters since 1949. However, the regression of tuberculosis did not occur with the same rate in the various age and finding groups. By this the efficacy of the control measures has changed making necessary a reconsideration of the methods. The Volkskrankheit (common disease in the population) tuberculosis has become a vastly reduced endemic disease in GDR. For future tuberculosis control conclusions are drawn from the analysis.
Lin, Philana Ling; Flynn, JoAnne L
Tuberculosis is primarily a respiratory disease that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis can persist and replicate in macrophages in vivo, usually in organized cellular structures called granulomas. There is substantial evidence for the importance of CD4 T cells in control of tuberculosis, but the evidence for a requirement for CD8 T cells in this infection has not been proven in humans. However, animal model data support a non-redundant role for CD8 T cells in control of M. tuberculosis infection. In humans, infection with this pathogen leads to generation of specific CD8 T cell responses. These responses include classical (MHC Class I restricted) and non-classical CD8 T cells. Here, we discuss the potential roles of CD8 T cells in defense against tuberculosis, and our current understanding of the wide range of CD8 T cell types seen in M. tuberculosis infection.
Mason, Paul H; Sweetland, Annika C; Fox, Greg J; Halovic, Shaun; Nguyen, Thu Anh; Marks, Guy B
Objective This opinion piece encourages mental health researchers and clinicians to engage with mental health issues among tuberculosis patients in the Asia-Pacific region in a culturally appropriate and ethical manner. The diversity of cultural contexts and the high burden of tuberculosis throughout the Asia-Pacific presents significant challenges. Research into tuberculosis and mental illness in this region is an opportunity to develop more nuanced models of mental illness and treatment, while simultaneously contributing meaningfully to regional tuberculosis care and prevention. Conclusions We overview key issues in tuberculosis and mental illness co-morbidity, highlight ethical concerns and advocate for a regional approach to tuberculosis and mental health that is consistent with the transnational challenges presented by this airborne infectious disease. Integrating tuberculosis and mental health services will go a long way to addressing the needs of vulnerable populations and stopping the transmission of one of the world’s biggest infectious killers. PMID:27206468
Getoor, Lise; Rhee, Jeanne T; Koller, Daphne; Small, Peter
Molecular epidemiological studies can provide novel insights into the transmission of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Typically, risk factors for transmission are identified using traditional hypothesis-driven statistical methods such as logistic regression. However, limitations become apparent in these approaches as the scope of these studies expand to include additional epidemiological and bacterial genomic data. Here we examine the use of Bayesian models to analyze tuberculosis epidemiology. We begin by exploring the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) to identify the distribution of tuberculosis patient attributes (including demographic and clinical attributes). Using existing algorithms for constructing BNs from observational data, we learned a BN from data about tuberculosis patients collected in San Francisco from 1991 to 1999. We verified that the resulting probabilistic models did in fact capture known statistical relationships. Next, we examine the use of newly introduced methods for representing and automatically constructing probabilistic models in structured domains. We use statistical relational models (SRMs) to model distributions over relational domains. SRMs are ideally suited to richly structured epidemiological data. We use a data-driven method to construct a statistical relational model directly from data stored in a relational database. The resulting model reveals the relationships between variables in the data and describes their distribution. We applied this procedure to the data on tuberculosis patients in San Francisco from 1991 to 1999, their Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, and data on contact investigations. The resulting statistical relational model corroborated previously reported findings and revealed several novel associations. These models illustrate the potential for this approach to reveal relationships within richly structured data that may not be apparent using conventional statistical approaches. We show that Bayesian
López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric
We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies.
Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M
During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.
