Science.gov

Sample records for turbine low-frequency noise

  1. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2011-06-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3-3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low frequencies, and for several of the investigated large turbines, the one-third-octave band with the highest level is at or below 250 Hz. It is thus beyond any doubt that the low-frequency part of the spectrum plays an important role in the noise at the neighbors. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  2. Characterization and Impact of Low Frequency Wind Turbine Noise Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, James

    Wind turbine noise is a complex issue that requires due diligence to minimize any potential impact on quality of life. This study enhances existing knowledge of wind turbine noise through focused analyses of downwind sound propagation, directionality, and the low frequency component of the noise. Measurements were conducted at four wind speeds according to a design of experiments at incremental distances and angles. Wind turbine noise is shown to be highly directional, while downwind sound propagation is spherical with limited ground absorption. The noise is found to have a significant low frequency component that is largely independent of wind speed over the 20-250 Hz range. The generated low frequency noise is shown to be audible above 40 Hz at the MOE setback distance of 550 m. Infrasound levels exhibit higher dependency on wind speed, but remain below audible levels up to 15 m/s.

  3. Theory of low frequency noise transmission through turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, R. K.; Mani, R.

    1979-01-01

    Improvements of the existing theory of low frequency noise transmission through turbines and development of a working prediction tool are described. The existing actuator-disk model and a new finite-chord model were utilized in an analytical study. The interactive effect of adjacent blade rows, higher order spinning modes, blade-passage shocks, and duct area variations were considered separately. The improved theory was validated using the data acquired in an earlier NASA program. Computer programs incorporating the improved theory were produced for transmission loss prediction purposes. The programs were exercised parametrically and charts constructed to define approximately the low frequency noise transfer through turbines. The loss through the exhaust nozzle and flow(s) was also considered.

  4. Infrasound and low frequency noise from wind turbines: exposure and health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Karl; Bluhm, Gösta; Eriksson, Gabriella; Nilsson, Mats E.

    2011-07-01

    Wind turbines emit low frequency noise (LFN) and large turbines generally generate more LFN than small turbines. The dominant source of LFN is the interaction between incoming turbulence and the blades. Measurements suggest that indoor levels of LFN in dwellings typically are within recommended guideline values, provided that the outdoor level does not exceed corresponding guidelines for facade exposure. Three cross-sectional questionnaire studies show that annoyance from wind turbine noise is related to the immission level, but several explanations other than low frequency noise are probable. A statistically significant association between noise levels and self-reported sleep disturbance was found in two of the three studies. It has been suggested that LFN from wind turbines causes other, and more serious, health problems, but empirical support for these claims is lacking.

  5. Wind Turbine Acoustic Investigation: Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Stephen E.; Rand, Robert W.; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines produce sound that is capable of disturbing local residents and is reported to cause annoyance, sleep disturbance, and other health-related impacts. An acoustical study was conducted to investigate the presence of infrasonic and low-frequency noise emissions from wind turbines located in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. During the…

  6. Health-Based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Robert G.; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN. PMID:25759808

  7. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  8. Low-frequency outdoor-indoor noise level difference for wind turbine assessment.

    PubMed

    Thorsson, Pontus; Persson Waye, Kerstin; Smith, Michael; Ögren, Mikael; Pedersen, Eja; Forssén, Jens

    2018-03-01

    To increase the understanding of wind turbine noise on sleep, human physiological reactions need to be studied in a controlled laboratory setting. The paper presents an outdoor-indoor noise level difference as a function of frequency, applicable to creating wind turbine indoor sounds with the outdoor sounds as input. For this, a combination of measurement data and modeling results has been used. The suggested data are provided in a table.

  9. Prediction and analysis of infra and low-frequency noise of upwind horizontal axis wind turbine using statistical wind speed model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gwang-Se; Cheong, Cheolung, E-mail: ccheong@pusan.ac.kr

    Despite increasing concern about low-frequency noise of modern large horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs), few studies have focused on its origin or its prediction methods. In this paper, infra- and low-frequency (the ILF) wind turbine noise are closely examined and an efficient method is developed for its prediction. Although most previous studies have assumed that the ILF noise consists primarily of blade passing frequency (BPF) noise components, these tonal noise components are seldom identified in the measured noise spectrum, except for the case of downwind wind turbines. In reality, since modern HAWTs are very large, during rotation, a single blade ofmore » the turbine experiences inflow with variation in wind speed in time as well as in space, breaking periodic perturbations of the BPF. Consequently, this transforms acoustic contributions at the BPF harmonics into broadband noise components. In this study, the ILF noise of wind turbines is predicted by combining Lowson’s acoustic analogy with the stochastic wind model, which is employed to reproduce realistic wind speed conditions. In order to predict the effects of these wind conditions on pressure variation on the blade surface, unsteadiness in the incident wind speed is incorporated into the XFOIL code by varying incident flow velocities on each blade section, which depend on the azimuthal locations of the rotating blade. The calculated surface pressure distribution is subsequently used to predict acoustic pressure at an observing location by using Lowson’s analogy. These predictions are compared with measured data, which ensures that the present method can reproduce the broadband characteristics of the measured low-frequency noise spectrum. Further investigations are carried out to characterize the IFL noise in terms of pressure loading on blade surface, narrow-band noise spectrum and noise maps around the turbine.« less

  10. Influences of low-frequency and other noises produced by wind turbines: An epidemiological literature review.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Hasunuma, Hideki; Morimatsu, Yoshitaka; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Hara, Kunio; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Due to its' environment-friendly and clean energy characteristics, wind power has been increasingly used globally, particularly in advanced countries. However, concerns about health hazards, especially due to low-frequency and other noises generated from wind turbines, have been reported repeatedly. In order to manage adverse health effects appropriately, regulatory standards or guidelines that consider the health of residents need to be developed. To provide a scientific basis for the development of such regulatory standards and guidelines, this paper conducted a literature review to analyze epidemiological studies involving residents living in the vicinity of wind farms.Methods Using the PubMED database, epidemiological papers that examined the health effects of noises produced by wind turbines were searched and collected. Additional papers were collected from the abstracts presented at relevant international academic conferences such as the Inter-Noise 2013 and Wind Turbine Noise 2015. An evidence table comprising the study design, subjects, exposure assessment, outcomes, confounders, and research results of each selected study was created.Results A total of 11 papers were collected (2 of which were abstracts from the international academic conferences). These studies reported outcomes such as perception of noises, annoyance caused by the noises, and the association of the noises with stress and sleeplessness. Significant associations between the noises or annoyance produced by wind turbines and subjective adverse health effects were reported repeatedly. Two studies reported an odds ratio of 1.1 for an increase of 1 dB in the A-weighted sound pressure level as a factor representing the influence level. For other factors, it was not possible to compare the magnitude of the impact among the collected studies. Individual attitudes toward wind power and landscapes, economic benefits of wind farms, visibility of wind turbines, sensitivity to sounds

  11. Wind Turbine Infra and Low-Frequency Sound: Warning Signs that Were Not Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines are frequently thought of as benign. However, the literature is reporting adverse health effects associated with the implementation of industrial-scale wind developments. This article explores the historical evidence about what was known regarding infra and low-frequency sound from wind turbines and other noise sources…

  12. Low frequency noise study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-04-01

    This report documents a study to investigate human response to the low-frequency : content of aviation noise, or low-frequency noise (LFN). The study comprised field : measurements and laboratory studies. The major findings were: : 1. Start-of-takeof...

  13. Experimental characterization of turbulent inflow noise on a full-scale wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Steven; Oerlemans, Stefan; Palo, Scott

    2016-12-01

    An extensive experimental campaign was conducted on a 108-m diameter 2.3-MW wind turbine in order to assess the effect of inflow turbulence conditions on wind turbine acoustics. Over 50 h of continuous acoustic data was acquired at power-generating wind speeds. Twelve precision microphones were used, arranged in a one rotor radius ring about the turbine tower in order to assess the directivity of the noise emission. Turbine operational and atmospheric conditions were gathered simultaneously with acoustics measurements. The testing and analysis constitute perhaps the most thorough experimental characterization of turbulent inflow noise from a wind turbine to date. Turbulence intensities typically varied between 10 percent and 35 percent, and wind speeds covered most of the operational range of the wind turbine, from cut-on to well above its rated power. A method was developed for using blade-mounted accelerometers for determining the turbulence conditions in the immediate vicinity of the blades, which are the primary turbulence noise generating bodies. The method uses the blades' vibrational energy within a specified frequency range to estimate the overall turbulence conditions by assuming a von Kármán turbulence spectrum. Using this method, a clear positive correlation is shown between turbulence intensity and noise levels. The turbulence noise is dominant at low frequencies and is primarily observed in the upwind and downwind directions. Low frequency noise increases by as much as 6 dB for the range of turbulence conditions measured. Comparisons are made between the measured turbine noise directivity and theory using a simple acoustic model of the turbine as three point-sources. Strong agreement is found between the theoretical leading edge noise directivity model and the measured low frequency noise directivity.

  14. Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. Z.; Hrgovan, I.; Okulov, V.; Zhu, W. J.; Madsen, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline/reference turbine rotor with a diameter of 80 m. To reduce the noise emission from the baseline rotor, the rotor is reconstructed with the low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils which has been tested in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech. Finally, 3MW low noise turbine rotors are designed using the concepts of Betz and Joukowski, and the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils. Performance analysis shows that the newly designed turbine rotors can achieve an overall noise reduction of 6 dB and 1.5 dB(A) with a similar power output as compared to the reference rotor.

  15. Correcting low-frequency noise with continuous measurement.

    PubMed

    Tian, L

    2007-04-13

    Low-frequency noise presents a serious source of decoherence in solid-state qubits. When combined with a continuous weak measurement of the eigenstates, low-frequency noise induces a second-order relaxation between the qubit states. Here, we show that the relaxation provides a unique approach to calibrate the low-frequency noise in the time domain. By encoding one qubit with two physical qubits that are alternatively calibrated, quantum-logic gates with high fidelity can be performed.

  16. Health effects related to wind turbine noise exposure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Klokker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise. This review was conducted systematically with the purpose of identifying any reported associations between wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects. A search of the scientific literature concerning the health-related effects of wind turbine noise was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and various other Internet sources. All studies investigating suspected health-related outcomes associated with wind turbine noise exposure were included. Wind turbines emit noise, including low-frequency noise, which decreases incrementally with increases in distance from the wind turbines. Likewise, evidence of a dose-response relationship between wind turbine noise linked to noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and possibly even psychological distress was present in the literature. Currently, there is no further existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine noise exposure and adverse health effects. Only articles published in English, German or Scandinavian languages were reviewed. Exposure to wind turbines does seem to increase the risk of annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship. There appears, though, to be a tolerable level of around LAeq of 35 dB. Of the many other claimed health effects of wind turbine noise exposure reported in the literature, however, no conclusive evidence could be found. Future studies should focus on investigations aimed at objectively demonstrating whether or not

  17. Annoyance, detection and recognition of wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Timothy; Bockstael, Annelies; De Weirt, Valentine; Botteldooren, Dick

    2013-07-01

    Annoyance, recognition and detection of noise from a single wind turbine were studied by means of a two-stage listening experiment with 50 participants with normal hearing abilities. In-situ recordings made at close distance from a 1.8-MW wind turbine operating at 22 rpm were mixed with road traffic noise, and processed to simulate indoor sound pressure levels at LAeq 40 dBA. In a first part, where people were unaware of the true purpose of the experiment, samples were played during a quiet leisure activity. Under these conditions, pure wind turbine noise gave very similar annoyance ratings as unmixed highway noise at the same equivalent level, while annoyance by local road traffic noise was significantly higher. In a second experiment, listeners were asked to identify the sample containing wind turbine noise in a paired comparison test. The detection limit of wind turbine noise in presence of highway noise was estimated to be as low as a signal-to-noise ratio of -23 dBA. When mixed with local road traffic, such a detection limit could not be determined. These findings support that noticing the sound could be an important aspect of wind turbine noise annoyance at the low equivalent levels typically observed indoors in practice. Participants that easily recognized wind-turbine(-like) sounds could detect wind turbine noise better when submersed in road traffic noise. Recognition of wind turbine sounds is also linked to higher annoyance. Awareness of the source is therefore a relevant aspect of wind turbine noise perception which is consistent with previous research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Noise Exposure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Klokker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Background Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise. Objective This review was conducted systematically with the purpose of identifying any reported associations between wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects. Data Sources A search of the scientific literature concerning the health-related effects of wind turbine noise was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and various other Internet sources. Study Eligibility Criteria All studies investigating suspected health-related outcomes associated with wind turbine noise exposure were included. Results Wind turbines emit noise, including low-frequency noise, which decreases incrementally with increases in distance from the wind turbines. Likewise, evidence of a dose-response relationship between wind turbine noise linked to noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and possibly even psychological distress was present in the literature. Currently, there is no further existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. Limitations Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine noise exposure and adverse health effects. Only articles published in English, German or Scandinavian languages were reviewed. Conclusions Exposure to wind turbines does seem to increase the risk of annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship. There appears, though, to be a tolerable level of around LAeq of 35 dB. Of the many other claimed health effects of wind turbine noise exposure reported in the literature, however, no conclusive evidence could be found

  19. Low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-08-01

    Low-frequency noise with a spectral density that depends inversely on frequency has been observed in a wide variety of systems including current fluctuations in resistors, intensity fluctuations in music and signals in human cognition. In electronics, the phenomenon, which is known as 1/f noise, flicker noise or excess noise, hampers the operation of numerous devices and circuits, and can be a significant impediment to the development of practical applications from new materials. Graphene offers unique opportunities for studying 1/f noise because of its two-dimensional structure and widely tunable two-dimensional carrier concentration. The creation of practical graphene-based devices will also depend on our ability to understand and control the low-frequency noise in this material system. Here, the characteristic features of 1/f noise in graphene and few-layer graphene are reviewed, and the implications of such noise for the development of graphene-based electronics including high-frequency devices and sensors are examined.

  20. Low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices.

    PubMed

    Balandin, Alexander A

    2013-08-01

    Low-frequency noise with a spectral density that depends inversely on frequency has been observed in a wide variety of systems including current fluctuations in resistors, intensity fluctuations in music and signals in human cognition. In electronics, the phenomenon, which is known as 1/f noise, flicker noise or excess noise, hampers the operation of numerous devices and circuits, and can be a significant impediment to the development of practical applications from new materials. Graphene offers unique opportunities for studying 1/f noise because of its two-dimensional structure and widely tunable two-dimensional carrier concentration. The creation of practical graphene-based devices will also depend on our ability to understand and control the low-frequency noise in this material system. Here, the characteristic features of 1/f noise in graphene and few-layer graphene are reviewed, and the implications of such noise for the development of graphene-based electronics including high-frequency devices and sensors are examined.

  1. Acoustic noise generation by the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of measurements taken over the past year of the acoustic emissions from the DOE/NASA MOD-1 Wind Turbine show the maximum acoustic energy is concentrated in the low frequency range, often below 100 Hz. The temporal as well as the frequency characteristics of the turbine sounds have been shown to be important since the MOD-1 is capable of radiating both coherent and incoherent noise. The coherent sounds are usually impulsive and are manifested in an averaged frequency domain plot as large numbers of discrete energy bands extending from the blade passage frequency to beyond 50 Hz on occasion. It is these impulsive sounds which are identified as the principal source of the annoyance to a dozen families living within 3 km of the turbine. The source of the coherent noise appears to be the rapid, unsteady blade loads encountered as the blade passes through the wake of the tower structure. Annoying levels are occasionally reached at nearby homes due to the interaction of the low frequency, high energy peaks in the acoustic impulses and the structural modes of the homes as well as by direct radiation outdoors. The peak levels of these impulses can be enhanced or subdued through complete propagation.

  2. Potential of neuro-fuzzy methodology to estimate noise level of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vlastimir; Petković, Dalibor; Por, Lip Yee; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Zamani, Mazdak; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Motamedi, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines noise effect became large problem because of increasing of wind farms numbers since renewable energy becomes the most influential energy sources. However, wind turbine noise generation and propagation is not understandable in all aspects. Mechanical noise of wind turbines can be ignored since aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades is the main source of the noise generation. Numerical simulations of the noise effects of the wind turbine can be very challenging task. Therefore in this article soft computing method is used to evaluate noise level of wind turbines. The main goal of the study is to estimate wind turbine noise in regard of wind speed at different heights and for different sound frequency. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to estimate the wind turbine noise levels.

  3. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  4. Spectral Discrete Probability Density Function of Measured Wind Turbine Noise in the Far Field

    PubMed Central

    Ashtiani, Payam; Denison, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    Of interest is the spectral character of wind turbine noise at typical residential set-back distances. In this paper, a spectral statistical analysis has been applied to immission measurements conducted at three locations. This method provides discrete probability density functions for the Turbine ONLY component of the measured noise. This analysis is completed for one-third octave sound levels, at integer wind speeds, and is compared to existing metrics for measuring acoustic comfort as well as previous discussions on low-frequency noise sources. PMID:25905097

  5. Low-frequency noise reduction of lightweight airframe structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getline, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the noise attenuation characteristics of aircraft type fuselage structural panels were presented. Of particular interest was noise attenuation at low frequencies, below the fundamental resonances of the panels. All panels were flightweight structures for transport type aircraft in the 34,050 to 45,400 kg (75,000 to 100,000 pounds) gross weight range. Test data include the results of vibration and acoustic transmission loss tests on seven types of isotropic and orthotropically stiffened, flat and curved panels. The results show that stiffness controlled acoustically integrated structures can provide very high noise reductions at low frequencies without significantly affecting their high frequency noise reduction capabilities.

  6. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Methodology for Noise Assessment of Wind Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method. PMID:25075621

  7. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alec N.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit “hearing” to the brain. The sensory stereocilia (“hairs”) on the IHC are “fluid coupled” to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear’s responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that

  8. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alec N; Hullar, Timothy E

    2010-09-01

    Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit "hearing" to the brain. The sensory stereocilia ("hairs") on the IHC are "fluid coupled" to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear's responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that exposure to the

  9. Evaluations of effects due to low-frequency noise in a low demanding work situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, J.; Persson Waye, K.; Kjellberg, A.

    2004-11-01

    Noise sources with a dominating content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. This study aimed to evaluate effects of moderate levels of low-frequency noise on attention, tiredness and motivation in a low demanding work situation. Two ventilation noises at the same A-weighted sound pressure level of 45 dB were used: one of a low-frequency character and one of a flat frequency character (reference noise). Thirty-eight female subjects worked with six performance tasks for 4 h in the noises in a between-subject design. Most of the tasks were monotonous and routine in character. Subjective reports were collected using questionnaires and cortisol levels were measured in saliva. The major finding in this study was that low-frequency noise negatively influenced performance on two tasks sensitive to reduced attention and on a proof-reading task. Performances of tasks aimed at evaluating motivation were not significantly affected. The difference in work performance was not reflected by the subjective reports. No effect of noise was found on subjective stress or cortisol levels.

  10. Analytic model for low-frequency noise in nanorod devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungil; Yu, Byung Yong; Han, Ilki; Choi, Kyoung Jin; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    2008-10-01

    In this work analytic model for generation of excess low-frequency noise in nanorod devices such as field-effect transistors are developed. In back-gate field-effect transistors where most of the surface area of the nanorod is exposed to the ambient, the surface states could be the major noise source via random walk of electrons for the low-frequency or 1/f noise. In dual gate transistors, the interface states and oxide traps can compete with each other as the main noise source via random walk and tunneling, respectively.

  11. Statistical analysis of low frequency vibrations in variable speed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escaler, X.; Mebarki, T.

    2013-12-01

    The spectral content of the low frequency vibrations in the band from 0 to 10 Hz measured in full scale wind turbines has been statistically analyzed as a function of the whole range of steady operating conditions. Attention has been given to the amplitudes of the vibration peaks and their dependency on rotating speed and power output. Two different wind turbine models of 800 and 2000 kW have been compared. For each model, a sample of units located in the same wind farm and operating during a representative period of time have been considered. A condition monitoring system installed in each wind turbine has been used to register the axial acceleration on the gearbox casing between the intermediate and the high speed shafts. The average frequency spectrum has permitted to identify the vibration signature and the position of the first tower natural frequency in both models. The evolution of the vibration amplitudes at the rotor rotating frequency and its multiples has shown that the tower response is amplified by resonance conditions in one of the models. So, it is concluded that a continuous measurement and control of low frequency vibrations is required to protect the turbines against harmful vibrations of this nature.

  12. Cross correlation measurement of low frequency conductivity noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Aditya Kumar; Nigudkar, Himanshu; Chakraborti, Himadri; Udupa, Aditi; Gupta, Kantimay Das

    2018-04-01

    In order to study the low frequency noise(1/f noise)an experimental technique based on cross correlation of two channels is presented. In this method the device under test (DUT)is connected to the two independently powered preamplifiers in parallel. The amplified signals from the two preamplifiers are fed to two channels of a digitizer. Subsequent data processing largelyeliminates the uncorrelated noise of the two channels. This method is tested for various commercial carbon/metal film resistors by measuring equilibrium thermal noise (4kBTR). The method is then modified to study the non-equilibrium low frequency noise of heterostructure samples using fiveprobe configuration. Five contact probes allow two parts of the sample to become two arms of a balanced bridge. This configuration helps in suppressing the effect of power supply fluctuations, bath temperature fluctuations and contact resistances.

  13. Avoiding low frequency noise in packaged HVAC equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbing, C.E.; Blazier, W.E.Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to help those involved in the design and commissioning of packaged HVAC systems to understand the root causes of low frequency noise problems and how to avoid many of them at the design stage. In the 1980's, two things happened to dramatically change the types of noise problems encountered in typical new construction. The first was the introduction of new energy regulations that favored variable air volume (VAV) distribution systems over constant volume air distribution systems. A by-product of VAV design is that mid- and high frequency sound pressure levels produced by current airmore » terminal devices and diffusers in many applications are significantly lower than in the past. The second factor was a trend away from the use of built-up central station fan equipment in favor of packaged, floor-by-floor air handlers or rooftop units. As a result, today's HVAC system noise problems are not confined to just the roar and hiss of the past, but now include intense low frequency rumble and time modulation. Indeed, most current noise problems in modern buildings occur in the frequency range well below 250 Hz. A large fraction of these are a result of the dominant sound pressure levels in the 12 to 40 Hz region. These factors, combined with a substantial increase in the level of low frequency sound from the rest of the system, can produce a non-neutral, time modulated, rumbly sounding background noise that many people find objectionable.« less

  14. Low-frequency noise measurements: applications, methodologies and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciofi, Carmine; Neri, Bruno

    2003-05-01

    Low frequency noise measurements (f<10Hz) are a powerful tool for the investigation of the quality and reliability of electron devices and material. In most cases, however, the application of this technique is made quite difficult both because of the effect of external interferences (temperature fluctuations, EMI, mechanical vibrations, etc.) and because of the high level of flicker noise of the commercial instrumentation. In this paper the most remarkable results we obtained by using low frequency noise measurements for the characterization of the reliability of VLSI metallic interconnections and thin oxides are resumed. Moreover, we discuss the effects of the several sources of noise and interferences which contribute to reduce the sensitivity of the measurement chain. In particular, we demonstrate that by means of a proper design, dedicated instrumentation can be built which allows for a considerable reduction of the overall background noise. Examples will be given with reference to voltage and transresistance amplifiers (both AC and DC coupled), to programmable biasing systems (both current and voltage sources), to thermal stabilization systems and to data acquisition systems. Finally, we will discuss methods which may allow, in proper conditions, to accurately measure noise levels well below the background noise of the input preamplifiers coupled to the device under test. As the systems we discuss are characterized by moderate complexity and employ components readily available on the market, we trust that this paper may also serve as a simple guideline to anyone interested in exploiting the possibility of using very low frequency noise measurements by building his own instrumentation.

  15. Low-frequency noise effect on terahertz tomography using thermal detectors.

    PubMed

    Guillet, J P; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Bou Sleiman, J; Darracq, F; Lewis, D; Mounaix, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the impact of low-frequency noise on terahertz-computed tomography (THz-CT) is analyzed for several measurement configurations and pyroelectric detectors. We acquire real noise data from a continuous millimeter-wave tomographic scanner in order to figure out its impact on reconstructed images. Second, noise characteristics are quantified according to two distinct acquisition methods by (i) extrapolating from experimental acquisitions a sinogram for different noise backgrounds and (ii) reconstructing the corresponding spatial distributions in a slice using a CT reconstruction algorithm. Then we describe the low-frequency noise fingerprint and its influence on reconstructed images. Thanks to the observations, we demonstrate that some experimental choices can dramatically affect the 3D rendering of reconstructions. Thus, we propose some experimental methodologies optimizing the resulting quality and accuracy of the 3D reconstructions, with respect to the low-frequency noise characteristics observed during acquisitions.

  16. Qubit dephasing due to low-frequency noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverdlov, Victor; Rabenstein, Kristian; Averin, Dmitri

    2004-03-01

    We have numerically investigated the effects of the classical low-frequency noise on the qubit dynamics beyond the standard lowest-order perturbation theory in coupling. Noise is generated as a random process with a correlation function characterized by two parameters, the amplitude v0 and the cut-off frequency 2π/τ. Time evolution of the density matrix was averaged over up to 10^7 noise realizations. Contrary to the relaxation time T_1, which for v_0<ω, where ω is the qubit oscillation frequency, is always given correctly by the ``golden-rule'' expression, the dephasing time deviates from the perturbation-theory result, when (v_0/ω)^2(ωτ) ≥1. In this regime, even for unbiased qubit for which the pure dephasing vanishes in perturbation theory, the dephasing is much larger than it's perturbation-theory value 1/(2 T_1).

  17. Harbour porpoises react to low levels of high frequency vessel noise

    PubMed Central

    Dyndo, Monika; Wiśniewska, Danuta Maria; Rojano-Doñate, Laia; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Cetaceans rely critically on sound for navigation, foraging and communication and are therefore potentially affected by increasing noise levels from human activities at sea. Shipping is the main contributor of anthropogenic noise underwater, but studies of shipping noise effects have primarily considered baleen whales due to their good hearing at low frequencies, where ships produce most noise power. Conversely, the possible effects of vessel noise on small toothed whales have been largely ignored due to their poor low-frequency hearing. Prompted by recent findings of energy at medium- to high-frequencies in vessel noise, we conducted an exposure study where the behaviour of four porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a net-pen was logged while they were exposed to 133 vessel passages. Using a multivariate generalised linear mixed-effects model, we show that low levels of high frequency components in vessel noise elicit strong, stereotyped behavioural responses in porpoises. Such low levels will routinely be experienced by porpoises in the wild at ranges of more than 1000 meters from vessels, suggesting that vessel noise is a, so far, largely overlooked, but substantial source of disturbance in shallow water areas with high densities of both porpoises and vessels. PMID:26095689

  18. Macroscopic resonant tunneling in the presence of low frequency noise.

    PubMed

    Amin, M H S; Averin, Dmitri V

    2008-05-16

    We develop a theory of macroscopic resonant tunneling of flux in a double-well potential in the presence of realistic flux noise with a significant low-frequency component. The rate of incoherent flux tunneling between the wells exhibits resonant peaks, the shape and position of which reflect qualitative features of the noise, and can thus serve as a diagnostic tool for studying the low-frequency flux noise in SQUID qubits. We show, in particular, that the noise-induced renormalization of the first resonant peak provides direct information on the temperature of the noise source and the strength of its quantum component.

  19. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  20. Computational Acoustic Beamforming for Noise Source Identification for Small Wind Turbines.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ping; Lien, Fue-Sang; Yee, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a computational acoustic beamforming (CAB) methodology for identification of sources of small wind turbine noise. This methodology is validated using the case of the NACA 0012 airfoil trailing edge noise. For this validation case, the predicted acoustic maps were in excellent conformance with the results of the measurements obtained from the acoustic beamforming experiment. Following this validation study, the CAB methodology was applied to the identification of noise sources generated by a commercial small wind turbine. The simulated acoustic maps revealed that the blade tower interaction and the wind turbine nacelle were the two primary mechanisms for sound generation for this small wind turbine at frequencies between 100 and 630 Hz.

  1. Computational Acoustic Beamforming for Noise Source Identification for Small Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Fue-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a computational acoustic beamforming (CAB) methodology for identification of sources of small wind turbine noise. This methodology is validated using the case of the NACA 0012 airfoil trailing edge noise. For this validation case, the predicted acoustic maps were in excellent conformance with the results of the measurements obtained from the acoustic beamforming experiment. Following this validation study, the CAB methodology was applied to the identification of noise sources generated by a commercial small wind turbine. The simulated acoustic maps revealed that the blade tower interaction and the wind turbine nacelle were the two primary mechanisms for sound generation for this small wind turbine at frequencies between 100 and 630 Hz. PMID:28378012

  2. The Influence of High-Frequency Envelope Information on Low-Frequency Vowel Identification in Noise

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Vowel identification in noise using consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) logatomes was used to investigate a possible interplay of speech information from different frequency regions. It was hypothesized that the periodicity conveyed by the temporal envelope of a high frequency stimulus can enhance the use of the information carried by auditory channels in the low-frequency region that share the same periodicity. It was further hypothesized that this acts as a strobe-like mechanism and would increase the signal-to-noise ratio for the voiced parts of the CVCs. In a first experiment, different high-frequency cues were provided to test this hypothesis, whereas a second experiment examined more closely the role of amplitude modulations and intact phase information within the high-frequency region (4–8 kHz). CVCs were either natural or vocoded speech (both limited to a low-pass cutoff-frequency of 2.5 kHz) and were presented in stationary 3-kHz low-pass filtered masking noise. The experimental results did not support the hypothesized use of periodicity information for aiding low-frequency perception. PMID:26730702

  3. Coherence between internal and external noise generated by gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Neale, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments and analysis on a gas turbine combustor unit are reported with a view in mind to separate propagated acoustic power from non-propagating 'pseudo-sound'. Analytically, it is suggested that a transition frequency will exist below which the interior pressure fluctuations are non-propagating, whereas above this frequency, of the order of 100 Hz, the noise is dominated by propagating acoustic waves. Coherence measurements are reported which show this concept to be borne out experimentally. Coherence between interior and exterior microphones is measured over a wide range of experimental conditions for a gas turbine combustor exhausting directly to the atmosphere. The purpose is to show that below a certain frequency, measurements of interior noise are not indicative of combustion noise ultimately propagating from an engine.

  4. Cortisol response and subjective sleep disturbance after low-frequency noise exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson Waye, K.; Agge, A.; Clow, A.; Hucklebridge, F.

    2004-10-01

    A previous experimental study showed that the cortisol response upon awakening was reduced following nights with low-frequency noise exposure. This study comprised a larger number of subjects and an extended period of acclimatisation nights. In total, 26 male subjects slept during five consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Half of the subjects were exposed to low-frequency noise (40 dBA) on the 4th night and had their reference night (24 dBA) on the 5th night, while the reverse conditions were present for the other half of the group. Subjective sleep disturbances were recorded by questionnaires and cortisol response upon awakening was measured in saliva. The results showed that subjects were more tired and felt less socially orientated in the morning after nights with low-frequency noise. Mood was negatively affected in the evening after nights with low-frequency noise. No effect of noise condition was found on the cortisol secretion. There was a significant effect of group and weekday, indicating that further methodological developments are necessary before saliva cortisol secretion can be reliably used as an indicator of noise-disturbed sleep.

  5. 'Wind turbine syndrome': fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Farboud, A; Crunkhorn, R; Trinidade, A

    2013-03-01

    Symptoms, including tinnitus, ear pain and vertigo, have been reported following exposure to wind turbine noise. This review addresses the effects of infrasound and low frequency noise and questions the existence of 'wind turbine syndrome'. This review is based on a search for articles published within the last 10 years, conducted using the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine, which included in their title or abstract the terms 'wind turbine', 'infrasound' or 'low frequency noise'. There is evidence that infrasound has a physiological effect on the ear. Until this effect is fully understood, it is impossible to conclude that wind turbine noise does not cause any of the symptoms described. However, many believe that these symptoms are related largely to the stress caused by unwanted noise exposure. There is some evidence of symptoms in patients exposed to wind turbine noise. The effects of infrasound require further investigation.

  6. Simple programmable voltage reference for low frequency noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Chye, En Un

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a circuit design of a low-noise voltage reference based on an electric double-layer capacitor, a microcontroller and a general purpose DAC. A large capacitance value (1F and more) makes it possible to create low-pass filter with a large time constant, effectively reducing low-frequency noise beyond its bandwidth. Choosing the optimum value of the resistor in the RC filter, one can achieve the best ratio between the transient time, the deviation of the output voltage from the set point and the minimum noise cut-off frequency. As experiments have shown, the spectral density of the voltage at a frequency of 1 kHz does not exceed 1.2 nV/√Hz the maximum deviation of the output voltage from the predetermined does not exceed 1.4 % and depends on the holding time of the previous value. Subsequently, this error is reduced to a constant value and can be compensated.

  7. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  8. The Prevalence of Annoyance and Effects after Long-Term Exposure to Low-Frequency Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PERSSON WAYE, K.; RYLANDER, R.

    2001-02-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire and noise measurement survey was undertaken among 279 randomly chosen persons exposed to noise from heat pump/ventilation installations in their homes. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of annoyance, disturbance of rest and concentration and the presence of psycho-social and medical symptoms in relation to noise exposure. Of the sample, 108 persons were exposed to a noise classified as of a low-frequency character (low-frequency noise exposed). As controls were chosen 171 persons living in similar residential areas, but exposed to a noise classified as of a mid-frequency character. The results showed that the prevalence of annoyance and disturbed concentration and rest was significantly higher among the persons exposed to low-frequency noise as compared to controls. Annoyance was suggested to be related to the sound pressure levels of the dominant low frequencies. The dB (A) noise levels did not predict annoyance. No significant differences in medical or psycho-social symptoms were found between the low-frequency noise exposed persons and controls. Among persons reporting themselves to be “rather” or “very” annoyed by low-frequency noise due to the heat pump/ventilation installations, a higher extent of psycho-social symptoms, sleep disturbance and headaches was found.

  9. A very low noise, high accuracy, programmable voltage source for low frequency noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandurra, Graziella; Giusi, Gino; Ciofi, Carmine

    2014-04-01

    In this paper an approach for designing a programmable, very low noise, high accuracy voltage source for biasing devices under test in low frequency noise measurements is proposed. The core of the system is a supercapacitor based two pole low pass filter used for filtering out the noise produced by a standard DA converter down to 100 mHz with an attenuation in excess of 40 dB. The high leakage current of the supercapacitors, however, introduces large DC errors that need to be compensated in order to obtain high accuracy as well as very low output noise. To this end, a proper circuit topology has been developed that allows to considerably reduce the effect of the supercapacitor leakage current on the DC response of the system while maintaining a very low level of output noise. With a proper design an output noise as low as the equivalent input voltage noise of the OP27 operational amplifier, used as the output buffer of the system, can be obtained with DC accuracies better that 0.05% up to the maximum output of 8 V. The expected performances of the proposed voltage source have been confirmed both by means of SPICE simulations and by means of measurements on actual prototypes. Turn on and stabilization times for the system are of the order of a few hundred seconds. These times are fully compatible with noise measurements down to 100 mHz, since measurement times of the order of several tens of minutes are required in any case in order to reduce the statistical error in the measured spectra down to an acceptable level.

  10. A very low noise, high accuracy, programmable voltage source for low frequency noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Scandurra, Graziella; Giusi, Gino; Ciofi, Carmine

    2014-04-01

    In this paper an approach for designing a programmable, very low noise, high accuracy voltage source for biasing devices under test in low frequency noise measurements is proposed. The core of the system is a supercapacitor based two pole low pass filter used for filtering out the noise produced by a standard DA converter down to 100 mHz with an attenuation in excess of 40 dB. The high leakage current of the supercapacitors, however, introduces large DC errors that need to be compensated in order to obtain high accuracy as well as very low output noise. To this end, a proper circuit topology has been developed that allows to considerably reduce the effect of the supercapacitor leakage current on the DC response of the system while maintaining a very low level of output noise. With a proper design an output noise as low as the equivalent input voltage noise of the OP27 operational amplifier, used as the output buffer of the system, can be obtained with DC accuracies better that 0.05% up to the maximum output of 8 V. The expected performances of the proposed voltage source have been confirmed both by means of SPICE simulations and by means of measurements on actual prototypes. Turn on and stabilization times for the system are of the order of a few hundred seconds. These times are fully compatible with noise measurements down to 100 mHz, since measurement times of the order of several tens of minutes are required in any case in order to reduce the statistical error in the measured spectra down to an acceptable level.

  11. Wind turbines and human health.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  12. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  13. Low frequency dove coos vary across noise gradients in an urbanized environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengyi; Bonebrake, Timothy C; Dingle, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Urbanization poses a challenge to bird communication due to signal masking by ambient noise and reflective surfaces that lead to signal degradation. Bird species (especially oscines) have been shown to alter their singing behaviour to increase signal efficiency in highly urbanized environments. However, few studies on the effects of noise on song structure have included birds with low frequency vocal signals which may be especially vulnerable to noise pollution due to significant frequency overlap of their signals with traffic noise. We compared the perch coos of spotted doves (Streptopelia chinensis), a species with very low frequency vocalizations, in different background noise levels across urban and peri-urban areas in Hong Kong. We documented a 10% upward shift in the minimum frequency of coos of spotted doves across the noise gradient (a relatively small but significant shift), and a reduced maximum frequency in urban habitats with a higher density of built up area. Hong Kong doves had significantly higher minimum and maximum frequencies than doves from throughout their range (from mostly rural sites). Our results indicate that urban species with extremely low sound frequencies such as doves can alter their vocalizations in response to variable urban acoustic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Low frequency noise elimination technique for 24-bit Σ-Δ data acquisition systems.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shao-Bo; Robert, Olivier; Lognonné, Philippe; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Yang, Shan-Qing

    2015-03-01

    Low frequency 1/f noise is one of the key limiting factors of high precision measurement instruments. In this paper, digital correlated double sampling is implemented to reduce the offset and low frequency 1/f noise of a data acquisition system with 24-bit sigma delta (Σ-Δ) analog to digital converter (ADC). The input voltage is modulated by cross-coupled switches, which are synchronized to the sampling clock, and converted into digital signal by ADC. By using a proper switch frequency, the unwanted parasitic signal frequencies generated by the switches are avoided. The noise elimination processing is made through the principle of digital correlated double sampling, which is equivalent to a time shifted subtraction for the sampled voltage. The low frequency 1/f noise spectrum density of the data acquisition system is reduced to be flat down to the measurement frequency lower limit, which is about 0.0001 Hz in this paper. The noise spectrum density is eliminated by more than 60 dB at 0.0001 Hz, with a residual noise floor of (9 ± 2) nV/Hz(1/2) which is limited by the intrinsic white noise floor of the ADC above its corner frequency.

  15. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. Anmore » assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.« less

  16. Consideration of some factors affecting low-frequency fuselage noise transmission for propeller aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Roussos, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Possible reasons for disagreement between measured and predicted trends of sidewall noise transmission at low frequency are investigated using simplified analysis methods. An analytical model combining incident plane acoustic waves with an infinite flat panel is used to study the effects of sound incidence angle, plate structural properties, frequency, absorption, and the difference between noise reduction and transmission loss. Analysis shows that these factors have significant effects on noise transmission but they do not account for the differences between measured and predicted trends at low frequencies. An analytical model combining an infinite flat plate with a normally incident acoustic wave having exponentially decaying magnitude along one coordinate is used to study the effect of a localized source distribution such as is associated with propeller noise. Results show that the localization brings the predicted low-frequency trend of noise transmission into better agreement with measured propeller results. This effect is independent of low-frequency stiffness effects that have been previously reported to be associated with boundary conditions.

  17. Passive Acoustic Thermometry Using Low-Frequency Deep Water Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    where potential ice noise sources contributing to the coherent arrivals shown in C-D are located (18b). In the low-frequency band used in this...seismic activity (e.g. along major undersea fault lines) or ice -breaking noise in the Polar Regions (19-22). Ice - generated ambient noise near the...using geodesic paths to obtain a simple estimate of the geographical area from where ice -generated ambient noise is likely to emanate for each site

  18. Low-frequency electronic noise in single-layer MoS2 transistors.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Arnold, Heather N; Jariwala, Deep; Marks, Tobin J; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-09-11

    Ubiquitous low-frequency 1/f noise can be a limiting factor in the performance and application of nanoscale devices. Here, we quantitatively investigate low-frequency electronic noise in single-layer transition metal dichalcogenide MoS2 field-effect transistors. The measured 1/f noise can be explained by an empirical formulation of mobility fluctuations with the Hooge parameter ranging between 0.005 and 2.0 in vacuum (<10(-5) Torr). The field-effect mobility decreased, and the noise amplitude increased by an order of magnitude in ambient conditions, revealing the significant influence of atmospheric adsorbates on charge transport. In addition, single Lorentzian generation-recombination noise was observed to increase by an order of magnitude as the devices were cooled from 300 to 6.5 K.

  19. Myocardial fibrosis in rats exposed to low frequency noise.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Eduardo; Oliveira, Pedro; Borrecho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Maria João R; Brito, José; Aguas, Artur; Martins, Dos Santos José

    2013-06-01

    Low frequency noise (LFN) characterized by large pressure amplitude (> or =90 dB SPL) and low frequency bands (< or =500 Hz) can lead to structural and ultrastructural modifications in the extracellular matrix of several tissues, with an abnormal proliferation of collagen and development of fibrosis. It is not known whether LFN induces similar structural alterations in the ventricular myocardium of rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate and measure the myocardial fibrosis induced by LFN. Two groups of rats were considered: group A with 26 rats continuously exposed to LFN during a period of 3 months; group B with 20 control rats.The hearts were sectioned from the ventricular apex to the atria and the mid-ventricular fragment was selected. Chromotrope-aniline blue (CAB) staining was used for histological observation. The measurement of fibrosis was performed using the computer image analysis Image J software. Histological observation with CAB staining showed the presence of collagen deposition between the cardiomyocytes. Fibrosis increased 97.5%, 81.5% and 83.7%, respectively, in the left ventricle, interventricular septum and right ventricle, in exposed rats (P <0.001).The ratio fibrosis/muscle in left ventricle, interventricular septum and right ventricle was significantly higher in LFN exposed rats (P< 0.001). Our study demonstrates a significant myocardial fibrosis induced by low frequency noise in rats. Our results reinforce the need for further experimental and clinical investigations concerning the effects of low frequency noise on the heart.

  20. The assessment and evaluation of low-frequency noise near the region of infrasound.

    PubMed

    Ziaran, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present recent knowledge about the assessment and evaluation of low-frequency sounds (noise) and infrasound, close to the threshold of hearing, and identify their potential effect on human health and annoyance. Low-frequency noise generated by air flowing over a moving car with an open window was chosen as a typical scenario which can be subjectively assessed by people traveling by automobile. The principle of noise generated within the interior of the car and its effects on the comfort of the driver and passengers are analyzed at different velocities. An open window of a car at high velocity behaves as a source of specifically strong tonal low-frequency noise which is generally perceived as annoying. The interior noise generated by an open window of a passenger car was measured under different conditions: Driving on a highway and driving on a typical roadway. First, an octave-band analysis was used to assess the noise level and its impact on the driver's comfort. Second, a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis and one-third octave-band analysis were used for the detection of tonal low-frequency noise. Comparison between two different car makers was also done. Finally, the paper suggests some possibilities for scientifically assessing and evaluating low-frequency sounds in general, and some recommendations are introduced for scientific discussion, since sounds with strong low-frequency content (but not only strong) engender greater annoyance than is predicted by an A-weighted sound pressure level.

  1. Low Frequency Noise Contamination in Fan Model Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. The presence of a downstream pylon for a model fan test, however, may result in noise contamination through pylon interactions with the free stream and model exhaust airflows. Additionally, there is the problem of separating the fan and jet noise components generated by the model fan. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise were then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9 15 LSWT model fan installation in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery and in duct components of fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and airflow fan exit velocity. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise (i.e., noise generated by flow interaction with the downstream support pylon). A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  2. Perception of force and stiffness in the presence of low-frequency haptic noise

    PubMed Central

    Gurari, Netta; Okamura, Allison M.; Kuchenbecker, Katherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This work lays the foundation for future research on quantitative modeling of human stiffness perception. Our goal was to develop a method by which a human’s ability to perceive suprathreshold haptic force stimuli and haptic stiffness stimuli can be affected by adding haptic noise. Methods Five human participants performed a same-different task with a one-degree-of-freedom force-feedback device. Participants used the right index finger to actively interact with variations of force (∼5 and ∼8 N) and stiffness (∼290 N/m) stimuli that included one of four scaled amounts of haptically rendered noise (None, Low, Medium, High). The haptic noise was zero-mean Gaussian white noise that was low-pass filtered with a 2 Hz cut-off frequency; the resulting low-frequency signal was added to the force rendered while the participant interacted with the force and stiffness stimuli. Results We found that the precision with which participants could identify the magnitude of both the force and stiffness stimuli was affected by the magnitude of the low-frequency haptically rendered noise added to the haptic stimulus, as well as the magnitude of the haptic stimulus itself. The Weber fraction strongly correlated with the standard deviation of the low-frequency haptic noise with a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient of ρ > 0.83. The mean standard deviation of the low-frequency haptic noise in the haptic stimuli ranged from 0.184 N to 1.111 N across the four haptically rendered noise levels, and the corresponding mean Weber fractions spanned between 0.042 and 0.101. Conclusions The human ability to perceive both suprathreshold haptic force and stiffness stimuli degrades in the presence of added low-frequency haptic noise. Future work can use the reported methods to investigate how force perception and stiffness perception may relate, with possible applications in haptic watermarking and in the assessment of the functionality of peripheral pathways in

  3. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  4. A low noise and ultra-narrow bandwidth frequency-locked loop based on the beat method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Sui, Jianping; Chen, Zhiyong; Yu, Fang; Sheng, Rongwu

    2011-06-01

    A novel frequency-locked loop (FLL) based on the beat method is proposed in this paper. Compared with other frequency feedback loops, this FLL is a digital loop with simple structure and very low noise. As shown in the experimental results, this FLL can be used to reduce close-in phase noise on atomic frequency standards, through which a composite frequency standard with ultra-low phase noise and low cost can be easily realized.

  5. Continuous exposure to low-frequency noise and carbon disulfide: Combined effects on hearing.

    PubMed

    Venet, Thomas; Carreres-Pons, Maria; Chalansonnet, Monique; Thomas, Aurélie; Merlen, Lise; Nunge, Hervé; Bonfanti, Elodie; Cosnier, Frédéric; Llorens, Jordi; Campo, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) is used in industry; it has been shown to have neurotoxic effects, causing central and distal axonopathies.However, it is not considered cochleotoxic as it does not affect hair cells in the organ of Corti, and the only auditory effects reported in the literature were confined to the low-frequency region. No reports on the effects of combined exposure to low-frequency noise and CS 2 have been published to date. This article focuses on the effects on rat hearing of combined exposure to noise with increasing concentrations of CS 2 (0, 63,250, and 500ppm, 6h per day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks). The noise used was a low-frequency noise ranging from 0.5 to 2kHz at an intensity of 106dB SPL. Auditory function was tested using distortion product oto-acoustic emissions, which mainly reflects the cochlear performances. Exposure to noise alone caused an auditory deficit in a frequency area ranging from 3.6 to 6 kHz. The damaged area was approximately one octave (6kHz) above the highest frequency of the exposure noise (2.8kHz); it was a little wider than expected based on the noise spectrum.Consequently, since maximum hearing sensitivity is located around 8kHz in rats, low-frequency noise exposure can affect the cochlear regions detecting mid-range frequencies. Co-exposure to CS 2 (250-ppm and over) and noise increased the extent of the damaged frequency window since a significant auditory deficit was measured at 9.6kHz in these conditions.Moreover, the significance at 9.6kHz increased with the solvent concentrations. Histological data showed that neither hair cells nor ganglion cells were damaged by CS 2 . This discrepancy between functional and histological data is discussed. Like most aromatic solvents, carbon disulfide should be considered as a key parameter in hearing conservation régulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low frequency noise peak near magnon emission energy in magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Liang; Xiang, Li; Guo, Huiqiang

    2014-12-15

    We report on the low frequency (LF) noise measurements in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) below 4 K and at low bias, where the transport is strongly affected by scattering with magnons emitted by hot tunnelling electrons, as thermal activation of magnons from the environment is suppressed. For both CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB and CoFeB/AlO{sub x}/CoFeB MTJs, enhanced LF noise is observed at bias voltage around magnon emission energy, forming a peak in the bias dependence of noise power spectra density, independent of magnetic configurations. The noise peak is much higher and broader for unannealed AlO{sub x}-based MTJ, and besides Lorentzian shape noise spectramore » in the frequency domain, random telegraph noise (RTN) is visible in the time traces. During repeated measurements the noise peak reduces and the RTN becomes difficult to resolve, suggesting defects being annealed. The Lorentzian shape noise spectra can be fitted with bias-dependent activation of RTN, with the attempt frequency in the MHz range, consistent with magnon dynamics. These findings suggest magnon-assisted activation of defects as the origin of the enhanced LF noise.« less

  7. The effects of low frequency noise on mental performance and annoyance.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadi, Iraj; Sandrock, Stephan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza

    2013-08-01

    Low frequency noise (LFN) as background noise in urban and work environments is emitted from many artificial sources such as road vehicles, aircraft, and air movement machinery including wind turbines, compressors, and ventilation or air conditioning units. In addition to objective effects, LFN could also cause noise annoyance and influence mental performance; however, there are no homogenous findings regarding this issue. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of LFN on mental performance and annoyance, as well as to consider the role of extraversion and neuroticism on the issue. This study was conducted on 90 students of Iran University of Medical Sciences (54 males and 36 females). The mean age of the students was 23.46 years (SD = 1.97). Personality traits and noise annoyance were measured by using Eysenck Personality Inventory and a 12-scale self-reported questionnaire, respectively. Stroop and Cognitrone computerized tests measured mental performance of participants each exposed to 50 and 70 dBA of LFN and silence. LFNs were produced by Cool Edit Pro 2.1 software. There was no significant difference between mental performance parameters under 50 and 70 dBA of LFN, whereas there were significant differences between most mental performance parameters in quiet and under LFN (50 and 70 dBA). This research showed that LFN, compared to silence, increased the accuracy and the test performance speed (p < 0.01). There was no association between LFN and noise annoyance (p > 0.01). Introverts conducted the tests faster than extraverts (p < 0.05). This research showed that neuroticism does not influence mental performance. It seems that LFN has increased arousal level of participants, and extraversion has a considerable impact on mental performance.

  8. The influence of periodic wind turbine noise on infrasound array measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. These systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to the human ear. Ten years of data (2006-2015) from the infrasound array IGADE in Northern Germany are analysed to quantify the influence of wind turbine noise on infrasound recordings. Furthermore, a theoretical model is derived and validated by a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations. Fieldwork was carried out 2004 to measure the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine and to extrapolate the sound effect for a larger number of nearby wind turbines. The model estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and thus enables for specifying the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. This aspect is particularly important to guarantee the monitoring performance of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and thus have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise.

  9. Application of ray theory to propagation of low frequency noise from wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Ray theory is used to explain data from two experiments (1985 and 1985) on the propagation of low frequency sound generated by the WTS-4 wind turbine. Emphasis is on downwind data, but some upwind measurements taken during the 1985 experiment are also considered. General ray theory for a moving medium is reviewed and ray equations obtained. Restrictions are introduced simplifying the equations and permitting the use of a ray theory program MEDUSA, the computed propagation loss curve of which is compared to the measurements. Good qualitative agreement is obtained with 1984 downwind data. The results indicate that the downwind sound field is that of a near-ground sound channel. Although more scatter is seen in the 1985 data, agreement between theory and data is also good. In particular, the position and magnitude of the jump in the sound levels associated with the beginning of the sound channel is correctly predicted. The theoretical explanation of the upwind data is less successful. Ray theory calculations indicate the formation of a shadow zone that, in fact, does not occur. While no sharp shadow zone is apparent in the data, the general expectation (based on ray theory) that sound levels should be much reduced upwind is confirmed by the data.