Rashid, M M; Ghose, A; Islam, M B; Amin, R; Rahman, R; Faiz, M A
This prospective observational clinical study was done to find out the clinical and laboratory parameters of pleural tuberculosis patients, to find out a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosis and to see the effectively of a standard anti-TB regime Isoniazide, Rifampicine, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol, (2HRZE/4HR) for treatment of pleural tuberculosis in an adult medicine unit, department of Medicine, Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh. A series of total thirty-three consecutive pleural tuberculosis patients admitted in that unit over a period of 6 months were enrolled. All thirty-three pleural tuberculosis patients were observed for their demographic and clinical parameters and undergone some relevant investigations like complete blood count, Mantoux test, pleural fluid study and pleural histopathological study. Later on, they were put on anti-tuberculosis therapy without steroid and followed their response after one month. All patients of pleural tuberculosis presented in this medicine unit had fever and cough associated with chest pain (87.9%), dysnoea (42.4%), haemoptysis (9.1%), weight loss (84.4%), anorexia (90.9%). Age of presentation was 34.1+/-16.2 years and of them, 60.7% patients were below 30. Mean Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was 97.04 mm in 1st hour and 57.6% cases had ESR more than 100. 63.6% had Mantoux Test (MT) positive (>10 mm). Only 6.1% had hemorrhagic effusion and others had straw colored fluid. Mean pleural fluid protein is 5.9 gram/L and sugar 65.7 mg/dl. No Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) was seen on microscopy in pleural fluid. Pleural biopsy revealed 54.5% granulomatous lesion with or without caseation and another 24.2% shows chronic inflammation. Seventy seven percentage (77%) patients were attended follow-up clinic after 1 month and all patients (100%) were improved with this anti-TB therapy. Of the total patient treated with anti TB drug, 53.5% had no pleural effusion, other had minimum effusion. Only 6
Fedorova, G V; Leont'ev, V V
The chair of public health of the Omsk State medical academy conjointly with the municipal TB dispensary No 4 carried out the medical social study of the urogenital system tuberculosis since no profound and research of this problem was organized on the territory of Omsk oblast. The article presents the fragment of the data related to the survey of he physicians of medical institutions form city of Omsk and the Omsk oblast about the effectiveness of the medical social care to the patients suffering from the urogenital system tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (TB) of penis is a very rare entity, even in developing countries. It may present as primary or secondary to Pulmonary TB (PTB). Penile TB mimics carcinoma penis, granulomatous penile ulcer, genital herpes simplex, granuloma inguinale and HIV infection. We, hereby, present the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented to us with ulcerative growth over glans penis and was clinically diagnosed as carcinoma penis, however biopsy of the lesion showed evidence of tuberculosis which was supported by chest X-ray. PMID:28208927
Belizario, V; Guan, M; Borja, L; Ortega, A; Leonardia, W
The clinical epidemiology of pulmonary paragonimiasis and tuberculosis was investigated in a known endemic municipality of Sorsogon, Philippines. Records of diagnosed tuberculosis patients on treatment and follow up at the local Rural Health Unit over a two year period from 1993 to 1994 were reviewed to provide an overview of pulmonary tuberculosis in the area, specifically to describe the population at risk, the basis for diagnosis and the proportion of case notification who were sputum negative. Patients from the same group of individuals as well as undiagnosed tuberculosis patients with productive cough, fever with chest and/or back pain, or hemoptysis were examined to look into clinical manifestations, duration of symptoms, history of crab-eating and sputum examination results for acid-fast bacilli and Paragonimus. There was difficulty in determining the number of non-responders as the records did not have any provision for the recording of such. Annual tuberculosis case notification rates for the two years (374 and 401 per 100,000 population) were higher than the national figure in 1991 (325 per 100,000 population) indicating that tuberculosis is still a major health problem in the area and tuberculosis control efforts may have to be more aggressive to better contain the disease. Twenty-six out of 160 individuals surveyed were sputum smear positive for Paragonimus. Paragonimiasis rates were not significantly different in the two groups (15.6% vs 16.9%, respectively) indicating that there is a need for routine sputum examination for Paragonimus which is not available at present. Only six patients surveyed were sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose paragonimiasis and to be able to differentiate it from tuberculosis. The diagnosis may be suggested by a patient's place of origin being a known endemic area, a long period of chronic cough and the habit of eating raw or insufficiently cooked crabs or crayfish
Garg, Tinu; Gera, Kamal; Modi, Nikhil; Shah, Ashok
Intrathoracic goitre is an uncommon condition which usually occurs in females in the fifth decade. It can cause compression of several mediastinal structures. A 42-year-old female with goitre since childhood was evaluated for dry cough, occasional wheezing and low grade fever. Imaging showed patchy airspace opacities with cavitation in left lung. Imaging of the neck revealed retrosternal extension of the goitre. Stains and cultures of bronchial aspirate were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis with intrathoracic goitre was established, an unusual association.
Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping
Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.