  10. A Numerical Investigation of Turbine Noise Source Hierarchy and Its Acoustic Transmission Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of the various turbine noise generation mechanisms and the characteristics of the turbine acoustic transmission loss are essential ingredients in developing robust reduced-order models for predicting the turbine noise signature. A computationally based investigation has been undertaken to help guide the development of a turbine noise prediction capability that does not rely on empiricism. The investigation relies on highly detailed numerical simulations of the unsteady flowfield inside a modern high-pressure turbine (HPT). The simulations are developed using TURBO, which is an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) code capable of multi-stage simulations. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to determine an estimate of the relative importance of the contributions to the coherent part of the acoustic signature of a turbine from the three potential sources of turbine noise generation, namely, blade-row viscous interaction, potential field interaction, and entropic source associated with the interaction of the blade rows with the temperature nonuniformities caused by the incomplete mixing of the hot fluid and the cooling flow. Second, to develop an understanding of the turbine acoustic transmission characteristics and to assess the applicability of existing empirical and analytical transmission loss models to realistic geometries and flow conditions for modern turbine designs. The investigation so far has concentrated on two simulations: (1) a single-stage HPT and (2) a two-stage HPT and the associated inter-turbine duct/strut segment. The simulations are designed to resolve up to the second harmonic of the blade passing frequency tone in accordance with accepted rules for second order solvers like TURBO. The calculations include blade and vane cooling flows and a radial profile of pressure and temperature at the turbine inlet. The calculation can be modified later to include the combustor pattern factor at the

  11. Low-frequency (1/f) noise in nanocrystal field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yuming; Li, Haipeng; Kim, David K; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2014-09-23

    We investigate the origins and magnitude of low-frequency noise in high-mobility nanocrystal field-effect transistors and show the noise is of 1/f-type. Sub-band gap states, in particular, those introduced by nanocrystal surfaces, have a significant influence on the 1/f noise. By engineering the device geometry and passivating nanocrystal surfaces, we show that in the linear and saturation regimes the 1/f noise obeys Hooge's model of mobility fluctuations, consistent with transport of a high density of accumulated carriers in extended electronic states of the NC thin films. In the subthreshold regime, the Fermi energy moves deeper into the mobility gap and sub-band gap trap states give rise to a transition to noise dominated by carrier number fluctuations as described in McWhorter's model. CdSe nanocrystal field-effect transistors have a Hooge parameter of 3 × 10(-2), comparable to other solution-deposited, thin-film devices, promising high-performance, low-cost, low-noise integrated circuitry.

  12. Ground noise measurements during static and flyby operations of the Cessna 02-T turbine powered airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Henderson, H. R.; Lawton, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    The field noise measurements on the Cessna 02-T turbine powered propeller aircraft are presented. The objective of the study was to obtain the basic noise characteristics of the aircraft during static ground runs and flyover tests, to identify the sources of the noise, and to correlate the noises with the aircraft operating conditions. The results are presented in the form of a overall noise levels, radiation patterns, and frequency spectra. The noise characteristics of the turbine powered aircraft are compared with those of the reciprocating engine powered aircraft.

  13. An exploratory survey of noise levels associated with a 100kW wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balombin, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise measurements of a 125-foot diameter, 100 kW wind turbine are presented. The data include measurements as functions of distance from the turbine and directivity angle and cover a frequency range from 1 Hz to several kHz. Potential community impact is discussed in terms of A-weighted noise levels relative to background levels, and the intrasonic spectral content. Finally, the change in the sound power spectrum associated with a change in the rotor speed in described. The acoustic impact of this size wind turbine is judged to be minimal.

  14. Band-gap tunable dielectric elastomer filter for low frequency noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Kun; Wang, Mian; Lu, Tongqing; Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Tiejun

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, diverse materials and technologies for sound insulation have been widely applied in engineering. However, suppressing the noise radiation at low frequency still remains a challenge. In this work, a novel membrane-type smart filter, consisting of a pre-stretched dielectric elastomer membrane with two compliant electrodes coated on the both sides, is presented to control the low frequency noise. Since the stiffness of membrane dominates its acoustic properties, sound transmission band-gap of the membrane filter can be tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to the membrane. The impedance tube experiments have been carried out to measure the sound transmission loss (STL) of the filters with different electrodes, membrane thickness and pre-stretch conditions. The experimental results show that the center frequency of sound transmission band-gap mainly depends on the stress in the dielectric elastomer, and a large band-gap shift (more than 60 Hz) can be achieved by tuning the voltage applied to the 85 mm diameter VHB4910 specimen with pre-stretch {λ }0=3. Based on the experimental results and the assumption that applied electric field is independent of the membrane behavior, 3D finite element analysis has also been conducted to calculate the membrane stress variation. The sound filter proposed herein may provide a promising facility to control low frequency noise source with tonal characteristics.

  15. Impact of wind turbine noise in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verheijen, Edwin; Jabben, Jan; Schreurs, Eric; Smith, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government aims at an increase of wind energy up to 6 000 MW in 2020 by placing new wind turbines on land or offshore. At the same time, the existing noise legislation for wind turbines is being reconsidered. For the purpose of establishing a new noise reception limit value expressed in L den , the impact of wind turbine noise under the given policy targets needs to be explored. For this purpose, the consequences of different reception limit values for the new Dutch noise legislation have been studied, both in terms of effects on the population and regarding sustainable energy policy targets. On the basis of a nation-wide noise map containing all wind turbines in The Netherlands, it is calculated that 3% of the inhabitants of The Netherlands are currently exposed to noise from wind turbines above 28 dB(A) at the faηade. Newly established dose-response relationships indicate that about 1500 of these inhabitants are likely to be severely annoyed inside their dwellings. The available space for new wind turbines strongly depends on the noise limit value that will be chosen. This study suggests an outdoor A-weighted reception limit of L den = 45 dB as a trade-off between the need for protection against noise annoyance and the feasibility of national targets for renewable energy.

  16. Experimental characterization of vertical-axis wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C E; Graham, W R

    2015-01-01

    Vertical-axis wind turbines are wind-energy generators suitable for use in urban environments. Their associated noise thus needs to be characterized and understood. As a first step, this work investigates the relative importance of harmonic and broadband contributions via model-scale wind-tunnel experiments. Cross-spectra from a pair of flush-mounted wall microphones exhibit both components, but further analysis shows that the broadband dominates at frequencies corresponding to the audible range in full-scale operation. This observation has detrimental implications for noise-prediction reliability and hence also for acoustic design optimization.

  17. Noise and low-frequency sound levels due to aerial fireworks and prediction of the occupational exposure of pyrotechnicians to noise

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tagayasu; Inaba, Ryoichi; Aoyama, Atsuhito

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the actual situation of noise and low-frequency sounds in firework events and their impact on pyrotechnicians. Methods: Data on firework noise and low-frequency sounds were obtained at a point located approximately 100 m away from the launch site of a firework display held in "A" City in 2013. We obtained the data by continuously measuring and analyzing the equivalent continuous sound level (Leq) and the one-third octave band of the noise and low-frequency sounds emanating from the major firework detonations, and predicted sound levels at the original launch site. Results: Sound levels of 100-115 dB and low-frequency sounds of 100-125 dB were observed at night. The maximum and mean Leq values were 97 and 95 dB, respectively. The launching noise level predicted from the sounds (85 dB) at the noise measurement point was 133 dB. Occupational exposure to noise for pyrotechnicians at the remote operation point (located 20-30 m away from the launch site) was estimated to be below 100 dB. Conclusions: Pyrotechnicians are exposed to very loud noise (>100 dB) at the launch point. We believe that it is necessary to implement measures such as fixing earplugs or earmuffs, posting a warning at the workplace, and executing a remote launching operation to prevent hearing loss caused by occupational exposure of pyrotechnicians to noise. It is predicted that both sound levels and low-frequency sounds would be reduced by approximately 35 dB at the remote operation site. PMID:27725489

  18. Noise and low-frequency sound levels due to aerial fireworks and prediction of the occupational exposure of pyrotechnicians to noise.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tagayasu; Inaba, Ryoichi; Aoyama, Atsuhito

    2016-11-29

    This study investigated the actual situation of noise and low-frequency sounds in firework events and their impact on pyrotechnicians. Data on firework noise and low-frequency sounds were obtained at a point located approximately 100 m away from the launch site of a firework display held in "A" City in 2013. We obtained the data by continuously measuring and analyzing the equivalent continuous sound level (Leq) and the one-third octave band of the noise and low-frequency sounds emanating from the major firework detonations, and predicted sound levels at the original launch site. Sound levels of 100-115 dB and low-frequency sounds of 100-125 dB were observed at night. The maximum and mean Leq values were 97 and 95 dB, respectively. The launching noise level predicted from the sounds (85 dB) at the noise measurement point was 133 dB. Occupational exposure to noise for pyrotechnicians at the remote operation point (located 20-30 m away from the launch site) was estimated to be below 100 dB. Pyrotechnicians are exposed to very loud noise (>100 dB) at the launch point. We believe that it is necessary to implement measures such as fixing earplugs or earmuffs, posting a warning at the workplace, and executing a remote launching operation to prevent hearing loss caused by occupational exposure of pyrotechnicians to noise. It is predicted that both sound levels and low-frequency sounds would be reduced by approximately 35 dB at the remote operation site.

  19. Comparison of low-frequency noise levels of the Concorde supersonic transport with other commercial service airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Mccurdy, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fifty-two airplane noise recordings, made at several locations around Dulles International Airport, were analyzed to compare the low-frequency noise levels of the Concorde supersonic transport with those of other commercial jet airplanes. Comparisons of the relative low-frequency noise levels which were produced at close and distant locations for departures and arrivals were made for three noise measures: the sound pressure level in the 1/3 octave band centered at 20 Hz, the total sound pressure level in the 1/3 octave bands with center frequencies less than or equal to 125 Hz, and the total sound pressure level in the 1/3 octave bands with center frequencies less than or equal to 500 Hz. Although the absolute noise levels for Concorde were found, in general, to be higher than those for the other airplane types, the level of low-frequency noise of the Concorde relative to the perceived noise level (PNL), effective perceived noise level (EPNL), and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) was within the range established by the other airplane types, except for the arrival operations of four-engine, narrow-body airplanes. The measure OASPL was found to be a significantly better predictor of low-frequency noise level than PNL or EPNL.

  20. On low-frequency errors of uniformly modulated filtered white-noise models for ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal; Boore, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Low-frequency errors of a commonly used non-stationary stochastic model (uniformly modulated filtered white-noise model) for earthquake ground motions are investigated. It is shown both analytically and by numerical simulation that uniformly modulated filter white-noise-type models systematically overestimate the spectral response for periods longer than the effective duration of the earthquake, because of the built-in low-frequency errors in the model. The errors, which are significant for low-magnitude short-duration earthquakes, can be eliminated by using the filtered shot-noise-type models (i. e. white noise, modulated by the envelope first, and then filtered).

  1. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.

  2. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jing; Peter Grünberg Institute; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-15

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mAmore » to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.« less

  3. Low frequency North Atlantic SST variability: Weather noise forcing and coupled response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Meizhu

    A method to diagnose the causes of low frequency SST variability is developed, tested and applied in an ideal case and real climate. In the ideal case, a free simulation of the COLA CGCM is taken as synthetic observations. For real climate, we take NCEP reanalysis atmospheric data and Reynolds SST as observations. Both the synthetic and actual observation data show that weather noise is the main component of atmospheric variability at subtropics and high-latitude. Diagnoses of results from the ideal case suggest that most of the synthetic observed SST variability can be reproduced by the weather noise surface fluxes forcing. This includes the "observed" low frequency SST patterns in the North Atlantic and their corresponding time evolution. Among all the noise surface fluxes, heat flux plays a major role. The results from simulations using actual observations also suggest that the observed SST variability is mostly atmospheric weather noise forced. The regional atmospheric noise forcing, especially the heat flux noise forcing, is the major source of the low frequency SST variability in the North Atlantic. The observed SST tripole mode has about a 12 year period and it can be reasonably reproduced by the weather noise forcing in terms of its period, spatial pattern and variance. Based on our diagnosis, it is argued that the SST tripole is mainly forced by local atmospheric heat flux noise. The gyre circulation plays a secondary role: the anomalous gyre circulation advects mean thermal features across the inter-gyre boundary, and the mean gyre advection carries SST anomalies along the inter-gyre boundary. The diagnosis is compared with a delayed oscillator theory. We find that the delayed oscillator theory is not supported and that the SST tripole mode is forced by weather noise heat flux noise. However, the result may be model dependent.

  4. Low-frequency noise assessment metrics -- What do we know?

    SciTech Connect

    Broner, N.

    1994-12-31

    The issue of sound quality in offices and other occupied spaces has been of continuing interest since the 1950s. Existing assessment methods do not adequately account for the low-frequency background sound (< 250 Hz) produced by operating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, in particular, low-frequency rumble. This paper discusses the results of ASHRAE-sponsored research in which more than 75 HVAC noise samples were collected, normalized, and categorized in terms of sound quality. The results support previous findings that a neutral curve has a slope of approximately {minus}5 decibels (dB) per octave. There is also support for the contention thatmore » the balanced noise criterion B (NCB) curves are overly conservative in the region from 63 to 500 Hz and overly permissive below 63 Hz when compared with the room criteria (RC) curves. A modified set of room sound quality (RSQ) curves -- the room sound quality (RSQ) curves -- is proposed.« less

  5. [Development of new type plastics air turbine handpiece for dental use].

    PubMed

    Kusano, M

    1989-06-01

    The noise generated by the metal air turbine handpiece employed in dental practice is considerable and attended with predominant high frequency components. Therefore, investigation of the noise generation mechanism and development of a silent air turbine handpiece was only a matter of course. In addition, the metal air turbine hardpiece is comparatively heavy and its production cost is high. From this point of view as well, production of a light air turbine handpiece at low cost is also desirable. In order to overcome the objections to the metal air turbine handpiece, appropriate plastics materials were employed wherever possible. In this study, the number of revolutions, noise level, frequency analysis, start pressure and weight of newly produced plastics handpieces and metal handpieces were examined and compared. The following results were obtained: 1. The number of revolutions of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with metal turbine rotors was higher than that of all-metal air turbine handpieces. The noise level of the former tended to be lower. 2. The number of revolutions of multi-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with turbine rotors with plastics turbine blades was almost equal to that of similar metal handpieces, with the noise level tending to be lower. 3. In the case of handpieces fitted with turbine rotors with dynamic balance, the number of revolutions was high and the noise level was low. This indicated that dynamic balance was a factor affecting the number of revolutions and noise level. 4. Narrow band sound frequency analysis of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces showed a sharp peak at the fundamental frequency which was the same as the number of revolutions multiplied by the number of rotor turbine blades. It is thought that the noise from air turbine handpieces was aerodynamic in origin, being generated by the periodical interruption of steady air flow by

  6. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises.

  7. Measurements of Operational Wind Turbine Noise in UK Waters.

    PubMed

    Cheesman, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of wind farm operational noise have not been addressed to the same extent as their construction methods such as piling and drilling of the foundations despite their long operational lifetimes compared with weeks of construction. The results of five postconstruction underwater sound-monitoring surveys on wind farms located throughout the waters of the British Isles are discussed. These wind farms consist of differing turbine power outputs, from 3 to 3.6 MW, and differing numbers of turbines. This work presents an overview of the results obtained and discusses both the levels and frequency components of the sound in several metrics.

  8. A low-frequency noise model with carrier generation-recombination process for pentacene organic thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, C. Y.; Qian, L. X.; Leung, C. H.; Che, C. M.; Lai, P. T.

    2013-07-01

    By including the generation-recombination process of charge carriers in conduction channel, a model for low-frequency noise in pentacene organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is proposed. In this model, the slope and magnitude of power spectral density for low-frequency noise are related to the traps in the gate dielectric and accumulation layer of the OTFT for the first time. The model can well fit the measured low-frequency noise data of pentacene OTFTs with HfO2 or HfLaO gate dielectric, which validates this model, thus providing an estimate on the densities of traps in the gate dielectric and accumulation layer. It is revealed that the traps in the accumulation layer are much more than those in the gate dielectric, and so dominate the low-frequency noise of pentacene OTFTs.

  9. Low-frequency noise properties in Pt-indium gallium zinc oxide Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Linqing; Ma, Xiaochen

    2015-08-31

    The low-frequency noise properties of Pt-indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) Schottky diodes at different forward biases are investigated. The IGZO layer and Pt contact were deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature. The diode showed an ideality factor of 1.2 and a barrier height of 0.94 eV. The current noise spectral density exhibited 1/f behavior at low frequencies. The analysis of the current dependency of the noise spectral density revealed that for the as-deposited diode, the noise followed Luo's mobility and diffusivity fluctuation model in the thermionic-emission-limited region and Hooge's empirical theory in the series-resistance-limited region. A low Hooge's constant ofmore » 1.4 × 10{sup −9} was found in the space-charge region. In the series-resistance-limited region, the Hooge's constant was 2.2 × 10{sup −5}. After annealing, the diode showed degradation in the electrical performance. The interface-trap-induced noise dominated the noise spectrum. By using the random walk model, the interface-trap density was obtained to be 3.6 × 10{sup 15 }eV{sup −1 }cm{sup −2}. This work provides a quantitative approach to analyze the properties of Pt-IGZO interfacial layers. These low noise properties are a prerequisite to the use of IGZO Schottky diodes in switch elements in memory devices, photosensors, and mixer diodes.« less

  10. Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou, E-mail: haiouli@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke

    To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal ofmore » the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.« less

  11. Low-frequency noise behavior of polysilicon emitter bipolar junction transistors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, M. Jamal; Pascal, Fabien

    2003-05-01

    For many analog integrated circuit applications, the polysilicon emitter bipolar junction transistor (PE-BJT) is still the preferred choice because of its higher operational frequency and lower noise performance characteristics compared to MOS transistors of similar active areas and at similar biasing currents. In this paper, we begin by motivating the reader with reasons why bipolar transistors are still of great interest for analog integrated circuits. This motivation includes a comparison between BJT and the MOSFET using a simple small-signal equivalent circuit to derive important parameters that can be used to compare these two technologies. An extensive review of the popular theories used to explain low frequency noise results is presented. However, in almost all instances, these theories have not been fully tested. The effects of different processing technologies and conditions on the noise performance of PE-BJTs is reviewed and a summary of some of the key technological steps and device parameters and their effects on noise is discussed. The effects of temperature and emitter geometries scaling is reviewed. It is shown that dispersion of the low frequency noise in ultra-small geometries is a serious issue since the rate of increase of the noise dispersion is faster than the noise itself as the emitter geometry is scaled to smaller values. Finally, some ideas for future research on PE-BJTs, some of which are also applicable to SiGe heteorjunction bipolar transistors and MOSFETs, are presented after the conclusions.

  12. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  13. Static and low frequency noise characterization of ultra-thin body InAs MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsori, T. A.; Pastorek, M.; Theodorou, C. G.; Fadjie, A.; Wichmann, N.; Desplanque, L.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2018-05-01

    A complete static and low frequency noise characterization of ultra-thin body InAs MOSFETs is presented. Characterization techniques, such as the well-known Y-function method established for Si MOSFETs, are applied in order to extract the electrical parameters and study the behavior of these research grade devices. Additionally, the Lambert-W function parameter extraction methodology valid from weak to strong inversion is also used in order to verify its applicability in these experimental level devices. Moreover, a low-frequency noise characterization of the UTB InAs MOSFETs is presented, revealing carrier trapping/detrapping in slow oxide traps and remote Coulomb scattering as origin of 1/f noise, which allowed for the extraction of the oxide trap areal density. Finally, Lorentzian-like noise is also observed in the sub-micron area devices and attributed to both Random Telegraph Noise from oxide individual traps and g-r noise from the semiconductor interface.

  14. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  15. Effects of large pressure amplitude low frequency noise in the parotid gland perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; Mendes, João; da Fonseca, Jorge; Águas, Artur; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    In tissues and organs exposed to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise fibrosis occurs in the absence of inflammatory signs, which is thought to be a protective response. In the parotid gland the perivasculo-ductal connective tissue surrounds arteries, veins and the ductal tree. Perivasculo-ductal connective tissue is believed to function as a mechanical stabilizer of the glandular tissue. In order to quantify the proliferation of perivasculo-ductal connective tissue in large pressure amplitude low frequency noise-exposed rats we used sixty Wistar rats which were equally divided into 6 groups. One group kept in silence, and the remaining five exposed to continuous large pressure amplitude low frequency noise: g1-168h (1 week); g2-504h (3 weeks); g3-840h (5 weeks); g4-1512h (9 weeks); and g5-2184h (13 weeks). After exposure, parotid glands were removed and the perivasculo-ductal connective tissue area was measured in all groups. We applied ANOVA statistical analysis, using SPSS 13.0. The global trend is an increase in the average perivasculo-ductal connective tissue areas, that develops linearly and significantly with large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure time (p < 0.001). It has been suggested that the biological response to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure is associated with the need to maintain structural integrity. The structural reinforcement would be achieved by increased perivasculo-ductal connective tissue. Hence, these results show that in response to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure, rat parotid glands increase their perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

  16. Short-term annoyance reactions to stationary and time-varying wind turbine and road traffic noise: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, Beat; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Pieren, Reto; Heutschi, Kurt; Brink, Mark; Graf, Ralf; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Current literature suggests that wind turbine noise is more annoying than transportation noise. To date, however, it is not known which acoustic characteristics of wind turbines alone, i.e., without effect modifiers such as visibility, are associated with annoyance. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the short-term noise annoyance reactions to wind turbines and road traffic in controlled laboratory listening tests. A set of acoustic scenarios was created which, combined with the factorial design of the listening tests, allowed separating the individual associations of three acoustic characteristics with annoyance, namely, source type (wind turbine, road traffic), A-weighted sound pressure level, and amplitude modulation (without, periodic, random). Sixty participants rated their annoyance to the sounds. At the same A-weighted sound pressure level, wind turbine noise was found to be associated with higher annoyance than road traffic noise, particularly with amplitude modulation. The increased annoyance to amplitude modulation of wind turbines is not related to its periodicity, but seems to depend on the modulation frequency range. The study discloses a direct link of different acoustic characteristics to annoyance, yet the generalizability to long-term exposure in the field still needs to be verified.

  17. Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab

    2013-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine.

  18. Low frequency noise in p-InAsSbP/n-InAs infrared photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakonova, N.; Karandashev, S. A.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Matveev, B. A.; Remennyi, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    We report the first experimental study of low-frequency noise in p-InAsSbP/n-InAs infrared photodiodes. For forward bias, experiments have been carried out at 300 and 77 K, in the photovoltaic regime the measurements have been done at 300 K. At room temperature the current noise spectral density, SI , exhibits the ∼1/f frequency dependence. For low currents, I ≤ I 0 ∼ 4 × 10‑5 A, S I is proportional to I 2, at higher currents this dependence changes to S I ∼ I. At 77 K the noise spectral density is significantly higher than at 300 K, and Lorentzian contributions to noise are observed. The current dependences of spectral noise density can be approximately described as S I ∼ I 1.5 and show particularities suggesting the contribution of defects.

  19. The Noisiness of Low Frequency Bands of Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    The relative noisiness of low frequency 1/3-octave bands of noise was examined. The frequency range investigated was bounded by the bands centered at 25 and 200 Hz, with intensities ranging from 50 to 95 db (SPL). Thirty-two subjects used a method of adjustment technique, producing comparison band intensities as noisy as 100 and 200 Hz standard bands at 60 and 72 db. The work resulted in contours of equal noisiness for 1/3-octave bands, ranging in intensity from approximately 58 to 86 db (SPL). These contours were compared with the standard equal noisiness contours; in the region of overlap, between 50 and 200 Hz, the agreement was good.

  20. Development of Lightweight, Compact, Structurally-Integrated Acoustic Liners for Broadband Low-Frequency Noise Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Andrew T.

    Airborne noise with a low dominant frequency content (< 500 Hz) has detrimental effects in many applications, but is as yet beyond the scope of conventional acoustic noise mitigation techniques using liners, foams or claddings owing to mass and volume considerations. Its low evanescence contributes significantly to environmental noise pollution, and unwanted structural vibrations causing diminished efficiency, comfort, payload integrity and mission capabilities. An alternative approach using liner configurations with realistic mass and volume constraints having innovative 'folded' core geometries is investigated to ascertain its low-frequency noise absorption characteristics. In contrast to mass-driven approaches, the folded core approach relies on tailoring interactions between acoustic resonances to tune the liner's impedance to suit the dominant low-frequency content of the source. This allows to keep non-structural mass-addition to a minimum, while retaining an overall thickness comparable to conventional liners for these low-frequency liner designs. The relative acoustic performance of various candidate folded core designs is evaluated by means of a new composite metric termed the Low-Frequency Performance (LFP) factor, which is educed from the absorption coefficient spectrum obtained using Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line (ZKTL) theory-based numerical studies. An LFP-based software tool is developed to determine optimal 3D cavity packing for a prescribed liner volume and target frequency range. ZKTL-based parametric studies on core dimensions and face sheet porosity are utilized for detailed design of test articles. Experimental verification of absorption coefficient spectra conducted using 3D printed test articles in a normal incidence acoustic impedance tube yield good correlation with simulations. More than 100 Hz of continuous bandwidth with an absorption coefficient greater than 0.6 is shown to be possible in the 300 to 400 Hz range with a 38.1-mm (1

  1. Aeroacoustics of large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews published information on aerodynamically generated noise from large horizontal axis wind turbines operated for electric power generation. Methods are presented for predicting both the discrete frequency rotational noise components and the broadband noise components, and results are compared with measurements. Refraction effects that result in the formation of high-frequency shadow zones in the upwind direction and channeling effects for the low frequencies in the downwind direction are illustrated. Special topics such as distributed source effects in prediction and the role of building dynamics in perception are also included.

  2. Low-frequency noise in MoSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Suprem R., E-mail: srdaspurdue@gmail.com, E-mail: janes@purdue.edu; Kwon, Jiseok; Prakash, Abhijith

    One of the important performance metrics of emerging nanoelectronic devices, including low dimensional Field Effect Transistors (FETs), is the magnitude of the low-frequency noise. Atomically thin 2D semiconductor channel materials such as MoX{sub 2} (X ≡ S, Se) have shown promising transistor characteristics such as I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio exceeding 10{sup 6} and low I{sub OFF}, making them attractive as channel materials for next generation nanoelectronic devices. However, MoS{sub 2} FETs demonstrated to date exhibit high noise levels under ambient conditions. In this letter, we report at least two orders of magnitude smaller values of Hooge parameter in a back-gatedmore » MoSe{sub 2} FET (10 atomic layers) with nickel S/D contacts and measured at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The channel dominated regime of noise was extracted from the total noise spectrum and is shown to follow a mobility fluctuation model with 1/f dependence. The low noise in MoSe{sub 2} FETs is comparable to other 1D nanoelectronic devices such as carbon nanotube FETs (CNT-FETs) and paves the way for use in future applications in precision sensing and communications.« less

  3. Spots of Seismic Danger Extracted by Properties of Low-Frequency Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubushin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    A new method of seismic danger estimate is presented which is based on using properties of low-frequency seismic noise from broadband networks. Two statistics of noise waveforms are considered: multi-fractal singularity spectrum support width D and minimum normalized entropy En of squared orthogonal wavelet coefficients. The maps of D and En are plotted in the moving time window. Let us call the regions extracted by low values of D and high values of En as "spots of seismic danger" - SSD. Mean values of D and En are strongly anti-correlated - that is why statistics D and En extract the same SSD. Nevertheless their mutual considering is expedient because these parameters are based on different approaches. The physical mechanism which underlies the method is consolidation of small blocks of the Earth's crust into the large one before the strong earthquake. This effect has a consequence that seismic noise does not include spikes which are connected with mutual movements of small blocks. The absence of irregular spikes in the noise follows the decreasing of D and increasing of entropy En. The stability in space and size of the SSD provides estimates of the place and energy of the probable future earthquake. The increasing or decreasing of SSD size and minimum or maximum values of D and En within SSD allows estimate the trend of seismic danger. The method is illustrating by the analysis of seismic noise from broadband seismic network F-net in Japan [1-5]. Statistically significant decreasing of D allowed a hypothesis about approaching Japan to a future seismic catastrophe to be formulated at the middle of 2008. The peculiarities of correlation coefficient estimate within 1 year time window between median values of D and generalized Hurst exponent allowed to make a decision that starting from July of 2010 Japan come to the state of waiting strong earthquake [3]. The method extracted a huge SSD near Japan which includes the region of future Tohoku mega-earthquake and the

  4. Shapiro effect as a possible cause of the low-frequency pulsar timing noise in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larchenkova, T. I.; Kopeikin, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    A prolonged timing of millisecond pulsars has revealed low-frequency uncorrelated (infrared) noise, presumably of astrophysical origin, in the pulse arrival time (PAT) residuals for some of them. Currently available pulsar timing methods allow the statistical parameters of this noise to be reliably measured by decomposing the PAT residual function into orthogonal Fourier harmonics. In most cases, pulsars in globular clusters show a low-frequency modulation of their rotational phase and spin rate. The relativistic time delay of the pulsar signal in the curved spacetime of randomly distributed and moving globular cluster stars (the Shapiro effect) is suggested as a possible cause of this modulation. Extremely important (from an astrophysical point of view) information about the structure of the globular cluster core, which is inaccessible to study by other observational methods, could be obtained by analyzing the spectral parameters of the low-frequency noise caused by the Shapiro effect and attributable to the random passages of stars near the line of sight to the pulsar. Given the smallness of the aberration corrections that arise from the nonstationarity of the gravitational field of the randomly distributed ensemble of stars under consideration, a formula is derived for the Shapiro effect for a pulsar in a globular cluster. The derived formula is used to calculate the autocorrelation function of the low-frequency pulsar noise, the slope of its power spectrum, and the behavior of the σz statistic that characterizes the spectral properties of this noise in the form of a time function. The Shapiro effect under discussion is shown to manifest itself for large impact parameters as a low-frequency noise of the pulsar spin rate with a spectral index of n = -1.8 that depends weakly on the specific model distribution of stars in the globular cluster. For small impact parameters, the spectral index of the noise is n = -1.5.

  5. Semiconductor Laser Low Frequency Noise Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Logan, Ronald T.

    1996-01-01

    This work summarizes the efforts in identifying the fundamental noise limit in semiconductor optical sources (lasers) to determine the source of 1/F noise and it's associated behavior. In addition, the study also addresses the effects of this 1/F noise on RF phased arrays. The study showed that the 1/F noise in semiconductor lasers has an ultimate physical limit based upon similar factors to fundamental noise generated in other semiconductor and solid state devices. The study also showed that both additive and multiplicative noise can be a significant detriment to the performance of RF phased arrays especially in regard to very low sidelobe performance and ultimate beam steering accuracy. The final result is that a noise power related term must be included in a complete analysis of the noise spectrum of any semiconductor device including semiconductor lasers.

  6. A methodology for assessment of wind turbine noise generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, N. D.; Hemphill, R. R.; McKenna, H. E.

    1982-05-01

    An investigation of the sources of impulsive noise generated by the operation of the Mod 1 2 MW wind turbine was performed to establish criteria for assessing the noise-producing potential of other large wind turbines. Unsteady loading of the rotors was determined to be the cause of the sound pressure, which was generally below 100 Hz. Complaints originated from people in dwellings with a room with a window facing the machine. Indoor monitoring revealed pressure traces in the 31.5 Hz band with energy densities exceeding background by about 30 dB. It was concluded that the sound pressure was conveyed by the walls acting as a diaphragm. The induced vibration coupled with human body fundamental modes to produce a feeling of whole-body vibration. Spectral analyses were made of the vibration fields of the Mod 2, a 17 m Darrieus, and a Mod OA to allow comparison with the nuisance points of the Mod 1. Sound pressure levels were found at certain frequencies which would eliminate the occurrence of acoustic pollution.

  7. A comparison between exposure-response relationships for wind turbine annoyance and annoyance due to other noise sources.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sabine A; Vos, Henk; Eisses, Arno R; Pedersen, Eja

    2011-12-01

    Surveys have shown that noise from wind turbines is perceived as annoying by a proportion of residents living in their vicinity, apparently at much lower noise levels than those inducing annoyance due to other environmental sources. The aim of the present study was to derive the exposure-response relationship between wind turbine noise exposure in L(den) and the expected percentage annoyed residents and to compare it to previously established relationships for industrial noise and transportation noise. In addition, the influence of several individual and situational factors was assessed. On the basis of available data from two surveys in Sweden (N=341, N=754) and one survey in the Netherlands (N=725), a relationship was derived for annoyance indoors and for annoyance outdoors at the dwelling. In comparison to other sources of environmental noise, annoyance due to wind turbine noise was found at relatively low noise exposure levels. Furthermore, annoyance was lower among residents who received economical benefit from wind turbines and higher among residents for whom the wind turbine was visible from the dwelling. Age and noise sensitivity had similar effects on annoyance to those found in research on annoyance by other sources. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  8. The effect of microphone wind noise on the amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise and its mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Paul; von Hünerbein, Sabine; Cox, Trevor J

    2016-07-01

    Microphone wind noise can corrupt outdoor recordings even when wind shields are used. When monitoring wind turbine noise, microphone wind noise is almost inevitable because measurements cannot be made in still conditions. The effect of microphone wind noise on two amplitude modulation (AM) metrics is quantified in a simulation, showing that even at low wind speeds of 2.5 m/s errors of over 4 dBA can result. As microphone wind noise is intermittent, a wind noise detection algorithm is used to automatically find uncorrupted sections of the recording, and so recover the true AM metrics to within ±2/±0.5 dBA.

  9. Mechanical monolithic sensor for low frequency seismic noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; Giordano, Gerardo; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a mechanical monolithic sensor for geophysical applications developed at the University of Salerno. The instrument is basically a monolithic tunable folded pendulum, shaped with precision machining and electric-discharge-machining, that can be used both as seismometer and, in a force-feedback configuration, as accelerometer. The monolithic mechanical design and the introduction of laser interferometric techniques for the readout implementation make it a very compact instrument, very sensitive in the low-frequency seismic noise band, with a very good immunity to environmental noises. Many changes have been produced since last version (2006), mainly aimed to the improvement of the mechanics and of the optical readout of the instrument. In fact, we have developed and tested a prototype with elliptical hinges and mechanical tuning of the resonance frequency together with a new laser optical lever and laser interferometer readout system. The theoretical sensitivity curve for both laser optical lever and laser interferometric readouts, calculated on the basis of suitable theoretical models, shows a very good agreement with the experimental measurements. Very interesting scientific result is that the measured natural resonance frequency of the instrument is ~ 70mHz with a Q ~ 140 in air without thermal stabilization, demonstrating the feasibility of a monolithic FP sensor with a natural resonance frequency of the order of 5 mHz with a more refined mechanical tuning.

  10. Reduced In-Plane, Low Frequency Helicopter Noise of an Active Flap Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Janakiram, Ram D.; Barbely, Natasha L.; Solis, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Results from a recent joint DARPA/Boeing/NASA/Army wind tunnel test demonstrated the ability to reduce in-plane, low frequency noise of the full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor using active flaps. Test data reported in this paper illustrated that acoustic energy in the first six blade-passing harmonics could be reduced by up to 6 decibels at a moderate airspeed, level flight condition corresponding to advance ratio of 0.30. Reduced noise levels were attributed to selective active flap schedules that modified in-plane blade airloads on the advancing side of the rotor, in a manner, which generated counteracting acoustic pulses that partially offset the negative pressure peaks associated with in-plane, steady thickness noise. These favorable reduced-noise operating states are a strong function of the active flap actuation amplitude, frequency and phase. The associated noise reductions resulted in reduced aural detection distance by up to 18%, but incurred significant vibratory load penalties due to increased hub shear forces. Small reductions in rotor lift-to-drag ratios, of no more than 3%, were also measured

  11. Effects of the intensity of masking noise on ear canal recorded low-frequency cochlear microphonic waveforms in normal hearing subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Compared to auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), cochlear microphonics (CMs) may be more appropriate to serve as a supplement to the test of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Researchers have shown that low-frequency CMs from the apical cochlea are measurable at the tympanic membrane using high-pass masking noise. Our objective is to study the effect of such noise at different intensities on low-frequency CMs recorded at the ear canal, which is not completely known. Six components were involved in this CM measurement including an ear canal electrode (1), a relatively long and low-frequency toneburst (2), and high-pass masking noise at different intensities (3). The rest components include statistical analysis based on multiple human subjects (4), curve modeling based on amplitudes of CM waveforms (CMWs) and noise intensity (5), and a technique based on electrocochleography (ECochG or ECoG) (6). Results show that low-frequency CMWs appeared clearly. The CMW amplitude decreased with an increase in noise level. It decreased first slowly, then faster, and finally slowly again. In conclusion, when masked with high-pass noise, the low-frequency CMs are measurable at the human ear canal. Such noise reduces the low-frequency CM amplitude. The reduction is noise-intensity dependent but not completely linear. The reduction may be caused by the excited basal cochlea which the low-frequency has to travel and pass through. Although not completely clear, six mechanisms related to such reduction are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Low-Frequency Road Noise on Driver Sleepiness and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Anund, Anna; Lahti, Eva; Fors, Carina; Genell, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It is a well-known fact today that driver sleepiness is a contributory factor in crashes. Factors considered as sleepiness contributor are mostly related to time of the day, hours being awake and hours slept. Factors contributing to active and passive fatigue are mostly focusing on the level of cognitive load. Less is known what role external factors, e.g. type of road, sound/noise, vibrations etc., have on the ability to stay awake both under conditions of sleepiness and under active or passive fatigue. The aim of this moving base driving simulator study with 19 drivers participating in a random order day and night time, was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance, including both long-term and short-term effects. The results support to some extent the hypothesis that road-induced interior vehicle sound affects driving performance and driver sleepiness. Increased low-frequency noise helps to reduce speed during both day- and night time driving, but also contributes to increase the number of lane crossings during night time. PMID:25874883

  13. The effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance.

    PubMed

    Anund, Anna; Lahti, Eva; Fors, Carina; Genell, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It is a well-known fact today that driver sleepiness is a contributory factor in crashes. Factors considered as sleepiness contributor are mostly related to time of the day, hours being awake and hours slept. Factors contributing to active and passive fatigue are mostly focusing on the level of cognitive load. Less is known what role external factors, e.g. type of road, sound/noise, vibrations etc., have on the ability to stay awake both under conditions of sleepiness and under active or passive fatigue. The aim of this moving base driving simulator study with 19 drivers participating in a random order day and night time, was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance, including both long-term and short-term effects. The results support to some extent the hypothesis that road-induced interior vehicle sound affects driving performance and driver sleepiness. Increased low-frequency noise helps to reduce speed during both day- and night time driving, but also contributes to increase the number of lane crossings during night time.

  14. Comparison of Predicted and Measured Attenuation of Turbine Noise from a Static Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Eugene W.; Ruiz, Marta; Yu, Jia; Morin, Bruce L.; Cicon, Dennis; Schwieger, Paul S.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft noise has become an increasing concern for commercial airlines. Worldwide demand for quieter aircraft is increasing, making the prediction of engine noise suppression one of the most important fields of research. The Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) can be an important noise source during the approach condition for commercial aircraft. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pratt & Whitney (P&W), and Goodrich Aerostructures (Goodrich) conducted a joint program to validate a method for predicting turbine noise attenuation. The method includes noise-source estimation, acoustic treatment impedance prediction, and in-duct noise propagation analysis. Two noise propagation prediction codes, Eversman Finite Element Method (FEM) code [1] and the CDUCT-LaRC [2] code, were used in this study to compare the predicted and the measured turbine noise attenuation from a static engine test. In this paper, the test setup, test configurations and test results are detailed in Section II. A description of the input parameters, including estimated noise modal content (in terms of acoustic potential), and acoustic treatment impedance values are provided in Section III. The prediction-to-test correlation study results are illustrated and discussed in Section IV and V for the FEM and the CDUCT-LaRC codes, respectively, and a summary of the results is presented in Section VI.

  15. Escape conditioning and low-frequency whole-body vibration - The effects of frequency, amplitude, and controls for noise and activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, E. L.; Wike, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    Seven experiments are reported on low-frequency whole-body vibration and rats' escape conditioning in a modified Skinner box. In the first three studies, conditioning was observed but was independent of frequency. In experiment four, the number of escape responses was directly related to vibration amplitude. Experiment five was a control for vibration noise and noise termination; experiments six and seven studied vibration-induced activation. Noise termination did not produce conditioning. In experiment six, subjects made more responses when responding led to termination than when it did not. In experiment seven, subjects preferred a bar which terminated vibration to one which did not.

  16. Tailoring noise frequency spectrum to improve NIR determinations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shaofei; Xiang, Bingren; Yu, Liyan; Deng, Haishan

    2009-12-15

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) contains excessive background noise and weak analytical signals caused by near infrared overtones and combinations. That makes it difficult to achieve quantitative determinations of low concentration samples by NIR. A simple chemometric approach has been established to modify the noise frequency spectrum to improve NIR determinations. The proposed method is to multiply one Savitzky-Golay filtered NIR spectrum with another reference spectrum added with thermal noises before the other Savitzky-Golay filter. Since Savitzky-Golay filter is a kind of low-pass filter and cannot eliminate low frequency components of NIR spectrum, using one step or two consecutive Savitzky-Golay filter procedures cannot improve the determination of NIR greatly. Meanwhile, significant improvement is achieved via the Savitzky-Golay filtered NIR spectrum processed with the multiplication alteration before the other Savitzky-Golay filter. The frequency range of the modified noise spectrum shifts toward higher frequency regime via multiplication operation. So the second Savitzky-Golay filter is able to provide better filtering efficiency to obtain satisfied result. The improvement of NIR determination with tailoring noise frequency spectrum technique was demonstrated by both simulated dataset and two measured NIR spectral datasets. It is expected that noise frequency spectrum technique will be adopted mostly in applications where quantitative determination of low concentration sample is crucial.

  17. Auditory recognition of familiar and unfamiliar subjects with wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Luigi; Masullo, Massimiliano; Gabriele, Maria Di; Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Pantis, John D; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-04-17

    Considering the wide growth of the wind turbine market over the last decade as well as their increasing power size, more and more potential conflicts have arisen in society due to the noise radiated by these plants. Our goal was to determine whether the annoyance caused by wind farms is related to aspects other than noise. To accomplish this, an auditory experiment on the recognition of wind turbine noise was conducted to people with long experience of wind turbine noise exposure and to people with no previous experience to this type of noise source. Our findings demonstrated that the trend of the auditory recognition is the same for the two examined groups, as far as the increase of the distance and the decrease of the values of sound equivalent levels and loudness are concerned. Significant differences between the two groups were observed as the distance increases. People with wind turbine noise experience showed a higher tendency to report false alarms than people without experience.

  18. Auditory recognition of familiar and unfamiliar subjects with wind turbine noise

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Luigi; Masullo, Massimiliano; Di Gabriele, Maria; Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P.; Pantis, John D.; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Considering the wide growth of the wind turbine market over the last decade as well as their increasing power size, more and more potential conflicts have arisen in society due to the noise radiated by these plants. Our goal was to determine whether the annoyance caused by wind farms is related to aspects other than noise. To accomplish this, an auditory experiment on the recognition of wind turbine noise was conducted to people with long experience of wind turbine noise exposure and to people with no previous experience to this type of noise source. Our findings demonstrated that the trend of the auditory recognition is the same for the two examined groups, as far as the increase of the distance and the decrease of the values of sound equivalent levels and loudness are concerned. Significant differences between the two groups were observed as the distance increases. People with wind turbine noise experience showed a higher tendency to report false alarms than people without experience. PMID:25898408

  19. Application of analysis techniques for low frequency interior noise and vibration of commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landmann, A. E.; Tillema, H. F.; Macgregor, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA), statistical energy analysis (SEA), and a power flow method (computer program PAIN) were used to assess low frequency interior noise associated with advanced propeller installations. FEA and SEA models were used to predict cabin noise and vibration and evaluate suppression concepts for structure-borne noise associated with the shaft rotational frequency and harmonics (less than 100 Hz). SEA and PAIN models were used to predict cabin noise and vibration and evaluate suppression concepts for airborne noise associated with engine radiated propeller tones. Both aft-mounted and wing-mounted propeller configurations were evaluated. Ground vibration test data from a 727 airplane modified to accept a propeller engine were used to compare with predictions for the aft-mounted propeller. Similar data from the 767 airplane was used for the wing-mounted comparisons.

  20. Low frequency noise as a control test for spacial solar panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsal, B.; Alabedra, R.; Ruas, R.

    1986-07-01

    The present study of low frequency noise in a forward-biased dark solar cell, in order to develop an NDE test method for solar panels, notes that a single cell with a given defect is thus detectable under dark conditions. The test subject was a space solar panel consisting of five cells in parallel and five in series; these cells are of the n(+)-p monocrystalline Si junction type. It is demonstrated that the noise associated with the defective cell is 10-15 times higher than that of a good cell. Replacement of a good cell by a defective one leads to a 30-percent increase in the noise level of the panel as a whole.

  1. The effect of wind turbine noise on sleep and quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, Igho J; O'Sullivan, Jack; Thompson, Matthew J; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-09-01

    Noise generated by wind turbines has been reported to affect sleep and quality of life (QOL), but the relationship is unclear. Our objective was to explore the association between wind turbine noise, sleep disturbance and quality of life, using data from published observational studies. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Google Scholar databases. No language restrictions were imposed. Hand searches of bibliography of retrieved full texts were also conducted. The reporting quality of included studies was assessed using the STROBE guidelines. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of studies, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data. We included eight studies with a total of 2433 participants. All studies were cross-sectional, and the overall reporting quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of six studies (n=2364) revealed that the odds of being annoyed is significantly increased by wind turbine noise (OR: 4.08; 95% CI: 2.37 to 7.04; p<0.00001). The odds of sleep disturbance was also significantly increased with greater exposure to wind turbine noise (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.98 to 4.37; p<0.00001). Four studies reported that wind turbine noise significantly interfered with QOL. Further, visual perception of wind turbine generators was associated with greater frequency of reported negative health effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence that exposure to wind turbine noise is associated with increased odds of annoyance and sleep problems. Individual attitudes could influence the type of response to noise from wind turbines. Experimental and observational studies investigating the relationship between wind turbine noise and health are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global examination of the wind-dependence of very low frequency underwater ambient noise.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Stephen M; Bradley, David L

    2016-03-01

    Ocean surface winds play a key role in underwater ambient noise generation. One particular frequency band of interest is the infrasonic or very low frequency (VLF) band from 1 to 20 Hz. In this spectral band, wind generated ocean surface waves interact non-linearly to produce acoustic waves, which couple into the seafloor to generate microseisms, as explained by the theory developed by Longuet-Higgins. This study examines long term data sets in the VLF portion of the ambient noise spectrum, collected by the hydroacoustic systems of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty Organization in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Three properties of the noise field were examined: (a) the behavior of the acoustic spectrum slope from 1 to 5 Hz, (b) correlation of noise levels and wind speeds, and (c) the autocorrelation behavior of both the noise field and the wind. Analysis results indicate the spectrum slope is site dependent, and for both correlation methods, a high correlation between wind and the noise field in the 1-5 Hz band.

  3. Ultra-low noise high electron mobility transistors for high-impedance and low-frequency deep cryogenic readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Q.; Liang, Y. X.; Ferry, D.

    2014-07-07

    We report on the results obtained from specially designed high electron mobility transistors at 4.2 K: the gate leakage current can be limited lower than 1 aA, and the equivalent input noise-voltage and noise-current at 1 Hz can reach 6.3 nV/Hz{sup 1∕2} and 20 aA/Hz{sup 1∕2}, respectively. These results open the way to realize high performance low-frequency readout electronics under very low-temperature conditions.

  4. Turbine bucket natural frequency tuning rib

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; Norton, Paul Francis; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Jacala, Ariel Caesar-Prepena

    2002-01-01

    A tuning rib is added preferably in the aft cavity of a cored turbine bucket to alter the bucket's natural frequencies. The tuning rib may be a solid rib or a segmented rib and is particularly suited for altering high order frequency modes such as 2T, 4F and 1-3S. As such, detrimental crossings of natural bucket frequencies and gas turbine stimuli can be avoided to thereby improve the reliability of a gas turbine without impacting other features of the bucket that are important to the performance of the gas turbine.

  5. Long term estimations of low frequency noise levels over water from an off-shore wind farm.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Karl; Almgren, Martin; Ohlsson, Esbjörn; Karasalo, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    This article focuses on computations of low frequency sound propagation from an off-shore wind farm. Two different methods for sound propagation calculations are combined with meteorological data for every 3 hours in the year 2010 to examine the varying noise levels at a reception point at 13 km distance. It is shown that sound propagation conditions play a vital role in the noise impact from the off-shore wind farm and ordinary assessment methods can become inaccurate at longer propagation distances over water. Therefore, this paper suggests that methodologies to calculate noise immission with realistic sound speed profiles need to be combined with meteorological data over extended time periods to evaluate the impact of low frequency noise from modern off-shore wind farms.

  6. Vestibular short-latency evoked potential abolished by low-frequency noise exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Courtney E; Kanicki, Ariane C; Altschuler, Richard A; King, W M

    2018-02-01

    The vestibular system plays a critical role in detection of head movements and is essential for normal postural control. Because of their anatomical proximity to the cochlea, the otolith organs are selectively exposed to sound pressure and are at risk for noise overstimulation. Clinical reports suggest a link between noise exposure and balance problems, but the structural and physiological basis for this linkage is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of low-frequency noise (LFN) on the otolith organs by correlating changes in vestibular short-latency evoked potentials (VsEPs) with changes in saccular afferent endings following noise exposure. LFN exposure transiently abolished the VsEP and reduced the number of stained calyces within the sacculus. Although some recovery of the VsEP waveform could be observed within 3 days after noise, at 3 wk recovery was only partial in most animals, consistent with a reduced number of afferents with calyceal endings. These data show that a single intense noise exposure is capable of causing a vestibular deficit that appears to mirror the synaptic deficit associated with hidden hearing loss after noise-induced cochlear injury. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to explore the effects of low-frequency high-intensity noise on vestibular short-latency evoked potential (VsEP) responses, which shows a linkage between attenuated noise-induced VsEPs and pathological changes to otolith organ afferents. This finding suggests a potential limitation of the VsEP for evaluation of vestibular dysfunction, since the VsEP measurement may assess the activity of a specific class rather than all afferents.

  7. Low Noise Frequency Comb Sources Based on Synchronously Pumped Doubly Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chenchen

    Optical frequency combs are coherent light sources consist of thousands of equally spaced frequency lines. Frequency combs have achieved success in applications of metrology, spectroscopy and precise pulse manipulation and control. The most common way to generate frequency combs is based on mode-locked lasers which has the output spectrum of comb structures. To generate stable frequency combs, the output from mode-locked lasers need to be phase stabilized. The whole comb lines will be stabilized if the pulse train repetition rate corresponding to comb spacing and the pulse carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency are both stabilized. The output from a laser always has fluctuations in parameters known as noise. In laser applications, noise is an important factor to limit the performance and often need to be well controlled. For example in precision measurement such as frequency metrology and precise spectroscopy, low laser intensity and phase noise is required. In mode-locked lasers there are different types of noise like intensity noise, pulse temporal position noise also known as timing jitter, optical phase noise. In term for frequency combs, these noise dynamics is more complex and often related. Understanding the noise behavior is not only of great interest in practical applications but also help understand fundamental laser physics. In this dissertation, the noise of frequency combs and mode-locked lasers will be studied in two projects. First, the CEO frequency phase noise of a synchronously pumped doubly resonant optical parametric oscillators (OPO) will be explored. This is very important for applications of the OPO as a coherent frequency comb source. Another project will focus on the intensity noise coupling in a soliton fiber oscillator, the finding of different noise coupling in soliton pulses and the dispersive waves generated from soliton perturbation can provide very practical guidance for low noise soliton laser design. OPOs are used to generate

  8. Simulation of Turbine Tone Noise Generation Using a Turbomachinery Aerodynamics Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane

    2010-01-01

    As turbofan engine bypass ratios continue to increase, the contribution of the turbine to the engine noise signature is receiving more attention. Understanding the relative importance of the various turbine noise generation mechanisms and the characteristics of the turbine acoustic transmission loss are essential ingredients in developing robust reduced-order models for predicting the turbine noise signature. A computationally based investigation has been undertaken to help guide the development of a turbine noise prediction capability that does not rely on empiricism. As proof-of-concept for this approach, two highly detailed numerical simulations of the unsteady flow field inside the first stage of a modern high-pressure turbine were carried out. The simulations were computed using TURBO, which is an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes code capable of multi-stage simulations. Spectral and modal analysis of the unsteady pressure data from the numerical simulation of the turbine stage show a circumferential modal distribution that is consistent with the Tyler-Sofrin rule. Within the high-pressure turbine, the interaction of velocity, pressure and temperature fluctuations with the downstream blade rows are all possible tone noise source mechanisms. We have taken the initial step in determining the source strength hierarchy by artificially reducing the level of temperature fluctuations in the turbine flowfield. This was accomplished by changing the vane cooling flow temperature in order to mitigate the vane thermal wake in the second of the two simulations. The results indicated that, despite a dramatic change in the vane cooling flow, the computed modal levels changed very little indicating that the contribution of temperature fluctuations to the overall pressure field is rather small compared with the viscous and potential field interaction mechanisms.

  9. Mobility-dependent low-frequency noise in graphene field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Mendez, Emilio E; Du, Xu

    2011-10-25

    We have investigated the low-frequency 1/f noise of both suspended and on-substrate graphene field-effect transistors and its dependence on gate voltage, in the temperature range between 300 and 30 K. We have found that the noise amplitude away from the Dirac point can be described by a generalized Hooge's relation in which the Hooge parameter α(H) is not constant but decreases monotonically with the device's mobility, with a universal dependence that is sample and temperature independent. The value of α(H) is also affected by the dynamics of disorder, which is not reflected in the DC transport characteristics and varies with sample and temperature. We attribute the diverse behavior of gate voltage dependence of the noise amplitude to the relative contributions from various scattering mechanisms, and to potential fluctuations near the Dirac point caused by charge carrier inhomogeneity. The higher carrier mobility of suspended graphene devices accounts for values of 1/f noise significantly lower than those observed in on-substrate graphene devices and most traditional electronic materials.