Tuberculosis (TB) drug-development strategies, a wide range of candidate host-directed therapies (HDT)s-including new and repurposed drugs, biologics, and cellular therapies-have been proposed to accelerate eradication of infection and overcome the problems associated with current treatment regimens. By investigating the interaction between macrophages and the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), we uncovered that infection-induced signaling pathways suggest possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic modalities for TB that target the intracellular signaling pathways permitting the replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). PMID:28357397
Govender, Viveshree S; Ramsugit, Saiyur; Pillay, Manormoney
Adhesion to host cells is a precursor to host colonization and evasion of the host immune response. Conversely, it triggers the induction of the immune response, a process vital to the host's defence against infection. Adhesins are microbial cell surface molecules or structures that mediate the attachment of the microbe to host cells and thus the host-pathogen interaction. They also play a crucial role in bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation. In this review, we discuss the role of adhesins in the pathogenesis of the aetiological agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also provide insight into the structure and characteristics of some of the characterized and putative M. tuberculosis adhesins. Finally, we examine the potential of adhesins as targets for the development of tuberculosis control strategies.
Morales Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis González, A; Sanz Aliaga, S A; Otero, M C; Pérez-Tamarit, D; Asensi Botet, F
Childhood morbidity due to tuberculosis infection in Spain is not diminishing at the expected rate in relation with available knowledge and facilities. An important factor is the delay in diagnosis, which evaluation constitutes the objective of this publication. Said delay is due to several causes, patient does not consult on time (mean value between onset of symptoms and consult is 34.3 days), or physician does not think in tuberculosis as first diagnosis, which meant an added mean delay of 7.6 days more. These delays mean an important detriment for the patient, and one of the objectives in the anti-tuberculosis struggle is to shorten delays through information to the lay public and health professionals on the highly important current issue of tuberculosis.
Rakotosamimanana, Sitraka; Mandrosovololona, Vatsiharizandry; Rakotonirina, Julio; Ramamonjisoa, Joselyne; Ranjalahy, Justin Rasolofomanana; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa
Introduction Tuberculosis infection may remain latent, but the disease is nevertheless a serious public health issue. Various epidemiological studies on pulmonary tuberculosis have considered the spatial component and taken it into account, revealing the tendency of this disease to cluster in particular locations. The aim was to assess the contribution of Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) to the distribution of tuberculosis and to provide information for the improvement of the National Tuberculosis Program. Methods We investigated the role of KAP to distribution patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo. First, we performed spatial scanning of tuberculosis aggregation among permanent cases resident in Antananarivo Urban Township using the Kulldorff method, and then we carried out a quantitative study on KAP, involving TB patients. The KAP study in the population was based on qualitative methods with focus groups. Results The disease still clusters in the same districts identified in the previous study. The principal cluster covered 22 neighborhoods. Most of them are part of the first district. A secondary cluster was found, involving 18 neighborhoods in the sixth district and two neighborhoods in the fifth. The relative risk was respectively 1.7 (p<10−6) in the principal cluster and 1.6 (p<10−3) in the secondary cluster. Our study showed that more was known about TB symptoms than about the duration of the disease or free treatment. Knowledge about TB was limited to that acquired at school or from relatives with TB. The attitude and practices of patients and the population in general indicated that there is still a stigma attached to tuberculosis. Conclusion This type of survey can be conducted in remote zones where the tuberculosis-related KAP of the TB patients and the general population is less known or not documented; the findings could be used to adapt control measures to the local particularities. PMID:25386655
Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha
This article reviews the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of renal tuberculosis (TB), including TB in transplant recipients and immunocompromised patients. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) forms the mainstay of cross-sectional imaging in renal TB. It can easily identify calcification, renal scars, mass lesions, and urothelial thickening. The combination of uneven caliectasis, with urothelial thickening and lack of pelvic dilatation, can also be demonstrated on MDCT. MRI is a sensitive modality for demonstration of features of renal TB, including tissue edema, asymmetric perinephric fat stranding, and thickening of Gerota's fascia, all of which may be clues to focal pyelonephritis of tuberculous origin. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may help in differentiating hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis. ADC values also have the potential to serve as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of renal fibrosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of renal TB. In transplant patients, renal TB, including tuberculous interstitial nephritis, is an important cause of graft dysfunction. Renal TB in patients with HIV more often shows greater parenchymal affection, with poorly formed granulomas and relatively less frequent findings of caseation and stenosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are also more common in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986619
Chapple, Will; Katz, Alan Roy; Li, Dongmei
Introduction The objective of this study is to explore the associations between national tuberculosis program (NTP) budget allocation and tuberculosis related outcomes in the World Health Organization's 22 high burden countries from 2007–2009. Methods This ecological study used mixed effects and generalized estimating equation models to identify independent associations between NTP budget allocations and various tuberculosis related outcomes. Models were adjusted for a number of independent variables previously noted to be associated with tuberculosis incidence. Results Increasing the percent of the NTP budget for advocacy, communication and social mobilization was associated with an increase in the case detection rate. Increasing TB-HIV funding was associated with an increase in HIV testing among TB patients. Increasing the percent of the population covered by the Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) program was associated with an increase in drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory funding was positively associated with tuberculosis notification. Increasing the budgets for first line drugs, management and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was associated with a decrease in smear positive deaths. Conclusion Effective TB control is a complex and multifaceted challenge. This study revealed a number of budget allocation related factors associated with improved TB outcome parameters. If confirmed with future longitudinal studies, these findings could help guide NTP managers with allocation decisions. PMID:23024825
Dalton, James P.; Uy, Benedict; Phummarin, Narisa; Copp, Brent R.; Denny, William A.; Swift, Simon
Much is known regarding the antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for the lung disease tuberculosis (TB). As planktonically-grown M. tuberculosis are unlikely to be entirely representative of the bacterium during infection, we set out to determine how effective a range of anti-mycobacterial treatments were against M. tuberculosis growing as a biofilm, a bacterial phenotype known to be more resistant to antibiotic treatment. Light levels from bioluminescently-labelled M. tuberculosis H37Rv (strain BSG001) were used as a surrogate for bacterial viability, and were monitored before and after one week of treatment. After treatment, biofilms were disrupted, washed and inoculated into fresh broth and plated onto solid media to rescue any surviving bacteria. We found that in this phenotypic state M. tuberculosis was resistant to the majority of the compounds tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) increased by 20-fold to greater than 1,000-fold, underlying the potential of this phenotype to cause significant problems during treatment. PMID:27904808
Background The Philippines has an extremely high rate of tuberculosis but little is known about M. tuberculosis genotypes and transmission dynamics in this country. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of household contacts who develop active TB due to direct transmission from an index case in that household. Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from household contacts of tuberculosis patients in the Philippines were characterized using restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis, spoligotyping, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units – variable number tandem repeats typing (12-loci) to determine their utility in elucidating transmission in an area of high tuberculosis prevalence. Drug susceptibility patterns for these isolates were also determined. Results Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing results matched in 10 (62.5%) of 16 index patient-household contact pairs while IS6110 fingerprints matched in only six (37.5%) pairs. Only 3/16 (18.8%) index patient-household contact pairs had identical drug susceptibility results. Conclusions Strain typing of M. tuberculosis isolates from household contacts in the Philippines indicates that transmission of strains does not necessarily occur directly from the index patient living in close proximity in the same household but rather that community-based transmission also frequently occurs. Accurate susceptibility testing of all isolates is necessary to insure optimal care of both the index patients and any culture-positive household contacts. PMID:24308751
Saita, Nanci Michele; de Oliveira, Helenice Bosco
This study aimed to analyze the incidence of tuberculosis (TB), AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in the municipality of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 2001 – 2009. A historical trend study, it uses secondary data from the Tuberculosis Surveillance Database of the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and the São Paulo State STD-AIDS Center of Excellence and Training. It included new cases of TB, AIDS, and of tuberculosis-AIDS reported in the municipality of Campinas. A decrease in cases of TB until 2007 was observed, with an increase in 2008 and 2009. There was a general reduction in AIDS from 2007, but with an increase among men aged 60 or over, in the years 2007 to 2009. For tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection, the tendency was to reduce. The proportion of HIV tests not undertaken, among patients with tuberculosis, was high (27.5%). This scenario shows the need for integration of the databanks into the planning and control activities. PMID:22990163
Parumasivam, T; Chan, J G Y; Pang, A; Quan, D H; Triccas, J A; Britton, W J; Chan, H K