  10. Nature of low-frequency noise in homogeneous semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Palenskis, Vilius; Maknys, Kęstutis

    2015-01-01

    This report deals with a 1/f noise in homogeneous classical semiconductor samples on the base of silicon. We perform detail calculations of resistance fluctuations of the silicon sample due to both a) the charge carrier number changes due to their capture–emission processes, and b) due to screening effect of those negative charged centers, and show that proportionality of noise level to square mobility appears as a presentation parameter, but not due to mobility fluctuations. The obtained calculation results explain well the observed experimental results of 1/f noise in Si, Ge, GaAs and exclude the mobility fluctuations as the nature of 1/f noise in these materials and their devices. It is also shown how from the experimental 1/f noise results to find the effective number of defects responsible for this noise in the measured frequency range. PMID:26674184

  11. Ultra-low noise dual-frequency VECSEL at telecom wavelength using fully correlated pumping.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Gredat, Gregory; De, Syamsundar; Fsaifes, Ihsan; Ly, Aliou; Vatré, Rémy; Baili, Ghaya; Bouchoule, Sophie; Goldfarb, Fabienne; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2018-04-15

    An ultra-low intensity and beatnote phase noise dual-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser is built at telecom wavelength. The pump laser is realized by polarization combining two single-mode fibered laser diodes in a single-mode fiber, leading to a 100% in-phase correlation of the pump noises for the two modes. The relative intensity noise is lower than -140  dB/Hz, and the beatnote phase noise is suppressed by 30 dB, getting close to the spontaneous emission limit. The role of the imperfect cancellation of the thermal effect resulting from unbalanced pumping of the two modes in the residual phase noise is evidenced.

  12. Wind turbines and health: a critical review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Mundt, Kenneth A; Colby, W David; Dobie, Robert; Kaliski, Kenneth; Blais, Mark

    2014-11-01

    This review examines the literature related to health effects of wind turbines. We reviewed literature related to sound measurements near turbines, epidemiological and experimental studies, and factors associated with annoyance. (1) Infrasound sound near wind turbines does not exceed audibility thresholds. (2) Epidemiological studies have shown associations between living near wind turbines and annoyance. (3) Infrasound and low-frequency sound do not present unique health risks. (4) Annoyance seems more strongly related to individual characteristics than noise from turbines. Further areas of inquiry include enhanced noise characterization, analysis of predicted noise values contrasted with measured levels postinstallation, longitudinal assessments of health pre- and postinstallation, experimental studies in which subjects are "blinded" to the presence or absence of infrasound, and enhanced measurement techniques to evaluate annoyance.

  13. A mathematical model of extremely low frequency ocean induced electromagnetic noise

    SciTech Connect

    Dautta, Manik, E-mail: manik.dautta@anyeshan.com; Faruque, Rumana Binte, E-mail: rumana.faruque@anyeshan.com; Islam, Rakibul, E-mail: rakibul.islam@anyeshan.com

    2016-07-12

    Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) system uses the principle that ferromagnetic objects disturb the magnetic lines of force of the earth. These lines of force are able to pass through both water and air in similar manners. A MAD system, usually mounted on an aerial vehicle, is thus often employed to confirm the detection and accomplish localization of large ferromagnetic objects submerged in a sea-water environment. However, the total magnetic signal encountered by a MAD system includes contributions from a myriad of low to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) sources. The goal of the MAD system is to detect small anomaly signalsmore » in the midst of these low-frequency interfering signals. Both the Range of Detection (R{sub d}) and the Probability of Detection (P{sub d}) are limited by the ratio of anomaly signal strength to the interfering magnetic noise. In this paper, we report a generic mathematical model to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio or SNR. Since time-variant electro-magnetic signals are affected by conduction losses due to sea-water conductivity and the presence of air-water interface, we employ the general formulation of dipole induced electromagnetic field propagation in stratified media [1]. As a first step we employ a volumetric distribution of isolated elementary magnetic dipoles, each having its own dipole strength and orientation, to estimate the magnetic noise observed by a MAD system. Numerical results are presented for a few realizations out of an ensemble of possible realizations of elementary dipole source distributions.« less

  14. Consistent modelling of wind turbine noise propagation from source to receiver.

    PubMed

    Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Dag, Kaya O; Moriarty, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    The unsteady nature of wind turbine noise is a major reason for annoyance. The variation of far-field sound pressure levels is not only caused by the continuous change in wind turbine noise source levels but also by the unsteady flow field and the ground characteristics between the turbine and receiver. To take these phenomena into account, a consistent numerical technique that models the sound propagation from the source to receiver is developed. Large eddy simulation with an actuator line technique is employed for the flow modelling and the corresponding flow fields are used to simulate sound generation and propagation. The local blade relative velocity, angle of attack, and turbulence characteristics are input to the sound generation model. Time-dependent blade locations and the velocity between the noise source and receiver are considered within a quasi-3D propagation model. Long-range noise propagation of a 5 MW wind turbine is investigated. Sound pressure level time series evaluated at the source time are studied for varying wind speeds, surface roughness, and ground impedances within a 2000 m radius from the turbine.

  15. Mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor for low frequency seismic noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, Fausto; Giordano, Gerardo; Romano, Rocco; De Rosa, Rosario; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor for geophysical applications developed at the University of Salerno. The instrument is basically a monolithic tunable folded pendulum, shaped with precision machining and electric discharge machining, that can be used both as seismometer and, in a force-feedback configuration, as accelerometer. The monolithic mechanical design and the introduction of laser interferometric techniques for the readout implementation makes it a very compact instrument, very sensitive in the low frequency seismic noise band, with a very good immunity to environmental noises. Many changes have been produced since last version (2007), mainly aimed to the improvement of the mechanics and of the optical readout of the instrument. In fact, we have developed and tested a prototype with elliptical hinges and mechanical tuning of the resonance frequency together with a laser optical lever and a new laser interferometer readout system. The theoretical sensitivity curve for both laser optical lever and laser interferometric readouts, evaluated on the basis of suitable theoretical models, shows a very good agreement with the experimental measurements. Very interesting scientific result is the measured natural resonance frequency of the instrument of 70mHz with a Q =140 in air without thermal stabilization. This result demonstrates the feasibility of a monolithic folded pendulum sensor with a natural resonance frequency of the order of millihertz with a more refined mechanical tuning.

  16. Mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor for low frequency seismic noise measurement.

    PubMed

    Acernese, Fausto; Giordano, Gerardo; Romano, Rocco; De Rosa, Rosario; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor for geophysical applications developed at the University of Salerno. The instrument is basically a monolithic tunable folded pendulum, shaped with precision machining and electric discharge machining, that can be used both as seismometer and, in a force-feedback configuration, as accelerometer. The monolithic mechanical design and the introduction of laser interferometric techniques for the readout implementation makes it a very compact instrument, very sensitive in the low frequency seismic noise band, with a very good immunity to environmental noises. Many changes have been produced since last version (2007), mainly aimed to the improvement of the mechanics and of the optical readout of the instrument. In fact, we have developed and tested a prototype with elliptical hinges and mechanical tuning of the resonance frequency together with a laser optical lever and a new laser interferometer readout system. The theoretical sensitivity curve for both laser optical lever and laser interferometric readouts, evaluated on the basis of suitable theoretical models, shows a very good agreement with the experimental measurements. Very interesting scientific result is the measured natural resonance frequency of the instrument of 70 mHz with a Q=140 in air without thermal stabilization. This result demonstrates the feasibility of a monolithic folded pendulum sensor with a natural resonance frequency of the order of millihertz with a more refined mechanical tuning.

  17. Low Noise Results From IMS Site Surveys: A Preliminary New High-Frequency Low Noise Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, C.; Astiz, L.; Starovoit, Y.; Tavener, N.; Perez, G.; Given, H. K.; Barrientos, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hfaiedh, M.; Stewart, R.; Estabrook, C.

    2002-12-01

    Since the establishment of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Organization, a vigorous seismic site survey program has been carried out to identify locations as necessary for International Monitoring System (IMS) primary and auxiliary seismic stations listed in Annex 1 to the Protocol to the CTBT. The IMS Seismic Section maintains for this purpose a small pool of seismic equipment comprised of Guralp CMG-3T and CMG-3ESP and Streckeisen STS-2 broadband seismometers, and Reftek and Guralp acquisition systems. Seismic site surveys are carried out by conducting continuous measurements of ground motion at temporary installations for approximately five to seven days. Seismometer installation methods, which depend on instrument type and on local conditions, range from placement within small cement-floored subsurface vaults to near-surface burial. Data are sampled at 40 Hz. Seismic noise levels are evaluated through the analysis of power spectral density distributions. Eleven 10.5-minute-long representative de-trended and mean-removed segments each of daytime and night-time data are chosen randomly, but reviewed to avoid event contamination. Fast Fourier Transforms are calculated for the five windows in each of these segments generated using a 50% overlap for Hanning-tapered sections ~200 s long. Instrument responses are removed. To date, 20 site surveys for primary and auxiliary stations have been carried out by the IMS. The sites surveyed represent a variety of physical and geological environments on most continents. The lowest high frequency (>1.4 Hz) noise levels at five sites with igneous or metamorphic geologies were as much as 6 dB below the USGS New Low Noise Model (NLNM) developed by Peterson (1993). These sites were in Oman (local geology consisting of Ordovician metasediments), Egypt (Precambrian granite), Niger (early Proterozoic tonalite and granodiorite), Saudi Arabia (Precambian metasediments), and

  18. Noise measurements for single and multiple operation of 50 kw wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1982-01-01

    The noise characteristics of the U.S. Windpower Inc., 50 kw wind turbine generator were measured at various distances from 30 m to 1100 m and for a range of output power. The generated noise is affected by the aerodynamic wakes of the tower legs at frequencies below about 120 Hz and the blade trailing edge thickness at frequencies of about 2 kHz. Rope strakes and airfoil fairings on the legs did not result in substantial noise reductions. Sharpening the blade trailing edges near the tip was effective in reducing broad band noise near 2 kHz. For multiple machines the sound fields are superposed. A three-fold increase in number of machines (from 1 to 3) results in a predicted increase in he sound pressure level of about 5 dB. The detection threshold for 14 machines operating in a 13 - 20 mph wind is observed to be at approximately 1160 m in the downwind direction.

  19. III-V HEMTs: low-noise devices for high-frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Javier

    2003-05-01

    With the recent development of broadband and satellite communications, one of the main engines for the advance of modern Microelectronics is the fabrication of devices with increasing cutoff frequency and lowest possible level of noise. Even if heterojunction bipolar devices (HBTs) have reached a good frequency performance, the top end of high frequency low-noise applications is monopolized by unipolar devices, mainly HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors). In particular, within the vast family of heterojunction devices, the best results ever reported in the W-band have been obtained with InP based HEMTs using the AlInAs/InGaAs material system, improving those of usual GaAs based pseudomorphic HEMTs. In field effect devices, the reduction of the gate length (Lg) up to the technological limit is the main way to achieve the maximum performances. But the design of the devices is not so simple, when reducing the gate length it is convenient to keep constant the aspect ratio (gate length over gate-to-channel distance) in order to limit short channel effects. This operation can lead to the appearance of other unwanted effects, like the depletion of the channel due to the surface potential or the tunneling of electrons from the channel to the gate. Therefore, in order to optimize the high frequency or the low-noise behavior of the devices (that usually can not be reached together) not only the gate-to-channel distance must be chosen carefully, but also many other technological parameters (both geometrical and electrical): composition of materials, width of the device, length, depth and position of the recess, thickness and doping of the different layers, etc. Historically, these parameters have been optimized by classical simulation techniques or, when such simulations are not physically applicable, by the expensive 'test and error' procedure. With the use of computer simulation, the design optimization can be made in a short time and with no money spent. However

  20. Territorial black-capped chickadee males respond faster to high- than to low-frequency songs in experimentally elevated noise conditions

    PubMed Central

    Slabbekoorn, Hans; Otter, Ken A.

    2017-01-01

    Low-frequency urban noise can interfere with avian communication through masking. Some species are able to shift the frequency of their vocalizations upwards in noisy conditions, which may reduce the effects of masking. However, results from playback studies investigating whether or not such vocal changes improve audibility in noisy conditions are not clear; the responses of free-ranging individuals to shifted signals are potentially confounded by functional trade-offs between masking-related audibility and frequency-dependent signal quality. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) naturally sing their songs at several different frequencies as they pitch-shift to match conspecifics during song-matching contests. They are also known to switch to higher song frequencies in response to experimental noise exposure. Each male produces both high- and low-frequency songs and absolute frequency is not a signal of aggression or dominance, making this an interesting species in which to test whether higher-frequency songs are more audible than lower-frequency songs in noisy conditions. We conducted playback studies across southern and central British Columbia, Canada, using paired song stimuli (high- vs low-frequency songs, n = 24 pairs) embedded in synthetic background noise created to match typical urban sound profiles. Over the course of each playback, the signal-to-noise ratio of the song stimuli was gradually increased by raising the amplitude of the song stimuli while maintaining background noise at a constant amplitude. We evaluated variation in how quickly and aggressively territorial males reacted to each of the paired stimuli. We found that males responded more quickly to playbacks of high- than low-frequency songs when high-frequency songs were presented first, but not when low-frequency songs were first. This difference may be explained by high-frequency songs being more audible combined with a carry-over effect resulting in slower responses to the second

  1. Core Engine Noise Program. Volume III. Prediction Methods -- Supplement I. - Extension of Prediction Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    frequency noise transmission through turbine blade rows and addition of engine and component data to the prediction method for core noise. " Phase VI...lower turbine blade row attenuation for this low bypass engine . When the blade row attenuation is accounted for by means of a turbine work extrac...component and engine data. Currently, an in-depth program to investigate turbine blade row attenuation is underway (NAS3-19435 and DOT-FA75WA-3688). The

  2. Evaluation of annoyance from the wind turbine noise: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Zaborowski, Kamil; Zamojska-Daniszewska, Małgorzata; Waszkowska, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of and annoyance due to the noise from wind turbines in populated areas of Poland. The study group comprised 156 subjects. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire developed to enable evaluation of their living conditions, including prevalence of annoyance due to the noise from wind turbines and the self-assessment of physical health and well-being. In addition, current mental health status of the respondents was assessed using Goldberg General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. For areas where the respondents lived, A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated as the sum of the contributions from the wind power plants in the specific area. It has been shown that the wind turbine noise at the calculated A-weighted SPL of 30-48 dB was noticed outdoors by 60.3% of the respondents. This noise was perceived as annoying outdoors by 33.3% of the respondents, while indoors by 20.5% of them. The odds ratio of being annoyed outdoors by the wind turbine noise increased along with increasing SPLs (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.22-3.62). The subjects' attitude to wind turbines in general and sensitivity to landscape littering was found to have significant impact on the perceived annoyance. About 63% of variance in outdoors annoyance assessment might be explained by the noise level, general attitude to wind turbines and sensitivity to landscape littering. Before firm conclusions can be drawn further studies are needed, including a larger number of respondents with different living environments (i.e., dissimilar terrain, different urbanization and road traffic intensity).

  3. Consistent modelling of wind turbine noise propagation from source to receiver

    DOE PAGES

    Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; ...

    2017-11-28

    The unsteady nature of wind turbine noise is a major reason for annoyance. The variation of far-field sound pressure levels is not only caused by the continuous change in wind turbine noise source levels but also by the unsteady flow field and the ground characteristics between the turbine and receiver. To take these phenomena into account, a consistent numerical technique that models the sound propagation from the source to receiver is developed. Large eddy simulation with an actuator line technique is employed for the flow modelling and the corresponding flow fields are used to simulate sound generation and propagation. Themore » local blade relative velocity, angle of attack, and turbulence characteristics are input to the sound generation model. Time-dependent blade locations and the velocity between the noise source and receiver are considered within a quasi-3D propagation model. Long-range noise propagation of a 5 MW wind turbine is investigated. Sound pressure level time series evaluated at the source time are studied for varying wind speeds, surface roughness, and ground impedances within a 2000 m radius from the turbine.« less

  4. Consistent modelling of wind turbine noise propagation from source to receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    The unsteady nature of wind turbine noise is a major reason for annoyance. The variation of far-field sound pressure levels is not only caused by the continuous change in wind turbine noise source levels but also by the unsteady flow field and the ground characteristics between the turbine and receiver. To take these phenomena into account, a consistent numerical technique that models the sound propagation from the source to receiver is developed. Large eddy simulation with an actuator line technique is employed for the flow modelling and the corresponding flow fields are used to simulate sound generation and propagation. Themore » local blade relative velocity, angle of attack, and turbulence characteristics are input to the sound generation model. Time-dependent blade locations and the velocity between the noise source and receiver are considered within a quasi-3D propagation model. Long-range noise propagation of a 5 MW wind turbine is investigated. Sound pressure level time series evaluated at the source time are studied for varying wind speeds, surface roughness, and ground impedances within a 2000 m radius from the turbine.« less

  5. Guide to the evaluation of human exposure to noise from large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.; Grosveld, F.

    1982-01-01

    Guidance for evaluating human exposure to wind turbine noise is provided and includes consideration of the source characteristics, the propagation to the receiver location, and the exposure of the receiver to the noise. The criteria for evaluation of human exposure are based on comparisons of the noise at the receiver location with the human perception thresholds for wind turbine noise and noise-induced building vibrations in the presence of background noise.

  6. On the biological plausibility of Wind Turbine Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert V

    2015-01-01

    An emerging environmental health issue relates to potential ill-effects of wind turbine noise. There have been numerous suggestions that the low-frequency acoustic components in wind turbine signals can cause symptoms associated with vestibular system disorders, namely vertigo, nausea, and nystagmus. This constellation of symptoms has been labeled as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and has been identified in case studies of individuals living close to wind farms. This review discusses whether it is biologically plausible for the turbine noise to stimulate the vestibular parts of the inner ear and, by extension, cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We consider the sound levels that can activate the semicircular canals or otolith end organs in normal subjects, as well as in those with preexisting conditions known to lower vestibular threshold to sound stimulation.

  7. Schottky barrier parameters and low frequency noise characteristics of graphene-germanium Schottky barrier diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurelbaatar, Zagarzusem; Kil, Yeon-Ho; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Cho, Hyunjin; Kim, Myung-Jong; Lee, Sung-Nam; Jeong, Jae-chan; Hong, Hyobong; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the electrical properties of chemical vapor deposition-grown monolayer graphene/n-type germanium (Ge) Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and low frequency noise measurements. The Schottky barrier parameters of graphene/n-type Ge SBDs, such as Schottky barrier height (VB), ideality factor (n), and series resistance (Rs), were extracted using the forward I-V and Cheung's methods. The VB and n extracted from the forward ln(I)-V plot were found to be 0.63 eV and 1.78, respectively. In contrast, from Cheung method, the VB and n were calculated to be 0.53 eV and 1.76, respectively. Such a discrepancy between the values of VB calculated from the forward I-V and Cheung's methods indicated a deviation from the ideal thermionic emission of graphene/n-type Ge SBD associated with the voltage drop across graphene. The low frequency noise measurements performed at the frequencies in the range of 10 Hz-1 kHz showed that the graphene/n-type Ge SBD had 1/f γ frequency dependence, with γ ranging from 1.09 to 1.12, regardless of applied forward biases. Similar to forward-biased SBDs operating in the thermionic emission mode, the current noise power spectral density of graphene/n-type Ge SBD was linearly proportional to the forward current.

  8. Filterless low-phase-noise frequency-quadrupled microwave generation based on a multimode optoelectronic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yichao; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Baofu; Chen, Yiwang

    2018-02-01

    A scheme to realize low-phase-noise frequency-quadrupled microwave generation without any filter is demonstrated. In this scheme, a multimode optoelectronic oscillator is mainly contributed by dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators, fiber, photodetector, and microwave amplifier. The local source signal is modulated by a child MZM (MZMa), which is worked at maximum transmission point. Through properly adjusting the bias voltages of the other child MZM (MZMb) and the parent MZM (MZMc), optical carrier is effectively suppressed and second sidebands are retained, then the survived optical signal is fed back to the photodetector and MZMb to form an optoelectronic hybrid resonator and realize frequency-quadrupled signal generation. Due to the high Q-factor and mode selection effect of the optoelectronic hybrid resonator, compared with the source signal, the generated frequency-quadrupled signal has a lower phase noise. The approach has verified by experiments, and 18, 22, and 26 GHz frequency-quadrupled signal are generated by 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 GHz local source signals. Compared with 4.5 GHz source signal, the phase noise of generated 18 GHz signal at 10 kHz frequency offset has 26.5 dB reduction.

  9. Fundamental Limit of 1/f Frequency Noise in Semiconductor Lasers Due to Mechanical Thermal Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, K.; Camp, J.

    2011-01-01

    So-called 1/f noise has power spectral density inversely proportional to frequency, and is observed in many physical processes. Single longitudinal-mode semiconductor lasers, used in variety of interferometric sensing applications, as well as coherent communications, exhibit 1/f frequency noise at low frequency (typically below 100kHz). Here we evaluate mechanical thermal noise due to mechanical dissipation in semiconductor laser components and give a plausible explanation for the widely-observed 1/f frequency noise, applying a methodology developed for fixed-spacer cavities for laser frequency stabilization. Semiconductor-laser's short cavity, small beam radius, and lossy components are expected to emphasize thermal-noise-limited frequency noise. Our simple model largely explains the different 1/f noise levels observed in various semiconductor lasers, and provides a framework where the noise may be reduced with proper design.

  10. Effects of noise frequency on performance and annoyance for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, K. F.; Payne, M. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of noise frequencies on both performance on a complex psychomotor task and annoyance were investigated for men (n = 30) and women (n = 30). Each subject performed a complex psychomotor task for 50 min in the presence of low-frequency noise, high-frequency noise, or ambient noise. Women and men learned the task at different rates. Little effect of noise was shown. Annoyance ratings were subsequently obtained from each subject for noises of various frequencies by the method of magnitude estimation. High-frequency noises were more annoying than low-frequency noises regardless of sex and immediate prior exposure to noise. Sex differences in annoyance did not occur. No direct relationship between learning to perform a complex task while exposed to noise and annoyance by that noise was demonstrated.

  11. Single frequency free-running low noise compact extended-cavity semiconductor laser at high power level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnache, Arnaud; Myara, Mikhaël.; Laurain, A.; Bouchier, Aude; Perez, J. P.; Signoret, P.; Sagnes, I.; Romanini, D.

    2017-11-01

    We present a highly coherent semiconductor laser device formed by a ½-VCSEL structure and an external concave mirror in a millimetre high finesse stable cavity. The quantum well structure is diode-pumped by a commercial single mode GaAs laser diode system. This free running low noise tunable single-frequency laser exhibits >50mW output power in a low divergent circular TEM00 beam with a spectral linewidth below 1kHz and a relative intensity noise close to the quantum limit. This approach ensures, with a compact design, homogeneous gain behaviour and a sufficiently long photon lifetime to reach the oscillation-relaxation-free class-A regime, with a cut off frequency around 10MHz.

  12. Research Plans for Improving Understanding of Effects of Very Low-Frequency Noise of Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Horonieff, Richard D.; Schmitz, Fredric H.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the English-language technical literature on infrasonic and low-frequency noise effects; identifies the most salient effects of noise produced by a future large civil tiltrotor aircraft on crew, passengers, and communities near landing areas; and recommends research needed to improve understanding of the effects of such noise on passengers, crew, and residents of areas near landing pads.

  13. Effects of Negative-Bias-Temperature-Instability on Low-Frequency Noise in SiGe $${p}$$ MOSFETs

    DOE PAGES

    Duan, Guo Xing; Hachtel, Jordan A.; Zhang, En Xia; ...

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we have measured the low-frequency 1/f noise of Si 0.55Ge 0.45 pMOSFETs with a Si capping layer and SiO 2/HfO 2/TiN gate stack as a function of frequency, gate voltage, and temperature (100-440 K). The magnitude of the excess drain voltage noise power spectral density (Svd) is unaffected by negative-bias-temperature stress (NBTS) for temperatures below ~250 K, but increases significantly at higher temperatures. The noise is described well by the Dutta-Horn model before and after NBTS. The noise at higher measuring temperatures is attributed primarily to oxygen-vacancy and hydrogen-related defects in the SiO 2 and HfO 2more » layers. Finally, at lower measuring temperatures, the noise also appears to be affected strongly by hydrogen-dopant interactions in the SiGe layer of the device.« less

  14. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    PubMed

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  15. Origin of low-frequency noise in pentacene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Minari, Takeo; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Chroboczek, Jan; Balestra, Francis; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency noise (LFN) in pentacene field-effect transistors reveal the preponderance of a 1/ f-type PSD behavior with the amplitude varying as the squared transistor gain and increasing as the inverse of the gate surface area. Such features impose an interpretation of LFN by carrier number fluctuations model involving capture/release of charges on traps uniformly distributed over the gate surface. The surface slow trap density extracted by the noise analysis is close to the surface states density deduced independently from static I(V) data, which confirms the validity of the proposed LFN interpretation. Further, we found that the trap densities in bottom-contact (BC) devices were higher than in their top-contact (TC) counterparts, in agreement with observations of a poorer crystal structure of BC devices, in the contact regions in particular. At the highest bias the noise originating from the contact resistance is also shown to be a dominant component in the PSD, and it is well explained by the noise originating from a gate-voltage dependent contact resistance. A gate area scaling was also performed, and the good scaling and the dispersion at the highest bias confirm the validity of the applied carrier number fluctuations model and the predominant contact noise at high current intensities.

  16. Nanoscale MOS devices: device parameter fluctuations and low-frequency noise (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Hei; Iwai, Hiroshi; Liou, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    It is well-known in conventional MOS transistors that the low-frequency noise or flicker noise is mainly contributed by the trapping-detrapping events in the gate oxide and the mobility fluctuation in the surface channel. In nanoscale MOS transistors, the number of trapping-detrapping events becomes less important because of the large direct tunneling current through the ultrathin gate dielectric which reduces the probability of trapping-detrapping and the level of leakage current fluctuation. Other noise sources become more significant in nanoscale devices. The source and drain resistance noises have greater impact on the drain current noise. Significant contribution of the parasitic bipolar transistor noise in ultra-short channel and channel mobility fluctuation to the channel noise are observed. The channel mobility fluctuation in nanoscale devices could be due to the local composition fluctuation of the gate dielectric material which gives rise to the permittivity fluctuation along the channel and results in gigantic channel potential fluctuation. On the other hand, the statistical variations of the device parameters across the wafer would cause the noise measurements less accurate which will be a challenge for the applicability of analytical flicker noise model as a process or device evaluation tool for nanoscale devices. Some measures for circumventing these difficulties are proposed.

  17. Low frequency critical current noise and two level system defects in Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, Christopher Daniel

    The critical current in a Josephson junction is known to exhibit a 1/falpha low frequency noise. Implemented as a superconducting qubit, this low frequency noise can lead to decoherence. While the 1/f noise has been known to arise from an ensemble of two level systems connected to the tunnel barrier, the precise microscopic nature of these TLSs remain a mystery. In this thesis we will present measurements of the 1/f alpha low frequency noise in the critical current and tunneling resistance of Al-AlOx-Al Josephson junctions. Measurements in a wide range of resistively shunted and unshunted junctions confirm the equality of critical current and tunneling resistance noise. That is the critical current fluctuation corresponds to fluctuations of the tunneling resistance. In not too small Al-AlOx-Al junctions we have found that the fractional power spectral density scales linearly with temperature. We confirmed that the 1/falpha power spectrum is the result of a large number of two level systems modulating the tunneling resistance. At small junction areas and low temperatures, the number of thermally active TLSs is insufficient to integrate out a featureless 1/ f spectral shape. By analyzing the spectral variance in small junction areas, we have been able to deduce the TLS defect density, n ≈ 2.53 per micrometer squared per Kelvin spread in the TLS energy per factor e in the TLS lifetimes. This density is consistent with the density of tunneling TLSs found in glassy insulators, as well as the density deduced from coherent TLSs interacting at qubit frequencies. The deduced TLS density combined with the magnitude of the 1/f power spectral density in large area junctions, gives an average TLS effective area, A ˜ 0.3 nanometer squared. In ultra small tunnel junctions, we have studied the time-domain dynamics of isolated TLSs. We have found a TLS whose dynamics is described by the quantum tunneling between the two localized wells, and a one-phonon absorption

  18. Optimized two-frequency phase-measuring-profilometry light-sensor temporal-noise sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jielin; Hassebrook, Laurence G; Guan, Chun

    2003-01-01

    Temporal frame-to-frame noise in multipattern structured light projection can significantly corrupt depth measurement repeatability. We present a rigorous stochastic analysis of phase-measuring-profilometry temporal noise as a function of the pattern parameters and the reconstruction coefficients. The analysis is used to optimize the two-frequency phase measurement technique. In phase-measuring profilometry, a sequence of phase-shifted sine-wave patterns is projected onto a surface. In two-frequency phase measurement, two sets of pattern sequences are used. The first, low-frequency set establishes a nonambiguous depth estimate, and the second, high-frequency set is unwrapped, based on the low-frequency estimate, to obtain an accurate depth estimate. If the second frequency is too low, then depth error is caused directly by temporal noise in the phase measurement. If the second frequency is too high, temporal noise triggers ambiguous unwrapping, resulting in depth measurement error. We present a solution for finding the second frequency, where intensity noise variance is at its minimum.

  19. Programmable, very low noise current source.

    PubMed

    Scandurra, G; Cannatà, G; Giusi, G; Ciofi, C

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new approach for the realization of very low noise programmable current sources mainly intended for application in the field of low frequency noise measurements. The design is based on a low noise Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) acting as a high impedance current source and programmability is obtained by resorting to a low noise, programmable floating voltage source that allows to set the sourced current at the desired value. The floating voltage source is obtained by exploiting the properties of a standard photovoltaic MOSFET driver. Proper filtering and a control network employing super-capacitors allow to reduce the low frequency output noise to that due to the low noise JFET down to frequencies as low as 100 mHz while allowing, at the same time, to set the desired current by means of a standard DA converter with an accuracy better than 1%. A prototype of the system capable of supplying currents from a few hundreds of μA up to a few mA demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach we propose. When delivering a DC current of about 2 mA, the power spectral density of the current fluctuations at the output is found to be less than 25 pA/√Hz at 100 mHz and less than 6 pA/√Hz for f > 1 Hz, resulting in an RMS noise in the bandwidth from 0.1 to 10 Hz of less than 14 pA.

  20. Programmable, very low noise current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandurra, G.; Cannatà, G.; Giusi, G.; Ciofi, C.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new approach for the realization of very low noise programmable current sources mainly intended for application in the field of low frequency noise measurements. The design is based on a low noise Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) acting as a high impedance current source and programmability is obtained by resorting to a low noise, programmable floating voltage source that allows to set the sourced current at the desired value. The floating voltage source is obtained by exploiting the properties of a standard photovoltaic MOSFET driver. Proper filtering and a control network employing super-capacitors allow to reduce the low frequency output noise to that due to the low noise JFET down to frequencies as low as 100 mHz while allowing, at the same time, to set the desired current by means of a standard DA converter with an accuracy better than 1%. A prototype of the system capable of supplying currents from a few hundreds of μA up to a few mA demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach we propose. When delivering a DC current of about 2 mA, the power spectral density of the current fluctuations at the output is found to be less than 25 pA/√Hz at 100 mHz and less than 6 pA/√Hz for f > 1 Hz, resulting in an RMS noise in the bandwidth from 0.1 to 10 Hz of less than 14 pA.

  1. Improving liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determinations by modifying noise frequency spectrum between two consecutive wavelet-based low-pass filtering procedures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Ping; Liao, Hui-Ju; Huang, Chih-Min; Wang, Shau-Chun; Yu, Sung-Nien

    2010-04-23

    This paper employs one chemometric technique to modify the noise spectrum of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) chromatogram between two consecutive wavelet-based low-pass filter procedures to improve the peak signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio enhancement. Although similar techniques of using other sets of low-pass procedures such as matched filters have been published, the procedures developed in this work are able to avoid peak broadening disadvantages inherent in matched filters. In addition, unlike Fourier transform-based low-pass filters, wavelet-based filters efficiently reject noises in the chromatograms directly in the time domain without distorting the original signals. In this work, the low-pass filtering procedures sequentially convolve the original chromatograms against each set of low pass filters to result in approximation coefficients, representing the low-frequency wavelets, of the first five resolution levels. The tedious trials of setting threshold values to properly shrink each wavelet are therefore no longer required. This noise modification technique is to multiply one wavelet-based low-pass filtered LC-MS/MS chromatogram with another artificial chromatogram added with thermal noises prior to the other wavelet-based low-pass filter. Because low-pass filter cannot eliminate frequency components below its cut-off frequency, more efficient peak S/N ratio improvement cannot be accomplished using consecutive low-pass filter procedures to process LC-MS/MS chromatograms. In contrast, when the low-pass filtered LC-MS/MS chromatogram is conditioned with the multiplication alteration prior to the other low-pass filter, much better ratio improvement is achieved. The noise frequency spectrum of low-pass filtered chromatogram, which originally contains frequency components below the filter cut-off frequency, is altered to span a broader range with multiplication operation. When the frequency range of this modified noise spectrum shifts

  2. Assessing the Impacts of Low Level Jets over Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez Rodriguez, Walter; Araya, Guillermo; Ruiz-Columbie, Arquimedes; Tutkun, Murat; Castillo, Luciano

    2015-11-01

    Low Level Jets (LLJs) are defined as regions of relatively strong winds in the lower part of the atmosphere. They are a common feature over the Great Plains in the United States. This paper is focused on the determination of the static/dynamic impacts that real LLJs in West Texas have over wind turbines and wind farms. High-frequency (50Hz) observational data from the 200-m meteorological tower (Reese, Texas) have been input as inflow conditions into the NREL FAST code in order to evaluate the LLJ's structural impacts on a typical wind turbine. Then, the effect of the LLJ on the wind turbine's wake is considered to evaluate the overall impact on the wind farm. It has been observed that during a LLJ event the levels of turbulence intensity and turbulence kinetic energy are significantly much lower than those during unstable conditions. Also, low-frequency oscillations prevail during stable conditions when LLJs are present, as opposed to high-frequency oscillations which are more prevalent during unstable conditions. Additionally, in LLJs the energy concentrates in particular frequencies that stress the turbine whereas turbine signals show frequencies that are also present in the incoming wind. Grants: NSF-CBET #1157246, NSF-CMMI #1100948, NSF-PIRE # NSF-OISE-1243482.

  3. Effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on small wind turbine noise

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on the noise level of two different size wind turbines was investigated at the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near Bushland, TX. Noise and performance data were collected on two blade designs tested on a wind turbine rated a...

  4. Effect of CoFeB electrode compositions on low frequency magnetic noise in tunneling magnetoresistance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniowski, P.; Dabek, M.; Wrona, J.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effect of CoFeB electrode compositions on frequency dependent magnetic noise in tunneling magnetoresistance sensors with variable field sensitivity. We use the relationship between the normalized 1/f noise parameter (αt) and the magnetoresistance sensitivity product (MSP) to compare the magnetic noise of sensors with Co40Fe40B20, Co60Fe20B20, and Co20Fe60B20 electrodes. We observed the lowest slope of the αt vs. MSP curve of 9.1 × 10-13 μm3 T and a 1/f noise corner as low as 300 Hz for the sensors with Co60Fe20B20 electrodes. Furthermore, all sensors at a specific value of the magnetoresistance sensitivity product showed a deviation from the linear relationship between αt and MSP. The results show that in the design of high sensitivity CoFeB-MgO-CoFeB based tunneling magnetoresistance sensors for low field detection, selection of CoFeB electrodes is important and can be used to significantly improve the low frequency field detection limit.

  5. Noise measurements during high-frequency oscillatory and conventional mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Berens, R J; Weigle, C G

    1995-10-01

    To evaluate the noise levels with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation. An observational, prospective study. Pediatric intensive care unit. The caretakers and environment of the pediatric intensive care unit. High-frequency oscillatory and conventional mechanical ventilation. Caretakers evaluated noise using a visual analog scale. Noise was measured with a decibel meter and an octave band frequency filter. There was twice as much noise perceived by the caretakers and as measured on the decibel A scale. All measures showed significantly greater noise, especially at low frequencies, with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation exposes the patient to twice as much noise as does the use of conventional mechanical ventilation.

  6. Low frequency noise fiber delay stabilized laser with reduced sensitivity to acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argence, B.; Clivati, C.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Holleville, D.; Faure, B.; Lemonde, P.; Santarelli, G.

    2017-11-01

    Lasers with sub-hertz line-width and fractional frequency instability around 1×10-15 for 0.1 s to 10 s averaging time are currently realized by locking onto an ultra-stable Fabry-Perot cavity using the Pound-Drever-Hall method. This powerful method requires tight alignment of free space optical components, precise polarization adjustment and spatial mode matching. To circumvent these issues, we use an all-fiber Michelson interferometer with a long fiber spool as a frequency reference and a heterodyne detection technique with a fibered acousto optical modulator (AOM)1. At low Fourier frequencies, the frequency noise of our system is mainly limited by mechanical vibrations, an issue that has already been explored in the field of optoelectronic oscillators.2,3,4

  7. Noisy Icebergs: Low Frequency Acoustic Noise Levels Observed off Palmyra Atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Wiggins, S. M.; Sirovic, A.; Tournadre, J.; Oleson, E.; Haxel, J. H.; Dziak, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Annually tens of thousands of icebergs from Antarctica drift into the open ocean. In late 2007, two unusually large icebergs, B15a and C19a, entered the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean, and began rapidly disintegrating. Approximately 1.5 years later in April 2009, both icebergs had completely fragmented. An unappreciated aspect of the destructive processes that occur while these large icebergs break apart is the high acoustic source levels that are generated and the contribution of those signals to the ocean soundscape throughout the southern hemisphere. Matsumoto et al. (2014) found evidence of B15a and C19a affecting low-frequency noise levels below 36 Hz at 8°N, 110°W in the eastern equatorial Pacific at a range of 7,500 km. Similar evidence for disintegrating icebergs affecting soundscapes at a similar range was observed in data from 2007-2009 High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package recordings by Scripps Institution of Oceanography near Palmyra atoll in the central equatorial Pacific. Noise levels rose in 2007 as the icebergs entered the Pacific and decreased as the destructive processes declined and the icebergs disintegrated in 2009. This suggests that iceberg sounds are a significant natural noise source in the global ocean, and the area affected by the destructive processes during their decomposition can be as large as the entire southern hemisphere.

  8. Low noise erbium fiber fs frequency comb based on a tapered-fiber carbon nanotube design.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Han; Kieu, K; Peyghambarian, N; Jones, R J

    2011-03-14

    We report on a low noise all-fiber erbium fs frequency comb based on a simple and robust tapered-fiber carbon nanotube (tf-CNT) design. We mitigate dominant noise sources to show that the free-running linewidth of the carrier-envelope offset frequency (fceo) can be comparable to the best reported performance to date for fiber-based frequency combs. A free-running fceo linewidth of ~20 kHz is demonstrated, corresponding to an improvement of ~30 times over previous work based on a CNT mode-locked fiber laser [Opt. Express 18, 1667 (2010)]. We also demonstrate the use of an acousto-optic modulator external to the laser cavity to stabilize fceo, enabling a 300 kHz feedback control bandwidth. The offset frequency is phase-locked with an in-loop integrated phase noise of ~0.8 rad from 10Hz to 400kHz. We show a resolution-limited linewidth of ~1 Hz, demonstrating over 90% of the carrier power within the coherent fceo signal. The results demonstrate that the relatively simple tf-CNT fiber laser design can provide a compact, robust and high-performance fs frequency comb.

  9. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    François, B.; Boudot, R.; Calosso, C. E.

    2014-09-15

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192 GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192 GHz output signal are measured to be −42, −100, −117 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz and −129 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Comparedmore » to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10{sup −14} at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.« less

  10. Coupling of Helmholtz resonators to improve acoustic liners for turbofan engines at low frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical and test program was conducted to evaluate means for increasing the effectiveness of low frequency sound absorbing liners for aircraft turbine engines. Three schemes for coupling low frequency absorber elements were considered. These schemes were analytically modeled and their impedance was predicted over a frequency range of 50 to 1,000 Hz. An optimum and two off-optimum designs of the most promising, a parallel coupled scheme, were fabricated and tested in a flow duct facility. Impedance measurements were in good agreement with predicted values and validated the procedure used to transform modeled parameters to hardware designs. Measurements of attenuation for panels of coupled resonators were consistent with predictions based on measured impedance. All coupled resonator panels tested showed an increase in peak attenuation of about 50% and an increase in attenuation bandwidth of one one-third octave band over that measured for an uncoupled panel. These attenuation characteristics equate to about 35% greater reduction in source perceived noise level (PNL), relative to the uncoupled panel, or a reduction in treatment length of about 24% for constant PNL reduction. The increased effectiveness of the coupled resonator concept for attenuation of low frequency broad spectrum noise is demonstrated.

  11. Underwater operational noise level emitted by a tidal current turbine and its potential impact on marine fauna.

    PubMed

    Lossent, J; Lejart, M; Folegot, T; Clorennec, D; Di Iorio, L; Gervaise, C

    2018-06-01

    Marine renewable energy development raised concerns over the impact of underwater noise. Here we assess the acoustic impacts of an operating tidal current turbine (Paimpol-Bréhat site, France) on marine fauna. Its source level (SL) has been measured in situ using 19 drifting transects at distances between 100 m to 2400 m from the turbine. SL ranged from 118 to 152 dB re1 μPa@1 m in third-octave bands at frequencies between 40 and 8192 Hz. It is comparable to the SL of a 19 m boat travelling at 10kt speed. This SL was used to estimate the impact of this noise type based on acoustic propagation simulations. The acoustic footprint of the device corresponds to a 1.5 km radius disk. Our results show that within this area of greatest potential impact, physiological injury of the hearing apparatus of invertebrates, fishes and marine mammals is improbable. Behavioral disturbance may occur up to 1 km around the device for harbor porpoises only. This is of little concern for a single turbine. However, greater concern on turbine noise impact, particularly on behavioral reactions has to be granted for a farm with up to 100 turbine. The lack of consolidated knowledge on behavioral disturbances identifies the needs for specific research programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple analytical model for low-frequency frequency-modulation noise of monolithic tunable lasers.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tam N; Ó Dúill, Seán P; Nguyen, Lim; Rusch, Leslie A; Barry, Liam P

    2014-02-10

    We employ simple analytical models to construct the entire frequency-modulation (FM)-noise spectrum of tunable semiconductor lasers. Many contributions to the laser FM noise can be clearly identified from the FM-noise spectrum, such as standard Weiner FM noise incorporating laser relaxation oscillation, excess FM noise due to thermal fluctuations, and carrier-induced refractive index fluctuations from stochastic carrier generation in the passive tuning sections. The contribution of the latter effect is identified by noting a correlation between part of the FM-noise spectrum with the FM-modulation response of the passive sections. We pay particular attention to the case of widely tunable lasers with three independent tuning sections, mainly the sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector laser, and compare with that of a distributed feedback laser. The theoretical model is confirmed with experimental measurements, with the calculations of the important phase-error variance demonstrating excellent agreement.

  13. Infra-sound cancellation and mitigation in wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretti, Albert; Ordys, Andrew; Al Zubaidy, Sarim

    2018-03-01

    The infra-sound spectra recorded inside homes located even several kilometres far from wind turbine installations is characterized by large pressure fluctuation in the low frequency range. There is a significant body of literature suggesting inaudible sounds at low frequency are sensed by humans and affect the wellbeing through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include amplitude modulation of heard sounds, stimulating subconscious pathways, causing endolymphatic hydrops, and possibly potentiating noise-induced hearing loss. We suggest the study of infra-sound active cancellation and mitigation to address the low frequency noise issues. Loudspeakers generate pressure wave components of same amplitude and frequency but opposite phase of the recorded infra sound. They also produce pressure wave components within the audible range reducing the perception of the infra-sound to minimize the sensing of the residual infra sound.

  14. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, F.; Khondkaryan, H.; Arakelyan, A.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Pud, S.; Vitusevich, S.

    2016-08-01

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p+-p-p+ field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2-4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculating the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 105. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.

  15. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiulong; Yang, Kunde; Cao, Ran; Duan, Shunli

    2018-01-23

    Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources contribute to the total noise field in the deep ocean direct-arrival zones. Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources may significantly and simultaneously affect the spatial characteristics of the total noise field to some extent. In this work, a ray approach and parabolic equation solution method were jointly utilized to model the low-frequency ambient noise field in a range-dependent deep ocean environment by considering their calculation accuracy and efficiency in near-field wind-driven and far-field distant shipping noise fields. The reanalysis databases of National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and Volunteer Observation System (VOS) were used to model the ambient noise source intensity and distribution. Spatial vertical directionality and correlation were analyzed in three scenarios that correspond to three wind speed conditions. The noise field was dominated by distant shipping noise sources when the wind speed was less than 3 m/s, and then the spatial vertical directionality and vertical correlation of the total noise field were nearly consistent with those of distant shipping noise field. The total noise field was completely dominated by near field wind generated noise sources when the wind speed was greater than 12 m/s at 150 Hz, and then the spatial vertical correlation coefficient and directionality pattern of the total noise field was approximately consistent with that of the wind-driven noise field. The spatial characteristics of the total noise field for wind speeds between 3 m/s and 12 m/s were the weighted results of wind-driven and distant shipping noise fields. Furthermore, the spatial characteristics of low-frequency ambient noise field were compared with the classical Cron/Sherman deep water noise field coherence function. Simulation results with the described modeling method showed good agreement with the experimental measurement results based on the vertical line array deployed near

  16. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiulong; Yang, Kunde; Cao, Ran; Duan, Shunli

    2018-01-01

    Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources contribute to the total noise field in the deep ocean direct-arrival zones. Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources may significantly and simultaneously affect the spatial characteristics of the total noise field to some extent. In this work, a ray approach and parabolic equation solution method were jointly utilized to model the low-frequency ambient noise field in a range-dependent deep ocean environment by considering their calculation accuracy and efficiency in near-field wind-driven and far-field distant shipping noise fields. The reanalysis databases of National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and Volunteer Observation System (VOS) were used to model the ambient noise source intensity and distribution. Spatial vertical directionality and correlation were analyzed in three scenarios that correspond to three wind speed conditions. The noise field was dominated by distant shipping noise sources when the wind speed was less than 3 m/s, and then the spatial vertical directionality and vertical correlation of the total noise field were nearly consistent with those of distant shipping noise field. The total noise field was completely dominated by near field wind generated noise sources when the wind speed was greater than 12 m/s at 150 Hz, and then the spatial vertical correlation coefficient and directionality pattern of the total noise field was approximately consistent with that of the wind-driven noise field. The spatial characteristics of the total noise field for wind speeds between 3 m/s and 12 m/s were the weighted results of wind-driven and distant shipping noise fields. Furthermore, the spatial characteristics of low-frequency ambient noise field were compared with the classical Cron/Sherman deep water noise field coherence function. Simulation results with the described modeling method showed good agreement with the experimental measurement results based on the vertical line array deployed near

  17. Low phase noise microwave extraction from femtosecond laser by frequency conversion pair and IF-domain processing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yitang; Cen, Qizhuang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Yue; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Jian; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun

    2015-12-14

    Extraction of a microwave component from a low-time-jitter femtosecond pulse train has been attractive for current generation of spectrally pure microwave. In order to avoid the transfer from the optical amplitude noise to microwave phase noise (AM-PM), we propose to down-convert the target component to intermediate frequency (IF) before the opto-electronic conversion. Due to the much lower carrier frequency, the AM-PM is greatly suppressed. The target is then recovered by up-conversion with the same microwave local oscillation (LO). As long as the time delay of the second LO matches that of the IF carrier, the phase noise of the LO shows no impact on the extraction process. The residual noise of the proposed extraction is analyzed in theory, which is also experimentally demonstrated as averagely around -155 dBc/Hz under offset frequency larger than 1 kHz when 10-GHz tone is extracted from a home-made femtosecond fiber laser. Large tunable extraction from 1 GHz to 10 GHz is also reported.

  18. Characterization of a low frequency magnetic noise from a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshraghi, M. J.; Sasada, I.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.

    2009-07-01

    Magnetic noise of a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler (PT) was measured by a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate magnetometer and by a LTS Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUID (DROS) first-order planar gradiometer. The magnetometer was installed in a dewar made of aluminum at 12 cm distance from a section containing magnetic regenerative materials of the second pulse tube. The magnetic noise spectrum showed a clear peak at 1.8 Hz, which is the fundamental frequency of the He gas pumping rate. The 1.8 Hz magnetic noise registered a peak, during the cooling down process, when the second cold-stage temperature was around 12 K, which is well correlated with the 1.8 Hz variation of the temperature of the second cold stage. Hence, we attributed the main source of this magnetic noise to the temperature variation of the magnetic moments resulting from magnetic regenerative materials, Er 3Ni and HoCu 2, in the presence of background static magnetic fields. We have also pointed out that the superconducting magnetic shield of lead sheets reduced the low frequency magnetic noise generated from the magnetic regenerative materials. With this arrangement, the magnetic noise amplitude measured with the LTS DROS gradiometer, mounted at 7 cm horizontal distance from the magnetic regenerative materials, in the optimum condition, was lower than 500 pT peak-to-peak, whereas the noise level without lead shielding was higher than the dynamic range of DROS instrumentations which was around ±10nT.

  19. Map of low-frequency electromagnetic noise in the sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Watson, Robert; Gaffet, Stéphane; Astin, Ivan; Smith, Nathan; Evans, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    The Earth's natural electromagnetic environment is disturbed by anthropogenic electromagnetic noise. Here we report the first results from an electromagnetic noise survey of the sky. The locations of electromagnetic noise sources are mapped on the hemisphere above a distributed array of wideband receivers that operate in a small aperture configuration. It is found that the noise sources can be localized at elevation angles up to ˜60° in the sky, well above the horizon. The sky also exhibits zones with little or no noise that are found toward the local zenith and the southwest of the array. These results are obtained by a rigorous analysis of the residuals from the classic dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves using an array analysis of electric field measurements in the frequency range from ˜20 to 250 kHz. The observed locations of the noise sources enable detailed observations of ionospheric modification, for example, caused by particle precipitation and lightning discharges, while the observed exclusion zones enable the detection of weak natural electromagnetic emissions, for example, from streamers in transient luminous events above thunderclouds.

  20. A programmable ultra-low noise X-band exciter.

    PubMed

    MacMullen, A; Hoover, L R; Justice, R D; Callahan, B S

    2001-07-01

    A programmable ultra-low noise X-band exciter has been developed using commercial off-the-shelf components. Its phase noise is more than 10 dB below the best available microwave synthesizers. It covers a 7% frequency band with 0.1-Hz resolution. The X-band output at +23 dBm is a combination of signals from an X-band sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator (SLCO), a low noise UHF frequency synthesizer, and special-purpose frequency translation and up-conversion circuitry.

  1. Wind turbine noise, annoyance and self-reported health and well-being in different living environments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eja; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise among people living near the turbines, and to study relations between noise and perception/annoyance, with focus on differences between living environments. A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven areas in Sweden across dissimilar terrain and different degrees of urbanisation. A postal questionnaire regarding living conditions including response to wind turbine noise was completed by 754 subjects. Outdoor A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for each respondent. Perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise in relation to SPLs was analysed with regard to dissimilarities between the areas. The odds of perceiving wind turbine noise increased with increasing SPL (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.40). The odds of being annoyed by wind turbine noise also increased with increasing SPLs (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.25). Perception and annoyance were associated with terrain and urbanisation: (1) a rural area increased the risk of perception and annoyance in comparison with a suburban area; and (2) in a rural setting, complex ground (hilly or rocky terrain) increased the risk compared with flat ground. Annoyance was associated with both objective and subjective factors of wind turbine visibility, and was further associated with lowered sleep quality and negative emotions. There is a need to take the unique environment into account when planning a new wind farm so that adverse health effects are avoided. The influence of area-related factors should also be considered in future community noise research.

  2. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  3. Instability waves and low-frequency noise radiation in the subsonic chevron jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Lingke; Ye, Chuangchao; Wan, Zhenhua; Yang, Haihua; Sun, Dejun

    2017-11-01

    Spatial instability waves associated with low-frequency noise radiation at shallow polar angles in the chevron jet are investigated and are compared to the round counterpart. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved to obtain the mean flow fields, which serve as the baseflow for linear stability analysis. The chevron jet has more complicated instability waves than the round jet, where three types of instability modes are identified in the vicinity of the nozzle, corresponding to radial shear, azimuthal shear, and their integrated effect of the baseflow, respectively. The most unstable frequency of all chevron modes and round modes in both jets decrease as the axial location moves downstream. Besides, the azimuthal shear effect related modes are more unstable than radial shear effect related modes at low frequencies. Compared to a round jet, a chevron jet reduces the growth rate of the most unstable modes at downstream locations. Moreover, linearized Euler equations are employed to obtain the beam pattern of pressure generated by spatially evolving instability waves at a dominant low frequency St=0.3 , and the acoustic efficiencies of these linear wavepackets are evaluated for both jets. It is found that the acoustic efficiency of linear wavepacket is able to be reduced greatly in the chevron jet, compared to the round jet.

  4. Instability waves and low-frequency noise radiation in the subsonic chevron jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Lingke; Ye, Chuangchao; Wan, Zhenhua; Yang, Haihua; Sun, Dejun

    2018-06-01

    Spatial instability waves associated with low-frequency noise radiation at shallow polar angles in the chevron jet are investigated and are compared to the round counterpart. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved to obtain the mean flow fields, which serve as the baseflow for linear stability analysis. The chevron jet has more complicated instability waves than the round jet, where three types of instability modes are identified in the vicinity of the nozzle, corresponding to radial shear, azimuthal shear, and their integrated effect of the baseflow, respectively. The most unstable frequency of all chevron modes and round modes in both jets decrease as the axial location moves downstream. Besides, the azimuthal shear effect related modes are more unstable than radial shear effect related modes at low frequencies. Compared to a round jet, a chevron jet reduces the growth rate of the most unstable modes at downstream locations. Moreover, linearized Euler equations are employed to obtain the beam pattern of pressure generated by spatially evolving instability waves at a dominant low frequency St=0.3, and the acoustic efficiencies of these linear wavepackets are evaluated for both jets. It is found that the acoustic efficiency of linear wavepacket is able to be reduced greatly in the chevron jet, compared to the round jet.

  5. Short-term nighttime wind turbine noise and cardiovascular events: A nationwide case-crossover study from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Peña, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    The number of people exposed to wind turbine noise (WTN) is increasing. WTN is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels. Long-term exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with cardiovascular disease, whereas effects of short-term exposure are much less investigated due to little day-to-day variation of e.g. road traffic noise. WTN varies considerably due to changing weather conditions allowing investigation of short-term effects of WTN on cardiovascular events. We identified all hospitalisations and deaths from stroke (16,913 cases) and myocardial infarction (MI) (17,559 cases) among Danes exposed to WTN between 1982 and 2013. We applied a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Using detailed data on wind turbine type and hourly wind data at each wind turbine, we simulated mean nighttime outdoor (10-10,000 Hz) and nighttime low frequency (LF) indoor WTN (10-160 Hz) over the 4 days preceding diagnosis and reference days. For indoor LF WTN between 10 and 15 dB(A) and above 15 dB(A), odds ratios (ORs) for MI were 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-1.67; cases = 198) and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.76-3.45; cases = 21), respectively, when compared to indoor LF WTN below 5 dB(A). For stroke, corresponding ORs were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.95-1.69; cases = 166) and 2.30 (95% CI: 0.96-5.50; cases = 15). The elevated ORs above 15 dB(A) persisted across sensitivity analyses. When looking at specific lag times, noise exposure one day before MI events and three days before stroke events were associated with the highest ORs. For outdoor WTN at night, we observed both increased and decreased risk estimates. This study did not provide conclusive evidence of an association between WTN and MI or stroke. It does however suggest that indoor LF WTN at night may trigger cardiovascular events, whereas these events seemed largely unaffected by nighttime outdoor WTN. These findings need reproduction, as they were based on few cases

  6. Modulation of cochlear responses in the guinea pig by low-frequency, phase-shifted maskers following noise trauma.

    PubMed

    Hoehmann, D; Müller, S; Dornhoffer, J L

    1995-01-01

    Low-frequency acoustic biasing using an intensive phase-shifted, low-frequency masker was studied according to its ability to determine disorders of cochlear micromechanics following noise trauma in the guinea pig as animal model. Statistical analyses proved that this technique allowed electrophysiological differentiation of controls versus groups with different degrees of experimentally induced threshold shifts. To substantiate group differences an intensity of at least 70 dB SPL was required for the 52 Hz masker and the difference in relation to the test-tone intensity had to be +/- 10 or +/- 20 dB SPL. The noise-traumatized cochlea could be identified by means of a threshold shift for the 5 microV pseudothreshold, a low modulation span of the compound action potential amplitude (< 25-50 microV frequency dependent), and reduced positive summating potential amplitude with negative non-modulating values within the different measurement phases for 1 and 2 kHz stimulation.

  7. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparyan, F.; Forschungszentrum Jülich, Peter Grünberg Institute; Khondkaryan, H.

    2016-08-14

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p{sup +}-p-p{sup +} field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2–4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculatingmore » the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 10{sup 5}. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.« less

  8. Ultra-low-noise preamplifier for condenser microphones.

    PubMed

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the design of a low-noise preamplifier dedicated for condenser measurement microphones used in high sensitivity applications, in which amplifier noise is the main factor limiting sensitivity of the measurements. In measurement microphone preamplifiers, the dominant source of noise at lower frequencies is the bias resistance of the input stage. In the presented solution, resistors were connected to the input stage by means of switches. The switches are opened during measurements, which disconnects the resistors from the input stage and results in noise reduction. Closing the switches allows for fast charging of the microphone capacitance. At low frequencies the noise of the designed preamplifier is a few times lower in comparison to similar, commercially available instruments.

  9. Low-noise cryogenic transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D.

    1987-01-01

    New low-noise cryogenic input transmission lines have been developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) at 1.668 GHz for cryogenically cooled Field Effect Transistors (FET) and High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. These amplifiers exhibit very low noise temperatures of 5 K to 15 K, making the requirements for a low-noise input transmission line critical. Noise contribution to the total amplifier system from the low-noise line is less than 0.5 K for both the 1.668-GHz and 2.25-GHz FET systems. The 1.668-GHz input line was installed in six FET systems which were implemented in the DSN for the Venus Balloon Experiment. The 2.25-GHz input line has been implemented in three FET systems for the DSN 34-m HEF antennas, and the design is currently being considered for use at higher frequencies.

  10. Low frequency cabin noise reduction based on the intrinsic structural tuning concept: The theory and the experimental results, phase 2. [jet aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, G.

    1978-01-01

    Low frequency cabin noise and sonically induced stresses in an aircraft fuselage may be reduced by intrinsic tuning of the various structural members such as the skin, stringers, and frames and then applying damping treatments on these members. The concept is also useful in identifying the key structural resonance mechanisms controlling the fuselage response to broadband random excitation and in developing suitable damping treatments for reducing the structural response in various frequency ranges. The mathematical proof of the concept and the results of some laboratory and field tests on a group of skin-stringer panels are described. In the so-called stiffness-controlled region, the noise transmission may actually be controlled by stiffener resonances, depending upon the relationship between the natural frequencies of the skin bay and the stiffeners. Therefore, cabin noise in the stiffness-controlled region may be effectively reduced by applying damping treatments on the stiffeners.

  11. Core noise measurements on a YF-102 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, M.; Karchmer, A. M.; Penko, P. F.; Mcardle, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Core noise from a YF-102 high bypass ratio turbofan engine was investigated through the use of simultaneous measurements of internal fluctuating pressures and far field noise. Acoustic waveguide probes, located in the engine at the compressor exit, in the combustor, at the turbine exit, and in the core nozzle, were employed to measure internal fluctuating pressures. Spectra showed that the internal signals were free of tones, except at high frequency where machinery noise was present. Data obtained over a wide range of engine conditions suggest that below 60% of maximum fan speed the low frequency core noise contributes significantly to the far field noise.

  12. A study on the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, eight male subjects were exposed to seven types of low-frequency noise stimuli: two pure tones [a 31.5-Hz, 100-dB(SPL) tone and a 50-Hz, 100-dB(SPL) tone] and five complex noises composed of the pure tones. For the complex noise stimuli, the sound pressure level of one tonal component was 100 dB(SPL) and that of another one was either 90, 95, or 100 dB(SPL). Vibration induced on the body surface was measured at five locations, and the correlation with the subjective rating of the vibratory sensation at each site of measurement was examined. In Experiment 2, the correlation between the body surface vibration and the vibratory sensation was similarly examined using seven types of noise stimuli composed of a 25-Hz tone and a 50-Hz tone. In both the experiments, we found that at the chest and the abdomen, the rating of the vibratory sensation was in close correlation with the vibration acceleration level (VAL) of the body surface vibration measured at each corresponding location. This was consistent with our previous results and suggested that at the trunk of the body (the chest and the abdomen), the mechanoreception of body vibrations plays an important role in the experience of the vibratory sensation in persons exposed to high-level low-frequency noise. At the head, however, no close correlation was found between the rating of the vibratory sensation and the VAL of body surface vibration. This suggested that at the head, the perceptual mechanisms of vibration induced by high-level low-frequency noise were different from those in the trunk of the body.

  13. Wind turbine noise, annoyance and self‐reported health and well‐being in different living environments

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eja

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise among people living near the turbines, and to study relations between noise and perception/annoyance, with focus on differences between living environments. Methods A cross‐sectional study was carried out in seven areas in Sweden across dissimilar terrain and different degrees of urbanisation. A postal questionnaire regarding living conditions including response to wind turbine noise was completed by 754 subjects. Outdoor A‐weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for each respondent. Perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise in relation to SPLs was analysed with regard to dissimilarities between the areas. Results The odds of perceiving wind turbine noise increased with increasing SPL (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.40). The odds of being annoyed by wind turbine noise also increased with increasing SPLs (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.25). Perception and annoyance were associated with terrain and urbanisation: (1) a rural area increased the risk of perception and annoyance in comparison with a suburban area; and (2) in a rural setting, complex ground (hilly or rocky terrain) increased the risk compared with flat ground. Annoyance was associated with both objective and subjective factors of wind turbine visibility, and was further associated with lowered sleep quality and negative emotions. Conclusion There is a need to take the unique environment into account when planning a new wind farm so that adverse health effects are avoided. The influence of area‐related factors should also be considered in future community noise research. PMID:17332136

  14. Frequency-noise measurements of optical frequency combs by multiple fringe-side discriminator

    PubMed Central

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Gambetta, Alessio; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The frequency noise of an optical frequency comb is routinely measured through the hetherodyne beat of one comb tooth against a stable continuous-wave laser. After frequency-to-voltage conversion, the beatnote is sent to a spectrum analyzer to retrive the power spectral density of the frequency noise. Because narrow-linewidth continuous-wave lasers are available only at certain wavelengths, heterodyning the comb tooth can be challenging. We present a new technique for direct characterization of the frequency noise of an optical frequency comb, requiring no supplementary reference lasers and easily applicable in all spectral regions from the terahertz to the ultraviolet. The technique is based on the combination of a low finesse Fabry-Perot resonator and the so-called “fringe-side locking” method, usually adopted to characterize the spectral purity of single-frequency lasers, here generalized to optical frequency combs. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated with an Er-fiber comb source across the wavelength range from 1 to 2 μm. PMID:26548900

  15. Low-Frequency Acoustic Noise Mitigation Characteristics of Metamaterials-Inspired Vibro-Impact Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekhy, Anuj

    Acoustic absorbers like foams, fiberglass or liners have been used commonly in structures for infrastructural, industrial, automotive and aerospace applications to mitigate noise. However, these conventional materials have limited effectiveness to mitigate low-frequency (LF) acoustic waves with frequency less than 400 Hz owing to the need for impractically large mass or volume. LF acoustic waves contribute significantly towards environmental noise pollution as well as unwanted structural responses. Therefore, there is a need to develop lightweight, compact, structurally-integrated solutions to mitigate LF noise in several applications. Inspired by metamaterials, which are man-made structural materials that derive their unique dynamic behavior not just from material constituents but more so from engineered configurations, tuned mass-loaded membranes as vibro-impact attachments on a baseline structure are investigated to determine their performance as a LF acoustic barrier. The hypothesis is that the LF incident waves are up-converted via impact to higher modes in the baseline structure which are far more evanescent and may then be effectively mitigated using conventional means. Such Metamaterials-Inspired Vibro-Impact Structures (MIVIS) could be tuned to match the dominant frequency content of LF acoustic sources in specific applications. Prototype MIVIS unit cells were designed and tested to study the energy transfer mechanism via impact-induced frequency up-conversion, and the consequent sound transmission loss. Structural acoustic simulations were done to predict responses using models based on normal incidence transmission loss tests. Experimental proof-of-concept was achieved and further correlations to simulations were utilized to optimize the energy up-conversion mechanism using parametric studies. Up to 36 dB of sound transmission loss increase is obtained at the anti-resonance frequency (326 Hz) within a tunable LF bandwidth of about 200 Hz while impact

  16. Carotid dual-energy CT angiography: Evaluation of low keV calculated monoenergetic datasets by means of a frequency-split approach for noise reduction at low keV levels.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Philipp; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Sudarski, Sonja; Morelli, John N; Schmidt, Bernhard; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Calculated monoenergetic ultra-low keV datasets did not lead to improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) due to the dramatic increase in image noise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the objective image quality of ultra-low keV monoenergetic images (MEIs) calculated from carotid DECT angiography data with a new monoenergetic imaging algorithm using a frequency-split technique. 20 patients (12 male; mean age 53±17 years) were retrospectively analyzed. MEIs from 40 to 120 keV were reconstructed using the monoenergetic split frequency approach (MFSA). Additionally MEIs were reconstructed for 40 and 50 keV using a conventional monoenergetic (CM) software application. Signal intensity, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and CNR were assessed in the basilar, common, internal carotid arteries. Ultra-low keV MEIs at 40 keV and 50 keV demonstrated highest vessel attenuation, significantly greater than those of the polyenergetic images (PEI) (all p-values <0.05). The highest SNR level and CNR level was found at 40 keV and 50 keV (all p-values <0.05). MEIs with MFSA showed significantly lower noise levels than those processed with CM (all p-values <0.05) and no significant differences in vessel attenuation (p>0.05). Thus MEIs with MFSA showed significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to MEIs with CM. Combining the lower spatial frequency stack for contrast at low keV levels with the high spatial frequency stack for noise at high keV levels (frequency-split technique) leads to improved image quality of ultra-low keV monoenergetic DECT datasets when compared to previous monoenergetic reconstruction techniques without the frequency-split technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-noise SQUID

    DOEpatents

    Dantsker, Eugene; Clarke, John

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high-transition-temperature superconducting device having low-magnitude low-frequency noise-characteristics in magnetic fields comprising superconducting films wherein the films have a width that is less than or equal to a critical width, w.sub.C, which depends on an ambient magnetic field. For operation in the Earth's magnetic field, the critical width is about 6 micrometers (.mu.m). When made with film widths of about 4 .mu.m an inventive high transition-temperature, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) excluded magnetic flux vortices up to a threshold ambient magnetic field of about 100 microTesla (.mu.T). SQUIDs were fabricated having several different film strip patterns. When the film strip width was kept at about 4 .mu.m, the SQUIDs exhibited essentially no increase in low-frequency noise, even when cooled in static magnetic fields of magnitude up to 100 .mu.T. Furthermore, the mutual inductance between the inventive devices and a seven-turn spiral coil was at least 85% of that for inductive coupling to a conventional SQUID.

  18. Theoretical study of low-frequency noise and amplitude – frequency characteristics of a semiconductor laser with a fiber Bragg grating

    SciTech Connect

    Kurnosov, V D; Kurnosov, K V

    2013-09-30

    Using the rate equations for the density of photons and charge carriers, we have studied the amplitude low-frequency noise of a fibre Bragg grating semiconductor laser. The calculations rely on two versions of the rate equation for the carriers, characterised by the presence of the optical confinement coefficient for the term, which takes into account the rate of stimulated recombination. It is shown that the relative noise intensity, which is calculated by using the rate equation for the carriers without optical confinement, agrees better with the experimental results. The calculation of the amplitude – frequency characteristics (AFCs) has shown thatmore » it is impossible to give preference to any one of these systems, since the AFCs for the two versions of the rate equations for the carriers coincide. (lasers)« less

  19. Passive ultrasonics using sub-Nyquist sampling of high-frequency thermal-mechanical noise.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Karim G; Romberg, Justin; Lani, Shane; Degertekin, F Levent

    2014-06-01

    Monolithic integration of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays with low noise complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics minimizes interconnect parasitics thus allowing the measurement of thermal-mechanical (TM) noise. This enables passive ultrasonics based on cross-correlations of diffuse TM noise to extract coherent ultrasonic waves propagating between receivers. However, synchronous recording of high-frequency TM noise puts stringent requirements on the analog to digital converter's sampling rate. To alleviate this restriction, high-frequency TM noise cross-correlations (12-25 MHz) were estimated instead using compressed measurements of TM noise which could be digitized at a sampling frequency lower than the Nyquist frequency.

  20. Low frequency noise in the unstable contact region of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Haodong; Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg; Ke, Feixiang

    The noise behavior of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches has been experimentally studied in the unstable contact region. The results suggest that the electrical conduction remains nonmetallic at the initial stage during contact formation due to the existence of alien films, and traps in the alien layer located at the contact interface could play an important role in determining the conduction noise. The conduction fluctuation induced by electron trapping-detrapping associated with the hydrocarbon layer is found to be an intrinsic noise source contributing to the low frequency noise in the unstable contact region.

  1. Low frequency noise in the unstable contact region of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Haodong; Wang, Hong; Ke, Feixiang

    2014-06-01

    The noise behavior of Au-to-Au microcontact for microelectromechanical system switches has been experimentally studied in the unstable contact region. The results suggest that the electrical conduction remains nonmetallic at the initial stage during contact formation due to the existence of alien films, and traps in the alien layer located at the contact interface could play an important role in determining the conduction noise. The conduction fluctuation induced by electron trapping-detrapping associated with the hydrocarbon layer is found to be an intrinsic noise source contributing to the low frequency noise in the unstable contact region.

  2. Measures against mechanical noise from large wind turbines: A design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunggren, Sten; Johansson, Melker

    1991-06-01

    The noise generated by the machinery of the two Swedish prototypes contains pure tones which are very important with respect to the environmental impact. A discussion of the results of noise measurements carried out at these turbines, that are meant to be used as a guide as to how to predict and control the noise around a large wind turbine during the design stage, is presented. The design targets are discussed, stressing the importance of the audibility of pure tones and not only the annoyance; a simple criterion is cited. The main noise source is the gearbox and a simple empirical expression for the sound power level is shown to give good agreement with the measurement results. The influence of the noise of the gearbox design is discussed in some detail. Formulas for the prediction of the airborne sound transmission to the ground outside the nacelle are presented, together with a number of empirical data on the sound reduction indices for single and double constructions. The structure-borne noise transmission is discussed.

  3. Microscopic origin of low frequency noise in MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, Subhamoy; Jain, Manish; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-09-01

    We report measurement of low frequency 1/f noise in molybdenum di-sulphide (MoS{sub 2}) field-effect transistors in multiple device configurations including MoS{sub 2} on silicon dioxide as well as MoS{sub 2}-hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures. All as-fabricated devices show similar magnitude of noise with number fluctuation as the dominant mechanism at high temperatures and density, although the calculated density of traps is two orders of magnitude higher than that at the SiO{sub 2} interface. Measurements on the heterostructure devices with vacuum annealing and dual gated configuration reveals that along with the channel, metal-MoS{sub 2} contacts also play a significant role inmore » determining noise magnitude in these devices.« less

  4. Evaluating the impact of wind turbine noise on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Daniel; McBride, David; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N; Hill, Erin M

    2011-01-01

    We report a cross-sectional study comparing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals residing in the proximity of a wind farm to those residing in a demographically matched area sufficiently displaced from wind turbines. The study employed a nonequivalent comparison group posttest-only design. Self-administered questionnaires, which included the brief version of the World Health Organization quality of life scale, were delivered to residents in two adjacent areas in semirural New Zealand. Participants were also asked to identify annoying noises, indicate their degree of noise sensitivity, and rate amenity. Statistically significant differences were noted in some HRQOL domain scores, with residents living within 2 km of a turbine installation reporting lower overall quality of life, physical quality of life, and environmental quality of life. Those exposed to turbine noise also reported significantly lower sleep quality, and rated their environment as less restful. Our data suggest that wind farm noise can negatively impact facets of HRQOL.

  5. A Combined High and Low Cycle Fatigue Model for Life Prediction of Turbine Blades.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shun-Peng; Yue, Peng; Yu, Zheng-Yong; Wang, Qingyuan

    2017-06-26

    Combined high and low cycle fatigue (CCF) generally induces the failure of aircraft gas turbine attachments. Based on the aero-engine load spectrum, accurate assessment of fatigue damage due to the interaction of high cycle fatigue (HCF) resulting from high frequency vibrations and low cycle fatigue (LCF) from ground-air-ground engine cycles is of critical importance for ensuring structural integrity of engine components, like turbine blades. In this paper, the influence of combined damage accumulation on the expected CCF life are investigated for turbine blades. The CCF behavior of a turbine blade is usually studied by testing with four load-controlled parameters, including high cycle stress amplitude and frequency, and low cycle stress amplitude and frequency. According to this, a new damage accumulation model is proposed based on Miner's rule to consider the coupled damage due to HCF-LCF interaction by introducing the four load parameters. Five experimental datasets of turbine blade alloys and turbine blades were introduced for model validation and comparison between the proposed Miner, Manson-Halford, and Trufyakov-Kovalchuk models. Results show that the proposed model provides more accurate predictions than others with lower mean and standard deviation values of model prediction errors.

  6. Scheme for efficient extraction of low-frequency signal beyond the quantum limit by frequency-shift detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, R G; Zhang, J; Zhai, Z H; Zhai, S Q; Liu, K; Gao, J R

    2015-08-10

    Low-frequency (Hz~kHz) squeezing is very important in many schemes of quantum precision measurement. But it is more difficult than that at megahertz-frequency because of the introduction of laser low-frequency technical noise. In this paper, we propose a scheme to obtain a low-frequency signal beyond the quantum limit from the frequency comb in a non-degenerate frequency and degenerate polarization optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) operating below threshold with type I phase matching by frequency-shift detection. Low-frequency squeezing immune to laser technical noise is obtained by a detection system with a local beam of two-frequency intense laser. Furthermore, the low-frequency squeezing can be used for phase measurement in Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be enhanced greatly.

  7. Evaluation of analysis techniques for low frequency interior noise and vibration of commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landmann, A. E.; Tillema, H. F.; Marshall, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of selected analysis techniques to low frequency cabin noise associated with advanced propeller engine installations is evaluated. Three design analysis techniques were chosen for evaluation including finite element analysis, statistical energy analysis (SEA), and a power flow method using element of SEA (computer program Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise). An overview of the three procedures is provided. Data from tests of a 727 airplane (modified to accept a propeller engine) were used to compare with predictions. Comparisons of predicted and measured levels at the end of the first year's effort showed reasonable agreement leading to the conclusion that each technique had value for propeller engine noise predictions on large commercial transports. However, variations in agreement were large enough to remain cautious and to lead to recommendations for further work with each technique. Assessment of the second year's results leads to the conclusion that the selected techniques can accurately predict trends and can be useful to a designer, but that absolute level predictions remain unreliable due to complexity of the aircraft structure and low modal densities.

  8. The Effects of Vision-Related Aspects on Noise Perception of Wind Turbines in Quiet Areas

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Luigi; Iachini, Tina; Masullo, Massimiliano; Aletta, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesco; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Ruotolo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Preserving the soundscape and geographic extension of quiet areas is a great challenge against the wide-spreading of environmental noise. The E.U. Environmental Noise Directive underlines the need to preserve quiet areas as a new aim for the management of noise in European countries. At the same time, due to their low population density, rural areas characterized by suitable wind are considered appropriate locations for installing wind farms. However, despite the fact that wind farms are represented as environmentally friendly projects, these plants are often viewed as visual and audible intruders, that spoil the landscape and generate noise. Even though the correlations are still unclear, it is obvious that visual impacts of wind farms could increase due to their size and coherence with respect to the rural/quiet environment. In this paper, by using the Immersive Virtual Reality technique, some visual and acoustical aspects of the impact of a wind farm on a sample of subjects were assessed and analyzed. The subjects were immersed in a virtual scenario that represented a situation of a typical rural outdoor scenario that they experienced at different distances from the wind turbines. The influence of the number and the colour of wind turbines on global, visual and auditory judgment were investigated. The main results showed that, regarding the number of wind turbines, the visual component has a weak effect on individual reactions, while the colour influences both visual and auditory individual reactions, although in a different way. PMID:23624578

  9. The effects of vision-related aspects on noise perception of wind turbines in quiet areas.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Luigi; Iachini, Tina; Masullo, Massimiliano; Aletta, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesco; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Ruotolo, Francesco

    2013-04-26

    Preserving the soundscape and geographic extension of quiet areas is a great challenge against the wide-spreading of environmental noise. The E.U. Environmental Noise Directive underlines the need to preserve quiet areas as a new aim for the management of noise in European countries. At the same time, due to their low population density, rural areas characterized by suitable wind are considered appropriate locations for installing wind farms. However, despite the fact that wind farms are represented as environmentally friendly projects, these plants are often viewed as visual and audible intruders, that spoil the landscape and generate noise. Even though the correlations are still unclear, it is obvious that visual impacts of wind farms could increase due to their size and coherence with respect to the rural/quiet environment. In this paper, by using the Immersive Virtual Reality technique, some visual and acoustical aspects of the impact of a wind farm on a sample of subjects were assessed and analyzed. The subjects were immersed in a virtual scenario that represented a situation of a typical rural outdoor scenario that they experienced at different distances from the wind turbines. The influence of the number and the colour of wind turbines on global, visual and auditory judgment were investigated. The main results showed that, regarding the number of wind turbines, the visual component has a weak effect on individual reactions, while the colour influences both visual and auditory individual reactions, although in a different way.

  10. Broadband rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.

  11. Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in superconducting resonators by surface spin desorption.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, S E; Faoro, L; Burnett, J; Adamyan, A A; Tzalenchuk, A Ya; Kubatkin, S E; Lindström, T; Danilov, A V

    2018-03-20

    Noise and decoherence due to spurious two-level systems located at material interfaces are long-standing issues for solid-state quantum devices. Efforts to mitigate the effects of two-level systems have been hampered by a lack of knowledge about their chemical and physical nature. Here, by combining dielectric loss, frequency noise and on-chip electron spin resonance measurements in superconducting resonators, we demonstrate that desorption of surface spins is accompanied by an almost tenfold reduction in the charge-induced frequency noise in the resonators. These measurements provide experimental evidence that simultaneously reveals the chemical signatures of adsorbed magnetic moments and highlights their role in generating charge noise in solid-state quantum devices.

  12. Noise Pollution Filters Bird Communities Based on Vocal Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Clinton D.; Ortega, Catherine P.; Cruz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics not only harm humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for negative effects of noise on birds include disruption of acoustic communication through energetic masking, potentially forcing species that rely upon acoustic communication to abandon otherwise suitable areas. However, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested because confounding stimuli often co-vary with noise and are difficult to separate from noise exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a natural experiment that controls for confounding stimuli, we evaluate whether species vocal features or urban-tolerance classifications explain their responses to noise measured through habitat use. Two data sets representing nesting and abundance responses reveal that noise filters bird communities nonrandomly. Signal duration and urban tolerance failed to explain species-specific responses, but birds with low-frequency signals that are more susceptible to masking from noise avoided noisy areas and birds with higher frequency vocalizations remained. Signal frequency was also negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that larger birds may be more sensitive to noise due to the link between body size and vocal frequency. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that acoustic masking by noise may be a strong selective force shaping the ecology of birds worldwide. Larger birds with lower frequency signals may be excluded from noisy areas, whereas smaller species persist via transmission of higher frequency signals. We discuss our findings as they relate to interspecific relationships among body size, vocal amplitude and frequency and suggest that they are immediately relevant to the

  13. Exposure to wind turbine noise: Perceptual responses and reported health effects.

    PubMed

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; McGuire, D'Arcy; Bower, Tara; Lavigne, Eric; Murray, Brian J; Weiss, Shelly K; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    Health Canada, in collaboration with Statistics Canada, and other external experts, conducted the Community Noise and Health Study to better understand the impacts of wind turbine noise (WTN) on health and well-being. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out between May and September 2013 in southwestern Ontario and Prince Edward Island on 1238 randomly selected participants (606 males, 632 females) aged 18-79 years, living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from operational wind turbines. Calculated outdoor WTN levels at the dwelling reached 46 dBA. Response rate was 78.9% and did not significantly differ across sample strata. Self-reported health effects (e.g., migraines, tinnitus, dizziness, etc.), sleep disturbance, sleep disorders, quality of life, and perceived stress were not related to WTN levels. Visual and auditory perception of wind turbines as reported by respondents increased significantly with increasing WTN levels as did high annoyance toward several wind turbine features, including the following: noise, blinking lights, shadow flicker, visual impacts, and vibrations. Concern for physical safety and closing bedroom windows to reduce WTN during sleep also increased with increasing WTN levels. Other sample characteristics are discussed in relation to WTN levels. Beyond annoyance, results do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and the evaluated health-related endpoints.

  14. Multifunctional Low-Pressure Turbine for Core Noise Reduction, Improved Efficiency, and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of using Helmholtz resonator cavities embedded in low-pressure-turbine (LPT) airfoils to (1) reduce core noise by damping acoustic modes; (2) use the synthetic jets produced by the liner hole acoustic oscillations to improve engine efficiency by maintaining turbulent attached flow in the LPT at low-Reynolds-number cruise conditions; and (3) reduce engine nitrogen oxide emissions by lining the internal cavities with materials capable of catalytic conversion. Flat plates with embedded Helmholtz resonators, designed to resonate at either 3000 or at 400 Hz, were simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The simulations were conducted for two inlet Mach numbers, 0.25 and 0.5, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 90 000 and 164 000 based on the effective chordwise distance to the resonator orifice. The results of this study are (1) the region of acoustic treatment may be large enough to have a benefit; (2) the jets may not possess sufficient strength to reduce flow separation (based on prior work by researchers in the flow control area); and (3) the additional catalytic surface area is not exposed to a high velocity, so it probably does not have any benefit.

  15. Notched-noise precursors improve detection of low-frequency amplitude modulationa)

    PubMed Central

    Almishaal, Ali; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Jennings, Skyler G.

    2017-01-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) detection was measured with a short (50 ms), high-frequency carrier as a function of carrier level (Experiment I) and modulation frequency (Experiment II) for conditions with or without a notched-noise precursor. A longer carrier (500 ms) was also included in Experiment I. When the carrier was preceded by silence (no precursor condition) AM detection thresholds worsened for moderate-level carriers compared to lower- or higher-level carriers, resulting in a “mid-level hump.” AM detection thresholds with a precursor were better than those without a precursor, primarily for moderate-to-high level carriers, thus eliminating the mid-level hump in AM detection. When the carrier was 500 ms, AM thresholds improved by a constant (across all levels) relative to AM thresholds with a precursor, consistent with the longer carrier providing more “looks” to detect the AM signal. Experiment II revealed that improved AM detection with compared to without a precursor is limited to low-modulation frequencies (<60 Hz). These results are consistent with (1) a reduction in cochlear gain over the course of the precursor perhaps via the medial olivocochlear reflex or (2) a form of perceptual enhancement which may be mediated by adaptation of inhibition. PMID:28147582

  16. Indoor noise annoyance due to 3-5 megawatt wind turbines-An exposure-response relationship.

    PubMed

    Hongisto, Valtteri; Oliva, David; Keränen, Jukka

    2017-10-01

    The existing exposure-response relationships describing the association between wind turbine sound level and noise annoyance concern turbine sizes of 0.15-3.0 MW. The main purpose of this study was to determine a relationship concerning turbines with nominal power of 3-5 MW. A cross-sectional survey was conducted around three wind power areas in Finland. The survey involved all households within a 2 km distance from the nearest turbine. Altogether, 429 households out of 753 participated. The households were exposed to wind turbine noise having sound levels within 26.7-44.2 dB L Aeq . Standard prediction methods were applied to determine the sound level, L Aeq , in each participant's yard. The measured sound level agreed well with the predicted sound level. The exposure-response relationship was derived between L Aeq outdoors and the indoor noise annoyance. The relationship was in rather good agreement with two previous studies involving much smaller turbines (0.15-1.5 MW) under 40 dB L Aeq . The Community Tolerance Level (CTL), CTL 20  = 50 dB, was 3 dB lower than for two previous studies. Above 40 dB, a small number of participants prevented a reliable comparison to previous studies.

  17. Tunable mechanical monolithic sensor with interferometric readout for low frequency seismic noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes a mechanical monolithic sensor for geophysical applications developed at the University of Salerno. The instrument is basically a monolithic tunable folded pendulum, shaped with precision machining and electric-discharge-machining, that can be used both as seismometer and, in a force-feedback configuration, as accelerometer. The monolithic mechanical design and the introduction of laser interferometric techniques for the readout implementation make it a very compact instrument, very sensitive in the low-frequency seismic noise band, with a very good immunity to environmental noises. Many changes have been produced since last version (2007), mainly aimed to the improvement of the mechanics and of the optical readout of the instrument. In fact, we have developed and tested a prototype with elliptical hinges and mechanical tuning of the resonance frequency together with a laser optical lever and a new laser interferometer readout system. The theoretical sensitivity curve both for both laser optical lever and laser interferometric readouts, evaluated on the basis of suitable theoretical models, shows a very good agreement with the experimental measurements. Very interesting scientific result, for example, is that the measured natural resonance frequency of the instrument is 70 mHz with a Q = 140 in air without thermal stabilization, demonstrating the feasibility of a monolithic FP sensor with a natural resonance frequency of the order of mHz with a more refined mechanical tuning. Results on the readout system based on polarimetric homodyne Michelson interferometer is discussed.

  18. A Combined High and Low Cycle Fatigue Model for Life Prediction of Turbine Blades

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Peng; Yu, Zheng-Yong; Wang, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Combined high and low cycle fatigue (CCF) generally induces the failure of aircraft gas turbine attachments. Based on the aero-engine load spectrum, accurate assessment of fatigue damage due to the interaction of high cycle fatigue (HCF) resulting from high frequency vibrations and low cycle fatigue (LCF) from ground-air-ground engine cycles is of critical importance for ensuring structural integrity of engine components, like turbine blades. In this paper, the influence of combined damage accumulation on the expected CCF life are investigated for turbine blades. The CCF behavior of a turbine blade is usually studied by testing with four load-controlled parameters, including high cycle stress amplitude and frequency, and low cycle stress amplitude and frequency. According to this, a new damage accumulation model is proposed based on Miner’s rule to consider the coupled damage due to HCF-LCF interaction by introducing the four load parameters. Five experimental datasets of turbine blade alloys and turbine blades were introduced for model validation and comparison between the proposed Miner, Manson-Halford, and Trufyakov-Kovalchuk models. Results show that the proposed model provides more accurate predictions than others with lower mean and standard deviation values of model prediction errors. PMID:28773064

  19. Estimating annoyance to calculated wind turbine shadow flicker is improved when variables associated with wind turbine noise exposure are considered.

    PubMed

    Voicescu, Sonia A; Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara; van den Berg, Frits; Broner, Norm; Lavigne, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The Community Noise and Health Study conducted by Health Canada included randomly selected participants aged 18-79 yrs (606 males, 632 females, response rate 78.9%), living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from operational wind turbines. Annoyance to wind turbine noise (WTN) and other features, including shadow flicker (SF) was assessed. The current analysis reports on the degree to which estimating high annoyance to wind turbine shadow flicker (HAWTSF) was improved when variables known to be related to WTN exposure were also considered. As SF exposure increased [calculated as maximum minutes per day (SFm)], HAWTSF increased from 3.8% at 0 ≤ SFm < 10 to 21.1% at SFm ≥ 30, p < 0.0001. For each unit increase in SFm the odds ratio was 2.02 [95% confidence interval: (1.68,2.43)]. Stepwise regression models for HAWTSF had a predictive strength of up to 53% with 10% attributed to SFm. Variables associated with HAWTSF included, but were not limited to, annoyance to other wind turbine-related features, concern for physical safety, and noise sensitivity. Reported dizziness was also retained in the final model at p = 0.0581. Study findings add to the growing science base in this area and may be helpful in identifying factors associated with community reactions to SF exposure from wind turbines.

  20. Development of low head Kaplan turbine for power station rehabilitation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. M.; Ohtake, N.; Kurosawa, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Nishi, H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the latest Kaplan turbine rehabilitation project for Funagira Power Station in Japan completed by J-POWER Group in collaboration with Toshiba Corporation. Area of rehabilitation was restricted to guide vane and runner. The main goal of the rehabilitation project was to expand the operating range of the existing turbine in terms of discharge and power with high operational stability, low noise as well as high cavitation performance. Computational Fluids Dynamics and model test were used to optimize the shape of guide vane and runner in development stage. Finally, field tests and runner inspection were carried out to confirm the performance of the new turbine. It was found that the new turbine has excellent performance in efficiency, power output, operational stability compared with existing turbine. Moreover, no sign of cavitation on the runner blade surface was observed after 5078 hours of operation near 100% load.

  1. Survey of inlet noise reduction concepts for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, D. L.; Chestnutt, D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of advanced concepts for the suppression of noise in the inlets of gas turbine engines. Noise suppression concepts are described, the directions of current research are reviewed, and problem areas requiring further work are indicated. The discussion focuses on acoustic liners, high Mach number inlets, active acoustic absorption, water vapor injection, and blade row reflection.

  2. Cryogenic ultra-low-noise SiGe transistor amplifier.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, B I; Trgala, M; Grajcar, M; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2011-10-01

    An ultra-low-noise one-stage SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor amplifier was designed for cryogenic temperatures and a frequency range of 10 kHz-100 MHz. A noise temperature T(N) ≈ 1.4 K was measured at an ambient temperature of 4.2 K at frequencies between 100 kHz and 100 MHz for a source resistance of ~50 Ω. The voltage gain of the amplifier was 25 dB at a power consumption of 720 μW. The input voltage noise spectral density of the amplifier is about 35 pV/√Hz. The low noise resistance and power consumption makes the amplifier suitable for readout of resistively shunted DC SQUID magnetometers and amplifiers.

  3. The Impact of Measurement Noise in GPA Diagnostic Analysis of a Gas Turbine Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntantis, Efstratios L.; Li, Y. G.

    2013-12-01

    The performance diagnostic analysis of a gas turbine is accomplished by estimating a set of internal engine health parameters from available sensor measurements. No physical measuring instruments however can ever completely eliminate the presence of measurement uncertainties. Sensor measurements are often distorted by noise and bias leading to inaccurate estimation results. This paper explores the impact of measurement noise on Gas Turbine GPA analysis. The analysis is demonstrated with a test case where gas turbine performance simulation and diagnostics code TURBOMATCH is used to build a performance model of a model engine similar to Rolls-Royce Trent 500 turbofan engine, and carry out the diagnostic analysis with the presence of different levels of measurement noise. Conclusively, to improve the reliability of the diagnostic results, a statistical analysis of the data scattering caused by sensor uncertainties is made. The diagnostic tool used to deal with the statistical analysis of measurement noise impact is a model-based method utilizing a non-linear GPA.

  4. The Alternative Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2000-01-01

    A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the

  5. Low-noise front-end electronics for detection of intermediate-frequency weak light signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cunbao; Yan, Shuhua; Du, Zhiguang; Wei, Chunhua; Wang, Guochao

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-noise front-end electronics was proposed for detection of light signals with intensity about 10 μW and frequency above 2.7 MHz. The direct current (DC) power supply, pre-amplifier and main-amplifier were first designed, simulated and then realized. Small-size components were used to make the power supply small, and the pre-amplifier and main-amplifier were the least capacitors to avoid the phase shift of the signals. The performance of the developed front-end electronics was verified in cross-grating diffraction experiments. The results indicated that the output peak-topeak noise of the +/-5 V DC power supply was about 2 mV, and the total output current was 1.25 A. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the output signal of the pre-amplifier was about 50 dB, and it increased to nearly 60 dB after the mainamplifier, which means this front-end electronics was especially suitable for using in the phase-sensitive and integrated precision measurement systems.

  6. Underwater, low-frequency noise in a coastal sea turtle habitat.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Y; Morreale, S J; Clark, C W; Greene, C H; Richmond, M E

    2005-03-01

    Underwater sound was recorded in one of the major coastal foraging areas for juvenile sea turtles in the Peconic Bay Estuary system in Long Island, New York. The recording season of the underwater environment coincided with the sea turtle activity season in an inshore area where there is considerable boating and recreational activity, especially during the summer between Independence Day and Labor Day. Within the range of sea turtle hearing, average noise pressure reached 110 dB during periods of high human activity and diminished proportionally, down to 80 dB, with decreasing human presence. Therefore, during much of the season when sea turtles are actively foraging in New York waters, their coastal habitats are flooded with underwater noise. During the period of highest human activity, average noise pressures within the range of frequencies heard by sea turtles were greater by over two orders of magnitude (26 dB) than during the lowest period of human activity. Sea turtles undoubtedly are exposed to high levels of noise, most of which is anthropogenic. Results suggest that continued exposure to existing high levels of pervasive anthropogenic noise in vital sea turtle habitats and any increase in noise could affect sea turtle behavior and ecology.

  7. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  8. A bootstrapped, low-noise, and high-gain photodetector for shot noise measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Haijun; Yang, Wenhai; Li, Zhixiu

    2014-01-15

    We presented a low-noise, high-gain photodetector based on the bootstrap structure and the L-C (inductance and capacitance) combination. Electronic characteristics of the photodetector, including electronic noise, gain and frequency response, and dynamic range, were verified through a single-frequency Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser at 1064 nm with coherent output. The measured shot noise of 50 μW laser was 13 dB above the electronic noise at the analysis frequency of 2 MHz, and 10 dB at 3 MHz. And a maximum clearance of 28 dB at 2 MHz was achieved when 1.52 mW laser was illuminated. In addition, the photodetector showed excellent linearitiesmore » for both DC and AC amplifications in the laser power range between 12.5 μW and 1.52 mW.« less

  9. Masking of low-frequency signals by high-frequency, high-level narrow bands of noisea

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Harisadhan; Roup, Christina M.; Feth, Lawrence L.

    2011-01-01

    Low-frequency masking by intense high-frequency noise bands, referred to as remote masking (RM), was the first evidence to challenge energy-detection models of signal detection. Its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. RM was measured in five normal-hearing young-adults at 250, 350, 500, and 700 Hz using equal-power, spectrally matched random-phase noise (RPN) and low-noise noise (LNN) narrowband maskers. RM was also measured using equal-power, two-tone complex (TC2) and eight-tone complex (TC8). Maskers were centered at 3000 Hz with one or two equivalent rectangular bandwidths (ERBs). Masker levels varied from 80 to 95 dB sound pressure level in 5 dB steps. LNN produced negligible masking for all conditions. An increase in bandwidth in RPN yielded greater masking over a wider frequency region. Masking for TC2 was limited to 350 and 700 Hz for one ERB but shifted to only 700 Hz for two ERBs. A spread of masking to 500 and 700 Hz was observed for TC8 when the bandwidth was increased from one to two ERBs. Results suggest that high-frequency noise bands at high levels could generate significant low-frequency masking. It is possible that listeners experience significant RM due to the amplification of various competing noises that might have significant implications for speech perception in noise. PMID:21361445

  10. Probing in-plane anisotropy in few-layer ReS2 using low frequency noise measurement.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Richa; Jariwala, Bhakti; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Das, Anindya

    2018-02-19

    ReS 2 , a layered two-dimensional material popular for its in-plane anisotropic properties, is emerging as one of the potential candidates for flexible electronics and ultrafast optical applications. It is an n-type semiconducting material having a layer independent bandgap of 1.55 eV. In this paper we have characterized the intrinsic electronic noise level of few-layer ReS 2 for the first time. Few-layer ReS 2 field effect transistor devices show a 1/f nature of noise for frequency ranging over three orders of magnitude. We have also observed that not only the electrical response of the material is anisotropic; the noise level is also dependent on direction. In fact the noise is found to be more sensitive towards the anisotropy. This fact has been explained by evoking the theory where the Hooge parameter is not a constant quantity, but has a distinct power law dependence on mobility along the two-axes direction. The anisotropy in 1/f noise measurement will pave the way to quantify the anisotropic nature of two-dimensional (2D) materials, which will be helpful for the design of low-noise transistors in future.

  11. Probing in-plane anisotropy in few-layer ReS2 using low frequency noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Richa; Jariwala, Bhakti; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Das, Anindya

    2018-04-01

    ReS2, a layered two-dimensional material popular for its in-plane anisotropic properties, is emerging as one of the potential candidates for flexible electronics and ultrafast optical applications. It is an n-type semiconducting material having a layer independent bandgap of 1.55 eV. In this paper we have characterized the intrinsic electronic noise level of few-layer ReS2 for the first time. Few-layer ReS2 field effect transistor devices show a 1/f nature of noise for frequency ranging over three orders of magnitude. We have also observed that not only the electrical response of the material is anisotropic; the noise level is also dependent on direction. In fact the noise is found to be more sensitive towards the anisotropy. This fact has been explained by evoking the theory where the Hooge parameter is not a constant quantity, but has a distinct power law dependence on mobility along the two-axes direction. The anisotropy in 1/f noise measurement will pave the way to quantify the anisotropic nature of two-dimensional (2D) materials, which will be helpful for the design of low-noise transistors in future.

  12. Opposite effects of high- and low-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation probed with visual motion adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Gianluca; Camilleri, Rebecca; Moret, Beatrice; Ghin, Filippo; Pavan, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) is a recent neuro-modulation technique whose effects at both behavioural and neural level are still debated. Here we employed the well-known phenomenon of motion after-effect (MAE) in order to investigate the effects of high- vs. low-frequency tRNS on motion adaptation and recovery. Participants were asked to estimate the MAE duration following prolonged adaptation (20 s) to a complex moving pattern, while being stimulated with either sham or tRNS across different blocks. Different groups were administered with either high- or low-frequency tRNS. Stimulation sites were either bilateral human MT complex (hMT+) or frontal areas. The results showed that, whereas no effects on MAE duration were induced by stimulating frontal areas, when applied to the bilateral hMT+, high-frequency tRNS caused a significant decrease in MAE duration whereas low-frequency tRNS caused a significant corresponding increase in MAE duration. These findings indicate that high- and low-frequency tRNS have opposed effects on the adaptation-dependent unbalance between neurons tuned to opposite motion directions, and thus on neuronal excitability. PMID:27934947

  13. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  14. Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  15. Dynamic analysis method for prevention of failure in the first-stage low-pressure turbine blade with two-finger root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Yong; Jung, Yong-Keun; Park, Jong-Jin; Kang, Yong-Ho

    2002-05-01

    Failures of turbine blades are identified as the leading causes of unplanned outages for steam turbine. Accidents of low-pressure turbine blade occupied more than 70 percent in turbine components. Therefore, the prevention of failures for low pressure turbine blades is certainly needed. The procedure is illustrated by the case study. This procedure is used to guide, and support the plant manager's decisions to avoid a costly, unplanned outage. In this study, we are trying to find factors of failures in LP turbine blade and to make three steps to approach the solution of blade failure. First step is to measure natural frequency in mockup test and to compare it with nozzle passing frequency. Second step is to use FEM and to calculate the natural frequencies of 7 blades and 10 blades per group in BLADE code. Third step is to find natural frequencies of grouped blade off the nozzle passing frequency.

  16. Some calculated effects of non-uniform inflow on the radiated noise of a large wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, G. C.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1980-01-01

    Far field computations were performed for a large wind turbine to evaluate the effects of non-uniform aerodynamic loading over the rotor disk. A modified version of the Farassat/Nystrom propeller noise prediction program was applied to account for the variations in loading due to inflow interruption by the upstream support tower. The computations indicate that for the uniform inflow case, relatively low noise levels are generated and the first rotational harmonic dominated the spectrum. For cases representing wake flow deficiences due to the tower structure, subtantially increased noise levels for all harmonics are indicated, the greatest increases being associated with the higher order harmonics.

  17. Low-Power Low-Noise Amplifier Using Attenuation-Adaptive Noise Control for Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Jin; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a low-noise amplifier (LNA) using attenuation-adaptive noise control (AANC) for ultrasound imaging systems. The proposed AANC reduces unnecessary power consumption of the LNA, which arises from useless noise floor, by controlling the noise floor of the LNA with respect to the attenuation of the ultrasound. In addition, a current feedback amplifier with a source-degenerated input stage reduces variations of the bandwidth and the closed loop gain, which are caused by the AANC. The proposed LNA was fabricated using a 0.18-[Formula: see text] CMOS process. The input-referred voltage noise density of the fabricated LNA is 1.01 [Formula: see text] at the frequency of 5 MHz. The second harmonic distortion is -53.5 dB when the input signal frequency is 5 MHz and the output voltage swing is 2 [Formula: see text]. The power consumption of the LNA using the AANC is 16.2 mW at the supply voltage of 1.8 V, which is reduced to 64% of that without using the AANC. The noise efficiency factor (NEF) of the proposed LNA is 3.69, to our knowledge, which is the lowest NEF compared with previous LNAs for ultrasound imaging.

  18. Experimental evidence for real-time song frequency shift in response to urban noise in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Cuamatzin, Eira; Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro A; Gil, Diego; Garcia, Constantino Macías

    2011-02-23

    Research has shown that bird songs are modified in different ways to deal with urban noise and promote signal transmission through noisy environments. Urban noise is composed of low frequencies, thus the observation that songs have a higher minimum frequency in noisy places suggests this is a way of avoiding noise masking. Most studies are correlative and there is as yet little experimental evidence that this is a short-term mechanism owing to individual plasticity. Here we experimentally test if house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) can modulate the minimum frequency of their songs in response to different noise levels. We exposed singing males to three continuous treatments: low-high-low noise levels. We found a significant increase in minimum frequency from low to high and a decrement from high to low treatments. We also found that this was mostly achieved by modifying the frequency of the same low-frequency syllable types used in the different treatments. When different low-frequency syllables were used, those sung during the noisy condition were longer than the ones sang during the quiet condition. We conclude that house finches modify their songs in several ways in response to urban noise, thus providing evidence of a short-term acoustic adaptation.

  19. Masking in three pinnipeds: underwater, low-frequency critical ratios.

    PubMed

    Southall, B L; Schusterman, R J; Kastak, D

    2000-09-01

    Behavioral techniques were used to determine underwater masked hearing thresholds for a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Octave-band white noise maskers were centered at five test frequencies ranging from 200 to 2500 Hz; a slightly wider noise band was used for testing at 100 Hz. Critical ratios were calculated at one masking noise level for each test frequency. Above 200 Hz, critical ratios increased with frequency. This pattern is similar to that observed in most animals tested, and indicates that these pinnipeds lack specializations for detecting low-frequency tonal sounds in noise. However, the individual pinnipeds in this study, particularly the northern elephant seal, detected signals at relatively low signal-to-noise ratios. These results provide a means of estimating zones of auditory masking for pinnipeds exposed to anthropogenic noise sources.

  20. High-frequency noise characterization of graphene field effect transistors on SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; He, Z. Z.; Song, X. B.; Liu, Q. B.; Dun, S. B.; Han, T. T.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, C. J.; Guo, J. C.; Lv, Y. J.; Cai, S. J.; Feng, Z. H.

    2017-07-01

    Considering its high carrier mobility and high saturation velocity, a low-noise amplifier is thought of as being the most attractive analogue application of graphene field-effect transistors. The noise performance of graphene field-effect transistors at frequencies in the K-band remains unknown. In this work, the noise parameters of a graphene transistor are measured from 10 to 26 GHz and noise models are built with the data. The extrinsic minimum noise figure for a graphene transistor reached 1.5 dB, and the intrinsic minimum noise figure was as low as 0.8 dB at a frequency of 10 GHz, which were comparable with the results from tests on Si CMOS and started to approach those for GaAs and InP transistors. Considering the short development time, the current results are a significant step forward for graphene transistors and show their application potential in high-frequency electronics.

  1. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, S; Bardin, J; Mani, H; Jones, G

    2009-04-01

    Two packaged low noise amplifiers for the 0.3-4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers can be operated at temperatures of 300-4 K and achieve noise temperatures in the 5 K range (<0.1 dB noise figure) at 15 K physical temperature. One amplifier utilizes commercially available, plastic-packaged SiGe transistors for first and second stages; the second amplifier is identical except it utilizes an experimental chip transistor as the first stage. Both amplifiers use resistive feedback to provide input reflection coefficient S11<-10 dB over a decade bandwidth with gain over 30 dB. The amplifiers can be used as rf amplifiers in very low noise radio astronomy systems or as i.f. amplifiers following superconducting mixers operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency range.