Thioridazine is an orally administered antipsychotic drug with potential for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). However, drug-induced adverse cardiac effects have been reported when thioridazine was used at an efficacious oral dose of 200mg/day to treat TB. Pulmonary delivery of thioridazine could be a rational approach to reduce dose-related side effects while enabling high drug concentrations at the primary site of infection. The present study compares in vitro aerosol performance, storage stability, and in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of two inhalable powders composed of thioridazine and a first-line anti-TB drug, rifapentine. Formulation 1 is a combination of amorphous thioridazine and crystalline rifapentine, while Formulation 2 consisted of both drugs as amorphous forms. Both thioridazine-rifapentine formulations were found suitable for inhalation with a total fine particle fraction (<5μm) of 68-76%. The two powders had similar MIC90 to rifapentine alone, being 0.000625μg/mL and 0.005μg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, respectively. In contrast, thioridazine alone had a MIC90 of 12.5μg/mL and 500μg/mL, against M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, respectively, demonstrating no synergistic anti-TB activity. However, thioridazine and rifapentine in a ratio of 1:3 enhanced the killing of M. tuberculosis H37Ra within the human monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1) compared to the single drug treatments. Both powders showed an acceptable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 31.25μg/mL on both THP-1 and human lung epithelial (A549) cells. However, Formulation 1 showed greater chemical stability than Formulation 2 after three months of storage under low humidity (vacuum) at 20±3°C. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a novel inhalable powder consisted of amorphous thioridazine and crystalline rifapentine (Formulation 1) with a good aerosol performance, potent anti
Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara
Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.
Ross, D L; Goldstein, G S
Some of the clinical problems most frequently seen in veterinary dentistry and their surgical solutions are discussed. Extraction of teeth, surgical repositioning of teeth, tooth transplant, oral abscesses of tooth origin, impaction of teeth, repair of maxillary canine oronasal fistula, and simple techniques for oral wiring are among the issues considered.
Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi
Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.
Adisa, A.O.; Olawole, W.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.
Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399
Troiano, Claire A.
An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…
Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole
Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.
Mousa, G Y
Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.
In 1978 the concept of primary health care was adopted by 116 countries at Alma Ata, yet the negative impact of structural readjustment programs in Africa and South America could be felt due to the cuts in expenditures on health, education, and social matters. The result is a resurgence of communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis. Another factor in this resurgence is extreme poverty. In 1994 over 1000 people died in Rajasthan, India, of a malaria epidemic, and during the same time in Delhi over 300 deaths were attributed to hemorrhagic dengue fever. Malariogenic and tuberculous conditions continue to flourish owing to distorted development patterns and commercialization of medical care as public health and community health services are being replaced by profit-oriented curative care, 80% of which is in private hands. This has resulted in spiraling medical care costs and rural indebtedness. Socioeconomic deprivation in developing countries threatens TB control. Factors contributing to the spread of TB were established in 1899 and are still valid in India and other developing countries: TB contamination of air, inadequate food, overcrowded dwelling, and low state of physical health. Even in developed countries TB is on the rise: there were 172 cases in 1991 in England vs. 305 cases in 1993, half of them among immigrants. The increase occurred in the poorest 30% of the population. The World Bank is providing loans for a revised TB and malaria strategy, and the Disability Adjusted Life Year has been used to identify the greatest burden of diseases. On the other hand, the Indian National Health Policy has not been revised since 1983. Priority must be given to those living in extreme poverty to curb the resurgence of once controlled diseases.
Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Dahiya, Neha
Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is hindered by limited efficacy and significant toxicity of second-line drugs. The need for new therapeutic options is critical to combat the global MDR-TB epidemic. Bedaquiline is a novel oral diarylquinoline approved by Food and Drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of adults with pulmonary MDR-TB on the basis of Phase IIb trial data under the provisions of the accelerated approval regulations for serious or life-threatening conditions. The FDA advisory committee members voted unanimously on efficacy data based on surrogate measures, however they were split on the issues of safety of bedaquiline. Main safety concerns include QT interval prolongation, hepatic related adverse events, and excess mortality in bedaquiline treated patients. While bedaquiline approval is a story of many firsts and certainly a welcome addition to the existing arsenal of anti-TB agents, a cautiously optimistic approach is required to assess the risk benefit profile of the drug. Acceleration of further Phase III trials and clinical studies is imperative, as is timely analysis of emerging data on the real world use of the drug. This mini review outlines the clinical pharmacology of bedaquiline highlighting the potential promises and challenges that implicate the risk benefit profile of drug.
Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S
The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.
A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...
... and control materials with the possibility of transmission of tuberculosis infection to healthcare... materials with the possibility of transmission of tuberculosis infection to healthcare workers could be... of rapid detection of infection in patients with suspected tuberculosis as compared to...
Burkman, R T
During the past four decades, oral contraceptives have remained a safe and effective method of birth control. Reductions in the estrogen and progestin dosages have significantly decreased the incidence of cardiovascular complications. The association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer appears to be primarily because of detection bias or possibly a promotional effect. Despite the changes in formulation, the problems related to side effects have not been totally solved. Because compliance and successful use is strongly affected by side effects, improvement in this area is probably the biggest challenge faced by developers of oral contraceptives. It is also clear that there are a growing number of significant noncontraceptive benefits that accrue in oral contraceptive users. Unfortunately, many women do not know about these benefits. Thus, one of the issues that providers need to continue to address is how to provide better information about oral contraceptives and contraception in general to patients.
... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...
Dooley, Kelly E; Chaisson, Richard E
The link between diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis has been recognised for centuries. In recent decades, tuberculosis incidence has declined in high-income countries, but incidence remains high in countries that have high rates of infection with HIV, high prevalence of malnutrition and crowded living conditions, or poor tuberculosis control infrastructure. At the same time, diabetes mellitus prevalence is soaring globally, fuelled by obesity. There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for tuberculosis and might affect disease presentation and treatment response. Furthermore, tuberculosis might induce glucose intolerance and worsen glycaemic control in people with diabetes. We review the epidemiology of the tuberculosis and diabetes epidemics, and provide a synopsis of the evidence for the role of diabetes mellitus in susceptibility to, clinical presentation of, and response to treatment for tuberculosis. In addition, we review potential mechanisms by which diabetes mellitus can cause tuberculosis, the effects of tuberculosis on diabetic control, and pharmacokinetic issues related to the co-management of diabetes and tuberculosis.
Cowling, Krycia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit
Although India is considered to be the country with the greatest tuberculosis burden, estimates of the disease's incidence, prevalence and mortality in India rely on sparse data with substantial uncertainty. The relevant available data are less reliable than those from countries that have recently improved systems for case reporting or recently invested in national surveys of tuberculosis prevalence. We explored ways to improve the estimation of the tuberculosis burden in India. We focused on case notification data - among the most reliable data available - and ways to investigate the associated level of underreporting, as well as the need for a national tuberculosis prevalence survey. We discuss several recent developments - i.e. changes in national policies relating to tuberculosis, World Health Organization guidelines for the investigation of the disease, and a rapid diagnostic test - that should improve data collection for the estimation of the tuberculosis burden in India and elsewhere. We recommend the implementation of an inventory study in India to assess the underreporting of tuberculosis cases, as well as a national survey of tuberculosis prevalence. A national assessment of drug resistance in Indian strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis should also be considered. The results of such studies will be vital for the accurate monitoring of tuberculosis control efforts in India and globally.
Saramba, Manou Irmina
Tuberculosis continues to be a prevalent disease in the world and a global public health issue in many countries. The disease is more complicated in pregnant women because it imperils unborn offspring and results in congenital tuberculosis later if undiagnosed and untreated. Congenital tuberculosis is rare entity and an uncommon disease along with a high mortality rate. Congenital tuberculosis, a severe clinical type of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a serious and fatal disease if left untreated. Our study emphasizes that it is necessary and mandatory to consider congenital tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of neonatal or pulmonary infections in infants, essentially in countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high burden. Mother to neonatal transmission of disease is well known via transplacental transmission through the umbilical vein to the fetus, through the ingestion of infected amniotic fluid. Early detection is challenging, because of the nonspecific nature of the signs and symptoms in tuberculosis during pregnancy and infancy. The degree of clinical suspicion is the essential component of diagnosis. Furthermore, it generally has a difficult treatment and it should not be delayed while waiting for diagnostic test results. Prompt identification and proper treatment regimens for congenital tuberculosis strongly relate with enhanced outcomes. PMID:27999684