  2. Low-frequency flicker noise in a MSM device made with single Si nanowire (diameter ≈ 50 nm).

    PubMed

    Samanta, Sudeshna; Das, Kaustuv; Raychaudhuri, Arup Kumar

    2013-04-10

    : Low-frequency flicker noise has been measured in a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device made from a single strand of a single crystalline Si nanowire (diameter approximately 50 nm). Measurement was done with an alternating current (ac) excitation for the noise measurement superimposed with direct current (dc) bias that can be controlled independently. The observed noise has a spectral power density ∝1/fα. Application of the superimposed dc bias (retaining the ac bias unchanged) with a value more than the Schottky barrier height at the junction leads to a large suppression of the noise amplitude along with a change of α from 2 to ≈ 1. The dc bias-dependent part of the noise has been interpreted as arising from the interface region. The residual dc bias-independent flicker noise is suggested to arise from the single strand of Si nanowire, which has the conventional 1/f spectral power density.

  3. Low-frequency flicker noise in a MSM device made with single Si nanowire (diameter ≈ 50 nm)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency flicker noise has been measured in a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device made from a single strand of a single crystalline Si nanowire (diameter approximately 50 nm). Measurement was done with an alternating current (ac) excitation for the noise measurement superimposed with direct current (dc) bias that can be controlled independently. The observed noise has a spectral power density ∝1/fα. Application of the superimposed dc bias (retaining the ac bias unchanged) with a value more than the Schottky barrier height at the junction leads to a large suppression of the noise amplitude along with a change of α from 2 to ≈ 1. The dc bias-dependent part of the noise has been interpreted as arising from the interface region. The residual dc bias-independent flicker noise is suggested to arise from the single strand of Si nanowire, which has the conventional 1/f spectral power density. PMID:23574820

  4. How to design low-noise burners

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, G.; Jordan, J.

    1996-12-01

    Frequently, natural draft burner designs used in indirect heaters fail to meet the low noise standard of 85 to 88 dBA three feet from the flame arrestor. Noise encountered with indirect burner designs has been shown to be related to nozzle and firetube gas velocities. Testing shows that when the nozzle velocity is sufficiently greater than the firetube velocity, the low-frequency rumble that accompanies current designs ceases. Data obtained from field testing was used to construct a relationship between burner noise level and gas volume expansion ratio, burner air-to-fuel ratio, mixture flowrate, orifice velocity, burner area, and the number ofmore » burners. The noise from a burner can be predicted if the above easily calculable variables are known.« less

  5. Measurement of aeroacoustic noise generated on wind turbine blades modified by trailing edge brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asheim, Michael J.

    As wind technology becomes a larger portion of the energy production picture, the problematic interactions between the machines and society will continue to become more pronounced. Of these problems, wind turbine noise is one of the most important to the future of wind turbine development. This study looks at the effect trailing edge brushes mounted on the 2 bladed Controls Advance Research Turbine (CART 2), located at the National Wind Technology Center, have on the overall acoustic and aerodynamic performance of the blades. The use of trailing edge brushes reduced the aeroacoustic noise by 1.0 to 5.0 dB over the baseline blade, depending on wind speed. This acoustic performance comes at a cost to the aerodynamic performance of the blades. The aerodynamic performance indicators, such as turbine power and root bending moments show that increased drag due to the brushes is the main contributor to the reduction in power production. An economic analysis also investigated how to best use noise mitigation devices to optimize acoustic, power performance and loads of a 600 kW baseline turbine, such as the CART 2. The analysis shows that the use of up a noise mitigation device of 4 dB is best used by increasing the rotor diameter and the power rating of the machine, from a 43.3 m diameter, 600 kW machine to a 68.8 m diameter, 886.7 kW machine. This increase resulted in an annual energy production increase of 414% when using a Rayleigh wind distribution with at a mean annual wind speed of 8.5 m/s. This is a reduction of cost of energy from 0.0463 per kWh to 0.0422 kWh. This reduction in energy production costs helps to explain the continuing trend of turbine machine growth in both rotor diameter and power rating.

  6. Low-frequency 1/f noise in MoS{sub 2} transistors: Relative contributions of the channel and contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C.; Samnakay, R.

    2014-04-14

    We report on the results of the low-frequency (1/f, where f is frequency) noise measurements in MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors revealing the relative contributions of the MoS{sub 2} channel and Ti/Au contacts to the overall noise level. The investigation of the 1/f noise was performed for both as fabricated and aged transistors. It was established that the McWhorter model of the carrier number fluctuations describes well the 1/f noise in MoS{sub 2} transistors, in contrast to what is observed in graphene devices. The trap densities extracted from the 1/f noise data for MoS{sub 2} transistors, are 2 × 10{sup 19} eV{sup −1}cm{sup −3}more » and 2.5 × 10{sup 20} eV{sup −1}cm{sup −3} for the as fabricated and aged devices, respectively. It was found that the increase in the noise level of the aged MoS{sub 2} transistors is due to the channel rather than the contact degradation. The obtained results are important for the proposed electronic applications of MoS{sub 2} and other van der Waals materials.« less

  7. 100 nm AlSb/InAs HEMT for ultra-low-power consumption, low-noise applications.

    PubMed

    Gardès, Cyrille; Bagumako, Sonia; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wichmann, Nicolas; Bollaert, Sylvain; Danneville, François; Wallart, Xavier; Roelens, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We report on high frequency (HF) and noise performances of AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with 100 nm gate length at room temperature in low-power regime. Extrinsic cut-off frequencies fT/f max of 100/125 GHz together with minimum noise figure NF(min) = 0.5 dB and associated gain G(ass) = 12 dB at 12 GHz have been obtained at drain bias of only 80 mV, corresponding to 4 mW/mm DC power dissipation. This demonstrates the great ability of AlSb/InAs HEMT for high-frequency operation combined with low-noise performances in ultra-low-power regime.

  8. A Study of Acoustic Reflections in Full-Scale Rotor Low Frequency Noise Measurements Acquired in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbely, Natasha L.; Sim, Ben W.; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Goulding, Pat, II

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining full-scale rotor low frequency noise measurements in wind tunnels are addressed via residual sound reflections due to non-ideal anechoic wall treatments. Examples illustrated with the Boeing-SMART rotor test in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel facility demonstrated that these reflections introduced distortions in the measured acoustic time histories that are not representative of free-field rotor noise radiation. A simplified reflection analysis, based on the method of images, is used to examine the sound measurement quality in such "less-than-anechoic" environment. Predictions of reflection-adjusted acoustic time histories are qualitatively shown to account for some of the spurious fluctuations observed in wind tunnel noise measurements

  9. How wind turbines affect the performance of seismic monitoring stations and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuffer, Tobias; Kremers, Simon

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, several minor seismic events were observed in the apparently aseismic region of the natural gas fields in Northern Germany. A seismic network was installed in the region consisting of borehole stations with sensor depths up to 200 m and surface stations to monitor induced seismicity. After installation of the network in 2012, an increasing number of wind turbines was established in proximity (<5 km) to several stations, thereby influencing the local noise conditions. This study demonstrates the impact of wind turbines on seismic noise level in a frequency range of 1-10 Hz at the monitoring sites with correlation to wind speed, based on the calculation of power spectral density functions and I95 values of waveforms over a time period of 4 yr. It could be shown that higher wind speeds increase the power spectral density amplitudes at distinct frequencies in the considered frequency band, depending on height as well as number and type of influencing wind turbines. The azimuthal direction of incoming Rayleigh waves at a surface station was determined to identify the noise sources. The analysis of the perturbed wave field showed that Rayleigh waves with backazimuths pointing to wind turbines in operation are dominating the wave field in a frequency band of 3-4 Hz. Additional peaks in a frequency range of 1-4 Hz could be attributed to turbine tower eigenfrequencies of various turbine manufactures with the hub height as defining parameter. Moreover, the influence of varying noise levels at a station on the ability to automatically detect seismic events was investigated. The increased noise level in correlation to higher wind speeds at the monitoring sites deteriorates the station's recording quality inhibiting the automatic detection of small seismic events. As a result, functionality and task fulfilment of the seismic monitoring network is more and more limited by the increasing number of nearby wind turbines.

  10. Attenuation of low frequency duct noise by a flute-like silencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lixi

    2009-09-01

    A broadband, duct noise reflection mechanism is introduced in this theoretical study. It consists of side-branch cavities filled with a light gas, e.g. helium, and covered by impervious, tensioned membranes as two apertures, one at the inlet and another at the exit. Incident waves are scattered by the membranes into two passages, one through the central duct and another through the cavity bypass. Due to the faster speed of sound in the bypass, a Herschel-Quincke tube resonance appears and gives a peak in the transmission loss spectrum. Another resonance occurs when the frequency of the incident sound coincides with the vibroacoustic frequency determined by the membrane tension and inertia contributions from the membrane and the fluid media. With appropriate tensile stress, the trough between the two spectral peaks can be elevated to a desirable high level, e.g. 10 dB, and the crucial factor is identified as the low density of the cavity gas filling. The broadband sound reflection performance is comparable with and even exceeds that of the drum-like silencer [L. Huang, Parametric study of a drum-like silencer, Journal of Sound and Vibration 269 (2004) 467-488] with the same cavity geometry, but the current mechanism requires a low tensile stress which is much easier to implement in practice.

  11. Low frequency noise and whole-body vibration cause increased levels of sister chromatid exchange in splenocytes of exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, M J; Dias, A; Barreta, A; Nogueira, P J; Castelo-Branco, N A A; Boavida, M G

    2002-01-01

    Chronic exposure to low frequency (LF) noise and whole-body vibration (WBV) induces both physiological and psychological alterations in man. Recently, we have shown that long-term occupational exposure to LF noise and WBV produces genotoxic effects in man expressed as an increase in sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels in lymphocytes. The objectives of the present study were to investigate whether the observed effect could be reproduced in a murine model and, if so, which of the agents, LF noise alone or in combination with WBV, would be instrumental in the SCE induction. SCEs were analyzed in spleen lymphocytes of mice exposed to LF noise alone and in combination with WBV for 300 and 600 hr. An effect at the cell cycle kinetics level was also investigated. The results revealed significant increases in the mean SCE number per cell and in the proportion of cells with high frequency of SCEs (HFCs) in lymphocytes of mice submitted to combined noise and WBV over controls. No significant differences were found between single noise-exposed and control mice. A cell cycle delay was observed exclusively in the noise and WBV exposure groups. In conclusion, we demonstrated that, as in exposed workers, prolonged exposure to the combination of LF noise and WBV determines an increase in SCE level in mice while LF noise alone is not effective in SCE induction. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Effects of noise frequency on performance and annoyance. M.S. Thesis - Georgia Inst. of Tech.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, K. F.

    1979-01-01

    Using a complex psychomotor task performed for 50 minutes in the presence of low frequency noise, high frequency noise, or ambient noise, annoyance ratings were obtained for noises of various frequencies by the method of magnitude estimation. The results suggest that high frequency noise affects female performance to a greater extent than male performance. Contrasted to these performance effects, the sexes did not differ in their annoyance ratings. A monotonically increasing relationship between annoyance and noise frequency was found (except for a decrease in annoyance at 8,000 Hz). It is concluded that both performance and annoyance responses may need to be assessed in certain situations to adequately describe human reaction to noise.

  13. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  14. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  15. 100 nm AlSb/InAs HEMT for Ultra-Low-Power Consumption, Low-Noise Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bagumako, Sonia; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wichmann, Nicolas; Bollaert, Sylvain; Danneville, François; Wallart, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We report on high frequency (HF) and noise performances of AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with 100 nm gate length at room temperature in low-power regime. Extrinsic cut-off frequencies f T/f max of 100/125 GHz together with minimum noise figure NFmin = 0.5 dB and associated gain G ass = 12 dB at 12 GHz have been obtained at drain bias of only 80 mV, corresponding to 4 mW/mm DC power dissipation. This demonstrates the great ability of AlSb/InAs HEMT for high-frequency operation combined with low-noise performances in ultra-low-power regime. PMID:24707193

  16. Automatic bearing fault diagnosis of permanent magnet synchronous generators in wind turbines subjected to noise interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Lu, Siliang; Zhai, Chao; He, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    An automatic bearing fault diagnosis method is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs), which are widely installed in wind turbines subjected to low rotating speeds, speed fluctuations, and electrical device noise interferences. The mechanical rotating angle curve is first extracted from the phase current of a PMSG by sequentially applying a series of algorithms. The synchronous sampled vibration signal of the fault bearing is then resampled in the angular domain according to the obtained rotating phase information. Considering that the resampled vibration signal is still overwhelmed by heavy background noise, an adaptive stochastic resonance filter is applied to the resampled signal to enhance the fault indicator and facilitate bearing fault identification. Two types of fault bearings with different fault sizes in a PMSG test rig are subjected to experiments to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method is fully automated and thus shows potential for convenient, highly efficient and in situ bearing fault diagnosis for wind turbines subjected to harsh environments.

  17. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic for wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Maizi; Rabah, Dizene

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes a hybrid approach forpredicting noise radiated from the rotating Wind Turbine (HAWT) blades, where the sources are extracted from an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stocks (URANS) simulation, ANSYS CFX 11.0, was used to calculate The near-field flow parameters around the blade surface that are necessary for FW-H codes. Comparisons with NREL Phase II experimental results are presented with respect to the pressure distributions for validating a capacity of the solver to calculate the near-field flow on and around the wind turbine blades, The results show that numerical data have a good agreement with experimental. The acoustic pressure, presented asmore » a sum of thickness and loading noise components, is analyzed by means of a discrete fast Fourier transformation for the presentation of the time acoustic time histories in the frequency domain. The results convincingly show that dipole source noise is the dominant noise source for this wind turbine.« less

  18. Wind Turbine Diagnosis under Variable Speed Conditions Using a Single Sensor Based on the Synchrosqueezing Transform Method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanjie; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Ruobin; Zhao, Zhibin

    2017-05-18

    The gearbox is one of the key components in wind turbines. Gearbox fault signals are usually nonstationary and highly contaminated with noise. The presence of amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated (AM-FM) characteristics compound the difficulty of precise fault diagnosis of wind turbines, therefore, it is crucial to develop an effective fault diagnosis method for such equipment. This paper presents an improved diagnosis method for wind turbines via the combination of synchrosqueezing transform and local mean decomposition. Compared to the conventional time-frequency analysis techniques, the improved method which is performed in non-real-time can effectively reduce the noise pollution of the signals and preserve the signal characteristics, and hence is suitable for the analysis of nonstationary signals with high noise. This method is further validated by simulated signals and practical vibration data measured from a 1.5 MW wind turbine. The results confirm that the proposed method can simultaneously control the noise and increase the accuracy of time-frequency representation.

  19. Wind Turbine Diagnosis under Variable Speed Conditions Using a Single Sensor Based on the Synchrosqueezing Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjie; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Ruobin; Zhao, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    The gearbox is one of the key components in wind turbines. Gearbox fault signals are usually nonstationary and highly contaminated with noise. The presence of amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated (AM-FM) characteristics compound the difficulty of precise fault diagnosis of wind turbines, therefore, it is crucial to develop an effective fault diagnosis method for such equipment. This paper presents an improved diagnosis method for wind turbines via the combination of synchrosqueezing transform and local mean decomposition. Compared to the conventional time-frequency analysis techniques, the improved method which is performed in non-real-time can effectively reduce the noise pollution of the signals and preserve the signal characteristics, and hence is suitable for the analysis of nonstationary signals with high noise. This method is further validated by simulated signals and practical vibration data measured from a 1.5 MW wind turbine. The results confirm that the proposed method can simultaneously control the noise and increase the accuracy of time-frequency representation. PMID:28524090

  20. Core-Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase

  1. Comparison of low frequency charge noise in identically patterned Si/SiO{sub 2} and Si/SiGe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Blake M.; Schoenfield, Joshua S.; Jiang, HongWen

    We investigate and compare the charge noise in Si/SiO{sub 2} and Si/SiGe gate defined quantum dots with identically patterned gates by measuring the low frequency 1/f current noise through the biased quantum dots in the coulomb blockade regime. The current noise is normalized and used to extract a measurement of the potential energy noise in the system. Additionally, the temperature dependence of this noise is investigated. The measured charge noise in Si/SiO{sub 2} compares favorably with that of the SiGe device as well as previous measurements made on other substrates suggesting Si/SiO{sub 2} is a potential candidate for spin basedmore » quantum computing.« less

  2. High-Resolution Dual-Comb Spectroscopy with Ultra-Low Noise Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Wolfgang; Giunta, Michele; Beha, Katja; Perry, Adam J.; Holzwarth, R.

    2017-06-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is a powerful tool for fast broad-band spectroscopy due to the parallel interrogation of thousands of spectral lines. Here we report on the spectroscopic analysis of acetylene vapor in a pressurized gas cell using two ultra-low noise frequency combs with a repetition rate around 250 MHz. Optical referencing to a high-finesse cavity yields a sub-Hertz stability of all individual comb lines (including the virtual comb lines between 0 Hz and the carrier) and permits one to pick a small difference of repetition rate for the two frequency combs on the order of 300 Hz, thus representing an optical spectrum of 100 THz (˜3300 \\wn) within half the free spectral range (125 MHz). The transmission signal is derived straight from a photodetector and recorded with a high-resolution spectrum analyzer or digitized with a computer-controlled AD converter. The figure to the right shows a schematic of the experimental setup which is all fiber-coupled with polarization-maintaining fiber except for the spectroscopic cell. The graph on the lower right reveals a portion of the recorded radio-frequency spectrum which has been scaled to the optical domain. The location of the measured absorption coincides well with data taken from the HITRAN data base. Due to the intrinsic linewidth of all contributing comb lines, each sampling point in the transmission graph corresponds to the probing at an optical frequency with sub-Hertz resolution. This resolution is maintained in coherent wavelength conversion processes such as difference-frequency generation (DFG), sum-frequency generation (SFG) or non-linear broadening (self-phase modulation), and is therefore easily transferred to a wide spectral range from the mid infrared up to the visible spectrum.

  3. Frequency-dependent shot noise in long disordered superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor contacts.

    PubMed

    Nagaev, K E

    2001-04-02

    The shot noise in long diffusive superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor contacts is calculated using the semiclassical approach. At low frequencies and for purely elastic scattering, the voltage dependence of the noise is of the form S(I) = (4Delta+2eV)/3R. The electron-electron scattering suppresses the noise at small voltages resulting in vanishing noise yet infinite dS(I)/dV at V = 0. The distribution function of electrons consists of a series of steps, and the frequency dependence of noise exhibits peculiarities at omega = neV, omega = neV-2Delta, and omega = 2Delta-neV for integer n.

  4. Fundamental frequency discrimination and speech perception in noise in cochlear implant simulationsa)

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jeff; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the number of channels at low frequencies improves discrimination of fundamental frequency (F0) in cochlear implants [Geurts and Wouters 2004]. We conducted three experiments to test whether improved F0 discrimination can be translated into increased speech intelligibility in noise in a cochlear implant simulation. The first experiment measured F0 discrimination and speech intelligibility in quiet as a function of channel density over different frequency regions. The results from this experiment showed a tradeoff in performance between F0 discrimination and speech intelligibility with a limited number of channels. The second experiment tested whether improved F0 discrimination and optimizing this tradeoff could improve speech performance with a competing talker. However, improved F0 discrimination did not improve speech intelligibility in noise. The third experiment identified the critical number of channels needed at low frequencies to improve speech intelligibility in noise. The result showed that, while 16 channels below 500 Hz were needed to observe any improvement in speech intelligibility in noise, even 32 channels did not achieve normal performance. Theoretically, these results suggest that without accurate spectral coding, F0 discrimination and speech perception in noise are two independent processes. Practically, the present results illustrate the need to increase the number of independent channels in cochlear implants. PMID:17604581

  5. Improving signal-to-noise ratios of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry peaks using noise frequency spectrum modification between two consecutive matched-filtering procedures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shau-Chun; Huang, Chih-Min; Chiang, Shu-Min

    2007-08-17

    This paper reports a simple chemometric technique to alter the noise spectrum of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) chromatogram between two consecutive matched filter procedures to improve the peak signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio enhancement. This technique is to multiply one match-filtered LC-MS-MS chromatogram with another artificial chromatogram added with thermal noises prior to the second matched filter. Because matched filter cannot eliminate low-frequency components inherent in the flicker noises of spike-like sharp peaks randomly riding on LC-MS-MS chromatograms, efficient peak S/N ratio improvement cannot be accomplished using one-step or consecutive matched filter procedures to process LC-MS-MS chromatograms. In contrast, when the match-filtered LC-MS-MS chromatogram is conditioned with the multiplication alteration prior to the second matched filter, much better efficient ratio improvement is achieved. The noise frequency spectrum of match-filtered chromatogram, which originally contains only low-frequency components, is altered to span a boarder range with multiplication operation. When the frequency range of this modified noise spectrum shifts toward higher frequency regime, the second matched filter, working as a low-pass filter, is able to provide better filtering efficiency to obtain higher peak S/N ratios. Real LC-MS-MS chromatograms containing random spike-like peaks, of which peak S/N ratio improvement is less than four times with two consecutive matched filters typically, are remedied to accomplish much better ratio enhancement approximately 16-folds when the noise frequency spectrum is modified between two matched filters.

  6. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  7. A Low Power Low Phase Noise Oscillator for MICS Transceivers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Liu, Dongsheng; Kang, Chaojian; Zou, Xuecheng

    2017-01-01

    A low-power, low-phase-noise quadrature oscillator for Medical Implantable Communications Service (MICS) transceivers is presented. The proposed quadrature oscillator generates 349~689 MHz I/Q (In-phase and Quadrature) signals covering the MICS band. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground. The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The chip is fabricated in the UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) process; the core just occupies a 28.5 × 22 μm2 area. The measured phase noise is −108.45 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset with a center frequency of 540 MHz. The gain of the oscillator is 0.309 MHz/mV with a control voltage from 0 V to 1.1 V. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V and the power consumption is only 0.46 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage. PMID:28085107

  8. A Low Power Low Phase Noise Oscillator for MICS Transceivers.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Liu, Dongsheng; Kang, Chaojian; Zou, Xuecheng

    2017-01-12

    A low-power, low-phase-noise quadrature oscillator for Medical Implantable Communications Service (MICS) transceivers is presented. The proposed quadrature oscillator generates 349~689 MHz I/Q (In-phase and Quadrature) signals covering the MICS band. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground. The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The chip is fabricated in the UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) process; the core just occupies a 28.5 × 22 μm² area. The measured phase noise is -108.45 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset with a center frequency of 540 MHz. The gain of the oscillator is 0.309 MHz/mV with a control voltage from 0 V to 1.1 V. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V and the power consumption is only 0.46 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  9. A high and low noise model for strong motion accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Cauzzi, C.; Olivieri, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present reference noise models for high-quality strong motion accelerometer installations. We use continuous accelerometer data acquired by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) since 2006 and other international high-quality accelerometer network data to derive very broadband (50Hz-100s) high and low noise models. The proposed noise models are compared to the Peterson (1993) low and high noise models designed for broadband seismometers; the datalogger self-noise; background noise levels at existing Swiss strong motion stations; and typical earthquake signals recorded in Switzerland and worldwide. The standard strong motion station operated by the SED consists of a Kinemetrics Episensor (2g clip level; flat acceleration response from 200 Hz to DC; <155dB dynamic range) coupled with a 24-bit Nanometrics Taurus datalogger. The proposed noise models are based on power spectral density (PSD) noise levels for each strong motion station computed via PQLX (McNamara and Buland, 2004) from several years of continuous recording. The 'Accelerometer Low Noise Model', ALNM, is dominated by instrument noise from the sensor and datalogger. The 'Accelerometer High Noise Model', AHNM, reflects 1) at high frequencies the acceptable site noise in urban areas, 2) at mid-periods the peak microseismal energy, as determined by the Peterson High Noise Model and 3) at long periods the maximum noise observed from well insulated sensor / datalogger systems placed in vault quality sites. At all frequencies, there is at least one order of magnitude between the ALNM and the AHNM; at high frequencies (> 1Hz) this extends to 2 orders of magnitude. This study provides remarkable confirmation of the capability of modern strong motion accelerometers to record low-amplitude ground motions with seismic observation quality. In particular, an accelerometric station operating at the ALNM is capable of recording the full spectrum of near source earthquakes, out to 100 km, down to M2. Of particular

  10. Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Heinecke, Dirk C; Bartels, Albrecht; Diddams, Scott A

    2011-09-12

    This paper shows the experimental details of the stabilization scheme that allows full control of the repetition rate and the carrier-envelope offset frequency of a 10 GHz frequency comb based on a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. Octave-spanning spectra are produced in nonlinear microstructured optical fiber, in spite of the reduced peak power associated with the 10 GHz repetition rate. Improved stability of the broadened spectrum is obtained by temperature-stabilization of the nonlinear optical fiber. The carrier-envelope offset frequency and the repetition rate are simultaneously frequency stabilized, and their short- and long-term stabilities are characterized. We also measure the transfer of amplitude noise of the pump source to phase noise on the offset frequency and verify an increased sensitivity of the offset frequency to pump power modulation compared to systems with lower repetition rate. Finally, we discuss merits of this 10 GHz system for the generation of low-phase-noise microwaves from the photodetected pulse train.

  11. Probing in-plane anisotropy in fewlayer ReS2 using low frequency noise measurement.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Richa; Jariwala, Bhakti; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Das, Anindya

    2018-01-31

    ReS<sub>2</sub>, a layered two-dimensional material popular for its in-plane anisotropic properties is emerging as one of the potential candidates for flexible electronics and ultrafast optical applications. It is an n-type semiconducting material having a layer independent bandgap of 1.55 eV. In this paper we have characterized the intrinsic electronic noise level of fewlayer ReS<sub>2</sub> for the first time. Fewlayer ReS<sub>2</sub> FET devices show 1/f nature of noise for frequency ranging over three orders of magnitude. We have also observed that not only the electrical response of the material is anisotropic; the noise level is also direction dependent. In fact the noise is found to be more sensitive towards the anisotropy. This fact has been explained by evoking the theory where the Hooge parameter is not a constant quantity, but has a distinct power law dependence on mobility along the two axes direction. The anisotropy in 1/f noise measurement will pave the way to quantify the anisotropic nature of two-dimensional (2D) materials, which will be helpful for the design of low noise transistor in future. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Low Noise Amplifiers for 140 Ghz Wide-Band Cryogenic Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkoski, Patricia V.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Samoska, Lorene; Lai, Richard; Sarkozy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We report S-parameter and noise measurements for three different Indium Phosphide 35-nanometer-gate-length High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designs operating in the frequency range centered on 140 gigahertz. When packaged in a Waveguide Rectangular-6.1 waveguide housing, the LNAs have an average measured noise figure of 3.0 decibels - 3.6 decibels over the 122-170 gigahertz band. One LNA was cooled to 20 degrees Kelvin and a record low noise temperature of 46 Kelvin, or 0.64 decibels noise figure, was measured at 152 gigahertz. These amplifiers can be used to develop receivers for instruments that operate in the 130-170 gigahertz atmospheric window, which is an important frequency band for ground-based astronomy and millimeter-wave imaging applications.

  13. Estimation of Frequency Noise in Semiconductor Lasers Due to Mechanical Thermal Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate mechanical thermal noise in semiconductor lasers, applying a methodology developed for fixed-spacer cavities for laser frequency stabilization. Our simple model determines an underlying fundamental limit for the frequency noise of free-running semiconductor laser, and provides a framework: where the noise may be potentially reduced with improved design.

  14. Note: Broadband low-noise photodetector for Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnis, Shreyas; Vutha, Amar C.

    2016-07-01

    The Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization technique requires a fast, low-noise photodetector. We present a simple photodetector design that uses a transformer as an intermediary between a photodiode and cascaded low-noise radio-frequency amplifiers. Our implementation using a silicon photodiode yields a detector with 50 MHz bandwidth, gain >105 V/A, and input current noise <4 pA/ √{ Hz } , allowing us to obtain shot-noise-limited performance with low optical power.

  15. High-Tc Superconducting Bolometer Noise Measurement Using Low Noise Transformers - Theory and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Jones, Hollis H.

    2011-01-01

    Care must always be taken when performing noise measurements on high-Tc superconducting materials to ensure that the results are not from the measurement system itself. One situation likely to occur is with low noise transformers. One of the least understood devices, it provides voltage gain for low impedance inputs (< 100 ), e.g., YBaCuO and GdBaCuO thin films, with comparatively lower noise levels than other devices for instance field effect and bipolar junction transistors. An essential point made in this paper is that because of the complex relationships between the transformer ports, input impedance variance alters the transformer s transfer function in particular, the low frequency cutoff shift. The transfer of external and intrinsic transformer noise to the output along with optimization and precautions are treated; all the while, we will cohesively connect the transfer function shift, the load impedance, and the actual noise at the transformer output.

  16. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stress variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by an expandable ring embedded in the noise radiating element. Excitation of the ring causes expansion or contraction of the ring, thereby varying the stress in the noise radiating element. The ring is actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the ring, causing the ring to expand or contract. Instead of a single ring embedded in the noise radiating panel, a first expandable ring can be bonded to one side of the noise radiating element, and a second expandable ring can be bonded to the other side.

  17. Low-noise 115-GHz receiver using superconducting tunnel junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, S.-K.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.; Timble, P.

    1983-01-01

    A 110-118-GHz receiver based on a superconducting quasiparticle tunnel junction mixer is described. The single-sideband noise temperature is as low as 68 + or - 3 K. This is nearly twice the sensitivity of any other receiver at this frequency. The receiver was designed using a low-frequency scale model in conjunction with the quantum mixer theory. A scaled version of the receiver for operation at 46 GHz has a single-sideband noise temperature of 55 K. The factors leading to the success of this design are discussed.

  18. Experimental clean combustor program: Noise study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Riloff, N., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Under a Noise Addendum to the NASA Experimental Clean Combustor Program (ECCP) internal pressure fluctuations were measured during tests of JT9D combustor designs conducted in a burner test rig. Measurements were correlated with burner operating parameters using an expression relating farfield noise to these parameters. For a given combustor, variation of internal noise with operating parameters was reasonably well predicted by this expression but the levels were higher than farfield predictions and differed significantly among several combustors. For two burners, discharge stream temperature fluctuations were obtained with fast-response thermocouples to allow calculation of indirect combustion noise which would be generated by passage of the temperature inhomogeneities through the high pressure turbine stages of a JT9D turbofan engine. Using a previously developed analysis, the computed indirect combustion noise was significantly lower than total low frequency core noise observed on this and several other engines.

  19. Interface studies of N2 plasma-treated ZnSnO nanowire transistors using low-frequency noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongmin; Kim, Hwansoo; Janes, David B; Ju, Sanghyun

    2013-08-02

    Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires, the quality of nanowire-insulator interfaces as well as the nanowire surface characteristics significantly influence the electrical characteristics of nanowire transistors (NWTs). To improve the electrical characteristics by doping or post-processing, it is important to evaluate the interface characteristics and stability of NWTs. In this study, we have synthesized ZnSnO (ZTO) nanowires using the chemical vapor deposition method, characterized the composition of ZTO nanowires using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fabricated ZTO NWTs. We have characterized the current-voltage characteristics and low-frequency noise of ZTO NWTs in order to investigate the effects of interface states on subthreshold slope (SS) and the noise before and after N2 plasma treatments. The as-fabricated device exhibited a SS of 0.29 V/dec and Hooge parameter of ~1.20 × 10(-2). Upon N2 plasma treatment with N2 gas flow rate of 40 sccm (20 sccm), the SS improved to 0.12 V/dec (0.21 V/dec) and the Hooge parameter decreased to ~4.99 × 10(-3) (8.14 × 10(-3)). The interface trap densities inferred from both SS and low-frequency noise decrease upon plasma treatment, with the highest flow rate yielding the smallest trap density. These results demonstrate that the N2 plasma treatment decreases the interface trap states and defects on ZTO nanowires, thereby enabling the fabrication of high-quality nanowire interfaces.

  20. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stiffness variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor); Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by a plurality of force transmitting mechanisms which contact the noise radiating element. Each one of the force transmitting mechanisms includes an expandable element and a spring in contact with the noise radiating element so that excitation of the element varies the spring force applied to the noise radiating element. The elements are actuated by a controller which receives input of a signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the elements and causes the spring force applied to the noise radiating element to be varied. The force transmitting mechanisms can be arranged to either produce bending or linear stiffness variations in the noise radiating element.

  1. Effect of Wind Turbine Noise on Workers' Sleep Disorder: A Case Study of Manjil Wind Farm in Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Milad; Monnazzam, Mohammad Reza; Zakerian, Sayedabbolfazl; Yousefzadeh, Arsalan

    2015-04-01

    Noise from wind turbines is one of the most important factors affecting the health, welfare, and human sleep. This research was carried out to study the effect of wind turbine noise on workers' sleep disorder. For this, Manjil Wind Farm, because of the greater number of staff and turbines than other wind farms in Iran, was chosen as case study. A total number of 53 participants took part in this survey. They were classified into three groups of mechanics, security, and official. In this study, daytime sleepiness data of workers were gathered using Epworth Sleepiness Scales (ESS) was used to determine the level of daytime sleepiness among the workers. The 8-h equivalent sound level (LAeq,8h) was measured to determine the individuals' exposure at each occupational group. Finally, the effect of sound, age, and workers' experience on individuals' sleep disorder was analyzed through multiple regression analysis in the R software. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between age, workers' experience, equivalent sound level, and the level of sleep disorder. When age is constant, sleep disorder will increase by 26% as per each 1 dB increase in equivalent sound level. In situations where equivalent sound level is constant, an increase of 17% in sleep disorder is occurred as per each year of work experience. Because of the difference in sound exposure in different occupational groups. The effect of noise in repairing group was about 6.5 times of official group and also 3.4 times of the security group. Sleep disorder effect caused by wind turbine noise in the security group is almost two times more than the official group. Unlike most studies on wind turbine noise that address the sleep disorder among inhabitants nearby wind farms, this study, for the first time in the world, examines the impact of wind turbine noise on sleep disorder of workers who are more closer to wind turbines and exposed to higher levels of noise. So despite all the

  2. Measurement of the tower wake of the Swedish prototype Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) Maglarp (Sweden) and calculations of its effect on noise and blade loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, K.; Dahlberg, J. A.; Meijer, S.

    Hot-wire measurements of the velocity deficit in the wake behind the tower of a wind turbine are presented. The measurements were performed at one height and at three distances from the tower center when the turbine was not running. The low frequency noise caused by the passage of a turbine blade through the wake of the tower is calculated using wake data from the measurements. A comparision with noise emission measurements is included. The variation in blade loading and turbine power output caused by the wake are also calculated. Results show that wake deficits can be of the same order of magnitude as the freestream velocity.

  3. Spatial Correlation in the Ambient Core Noise Field of a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic transfer function relating combustion noise and turbine exit noise in the presence of enclosed ambient core noise is investigated using a dynamic system model and an acoustic system model for the particular turbofan engine studied and for a range of operating conditions. Measurements of cross-spectra magnitude and phase between the combustor and turbine exit and auto-spectra at the turbine exit and combustor are used to show the presence of indirect and direct combustion noise over the frequency range of 0 400 Hz. The procedure used evaluates the ratio of direct to indirect combustion noise. The procedure used also evaluates the post-combustion residence time in the combustor which is a factor in the formation of thermal NOx and soot in this region. These measurements are masked by the ambient core noise sound field in this frequency range which is observable since the transducers are situated within an acoustic wavelength of one another. An ambient core noise field model based on one and two dimensional spatial correlation functions is used to replicate the spatially correlated response of the pair of transducers. The spatial correlation function increases measured attenuation due to destructive interference and masks the true attenuation of the turbine.

  4. Spatial correlation in the ambient core noise field of a turbofan engine.

    PubMed

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2012-06-01

    An acoustic transfer function relating combustion noise and turbine exit noise in the presence of enclosed ambient core noise is investigated using a dynamic system model and an acoustic system model for the particular turbofan engine studied and for a range of operating conditions. Measurements of cross-spectra magnitude and phase between the combustor and turbine exit and auto-spectra at the turbine exit and combustor are used to show the presence of indirect and direct combustion noise over the frequency range of 0-400 Hz. The procedure used evaluates the ratio of direct to indirect combustion noise. The procedure used also evaluates the post-combustion residence time in the combustor which is a factor in the formation of thermal NO(x) and soot in this region. These measurements are masked by the ambient core noise sound field in this frequency range which is observable since the transducers are situated within an acoustic wavelength of one another. An ambient core noise field model based on one and two dimensional spatial correlation functions is used to replicate the spatially correlated response of the pair of transducers. The spatial correlation function increases measured attenuation due to destructive interference and masks the true attenuation of the turbine.

  5. Low frequency gyro-synchrotron radio noise from the earth's outer radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of detecting cyclotron and synchrotron noise from superthermal electrons is analyzed for the frequency range 30 kHz 300 kHz. Due to the earth's ionosphere, ground based observation of this noise is improbable. Therefore, the calculations are made for an observer in the interplanetary medium. In particular, the location is chosen in the geomagnetic equatorial plane at a geocentric distance of 32 earth radii. This position of the observer allows the theoretical results to be compared directly with data obtained from the radio astronomy experiment aboard the IMP-6 spacecraft.

  6. Amphibian sacculus and the forced Kuramoto model with intrinsic noise and frequency dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Seung; Bozovic, Dolores; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2018-04-01

    The amphibian sacculus (AS) is an end organ that specializes in the detection of low-frequency auditory and vestibular signals. In this paper, we propose a model for the AS in the form of an array of phase oscillators with long-range coupling, subject to a steady load that suppresses spontaneous oscillations. The array is exposed to significant levels of frequency dispersion and intrinsic noise. We show that such an array can be a sensitive and robust subthreshold detector of low-frequency stimuli, though without significant frequency selectivity. The effects of intrinsic noise and frequency dispersion are contrasted. Intermediate levels of intrinsic noise greatly enhance the sensitivity through stochastic resonance. Frequency dispersion, on the other hand, only degrades detection sensitivity. However, frequency dispersion can play a useful role in terms of the suppression of spontaneous activity. As a model for the AS, the array parameters are such that the system is poised near a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle. However, by a change of array parameters, the same system also can be poised near an emergent Andronov-Hopf bifurcation and thereby function as a frequency-selective detector.

  7. Low-Noise Amplifier for 100 to 180 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Pukala, David; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; Mei, Xiaobing; Lai, Richard; Deal, William

    2009-01-01

    A three-stage monolithic millimeter-wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifier designed to exhibit low noise in operation at frequencies from about 100 to somewhat above 180 GHz has been built and tested. This is a prototype of broadband amplifiers that have potential utility in diverse applications, including measurement of atmospheric temperature and humidity and millimeter-wave imaging for inspecting contents of opaque containers. Figure 1 depicts the amplifier as it appears before packaging. Figure 2 presents data from measurements of the performance of the amplifier as packaged in a WR-05 waveguide and tested in the frequency range from about 150 to about 190 GHz. The amplifier exhibited substantial gain throughout this frequency range. Especially notable is the fact that at 165 GHz, the noise figure was found to be 3.7 dB, and the noise temperature was found to be 370 K: This is less than half the noise temperature of the prior state of the art.

  8. Electrical transport and low-frequency noise in chemical vapor deposited single-layer MoS2 devices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Amani, Matin; Motayed, Abhishek; Shah, Pankaj B; Birdwell, A Glen; Najmaei, Sina; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Dubey, Madan; Li, Qiliang; Davydov, Albert V

    2014-04-18

    We have studied temperature-dependent (77-300 K) electrical characteristics and low-frequency noise (LFN) in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based back-gated field-effect transistors (FETs). Electrical characterization and LFN measurements were conducted on MoS2 FETs with Al2O3 top-surface passivation. We also studied the effect of top-surface passivation etching on the electrical characteristics of the device. Significant decrease in channel current and transconductance was observed in these devices after the Al2O3 passivation etching. For passivated devices, the two-terminal resistance variation with temperature showed a good fit to the activation energy model, whereas for the etched devices the trend indicated a hopping transport mechanism. A significant increase in the normalized drain current noise power spectral density (PSD) was observed after the etching of the top passivation layer. The observed channel current noise was explained using a standard unified model incorporating carrier number fluctuation and correlated surface mobility fluctuation mechanisms. Detailed analysis of the gate-referred noise voltage PSD indicated the presence of different trapping states in passivated devices when compared to the etched devices. Etched devices showed weak temperature dependence of the channel current noise, whereas passivated devices exhibited near-linear temperature dependence.

  9. Development of liquid-environment frequency modulation atomic force microscope with low noise deflection sensor for cantilevers of various dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, Takeshi; Jarvis, Suzanne P.

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a liquid-environment frequency modulation atomic force microscope (FM-AFM) with a low noise deflection sensor for a wide range of cantilevers with different dimensions. A simple yet accurate equation describing the theoretical limit of the optical beam deflection method in air and liquid is presented. Based on the equation, we have designed a low noise deflection sensor. Replaceable microscope objective lenses are utilized for providing a high magnification optical view (resolution: <3μm) as well as for focusing a laser beam (laser spot size: ˜10μm). Even for a broad range of cantilevers with lengths from 35to125μm, the sensor provides deflection noise densities of less than 11fm/√Hz in air and 16fm/√Hz in water. In particular, a cantilever with a length of 50μm gives the minimum deflection noise density of 5.7fm/√Hz in air and 7.3fm/√Hz in water. True atomic resolution of the developed FM-AFM is demonstrated by imaging mica in water.

  10. Long-term exposure to wind turbine noise at night and risk for diabetes: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Peña, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-04-14

    Focus on renewable energy sources and reduced unit costs has led to increased number of wind turbines (WTs). WT noise (WTN) is reported to be highly annoying at levels from 30 to 35 dB and up, whereas for traffic noise people report to be highly annoyed from 40 to 45 dB and up. This has raised concerns as to whether WTN may increase risk for major diseases, as exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20 WT heights and 25% of all dwellings within 20-40 WT heights from a WT. Using detailed data on WT type and hourly wind data at each WT position and height, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency indoor WTN for all dwellings, aggregated as nighttime 1- and 5-year running means. Using nationwide registries, we identified a study population of 614,731 persons living in these dwellings in the period from 1996 to 2012, of whom 25,148 developed diabetes. Data were analysed using Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-levels covariates. We found no associations between long-term exposure to WTN during night and diabetes risk, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.90 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.79-1.02) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.68-1.24) for 5-year mean nighttime outdoor WTN of 36-42 and ≥ 42 dB, respectively, compared to < 24 dB. For 5-year mean nighttime indoor low frequency WTN of 10-15 and ≥ 15 dB we found IRRs of 0.90 (0.78-1.04) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.41-1.34), respectively, when compared to and < 5 dB. The lack of association was consistent across strata of sex, distance to major road, validity of noise estimate and WT height. The present study does not support an association between nighttime WTN and higher risk of diabetes. However, there were only few cases in the highest exposure groups and findings need reproduction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  12. Ultralow-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal generator assisted with an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, A.; Nishikawa, T.; Goto, T.; Hitachi, K.; Sogawa, T.; Gotoh, H.

    2016-01-01

    Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise “booster” for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz). PMID:27185040

  13. Evidence of Cnidarians sensitivity to sound after exposure to low frequency noise underwater sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Fontuño, José Manuel; Durfort, Mercè; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Jellyfishes represent a group of species that play an important role in oceans, particularly as a food source for different taxa and as a predator of fish larvae and planktonic prey. The massive introduction of artificial sound sources in the oceans has become a concern to science and society. While we are only beginning to understand that non-hearing specialists like cephalopods can be affected by anthropogenic noises and regulation is underway to measure European water noise levels, we still don’t know yet if the impact of sound may be extended to other lower level taxa of the food web. Here we exposed two species of Mediterranean Scyphozoan medusa, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo to a sweep of low frequency sounds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in the statocyst sensory epithelium of both species after exposure to sound, that are consistent with the manifestation of a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species. The presence of acoustic trauma in marine species that are not hearing specialists, like medusa, shows the magnitude of the problem of noise pollution and the complexity of the task to determine threshold values that would help building up regulation to prevent permanent damage of the ecosystems.

  14. Low-frequency random telegraphic noise and 1/f noise in the rare-earth manganite Pr0.63Ca0.37MnO3 near the charge-ordering transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bid, Aveek; Guha, Ayan; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2003-05-01

    We have studied low-frequency resistance fluctuations (noise) in a single crystal of the rare-earth perovskite manganite Pr0.63Ca0.37MnO3, which shows a charge-ordering transition at a temperature TCO≈245 K. The measurements were made across the charge-ordering transition covering the temperature range 200 Kfrequency range 10-3 Hznoise measurements were made using an ac bias with and without a dc bias current imposed on it. We find that the spectral power SV(f) contains two components—one broad band 1/f part that exists for all frequency and temperature ranges and a single-frequency Lorentzian of frequency fc, which is strongly temperature dependent. The Lorentzian in SV(f) that appears due to random telegraphic noise (RTN) as seen in the time series of the fluctuation is seen in a very narrow temperature window around TCO where it makes the dominating contribution to the fluctuation. When the applied dc bias is increased beyond a certain threshold current density Jth, the electrical conduction becomes nonlinear and one sees the appearance of a significant Lorentzian contribution in the spectral power due to RTN. We explain the appearance of the RTN as due to coexisting charge-ordered (CO) and reverse orbitally ordered (ROO) phases. These phases are in dynamical equilibrium over a mesoscopic length scale (≈30 nm), the kinetics being controlled by an activation barrier Ea≈0.45 eV. The destabilization of the CO phase to the ROO phase causes nonlinear conductivity as well as the appearance of a RTN-type fluctuation when the bias current exceeds a threshold. The 1/f noise is low for T≫TCO but increases by nearly two orders in a narrow temperature range as TCO is approached from above and the probability distribution function (PDF) deviates strongly from a Gaussian dependence. We explain this behavior as due to approach of charge localization with correlated fluctuators which make the PDF non-Gaussian.

  15. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Annoyance.

    PubMed

    Guski, Rainer; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Schuemer, Rudolf

    2017-12-08

    Background : This paper describes a systematic review and meta-analyses on effects of environmental noise on annoyance. The noise sources include aircraft, road, and rail transportation noise as well as wind turbines and noise source combinations. Objectives: Update knowledge about effects of environmental noise on people living in the vicinity of noise sources. Methods: Eligible were published studies (2000-2014) providing comparable acoustical and social survey data including exposure-response functions between standard indicators of noise exposure and standard annoyance responses. The systematic literature search in 20 data bases resulted in 62 studies, of which 57 were used for quantitative meta-analyses. By means of questionnaires sent to the study authors, additional study data were obtained. Risk of bias was assessed by means of study characteristics for individual studies and by funnel plots to assess the risk of publication bias. Main Results: Tentative exposure-response relations for percent highly annoyed residents (%HA) in relation to noise levels for aircraft, road, rail, wind turbine and noise source combinations are presented as well as meta-analyses of correlations between noise levels and annoyance raw scores, and the OR for increase of %HA with increasing noise levels. Quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE terminology. The evidence of exposure-response relations between noise levels and %HA is moderate (aircraft and railway) or low (road traffic and wind turbines). The evidence of correlations between noise levels and annoyance raw scores is high (aircraft and railway) or moderate (road traffic and wind turbines). The evidence of ORs representing the %HA increase by a certain noise level increase is moderate (aircraft noise), moderate/high (road and railway traffic), and low (wind turbines). Strengths and Limitations: The strength of the evidence is seen in the large total sample size encompassing the included studies (e.g., 18

  16. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Annoyance

    PubMed Central

    Guski, Rainer; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Schuemer, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a systematic review and meta-analyses on effects of environmental noise on annoyance. The noise sources include aircraft, road, and rail transportation noise as well as wind turbines and noise source combinations. Objectives: Update knowledge about effects of environmental noise on people living in the vicinity of noise sources. Methods: Eligible were published studies (2000–2014) providing comparable acoustical and social survey data including exposure-response functions between standard indicators of noise exposure and standard annoyance responses. The systematic literature search in 20 data bases resulted in 62 studies, of which 57 were used for quantitative meta-analyses. By means of questionnaires sent to the study authors, additional study data were obtained. Risk of bias was assessed by means of study characteristics for individual studies and by funnel plots to assess the risk of publication bias. Main Results: Tentative exposure-response relations for percent highly annoyed residents (%HA) in relation to noise levels for aircraft, road, rail, wind turbine and noise source combinations are presented as well as meta-analyses of correlations between noise levels and annoyance raw scores, and the OR for increase of %HA with increasing noise levels. Quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE terminology. The evidence of exposure-response relations between noise levels and %HA is moderate (aircraft and railway) or low (road traffic and wind turbines). The evidence of correlations between noise levels and annoyance raw scores is high (aircraft and railway) or moderate (road traffic and wind turbines). The evidence of ORs representing the %HA increase by a certain noise level increase is moderate (aircraft noise), moderate/high (road and railway traffic), and low (wind turbines). Strengths and Limitations: The strength of the evidence is seen in the large total sample size encompassing the included studies (e.g., 18

  17. Pseudomorphic InGaAs/AlGaAs modulation-doped FET's with reduced low-frequency noise and thermally stable performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shih-Ming; Das, M. B.; Peng, C. K.; Klem, J.; Henderson, T.

    1987-01-01

    A high-performance MODFET structure grown by MBE with the incorporation of a single quantum well In(0.15)Ga(0.85)As layer for the transport of two-dimensional electron gas has been critically examined for its thermal stability at 80 K and low-frequency noise form 0.01 to 10 to the 8th Hz. Experimental results indicate that the behavior of this device in both these respects is much superior when compared with the same behavior of conventional MODFETs. A maximum low-field carrier mobility of 29,000 sq cm/s at 80 K and an average carrier saturation velocity of 2 x 10 to the 7th cm/s at 300 K in a 1-micron gate device clearly indicate that the quality of the pseudomorphic quantum well (InGaAs) layer is either comparable or better than that of the usual GaAs buffer layer. The deep level spectra, obtained through photo-FET measurements, and the low-frequency noise spectra at different temperatures obtained for the new pseudomorphic and conventional MODFET's have clearly indicated that contributions from various deep levels present in the new structure are significantly reduced.

  18. Low frequency seismic noise acquisition and analysis in the Homestake Mine with tunable monolithic horizontal sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Giordano, Gerardo; Harms, Jan; Mandic, Vuk; Sajeva, Angelo; Trancynger, Thomas; Barone, Fabrizio

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe the scientific data recorded along one month of data taking of two mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor prototypes located in a blind-ended (side) tunnel 2000 ft deep in the Homestake (South Dakota, USA) mine chosen to host the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The two mechanical monolithic sensors, developed at the University of Salerno, are placed, in thermally insulating enclosures, onto concrete slabs connected to the bedrock, and behind a sound-proofing wall. The main goal of this experiment is to characterize the Homestake site in the frequency band 10-4 - 30Hz and to estimate the level of Newtonian noise in a deep underegropund laboratory. The horizontal semidiurnal Earth tide and the Peterson's New Low Noise Model have been measured.

  19. Frequency domain analysis of noise in simple gene circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Chris D.; McCollum, James M.; Austin, Derek W.; Allen, Michael S.; Dar, Roy D.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-06-01

    Recent advances in single cell methods have spurred progress in quantifying and analyzing stochastic fluctuations, or noise, in genetic networks. Many of these studies have focused on identifying the sources of noise and quantifying its magnitude, and at the same time, paying less attention to the frequency content of the noise. We have developed a frequency domain approach to extract the information contained in the frequency content of the noise. In this article we review our work in this area and extend it to explicitly consider sources of extrinsic and intrinsic noise. First we review applications of the frequency domain approach to several simple circuits, including a constitutively expressed gene, a gene regulated by transitions in its operator state, and a negatively autoregulated gene. We then review our recent experimental study, in which time-lapse microscopy was used to measure noise in the expression of green fluorescent protein in individual cells. The results demonstrate how changes in rate constants within the gene circuit are reflected in the spectral content of the noise in a manner consistent with the predictions derived through frequency domain analysis. The experimental results confirm our earlier theoretical prediction that negative autoregulation not only reduces the magnitude of the noise but shifts its content out to higher frequency. Finally, we develop a frequency domain model of gene expression that explicitly accounts for extrinsic noise at the transcriptional and translational levels. We apply the model to interpret a shift in the autocorrelation function of green fluorescent protein induced by perturbations of the translational process as a shift in the frequency spectrum of extrinsic noise and a decrease in its weighting relative to intrinsic noise.

  20. Multipurpose exciter with low phase noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B.; Le, D.

    1989-01-01

    Results of an effort to develop a lower-cost exciter with high stability, low phase noise, and controllable phase and frequency for use in Deep Space Network and Goldstone Solar System Radar applications are discussed. Included is a discussion of the basic concept, test results, plans, and concerns.

  1. Relationship Between Psychomotor Efficiency and Sensation Seeking of People Exposed to Noise and Low Frequency Vibration Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchut, Aleksander; Kowalska-Koczwara, Alicja; Romanska – Zapała, Anna; Stypula, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    At the workplace of the machine operator, low frequency whole body and hand- arm vibrations are observed. They occur together with noise. Whole body vibration in the range of 3-25 Hz are detrimental to the human body due to the location of the resonant frequency of large organs of the human body in this range. It can be assumed that for this reason people working every day in such conditions can have reduced working efficiency. The influence of low frequency vibration and noise on the human body leads to both physiological and functional changes. The result of the impact of noise and vibration stimuli depends largely on the specific characteristics of the objects, which include among other personality traits, temperament and emotional factor. The pilot study conducted in the laboratory was attended by 30 young men. The aim of the study was to look for correlations between the need for stimulation of the objects and their psychomotor efficiency in case of vibration exposure and vibration together with noise exposure in variable conditions task. The need for stimulation of the objects as defined in the study is based on theoretical assumptions of one dimensional model of temperament developed by Marvin Zuckerman. This theory defines the need for stimulation as the search for different, new, complex and intense sensations, as well as the willingness to take risks. The aim of research was to verify if from four factors such as: the search for adventure and horror, sensation seeking, disinhibition and susceptibility to boredom, we can choose the ones that in conjunction with varying operating conditions, may significantly determine the efficiency of the task situation. The objects performed the test evaluation of their motor skills which consisted in keeping the cursor controlled by a joystick through the path. The number of exceeds of the cursor beyond the path and its maximum deviation was recorded. The collected data were used to determine the correlation between the

  2. Low frequency electrical noise across contacts between a normal conductor and superconducting bulk YBa2Cu3O7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J.; Chen, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    Virtually every device that makes use of the new ceramic superconductors will need normal conductor to superconductor contacts. The current-voltage and electrical noise characteristics of these contacts could become important design considerations. I-V and low frequency electrical noise measurements are presented on contacts between a normal conductor and superconducting polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7. The contacts were formed by first sputtering gold palladium pads onto the surface of the bulk superconductor and then using silver epoxy to attach a wire(s) to each pad. Voltage across the contacts was found for small current densities. The voltage spectral density, S sub v(f), a quantity often used to characterize electrical noise, very closely followed an empirical relationship given by S sub v(f) = C(VR)sq/f, where V is the DC voltage across the contact, R is the contact resistance, F is frequency, and C is a contant found to be 2 x 10(exp -10)/Omega sq at 78 K. This relationship was found to be independent of contact area, contact geometry, sample fabrication technique, and sample density.

  3. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through variable ring loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.

  4. Digital Lock-In Detector for Ultra-Low Level Noise Spectrum Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Noise measurements,’ digital lockAn detector; 1 / f noise ; P...lower than the internal amplifier noise . Especially at low frequencies, amplifier noises become overwhelming, due to the 1 / f noise generated by the...shows the set-up. vm is the modulating signal generated by the computer. The two lOOk’s are metal film resistors, whose 1 / f noise is negligible. Ri’s

  5. Before-after field study of effects of wind turbine noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Leila; Bigelow, Philip; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Williams, Diane; McColl, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Wind is considered one of the most advantageous alternatives to fossil energy because of its low operating cost and extensive availability. However, alleged health-related effects of exposure to wind turbine (WT) noise have attracted much public attention and various symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, have been reported by residents living close to wind developments. Prospective cohort study with synchronous measurement of noise and sleep physiologic signals was conducted to explore the possibility of sleep disturbance in people hosting new industrial WTs in Ontario, Canada, using a pre and post-exposure design. Objective and subjective sleep data were collected through polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard diagnostic test, and sleep diary. Sixteen participants were studied before and after WT installation during two consecutive nights in their own bedrooms. Both audible and infrasound noises were also concurrently measured inside the bedroom of each participant. Different noise exposure parameters were calculated (LAeq, LZeq) and analyzed in relation to whole-night sleep parameters. Results obtained from PSG show that sleep parameters were not significantly changed after exposure. However, reported sleep qualities were significantly (P = 0.008) worsened after exposure. Average noise levels during the exposure period were low to moderate and the mean of inside noise levels did not significantly change after exposure. The result of this study based on advanced sleep recording methodology together with extensive noise measurements in an ecologically valid setting cautiously suggests that there are no major changes in the sleep of participants who host new industrial WTs in their community. Further studies with a larger sample size and including comprehensive single-event analyses are warranted.

  6. Before–After Field Study of Effects of Wind Turbine Noise on Polysomnographic Sleep Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Leila; Bigelow, Philip; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Williams, Diane; McColl, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Wind is considered one of the most advantageous alternatives to fossil energy because of its low operating cost and extensive availability. However, alleged health-related effects of exposure to wind turbine (WT) noise have attracted much public attention and various symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, have been reported by residents living close to wind developments. Prospective cohort study with synchronous measurement of noise and sleep physiologic signals was conducted to explore the possibility of sleep disturbance in people hosting new industrial WTs in Ontario, Canada, using a pre and post-exposure design. Objective and subjective sleep data were collected through polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard diagnostic test, and sleep diary. Sixteen participants were studied before and after WT installation during two consecutive nights in their own bedrooms. Both audible and infrasound noises were also concurrently measured inside the bedroom of each participant. Different noise exposure parameters were calculated (LAeq, LZeq) and analyzed in relation to whole-night sleep parameters. Results obtained from PSG show that sleep parameters were not significantly changed after exposure. However, reported sleep qualities were significantly (P=0.008) worsened after exposure. Average noise levels during the exposure period were low to moderate and the mean of inside noise levels did not significantly change after exposure. The result of this study based on advanced sleep recording methodology together with extensive noise measurements in an ecologically valid setting cautiously suggests that there are no major changes in the sleep of participants who host new industrial WTs in their community. Further studies with a larger sample size and including comprehensive single-event analyses are warranted. PMID:27569407

  7. Impact of Silicon Doping on Low-Frequency Charge Noise and Conductance Drift in GaAs/AlxGa1 -xAs Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi, S.; Nakamura, J. R.; Gardner, G. C.; Yannell, M. M.; Manfra, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    We present measurements of low-frequency charge noise and conductance drift in modulation-doped GaAs /AlxGa1 -xAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy in which the silicon doping density is varied from 2.4 ×1018 (critically doped) to 6.0 ×1018 cm-3 (overdoped). Quantum point contacts are used to detect charge fluctuations. A clear reduction of both short-time-scale telegraphic noise and long-time-scale conductance drift with decreased doping density is observed. These measurements indicate that the neutral doping region plays a significant role in charge noise and conductance drift.

  8. Low-cost, high-fidelity, adaptive cancellation of periodic 60 Hz noise.

    PubMed

    Wesson, Kyle D; Ochshorn, Robert M; Land, Bruce R

    2009-12-15

    A common method to eliminate unwanted power line interference in neurobiology laboratories where sensitive electronic signals are measured is with a notch filter. However a fixed-frequency notch filter cannot remove all power line noise contamination since inherent frequency and phase variations exist in the contaminating signal. One way to overcome the limitations of a fixed-frequency notch filter is with adaptive noise cancellation. Adaptive noise cancellation is an active approach that uses feedback to create a signal that when summed with the contaminated signal destructively interferes with the noise component leaving only the desired signal. We have implemented an optimized least mean square adaptive noise cancellation algorithm on a low-cost 16 MHz, 8-bit microcontroller to adaptively cancel periodic 60 Hz noise. In our implementation, we achieve between 20 and 25 dB of cancellation of the fundamental 60 Hz noise component.

  9. Compact low-noise preamplifier for noise spectroscopy with biased photodiodes in cargo inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Bob; Langeveld, Willem G. J.

    2013-09-01

    Noise Spectroscopy, a.k.a. Z-determination by Statistical Count-rate ANalysis (Z-SCAN), is a statistical technique to determine a quantity called the "noise figure" from digitized waveforms of pulses of transmitted x-rays in cargo inspection systems. Depending only on quantities related to the x-ray energies, it measures a characteristic of the transmitted x-ray spectrum, which depends on the atomic number, Z, of the material penetrated. The noise figure can thus be used for material separation. In an 80-detector prototype, scintillators are used with large-area photodiodes biased at 80V and digitized using 50-MSPS 12-bit ADC boards. We present an ultra-compact low-noise preamplifier design, with one high-gain and one low-gain channel per detector for improved dynamic range. To achieve adequate detection sensitivity and spatial resolution each dual-gain preamplifier channel must fit within a 12.7 mm wide circuit board footprint and maintain adequate noise immunity to conducted and radiated interference from adjacent channels. The novel design included iterative SPICE analysis of transient response, dynamic range, frequency response, and noise analysis to optimize the selection and configuration of amplifiers and filter response. We discuss low-noise active and passive components and low-noise techniques for circuit board layout that are essential to achieving the design goals, and how the completed circuit board performed in comparison to the predicted responses.

  10. Frequency domain analysis of errors in cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri

    2016-12-01

    is used to account for temporal correlation of noise cross-spectrum at low frequencies (0.05-0.2 Hz) near the ocean microseismic peaks.

  11. Considering the influence of artificial environmental noise to study cough time-frequency features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    In general the study of the cough mechanism and sound in both animal and human is performed by eliciting coughing in a reproducible way by nebulization of an irritating substance. Due to ventilation the controlled evaporation-protocol causes artificial noises from a mechanical origin. The resulting environmental low-frequency noises complicate cough time-frequency features. In order to optimize the study of the cough-sound the research described in this paper attempts on the one hand to characterize and model the environmental noises and on the other hand to evaluate the influence of the noise on the time-frequency representation for the intended cough sounds by comparing different de-noising approaches. Free field acoustic sound is continuously registered during 30 min citric acid cough-challenges on individual Belgian Landrace piglets and during respiratory infection experiments, with a duration of about 10 days, where room-ventilation was present.

  12. Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Anders; Bonetti, Stefano; Sani, Sohrab R.; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Iacocca, Ezio; Östling, Mikael; Åkerman, Johan; Gunnar Malm, B.

    2014-03-01

    The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18-25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films.

  13. Chronic exposure to low frequency noise at moderate levels causes impaired balance in mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Haruka; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Yajima, Ichiro; Iida, Machiko; Ohgami, Kyoko; Fujii, Noriko; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kusudo, Tastuya; Yamashita, Hitoshi; Kato, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    We are routinely exposed to low frequency noise (LFN; below 0.5 kHz) at moderate levels of 60-70 dB sound pressure level (SPL) generated from various sources in occupational and daily environments. LFN has been reported to affect balance in humans. However, there is limited information about the influence of chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels for balance. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level of 70 dB SPL affects the vestibule, which is one of the organs responsible for balance in mice. Wild-type ICR mice were exposed for 1 month to LFN (0.1 kHz) and high frequency noise (HFN; 16 kHz) at 70 dB SPL at a distance of approximately 10-20 cm. Behavior analyses including rotarod, beam-crossing and footprint analyses showed impairments of balance in LFN-exposed mice but not in non-exposed mice or HFN-exposed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a decreased number of vestibular hair cells and increased levels of oxidative stress in LFN-exposed mice compared to those in non-exposed mice. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels causes impaired balance involving morphological impairments of the vestibule with enhanced levels of oxidative stress. Thus, the results of this study indicate the importance of considering the risk of chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level for imbalance.

  14. Chronic Exposure to Low Frequency Noise at Moderate Levels Causes Impaired Balance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Haruka; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Yajima, Ichiro; Iida, Machiko; Ohgami, Kyoko; Fujii, Noriko; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kusudo, Tastuya; Yamashita, Hitoshi; Kato, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    We are routinely exposed to low frequency noise (LFN; below 0.5 kHz) at moderate levels of 60–70 dB sound pressure level (SPL) generated from various sources in occupational and daily environments. LFN has been reported to affect balance in humans. However, there is limited information about the influence of chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels for balance. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level of 70 dB SPL affects the vestibule, which is one of the organs responsible for balance in mice. Wild-type ICR mice were exposed for 1 month to LFN (0.1 kHz) and high frequency noise (HFN; 16 kHz) at 70 dB SPL at a distance of approximately 10–20 cm. Behavior analyses including rotarod, beam-crossing and footprint analyses showed impairments of balance in LFN-exposed mice but not in non-exposed mice or HFN-exposed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a decreased number of vestibular hair cells and increased levels of oxidative stress in LFN-exposed mice compared to those in non-exposed mice. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels causes impaired balance involving morphological impairments of the vestibule with enhanced levels of oxidative stress. Thus, the results of this study indicate the importance of considering the risk of chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level for imbalance. PMID:22768129

  15. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  16. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  17. Tests of Low-Noise MMIC Amplifier Module at 290 to 340 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Deal, William; Mei, Xiaobing; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A document presents data from tests of a low-noise amplifier module operating in the frequency range from 290 to 340 GHz said to be the highest-frequency low-noise, solid-state amplifier ever developed. The module comprised a three-stage monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier integrated with radial probe MMIC/waveguide transitions and contained in a compact waveguide package, all according to the concepts described in the immediately preceding article and in the referenced prior article, "Integrated Radial Probe Transition From MMIC to Waveguide" (NPO-43957), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2007), page 38. The tests included measurements by the Y-factor method, in which noise figures are measured repeatedly with an input noise source alternating between an "on" (hot-load) condition and an "off" (cold-load) condition. (The Y factor is defined as the ratio between the "on" and "off" noise power levels.) The test results showed that, among other things, the module exhibited a minimum noise figure of about 8.7 dB at 325 GHz and that the gain at that frequency under the bias conditions that produced the minimum noise figure was between about 9 and 10 dB.

  18. Frequency analysis of tangential force measurements on a vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossander, Morgan; Goude, Anders; Bernhoff, Hans; Eriksson, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the torque ripple obtained from a three bladed 12 kW experimental H-rotor prototype. The measurements are performed by means of load cells installed on the base of the struts and by electrical measurements on the generator. The resulting torques are analysed in terms of frequency spectrum and order spectrum (synchronized with rotation). The measurements are compared to aerodynamic simulations of the turbine. The expected large torque ripple at three times the rotational speed (3 p) is only weakly represented at the hub and in the generator. This suggests that the system is filtering the ripple and/or that the simulations are overestimating the 3 p component. The torque ripple loads on the drive train are therefore lower than anticipated. Even if highly attenuated, most of the low frequencies correlating to aerodynamics are still represented in the generator electrical torque. Given a certain baseline, this opens for possible online monitoring of unbalances in the turbine by electrical measurements.

  19. Time-frequency peak filtering for random noise attenuation of magnetic resonance sounding signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Yang; Yi, Xiaofeng; Fan, Tiehu; Wan, Ling

    2018-05-01

    When measuring in a geomagnetic field, the method of magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is often limited because of the notably low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Most current studies focus on discarding spiky noise and power-line harmonic noise cancellation. However, the effects of random noise should not be underestimated. The common method for random noise attenuation is stacking, but collecting multiple recordings merely to suppress random noise is time-consuming. Moreover, stacking is insufficient to suppress high-level random noise. Here, we propose the use of time-frequency peak filtering for random noise attenuation, which is performed after the traditional de-spiking and power-line harmonic removal method. By encoding the noisy signal with frequency modulation and estimating the instantaneous frequency using the peak of the time-frequency representation of the encoded signal, the desired MRS signal can be acquired from only one stack. The performance of the proposed method is tested on synthetic envelope signals and field data from different surveys. Good estimations of the signal parameters are obtained at different SNRs. Moreover, an attempt to use the proposed method to handle a single recording provides better results compared to 16 stacks. Our results suggest that the number of stacks can be appropriately reduced to shorten the measurement time and improve the measurement efficiency.

  20. A Low noise, Non-contact Capacitive Cardiac Sensor*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, GuoChen; Bocko, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of sensitive, non-contact electric field sensors to measure weak bioelectric signals will be useful for the development of a number of unobtrusive health sensors. In this paper we summarize our recent work on a number of specific challenges in the development of non-contact ECG sensors. First, we considered the design of a low noise sensor preamplifier. We have adapted circuit designs that incorporate a double feedback loop to cancel the input transistor leakage current while providing stable operation, fast settling time and good low frequency response without the need for ultrahigh value resistors. The measured input referred noise of the preamplifier in the frequency band 0.05–100 Hz is 0.76 μVrms, which is several times lower than existing ECG preamplifiers. PMID:23367049

  1. A low noise, non-contact capacitive cardiac sensor.

    PubMed

    Peng, GuoChen; Bocko, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    The development of sensitive, non-contact electric field sensors to measure weak bioelectric signals will be useful for the development of a number of unobtrusive health sensors. In this paper we summarize our recent work on a number of specific challenges in the development of non-contact ECG sensors. First, we considered the design of a low noise sensor preamplifier. We have adapted circuit designs that incorporate a double feedback loop to cancel the input transistor leakage current while providing stable operation, fast settling time and good low frequency response without the need for ultrahigh value resistors. The measured input referred noise of the preamplifier in the frequency band 0.05-100 Hz is 0.76 µV(rms), which is several times lower than existing ECG preamplifiers.

  2. Recognition of speech in noise after application of time-frequency masks: Dependence on frequency and threshold parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sinex, Donal G.

    2013-01-01

    Binary time-frequency (TF) masks can be applied to separate speech from noise. Previous studies have shown that with appropriate parameters, ideal TF masks can extract highly intelligible speech even at very low speech-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Two psychophysical experiments provided additional information about the dependence of intelligibility on the frequency resolution and threshold criteria that define the ideal TF mask. Listeners identified AzBio Sentences in noise, before and after application of TF masks. Masks generated with 8 or 16 frequency bands per octave supported nearly-perfect identification. Word recognition accuracy was slightly lower and more variable with 4 bands per octave. When TF masks were generated with a local threshold criterion of 0 dB SNR, the mean speech reception threshold was −9.5 dB SNR, compared to −5.7 dB for unprocessed sentences in noise. Speech reception thresholds decreased by about 1 dB per dB of additional decrease in the local threshold criterion. Information reported here about the dependence of speech intelligibility on frequency and level parameters has relevance for the development of non-ideal TF masks for clinical applications such as speech processing for hearing aids. PMID:23556604

  3. Impact of low-frequency sound on historic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Louis C.; Horonjeff, Richard D.

    2005-09-01

    In common usage, the term soundscape usually refers to portions of the sound spectrum audible to human observers, and perhaps more broadly other members of the animal kingdom. There is, however, a soundscape regime at the low end of the frequency spectrum (e.g., 10-25 Hz), which is inaudible to humans, where nonindigenous sound energy may cause noise-induced vibrations in structures. Such low frequency components may be of sufficient magnitude to pose damage risk potential to historic structures and cultural resources. Examples include Anasazi cliff and cave dwellings, and pueblo structures of vega type roof construction. Both are susceptible to noise induced vibration from low-frequency sound pressures that excite resonant frequencies in these structures. The initial damage mechanism is usually fatigue cracking. Many mechanisms are subtle, temporally multiphased, and not initially evident to the naked eye. This paper reviews the types of sources posing the greatest potential threat, their low-frequency spectral characteristics, typical structural responses, and the damage risk mechanisms involved. Measured sound and vibration levels, case history studies, and conditions favorable to damage risk are presented. The paper concludes with recommendations for increasing the damage risk knowledge base to better protect these resources.

  4. On the use of high-frequency SCADA data for improved wind turbine performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, E.; Stephen, B.; Infield, D.; Melero, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    SCADA-based condition monitoring of wind turbines facilitates the move from costly corrective repairs towards more proactive maintenance strategies. In this work, we advocate the use of high-frequency SCADA data and quantile regression to build a cost effective performance monitoring tool. The benefits of the approach are demonstrated through the comparison between state-of-the-art deterministic power curve modelling techniques and the suggested probabilistic model. Detection capabilities are compared for low and high-frequency SCADA data, providing evidence for monitoring at higher resolutions. Operational data from healthy and faulty turbines are used to provide a practical example of usage with the proposed tool, effectively achieving the detection of an incipient gearbox malfunction at a time horizon of more than one month prior to the actual occurrence of the failure.

  5. Analysis of the cochlear microphonic to a low-frequency tone embedded in filtered noise

    PubMed Central

    Chertoff, Mark E.; Earl, Brian R.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Sorensen, Janna L.

    2012-01-01

    The cochlear microphonic was recorded in response to a 733 Hz tone embedded in noise that was high-pass filtered at 25 different frequencies. The amplitude of the cochlear microphonic increased as the high-pass cutoff frequency of the noise increased. The amplitude growth for a 60 dB SPL tone was steeper and saturated sooner than that of an 80 dB SPL tone. The growth for both signal levels, however, was not entirely cumulative with plateaus occurring at about 4 and 7 mm from the apex. A phenomenological model of the electrical potential in the cochlea that included a hair cell probability function and spiral geometry of the cochlea could account for both the slope of the growth functions and the plateau regions. This suggests that with high-pass-filtered noise, the cochlear microphonic recorded at the round window comes from the electric field generated at the source directed towards the electrode and not down the longitudinal axis of the cochlea. PMID:23145616

  6. Low frequency electrical noise across contacts between a normal conductor and superconducting bulk YBa2Cu3O7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J.; Chen, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Virtually every device that makes use of the new ceramic superconductors will need normal conductor to supercondutor contacts. The current-voltage and electrical noise characteristics of these contacts could be become important design considerations. I-V and low frequency electrical noise measurements are presented on contacts between a normal conductor and superconducting polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7. The contacts were formed by first sputtering gold palladium pads onto the surface of the bulk superconductor and then using silver epoxy to attach a wire(s) to each pad. Voltage across the contacts was found for small current densities. The voltage spectral density, S sub v(f), a quanity often used to characterize electrical noise, very closely followed an empirical relationship given by, S sub v(f) = C(VR)sq/f, where V is the DC voltage across the contact, R is the contact resistance, F is frequency, and C is a contant found to be 2 x 10(exp -10)/Omega sq at 78 K. This relationship was found to be independent of contact area, contact geometry, sample fabrication technique, and sample density.

  7. Frequency noise properties of lasers for interferometry in nanometrology.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Cíp, Ondřej

    2013-02-07

    In this contribution we focus on laser frequency noise properties and their influence on the interferometric displacement measurements. A setup for measurement of laser frequency noise is proposed and tested together with simultaneous measurement of fluctuations in displacement in the Michelson interferometer. Several laser sources, including traditional He-Ne and solid-state lasers, and their noise properties are evaluated and compared. The contribution of the laser frequency noise to the displacement measurement is discussed in the context of other sources of uncertainty associated with the interferometric setup, such as, mechanics, resolution of analog-to-digital conversion, frequency bandwidth of the detection chain, and variations of the refractive index of air.

  8. Risk Assessment of Neonatal Exposure to Low Frequency Noise Based on Balance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Oshino, Reina; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Li, Xiang; Kato, Masashi; Yajima, Ichiro; Kato, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    General electric devices and ventilation systems are known to generate low frequency noise (LFN) with frequencies of <100 Hz. Previous studies showed that exposure to LFN caused impairments of balance in humans and mice during adulthood. On the other hand, a previous study showed that noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were greater than those in general home or office environments. Therefore, it is possible that neonates have a potential risk to be exposed to LFN in the NICU. However, the risk of neonatal exposure to LFN remains unclear in humans and mice. In this study, male ICR mice were exposed to LFN at 100 Hz for 4 weeks after birth and then subjected to rotarod and beam crossing tests in order to assess LFN-mediated risk of imbalance during the neonatal period. Exposure to LFN at 70 dB, but not exposure to LFN up to 60 dB, during the neonatal period significantly decreased performance scores for rotarod and beam crossing tests compared to the scores of the control group. The number of calbindin-positive hair cells in the saccule and utricle was decreased in mice exposed to LFN at 70 dB for 4 weeks in the neonatal phase. Cessation of exposure for 10 weeks did not result in recovery of the decreased performance in rotarod and beam crossing tests. Thus, our results suggest that 70 dB is a possible threshold for exposure to LFN for 4 weeks during the neonatal period causing unrecoverable imbalance in mice. PMID:28275341

  9. Low-noise and wideband hot-electron superconductive mixer for terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William R.; Bumble, Bruce; Leduc, Henry G.; Barner, J. B.; Kleinsasser, Alan W.; Burke, P. J.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Prober, Daniel E.

    1998-11-01

    Superconductive hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixers have been built and tested in the frequency range from 1.1 THz to 2.5 THz. The mixer device is a 0.15 - 0.3 micrometer microbridge made from a 10 nm thick Nb film. This device employs diffusion as a cooling mechanism for hot electrons. The double sideband noise temperature was measured to be less than or equal to 3000 K at 2.5 THz and the mixer IF bandwidth is expected to be at least 10 GHz for a 0.1 micrometer long device. The local oscillator (LO) power dissipated in the HEB microbridge was 20 - 100 nW. Further improvement of the mixer characteristics can be potentially achieved by using Al microbridges. The advantages and parameters of such devices are evaluated. The HEB mixer is a primary candidate for ground based, airborne and spaceborne heterodyne instruments at THz frequencies. HEB receivers are planned for use on the NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the ESA Far Infrared and Submillimeter Space Telescope (FIRST). The prospects of a submicron-size YBa2Cu3O7-(delta ) (YBCO) HEB are discussed. The expected LO power of 1 - 10 (mu) W and SSB noise temperature of approximately equals 2000 K may make this mixer attractive for various remote sensing applications.

  10. High-power all-fiber ultra-low noise laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian; Guiraud, Germain; Pierre, Christophe; Floissat, Florian; Casanova, Alexis; Hreibi, Ali; Chaibi, Walid; Traynor, Nicholas; Boullet, Johan; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2018-06-01

    High-power ultra-low noise single-mode single-frequency lasers are in great demand for interferometric metrology. Robust, compact all-fiber lasers represent one of the most promising technologies to replace the current laser sources in use based on injection-locked ring resonators or multi-stage solid-state amplifiers. Here, a linearly polarized high-power ultra-low noise all-fiber laser is demonstrated at a power level of 100 W. Special care has been taken in the study of relative intensity noise (RIN) and its reduction. Using an optimized servo actuator to directly control the driving current of the pump laser diode, we obtain a large feedback bandwidth of up to 1.3 MHz. The RIN reaches - 160 dBc/Hz between 3 and 20 kHz.

  11. Noise performance of frequency modulation Kelvin force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Deresmes, Dominique; Mélin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Summary Noise performance of a phase-locked loop (PLL) based frequency modulation Kelvin force microscope (FM-KFM) is assessed. Noise propagation is modeled step by step throughout the setup using both exact closed loop noise gains and an approximation known as “noise gain” from operational amplifier (OpAmp) design that offers the advantage of decoupling the noise performance study from considerations of stability and ideal loop response. The bandwidth can be chosen depending on how much noise is acceptable and it is shown that stability is not an issue up to a limit that will be discussed. With thermal and detector noise as the only sources, both approaches yield PLL frequency noise expressions equal to the theoretical value for self-oscillating circuits and in agreement with measurement, demonstrating that the PLL components neither modify nor contribute noise. Kelvin output noise is then investigated by modeling the surrounding bias feedback loop. A design rule is proposed that allows choosing the AC modulation frequency for optimized sharing of the PLL bandwidth between Kelvin and topography loops. A crossover criterion determines as a function of bandwidth, temperature and probe parameters whether thermal or detector noise is the dominating noise source. Probe merit factors for both cases are then established, suggesting how to tackle noise performance by probe design. Typical merit factors of common probe types are compared. This comprehensive study is an encouraging step toward a more integral performance assessment and a remedy against focusing on single aspects and optimizing around randomly chosen key values. PMID:24455457

  12. Comprehensive analysis of low-frequency noise variability components in bulk and fully depleted silicon-on-insulator metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Keiichi; Makiyama, Hideki; Yamamoto, Yoshiki; Hasegawa, Takumi; Okanishi, Shinobu; Sonoda, Kenichiro; Shinkawata, Hiroki; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kamohara, Shiro; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2018-04-01

    The low-frequency noise (LFN) variability in bulk and fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with silicon on thin box (SOTB) technology was investigated. LFN typically shows a flicker noise component and a signal Lorentzian component by random telegraph noise (RTN). At a weak inversion state, the random dopant fluctuation (RDF) in a channel is strongly affected to not only RTN variability but also flicker noise variability in the bulk MOSFET compared with SOTB MOSFET because of local carrier number fluctuation in the channel. On the other hand, the typical level of LFN in SOTB MOSFET is slightly larger than that in the bulk MOSFET because of an additional interface on the buried oxide layer. However, considering the tailing characteristics of LFN variability, LFN in SOTB MOSFET can be assumed to be smaller than that in the bulk MOSFET, which enables the low-voltage operation of analog circuits.

  13. Frequency Noise Properties of Lasers for Interferometry in Nanometrology

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Číp, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we focus on laser frequency noise properties and their influence on the interferometric displacement measurements. A setup for measurement of laser frequency noise is proposed and tested together with simultaneous measurement of fluctuations in displacement in the Michelson interferometer. Several laser sources, including traditional He-Ne and solid-state lasers, and their noise properties are evaluated and compared. The contribution of the laser frequency noise to the displacement measurement is discussed in the context of other sources of uncertainty associated with the interferometric setup, such as, mechanics, resolution of analog-to-digital conversion, frequency bandwidth of the detection chain, and variations of the refractive index of air. PMID:23435049

  14. MOD-2 wind turbine farm stability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of single and multiple 2.5 ME, Boeing MOD-2 wind turbine generators (WTGs) connected to utility power systems were investigated. The analysis was based on digital simulation. Both time response and frequency response methods were used. The dynamics of this type of WTG are characterized by two torsional modes, a low frequency 'shaft' mode below 1 Hz and an 'electrical' mode at 3-5 Hz. High turbine inertia and low torsional stiffness between turbine and generator are inherent features. Turbine control is based on electrical power, not turbine speed as in conventional utility turbine generators. Multi-machine dynamics differ very little from single machine dynamics.

  15. The low-frequency continuum as observed in the solar wind from ISEE 3 - Thermal electrostatic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, S.; Steinberg, J.-L.; Epstein, G.; Tilloles, P.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The low frequency continuum (LFC) noise between 30 and 200 kHz has been investigated from the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the solar wind by means of a radio astronomy experiment more sensitive than previously available. It is demonstrated that the LFC radiation observed in the solar wind is in the form of longitudinal plasma waves rather than transverse electromagnetic waves. The observed spectral characteristics are found to be a function of antenna length. In addition, both the absence of antenna spin modulation and the fact that these plasma waves do not propagate to large distances imply a local origin for the LFC.

  16. Resonance-Based Time-Frequency Manifold for Feature Extraction of Ship-Radiated Noise.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiaquan; Sun, Haixin; Chen, Hailan; Junejo, Naveed Ur Rehman; Cheng, En

    2018-03-22

    In this paper, a novel time-frequency signature using resonance-based sparse signal decomposition (RSSD), phase space reconstruction (PSR), time-frequency distribution (TFD) and manifold learning is proposed for feature extraction of ship-radiated noise, which is called resonance-based time-frequency manifold (RTFM). This is suitable for analyzing signals with oscillatory, non-stationary and non-linear characteristics in a situation of serious noise pollution. Unlike the traditional methods which are sensitive to noise and just consider one side of oscillatory, non-stationary and non-linear characteristics, the proposed RTFM can provide the intact feature signature of all these characteristics in the form of a time-frequency signature by the following steps: first, RSSD is employed on the raw signal to extract the high-oscillatory component and abandon the low-oscillatory component. Second, PSR is performed on the high-oscillatory component to map the one-dimensional signal to the high-dimensional phase space. Third, TFD is employed to reveal non-stationary information in the phase space. Finally, manifold learning is applied to the TFDs to fetch the intrinsic non-linear manifold. A proportional addition of the top two RTFMs is adopted to produce the improved RTFM signature. All of the case studies are validated on real audio recordings of ship-radiated noise. Case studies of ship-radiated noise on different datasets and various degrees of noise pollution manifest the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  17. Resonance-Based Time-Frequency Manifold for Feature Extraction of Ship-Radiated Noise

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jiaquan; Sun, Haixin; Chen, Hailan; Junejo, Naveed Ur Rehman; Cheng, En

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel time-frequency signature using resonance-based sparse signal decomposition (RSSD), phase space reconstruction (PSR), time-frequency distribution (TFD) and manifold learning is proposed for feature extraction of ship-radiated noise, which is called resonance-based time-frequency manifold (RTFM). This is suitable for analyzing signals with oscillatory, non-stationary and non-linear characteristics in a situation of serious noise pollution. Unlike the traditional methods which are sensitive to noise and just consider one side of oscillatory, non-stationary and non-linear characteristics, the proposed RTFM can provide the intact feature signature of all these characteristics in the form of a time-frequency signature by the following steps: first, RSSD is employed on the raw signal to extract the high-oscillatory component and abandon the low-oscillatory component. Second, PSR is performed on the high-oscillatory component to map the one-dimensional signal to the high-dimensional phase space. Third, TFD is employed to reveal non-stationary information in the phase space. Finally, manifold learning is applied to the TFDs to fetch the intrinsic non-linear manifold. A proportional addition of the top two RTFMs is adopted to produce the improved RTFM signature. All of the case studies are validated on real audio recordings of ship-radiated noise. Case studies of ship-radiated noise on different datasets and various degrees of noise pollution manifest the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:29565288

  18. Mid- to high-frequency noise from high-speed boats and its potential impacts on humpback dolphins.

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wu, Haiping; Xu, Youhou; Peng, Chongwei; Fang, Liang; Lin, Mingli; Xing, Luru; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-08-01

    The impact of noise made by vessels on marine animals has come under increased concern. However, most measurements on noise from vessels have only taken into account the low-frequency components. For cetaceans operating in the mid- and high-frequencies, such as the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), mid- to high-frequency noise components may be of more concern, in terms of their potential impacts. In this study, noise made by a small high-speed boat was recorded using a broadband recording system in a dolphin watching area focusing on the effects on humpback dolphins in Sanniang Bay, China. The high-speed boat produced substantial mid- to high-frequency noise components with frequencies to >100 kHz, measured at three speeds: ∼40, 30, and 15 km/h. The noise from the boat raised the ambient noise levels from ∼5 to 47 decibels (dB) root-mean-square (rms) across frequency bands ranging from 1 to 125 kHz at a distance of 20 to 85 m, with louder levels recorded at higher speeds and at closer distances. To conclude, the noise produced by the small high-speed boat could be heard by Sousa chinensis and therefore potentially had adverse effects on the dolphins.

  19. Matching technique yields optimum LNA performance. [Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifri, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The present article is concerned with a case in which an optimum noise figure and unconditional stability have been designed into a 2.385-GHz low-noise preamplifier via an unusual method for matching the input with a suspended line. The results obtained with several conventional line-matching techniques were not satisfactory. Attention is given to the minimization of thermal noise, the design procedure, requirements for a high-impedance line, a sampling of four matching networks, the noise figure of the single-line matching network as a function of frequency, and the approaches used to achieve unconditional stability.

  20. Suppression of thermal frequency noise in erbium-doped fiber random lasers.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Bhavaye; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2014-02-15

    Frequency and intensity noise are characterized for erbium-doped fiber (EDF) random lasers based on Rayleigh distributed feedback mechanism. We propose a theoretical model for the frequency noise of such random lasers using the property of random phase modulations from multiple scattering points in ultralong fibers. We find that the Rayleigh feedback suppresses the noise at higher frequencies by introducing a Lorentzian envelope over the thermal frequency noise of a long fiber cavity. The theoretical model and measured frequency noise agree quantitatively with two fitting parameters. The random laser exhibits a noise level of 6  Hz²/Hz at 2 kHz, which is lower than what is found in conventional narrow-linewidth EDF fiber lasers and nonplanar ring laser oscillators (NPROs) by a factor of 166 and 2, respectively. The frequency noise has a minimum value for an optimum length of the Rayleigh scattering fiber.

  1. Noise and linearity optimization methods for a 1.9GHz low noise amplifier.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Huang, Da-Quan

    2003-01-01

    Noise and linearity performances are critical characteristics for radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs), especially for low noise amplifiers (LNAs). In this paper, a detailed analysis of noise and linearity for the cascode architecture, a widely used circuit structure in LNA designs, is presented. The noise and the linearity improvement techniques for cascode structures are also developed and have been proven by computer simulating experiments. Theoretical analysis and simulation results showed that, for cascode structure LNAs, the first metallic oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dominates the noise performance of the LNA, while the second MOSFET contributes more to the linearity. A conclusion is thus obtained that the first and second MOSFET of the LNA can be designed to optimize the noise performance and the linearity performance separately, without trade-offs. The 1.9GHz Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) LNA simulation results are also given as an application of the developed theory.

  2. Modulation of high frequency noise by engine tones of small boats.

    PubMed

    Pollara, Alexander; Sutin, Alexander; Salloum, Hady

    2017-07-01

    The effect of modulation of high frequency ship noise by propeller rotation frequencies is well known. This modulation is observed with the Detection of Envelope Modulation on Noise (DEMON) algorithm. Analysis of the DEMON spectrum allows the revolutions per minute and number of blades of the propeller to be determined. This work shows that the high frequency noise of a small boat can also be modulated by engine frequencies. Prior studies have not reported high frequency noise amplitude modulated at engine frequencies. This modulation is likely produced by bubbles from the engine exhaust system.

  3. A low noise synthesizer for autotuning and performance testing of hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloeren, J. M.; Ingold, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A low noise synthesizer has been developed for use in hydrogen maser autotuning and performance evaluation. This synthesizer replaces the frequency offset maser normally used for this purpose and allows the user to maintain all masers in the ensemble at the same frequency. The synthesizer design utilizes a quartz oscillator with a BVA resonator. The oscillator has a frequency offset of 5 X 10 to the minus 8 power. The BVA oscillator is phase-locked to a hydrogen maser by means of a high gain, high stability phase-locked loop, employing low noise multipliers as phase error amplifiers. A functional block diagram of the synthesizer and performance data will be presented.

  4. Computer-Aided Design of Low-Noise Microwave Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedge, Scott William

    1991-02-01

    Devoid of most natural and manmade noise, microwave frequencies have detection sensitivities limited by internally generated receiver noise. Low-noise amplifiers are therefore critical components in radio astronomical antennas, communications links, radar systems, and even home satellite dishes. A general technique to accurately predict the noise performance of microwave circuits has been lacking. Current noise analysis methods have been limited to specific circuit topologies or neglect correlation, a strong effect in microwave devices. Presented here are generalized methods, developed for computer-aided design implementation, for the analysis of linear noisy microwave circuits comprised of arbitrarily interconnected components. Included are descriptions of efficient algorithms for the simultaneous analysis of noisy and deterministic circuit parameters based on a wave variable approach. The methods are therefore particularly suited to microwave and millimeter-wave circuits. Noise contributions from lossy passive components and active components with electronic noise are considered. Also presented is a new technique for the measurement of device noise characteristics that offers several advantages over current measurement methods.

  5. Frequency domain modeling and dynamic characteristics evaluation of existing wind turbine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is quite well accepted that frequency domain procedures are suitable for the design and dynamic analysis of wind turbine structures, especially for floating offshore wind turbines, since random wind loads and wave induced motions are most likely simulated in the frequency domain. This paper presents specific applications of an effective frequency domain scheme to the linear analysis of wind turbine structures in which a 1-D spectral element was developed based on the axially-loaded member. The solution schemes are summarized for the spectral analyses of the tower, the blades, and the combined system with selected frequency-dependent coupling effect from foundation-structure interactions. Numerical examples demonstrate that the modal frequencies obtained using spectral-element models are in good agreement with those found in the literature. A 5-element mono-pile model results in less than 0.3% deviation from an existing 160-element model. It is preliminarily concluded that the proposed scheme is relatively efficient in performing quick verification for test data obtained from the on-site vibration measurement using the microwave interferometer.

  6. Coupling of an aeroacoustic model and a parabolic equation code for long range wind turbine noise propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotté, B.

    2018-05-01

    This study proposes to couple a source model based on Amiet's theory and a parabolic equation code in order to model wind turbine noise emission and propagation in an inhomogeneous atmosphere. Two broadband noise generation mechanisms are considered, namely trailing edge noise and turbulent inflow noise. The effects of wind shear and atmospheric turbulence are taken into account using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The coupling approach, based on the backpropagation method to preserve the directivity of the aeroacoustic sources, is validated by comparison with an analytical solution for the propagation over a finite impedance ground in a homogeneous atmosphere. The influence of refraction effects is then analyzed for different directions of propagation. The spectrum modification related to the ground effect and the presence of a shadow zone for upwind receivers are emphasized. The validity of the point source approximation that is often used in wind turbine noise propagation models is finally assessed. This approximation exaggerates the interference dips in the spectra, and is not able to correctly predict the amplitude modulation.

  7. Spectropolarimetric Observations of Solar Noise Storms at Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugundhan, V.; Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Gireesh, G. V. S.; Hegde, Aathira

    2018-03-01

    A new high-resolution radio spectropolarimeter instrument operating in the frequency range of 15 - 85 MHz has recently been commissioned at the Radio Astronomy Field Station of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics at Gauribidanur, 100 km north of Bangalore, India. We describe the design and construction of this instrument. We present observations of a solar radio noise storm associated with Active Region (AR) 12567 in the frequency range of {≈} 15 - 85 MHz during 18 and 19 July 2016, observed using this instrument in the meridian-transit mode. This is the first report that we are aware of in which both the burst and continuum properties are derived simultaneously. Spectral indices and degree of polarization of both the continuum radiation and bursts are estimated. It is found that i) Type I storm bursts have a spectral index of {≈} {+}3.5, ii) the spectral index of the background continuum is ≈+2.9, iii) the transition frequency between Type I and Type III storms occurs at ≈55 MHz, iv) Type III bursts have an average spectral index of ≈-2.7, v) the spectral index of the Type III continuum is ≈-1.6, and vi) the degree of circular polarization of all Type I (Type III) bursts is ≈90% (30%). The results obtained here indicate that the continuum emission is due to bursts occurring in rapid succession. We find that the derived parameters for Type I bursts are consistent with suprathermal electron acceleration theory and those of Type III favor fundamental plasma emission.

  8. Improvement of Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Frequency Acceleration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stec, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    The noise floor of low frequency acceleration data acquired on the Space Shuttle Main Engines is higher than desirable. Difficulties of acquiring high quality acceleration data on this engine are discussed. The approach presented in this paper for reducing the acceleration noise floor focuses on a search for an accelerometer more capable of measuring low frequency accelerations. An overview is given of the current measurement system used to acquire engine vibratory data. The severity of vibration, temperature, and moisture environments are considered. Vibratory measurements from both laboratory and rocket engine tests are presented.

  9. High-frequency signal and noise estimates of CSR GRACE RL04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Jennifer A.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.

    2012-12-01

    A sliding window technique is used to create daily-sampled Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) solutions with the same background processing as the official CSR RL04 monthly series. By estimating over shorter time spans, more frequent solutions are made using uncorrelated data, allowing for higher frequency resolution in addition to daily sampling. Using these data sets, high-frequency GRACE errors are computed using two different techniques: assuming the GRACE high-frequency signal in a quiet area of the ocean is the true error, and computing the variance of differences between multiple high-frequency GRACE series from different centers. While the signal-to-noise ratios prove to be sufficiently high for confidence at annual and lower frequencies, at frequencies above 3 cycles/year the signal-to-noise ratios in the large hydrological basins looked at here are near 1.0. Comparisons with the GLDAS hydrological model and high frequency GRACE series developed at other centers confirm CSR GRACE RL04's poor ability to accurately and reliably measure hydrological signal above 3-9 cycles/year, due to the low power of the large-scale hydrological signal typical at those frequencies compared to the GRACE errors.

  10. Ramanujan sums for signal processing of low-frequency noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planat, Michel; Rosu, Haret; Perrine, Serge

    2002-11-01

    An aperiodic (low-frequency) spectrum may originate from the error term in the mean value of an arithmetical function such as Möbius function or Mangoldt function, which are coding sequences for prime numbers. In the discrete Fourier transform the analyzing wave is periodic and not well suited to represent the low-frequency regime. In place we introduce a different signal processing tool based on the Ramanujan sums cq(n), well adapted to the analysis of arithmetical sequences with many resonances p/q. The sums are quasiperiodic versus the time n and aperiodic versus the order q of the resonance. Different results arise from the use of this Ramanujan-Fourier transform in the context of arithmetical and experimental signals.

  11. Influence of the boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of a Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentín, David; Ramos, David; Bossio, Matías; Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme

    2016-11-01

    Natural frequencies estimation of Francis turbines is of paramount importance in the stage of design in order to avoid vibration and resonance problems especially during transient events. Francis turbine runners are submerged in water and confined with small axial and radial gaps which considerably decrease their natural frequencies in comparison to the same structure in the air. Acoustic-structural FSI simulations have been used to evaluate the influence of these gaps. This model considers an entire prototype of a Francis turbine, including generator, shaft, runner and surrounding water. The radial gap between the runner and the static parts has been changed from the real configuration (about 0.04% the runner diameter) to 1% of the runner diameter to evaluate its influence on the machine natural frequencies. Mode-shapes and natural frequencies of the whole machine are discussed for all the boundary conditions tested.

  12. A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong

    2016-04-01

    A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing

  13. New two-tier low pressure turbine for heavy duty steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaryankin, A. E.; Rogalev, A. N.; Osipov, S. K.; Bychkov, N. M.

    2017-11-01

    Among factors characterising steam turbine units of power plants, a specific metal content which value decreases inversely to turbine power is of substantive importance. In turn, their maximum power depends on the capacity of low pressure turbines. It is traditionally managed to increase either by installation of larger number of low pressure turbines or by lengthening the exhaust blades. It is worth noting that the above-mentioned methods have some technical restrictions by the number of rotors to be connected. Currently some works aimed at solving the stated technical problems appear in the literature for the purpose of increasing the unit power of turbomachines, for example, by using exhaust blades with the length of 1 500 mm and longer. However, it is to be understood that increasing the exhaust area of turbomachine only by lengthening exhaust blades cannot provide a cost-effective and reliable work of the turbine flow part. Here new problems appear: losses rise abruptly due to the stage fan-out, the turbomachine dimensions increase, etc. In this connection, an issue of development of new, technically implementable ways of turbo-units power increase is very acute today.

  14. Seafloor Pressure Array Studies at Ultra-Low Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    broadband instrument design and deployment. In order to measure broadband noise routinely, a low frequency pressure gauge designed for deep ocean...below the microseism band (Moore et al, 1981). A differential pressure gauge , developed for low frequency recordings by Cox et al (1984) and sensitive to...design differential pressure gauge (Cox et al, 1984) with a sensitivity -3- ULF Seafloor Pressure Array Studies range of 0.01-5 Hz. The high

  15. The Low-Noise Potential of Distributed Propulsion on a Catamaran Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posey, Joe W.; Tinetti, A. F.; Dunn, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The noise shielding potential of an inboard-wing catamaran aircraft when coupled with distributed propulsion is examined. Here, only low-frequency jet noise from mid-wing-mounted engines is considered. Because low frequencies are the most difficult to shield, these calculations put a lower bound on the potential shielding benefit. In this proof-of-concept study, simple physical models are used to describe the 3-D scattering of jet noise by conceptualized catamaran aircraft. The Fast Scattering Code is used to predict noise levels on and about the aircraft. Shielding results are presented for several catamaran type geometries and simple noise source configurations representative of distributed propulsion radiation. Computational analyses are presented that demonstrate the shielding benefits of distributed propulsion and of increasing the width of the inboard wing. Also, sample calculations using the FSC are presented that demonstrate additional noise reduction on the aircraft fuselage by the use of acoustic liners on the inboard wing trailing edge. A full conceptual aircraft design would have to be analyzed over a complete mission to more accurately quantify community noise levels and aircraft performance, but the present shielding calculations show that a large acoustic benefit could be achieved by combining distributed propulsion and liner technology with a twin-fuselage planform.

  16. Miniature Low-Noise G-Band I-Q Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Pukala, David M.; Gaier, Todd C.; Tanner, Alan B.; O'Dwyer, Ian J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.; Soria, Mary M.; Owen, Heather R.; Lai, Richard; Mei, Xiaobing

    2010-01-01

    Weather forecasting, hurricane tracking, and atmospheric science applications depend on humidity sounding of atmosphere. Current instruments provide these measurements from groundbased, airborne, and low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites by measuring radiometric temperature on the flanks of the 183-GHz water vapor line. Miniature, low-noise receivers have been designed that will enable these measurements from a geostationary, thinned array sounder, which is based on hundreds of low-noise receivers that convert the 180-GHz signal directly to baseband in-phase and in-quadrature signals for digitization and correlation. The developed receivers provide a noise temperature of 450 K from 165 to 183 GHz (NF = 4.1 dB), and have a mass of 3 g while consuming 24 mW of power. These are the most sensitive broadband I-Q receivers at this frequency range that operate at room temperature, and are significantly lower in mass and power consumption than previously reported receivers.

  17. Limitation of Gravitational Wave Detector Niobè Sensitivity by the Frequency Tracking Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frajuca, Carlos; Bortoli, Fabio Da Silva

    The gravity wave detector at the University of Western Australia was based on a bending flap of 0.45kg tuned near the fundamental resonant frequency of a 1.5ton resonant-bar of 710Hz at a temperature of 5K. The displacement of the bending flap was monitored with a 9.5GHz superconducting re-entrant cavity transducer. The performance of the transducer is related to the development of a low noise microwave pump oscillator to drive the transducer. This work studies the influence of the frequency tracking noise of Niobè. It had a burst sensitivity of h ≈ 7 × 10-19 with a long term operation from 1993 to early 1998. It had the lowest observed noise temperature. Using the characteristics of the detector, NIOBÈ should had reached a much better sensitivity that the one measure. It seems that the noise introduced in the system by the frequency tracking device was not taken into account at the time of operation, this noise gives a value of ≈ 2.5 × 10-18m/(Hz)-1/2, what is the value that limited the detector sensitivity to the one measured at the time of operation.

  18. Ramanujan sums for signal processing of low-frequency noise.

    PubMed

    Planat, Michel; Rosu, Haret; Perrine, Serge

    2002-11-01

    An aperiodic (low-frequency) spectrum may originate from the error term in the mean value of an arithmetical function such as Möbius function or Mangoldt function, which are coding sequences for prime numbers. In the discrete Fourier transform the analyzing wave is periodic and not well suited to represent the low-frequency regime. In place we introduce a different signal processing tool based on the Ramanujan sums c(q)(n), well adapted to the analysis of arithmetical sequences with many resonances p/q. The sums are quasiperiodic versus the time n and aperiodic versus the order q of the resonance. Different results arise from the use of this Ramanujan-Fourier transform in the context of arithmetical and experimental signals.

  19. Robust Audio Watermarking by Using Low-Frequency Histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shijun

    In continuation to earlier work where the problem of time-scale modification (TSM) has been studied [1] by modifying the shape of audio time domain histogram, here we consider the additional ingredient of resisting additive noise-like operations, such as Gaussian noise, lossy compression and low-pass filtering. In other words, we study the problem of the watermark against both TSM and additive noises. To this end, in this paper we extract the histogram from a Gaussian-filtered low-frequency component for audio watermarking. The watermark is inserted by shaping the histogram in a way that the use of two consecutive bins as a group is exploited for hiding a bit by reassigning their population. The watermarked signals are perceptibly similar to the original one. Comparing with the previous time-domain watermarking scheme [1], the proposed watermarking method is more robust against additive noise, MP3 compression, low-pass filtering, etc.

  20. Finite frequency current noise in the Holstein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, P.; Rastelli, G.; Belzig, W.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effects of local vibrational excitations in the nonsymmetrized current noise S (ω ) of a nanojunction. For this purpose, we analyze a simple model—the Holstein model—in which the junction is described by a single electronic level that is coupled to two metallic leads and to a single vibrational mode. Using the Keldysh Green's function technique, we calculate the nonsymmetrized current noise to the leading order in the charge-vibration interaction. For the noise associated to the latter, we identify distinct terms corresponding to the mean-field noise and the vertex correction. The mean-field result can be further divided into an elastic correction to the noise and in an inelastic correction, the second one being related to energy exchange with the vibration. To illustrate the general behavior of the noise induced by the charge-vibration interaction, we consider two limit cases. In the first case, we assume a strong coupling of the dot to the leads with an energy-independent transmission, whereas in the second case we assume a weak tunneling coupling between the dot and the leads such that the transport occurs through a sharp resonant level. We find that the noise associated to the vibration-charge interaction shows a complex pattern as a function of the frequency ω and of the transmission function or of the dot's energy level. Several transitions from enhancement to suppression of the noise occurs in different regions, which are determined, in particular, by the vibrational frequency. Remarkably, in the regime of an energy-independent transmission, the zero-order elastic noise vanishes at perfect transmission and at positive frequency, whereas the noise related to the charge-vibration interaction remains finite, enabling the analysis of the pure vibrational-induced current noise.

  1. A 2.5-dimensional method for the prediction of structure-borne low-frequency noise from concrete rail transit bridges.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Song, Xiaodong; Wu, Dingjun

    2014-05-01

    Predicting structure-borne noise from bridges subjected to moving trains using the three-dimensional (3D) boundary element method (BEM) is a time consuming process. This paper presents a two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) BEM-based procedure for simulating bridge-borne low-frequency noise with higher efficiency, yet no loss of accuracy. The two-dimensional (2D) BEM of a bridge with a constant cross section along the track direction is adopted to calculate the spatial modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) of the bridge using the space-wave number transforms of its 3D modal shapes. The MATVs calculated using the 2.5D method are then validated by those computed using the 3D BEM. The bridge-borne noise is finally obtained through the MATVs and modal coordinate responses of the bridge, considering time-varying vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction. The presented procedure is applied to predict the sound pressure radiating from a U-shaped concrete bridge, and the computed results are compared with those obtained from field tests on Shanghai rail transit line 8. The numerical results match well with the measured results in both time and frequency domains at near-field points. Nevertheless, the computed results are smaller than the measured ones for far-field points, mainly due to the sound radiation from adjacent spans neglected in the current model.

  2. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Christopher

    the pressure fluctuations when the turbulent scales are on order of, or smaller than, the characteristic size of the hydrophone. At both sites, flow-noise levels can exceed ambient noise levels during slack currents by more than 50 dB at 20 Hz and flow-noise is measured at frequencies greater than 500 Hz. In Admiralty Inlet, the use of a compact flow shield is shown to reduce flow-noise levels by up to 30 dB. Below 1 kHz, the dominant source of ambient noise is vessel traffic, though during periods of strong currents, the propagating noise from vessels can be difficult to identify because of flow-noise. At frequencies above 1 kHz, during periods of strong currents, the dominant source of ambient noise is bedload transport. Observation of this higher frequency sound is not affected by flow-noise, which is limited to lower frequencies in northern Admiralty Inlet. These results are combined with marine species hearing thresholds, a turbine source spectrum, and a simple propagation model to roughly quantify the probability of marine animals detecting the sound of operating turbines against ambient noise. The results suggest that the likely detection range of operating turbines is limited to less than 1 km under most conditions. The sound produced by operating tidal turbines at the proposed demonstration-scale tidal power project is not likely to have any significant behavioral effect at greater range. Finally, the ambient statistics at the site are also combined with a sound propagation model and vocalization characteristics of Southern Resident killer whales to determine the effective range for passive acoustic monitoring techniques at the proposed project location. Due to the frequency overlap between sediment-generated noise and killer whale vocalizations, during peak currents the detection range for vocalizations is reduced by up to 90% when compared to slack current noise levels. Although the reduction in detection range is significant, this analysis suggests that

  3. Design and aero-acoustic analysis of a counter-rotating wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vineesh V.

    Wind turbines have become an integral part of the energy business because they are one of the most economical and reliable sources of renewable energy. Conventional wind turbines are capable of capturing less than half of the energy present in the wind. Hence, to make the wind turbines more efficient, it is important to increase their performance. A horizontal axis wind turbine with multiple rotors is one concept that can achieve a higher power conversion rate. Also, a concern for wind energy is the noise generated by wind turbines. Hence, an investigation into the acoustic behavior of a multi-rotor horizontal axis wind turbine is required. In response to the need of a wind turbine design with higher power coefficient, a unique design of a counter-rotating horizontal axis wind turbine (CR-HAWT) is proposed. The Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory is used to aerodynamically design the blades of the two rotors. Modifications are made to the BEM theory to accommodate the interaction of the two rotors. The tower effect on the noise generation of the downwind rotor is investigated. Predictions are made for the total noise generated by the wind turbine at its design operating conditions. A total power coefficient of 65.2% is predicted for the proposed CR-HAWT design. A low tip speed ratio is chosen to minimize the noise generation. The aeroacoustic analysis of the CR-HAWT shows that the noise generated at its design operating conditions is within an acceptable range. Thus, the CR-HAWT is predicted to be a quiet wind turbine with a high power coefficient, making it highly desirable for small wind turbine applications.

  4. Frequency noise measurement of diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Win, Moe Zaw

    1990-01-01

    The combined frequency noise spectrum of two model 120-01A nonplanar ring oscillator lasers was measured by first heterodyne detecting the IF signal and then measuring the IF frequency noise using an RF frequency discriminator. The results indicated the presence of a 1/f-squared noise component in the power-spectral density of the frequency fluctuations between 1 Hz and 1 kHz. After incorporating this 1/f-squared into the analysis of the optical phase tracking loop, the measured phase error variance closely matches the theoretical predictions.

  5. Frequency-domain method for discrete frequency noise prediction of rotors in arbitrary steady motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2012-12-01

    A novel frequency-domain formulation for the prediction of the tonal noise emitted by rotors in arbitrary steady motion is presented. It is derived from Farassat's 'Formulation 1A', that is a time-domain boundary integral representation for the solution of the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation, and represents noise as harmonic response to body kinematics and aerodynamic loads via frequency-response-function matrices. The proposed frequency-domain solver is applicable to rotor configurations for which sound pressure levels of discrete tones are much higher than those of broadband noise. The numerical investigation concerns the analysis of noise produced by an advancing helicopter rotor in blade-vortex interaction conditions, as well as the examination of pressure disturbances radiated by the interaction of a marine propeller with a non-uniform inflow.

  6. Feasibility of Detecting Natural Frequencies of Hydraulic Turbines While in Operation, Using Strain Gauges.

    PubMed

    Valentín, David; Presas, Alexandre; Bossio, Matias; Egusquiza, Mònica; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme

    2018-01-10

    Nowadays, hydropower plays an essential role in the energy market. Due to their fast response and regulation capacity, hydraulic turbines operate at off-design conditions with a high number of starts and stops. In this situation, dynamic loads and stresses over the structure are high, registering some failures over time, especially in the runner. Therefore, it is important to know the dynamic response of the runner while in operation, i.e., the natural frequencies, damping and mode shapes, in order to avoid resonance and fatigue problems. Detecting the natural frequencies of hydraulic turbine runners while in operation is challenging, because they are inaccessible structures strongly affected by their confinement in water. Strain gauges are used to measure the stresses of hydraulic turbine runners in operation during commissioning. However, in this paper, the feasibility of using them to detect the natural frequencies of hydraulic turbines runners while in operation is studied. For this purpose, a large Francis turbine runner (444 MW) was instrumented with several strain gauges at different positions. First, a complete experimental strain modal testing (SMT) of the runner in air was performed using the strain gauges and accelerometers. Then, the natural frequencies of the runner were estimated during operation by means of analyzing accurately transient events or rough operating conditions.

  7. Feasibility of Detecting Natural Frequencies of Hydraulic Turbines While in Operation, Using Strain Gauges

    PubMed Central

    Presas, Alexandre; Bossio, Matias; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, hydropower plays an essential role in the energy market. Due to their fast response and regulation capacity, hydraulic turbines operate at off-design conditions with a high number of starts and stops. In this situation, dynamic loads and stresses over the structure are high, registering some failures over time, especially in the runner. Therefore, it is important to know the dynamic response of the runner while in operation, i.e., the natural frequencies, damping and mode shapes, in order to avoid resonance and fatigue problems. Detecting the natural frequencies of hydraulic turbine runners while in operation is challenging, because they are inaccessible structures strongly affected by their confinement in water. Strain gauges are used to measure the stresses of hydraulic turbine runners in operation during commissioning. However, in this paper, the feasibility of using them to detect the natural frequencies of hydraulic turbines runners while in operation is studied. For this purpose, a large Francis turbine runner (444 MW) was instrumented with several strain gauges at different positions. First, a complete experimental strain modal testing (SMT) of the runner in air was performed using the strain gauges and accelerometers. Then, the natural frequencies of the runner were estimated during operation by means of analyzing accurately transient events or rough operating conditions. PMID:29320422

  8. Lightweight Low Frequency Loudspeaker for Active Noise Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-02

    5 The present invention relates to diaphragms for acoustic speakers or transducers, and more specifically, to diaphragms coupled to lightweight...monomorphs and bimorphs. These actuators can deliver reasonable displacement, but in previous configurations when coupled to conventional diaphragms...in air they have failed to produce the combination of force and displacement needed at low frequencies. 15 Polymer speakers have been successful in

  9. A CMOS-Compatible, Low-Noise ISFET Based on High Efficiency Ion-Modulated Lateral-Bipolar Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sheng-Ren; Chen, Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Ion-sensitive, field-effect transistors (ISFET) have been useful biosensors in many applications. However, the signal-to-noise ratio of the ISFET is limited by its intrinsic, low-frequency noise. This paper presents an ISFET capable of utilizing lateral-bipolar conduction to reduce low-frequency noise. With a particular layout design, the conduction efficiency is further enhanced. Moreover, the ISFET is compatible with the standard CMOS technology. All materials above the gate-oxide are removed by simple, die-level post-CMOS process, allowing ions to modulate the lateral-bipolar current directly. By varying the gate-to-bulk voltage, the operation mode of the ISFET is controlled effectively, so is the noise performance measured and compared. Finally, the biasing conditions preferable for different low-noise applications are identified. Under the identified biasing condition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the ISFET as a pH sensor is proved to be improved by more than five times. PMID:22408508

  10. A Noise Removal Method for Uniform Circular Arrays in Complex Underwater Noise Environments with Low SNR

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Huijun; Yang, Kunde; Ma, Yuanliang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yaxiong

    2017-01-01

    Generally, many beamforming methods are derived under the assumption of white noise. In practice, the actual underwater ambient noise is complex. As a result, the noise removal capacity of the beamforming method may be deteriorated considerably. Furthermore, in underwater environment with extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the performances of the beamforming method may be deteriorated. To tackle these problems, a noise removal method for uniform circular array (UCA) is proposed to remove the received noise and improve the SNR in complex noise environments with low SNR. First, the symmetrical noise sources are defined and the spatial correlation of the symmetrical noise sources is calculated. Then, based on the preceding results, the noise covariance matrix is decomposed into symmetrical and asymmetrical components. Analysis indicates that the symmetrical component only affect the real part of the noise covariance matrix. Consequently, the delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming is performed by using the imaginary part of the covariance matrix to remove the symmetrical component. However, the noise removal method causes two problems. First, the proposed method produces a false target. Second, the proposed method would seriously suppress the signal when it is located in some directions. To solve the first problem, two methods to reconstruct the signal covariance matrix are presented: based on the estimation of signal variance and based on the constrained optimization algorithm. To solve the second problem, we can design the array configuration and select the suitable working frequency. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are included to demonstrate that the proposed methods are particularly effective in complex noise environments with low SNR. The proposed method can be extended to any array. PMID:28598386

  11. Effect of aerodynamic detuning on supersonic rotor discrete frequency noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to predict the effect of alternate blade circumferential aerodynamic detuning on the discrete frequency noise generation of a supersonic rotor. Aerodynamic detuning was shown to have a small beneficial effect on the noise generation for reduced frequencies less than 3. For reduced frequencies greater than 3, however, the aerodynamic detuning either increased or decreased the noise generated, depending on the value of the reduced frequency.

  12. Wind turbines acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Iannace, Gino

    2017-07-01

    The importance of wind turbines has increased over the last few years throughout the European Community. The European energy policy guidelines state that for the year 2020 20% of all energy must be produced by alternative energy sources. Wind turbines are an important type of energy production without petrol. A wind speed in a range from 2.5 m/s to 25.0 m/s is needed. One of the obstacles to the widespread diffusion of wind turbine is noise generation. This work presents some noise measurements of wind turbines in the South of Italy, and discusses the noise problems for the people living near wind farms.

  13. Study of aerodynamic noise in low supersonic operation of an axial flow compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldi, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A study of compressor noise is presented, based upon supersonic, part-speed operation of a high hub/tip ratio compressor designed for spanwise uniformity of aerodynamic conditions, having straight cylindrical inlet and exit passages for acoustic simplicity. Acoustic spectra taken in the acoustically-treated inlet plenum, are presented for five operating points at each of two speeds, corresponding to relative rotor tip Mach numbers of about 1.01 and 1.12 (60 and 67 percent design speed). These spectra are analyzed for low and high frequency broadband noise, blade passage frequency noise, combination tone noise and "haystack' noise (a very broad peak somewhat below blade passage frequency, which is occasionally observed in engines and fan test rigs). These types of noise are related to diffusion factor, total pressure ratio, and relative rotor tip Mach number. Auxiliary measurements of fluctuating wall static pressures and schlieren photographs of upstream shocks in the inlet are also presented and related to the acoustic and performance data.

  14. An implementation of an aeroacoustic prediction model for broadband noise from a vertical axis wind turbine using a CFD informed methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botha, J. D. M.; Shahroki, A.; Rice, H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an enhanced method for predicting aerodynamically generated broadband noise produced by a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The method improves on existing work for VAWT noise prediction and incorporates recently developed airfoil noise prediction models. Inflow-turbulence and airfoil self-noise mechanisms are both considered. Airfoil noise predictions are dependent on aerodynamic input data and time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations are carried out to solve for the aerodynamic solution. Analytical flow methods are also benchmarked against the CFD informed noise prediction results to quantify errors in the former approach. Comparisons to experimental noise measurements for an existing turbine are encouraging. A parameter study is performed and shows the sensitivity of overall noise levels to changes in inflow velocity and inflow turbulence. Noise sources are characterised and the location and mechanism of the primary sources is determined, inflow-turbulence noise is seen to be the dominant source. The use of CFD calculations is seen to improve the accuracy of noise predictions when compared to the analytic flow solution as well as showing that, for inflow-turbulence noise sources, blade generated turbulence dominates the atmospheric inflow turbulence.

  15. Predicting broadband noise from a stator vane of a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A computer-implemented model of fan section of a gas turbine engine accounts for the turbulence in the gas flow emanating from the rotor assembly and impinging upon an inlet to the stator vane cascade. The model allows for user-input variations in the sweep and/or lean angles for the stator vanes. The model determines the resulting acoustic response of the fan section as a function of the turbulence and the lean and/or sweep angles of the vanes. The model may be embodied in software that is rapidly executed in a computer. This way, an optimum arrangement in terms of fan noise reduction is quickly determined for the stator vane lean and sweep physical positioning in the fan section of a gas turbine engine.

  16. Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Polagye; Jim Thomson; Chris Bassett

    2012-03-30

    Hydrokinetic turbines will be a source of noise in the marine environment - both during operation and during installation/removal. High intensity sound can cause injury or behavioral changes in marine mammals and may also affect fish and invertebrates. These noise effects are, however, highly dependent on the individual marine animals; the intensity, frequency, and duration of the sound; and context in which the sound is received. In other words, production of sound is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for an environmental impact. At a workshop on the environmental effects of tidal energy development, experts identified sound produced by turbinesmore » as an area of potentially significant impact, but also high uncertainty. The overall objectives of this project are to improve our understanding of the potential acoustic effects of tidal turbines by: (1) Characterizing sources of existing underwater noise; (2) Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring technologies to characterize underwater noise and marine mammal responsiveness to noise; (3) Evaluating the sound profile of an operating tidal turbine; and (4) Studying the effect of turbine sound on surrogate species in a laboratory environment. This study focuses on a specific case study for tidal energy development in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA), but the methodologies and results are applicable to other turbine technologies and geographic locations. The project succeeded in achieving the above objectives and, in doing so, substantially contributed to the body of knowledge around the acoustic effects of tidal energy development in several ways: (1) Through collection of data from Admiralty Inlet, established the sources of sound generated by strong currents (mobilizations of sediment and gravel) and determined that low-frequency sound recorded during periods of strong currents is non-propagating pseudo-sound. This helped to advance the debate within the marine and hydrokinetics acoustic

  17. Noise model for low-frequency through-the-Earth communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Frederick H.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis and simulation of through-the-Earth communication links and signal processing techniques require a more complete noise model than is needed for the analysis of conventional communication systems. This paper presents a multicomponent noise model that includes impulsive characteristics, direction-of-arrival characteristics, and effects of local geology. The noise model is derived from theoretical considerations and confirmed by field tests.

  18. Development of high frequency and wide bandwidth Johnson noise thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Jesse; Liu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Philip

    We develop a high frequency, wide bandwidth radiometer operating at room temperature, which augments the traditional technique of Johnson noise thermometry for nanoscale thermal transport studies. Employing low noise amplifiers and an analog multiplier operating at 2 GHz, auto- and cross-correlated Johnson noise measurements are performed in the temperature range of 3 to 300 K, achieving a sensitivity of 5.5 mK (110 ppm) in 1 s of integration time. This setup allows us to measure the thermal conductance of a boron nitride encapsulated monolayer graphene device over a wide temperature range. Our data show a high power law (T ∼ 4) deviation from the Wiedemann-Franz law abovemore » T ∼ 100 K.« less

  19. Notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps for objective audiometry using auditory brainstem responses

    PubMed Central

    Corona-Strauss, Farah I.; Schick, Bernhard; Delb, Wolfgang; Strauss, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown recently that chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) show better performance than click stimulations, especially at low intensity levels. In this paper we present the development, test, and evaluation of a series of notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps. ABRs were collected in healthy young control subjects using the developed stimuli. Results of the analysis of the corresponding ABRs using a time-scale phase synchronization stability (PSS) measure are also reported. The resultant wave V amplitude and latency measures showed a similar behavior as for values reported in literature. The PSS of frequency specific chirp-evoked ABRs reflected the presence of the wave V for all stimulation intensities. The scales that resulted in higher PSS are in line with previous findings, where ABRs evoked by broadband chirps were analyzed, and which stated that low frequency channels are better for the recognition and analysis of chirp-evoked ABRs. We conclude that the development and test of the series of notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps allowed the assessment of frequency specific ABRs, showing an identifiable wave V for different intensity levels. Future work may include the development of a faster automatic recognition scheme for these frequency specific ABRs. PMID:26557336

  20. Sensitive ultrasonic vibrometer for very low frequency applications.

    PubMed

    Cretin, B; Vairac, P; Jachez, N; Pergaud, J

    2007-08-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of distance is a well-known low cost method but only a few vibrometers have been developed because sensitivity, spatial resolution, and bandwidth are not high or wide enough for standard laboratory applications. Nevertheless, compared to optical vibrometers, two interesting properties should be considered: very low frequency noise (0.1 Hz to 1 kHz) is reduced and the long wavelength enables rough surfaces to be investigated. Moreover, the ultrasonic probe is a differential sensor, without being a mechanical load for the vibrating structure as usual accelerometers based on contacting transducers are. The main specificity of the presented probe is its ultralow noise electronics including a 3/2 order phase locked loop which extracts the phase modulation related to the amplitude of the detected vibration. This article presents the main useful physical aspects and details of the actual probe. The given application is the measurement of the vibration of an isolated optical bench excited at very low frequency with an electromagnetic transducer.

  1. Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottermo, Fredric; Möllerström, Erik; Nordborg, Anders; Hylander, Jonny; Bernhoff, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Noise levels emitted from a 200 kW H-rotor vertical-axis wind turbine have been measured using a microphone array at four different positions, each at a hub-height distance from the tower. The microphone array, comprising 48 microphones in a spiral pattern, allows for directional mapping of the noise sources in the range of 500 Hz to 4 kHz. The produced images indicate that most of the noise is generated in a narrow azimuth-angle range, compatible with the location where increased turbulence is known to be present in the flow, as a result of the previous passage of a blade and its support arms. It is also shown that a semi-empirical model for inflow-turbulence noise seems to produce noise levels of the correct order of magnitude, based on the amount of turbulence that could be expected from power extraction considerations.

  2. Source localization of turboshaft engine broadband noise using a three-sensor coherence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacodon, Daniel; Lewy, Serge

    2015-03-01

    Turboshaft engines can become the main source of helicopter noise at takeoff. Inlet radiation mainly comes from the compressor tones, but aft radiation is more intricate: turbine tones usually are above the audible frequency range and do not contribute to the weighted sound levels; jet is secondary and radiates low noise levels. A broadband component is the most annoying but its sources are not well known (it is called internal or core noise). Present study was made in the framework of the European project TEENI (Turboshaft Engine Exhaust Noise Identification). Its main objective was to localize the broadband sources in order to better reduce them. Several diagnostic techniques were implemented by the various TEENI partners. As regards ONERA, a first attempt at separating sources was made in the past with Turbomeca using a three-signal coherence method (TSM) to reject background non-acoustic noise. The main difficulty when using TSM is the assessment of the frequency range where the results are valid. This drawback has been circumvented in the TSM implemented in TEENI. Measurements were made on a highly instrumented Ardiden turboshaft engine in the Turbomeca open-air test bench. Two engine powers (approach and takeoff) were selected to apply TSM. Two internal pressure probes were located in various cross-sections, either behind the combustion chamber (CC), the high-pressure turbine (HPT), the free-turbine first stage (TL), or in four nozzle sections. The third transducer was a far-field microphone located around the maximum of radiation, at 120° from the intake centerline. The key result is that coherence increases from CC to HPT and TL, then decreases in the nozzle up to the exit. Pressure fluctuations from HPT and TL are very coherent with the far-field acoustic spectra up to 700 Hz. They are thus the main acoustic source and can be attributed to indirect combustion noise (accuracy decreases above 700 Hz because coherence is lower, but far-field sound spectra

  3. Enroute NASA/FAA low-frequency propfan test in Alabama (October 1987): A versatile atmospheric aircraft long-range noise prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouka, Despina G.

    In order to obtain a flight-to-static noise prediction of an advanced Turboprop (propfan) Aircraft, FAA went on an elaboration of the data that were measured during a full scale measuring program that was conducted by NASA and FAA/DOT/TSC on October 1987 in Alabama. The elaboration process was based on aircraft simulation to a point source, on an atmospheric two dimensional noise model, on the American National Standard algorithm for the calculation of atmospheric absortion, and on the DOT/TSC convention for ground reflection effects. Using the data of the Alabama measurements, the present paper examines the development of a generalized, flexible and more accurate process for the evaluation of the static and flight low-frequency long-range noise data. This paper also examines the applicability of the assumptions made by the Integrated Noise Model about linear propagation, of the three dimensional Hamiltonian Rays Tracing model and of the Weyl-Van der Pol model. The model proposes some assumptions in order to increase the calculations flexibility without significant loss of accuracy. In addition, it proposes the usage of the three dimensional Hamiltonian Rays Tracing model and the Weyl-Van der Pol model in order to increase the accuracy and to ensure the generalization of noise propagation prediction over grounds with variable impedance.

  4. Characterizing large river sounds: Providing context for understanding the environmental effects of noise produced by hydrokinetic turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Scherelis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise associated with the installation and operation of hydrokinetic turbines in rivers and tidal zones presents a potential environmental concern for fish and marine mammals. Comparing the spectral quality of sounds emitted by hydrokinetic turbines to natural and other anthropogenic sound sources is an initial step at understanding potential environmental impacts. Underwater recordings were obtained from passing vessels of different sizes and other underwater sound sources in both static and flowing waters. Static water measurements were taken in a lake with minimal background noise. Flowing water measurements were taken at a previously proposed deployment site for hydrokinetic turbines onmore » the Mississippi River, where the sound of flowing water is included in background measurements. The size of vessels measured ranged from a small fishing boat with a 60 HP outboard motor to an 18-unit barge train being pushed upstream by tugboat. As expected, large vessels with large engines created the highest sound levels, and when compared to the sound created by an operating HK turbine were many times greater. A comparison of sound levels from the same sources at different distances using both spherical and cylindrical sound attenuation functions suggests that spherical model results more closely approximate observed values.« less

  5. Characterizing large river sounds: Providing context for understanding the environmental effects of noise produced by hydrokinetic turbines.

    PubMed

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Deng, Z Daniel; Scherelis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise associated with the installation and operation of hydrokinetic turbines in rivers and tidal zones presents a potential environmental concern for fish and marine mammals. Comparing the spectral quality of sounds emitted by hydrokinetic turbines to natural and other anthropogenic sound sources is an initial step at understanding potential environmental impacts. Underwater recordings were obtained from passing vessels and natural underwater sound sources in static and flowing waters. Static water measurements were taken in a lake with minimal background noise. Flowing water measurements were taken at a previously proposed deployment site for hydrokinetic turbines on the Mississippi River, where sounds created by flowing water are part of all measurements, both natural ambient and anthropogenic sources. Vessel sizes ranged from a small fishing boat with 60 hp outboard motor to an 18-unit barge train being pushed upstream by tugboat. As expected, large vessels with large engines created the highest sound levels, which were, on average, 40 dB greater than the sound created by an operating hydrokinetic turbine. A comparison of sound levels from the same sources at different distances using both spherical and cylindrical sound attenuation functions suggests that spherical model results more closely approximate observed sound attenuation.

  6. Frequency modulation for a wind turbine blade-mounted ultrasonic bat deterrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Daniel; Dowling, Zara; Sievert, Paul; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Progress on developing a bat deterrent device for placement on the rotating blades of a wind turbine is presented. The mechanisms by which bat larynxes generate ultrasound is studied and reproduced experimentally. In previous iterations, flow-induced oscillations have been used to generate ultrasonic frequencies within the 20-70 kHz range: a range which laboratory studies have shown can deter bats from an area. However, the present work considers mechanisms which result in frequency modulation within the higher harmonics, an acoustic signal closer to what bats naturally avoid. Results discussed include the effects of spanwise tension on the flapwise oscillation of a pseudo larynx in flow, and how shifting the flapwise natural frequency allows frequency modulation. The net effect is a device effective within the range of wind speeds encountered along the length of a rotating wind turbine blade. The authors wish to acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation Offshore Wind Energy IGERT at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Grant Number 1068864.

  7. High frequency components of ship noise in shallow water with a discussion of implications for harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Hermannsen, Line; Beedholm, Kristian; Tougaard, Jakob; Madsen, Peter T

    2014-10-01

    Growing ship traffic worldwide has led to increased vessel noise with possible negative impacts on marine life. Most research has focused on low frequency components of ship noise, but for high-frequency specialists, such as the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), medium-to-high frequency noise components are likely more of a concern. To test for biologically relevant levels of medium-to-high frequency vessel noise, different types of Automatic Identification System located vessels were recorded using a broadband recording system in four heavily ship-trafficked marine habitats in Denmark. Vessel noise from a range of different ship types substantially elevated ambient noise levels across the entire recording band from 0.025 to 160 kHz at ranges between 60 and 1000 m. These ship noise levels are estimated to cause hearing range reduction of >20 dB (at 1 and 10 kHz) from ships passing at distances of 1190 m and >30 dB reduction (at 125 kHz) from ships at distances of 490 m or less. It is concluded that a diverse range of vessels produce substantial noise at high frequencies, where toothed whale hearing is most sensitive, and that vessel noise should be considered over a broad frequency range, when assessing noise effects on porpoises and other small toothed whales.

  8. An accurate model for predicting high frequency noise of nanoscale NMOS SOI transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfei; Cui, Jie; Mohammadi, Saeed

    2017-05-01

    A nonlinear and scalable model suitable for predicting high frequency noise of N-type Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) transistors is presented. The model is developed for a commercial 45 nm CMOS SOI technology and its accuracy is validated through comparison with measured performance of a microwave low noise amplifier. The model employs the virtual source nonlinear core and adds parasitic elements to accurately simulate the RF behavior of multi-finger NMOS transistors up to 40 GHz. For the first time, the traditional long-channel thermal noise model is supplemented with an injection noise model to accurately represent the noise behavior of these short-channel transistors up to 26 GHz. The developed model is simple and easy to extract, yet very accurate.

  9. High sensitivity measurement system for the direct-current, capacitance-voltage, and gate-drain low frequency noise characterization of field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Giusi, G; Giordano, O; Scandurra, G; Rapisarda, M; Calvi, S; Ciofi, C

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of current fluctuations originating in electron devices have been largely used to understand the electrical properties of materials and ultimate device performances. In this work, we propose a high-sensitivity measurement setup topology suitable for the automatic and programmable Direct-Current (DC), Capacitance-Voltage (CV), and gate-drain low frequency noise characterization of field effect transistors at wafer level. Automatic and programmable operation is particularly useful when the device characteristics relax or degrade with time due to optical, bias, or temperature stress. The noise sensitivity of the proposed topology is in the order of fA/Hz(1/2), while DC performances are limited only by the source and measurement units used to bias the device under test. DC, CV, and NOISE measurements, down to 1 pA of DC gate and drain bias currents, in organic thin film transistors are reported to demonstrate system operation and performances.

  10. Modernization of gas-turbine engines with high-frequency induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, B. N.; Sychev, Yu A.; Kuznetsov, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    Main tendencies of growth of electric energy consumption in general and mining industries were analyzed in the paper. A key role of electric drive in this process was designated. A review about advantages and disadvantages of unregulated gearboxes with mechanical units that are commonly used in domestically produced gas-turbine engines was made. This review allows one to propose different gas-turbine engines modernization schemes with the help of PWM-driven high-frequency induction motors. Induction motors with the double rotor winding were examined. A simulation of high-frequency induction motors with double rotor windings in Matlab-Simulink software was carried out based on equivalent circuit parameters. Obtained characteristics of new motors were compared with serially produced analogues. After the simulation, results were implemented in the real prototype.

  11. Low noise constant current source for bias dependent noise measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Talukdar, D.; Bose, Suvendu; Bardhan, K. K.

    2011-01-15

    A low noise constant current source used for measuring the 1/f noise in disordered systems in ohmic as well as nonohmic regime is described. The source can supply low noise constant current starting from as low as 1 {mu}A to a few tens of milliampere with a high voltage compliance limit of around 20 V. The constant current source has several stages, which can work in a standalone manner or together to supply the desired value of load current. The noise contributed by the current source is very low in the entire current range. The fabrication of a low noisemore » voltage preamplifier modified for bias dependent noise measurements and based on the existing design available in the MAT04 data sheet is also described.« less

  12. Low-noise sub-harmonic injection locked multiloop ring oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilin, Xu; Di, Wu; Xueming, Wei; Baolin, Wei; Jihai, Duan; Fadi, Gui

    2016-09-01

    A three-stage differential voltage-controlled ring oscillator is presented for wide-tuning and low-phase noise requirement of clock and data recovery circuit in ultra wideband (UWB) wireless body area network. To improve the performance of phase noise of delay cell with coarse and fine frequency tuning, injection locked technology together with pseudo differential architecture are adopted. In addition, a multiloop is employed for frequency boosting. Two RVCOs, the standard RVCO without the IL block and the proposed IL RVCO, were fabricated in SMIC 0.18 μm 1P6M Salicide CMOS process. The proposed IL RVCO exhibits a measured phase noise of -112.37 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the center frequency of 1 GHz, while dissipating a current of 8 mA excluding the buffer from a 1.8-V supply voltage. It shows a 16.07 dB phase noise improvement at 1 MHz offset compared to the standard topology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61264001), the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 2013GXNSFAA019333, 2015GXNSFAA139301, 2014GXNSFAA118386), the Graduate Education Innovation Program of GUET (No. GDYCSZ201457), the Project of Guangxi Education Department (No. LD14066B) and the High-Level-Innovation Team and Outstanding Scholar Project of Guangxi Higher Education Institutes.

  13. The relative immunity of high-frequency transposed stimuli to low-frequency binaural interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2004-05-01

    We have recently demonstrated that high-frequency transposed stimuli, having envelopes designed to provide high-frequency channels with information similar to that normally available in only low-frequency channels, yield threshold-ITDs and extents of laterality comparable to those obtained with conventional low-frequency stimuli. This enhanced potency of ITDs conveyed by high-frequency transposed stimuli, as compared to conventional high-frequency stimuli, suggested to us that ITDs conveyed by transposed stimuli might be relatively immune to the presence of low-frequency binaural interferers. To investigate this issue, threshold-ITDs and extents of laterality were measured with a variety of conventional and transposed targets centered at 4 kHz. The targets were presented either in the presence or absence of a simultaneously gated diotic noise centered at 500 Hz, the interferer. As expected, the presence of the low-frequency interferer resulted in substantially elevated threshold-ITDs and reduced extents of laterality for the conventional high-frequency stimuli. In contrast, these interference effects were either greatly attenuated or absent for ITDs conveyed by the high-frequency transposed targets. The results will be discussed in the context of current models of binaural interference. [Work supported by NIH DC 04147, NIH DC04073, NIH DC 002304.

  14. Effects of Different Spectral Shapes and Amplitude Modulation of Broadband Noise on Annoyance Reactions in a Controlled Listening Experiment.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, Beat; Pieren, Reto; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Brink, Mark

    2018-05-19

    Environmental noise from transportation or industrial infrastructure typically has a broad frequency range. Different sources may have disparate acoustical characteristics, which may in turn affect noise annoyance. However, knowledge of the relative contribution of the different acoustical characteristics of broadband noise to annoyance is still scarce. In this study, the subjectively perceived short-term (acute) annoyance reactions to different broadband sounds (namely, realistic outdoor wind turbine and artificial, generic sounds) at 40 dBA were investigated in a controlled laboratory listening experiment. Combined with the factorial design of the experiment, the sounds allowed for separation of the effects of three acoustical characteristics on annoyance, namely, spectral shape, depth of periodic amplitude modulation (AM), and occurrence (or absence) of random AM. Fifty-two participants rated their annoyance with the sounds. Annoyance increased with increasing energy content in the low-frequency range as well as with depth of periodic AM, and was higher in situations with random AM than without. Similar annoyance changes would be evoked by sound pressure level changes of up to 8 dB. The results suggest that besides standard sound pressure level metrics, other acoustical characteristics of (broadband) noise should also be considered in environmental impact assessments, e.g., in the context of wind turbine installations.

  15. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, Jason; Huskey, Arlinda

    2015-07-01

    A series of tests were conducted to characterize the baseline properties and performance of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1.5-megawatt wind turbine (DOE 1.5) to enable research model development and quantify the effects of future turbine research modifications. The DOE 1.5 is built on the platform of GE's 1.5-MW SLE commercial wind turbine model. It was installed in a nonstandard configuration at the NWTC with the objective of supporting DOE Wind Program research initiatives such as A2e. Therefore, the test results may not represent the performance capabilities of other GE 1.5-MW SLE turbines. The acoustic noise test documented inmore » this report is one of a series of tests carried out to establish a performance baseline for the DOE 1.5 in the NWTC inflow environment.« less

  16. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42%more » and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOE’s) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.« less

  17. 160-190 GHz Monolithic Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kok, Y. L.; Wang, H.; Huang, T. W.; Lai, R.; Chen, Y. C.; Sholley, M.; Block, T.; Streit, D. C.; Liu, P. H.; Allen, B. R.; hide

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two 160-190 GHz monolithic low noise amplifiers (LNAs) fabricated with 0.07-microns pseudomorphic (PM) InAlAs/InGaAs/InP HEMT technology using a reactive ion etch (RIE) via hole process. A peak small signal gain of 9 dB was measured at 188 GHz for the first LNA with a 3-dB bandwidth from 164 to 192 GHz while the second LNA has achieved over 6-dB gain from 142 to 180 GHz. The same design (second LNA) was also fabricated with 0.08-micron gate and a wet etch process, showing a small signal gain of 6 dB with noise figure 6 dB. All the measurement results were obtained via on-wafer probing. The LNA noise measurement at 170 GHz is also the first attempt at this frequency.

  18. Full-Scale Turbofan-Engine Turbine-Transfer Function Determination Using Three Internal Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    Existing NASA/Honeywell EVNERT full-scale static engine test data is analyzed by using source-separation techniques in order to determine the turbine transfer of the currently sub-dominant combustor noise. The results are used to assess the combustor-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). Time-series data from three sensors internal to the Honeywell TECH977 research engine is used in the analysis. The true combustor-noise turbine-transfer function is educed by utilizing a new three-signal approach. The resulting narrowband gain factors are compared with the corresponding constant values obtained from two empirical acoustic-turbine-loss formulas. It is found that a simplified Pratt & Whitney formula agrees better with the experimental results for frequencies of practical importance. The 130 deg downstream-direction far-field 1/3-octave sound-pressure levels (SPL) results of Hultgren & Miles are reexamined using a post-correction of their ANOPP predictions for both the total noise signature and the combustion-noise component. It is found that replacing the standard ANOPP turbine-attenuation function for combustion noise with the simplified Pratt & Whitney formula clearly improves the predictions. It is recommended that the GECOR combustion-noise module in ANOPP be updated to allow for a user-selectable switch between the current transmission-loss model and the simplified Pratt & Whitney formula. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic.

  19. Direct CFD Predictions of Low Frequency Sounds Generated by a Helicopter Main Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark A.; Conner, Dave A.; Conner, Dave A.; Watts, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of CFD to directly predict helicopter main rotor noise is shown to be quite promising as an alternative mean for low frequency source noise evaluation. Results using existing state-of-the-art grid structures and finite-difference schemes demonstrated that small perturbation pressures, associated with acoustics radiation, can be extracted with some degree of fidelity. Accuracy of the predictions are demonstrated via comparing to predictions from conventional acoustic analogy-based models, and with measurements obtained from wind tunnel and flight tests for the MD-902 helicopter at several operating conditions. Findings show that the direct CFD approach is quite successfully in yielding low frequency results due to thickness and steady loading noise mechanisms. Mid-to-high frequency contents, due to blade-vortex interactions, are not predicted due to CFD modeling and grid constraints.

  20. Low-noise SIS mixer for far-infrared radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, Alexandre; Miller, David; Rice, Frank R.; Stern, Jeffrey A.; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry G.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2004-10-01

    We present a low noise SIS mixer developed for the 1.2 THz band of the heterodyne spectrometer of the Herschel Space Observatory. With the launch of the Herschel SO in 2007, this device will be among the first SIS mixers flown in space. This SIS mixer has a quasi-optical design, with a double slot planar antenna and an extended spherical lens made of pure Si. The SIS junctions are Nb/AlN/NbTiN with a critical current density of about 30 KA/cm2 and with the junction area of a quarter of a micron square. Our mixer circuit uses two SIS junctions biased in parallel. To improve the simultaneous suppression of the Josephson current in each of them, we use diamond-shaped junctions. A low loss Nb/Au micro-strip transmission line is used for the first time in the mixer circuit well above the gap frequency of Nb. The minimum uncorrected Double Sideband receiver noise is 550 K (Y=1.34). The minimum receiver noise corrected for the local oscillator beam splitter and for the cryostat window is 340 K, about 6 hv/k, the lowest value achieved thus far in the THz frequencies range.

  1. Active noise control technique for diesel train locomotor exhaust noise abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotana, Franco; Rossi, Federico

    2002-11-01

    An original prototype for train locomotor exhaust gas pipe noise reduction (electronic muffler) is proposed: the system is based on an active noise control technique. An acoustical measurement campaign has shown that locomotor exhaust noise is characterized by very low frequency components (less than 80 Hz) and very high acoustic power (up to 110 dB). A peculiar electronic muffler characterized by high acoustical efficiency at very low frequencies has been designed and realized at Perugia University Acoustic Laboratory; it has been installed on an Italian D.245 train locomotor, equipped with a 500-kW diesel engine. The electronic muffler has been added to the traditional passive muffler. Very low transmission losses are introduced by the electronic muffler because of its particular shape; thus, engine efficiency does not further decrease. Canceling noise is generated by means of DSP-based numerical algorithm. Disturbing noise and canceling noise destructively interfere at the exhaust duct outlet section; outgoing noise is thus reduced. The control system reduces exhaust noise both in the steady and unsteady engine regime. Measurement results have shown that electronic muffler introduces up to 15 dB noise abatement in the low-frequency components.

  2. Low-noise submillimeter-wave NbTiN superconducting tunnel junction mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Jonathan; Chen, Jian; Miller, David; Kooi, Jacob; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry G.; Stern, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    We have developed a low-noise 850 GHz superconductor-insulator-superconductor quasiparticle mixer with NbTiN thin-film microstrip tuning circuits and hybrid Nb/AlN/NbTiN tunnel junctions. The mixer uses a quasioptical configuration with a planar twin-slot antenna feeding a two-junction tuning circuit. At 798 GHz, we measured an uncorrected double-sideband receiver noise temperature of TRX=260 K at 4.2 K bath temperature. This mixer outperforms current Nb SIS mixers by a factor of nearly 2 near 800 GHz. The high-gap frequency and low loss at 800 GHz make NbTiN an attractive material with which to fabricate tuning circuits for SIS mixers. NbTiN mixers can potentially operate up to the gap frequency, 2Δ/h˜1.2 THz.

  3. Ship noise extends to frequencies used for echolocation by endangered killer whales

    PubMed Central

    Veirs, Val; Wood, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Combining calibrated hydrophone measurements with vessel location data from the Automatic Identification System, we estimate underwater sound pressure levels for 1,582 unique ships that transited the core critical habitat of the endangered Southern Resident killer whales during 28 months between March, 2011, and October, 2013. Median received spectrum levels of noise from 2,809 isolated transits are elevated relative to median background levels not only at low frequencies (20–30 dB re 1 µPa2/Hz from 100 to 1,000 Hz), but also at high frequencies (5–13 dB from 10,000 to 96,000 Hz). Thus, noise received from ships at ranges less than 3 km extends to frequencies used by odontocetes. Broadband received levels (11.5–40,000 Hz) near the shoreline in Haro Strait (WA, USA) for the entire ship population were 110 ± 7 dB re 1 µPa on average. Assuming near-spherical spreading based on a transmission loss experiment we compute mean broadband source levels for the ship population of 173 ± 7 dB re 1 µPa 1 m without accounting for frequency-dependent absorption. Mean ship speed was 7.3 ± 2.0 m/s (14.1 ± 3.9 knots). Most ship classes show a linear relationship between source level and speed with a slope near +2 dB per m/s (+1 dB/knot). Spectrum, 1/12-octave, and 1/3-octave source levels for the whole population have median values that are comparable to previous measurements and models at most frequencies, but for select studies may be relatively low below 200 Hz and high above 20,000 Hz. Median source spectrum levels peak near 50 Hz for all 12 ship classes, have a maximum of 159 dB re 1 µPa2/Hz @ 1 m for container ships, and vary between classes. Below 200 Hz, the class-specific median spectrum levels bifurcate with large commercial ships grouping as higher power noise sources. Within all ship classes spectrum levels vary more at low frequencies than at high frequencies, and the degree of variability is almost halved for classes that have smaller speed standard

  4. Ship noise extends to frequencies used for echolocation by endangered killer whales.

    PubMed

    Veirs, Scott; Veirs, Val; Wood, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Combining calibrated hydrophone measurements with vessel location data from the Automatic Identification System, we estimate underwater sound pressure levels for 1,582 unique ships that transited the core critical habitat of the endangered Southern Resident killer whales during 28 months between March, 2011, and October, 2013. Median received spectrum levels of noise from 2,809 isolated transits are elevated relative to median background levels not only at low frequencies (20-30 dB re 1 µPa(2)/Hz from 100 to 1,000 Hz), but also at high frequencies (5-13 dB from 10,000 to 96,000 Hz). Thus, noise received from ships at ranges less than 3 km extends to frequencies used by odontocetes. Broadband received levels (11.5-40,000 Hz) near the shoreline in Haro Strait (WA, USA) for the entire ship population were 110 ± 7 dB re 1 µPa on average. Assuming near-spherical spreading based on a transmission loss experiment we compute mean broadband source levels for the ship population of 173 ± 7 dB re 1 µPa 1 m without accounting for frequency-dependent absorption. Mean ship speed was 7.3 ± 2.0 m/s (14.1 ± 3.9 knots). Most ship classes show a linear relationship between source level and speed with a slope near +2 dB per m/s (+1 dB/knot). Spectrum, 1/12-octave, and 1/3-octave source levels for the whole population have median values that are comparable to previous measurements and models at most frequencies, but for select studies may be relatively low below 200 Hz and high above 20,000 Hz. Median source spectrum levels peak near 50 Hz for all 12 ship classes, have a maximum of 159 dB re 1 µPa(2)/Hz @ 1 m for container ships, and vary between classes. Below 200 Hz, the class-specific median spectrum levels bifurcate with large commercial ships grouping as higher power noise sources. Within all ship classes spectrum levels vary more at low frequencies than at high frequencies, and the degree of variability is almost halved for classes that have smaller speed standard

  5. Effects of Additional Low-Pass-Filtered Speech on Listening Effort for Noise-Band-Vocoded Speech in Quiet and in Noise.

    PubMed

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; van Dijk, Mart; Başkent, Deniz

    2018-05-11

    adding low-frequency acoustic speech to noise-band-vocoded speech. Whether these findings translate to CI users with residual acoustic hearing will need to be addressed in future research because the quality and frequency range of low-frequency acoustic sound available to listeners with hearing loss may differ from our idealized simulations, and additional factors, such as advanced age and varying etiology, may also play a role.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  6. Effects of Wind Turbine Noise on Self-Reported and Objective Measures of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, David S.; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E.; Voicescu, Sonia A.; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Murray, Brian J.; Weiss, Shelly K.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; van den Berg, Frits; Bower, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between self-reported and objective measures of sleep and wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure. Methods: The Community Noise and Health Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, included an in-house computer-assisted interview and sleep pattern monitoring over a 7 d period. Outdoor WTN levels were calculated following international standards for conditions that typically approximate the highest long-term average levels at each dwelling. Study data were collected between May and September 2013 from adults, aged 18–79 y (606 males, 632 females) randomly selected from each household and living between 0.25 and 11.22 kilometers from operational wind turbines in two Canadian provinces. Self-reported sleep quality over the past 30 d was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Additional questions assessed the prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders and the magnitude of sleep disturbance over the previous year. Objective measures for sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, rate of awakening bouts, and wake duration after sleep onset were recorded using the wrist worn Actiwatch2® from a subsample of 654 participants (289 males, 365 females) for a total of 3,772 sleep nights. Results: Participant response rate for the interview was 78.9%. Outdoor WTN levels reached 46 dB(A) with an arithmetic mean of 35.6 and a standard deviation of 7.4. Self-reported and objectively measured sleep outcomes consistently revealed no apparent pattern or statistically significant relationship to WTN levels. However, sleep was significantly influenced by other factors, including, but not limited to, the use of sleep medication, other health conditions (including sleep disorders), caffeine consumption, and annoyance with blinking lights on wind turbines. Conclusions: Study results do not support an association between exposure to outdoor WTN up to 46 dB(A) and an increase in the prevalence of disturbed sleep

  7. Dolphins Adjust Species-Specific Frequency Parameters to Compensate for Increasing Background Noise

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Elena; Gamba, Marco; Perez-Gil, Monica; Martin, Vidal Martel; Giacoma, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles’ frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise. PMID:25853825

  8. Noise and frequency response of silicon photodiode operational amplifier combination.

    PubMed

    Hamstra, R H; Wendland, P

    1972-07-01

    The noise in dark and illuminated Schottky barrier and diffused PIN non-guard-ring photodiodes has been measured between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz and compared to theory with an excellent fit. It is shown that diodes used photovoltaically are free of 1/f noise in the dark. It is also demonstrated that there is an optimum bias (ca. 100 mV) for minimum noise equivalent power. When only a resistive load is used with a detector, it often determines the frequency response and noise of the detector circuit. We develop and demonstrate equations for the major improvements in both noise and frequency response that can be obtained using a current mode (inverting) operational amplifier.

  9. High frequency measurements of shot noise suppression in atomic-scale metal contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Patrick J.; Evans, Kenneth; Russom, Jeffrey; King, Nicholas; Natelson, Douglas

    2009-03-01

    Shot noise provides a means of assessing the number and transmission coefficients of transmitting channels in atomic- and molecular-scale junctions. Previous experiments at low temperatures in metal and semiconductor point contacts have demonstrated the expected suppression of shot noise when junction conductance is near an integer multiple of the conductance quantum, G0≡2e^2/h. Using high frequency techniques, we demonstrate the high speed acquisition of such data at room temperature in mechanical break junctions. In clean Au contacts conductance histograms with clear peaks at G0, 2G0, and 3G0 are acquired within hours, and histograms of simultaneous measurements of the shot noise show clear suppression at those conductance values. We describe the dependence of the noise on bias voltage and analyze the noise vs. conductance histograms in terms of a model that averages over transmission coefficients.

  10. High sensitivity measurement system for the direct-current, capacitance-voltage, and gate-drain low frequency noise characterization of field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Giusi, G.; Giordano, O.; Scandurra, G.

    Measurements of current fluctuations originating in electron devices have been largely used to understand the electrical properties of materials and ultimate device performances. In this work, we propose a high-sensitivity measurement setup topology suitable for the automatic and programmable Direct-Current (DC), Capacitance-Voltage (CV), and gate-drain low frequency noise characterization of field effect transistors at wafer level. Automatic and programmable operation is particularly useful when the device characteristics relax or degrade with time due to optical, bias, or temperature stress. The noise sensitivity of the proposed topology is in the order of fA/Hz{sup 1/2}, while DC performances are limited only bymore » the source and measurement units used to bias the device under test. DC, CV, and NOISE measurements, down to 1 pA of DC gate and drain bias currents, in organic thin film transistors are reported to demonstrate system operation and performances.« less

  11. A Tool for Low Noise Procedures Design and Community Noise Impact Assessment: The Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Page, Juliet A.

    2002-01-01

    To improve aircraft noise impact modeling capabilities and to provide a tool to aid in the development of low noise terminal area operations for rotorcraft and tiltrotors, the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM) was developed by the NASA Langley Research Center and Wyle Laboratories. RNM is a simulation program that predicts how sound will propagate through the atmosphere and accumulate at receiver locations located on flat ground or varying terrain, for single and multiple vehicle flight operations. At the core of RNM are the vehicle noise sources, input as sound hemispheres. As the vehicle "flies" along its prescribed flight trajectory, the source sound propagation is simulated and accumulated at the receiver locations (single points of interest or multiple grid points) in a systematic time-based manner. These sound signals at the receiver locations may then be analyzed to obtain single event footprints, integrated noise contours, time histories, or numerous other features. RNM may also be used to generate spectral time history data over a ground mesh for the creation of single event sound animation videos. Acoustic properties of the noise source(s) are defined in terms of sound hemispheres that may be obtained from theoretical predictions, wind tunnel experimental results, flight test measurements, or a combination of the three. The sound hemispheres may contain broadband data (source levels as a function of one-third octave band) and pure-tone data (in the form of specific frequency sound pressure levels and phase). A PC executable version of RNM is publicly available and has been adopted by a number of organizations for Environmental Impact Assessment studies of rotorcraft noise. This paper provides a review of the required input data, the theoretical framework of RNM's propagation model and the output results. Code validation results are provided from a NATO helicopter noise flight test as well as a tiltrotor flight test program that used the RNM as a tool to aid in

  12. The Noisiness of Low-Frequency One-Third Octave Bands of Noise. M.S. Thesis - Southampton Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the relative noisiness of low frequency one-third octave bands of noise bounded by the bands centered at 25 Hz and 200 Hz, with intensities ranging from 50 db sound pressure level (SPL) to 95 db SPL. The thirty-two subjects used a method-of-adjustment technique, producing comparison-band intensities as noisy as standard bands centered at 100 Hz and 200 Hz with intensities of 60 db SPL and 72 db SPL. Four contours of equal noisiness were developed for one-third octave bands, extending down to 25 Hz and ranging in intensity from approximately 58 db SPL to 86 db SPL. These curves were compared with the contours of equal noisiness of Kryter and Pearsons. In the region of overlap (between 50 Hz and 200 Hz) the agreement was good.

  13. High-Frequency Response and Voltage Noise in Magnetic Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buznikov, N. A.; Iakubov, I. T.; Rakhmanov, A. L.; Kugel, K. I.; Sboychakov, A. O.

    We study the noise spectra and high-frequency permeability of inhomogeneous magnetic materials consisting of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles embedded into an insulating matrix. Possible mechanisms of 1/f voltage noise in phase-separated manganites is analyzed. The material is modelled by a system of small ferromagnetic metallic droplets (magnetic polarons or ferrons) in insulating antiferromagnetic or paramagnetic matrix. The electron transport is related to tunnelling of charge carriers between droplets. One of the sources of the 1/f noise in such a system stems from fluctuations of the number of droplets with extra electron. In the case of strong magnetic anisotropy, the 1/f noise can arise also due to the fluctuations of the magnetic moments of ferrons. The high frequency magnetic permeability of nanocomposite film with magnetic particles in insulating non-magnetic matrix is studied in detail. The case of strong magnetic dipole interaction and strong magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic granules is considered. The composite is modelled by a cubic regular array of ferromagnetic particles. The high-frequency permeability tensor components are found as a functions of frequency, temperature, ferromagnetic phase content, and magnetic anisotropy. The results demonstrate that magnetic dipole interaction leads to a shift of the resonance frequencies towards higher values, and nanocomposite film could have rather high value of magnetic permeability in the microwave range.

  14. High-Frequency Response and Voltage Noise in Magnetic Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buznikov, N. A.; Iakubov, I. T.; Rakhmanov, A. L.; Kugel, K. I.; Sboychakov, A. O.

    2010-12-01

    We study the noise spectra and high-frequency permeability of inhomogeneous magnetic materials consisting of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles embedded into an insulating matrix. Possible mechanisms of 1/f voltage noise in phase-separated manganites is analyzed. The material is modelled by a system of small ferromagnetic metallic droplets (magnetic polarons or ferrons) in insulating antiferromagnetic or paramagnetic matrix. The electron transport is related to tunnelling of charge carriers between droplets. One of the sources of the 1/f noise in such a system stems from fluctuations of the number of droplets with extra electron. In the case of strong magnetic anisotropy, the 1/f noise can arise also due to the fluctuations of the magnetic moments of ferrons. The high frequency magnetic permeability of nanocomposite film with magnetic particles in insulating non-magnetic matrix is studied in detail. The case of strong magnetic dipole interaction and strong magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic granules is considered. The composite is modelled by a cubic regular array of ferromagnetic particles. The high-frequency permeability tensor components are found as a functions of frequency, temperature, ferromagnetic phase content, and magnetic anisotropy. The results demonstrate that magnetic dipole interaction leads to a shift of the resonance frequencies towards higher values, and nanocomposite film could have rather high value of magnetic permeability in the microwave range.

  15. Energy efficient engine: Turbine intermediate case and low-pressure turbine component test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, K.; Thulin, R. D.; Howe, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    A four stage, low pressure turbine component has been designed to power the fan and low pressure compressor system in the Energy Efficient Engine. Designs for a turbine intermediate case and an exit guide vane assembly also have been established. The components incorporate numerous technology features to enhance efficiency, durability, and performance retention. These designs reflect a positive step towards improving engine fuel efficiency on a component level. The aerodynamic and thermal/mechanical designs of the intermediate case and low pressure turbine components are presented and described. An overview of the predicted performance of the various component designs is given.

  16. Low-frequency noise in charge ordered system Pr0.63Ca0.37MnO3 near the charge-ordering transition and in the current induced destabilized state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bid, Aveek; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.

    2003-05-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of co-existing phases in the Charge Ordered (CO) manganite Pr0.63Ca0.37MnO3 using the technique of conductance noise spectroscopy. We note that close to the CO transition temperature Tco the spectral power of Sv(f)/V2 deviates significantly from the 1/f frequency dependence for f<=0.12Hz. Our analysis shows that this deviation can be described by a single frequency Lorentzian with corner frequency fc in addition to the usual broadband 1/f noise. Such a Lorentzian contribution to Sv(f)/V2 can come from a two level system (TLS). In the time serioues this shows up as RTN. For T<=Tco the system shows the onset of a non-linear conduction close to a threshold value Jdc = Jth the noise spectra is mainly 1/f in nature. For J > Jth a large low frequency component of noise (characterized again by a frequency fc) appears. We associate fc with the relaxation time tc of the TLS fluctuator so the tc = 1/fc. For thermal activation of the TLS the temperature dependence of fc will follow fc=foexp(-Ea/kBT) where Ea is an energy barrier. The value of fc shows an increase with Jdc showing that the value of the activation energy Ea is being lowered by the applied bias.

  17. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  18. Fault feature extraction of planet gear in wind turbine gearbox based on spectral kurtosis and time wavelet energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yun; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Zheng; Chu, Fulei

    2017-09-01

    Planetary transmission plays a vital role in wind turbine drivetrains, and its fault diagnosis has been an important and challenging issue. Owing to the complicated and coupled vibration source, time-variant vibration transfer path, and heavy background noise masking effect, the vibration signal of planet gear in wind turbine gearboxes exhibits several unique characteristics: Complex frequency components, low signal-to-noise ratio, and weak fault feature. In this sense, the periodic impulsive components induced by a localized defect are hard to extract, and the fault detection of planet gear in wind turbines remains to be a challenging research work. Aiming to extract the fault feature of planet gear effectively, we propose a novel feature extraction method based on spectral kurtosis and time wavelet energy spectrum (SK-TWES) in the paper. Firstly, the spectral kurtosis (SK) and kurtogram of raw vibration signals are computed and exploited to select the optimal filtering parameter for the subsequent band-pass filtering. Then, the band-pass filtering is applied to extrude periodic transient impulses using the optimal frequency band in which the corresponding SK value is maximal. Finally, the time wavelet energy spectrum analysis is performed on the filtered signal, selecting Morlet wavelet as the mother wavelet which possesses a high similarity to the impulsive components. The experimental signals collected from the wind turbine gearbox test rig demonstrate that the proposed method is effective at the feature extraction and fault diagnosis for the planet gear with a localized defect.

  19. DISCRETE ELEMENT MODELING OF BLADE–STRIKE FREQUENCY AND SURVIVAL OF FISH PASSING THROUGH HYDROKINETIC TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-04-17

    Evaluating the consequences from blade-strike of fish on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine blades is essential for incorporating environmental objectives into the integral optimization of machine performance. For instance, experience with conventional hydroelectric turbines has shown that innovative shaping of the blade and other machine components can lead to improved designs that generate more power without increased impacts to fish and other aquatic life. In this work, we used unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of turbine flow and discrete element modeling (DEM) of particle motion to estimate the frequency and severity of collisions between a horizontal axis MHK tidal energymore » device and drifting aquatic organisms or debris. Two metrics are determined with the method: the strike frequency and survival rate estimate. To illustrate the procedure step-by-step, an exemplary case of a simple runner model was run and compared against a probabilistic model widely used for strike frequency evaluation. The results for the exemplary case showed a strong correlation between the two approaches. In the application case of the MHK turbine flow, turbulent flow was modeled using detached eddy simulation (DES) in conjunction with a full moving rotor at full scale. The CFD simulated power and thrust were satisfactorily comparable to experimental results conducted in a water tunnel on a reduced scaled (1:8.7) version of the turbine design. A cloud of DEM particles was injected into the domain to simulate fish or debris that were entrained into the turbine flow. The strike frequency was the ratio of the count of colliding particles to the crossing sample size. The fish length and approaching velocity were test conditions in the simulations of the MHK turbine. Comparisons showed that DEM-based frequencies tend to be greater than previous results from Lagrangian particles and probabilistic models, mostly because the DEM scheme accounts for both the

  20. Analysis and compensation of reference frequency mismatch in multiple-frequency feedforward active noise and vibration control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxin; Chen, Xuefeng; Yang, Liangdong; Gao, Jiawei; Zhang, Xingwu

    2017-11-01

    In the field of active noise and vibration control (ANVC), a considerable part of unwelcome noise and vibration is resulted from rotational machines, making the spectrum of response signal multiple-frequency. Narrowband filtered-x least mean square (NFXLMS) is a very popular algorithm to suppress such noise and vibration. It has good performance since a priori-knowledge of fundamental frequency of the noise source (called reference frequency) is adopted. However, if the priori-knowledge is inaccurate, the control performance will be dramatically degraded. This phenomenon is called reference frequency mismatch (RFM). In this paper, a novel narrowband ANVC algorithm with orthogonal pair-wise reference frequency regulator is proposed to compensate for the RFM problem. Firstly, the RFM phenomenon in traditional NFXLMS is closely investigated both analytically and numerically. The results show that RFM changes the parameter estimation problem of the adaptive controller into a parameter tracking problem. Then, adaptive sinusoidal oscillators with output rectification are introduced as the reference frequency regulator to compensate for the RFM problem. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can dramatically suppress the multiple-frequency noise and vibration with an improved convergence rate whether or not there is RFM. Finally, case studies using experimental data are conducted under the conditions of none, small and large RFM. The shaft radial run-out signal of a rotor test-platform is applied to simulate the primary noise, and an IIR model identified from a real steel structure is applied to simulate the secondary path. The results further verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Compact, thermal-noise-limited reference cavity for ultra-low-noise microwave generation.

    PubMed

    Davila-Rodriguez, J; Baynes, F N; Ludlow, A D; Fortier, T M; Leopardi, H; Diddams, S A; Quinlan, F

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate an easy-to-manufacture 25-mm-long ultra-stable optical reference cavity for transportable photonic microwave generation systems. Employing a rigid holding geometry that is first-order insensitive to the squeezing force and a cavity geometry that improves the thermal noise limit at room temperature, we observe a laser phase noise that is nearly thermal noise limited for three frequency decades (1 Hz to 1 kHz offset) and supports 10 GHz generation with phase noise near -100  dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset and <-173  dBc/Hz for all offsets >600  Hz. The fractional frequency stability reaches 2×10-15 at 0.1 s of averaging.

  2. Frequency downconversion and phase noise in MIT.

    PubMed

    Watson, S; Williams, R J; Griffiths, H; Gough, W; Morris, A

    2002-02-01

    High-frequency (3-30 MHz) operation of MIT systems offers advantages in terms of the larger induced signal amplitudes compared to systems operating in the low- or medium-frequency ranges. Signal distribution at HF, however, presents difficulties, in particular with isolation and phase stability. It is therefore valuable to translate received signals to a lower frequency range through heterodyne downconversion, a process in which relative signal amplitude and phase information is in theory retained. Measurement of signal amplitude and phase is also simplified at lower frequencies. The paper presents details of measurements on a direct phase measurement system utilizing heterodyne downconversion and compares the relative performance of three circuit configurations. The 100-sample average precision of a circuit suitable for use as a receiver within an MIT system was 0.008 degrees for input amplitude -21 dBV. As the input amplitude was reduced from -21 to -72 dBV variation in the measured phase offset was observed, with the offset varying by 1.8 degrees. The precision of the circuit deteriorated with decreasing input amplitude, but was found to provide a 100-sample average precision of <0.022 degrees down to an input amplitude of -60 dBV. The characteristics of phase noise within the system are discussed.

  3. Plate-type metamaterials for extremely broadband low-frequency sound insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Guo, Xinwei; Chen, Tianning; Yao, Ge

    2018-01-01

    A novel plate-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) in the low-frequency range ( ≤1000 Hz) is designed, theoretically proven and then experimentally verified. The thin plates with large modulus used in this paper mean that we do not need to apply tension to the plates, which is more applicable to practical engineering, the achievement of noise reduction is better and the installation of plates is more user-friendly than that of the membranes. The effects of different structural parameters of the plates on the sound-proofed performance at low-frequencies were also investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the STL can be modulated effectively and predictably using vibration theory by changing the structural parameters, such as the radius and thickness of the plate. Furthermore, using unit cells of different geometric sizes which are responsible for different frequency regions, the stacked panels with thickness ≤16 mm and weight ≤5 kg/m2 showed high STL below 2000 Hz. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  4. Modeling and characterization of the low frequency noise behavior for amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors in the subthreshold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Minxi; Yao, Ruohe

    2017-10-01

    An analytical model of the low-frequency noise (LFN) for amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) in the subthreshold region is developed. For a-IGZO TFTs, relations between the device noise and the subgap defects are characterized based on the dominant multiple trapping and release (MTR) mechanism. The LFN is considered to be contributed from trapping/detrapping of carriers both into the border traps and the subgap density of states (DOS). It is revealed that the LFN behavior of a-IGZO TFTs in the subthreshold region is significantly influenced by the distribution of tail states, where MTR process prevails. The 1/f α (with α < 1) spectrum of the drain current noise is also related to the characteristic temperature of the tail states. The new method is introduced to calculate the LFN of devices by extracting the LFN-related DOS parameters from the current-voltage characteristics.

  5. Low-Cost, Net-Shape Ceramic Radial Turbine Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Garrett Turbine Engine Company AE OKUI UBR 111 South 34th Street, P.O. Box 2517 Phoenix, Arizona 85010 %I. CONTROLLING...processing iterations. Program management and materials characterization were conducted at Garrett Turbine Engine Company (GTEC), test bar and rotor...automotive gas turbine engine rotor development efforts at ACC. xvii PREFACE This is the final technical report of the Low-Cost, Net- Shape Ceramic

  6. Low-Noise Submillimeter-Wave NbTiN Superconducting Tunnel Junction Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, J.; Chen, J.; Miller, D.; Kooi, J.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.; Stern, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a low-noise 850 GHz superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) quasi-particle mixer with NbTiN thin-film microstrip tuning circuits and hybrid Nb/AlN/NbTiN tunnel junctions. The mixer uses a quasioptical configuration with a planar twin-slot antenna feeding a two-junction tuning circuit. At 798 GHz, we measured an uncorrected double-sideband receiver noise temperature of T(sub RX) = 260 K at 4.2 K bath temperature. This mixer outperforms current Nb SIS mixers by a factor of nearly 2 near 800 GHz. The high gap frequency and low loss at 800 GHz make NbTiN an attractive material with which to fabricate tuning circuits for SIS mixers. NbTiN mixers can potentially operate up to the gap frequency, 2(delta)/h is approximately 1.2THz.

  7. Increasing low frequency sound attenuation using compounded single layer of sonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulia, Preeti; Gupta, Arpan

    2018-05-01

    Sonic crystals (SC) are man-made periodic structures where sound hard scatterers are arranged in a crystalline manner. SC reduces noise in a particular range of frequencies called as band gap. Sonic crystals have a promising application in noise shielding; however, the application is limited due to the size of structure. Particularly for low frequencies, the structure becomes quite bulky, restricting its practical application. This paper presents a compounded model of SC, which has the same overall area and filling fraction but with increased low frequency sound attenuation. Two cases have been considered, a three layer SC and a compounded single layer SC. Both models have been analyzed using finite element simulation and plane wave expansion method. Band gaps for periodic structures have been obtained using both methods which are in good agreement. Further, sound transmission loss has been evaluated using finite element method. The results demonstrate the use of compounded model of Sonic Crystal for low frequency sound attenuation.

  8. The effect of low-frequency oscillations on cardio-respiratory synchronization. Observations during rest and exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenwright, D. A.; Bahraminasab, A.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2008-10-01

    We show that the transitions which occur between close orders of synchronization in the cardiorespiratory system are mainly due to modulation of the cardiac and respiratory processes by low-frequency components. The experimental evidence is derived from recordings on healthy subjects at rest and during exercise. Exercise acts as a perturbation of the system that alters the mean cardiac and respiratory frequencies and changes the amount of their modulation by low-frequency oscillations. The conclusion is supported by numerical evidence based on a model of phase-coupled oscillators, with white noise and lowfrequency noise. Both the experimental and numerical approaches confirm that low-frequency oscillations play a significant role in the transitional behavior between close orders of synchronization.

  9. Liquid-phase exfoliated graphene self-assembled films: Low-frequency noise and thermal-electric characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubon Usca, G.; Hernandez-Ambato, J.; Pace, C.; Caputi, L. S.; Tavolaro, A.

    2016-09-01

    In few years, graphene has become a revolutionary material, leading not only to applications in various fields such as electronics, medicine and environment, but also to the production of new types of 2D materials. In this work, Liquid Phase Exfoliation (LPE) was applied to natural graphite by brief sonication or mixer treatment in suitable solvents, in order to produce Few Layers Graphene (FLG) suspensions. Additionally, zeolite 4A (Z4A) was added during the production of FLG flakes-based inks, with the aim of aiding the exfoliation process. Conductive films were obtained by drop casting three types of suspensions over Al2O3 substrates with interdigitated electrodes, with total channel surface of 1.39 mm2. The morphology characterization resulted in the verification of the presence of thin self-assembled flakes. Raman studies gave evidence of 4 to 10 layers graphene flakes. Electrical measurements were performed to state the Low-Frequency Noise and Thermal-Electric characteristics of the samples. We observe interesting relations between sample preparation procedures and electrical properties.

  10. Preceding weak noise sharpens the frequency tuning and elevates the response threshold of the mouse inferior collicular neurons through GABAergic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Jen, Philip H-S; Wu, Fei-Jian; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2007-09-05

    In acoustic communication, animals must extract biologically relevant signals that are embedded in noisy environment. The present study examines how weak noise may affect the auditory sensitivity of neurons in the central nucleus of the mouse inferior colliculus (IC) which receives convergent excitatory and inhibitory inputs from both lower and higher auditory centers. Specifically, we studied the frequency sensitivity and minimum threshold of IC neurons using a pure tone probe and a weak white noise masker under forward masking paradigm. For most IC neurons, probe-elicited response was decreased by a weak white noise that was presented at a specific gap (i.e. time window). When presented within this time window, weak noise masking sharpened the frequency tuning curve and increased the minimum threshold of IC neurons. The degree of weak noise masking of these two measurements increased with noise duration. Sharpening of the frequency tuning curve and increasing of the minimum threshold of IC neurons during weak noise masking were mostly mediated through GABAergic inhibition. In addition, sharpening of frequency tuning curve by the weak noise masker was more effective at the high than at low frequency limb. These data indicate that in the real world the ambient noise may improve frequency sensitivity of IC neurons through GABAergic inhibition while inevitably decrease the frequency response range and sensitivity of IC neurons.

  11. Test Results of a 200 GHz, Low Noise Downconverter for USAT Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene (Compiler); Svoboda, James S.

    1996-01-01

    A key component in the development of the advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) ultra small aperture terminal (USAT) earth station is the low noise down converter (LND). NASA Lewis Research Center has tested a version of an LND designed by Electrodyne Systems Corporation. A number of tests were conducted to characterize the radio frequency performance of the LND over temperature. The test results presented in this paper are frequency response, noise figure, gain, group delay, power transfer characteristics, image rejection, and spurious product suppression. The LND was one of several critical microwave subsystems developed and tested for the ACTS USAT Earth stations.

  12. Test results of a 20 GHz, low noise downconverter for USAT applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Svoboda, James S.

    1995-01-01

    A key component in the development of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) ultra small aperture terminal (USAT) earth station is the low noise downconverter (NLD). NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has tested a version of an LND designed by Electrodyne Systems Corporation. A number of tests were conducted to characterize the radio frequency performance of the LND over temperature. The test results presented in this paper are frequency response, noise figure, gain, group delay, power transfer characteristics, image rejection, and spurious product suppression. The LND was one of several critical microwave subsystems developed and tested for the ACTS USAT earth stations.

  13. Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe. PMID:27320418

  14. Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christian

    2016-06-20

    The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe.

  15. Design and analysis of high gain and low noise figure CMOS low noise amplifier for Q-band nano-sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganthi, K.; Malarvizhi, S.

    2018-03-01

    A high gain, low power, low Noise figure (NF) and wide band of milli-meter Wave (mmW) circuits design at 50 GHz are used for Radio Frequency (RF) front end. The fundamental necessity of a receiver front-end includes perfect output and input impedance matching and port-to-port isolation with high gain and low noise over the entire band of interest. In this paper, a design of Cascade-Cascode CMOS LNA circuit at 50 GHz for Q-band application is proposed. The design of Low noise amplifier at 50 GHz using Agilent ADS tool with microstrip lines which provides simplicity in fabrication and less chip area. The low off-leakage current Ioff can be maintained with high K-dielectrics CMOS structure. Nano-scale electronics can be achieved with increased robustness. The design has overall gain of 11.091 dB and noise figure of 2.673 dB for the Q-band of 48.3 GHz to 51.3 GHz. Impedance matching is done by T matching network and the obtained input and output reflection coefficients are S11 = <-10 dB and S22 = <-10 dB. Compared to Silicon (Si) material, Wide Band Gap semiconductor materials used attains higher junction temperatures which is well matched to ceramics used in packaging technology, the protection and reliability also can be achieved with the electronic packaging. The reverse transmission coefficient S21 is less than -21 dB has shown that LNA has better isolation between input and output, Stability factor greater than 1 and Power is also optimized in this design. Layout is designed, power gain of 4.6 dB is achieved and area is optimized which is nearly equal to 502 740 μm2. The observed results show that the proposed Cascade-Cascode LNA design can find its suitability in future milli-meter Wave Radar application.

  16. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  17. Origins of Highly Stable Al-evaporated Solution-processed ZnO Thin Film Transistors: Insights from Low Frequency and Random Telegraph Signal Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Hyung; Kang, Tae Sung; Yang, Jung Yup; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-11-01

    One long-standing goal in the emerging field of flexible and transparent electronic devices is to meet the demand of key markets, such as enhanced output performance for metal oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) prepared by a solution process. While solution-based fabrication techniques are cost-effective and ensure large-area coverage at low temperature, their utilization has the disadvantage of introducing large trap states into TFTs. Such states, the formation of which is induced by intrinsic defects initially produced during preparation, have a significant impact on electrical performance. Therefore, the ability to enhance the electrical characteristics of solution-processed TFTs, along with attaining a firm understanding of their physical nature, remains a key step towards extending their use. In this study, measurements of low-frequency noise and random telegraph signal noise are employed as generic alternative tools to examine the origins of enhanced output performance for solution-processed ZnO TFTs through the control of defect sites by Al evaporation.

  18. Noise-Immune Cavity-Enhanced Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Lucile; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    We present noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS), a recently developed technique for sensitive, broadband, and high resolution spectroscopy. In NICE-OFCS an optical frequency comb (OFC) is locked to a high finesse cavity and phase-modulated at a frequency precisely equal to (a multiple of) the cavity free spectral range. Since each comb line and sideband is transmitted through a separate cavity mode in exactly the same way, any residual frequency noise on the OFC relative to the cavity affects each component in an identical manner. The transmitted intensity contains a beat signal at the modulation frequency that is immune to frequency-to-amplitude noise conversion by the cavity, in a way similar to continuous wave noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS). The light transmitted through the cavity is detected with a fast-scanning Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) and the NICE-OFCS signal is obtained by fast Fourier transform of the synchronously demodulated interferogram. Our NICE-OFCS system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a cavity with a finesse of ˜9000 and a fast-scanning FTS equipped with a high-bandwidth commercial detector. We measured NICE-OFCS signals from the 3νb{1}+νb{3} overtone band of CO_2 around 1.57 μm and achieved absorption sensitivity 6.4×10-11cm-1 Hz-1/2 per spectral element, corresponding to a minimum detectable CO_2 concentration of 25 ppb after 330 s integration time. We will describe the principles of the technique and its technical implementation, and discuss the spectral lineshapes of the NICE-OFCS signals. A. Khodabakhsh, C. Abd Alrahman, and A. Foltynowicz, Opt. Lett. 39, 5034-5037 (2014). J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6-15 (1998). A. Khodabakhsh, A. C. Johansson, and A. Foltynowicz, Appl. Phys. B (2015) doi:10.1007/s00340-015-6010-7.

  19. Development of Ultra-Low-Noise TES Bolometer Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M. L.; Hijmering, R. A.; Gao, J. R.; Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; van der Kuur, J.; Jackson, B. D.

    2016-07-01

    SRON is developing ultra-low-noise transition edge sensors (TESs) based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer on a suspended SiN island with SiN legs for SAFARI aboard SPICA. We have two major concerns about realizing TESs with an ultra-low NEP of 2× 10^{-19} hbox {W}/√{{ {Hz}}}: achieving lower thermal conductance and no excess noise with respect to the phonon noise. To realize TESs with phonon-noise-limited NEPs, we need to make thinner ({<}0.25 \\upmu hbox {m}) and narrower ({<}1 \\upmu hbox {m}) SiN legs. With deep reactive-ion etching, three types of TESs were fabricated in combination with different SiN island sizes and the presence or absence of an optical absorber. Those TESs have a thin (0.20 \\upmu hbox {m}), narrow (0.5-0.7 \\upmu hbox {m}), and long (340-460 \\upmu hbox {m}) SiN legs and show Tc of {˜ }93 hbox {mK} and Rn of {˜ }158 hbox {m}{Ω }. These TESs were characterized under AC bias using our frequency-division multiplexing readout (1-3 MHz) system. TESs without the absorber show NEPs as low as 1.1 × 10^{-19} hbox {W}/√{{ {Hz}}} with a reasonable response speed ({<}1 hbox {ms}), which achieved the phonon noise limit. For TESs with the absorber, we confirmed a higher hbox {NEP}_{el} ({˜ }5 × 10^{-19} hbox {W}/√{{ {Hz}}}) than that of TESs without the absorber likely due to stray light. The lowest NEP can make the new version of SAFARI with a grating spectrometer feasible.

  20. Low-noise correlation measurements based on software-defined-radio receivers and cooled microwave amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Teemu; Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Tan, Zhenbing; Cox, Daniel; Hakonen, Pertti J

    2016-11-01

    We present a microwave correlation measurement system based on two low-cost USB-connected software defined radio dongles modified to operate as coherent receivers by using a common local oscillator. Existing software is used to obtain I/Q samples from both dongles simultaneously at a software tunable frequency. To achieve low noise, we introduce an easy low-noise solution for cryogenic amplification at 600-900 MHz based on single discrete HEMT with 21 dB gain and 7 K noise temperature. In addition, we discuss the quantization effects in a digital correlation measurement and determination of optimal integration time by applying Allan deviation analysis.

  1. Reliability testing of ultra-low noise InGaAs quad photoreceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhay M.; Datta, Shubhashish; Prasad, Narasimha; Sivertz, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We have developed ultra-low noise quadrant InGaAs photoreceivers for multiple applications ranging from Laser Interferometric Gravitional Wave Detection, to 3D Wind Profiling. Devices with diameters of 0.5 mm, 1mm, and 2 mm were processed, with the nominal capacitance of a single quadrant of a 1 mm quad photodiode being 2.5 pF. The 1 mm diameter InGaAs quad photoreceivers, using a low-noise, bipolar-input OpAmp circuitry exhibit an equivalent input noise per quadrant of <1.7 pA/√Hz in 2 to 20 MHz frequency range. The InGaAs Quad Photoreceivers have undergone the following reliability tests: 30 MeV Proton Radiation up to a Total Ionizing Dose (TID) of 50 krad, Mechanical Shock, and Sinusoidal Vibration.

  2. Effects of active noise reduction on noise levels at the tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A S; Woxen, O J; Andersen, H T

    1998-06-01

    Active noise reduction (ANR) is an electronic system that works by continuous sampling of noise inside the earshell of the headset with a small microphone. This signal is inverted in phase through the headset speaker, thus reducing noise levels by destructive interference of the acoustic field. The system provides good low-frequency noise attenuation, but aircrew differ in their subjective opinion of ANR. The present study is an attempt to provide an objective assessment of the effect of ANR on noise levels at the tympanic membrane. There were 7 subjects with normal ears who were placed in an environment of recorded noise from a BO-105 helicopter. A microphone probe was inserted to within 5 mm of the tympanic membrane of each subject's right ear. Noise levels in the ear were measured without a headset and with two different ANR headsets. Measurements were performed with and without the ANR system on, and with and without white noise through the headset communication system. The white noise was used to simulate aircraft communication noise. The two headsets tested had differing levels of passive and active attenuation. The ANR system produced a substantial low-frequency attenuation. However, noise levels in the mid frequencies increased somewhat when the ANR system was switched on. This effect was augmented when white noise in the communications system was introduced, particularly for one of the two headsets. Low-frequency noise attenuation of ANR systems is substantial, but an increased mid- and high-frequency noise level caused by the ANR may affect both communication and overall noise levels. Our data provide advice on what factors should be taken into account when ANR is evaluated for use in an aviation operational environment.

  3. Noise in solid-state nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, R. M. M.; Keyser, U. F.; Dekker, N. H.; Dekker, C.

    2008-01-01

    We study ionic current fluctuations in solid-state nanopores over a wide frequency range and present a complete description of the noise characteristics. At low frequencies (f ≲ 100 Hz) we observe 1/f-type of noise. We analyze this low-frequency noise at different salt concentrations and find that the noise power remarkably scales linearly with the inverse number of charge carriers, in agreement with Hooge's relation. We find a Hooge parameter α = (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10−4. In the high-frequency regime (f ≳ 1 kHz), we can model the increase in current power spectral density with frequency through a calculation of the Johnson noise. Finally, we use these results to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for DNA translocation for different salt concentrations and nanopore diameters, yielding the parameters for optimal detection efficiency. PMID:18184817

  4. Noise in solid-state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Smeets, R M M; Keyser, U F; Dekker, N H; Dekker, C

    2008-01-15

    We study ionic current fluctuations in solid-state nanopores over a wide frequency range and present a complete description of the noise characteristics. At low frequencies (f approximately < 100 Hz) we observe 1/f-type of noise. We analyze this low-frequency noise at different salt concentrations and find that the noise power remarkably scales linearly with the inverse number of charge carriers, in agreement with Hooge's relation. We find a Hooge parameter alpha = (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(-4). In the high-frequency regime (f approximately > 1 kHz), we can model the increase in current power spectral density with frequency through a calculation of the Johnson noise. Finally, we use these results to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for DNA translocation for different salt concentrations and nanopore diameters, yielding the parameters for optimal detection efficiency.

  5. Prediction of far-field wind turbine noise propagation with parabolic equation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seongkyu; Lee, Dongjai; Honhoff, Saskia

    2016-08-01

    Sound propagation of wind farms is typically simulated by the use of engineering tools that are neglecting some atmospheric conditions and terrain effects. Wind and temperature profiles, however, can affect the propagation of sound and thus the perceived sound in the far field. A better understanding and application of those effects would allow a more optimized farm operation towards meeting noise regulations and optimizing energy yield. This paper presents the parabolic equation (PE) model development for accurate wind turbine noise propagation. The model is validated against analytic solutions for a uniform sound speed profile, benchmark problems for nonuniform sound speed profiles, and field sound test data for real environmental acoustics. It is shown that PE provides good agreement with the measured data, except upwind propagation cases in which turbulence scattering is important. Finally, the PE model uses computational fluid dynamics results as input to accurately predict sound propagation for complex flows such as wake flows. It is demonstrated that wake flows significantly modify the sound propagation characteristics.

  6. Statistics and vertical directionality of low-frequency ambient noise at the North Pacific Acoustics Laboratory site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggeroer, Arthur B.; NPAL Group; Colosi, J. A.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Dushaw, B. D.; Dzieciuch, M. A.; Howe, B. M.; Mercer, J. A.; Munk, W. H.; Spindel, R. C.; Worcester, P. F.

    2005-03-01

    We examine statistical and directional properties of the ambient noise in the 10-100 Hz frequency band from the NPAL array. Marginal probability densities are estimated as well as mean square levels, skewness and kurtoses in third octave bands. The kurotoses are markedly different from Gaussian except when only distant shipping is present. Extremal levels reached ~150 dB re 1 μ Pa, suggesting levels 60dB greater than the mean ambient were common in the NPAL data sets. Generally, these were passing ships. We select four examples: i) quiescent noise, ii) nearby shipping, iii) whale vocalizations and iv) a micro earthquake for the vertical directional properties of the NPAL noise since they are representative of the phenomena encountered. We find there is modest broadband coherence for most of these cases in their occupancy band across the NPAL aperture. Narrowband coherence analysis from VLA to VLA was not successful due to ambiguities. Examples of localizing sources based upon this coherence are included. kw diagrams allow us to use data above the vertical aliasing frequency. Ducted propagation for both the quiescent and micro earthquake (T phase) are identified and the arrival angles of nearby shipping and whale vocalizations. MFP localizations were modestly successful for nearby sources, but long range ones could not be identified, most likely because of signal mismatch in the MFP replica. .

  7. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science Talk: Precision Noise Measurements at Microwave and Optical Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Eugene

    2010-03-01

    The quest to detect Gravitational Waves resulted in a number of important developments in the fields of oscillator frequency stabilization and precision noise measurements. This was due to the realization of similarities between the principles of high sensitivity measurements of weak mechanical forces and phase/amplitude fluctuations of microwave signals. In both cases interferometric carrier suppression and low-noise amplification of the residual noise sidebands were the main factors behind significant improvements in the resolution of spectral measurements. In particular, microwave frequency discriminators with almost thermal noise limited sensitivity were constructed leading to microwave oscillators with more than 25dB lower phase noise than the previous state-of-the-art. High power solid-state microwave amplifiers offered further opportunity of oscillator phase noise reduction due to the increased energy stored in the high-Q resonator of the frequency discriminator. High power microwave oscillators with the phase noise spectral density close to -160dBc/Hz at 1kHz Fourier frequency have been recently demonstrated. The principles of interferometric signal processing have been applied to the study of noise phenomena in microwave components which were considered to be ``noise free''. This resulted in the first experimental evidence of phase fluctuations in microwave circulators. More efficient use of signal power enabled construction of the ``power recycled'' interferometers with spectral resolution of -200dBc/Hz at 1kHz Fourier frequency. This has been lately superseded by an order of magnitude with a waveguide interferometer due to its higher power recycling factor. A number of opto-electronic measurement systems were developed to characterize the fidelity of frequency transfer from the optical to the microwave domain. This included a new type of a phase detector capable of measuring phase fluctuations of the weak microwave signals extracted from the demodulated

  8. ALDO: A radiation-tolerant, low-noise, adjustable low drop-out linear regulator in 0.35 μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we present ALDO, an adjustable low drop-out linear regulator designed in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. It is specifically tailored for use in the upgraded LHCb RICH detector in order to improve the power supply noise for the front end readout chip (CLARO). ALDO is designed with radiation-tolerant solutions such as an all-MOS band-gap voltage reference and layout techniques aiming to make it able to operate in harsh environments like High Energy Physics accelerators. It is capable of driving up to 200 mA while keeping an adequate power supply filtering capability in a very wide frequency range from 10 Hz up to 100 MHz. This property allows us to suppress the noise and high frequency spikes that could be generated by a DC/DC regulator, for example. ALDO also shows a very low noise of 11.6 μV RMS in the same frequency range. Its output is protected with over-current and short detection circuits for a safe integration in tightly packed environments. Design solutions and measurements of the first prototype are presented.

  9. A lightweight low-frequency sound insulation membrane-type acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kuan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Gao, Nansha; Jing, Li

    2016-02-01

    A novel membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies (⩽500Hz) was designed and the mechanisms were investigated by using negative mass density theory. This metamaterial's structure is like a sandwich with a thin (thickness=0.25mm) lightweight flexible rubber material within two layers of honeycomb cell plates. Negative mass density was demonstrated at frequencies below the first natural frequency, which results in the excellent low-frequency sound insulation. The effects of different structural parameters of the membrane on the sound-proofed performance at low frequencies were investigated by using finite element method (FEM). The numerical results show that, the STL can be modulated to higher value by changing the structural parameters, such as the membrane surface density, the unite cell film shape, and the membrane tension. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  10. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Jacob; Pao, Lucy Y.; Fleming, Paul

    2014-11-13

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC trackingmore » performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there are insufficient wind resources available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.« less

  11. Health effects from low-frequency noise and infrasound in the general population: Is it time to listen? A systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene; van Poll, Ric; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-07-01

    A systematic review of observational studies was conducted to assess the association between everyday life low-frequency noise (LFN) components, including infrasound and health effects in the general population. Literature databases Pubmed, Embase and PsycInfo and additional bibliographic sources such as reference sections of key publications and journal databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published from 2000 to 2015. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of them examined subjective annoyance as primary outcome. The adequacy of provided information in the included papers and methodological quality of studies was also addressed. Moreover, studies were screened for meta-analysis eligibility. Some associations were observed between exposure to LFN and annoyance, sleep-related problems, concentration difficulties and headache in the adult population living in the vicinity of a range of LFN sources. However, evidence, especially in relation to chronic medical conditions, was very limited. The estimated pooled prevalence of high subjective annoyance attributed to LFN was about 10%. Epidemiological research on LFN and health effects is scarce and suffers from methodological shortcomings. Low frequency noise in the everyday environment constitutes an issue that requires more research attention, particularly for people living in the vicinity of relevant sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Following preliminary investigations of the low frequency electric and magnetic fields that may exists in the Earth-ionospheric cavity, measurements were taken with state-of-the art spectrum analyzers. As a follow up to this activity, an investigation was initiated to determine sources and values for possible low frequency signal that would appear in the cavity. The lowest cavity resonance is estimated at about 8 Hz, but lower frequencies may be an important component of our electromagnetic environment. The potential field frequencies produced by the electron were investigated by a classical model that included possible cross coupling of the electric and gravitation fields. During this work, an interesting relationship was found that related the high frequency charge field with the extremely low frequency of the gravitation field. The results of numerical calculations were surprisingly accurate and this area of investigation is continuing. The work toward continued development of a standardized monitoring facility is continuing with the potential of installing the prototype at West Virginia State College early in 1990. This installation would be capable of real time monitoring of ELF signals in the Earth-ionoshpere cavity and would provide some directional information. A high gain, low noise, 1/f frequency corrected preamplifier was designed and tested for the ferrite core magnetic sensor. The potential application of a super conducting sensor for the ELF magnetic field detection is under investigation. It is hoped that a fully operational monitoring network could pinpoint the location of ELF signal sources and provide new information on where these signals originate and what causes them, assuming that they are natural in origin.

  13. Aerodynamic study of a small wind turbine with emphasis on laminar and transition flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2016-06-01

    The wind energy is huge but unfortunately, wind turbines capture only a little part of this enormous green energy. Furthermore, it is impossible to put multi megawatt wind turbines in the cities because they generate a lot of noise and discomfort. Instead, it is possible to install small Darrieus and horizontal-axis wind turbines with low tip speed ratios in order to mitigate the noise as much as possible. Unfortunately, the flow around this wind turbine is quite complex because the run at low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, this flow is usually a mixture of laminar, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation that is very difficult to simulate from the numerical point of view. Usually, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation are ignored. For this reason, this paper deals with laminar and transition flows in order to provide some brightness in this field.

  14. Wind fence enclosures for infrasonic wind noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Abbott, JohnPaul; Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    A large porous wind fence enclosure has been built and tested to optimize wind noise reduction at infrasonic frequencies between 0.01 and 10 Hz to develop a technology that is simple and cost effective and improves upon the limitations of spatial filter arrays for detecting nuclear explosions, wind turbine infrasound, and other sources of infrasound. Wind noise is reduced by minimizing the sum of the wind noise generated by the turbulence and velocity gradients inside the fence and by the area-averaging the decorrelated pressure fluctuations generated at the surface of the fence. The effects of varying the enclosure porosity, top condition, bottom gap, height, and diameter and adding a secondary windscreen were investigated. The wind fence enclosure achieved best reductions when the surface porosity was between 40% and 55% and was supplemented by a secondary windscreen. The most effective wind fence enclosure tested in this study achieved wind noise reductions of 20-27 dB over the 2-4 Hz frequency band, a minimum of 5 dB noise reduction for frequencies from 0.1 to 20 Hz, constant 3-6 dB noise reduction for frequencies with turbulence wavelengths larger than the fence, and sufficient wind noise reduction at high wind speeds (3-6 m/s) to detect microbaroms.

  15. Low-Frequency Noise in Layered ReS2 Field Effect Transistors on HfO2 and Its Application for pH Sensing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wugang; Wei, Wei; Tong, Yu; Chim, Wai Kin; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2018-02-28

    Layered rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) field effect transistors (FETs), with thickness ranging from few to dozens of layers, are demonstrated on 20 nm thick HfO 2 /Si substrates. A small threshold voltage of -0.25 V, high on/off current ratio of up to ∼10 7 , small subthreshold swing of 116 mV/dec, and electron carrier mobility of 6.02 cm 2 /V·s are obtained for the two-layer ReS 2 FETs. Low-frequency noise characteristics in ReS 2 FETs are analyzed for the first time, and it is found that the carrier number fluctuation mechanism well describes the flicker (1/f) noise of ReS 2 FETs with different thicknesses. pH sensing using a two-layer ReS 2 FET with HfO 2 as a sensing oxide is then demonstrated with a voltage sensitivity of 54.8 mV/pH and a current sensitivity of 126. The noise characteristics of the ReS 2 FET-based pH sensors are also examined, and a corresponding detection limit of 0.0132 pH is obtained. Our studies suggest the high potential of ReS 2 for future low-power nanoelectronics and biosensor applications.

  16. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator

    SciTech Connect

    Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Novosibirsk State Technical University, K.Marx-Ave. 20, Novosibirsk 630092

    2014-05-15

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analogmore » compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.« less

  17. Reduction of external noise of mobile energy facilities by using active noise control system in muffler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivaev, O. I.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Larionov, A. N.; Beliansky, R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a method for the reducing emission of low-frequency noise of modern automotive vehicles into the environment. The importance of reducing the external noise of modern mobile energy facilities made in Russia is substantiated. Standard methods for controlling external noise in technology are of low efficiency when low-frequency sound waves are reduced. In this case, it is in the low-frequency zone of the sound range that the main power of the noise emitted by the machinery lies. The most effective way to reduce such sound waves is to use active noise control systems. A design of a muffler using a similar system is presented. This muffler allowed one to reduce the emission of increased noise levels into the environment by 7-11 dB and to increase acoustic comfort at the operator's workplace by 3-5 dB.

  18. Using temperature to reduce noise in quantum frequency conversion.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Paulina S; Pelc, Jason S; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, M M

    2018-05-01

    Quantum frequency conversion is important in quantum networks to interface nodes operating at different wavelengths and to enable long-distance quantum communication using telecommunications wavelengths. Unfortunately, frequency conversion in actual devices is not a noise-free process. One main source of noise is spontaneous Raman scattering, which can be reduced by lowering the device operating temperature. We explore frequency conversion of 1554 nm photons to 837 nm using a 1813 nm pump in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide device. By reducing the temperature from 85°C to 40°C, we show a three-fold reduction in dark count rates, which is in good agreement with theory.

  19. Low-noise, transformer-coupled resonant photodetector for squeezed state generation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaoyong; Shi, Shaoping; Zheng, Yaohui

    2017-10-01

    In an actual setup of squeezed state generation, the stability of a squeezing factor is mainly limited by the performance of the servo-control system, which is mainly influenced by the shot noise and gain of a photodetector. We present a unique transformer-coupled LC resonant amplifier as a photodetector circuit to reduce the electronic noise and increase the gain of the photodetector. As a result, we obtain a low-noise, high gain photodetector with the gain of more than 1.8×10 5 V/A, and the input current noise of less than 4.7 pA/Hz. By adjusting the parameters of the transformer, the quality factor Q of the resonant circuit is close to 100 in the frequency range of more than 100 MHz, which meets the requirement for weak power detection in the application of squeezed state generation.

  20. Frequency-response mismatch effects in Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. R.; Qu, J.-F.

    2018-02-01

    Johnson noise thermometry is of considerable interest at present due to the planned redefinition of the kelvin in 2019, and several determinations of the Boltzmann constant have recently been published in support of the redefinition. To determine the Boltzmann constant by noise thermometry, the thermal noise from a sensing resistor at the triple point of water is compared to a pseudo-random noise with a calculable power spectral density traceable to quantum electrical standards. In all the measurements to date, the two dominant sources of measurement uncertainty are strongly influenced by a single factor: the frequency-response mismatch between the sets of leads connecting the thermometer to the two noise sources. In the most recent determination at the National Institute of Metrology, China, substantial changes were made to the connecting leads to reduce the mismatch effects. The aims of this paper are, firstly, to describe and explain the rationale for the changes, and secondly, to better understand the effects of the least-squares fits and the bias-variance compromise in the analysis of measurements affected by the mismatch effects. While significant improvements can be made to the connecting leads to lessen the effects of the frequency-response mismatch, the efforts are unlikely to be rewarded by a significant increase in bandwidth or a significant reduction in uncertainty.

  1. The quasi-periodic oscillations and very low frequency noise of Scorpius X-1 as transient chaos - A dripping handrail?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas; Young, Karl; Donoho, David L.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) characteristic of many accretion sources are different aspects of the same physical process. We analyzed a long, high time resolution EXOSAT observation of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1. The X-ray luminosity varies stochastically on time scales from milliseconds to hours. The nature of this variability - as quantified with both power spectrum analysis and a new wavelet technique, the scalegram - agrees well with the dripping handrail accretion model, a simple dynamical system which exhibits transient chaos. In this model both the QPO and VLFN are produced by radiation from blobs with a wide size distribution, resulting from accretion and subsequent diffusion of hot gas, the density of which is limited by an unspecified instability to lie below a threshold.

  2. Novel WSi/Au T-shaped gate GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect-transistor fabrication process for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, H.; Hosogi, K.; Kato, T.

    1995-05-01

    A fully ion-implanted self-aligned T-shaped gate Ga As metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) with high frequency and extremely low-noise performance has been successfully fabricated for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers. A subhalf-micrometer gate structure composed of WSi/Ti/Mo/Au is employed to reduce gate resistance effectively. This multilayer gate structure is formed by newly developed dummy SiON self-alignment technology and a photoresist planarization process. At an operating frequency of 12 GHz, a minimum noise figure of 0.87 dB with an associated gain of 10.62 dB has been obtained. Based on the novel FET process, a low-noise single-stage MMIC amplifier withmore » an excellent low-noise figure of 1.2 dB with an associated gain of 8 dB in the 14 GHz band has been realized. This is the lowest noise figure ever reported at this frequency for low-noise MMICs based on ion-implanted self-aligned gate MESFET technology. 14 refs., 9 figs.« less

  3. Low-Noise Band-Pass Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit uses standard components to overcome common limitation of JFET amplifiers. Low-noise band-pass amplifier employs JFET and operational amplifier. High gain and band-pass characteristics are achieved with suitable choice of resistances and capacitances. Circuit should find use as low-noise amplifier, for example as first stage instrumentation systems.

  4. Low-frequency magnetic sensing by magnetoelectric metglas/bidomain LiNbO3 long bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turutin, Andrei V.; Vidal, João V.; Kubasov, Ilya V.; Kislyuk, Alexander M.; Malinkovich, Mikhail D.; Parkhomenko, Yurii N.; Kobeleva, Svetlana P.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Sobolev, Nikolai A.

    2018-05-01

    We present an investigation into the magnetic sensing performance of magnetoelectric bilayered metglas/bidomain LiNbO3 long thin bars operating in a cantilever or free vibrating regime and under quasi-static and low-frequency resonant conditions. Bidomain single crystals of Y  +  128°-cut LiNbO3 were engineered by an improved diffusion annealing technique with a polarization macrodomain structure of the ‘head-to-head’ and ‘tail-to-tail’ type. Long composite bars with lengths of 30, 40 and 45 mm, as well as with and without attached small tip proof masses, were studied. ME coefficients as large as 550 V (cm · Oe)‑1, corresponding to a conversion ratio of 27.5 V Oe‑1, were obtained under resonance conditions at frequencies of the order of 100 Hz in magnetic bias fields as low as 2 Oe. Equivalent magnetic noise spectral densities down to 120 pT Hz‑1/2 at 10 Hz and to 68 pT Hz‑1/2 at a resonance frequency as low as 81 Hz were obtained for the 45 mm long cantilever bar with a tip proof mass of 1.2 g. In the same composite without any added mass the magnetic noise was shown to be as low as 37 pT Hz‑1/2 at a resonance frequency of 244 Hz and 1.2 pT Hz‑1/2 at 1335 Hz in a fixed cantilever and free vibrating regimes, respectively. A simple unidimensional dynamic model predicted the possibility to drop the low-frequency magnetic noise by more than one order of magnitude in case all the extrinsic noise sources are suppressed, especially those related to external vibrations, and the thickness ratio of the magnetic-to-piezoelectric phases is optimized. Thus, we have shown that such systems might find use in simple and sensitive room-temperature low-frequency magnetic sensors, e.g. for biomedical applications.

  5. The isolation of low frequency impact sounds in hotel construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, John J.; Dong, David W.

    2002-11-01

    One of the design challenges in the acoustical design of hotels is reducing low frequency sounds from footfalls occurring on both carpeted and hard-surfaced floors. Research on low frequency impact noise [W. Blazier and R. DuPree, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1521-1532 (1994)] resulted in a conclusion that in wood construction low frequency impact sounds were clearly audible and that feasible control methods were not available. The results of numerous FIIC (Field Impact Insulation Class) measurements performed in accordance with ASTM E1007 indicate the lack of correlation between FIIC ratings and the reaction of occupants in the room below. The measurements presented include FIIC ratings and sound pressure level measurements below the ASTM E1007 low frequency limit of 100 Hertz, and reveal that excessive sound levels in the frequency range of 63 to 100 Hertz correlate with occupant complaints. Based upon this history, a tentative criterion for maximum impact sound level in the low frequency range is presented. The results presented of modifying existing constructions to reduce the transmission of impact sounds at low frequencies indicate that there may be practical solutions to this longstanding problem.

  6. Mechanical characterisation of the TorPeDO: a low frequency gravitational force sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, D. J.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Yap, M. J.; Ward, R. L.; Shaddock, D. A.; McClelland, D. E.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.

    2017-07-01

    Newtonian noise is likely to be a future challenge at low frequencies for Advanced LIGO and other second generation gravitational wave detectors. We present the TorPeDO system: a dual torsion pendulum sensor designed to measure local gravitational forces to high precision. Gravitational forces induce a differential rotation between the two torsion beams, which is measured with an optical read-out. Both torsion pendulums have a common suspension point, tunable centre of mass, and resonant frequency. This produces a high level of mechanical common mode noise cancellation. We report on a controls prototype of the TorPeDO system, presenting the frequency response and tuning range of both pendulums. A noise budget and mechanical cross-coupling model for this system are also presented. We demonstrate frequency tuning of the two torsion pendulums to a difference of 4.3 μHz.

  7. Study on DFIG wind turbines control strategy for improving frequency response characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongmei; Wu, Di; Liu, Yanhua; Zhou, Zhiyu

    2012-01-01

    The active and reactive power decoupling control for the double-fed induction generator wind turbines(DFIG) does not play a positive role to the frequency response ability of power grid because it performs as the hidden inertia for the power grid. If we want to improve the transient frequency stability of the wind turbine when it is integrated with the system, we must ameliorate its frequency response characteristics. The inability of frequency control due to DFIG decoupling control could be overcome through releasing (or absorbing) a part of the kinetic energy stored in the rotor, so as to increase (or decrease) active power injected to the power system when the deviation of power system frequency appears. This paper discusses the mathematical model of the variable speed DFIG, including the aerodynamic model, pitch control system model, shaft model, generator model and inverter control model, and other key components, focusing on the mathematical model of the converters in rotor side and grid side. Based on the existing model of wind generator, the paper attaches the frequency control model on the platform of the simulation software DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can response quickly to transient frequency deviation and prove that wind farms can participate in the system frequency regulation to a certain extent. Finally, the result verifies the accuracy and plausibility of the inverter control model which attaches the frequency control module.

  8. Study on DFIG wind turbines control strategy for improving frequency response characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongmei; Wu, Di; Liu, Yanhua; Zhou, Zhiyu

    2011-12-01

    The active and reactive power decoupling control for the double-fed induction generator wind turbines(DFIG) does not play a positive role to the frequency response ability of power grid because it performs as the hidden inertia for the power grid. If we want to improve the transient frequency stability of the wind turbine when it is integrated with the system, we must ameliorate its frequency response characteristics. The inability of frequency control due to DFIG decoupling control could be overcome through releasing (or absorbing) a part of the kinetic energy stored in the rotor, so as to increase (or decrease) active power injected to the power system when the deviation of power system frequency appears. This paper discusses the mathematical model of the variable speed DFIG, including the aerodynamic model, pitch control system model, shaft model, generator model and inverter control model, and other key components, focusing on the mathematical model of the converters in rotor side and grid side. Based on the existing model of wind generator, the paper attaches the frequency control model on the platform of the simulation software DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can response quickly to transient frequency deviation and prove that wind farms can participate in the system frequency regulation to a certain extent. Finally, the result verifies the accuracy and plausibility of the inverter control model which attaches the frequency control module.

  9. A low noise interface circuit design of micro-machined gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Di, Xipeng; Yin, Liang; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-07-01

    The analyses of MEMS gyroscope interface circuit on thermal noise, 1/f noise and phase noise are made in this paper. A closed-loop differential driving circuit and a low-noise differential detecting circuit based on the high frequency modulation are designed to limit the noise. The interface chip is implemented in a standard 0.5 μm CMOS process. The test results show that the resolution of sensitive capacity can reach to 6.47 × 10-20 F at the bandwidth of 60 Hz. The measuring range is ± 200°/s and the nonlinearity is 310 ppm. The output noise density is 5.8^\\circ/({{h}}\\cdot \\sqrt{{Hz}}). The angular random walk (allen-variance) is 0.092^\\circ/\\sqrt{{{h}}} and the bias instability is 2.63°/h. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61204121), the National Hi-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA041107), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. HIT.NSRIF.2013040).

  10. Low-noise quantum frequency down-conversion of indistinguishable photons (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambs, Benjamin; Kettler, Jan; Bock, Matthias; Becker, Jonas; Arend, Carsten; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Becher, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Single-photon sources based on quantum dots have been shown to exhibit almost ideal properties such as high brightness and purity in terms of clear anti-bunching as well as high two-photon interference visibilities of the emitted photons, making them promising candidates for different quantum information applications such as quantum computing, quantum communication and quantum teleportation. However, as most single-photon sources also quantum dots typically emit light at wavelengths of electronic transitions within the visible or the near infrared range. In order to establish quantum networks with remote building blocks, low-loss single photons at telecom wavelengths are preferable, though. Despite recent progress on emitters of telecom-photons, the most efficient single-photon sources still work at shorter wavelengths. On that matter, quantum frequency down-conversion, being a nonlinear optical process, has been used in recent years to alter the wavelength of single photons to the telecom wavelength range while conserving their nonclassical properties. Characteristics such as lifetime, first-order coherence, anti-bunching and entanglement have been shown to be conserved or even improved due to background suppression during the conversion process, while the conservation of indistinguishability was yet to be shown. Here we present our experimental results on quantum frequency down-conversion of single photons emitted by an InAs/GaAs quantum dot at 903.6 nm following a pulsed excitation of a p-shell exciton at 884 nm. The emitted fluorescence photons are mixed with a strong pump-field at 2155 nm inside a periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguide and converted to 1557 nm. Common issues of a large background due to Raman-scattered pump-light photons spectrally overlapping with the converted single photons could largely be avoided, as the pump-wavelength was chosen to be fairly longer than the target wavelength. Additional narrowband spectral filtering at the

  11. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Work to develop and demonstrate the technology of structural ceramics for automotive engines and similar applications is described. Long-range technology is being sought to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. The Advanced Turbine Technology Application Project (ATTAP) test bed engine is designed such that, when installed in a 3,000 pound inertia weight automobile, it will provide low emissions, 42 miles per gallon fuel economy on diesel fuel, multifuel capability, costs competitive with current spark ignition engines, and noise and safety characteristics that meet Federal standards.

  12. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep