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Sample records for turkey laws regulations

  1. Tribal Laws and Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works collaboratively with tribes, states, and local governments to preserve our land. A number of federal statutes or laws form the legal basis for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response programs.

  2. MAIN ETHICAL BREACHES IN MULTICENTER CLINICAL TRIALS REGULATIONS OF TURKEY

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekci, P. Elif

    2017-01-01

    Turkey has been a growing market for multicenter clinical trials for the last ten years and is considered among the top ten countries in terms of potential study subject populations. The objective of increasing the share of Turkey in multicenter clinical trials is strongly supported. This ambitious goal of Turkey raises the need to have regulations in compliance with other leading countries conducting clinical trials. The latest published Turkish regulations on clinical trials are structured in compliance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines and in harmony with the regulations of other leading countries in clinical research, such as the US. There are still flaws in Turkish regulation with the risk of violating human subjects’ rights and issues with responsible conduct of research. The aim of this article is to compare Turkish clinical trials regulations with those of the US, to determine if there exists any incompatibility between the countries’ regulations and, if so, how to ameliorate these. The main flaws in Turkish clinical trials regulations are identified as follows: lack of definition of the term “human subject; absence of explicit referral to the unacceptability of Conflict of Interest (COI) and taking measures to avoid it; exiguity of emphasis on plurality of the IRB members; nonexistence of a clear expression that this is research; and clinical equipoise, regarding the treatment of the existing clinical problem and lack of integration with international accreditation systems for Institutional Review Boards.

  3. Regulating chemicals: law, science, and the unbearable burdens of regulation.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Mandrioli, Daniele; Cranor, Carl F

    2015-03-18

    The challenges of regulating industrial chemicals remain unresolved in the United States. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 was the first legislation to extend coverage to the regulation of industrial chemicals, both existing and newly registered. However, decisions related to both law and science that were made in passing this law inevitably rendered it ineffectual. Attempts to fix these shortcomings have not been successful. In light of the European Union's passage of innovative principles and requirements for chemical regulation, it is no longer possible to deny the opportunity and need for reform in US law and practice.

  4. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  5. Bed Bug Laws and Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    21 states have some level of regulation with regard to bed bugs. Most of these requirements focus on hotels and landlords or other property managers. The Department of Housing and Urban Development has guidance on controlling bed bugs in public housing.

  6. SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT, GUIDE, LAW AND REGULATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Board of Health, Helena.

    THIS REPORT CONSISTS OF THREE PARTS--(1) GUIDE, (2) LAWS, AND (3) REGULATIONS FOR PROVIDING A HEALTHFUL SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT IN MONTANA. INFORMATION INCLUDED WILL ASSIST IN THE PROPER DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW AND REMODELED SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND IN THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF A HEALTHFUL ENVIRONMENT FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND PERSONNEL. PART…

  7. Mining law and regulations of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The mining law and regulations of Mexico have been of considerable interest to mining lawyers in the united States. Recent wide-ranging changes in Mexican mining regulations have come at a time when the mining industry hopes to broaden its scope to contend with worldwide competition. Article 27 of the Federal Constitution of Mexico governs the mining of metallic, nonmetallic, and coal materials. New regulation implementing this law became effective on December 10, 1990. These regulations, generally regarded as providing far greater flexibility in the acquisition and maintenance of mineral rights, also provide substantial additional flexibility in the ability of non-Mexican companies to own concessions. The Laws section of this book includes: General Provision, ministry of National Patrimony, mining concession, beneficiating plant concessions, execution and proof of exploitation work oppositions, national mineral reserves, special concessions on National Mineral Reserves, Public/Registry of mining, mining promotion and of the assistance to small miners, Industrial Mining Reserves and violations and penalties. The regulations section includes: general dispositions, mineral reserves, mining assignments and concessions, right of mining concession holders, obligations of the holders of mining concessions, mining companies, mining public registry, mining experts, inspections, sanctions and remedies.

  8. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Melike; Karadeniz, Gulistan; Demir, Fikri; Karadeniz, Cem; Kaya, Halide; Yenibertiz, Derya; Taylan, Mahsuk; Yilmaz, Sureyya; Sen, Velat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 ± 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001). The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television) broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5%) among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5%) among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit. PMID:26785961

  9. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  10. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  11. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  12. 50 CFR 216.4 - Other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other laws and regulations. 216.4 Section... MAMMALS Introduction § 216.4 Other laws and regulations. (a) Federal. Nothing in this part, nor any permit... relating to wildlife and fisheries, health, quarantine, agriculture, or customs. (b) State laws...

  13. 50 CFR 216.4 - Other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other laws and regulations. 216.4 Section... MAMMALS Introduction § 216.4 Other laws and regulations. (a) Federal. Nothing in this part, nor any permit... relating to wildlife and fisheries, health, quarantine, agriculture, or customs. (b) State laws...

  14. 4 CFR 8.1 - Applicable law and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicable law and regulations. 8.1 Section 8.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM INSURANCE AND ANNUITIES § 8.1 Applicable law and regulations. The provisions of subpart G, title 5, United States Code and implementing regulations for...

  15. 4 CFR 8.1 - Applicable law and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law and regulations. 8.1 Section 8.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM INSURANCE AND ANNUITIES § 8.1 Applicable law and regulations. The provisions of subpart G, title 5, United States Code and implementing regulations for...

  16. 4 CFR 8.1 - Applicable law and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law and regulations. 8.1 Section 8.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM INSURANCE AND ANNUITIES § 8.1 Applicable law and regulations. The provisions of subpart G, title 5, United States Code and implementing regulations for...

  17. [Oral and maxillofacial radiology: laws and regulations].

    PubMed

    van der Stelt, P F

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, medical imaging has been one of its most important applications. In the course of years, understanding of the potentially harmful effects of radiation on tissue has substantially increased as a result of experience and scientific studies. This has led to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the organisation that is now regarded as the most authoritative in the field of information on radiation and radiation protection. In most countries the law governing radiation is based on the 3 principles of the ICRP: justification, ALARA and dosage limits. For the Dutch situation, these are the Nuclear Energy Act (Kernenergiewet) and the Radiation Protection Decree (Besluit stralingsbescherming). The Practice Guidelines on Radiology are available for the practical implementation of the regulations. By working according to the Practice Guidelines, the dentist satisfies the legal regulations, but, more importantly, he can apply X-ray diagnostics in a manner that is safe for him, the dental team, the patients and all other visitors of the practice.

  18. 50 CFR 216.4 - Other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.4 Other laws and regulations. (a) Federal. Nothing in this part, nor any...

  19. 50 CFR 216.4 - Other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.4 Other laws and regulations. (a) Federal. Nothing in this part, nor any...

  20. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  1. 19 CFR 122.30 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.30 Section 122.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.30 Other Customs laws and...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1032 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other Federal laws and regulations. 416.1032 Section 416.1032 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... § 416.1032 Other Federal laws and regulations. The State will comply with the provisions of...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1032 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other Federal laws and regulations. 416.1032 Section 416.1032 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... § 416.1032 Other Federal laws and regulations. The State will comply with the provisions of...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1032 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Federal laws and regulations. 416.1032 Section 416.1032 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... § 416.1032 Other Federal laws and regulations. The State will comply with the provisions of...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1032 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other Federal laws and regulations. 416.1032 Section 416.1032 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... § 416.1032 Other Federal laws and regulations. The State will comply with the provisions of...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1032 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other Federal laws and regulations. 416.1032 Section 416.1032 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... § 416.1032 Other Federal laws and regulations. The State will comply with the provisions of...

  7. 4 CFR 6.1 - Applicable law and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law and regulations. 6.1 Section 6.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM ATTENDANCE AND LEAVE § 6.1 Applicable law and regulations. The provision of subpart E, title 5, United States Code and the Office of Personnel...

  8. 4 CFR 6.1 - Applicable law and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law and regulations. 6.1 Section 6.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM ATTENDANCE AND LEAVE § 6.1 Applicable law and regulations. The provision of subpart E, title 5, United States Code and the Office of Personnel...

  9. 7 CFR 11.4 - Other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other laws and regulations. 11.4 Section 11.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION National Appeals Divison Rules of Procedures § 11.4 Other laws and regulations. (a) The provisions of the Administrative Procedure...

  10. 4 CFR 6.1 - Applicable law and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicable law and regulations. 6.1 Section 6.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM ATTENDANCE AND LEAVE § 6.1 Applicable law and regulations. The provision of subpart E, title 5, United States Code and the Office of Personnel...

  11. 7 CFR 11.4 - Other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other laws and regulations. 11.4 Section 11.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION National Appeals Divison Rules of Procedures § 11.4 Other laws and regulations. (a) The provisions of the Administrative Procedure...

  12. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  14. Social health insurance without corporate actors: changes in self-regulation in Germany, Poland and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Claus; Agartan, Tuba I; Kaminska, Monika Ewa

    2013-06-01

    Social health insurance in Western Europe has for many years been characterized by self-regulation in which specific conditions of healthcare financing and provision have been regulated by social-insurance institutions through mutual self-governance. However, the principle of self-regulation has recently been weakened by increased state regulation and market competition, which were introduced in response to economic and social changes. Even in Germany, which has been regarded as an "ideal-type" health insurance system and in which self-regulation remains at the core of healthcare governance, more direct state intervention has gained in importance. On the other hand, in countries such as Poland and Turkey, where this tradition of self-regulation is missing, social health insurance is deemed a financing instrument but not an instrument of governance and corporate actors are not accorded a significant role in regulation. This article investigates how social health insurance systems are regulated in contexts in which corporate actors' role is either diminishing or absent by focusing on three crucial areas of regulation: financing, the remuneration of medical doctors, and the definition of the healthcare benefit package. In Germany, state regulation has increased in healthcare financing and remuneration while the role of corporate actors has grown in the definition of the benefits package. In Poland and Turkey, on the other hand, reforms have maintained the status quo in terms of the strong regulatory, budgetary, and managerial powers of the state and very limited involvement of corporate actors.

  15. 40 CFR 146.2 - Law authorizing these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law authorizing these regulations. 146... (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 146.2 Law... to the injection of hazardous waste are also authorized by the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  16. 40 CFR 146.2 - Law authorizing these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law authorizing these regulations. 146... (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 146.2 Law... to the injection of hazardous waste are also authorized by the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  17. The Regulation of Public Social Life: Communication Law Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Develops a taxonomy of the indirect, intentional, or unintended regulations which influence social interaction in public spaces. Suggests an expansion of the scope of communication law. Describes how the taxonomy developed through a case study of a suburban municipality, encompassing zoning laws, penal codes, minimum drinking and driving ages, and…

  18. 20 CFR 404.1632 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 404.1632 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and Requirements... Federal laws and regulations that directly affect its responsibilities in carrying out the...

  19. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  20. 19 CFR 122.2 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.2 Section 122.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.2 Other...

  1. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    PubMed

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  2. Competition law and British natural gas regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    British Gas (BG) is a seriously successful monopolist which, since its 1986 privatisation, is acing increased regulation by the Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS). OFGAS is the first public body specifically created to regulate a European gas industry. It employs a rate-capping formula instead of the more labour intensive rate-of-retum method favoured in North America. Despite initial criticisms, OFGAS has surprised industry observers with efficacious results. This article succinctly discusses the process of natural gas industry privatisation in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the development of a British type of [open quotes]open access.[close quotes] Contemporary British gas regulation is a distinct paradigm involving the privatisation of a vertically integrated pipeline system coupled with an altemative regulatory method. These regulatory results include lower prices for core customers and the promotion of third party direct sales within the U.K. Since Britain leads the European Community (E.C.) in common carriage provisions, the regulatory r6gime here provides a benchmark for the other Member States.

  3. Violence and mass media: are laws and regulations effective?

    PubMed

    Wulff, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In Germany, there are several laws and legal and administrative regulations restricting presentation and propagation of violence in mass media. They have proven to be partly effective. Whilst control and supervision of public media is feasible, the containment of what is distributed over the internet proves to be very difficult. It is well recognized that laws and regulations can be only one part of protection for children and youngsters; school, kindergarten and above all the parents must be educated and held responsible for creating media competence in children and adolescents.

  4. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

  5. Opioid prescribing: guidelines, laws, rules, regulations, policies, best practices.

    PubMed

    McDonald, James

    2013-11-01

    Prescription drug abuse, misuse and unintentional overdose deaths are major public health concerns and have captured the attention of regulators at every level. There is no shortage of guidelines, laws, rules, regulations, and policies regarding opioid prescribing. Physicians struggle with their duty to treat pain, and yet balance this against the risk to patients as well as the potential for diversion. There are gaps in policy and resources such as lack of interdisciplinary pain clinics, addiction treatment, and education for prescribers and patients.

  6. Obstacles to Special Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Turkey: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meral, Bekir Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Turkey regulates the special education of students with disabilities and, particularly, those who have intellectual disabilities (ID) based on international and national legal texts. However, the gap between law and practice cannot be denied. The existence of obstacles to special education for students with disabilities or ID continues in Turkey.…

  7. Washington State's Laws Regulating Home-Based Instruction. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Terry; Kelly, Thomas J.; Riggers, Marcia L.; Dyer, Melinda

    This publication was put together by the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in response to questions about laws concerning home-based instruction passed in 1985. Part 1 contains responses to questions relating to Chapter 28A.225 RCW and Chapter 28A.200 RCW; topics covered include regulations governing compulsory school…

  8. 40 CFR 146.2 - Law authorizing these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....2 Section 146.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 146.2 Law authorizing these regulations. The Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et seq. authorizes...

  9. (Compendium of State Laws and Regulations for Youth Camps).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhiser, Judy, Comp.; van der Smissen, Betty, Comp.

    State laws and regulations applicable to youth camp operations provided by state agencies are organized in this Compendium under ten major headings; personnel; program safety; personal health, first aid, and medical services; site and facilities; sanitation; food service; transportation; primitive camping and out-of-camp trips; day camping; and…

  10. Kohlrausch regulating function and other conservation laws in electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Vlastimil; Gas, Bohuslav

    2007-01-01

    The Kohlrausch regulating function (KRF) is a conservation law (conservation function), which is held in electrophoresis and which enables calculation of the so-called adjusted concentrations of constituents. The KRF is not the only conservation function and, depending on the complexity of the electrophoretic system, other conservation laws may be obeyed having a broader range of applicability. The conservation laws are tightly related to system eigenmobilities and system zones (system peaks). In principle, no system eigenmobility is exactly zero, but in most practical cases at least one system's eigenmobility is close to zero. The existence of the close-to-zero eigenmobility inherently points to the existence of a conservation function and a system zone which is stationary. The stationary system zone is called injection zone, stagnant zone, water peak, or solvent dip. Electrophoretic (electromigration) systems can be divided into two types: (i) conservation systems, in which the absolute value of at least one system eigenmobility is close to zero and where at least one conservation law is obeyed and (ii) nonconservation systems, where no system eigenmobility is close to zero and no conservation law is obeyed. The paper reviews work dealing with conservation functions in electromigration, derives some "historical" conservation functions in a new way, derives several conservation functions for systems of multivalent electrolytes, and discusses electrophoretic systems that have nonconservation behavior. In some typical instances, the conservation functions are simulated by means of a dynamic simulation tool and depicted graphically.

  11. 21 CFR 1003.5 - Effect of regulations on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liability at common law or under statutory law. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of regulations on other laws. 1003.5... Effect of regulations on other laws. The remedies provided for in this subchapter shall be in addition...

  12. 14 CFR § 1274.939 - Application of Federal, State, and Local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special..., State, and Local Laws and Regulations July 2002 (a) Federal Laws and Regulations. This Cooperative... applicable to this Cooperative Agreement on the date the Agreement is executed. The Recipient...

  13. Regulations of the Forest Law, 29 June 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    These Regulations set forth the administration and duties of various government departments under the Mexican Forest Law. They provide that the National Forest Administration is, among other things, to promote operations designed for the conservation, protection, and restoration of forest resources, especially with respect to disasters of any kind that affect forests, such as pestilence, fires, disease, floods, and acid rain, as well as other destructive and contaminating elements. Further provisions of the Regulations describe efforts to aid reforestation and silviculture to be undertaken by the Secretariat and activities with respect to use permits and forest management. In its efforts to aid reforestation, the Secretariat is to establish nurseries, give assistance to local bodies to establish nurseries, and support reforestation programs financially. Regulations of the General Law on Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection with Respect to Environmental Impact of 6 June 1988 contain provisions requiring the Secretariat of Urban Development and Ecology to formulate general rules on the environmental impact involved in the use of forests. These rules are to set forth measures on prevention, improvement, preservation, restoration, and control. The Secretariat is also to issue ecological protection restrictions on the use of forest resources, which are to be relied on in the evaluation of proposed forest use projects. The Regulations also set forth procedures to be followed in examining use permit applications and information that must be included in such applications. See Diario Oficial, Vol. 417, No. 5, 7 June 1988, p. 28.

  14. 49 CFR 397.3 - State and local laws, ordinances, and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State and local laws, ordinances, and regulations... laws, ordinances, and regulations. Every motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must be driven and parked in compliance with the laws, ordinances, and regulations of the jurisdiction in which it...

  15. 30 CFR 931.13 - Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations... § 931.13 Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations. Under the authority of sections 505(b) of SMCRA... following provisions of New Mexico law and regulation are hereby preempted and superseded as they may...

  16. 30 CFR 931.13 - Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations... § 931.13 Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations. Under the authority of sections 505(b) of SMCRA... following provisions of New Mexico law and regulation are hereby preempted and superseded as they may...

  17. 30 CFR 931.13 - Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations... § 931.13 Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations. Under the authority of sections 505(b) of SMCRA... following provisions of New Mexico law and regulation are hereby preempted and superseded as they may...

  18. 30 CFR 931.13 - Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations... § 931.13 Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations. Under the authority of sections 505(b) of SMCRA... following provisions of New Mexico law and regulation are hereby preempted and superseded as they may...

  19. Determination of temperature dependent Henry's law constants of polychlorinated naphthalenes: Application to air-sea exchange in Izmir Bay, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Adali, Mutlu

    2016-12-01

    The Henry's law constant (H) is a crucial variable to investigate the air-water exchange of persistent organic pollutants. H values for 32 polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners were measured using an inert gas-stripping technique at five temperatures ranging between 5 and 35 °C. H values in deionized water (at 25 °C) varied between 0.28 ± 0.08 Pa m3 mol-1 (PCN-73) and 18.01 ± 0.69 Pa m3 mol-1 (PCN-42). The agreement between the measured and estimated H values from the octanol-water and octanol-air partition coefficients was good (measured/estimated ratio = 1.00 ± 0.41, average ± SD). The calculated phase change enthalpies (ΔHH) were within the interval previously determined for other several semivolatile organic compounds (42.0-106.4 kJ mol-1). Measured H values, paired atmospheric and aqueous concentrations and meteorological variables were also used to reveal the level and direction of air-sea exchange fluxes of PCNs at the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey. The net PCN air-sea exchange flux varied from -0.55 (volatilization, PCN-24/14) to 2.05 (deposition, PCN-23) ng m-2 day-1. PCN-19, PCN-24/14, PCN-42, and PCN-33/34/37 were mainly volatilized from seawater while the remaining congeners were mainly deposited. The overall number of the cases showing deposition was higher (67.9%) compared to volatilization (21.4%) and near equilibrium (10.7%).

  20. Conforming with current regulation in Turkey regarding the freezing of oocytes: A case report of the first pregnancy in Turkey achieved through oocyte vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Semra; Ulker, Kahraman; Pirkevi Çetinkaya, Caroline; Kumtepe Colakoglu, Yesim; Yelke, Hakan K.; Yilanlioglu, Cihangir

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To present the first pregnancy achieved in Turkey with frozen–warmed oocytes in a case with previous nine unsuccessful assisted reproductive technology (ART) attempts. Methods: The clinical follow-up of a 33-year-old female applying to our ART centre after a long and complicated history of infertility is described. Results: In April 2013, the woman attempted our centre for her 10th ART trial. She informed us on oocyte pick-up (OPU) day that her husband had been hospitalized following a car crush in Albania and was unable to travel to our clinic to give a sperm sample. We were therefore placed in the position of having to make an emergency decision. OPU was done and seven oocytes were retrieved. Six metaphase II (MII) oocytes out of seven Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COCs) were vitrified using the Kitazato Vitrification Cryotop Kit. Six months later, in November 2013, the patient applied for transfer. Two blastocysts were transferred and the ART trial resulted with a singleton pregnancy and the birth of a healthy new-born at term via cesarean section. Conclusion: Regulation Codes on Assisted Reproductive Procedures and Assisted Reproductive Technology Centres, published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, on 6 March 2010 forbade the freezing of gonad cells and tissues except when essential for medical reasons and stated that this would be specified later. However, the Regulation Codes published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, on 30 September 2014 provided no further clarification. Unfortunately, the wording of the regulations did not specifically address this unexpected emergency situation. However, we saw our decision to cryopreserve the oocytes as a valid interpretation of the regulations, bearing in mind also the requirement that sperm and oocyte in the IVF process must be those of a married couple. Turkish medicolegal regulations should be revised to increase the chances of more women taking advantage of the procedure

  1. Evaluation of the regulation changes in medical waste management in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eker, Hasan Hüseyin; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan; Sekman, Elif; Top, Selin

    2010-11-01

    In this study, a survey containing 28 questions concerning general information about the healthcare services, waste collection, training, waste quantities, storage and general evaluation was applied to 311 healthcare services. The response rate was 82%, which was considered acceptable for the evaluation of the results. The separate collection of medical waste and sharps was completely achieved in all of the healthcare services participating in the survey and 82.6% of the healthcare services used containers for separate collection of medical waste. Only 5% of the containers used for waste collection and temporary storage were inappropriate for collecting medical waste. Almost 33% of healthcare services organized courses monthly, 40% quarterly and 20% at least twice a year. A total of 88% of the hospitals have temporary storage depots for medical waste and all of these depots complied with the Medical Waste Control Regulation. The results of this study showed that the medical waste generation rate was 2.35 kg bed(-1) day(-1). The amount of liquid waste and sharps was determined for the first time in Turkey. The rate of separate collection for recyclables increased to 94%, having been 83% in 2006. The results indicate that in the period 2006-2009, the healthcare services conformed completely to the Medical Waste Control Regulation as it applied. Any deficiencies observed will be satisfied by precautionary actions that will be taken by hospital managers and local administrations.

  2. 42 CFR 423.2063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings..., regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and regulations pertaining to the Medicare programs, including, but... regulations, are binding on ALJs and the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the...

  3. 42 CFR 423.2063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings..., regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and regulations pertaining to the Medicare programs, including, but... regulations, are binding on ALJs and the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the...

  4. 42 CFR 423.2063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings..., regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and regulations pertaining to the Medicare programs, including, but... regulations, are binding on ALJs and the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the...

  5. 42 CFR 405.1063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings... Medicare Coverage Policies § 405.1063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and... the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the Administrator, CMS. Consistent...

  6. 42 CFR 405.1063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings... Medicare Coverage Policies § 405.1063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and... the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the Administrator, CMS. Consistent...

  7. 42 CFR 405.1063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings... Medicare Coverage Policies § 405.1063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and... the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the Administrator, CMS. Consistent...

  8. 42 CFR 405.1063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings... Medicare Coverage Policies § 405.1063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and... the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the Administrator, CMS. Consistent...

  9. 42 CFR 405.1063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings... Medicare Coverage Policies § 405.1063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings. (a) All laws and... the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the Administrator, CMS. Consistent...

  10. Obesity prevention: the role of policies, laws and regulations.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd A

    2008-06-05

    The commercial drivers of the obesity epidemic are so influential that obesity can be considered a robust sign of commercial success - consumers are buying more food, more cars and more energy-saving machines. It is unlikely that these powerful economic forces will change sufficiently in response to consumer desires to eat less and move more or corporate desires to be more socially responsible. When the free market creates substantial population detriments and health inequalities, government policies are needed to change the ground rules in favour of population benefits.Concerted action is needed from governments in four broad areas: provide leadership to set the agenda and show the way; advocate for a multi-sector response and establish the mechanisms for all sectors to engage and enhance action; develop and implement policies (including laws and regulations) to create healthier food and activity environments, and; secure increased and continued funding to reduce obesogenic environments and promote healthy eating and physical activity.Policies, laws and regulations are often needed to drive the environmental and social changes that, eventually, will have a sustainable impact on reducing obesity. An 'obesity impact assessment' on legislation such as public liability, urban planning, transport, food safety, agriculture, and trade may identify 'rules' which contribute to obesogenic environments. In other areas, such as marketing to children, school food, and taxes/levies, there may be opportunities for regulations to actively support obesity prevention. Legislation in other areas such as to reduce climate change may also contribute to obesity prevention ('stealth interventions'). A political willingness to use policy instruments to drive change will probably be an early hallmark of successful obesity prevention.

  11. Controversy over genetically modified organisms: the governing laws and regulations.

    PubMed

    Keatley, K L

    2000-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are increasingly becoming a topic of controversy in the U.S. and abroad. The public is questioning their safety and wanting the products labeled as genetically modified. There are other concerns from some of the scientific world and some government officials and organizations such as the Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) that question whether adequate research has been done to qualify GMOs as safe for long-term use. Of particular concern are the allergenic properties, a GMO may impart, possible transfer effects of antibiotic resistance (given that antibiotic resistant marker genes are used for many GMOs), the expression of previously unexpressed traits, and the drift of pollen from genetically modified crops. It has also been noted that the laws and regulations governing the biotechnology world are outdated, are not comprehensive, and span too many agencies. The primary agencies currently regulating biotechnology are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  12. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  13. 6 CFR 27.405 - Review and preemption of State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., promulgated regulation, ordinance, administrative action, order or decision, or common law standard of a State... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review and preemption of State laws and... CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.405 Review and preemption of State laws...

  14. 42 CFR 423.2063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings..., ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS... on ALJs and the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the CMS...

  15. 42 CFR 423.2063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings..., ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS... on ALJs and the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the CMS...

  16. State Board of Education Rules for Handicapped Students (Including Federal Regulations and State Law).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education.

    The handbook outlines Texas State Board of Education (SBOE) rules regarding the education of handicapped students. A chart format is used to present applicable Federal regulations, state law, and SBOE rules. The following topics are among those considered under clarifications of definitions in federal regulations and state law: handicapped…

  17. 36 CFR 228.46 - Application of other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of other laws and regulations. 228.46 Section 228.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.46 Application of other laws and regulations....

  18. 36 CFR 228.46 - Application of other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of other laws and regulations. 228.46 Section 228.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.46 Application of other laws and regulations....

  19. 36 CFR 228.46 - Application of other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of other laws and regulations. 228.46 Section 228.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.46 Application of other laws and regulations....

  20. 36 CFR 228.46 - Application of other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of other laws and regulations. 228.46 Section 228.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.46 Application of other laws and regulations....

  1. 36 CFR 228.46 - Application of other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of other laws and regulations. 228.46 Section 228.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.46 Application of other laws and regulations....

  2. Laws and Regulations for Licensing Non-Public Educational Institutions to Confer Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, Columbia.

    The laws and regulations of the State of South Carolina governing the licensing of private postsecondary institutions to confer degrees are presented. The institutions covered by these laws and regulations include specialized trade schools, vocational and technical institutions, junior and community colleges, senior colleges, universities,…

  3. 21 CFR 1003.5 - Effect of regulations on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of regulations on other laws. 1003.5 Section 1003.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Effect of regulations on other laws. The remedies provided for in this subchapter shall be in addition...

  4. 21 CFR 1003.5 - Effect of regulations on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of regulations on other laws. 1003.5 Section 1003.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Effect of regulations on other laws. The remedies provided for in this subchapter shall be in addition...

  5. 30 CFR 931.13 - Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.13 Preemption of New Mexico laws and regulations. Under the authority of sections 505(b) of...

  6. IDEA 1997: Let's Make It Work. Preliminary Analysis: The Law and Regulations. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This publication is designed to assist teachers, parents, and administrators in understanding what the recently reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, both law and regulations, now requires, and how the provisions of both the law and regulations affect services and programs for children with disabilities. It provides information…

  7. Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

  8. Knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS: development of the HIV/AIDS and the law scale.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, F A; Black, S A; O'Boyle, M; Jones, P

    1999-06-01

    42 middle-aged and older adults, ranging in age from 51 to 85 years, completed 10 items dealing with the assessment of knowledge regarding laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS. Participants also completed 40 items involving knowledge of risks for HIV infection. The Cronbach coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability coefficient on the HIV/AIDS and the Law Scale were .74 and .83, respectively. Over-all, the grand mean for correct answers was 46.9%, whereas the grand means for incorrect answers and "don't know" responses were 13.6% and 39.5%, suggesting substantial lack of knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS. Women (50%) and younger participants (51 to 66 years old; 48.2%) showed more of this knowledge (50%) than men (43.0%) and older participants (46.2%). The sample reported a substantial amount of knowledge regarding HIV transmission assessed with factual (92.2% correct) and misconception (87.5% correct) items. The correlation between this knowledge and knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS was .42 (p < .01). Research with this scale using adolescents and young adults as well as the utility of the scale in areas of clinical, legal, and policy development are discussed.

  9. 29 CFR 500.2 - Compliance with State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with State laws and regulations. 500.2 Section 500.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.2 Compliance...

  10. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  11. 42 CFR 417.478 - Requirements of other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements of other laws and regulations. 417.478 Section 417.478 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Contract Requirements § 417.478 Requirements of other laws...

  12. 6 CFR 27.405 - Review and preemption of State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review and preemption of State laws and regulations. 27.405 Section 27.405 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.405 Review and preemption of State laws...

  13. 6 CFR 27.405 - Review and preemption of State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review and preemption of State laws and regulations. 27.405 Section 27.405 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.405 Review and preemption of State laws...

  14. 6 CFR 27.405 - Review and preemption of State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review and preemption of State laws and regulations. 27.405 Section 27.405 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.405 Review and preemption of State laws...

  15. Laws and Regulations Governing Teacher Education and Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailey, Paul W.

    This document covers 1) sections of Ohio law governing teacher education and certification, types of certificates, standards for certification, and renewal and revocation of certificates; 2) definitions and general information; 3) administrative and supervisory certificates; 4) elementary and kindergarten-primary teaching certificates; 5) high…

  16. Analysis of environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Aynur Aydın; Turker, Ozhan

    2011-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) System, which embodies the "prevention principle" of the environmental law, is an important tool for environmental protection. This tool has a private importance for Turkey since it is a developing country, and it entered the Turkish law in 1983 with the Environmental Law. Besides, the EIA Regulation, which shows the application principles, became effective in 1993. Because Turkey is a candidate for European Union (EU), the EIA Regulation has been changed due to the EU compliance procedure, and its latest version became valid in 2008. This study aims to emphasize The EIA system in Turkey to supervise the efficiency of this procedure and point the success level. In the introduction part, general EIA concept, its importance, and some notations are mentioned. Following that, the legislation, which builds the EIA system, has been analyzed starting from the 1982 Turkish Constitution. Then, the legislation rules are explained due to the basic steps of the EIA procedure. In order to shed light upon the application, the EIA final decisions given until today, the results, and their distributions to the industries are assessed. In the final part of the study, a SWOT analysis is made to mention the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats of the EIA system in Turkey.

  17. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Law & psychiatry: the evolution of laws regulating psychiatric commitment in France.

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, Raphaël; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Petitjean, François

    2013-07-01

    This column reviews the evolution of French laws governing psychiatric commitment, culminating in the July 2011 Act, which was opposed by most professional organizations. The 2011 Act has maintained the two traditional French approaches to involuntary treatment: at the request of a third person and upon a decision by a prefect representing the government. However, the 2011 Act introduced major innovations into French practices: systematic review by a judge, a 72-hour observation period, and the possibility of compulsory community treatment.

  19. Technology, Free Expression, and the Law: Should the Internet be Regulated in the Same Manner as the Broadcast Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Examines questions of Internet regulation by comparison with other forms of media and regulations applying to them. Discusses legal issues of free speech, content regulation, intellectual property rights, and commercial law. Concludes that in law-enforcement terms, the Internet is different from mass media and cannot be regulated easily. (DSK)

  20. The Effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants (hpp) on Agro-Life at Rural Land Regulation in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Bitik, E.; Cetin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is one of the self-sufficient in foodstuffs and globally ranks as 7th significant agricultural exporter in the world. Main trading partners are the European Union, the United States and the Middle East. As known, agricultural production is dependent on factors including efficient and effective use of all inputs ranging from those natural resources as in land and water to well-trained human resources as labour at the production. The socio-economic aspects of this sector take several forms ranging from the incomes of the primary producers. Rural land regulation is a necessity for rural areas and is regarded as a useful instrument for improving farmer's incomes and life standards. The irrigation system, established during the rural regulation/land consolidation period of large-scale farming, is insufficiently adjusted to the new land tenure structures. The government is especially in the process of water management with hydroelectric power plants. This process produces energy that is required but effects negatively the rivers and agricultural, environmental, climatic conditions. Rivers are vessels of the nature. Free flowing rivers give life to all nature. Most of the studies indicate that Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) affects the surface and ground-water management, natural life, agricultural productivity, socio-economic situation at agricultural regions and agro-life related with immigration. This study emphasizes the effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants which are used in transformation of water as a renewable natural resource into electricity power from the perspective of environmental policies and rural regulation.

  1. Obstacles to Special Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meral, Bekir Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has regulations in place with regard to the special education of students with intellectual disabilities on the axis of international and national legal texts. However, the gap between law and practice cannot be denied. The existence of obstacles to special education for students with intellectual disabilities (ID) still continues in…

  2. 31 CFR 536.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 536.101 Section 536.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS...

  3. 31 CFR 536.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 536.101 Section 536.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS...

  4. 31 CFR 536.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 536.101 Section 536.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS...

  5. 31 CFR 536.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 536.101 Section 536.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS...

  6. 31 CFR 536.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 536.101 Section 536.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS...

  7. 31 CFR 510.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 510.101 Section 510.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA...

  8. 31 CFR 510.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 510.101 Section 510.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA...

  9. 31 CFR 510.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 510.101 Section 510.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA...

  10. 31 CFR 510.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 510.101 Section 510.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA...

  11. 31 CFR 558.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 558.101 Section 558.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN...

  12. Digest of State Laws and Regulations for School Language, Speech, and Hearing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Elaine, Ed.; Bolick, Nancy, Ed.

    Summarized in the digest are state laws and regulations relating to educational programs for children with speech, hearing and language problems. It is recommended that the digest be used in conjunction with model regulations developed by the American Speech and Hearing Association to serve the following purposes: to facilitate better…

  13. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  14. 31 CFR 596.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 596.101 Section 596.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM...

  15. 31 CFR 552.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 552.101 Section 552.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN...

  16. 31 CFR 552.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 552.101 Section 552.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.939 - Application of Federal, State, and Local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.939... and Regulations July 2002 (a) Federal Laws and Regulations. This Cooperative Agreement shall be... this Cooperative Agreement on the date the Agreement is executed. The Recipient understands that...

  18. 31 CFR 543.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 543.101 Section 543.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE...

  19. 31 CFR 592.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 592.101 Section 592.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS...

  20. 31 CFR 592.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 592.101 Section 592.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS...

  1. 31 CFR 592.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 592.101 Section 592.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS...

  2. 31 CFR 592.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 592.101 Section 592.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS...

  3. 31 CFR 592.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 592.101 Section 592.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS...

  4. 31 CFR 542.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 542.101 Section 542.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN...

  5. 31 CFR 542.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 542.101 Section 542.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN...

  6. 31 CFR 542.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 542.101 Section 542.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN...

  7. 31 CFR 542.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 542.101 Section 542.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN...

  8. 31 CFR 542.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 542.101 Section 542.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN...

  9. 31 CFR 548.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 548.101 Section 548.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS...

  10. 31 CFR 548.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 548.101 Section 548.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS...

  11. 31 CFR 548.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 548.101 Section 548.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS...

  12. 31 CFR 548.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 548.101 Section 548.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS...

  13. 31 CFR 548.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 548.101 Section 548.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS...

  14. 31 CFR 535.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 535.101 Section 535.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN ASSETS...

  15. 31 CFR 562.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 562.101 Section 562.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN...

  16. 31 CFR 562.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 562.101 Section 562.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN...

  17. 31 CFR 562.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 562.101 Section 562.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN...

  18. 31 CFR 562.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 562.101 Section 562.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN...

  19. 31 CFR 545.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 545.101 Section 545.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN...

  20. 31 CFR 551.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 551.101 Section 551.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA...

  1. 31 CFR 551.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 551.101 Section 551.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA...

  2. 31 CFR 551.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 551.101 Section 551.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA...

  3. 31 CFR 551.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 551.101 Section 551.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA...

  4. 31 CFR 551.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. 551.101 Section 551.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA...

  5. 40 CFR 146.2 - Law authorizing these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorizing these regulations. The Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et seq. authorizes these....2 Section 146.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... to the injection of hazardous waste are also authorized by the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  6. 40 CFR 146.2 - Law authorizing these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorizing these regulations. The Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et seq. authorizes these....2 Section 146.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... to the injection of hazardous waste are also authorized by the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  7. Special Education Law: Case Summaries and Federal Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Denzinger, Carol A.

    This document presents summaries of state and federal special education court cases from approximately 1980 through 1992 and the federal regulations for Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as amended through March 1993. Cases are grouped by issue addressed and include a citation and a one-paragraph summary of the…

  8. Democracy Related Units in Social Studies Curriculums Based on Self-Regulation Strategies: A Comparison of Turkey and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eker, Cevat; Incirci, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the units related to democracy concept of Social Studies Curriculums applied in Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of Turkey. The goals of the study indicated in Democracy related unit in Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey is examined comparatively with North Rhine-Westphalia State of Germany based on the…

  9. [Core principles for the regulation of placement subject to public law in psychiatric hospitals - with explanations].

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    While the provisions of the highest courts concerning the involuntary commitment and treatment in psychiatric hospitals of people unable to give their consent are being implemented, in many federal states corresponding adjustments to the rules governing involuntary commitment in accordance with the mental health laws and laws on involuntary commitment are still pending. In states where new regulations do exist, legal experts express doubts that they conform to the Constitution and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The DGPPN has formulated key parameters for involuntary commitment from a clinical perspective, which should be taken into account in the new regulations of the individual federal states.

  10. Transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The cornerstone events of transplantation history in Turkey are summarized herein. In 1975, we performed the first living-related renal transplant in Turkey. We followed this in 1978 with the first deceased donor kidney transplantation, using an organ supplied by Eurotransplant. In 1979, the law on harvesting, storage, grafting, and transplantation of organs and tissues was enacted; later that year, the first local deceased donor kidney transplantation was performed by our team. In 1988, another groundbreaking event in Turkey was successfully achieved: the first cadaveric liver transplantation. In 1990, the first pediatric living-related segmental liver transplantation in Turkey, the region, and Europe was performed by our team. One month later, an adult-to-adult living-related liver transplantation was successfully performed. In May 1992, we performed the first combined liver-kidney transplantation from a living-related donor, which was the first operation of its kind. To date, we have performed 2,084 kidney and, since 1988, 439 liver transplantations. During 29 years of solid organ transplantation history in Turkey, 20,794 kidney transplants have been performed nationwide in 62 different centers, as well as 6,565 liver, 621 heart, and 168 pancreas transplants. In 2001, the Ministry of Health established the National Coordination Center as an umbrella organization to promote transplantation activities, especially for deceased donor organ procurement. Transplantation activities are accelerating daily throughout the country, but deceased donors are still far below the desired rates.

  11. 15 CFR 2.2 - Provisions of law and regulations thereunder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... thereunder. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING AND SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 2.2 Provisions of law and regulations..., compromise, or settlement in an amount of $2,500 or less made pursuant to this section shall be paid by...

  12. 15 CFR 2.2 - Provisions of law and regulations thereunder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... thereunder. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING AND SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 2.2 Provisions of law and regulations..., compromise, or settlement in an amount of $2,500 or less made pursuant to this section shall be paid by...

  13. 15 CFR 2.2 - Provisions of law and regulations thereunder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... thereunder. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING AND SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 2.2 Provisions of law and regulations..., compromise, or settlement in an amount of $2,500 or less made pursuant to this section shall be paid by...

  14. 15 CFR 2.2 - Provisions of law and regulations thereunder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... thereunder. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING AND SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 2.2 Provisions of law and regulations..., compromise, or settlement in an amount of $2,500 or less made pursuant to this section shall be paid by...

  15. 15 CFR 2.2 - Provisions of law and regulations thereunder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... thereunder. 2.2 Section 2.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING AND SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 2.2 Provisions of law and regulations..., compromise, or settlement in an amount of $2,500 or less made pursuant to this section shall be paid by...

  16. 42 CFR 494.20 - Condition: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. 494.20 Section 494.20 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE...

  17. 42 CFR 494.20 - Condition: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. 494.20 Section 494.20 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE...

  18. 42 CFR 417.478 - Requirements of other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements of other laws and regulations. 417.478 Section 417.478 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  19. Laws and Regulations Relating to Education and Health Services for Exceptional Children in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, F.W.

    A compilation of laws and regulations pertaining to the provisions of education for exceptional children includes measures passed in the following areas: general provisions and organizational structure of the public school system; the educational program and personnel; property, transportation, and finance; and educational institutions, libraries,…

  20. 27 CFR 20.31 - Applicable laws and regulations; persons liable for tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable laws and regulations; persons liable for tax. 20.31 Section 20.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED...

  1. 20 CFR 668.920 - What provisions of law or regulations may not be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What provisions of law or regulations may not be waived? 668.920 Section 668.920 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE...

  2. 20 CFR 668.920 - What provisions of law or regulations may not be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What provisions of law or regulations may not be waived? 668.920 Section 668.920 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE...

  3. 20 CFR 668.920 - What provisions of law or regulations may not be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What provisions of law or regulations may not be waived? 668.920 Section 668.920 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE...

  4. 42 CFR 9.13 - Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. 9.13 Section 9.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  5. 42 CFR 9.13 - Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. 9.13 Section 9.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  6. 42 CFR 9.13 - Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. 9.13 Section 9.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  7. 42 CFR 9.13 - Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. 9.13 Section 9.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  8. 42 CFR 9.13 - Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other federal laws, regulations, and statutes that apply to the sanctuary. 9.13 Section 9.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  9. 76 FR 74722 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and Property Management, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Procurement and Property Management (OPPM)...

  10. 77 FR 60343 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Positive Law Codification of Title 41

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 53 RIN 9000-AM30 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Positive Law Codification of Title 41 Correction In proposed rule...

  11. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei

    2007-01-01

    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  12. The Handbook: A Vocational Education Legislative Reference. Federal Laws and Regulations Affecting Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariscal and Co., Los Angeles, CA.

    To assist administrators, researchers, and evaluators in better understanding and implementing the Vocational Education Act of 1963, this booklet brings together the provisions of the Act, the regulations, selected provisions from related laws, significant policy, and statements based on public hearings issues. Its format of columns that clearly…

  13. 42 CFR 485.608 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. 485.608 Section 485.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... applicable Federal laws and regulations related to the health and safety of patients. (b)...

  14. 42 CFR 485.608 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. 485.608 Section 485.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... applicable Federal laws and regulations related to the health and safety of patients. (b)...

  15. 50 CFR 84.50 - How does a State certify compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal laws, regulations, and policies? 84.50 Section 84.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... RESTORATION PROGRAM NATIONAL COASTAL WETLANDS CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAM Conditions on Acceptance/Use of Federal Money § 84.50 How does a State certify compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies?...

  16. 49 CFR 350.341 - What specific variances from the FMCSRs are allowed for State laws and regulations governing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... allowed for State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs engaged in... governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs engaged in intrastate commerce and not subject to Federal..., including the driver. (b) State laws and regulations applicable to intrastate commerce may not...

  17. 49 CFR 350.341 - What specific variances from the FMCSRs are allowed for State laws and regulations governing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... allowed for State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs engaged in... governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs engaged in intrastate commerce and not subject to Federal..., including the driver. (b) State laws and regulations applicable to intrastate commerce may not...

  18. 49 CFR 350.341 - What specific variances from the FMCSRs are allowed for State laws and regulations governing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allowed for State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs engaged in... governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs engaged in intrastate commerce and not subject to Federal..., including the driver. (b) State laws and regulations applicable to intrastate commerce may not...

  19. 7 CFR 4290.508 - Compliance with non-discrimination laws and regulations applicable to federally-assisted programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance with non-discrimination laws and regulations applicable to federally-assisted programs. 4290.508 Section 4290.508 Agriculture Regulations of... Operations of a RBIC General Requirements § 4290.508 Compliance with non-discrimination laws and...

  20. 25 CFR 247.5 - What laws and regulations apply to the people who use these sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.5 What laws and regulations apply to the... not use any of the sites for any activity that is contrary to the provisions of your tribe or contrary... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What laws and regulations apply to the people who...

  1. 25 CFR 247.5 - What laws and regulations apply to the people who use these sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.5 What laws and regulations apply to the... not use any of the sites for any activity that is contrary to the provisions of your tribe or contrary... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What laws and regulations apply to the people who...

  2. Emergence of robust growth laws from optimal regulation of ribosome synthesis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Matthew; Klumpp, Stefan; Mateescu, Eduard M; Hwa, Terence

    2014-08-22

    Bacteria must constantly adapt their growth to changes in nutrient availability; yet despite large-scale changes in protein expression associated with sensing, adaptation, and processing different environmental nutrients, simple growth laws connect the ribosome abundance and the growth rate. Here, we investigate the origin of these growth laws by analyzing the features of ribosomal regulation that coordinate proteome-wide expression changes with cell growth in a variety of nutrient conditions in the model organism Escherichia coli. We identify supply-driven feedforward activation of ribosomal protein synthesis as the key regulatory motif maximizing amino acid flux, and autonomously guiding a cell to achieve optimal growth in different environments. The growth laws emerge naturally from the robust regulatory strategy underlying growth rate control, irrespective of the details of the molecular implementation. The study highlights the interplay between phenomenological modeling and molecular mechanisms in uncovering fundamental operating constraints, with implications for endogenous and synthetic design of microorganisms.

  3. Emergence of robust growth laws from optimal regulation of ribosome synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Matthew; Klumpp, Stefan; Mateescu, Eduard M; Hwa, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria must constantly adapt their growth to changes in nutrient availability; yet despite large-scale changes in protein expression associated with sensing, adaptation, and processing different environmental nutrients, simple growth laws connect the ribosome abundance and the growth rate. Here, we investigate the origin of these growth laws by analyzing the features of ribosomal regulation that coordinate proteome-wide expression changes with cell growth in a variety of nutrient conditions in the model organism Escherichia coli. We identify supply-driven feedforward activation of ribosomal protein synthesis as the key regulatory motif maximizing amino acid flux, and autonomously guiding a cell to achieve optimal growth in different environments. The growth laws emerge naturally from the robust regulatory strategy underlying growth rate control, irrespective of the details of the molecular implementation. The study highlights the interplay between phenomenological modeling and molecular mechanisms in uncovering fundamental operating constraints, with implications for endogenous and synthetic design of microorganisms. PMID:25149558

  4. [Problems in cardiology specialty training in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altun, Armağan

    2012-04-01

    Cardiology Specialty Training in our country should be made in accordance with the law numbered 1219 on the Practice of Medicine and Related Arts, and according to the Medical and Dental Specialist Training Regulation which is published according to the 9th article of this law. The duration of Cardiology Specialist Training has been defined as 4 years in our country. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC), European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), and the European Cardiology Section Foundation (ECSF) define the duration of Cardiology Specialist Training as 6 years. Therefore, insufficient Cardiology residency training occurs in our country due to the shortened length of time. In this report, the problems of the Cardiology Specialist Training in Turkey will be addressed under different headings.

  5. First law regulating school canteens in Brazil: evaluation after seven years of implementation.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de; Schmitz, Bethsái de Abreu Soares

    2009-06-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren in Brazil and worldwide has shown that strategies to promote healthy eating habits are needed. Santa Catarina was the first Brazilian State to promulgate specific legislation to regulate the food commercialized in schools (Law n 12.061/2001). The objective was to assess the functioning of school canteens in eight key municipalities of Santa Catarina, investigating whether the foods sold were in accordance with the Law. A questionnaire was completed by the principals and those responsible for the canteens. Item Response Theory was used to examine the levels of compliance with the Law. In all 345 schools took part. Of these, 156 (45%) had a canteen. The presence of a canteen was significantly higher in the private sector (p < 0.001). The majority of the canteens (n=105; 68.2%) did not sell fried snacks, soft drinks, industrialised popcorn, hard candies, lollipops and chewing gum and industrialised packaged snacks. The items which were least likely to comply with the Law were juices and the daily availability of fruits. The notice board on diet was present in only 7.1% of the establishments. Many canteens offered items of low nutritional value. The inspection of these establishments is necessary, together with educational actions targeting the proprietors of the canteens as well as the schools themselves. Training for the canteen's proprietors may constitute a strategy that will guarantee the economic viability of these establishments and the possibility of them being transforming into places of health promotion.

  6. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  7. 42 CFR 418.116 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., State, and local laws and regulations related to the health and safety of patients. 418.116 Section 418... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Conditions of participation: Organizational Environment § 418.116 Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and...

  8. [Forensic psychologist's considerations about the new law regulation in cases of sexual crimes].

    PubMed

    Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The article comments, from the perspective of a forensic psychologist, the changes which have been recently provided to the law regulations on sexual crime and the treatment of the sexual crime perpetrators. It appears that the new law regulations follow the right path, because they create the conditions for holistic and complex solutions in the sexual crime treatment matter. Unfortunately they are still rather incomplete and inconsistent. Their practical implementation is difficult because of the very demanding qualification criteria to the psychotherapy of sexual crime perpetrators, the existence of law criteria to the therapy, the narrow frame of the therapy goals and unclear rules of therapy constraint. Moreover, in Poland there is a lack of complex therapy models of sexual perpetrators, we have little experience in this kind of therapy and there is a deficiency of qualified specialists. Finally the relationship between the treatment of this kind of criminals in prison conditions and ambulatory therapy conditions isn't very clearly precise. On the other hand, a lot of improvements have been provided, such as: continuing the treatment after leaving prison, not only pharmacological treatment but also psychotherapy, the system of prevention. Despite of the strong attempts to promote the special role of pharmacological treatment of sexual crime perpetrators (,,chemical castration"), the new solutions promote a complex and interdisciplinary approach to this problem. In this article, the author described the current Polish experience in the therapy of sexual crime perpetrators and listed several rules of preparing the forensic-psychological expertise according to the described problem in context of new legal regulations.

  9. Making decisions about decision-making: conscience, regulation, and the law.

    PubMed

    Miola, José

    2015-01-01

    The exercise of conscience can have far reaching effects. Poor behaviour can be fatal, as it has occurred in various medical scandals over the years. This article takes a wide definition of conscience as its starting point, and argues that the decision-making processes open to society--legal regulation and professional regulation--can serve to limit the options available to an individual and thus her ability to exercise her conscience. The article charts the law's changing attitude to legal intervention, which now seeks to limit the use of conscience by individuals, and addresses concerns that this may serve to 'de-moralise' medicine. It also examines the reasons for this legal change of approach.

  10. A summary of state laws regulating youth operating farm tractors on highways.

    PubMed

    Doty, B C; Marlenga, B

    2006-02-01

    Driving farm tractors on highways is hazardous for youth due to the large speed differential between motor vehicles and agricultural vehicles, as well as recent increases in traffic volume on many rural roads. In 1994, the state of Wisconsin enacted legislation requiring youth who operate farm tractors on highways to complete a tractor and machinery certification course. We were interested in finding out whether other states have similar requirements. The purpose of this project was to collect and summarize state laws regulating youth who operate farm tractors on highways in the U.S. A systematic method was used that included an initial Lexis-Nexis database search followed by internet searches in combination with follow-up email and telephone communications when missing or unclear results were obtained. The findings show that 14 states have legislation addressing youth who operate farm tractors on highways. The content of these statutes varies, but includes driver's license or educational requirements, as well as regulations concerning the ages, locations, and/or times of day when youth may drive farm machinery on highways. This compilation of state laws will be useful information for agricultural safety professionals in designing effective outreach programs. A synthesis of the findings may also lead to the development of model legislation or inform future research efforts aimed at preventing youth farm tractor crashes on highways.

  11. 45 CFR 309.90 - What governing Tribal law or regulations must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or common law with the force and effect of law which enables the Tribe or Tribal organization to... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What governing Tribal law or regulations must a... ENFORCEMENT (IV-D) PROGRAM Tribal IV-D Plan Requirements § 309.90 What governing Tribal law or...

  12. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps.

  13. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs...

  14. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs...

  15. 42 CFR 137.373 - Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real property...

  16. 42 CFR 137.373 - Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real property...

  17. 42 CFR 137.373 - Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real property...

  18. 42 CFR 137.373 - Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real property...

  19. 49 CFR 222.7 - What is this regulation's effect on State and local laws and ordinances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... local laws and ordinances? 222.7 Section 222.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.7 What is this regulation's effect on State and... devices at any highway-rail grade crossing described in § 222.3(c) of this part. (c) Except as provided...

  20. 49 CFR 222.7 - What is this regulation's effect on State and local laws and ordinances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... local laws and ordinances? 222.7 Section 222.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.7 What is this regulation's effect on State and... devices at any highway-rail grade crossing described in § 222.3(c) of this part. (c) Except as provided...

  1. Directional Diffusion Regulator (DDR) for some numerical solvers of hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaisankar, S.; Sheshadri, T. S.

    2013-01-01

    A computational tool called "Directional Diffusion Regulator (DDR)" is proposed to bring forth real multidimensional physics into the upwind discretization in some numerical schemes of hyperbolic conservation laws. The direction based regulator when used with dimension splitting solvers, is set to moderate the excess multidimensional diffusion and hence cause genuine multidimensional upwinding like effect. The basic idea of this regulator driven method is to retain a full upwind scheme across local discontinuities, with the upwind bias decreasing smoothly to a minimum in the farthest direction. The discontinuous solutions are quantified as gradients and the regulator parameter across a typical finite volume interface or a finite difference interpolation point is formulated based on fractional local maximum gradient in any of the weak solution flow variables (say density, pressure, temperature, Mach number or even wave velocity etc.). DDR is applied to both the non-convective as well as whole unsplit dissipative flux terms of some numerical schemes, mainly of Local Lax-Friedrichs, to solve some benchmark problems describing inviscid compressible flow, shallow water dynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics. The first order solutions consistently improved depending on the extent of grid non-alignment to discontinuities, with the major influence due to regulation of non-convective diffusion. The application is also experimented on schemes such as Roe, Jameson-Schmidt-Turkel and some second order accurate methods. The consistent improvement in accuracy either at moderate or marked levels, for a variety of problems and with increasing grid size, reasonably indicate a scope for DDR as a regular tool to impart genuine multidimensional upwinding effect in a simpler framework.

  2. Pharmaceutical marketing practices: balancing public health and law enforcement interests; moving beyond regulation-through-litigation.

    PubMed

    Zalesky, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    Fraudulent or abusive sales and marketing practices by pharmaceutical companies can result in costly overutilization of products that are increasingly paid for by government healthcare programs and may result in adverse health and safety consequences to the patient-beneficiaries of those programs. Federal enforcement efforts in this area are largely modeled on those used to combat white-collar crime, with cases taking years to reach conclusion. This approach overlooks the impact on patients who receive unnecessary care or are denied access to appropriate care during the course of the investigation. Many states are beginning to regulate certain pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices, but state-by-state regulation ignores the importance of a uniform federal regulatory and enforcement approach in an area already occupied by federal law. This Article explores current federal and state efforts to limit overutilization, fraud, and abuse in the sale and marketing of prescription drugs, and illustrates the merits of an expanded role for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices. This approach borrows lessons learned from the FDA's efficient and effective regulatory and enforcement methods and maintains a careful balance between the interests of patient-beneficiaries, the government and industry.

  3. U.S. Laws and Regulations for Renewable Energy Grid Interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Tian, Tian; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, Mackay; Geller, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Rapidly declining costs of wind and solar energy technologies, increasing concerns about the environmental and climate change impacts of fossil fuels, and sustained investment in renewable energy projects all point to a not-so-distant future in which renewable energy plays a pivotal role in the electric power system of the 21st century. In light of public pressures and market factors that hasten the transition towards a low-carbon system, power system planners and regulators are preparing to integrate higher levels of variable renewable generation into the grid. Updating the regulations that govern generator interconnections and operations is crucial to ensure system reliability while creating an enabling environment for renewable energy development. This report presents a chronological review of energy laws and regulations concerning grid interconnection procedures in the United States, highlighting the consequences of policies for renewable energy interconnections. Where appropriate, this report places interconnection policies and their impacts on renewable energy within the broader context of power market reform.

  4. [Regulations on the Literacy Law, 15 March 1991. Governmental Resolution No. 137-91].

    PubMed

    1991-03-25

    This Resolution sets forth Regulations to Guatemala's Literacy Law relating to administrative organization and functions and procedures for the execution of literacy programs. It provides that literacy programs are to be afforded to illiterate persons resident in the country with the following priority: a) persons aged 15-30; b) persons aged 31-45; and c) persons over age 45. Persons who know only one language are entitled to be instructed in that language. Bilingual persons may choose the language of instruction. Persons who are in a state of migration are to be provided with special literacy instruction. Further provisions of the Resolution describe the basic instruction included in literacy programs, the organizations and persons who are to provide instruction, the requirements that individual instructors must meet, and specific details of the organization and administration of the National Literacy Committee and other entities involved in literacy programs.

  5. Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices.

  6. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  7. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  8. The Bordetella avium BAV1965-1962 fimbrial locus is regulated by temperature and produces fimbriae involved in adherence to turkey tracheal tissue.

    PubMed

    Loker, Stewart B; Temple, Louise M; Preston, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica cause respiratory tract disease in mammals, whereas Bordetella avium causes respiratory tract disease in avian hosts. While there are striking similarities between the diseases caused by the mammalian- and avian-adapted bordetellae, differences at the genetic level may account for their different host tropisms. Bacterial pathogens utilize the chaperone-usher pathway to assemble extracellular multisubunit structures (fimbriae) that play a role in virulence. Fimbriae of the mammalian bordetellae mediate attachment to the host respiratory epithelium. They are assembled by a single chaperone/usher system encoded by the fimbrial biogenesis operon fimA-D. B. avium contains a homologous fimbrial operon (BAV1965-1962), and we report here the functionality of this locus. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of the locus is regulated by temperature. By immuno-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BAV1965-containing fimbriae were observed on bacteria grown at 37°C but not those grown at 22°C. A mutant in which BAV1965-1962 was deleted displayed significantly lower levels of adherence to turkey tracheal rings than the wild type. Thus, the BAV1965-1962 fimbrial locus is functional, its expression is regulated in response to temperature, and it produces fimbriae involved in adherence to host respiratory tract tissue.

  9. 42 CFR 418.116 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations related to the health and safety of patients. 418.116 Section 418.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. 42 CFR 418.116 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations related to the health and safety of patients. 418.116 Section 418.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. 42 CFR 418.116 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations related to the health and safety of patients. 418.116 Section 418.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. Fifty Educational Markets: A Playbook of State Laws and Regulations Governing Private Schools. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammons, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    There is a widespread misperception that private schools avoid government oversight or are "unregulated." In fact, private schools are subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations that run the gamut from reasonable rules to ensure health and safety to unreasonable rules that interfere with school curricula, preventing schools from pursuing…

  13. 25 CFR 224.104 - Must a tribe enact tribal laws, regulations, or procedures permitting a person or entity to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Must a tribe enact tribal laws, regulations, or... 224.104 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT Interested...

  14. 25 CFR 224.106 - If a tribe has enacted tribal laws, regulations, or procedures for challenging tribal action, how...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If a tribe has enacted tribal laws, regulations, or... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT Interested Party...

  15. 42 CFR 486.100 - Condition for coverage: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulations. The supplier of portable X-ray services is in conformity with all applicable Federal, State, and... State or applicable local law provides for the licensure or registration of suppliers of X-ray services... engaged in operating portable X-ray equipment are currently licensed or registered in accordance with...

  16. 42 CFR 486.100 - Condition for coverage: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations. The supplier of portable X-ray services is in conformity with all applicable Federal, State, and... State or applicable local law provides for the licensure or registration of suppliers of X-ray services... engaged in operating portable X-ray equipment are currently licensed or registered in accordance with...

  17. 42 CFR 486.100 - Condition for coverage: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations. The supplier of portable X-ray services is in conformity with all applicable Federal, State, and... State or applicable local law provides for the licensure or registration of suppliers of X-ray services... engaged in operating portable X-ray equipment are currently licensed or registered in accordance with...

  18. 42 CFR 486.100 - Condition for coverage: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations. The supplier of portable X-ray services is in conformity with all applicable Federal, State, and... State or applicable local law provides for the licensure or registration of suppliers of X-ray services... engaged in operating portable X-ray equipment are currently licensed or registered in accordance with...

  19. 42 CFR 486.100 - Condition for coverage: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations. The supplier of portable X-ray services is in conformity with all applicable Federal, State, and... State or applicable local law provides for the licensure or registration of suppliers of X-ray services... engaged in operating portable X-ray equipment are currently licensed or registered in accordance with...

  20. Transparency and Accountability: What if the Federal Gainful Employment-Debt Measures Regulations Applied to Law Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Kari Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare current guidelines of the American Bar Association (ABA) for law schools to those of the U.S. Department of Education's Gainful Employment-Debt Measures regulations in order to assess their transparency and accountability. This analysis is relevant in a time of increasing tuition costs and record…

  1. Usage of Underground Space for 3D Cadastre Purposes and Related Problems in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cevdet C.

    2008-01-01

    Modern cities have been trying to meet their needs for space by using not only surface structures but also by considering subsurface space use. It is also anticipated that without planning of underground spaces for supporting surface city life in the years and generations to come, there will be serious and unavoidable problems with growing populations. The current Turkish cadastral system, including land right registrations, has been trying to meet users' needs in all aspects since 1924. Today Turkey's national cadastre services are carried out by the General Directorate of Land Titles and Cadastre (TKGM). The Cadastre Law, Number 3402, was approved in 1985 to eliminate problems by gathering all existing cadastral regulations under one law and also to produce 3D cadastral bases to include underground spaces and determine their legal status in Turkey. Although the mandate for 3D cadastre works is described and explained by the laws, until now the bases have been created in 2D and the reality is that legal gaps and deficiencies presently exist in them. In this study, the usage of underground spaces for the current cadastral system in Turkey was briefly evaluated, the concept of 3D cadastral data is examined and the need for using subsurface and 3D cadastre in addition to the traditional 2D register system, related problems and registration are mentioned with specific examples, but without focusing on a specific model. PMID:27873910

  2. Usage of Underground Space for 3D Cadastre Purposes and Related Problems in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cevdet C

    2008-11-05

    Modern cities have been trying to meet their needs for space by using not only surface structures but also by considering subsurface space use. It is also anticipated that without planning of underground spaces for supporting surface city life in the years and generations to come, there will be serious and unavoidable problems with growing populations. The current Turkish cadastral system, including land right registrations, has been trying to meet users' needs in all aspects since 1924. Today Turkey's national cadastre services are carried out by the General Directorate of Land Titles and Cadastre (TKGM). The Cadastre Law, Number 3402, was approved in 1985 to eliminate problems by gathering all existing cadastral regulations under one law and also to produce 3D cadastral bases to include underground spaces and determine their legal status in Turkey. Although the mandate for 3D cadastre works is described and explained by the laws, until now the bases have been created in 2D and the reality is that legal gaps and deficiencies presently exist in them. In this study, the usage of underground spaces for the current cadastral system in Turkey was briefly evaluated, the concept of 3D cadastral data is examined and the need for using subsurface and 3D cadastre in addition to the traditional 2D register system, related problems and registration are mentioned with specific examples, but without focusing on a specific model.

  3. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the korean liberation: focusing on regulating the pharmaceutical affairs law(yaksabeop) in 1953.

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    The pharmaceutical administration under U.S Military Government in Korea and government of the Republic of Korea aimed at cleaning up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism which the pharmaceutical administration attached police administration and preparing with legal and systemic basis after the Korean liberation. The pharmaceutical bureau under U.S Military Government in Korea was reorganized as the independent division. The pharmaceutical bureau focused on preserving order, narcotics control and the distribution of relief drug. U.S Military Government proceeded supply side pharmaceutical policy for the distribution of relief drug without constructing human and material infrastructure. After the Korean War, Korean society asked the construction of system for nation building. Korean national assembly regulated National Medical Law(Gukmin uiryobeop) for promotion of public health in 1951. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop) was regulated in 1953, and it prescribed the job requirement of pharmacist, apothecary, and drug maker and seller, and presented the frame of managing medical supplies. The Pharmaceutical Law originally planned the ideal pharmaceutical administration, but it rather secured the status of traditional apothecary, and drug maker and seller. On the contrary, though the Pharmaceutical Law guaranteed the traditional druggists, it did not materialize reproduction system such as educational and license system. It means that the traditional druggists would be degenerated in the near future. After the armistice agreement in 1953, Korean was in medical difficulties. Korean government was suffered from the deficiency of medical resources. Because of destruction of pharmaceutical facilities, Korean had to depend on United States and international aid. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law did not cleaned up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism, and compromised with reality lacked human and material infrastructure. As a result, the law became the origin of

  4. 36 CFR 3.2 - Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? 3.2 Section 3.2 Parks, Forests, and Public... boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? (a) In addition to...

  5. 36 CFR 3.2 - Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? 3.2 Section 3.2 Parks, Forests, and Public... boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? (a) In addition to...

  6. 36 CFR 3.2 - Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? 3.2 Section 3.2 Parks, Forests, and Public... boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? (a) In addition to...

  7. 25 CFR 900.148 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian Self-Determination Act, as specified in... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Waiver Procedures § 900.148 How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the...

  8. 25 CFR 900.148 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian Self-Determination Act, as specified in... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Waiver Procedures § 900.148 How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the...

  9. 25 CFR 900.148 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian Self-Determination Act, as specified in... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Waiver Procedures § 900.148 How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the...

  10. 25 CFR 900.148 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian Self-Determination Act, as specified in... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Waiver Procedures § 900.148 How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the...

  11. 25 CFR 900.148 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian Self-Determination Act, as specified in... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Waiver Procedures § 900.148 How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the...

  12. Law and psychiatry: regulating psychotherapy or restricting freedom of speech? California's ban on sexual orientation change efforts.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    California's new law banning sexual orientation change efforts by licensed therapists for patients under 18 immediately provoked court challenges. Therapists, parents, and patients argued that the statute infringed constitutional rights to freedom of speech and parental rights to select treatments for their children. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected all of these claims in a unanimous decision upholding the law. However, the decision evokes concerns that other forms of psychotherapy could be subject to similar regulation. Tort remedies may provide less intrusive means for discouraging use of ineffective and potentially harmful therapies.

  13. 7 CFR 4288.104 - Compliance with other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel... biofuel producers must comply with other applicable Federal, State, and local laws, including, but...

  14. 7 CFR 4288.104 - Compliance with other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel... biofuel producers must comply with other applicable Federal, State, and local laws, including, but...

  15. 7 CFR 4288.104 - Compliance with other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel... biofuel producers must comply with other applicable Federal, State, and local laws, including, but...

  16. Rehabilitating the regulative use of reason: Kant on empirical and chemical laws.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Michael Bennett

    2015-12-01

    In his Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Kant asserts that laws of nature "carry with them an expression of necessity" (A159/B198). There is, however, widespread interpretive disagreement regarding the nature and source of the necessity of empirical laws of natural sciences in Kant's system. It is especially unclear how chemistry-a science without a clear, straightforward connection to the a priori principles of the understanding-could contain such genuine, empirical laws. Existing accounts of the necessity of causal laws unfortunately fail to illuminate the possibility of non-physical laws. In this paper, I develop an alternative, 'ideational' account of natural laws, according to which ideas of reason necessitate the laws of some non-physical sciences. Chemical laws, for instance, are grounded on ideas of the elements, and the chemist aims to reduce her phenomena to these elements via experimentation. Although such ideas are beyond the possibility of experience, their postulation is necessary for the achievement of reason's theoretical ends: the unification and explanation of the cognitions of science.

  17. The principles of gift law and the regulation of organ donation.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Alexandra K

    2011-04-01

    The principles of gift law establish a consistent international legal understanding of consent to donation under a range of regulatory systems. Gift law as the primary legal principle is important to both the foundation of systems that prevent organ sales and the consideration of strategies to increase organ donation for transplantation.

  18. The role of law in the regulation of HIV-vaccine research in South Africa and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Andanda, Pamela

    2010-09-01

    Law is an important regulatory mechanism, particularly for creating an enabling research environment. However, the manner in which law addresses issues related to medical research, and HIV-vaccine research in particular, is at times inadequate and of great concern to the stakeholders involved in such research. The challenges for law as a regulatory mechanism in this regard are twofold: the complexity of issues related to HIV-vaccine research, and the apparent disconnection between the legal and ethical frameworks that are applied in the regulation of these issues. This article analyses the extent to which these challenges have been addressed in South Africa and Kenya. Especially, it highlights the lessons that can be drawn from the two countries in establishing a suitable ethical-legal framework for HIV-vaccine research.

  19. Open consent, biobanking and data protection law: can open consent be 'informed' under the forthcoming data protection regulation?

    PubMed

    Hallinan, Dara; Friedewald, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on whether a certain form of consent used by biobanks--open consent--is compatible with the Proposed Data Protection Regulation. In an open consent procedure, the biobank requests consent once from the data subject for all future research uses of genetic material and data. However, as biobanks process personal data, they must comply with data protection law. Data protection law is currently undergoing reform. The Proposed Data Protection Regulation is the culmination of this reform and, if voted into law, will constitute a new legal framework for biobanking. The Regulation puts strict conditions on consent--in particular relating to information which must be given to the data subject. It seems clear that open consent cannot meet these requirements. 4 categories of information cannot be provided with adequate specificity: purpose, recipient, possible third country transfers, data collected. However, whilst open consent cannot meet the formal requirements laid out by the Regulation, this is not to say that these requirements are substantially undebateable. Two arguments could be put forward suggesting the applicable consent requirements should be rethought. First, from policy documents regarding the drafting process, it seems that the informational requirements in the Regulation are so strict in order to protect the data subject from risks inherent in the use of the consent mechanism in a certain context--exemplified by the online context. There are substantial differences between this context and the biobanking context. Arguably, a consent transaction in the biobanking does not present the same type of risk to the data subject. If the risks are different, then perhaps there are also grounds for a reconsideration of consent requirements? Second, an argument can be made that the legislator drafted the Regulation based on certain assumptions as to the nature of 'data'. The authors argue that these assumptions are difficult to apply to genetic data

  20. Exploring the Relationship between High School Students' Physics-Related Personal Epistemologies and Self-Regulated Learning in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen C.; Willson, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical exploration of the relations and strengths among Turkish grades 9-11 students' (n = 209) personal epistemologies (justification of knowledge, certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, development of knowledge), self-regulated learning (extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, rehearsal, elaboration,…

  1. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  2. Regulation of turkey myogenic satellite cell migration by MicroRNAs miR-128 and miR-24.

    PubMed

    Velleman, S G; Harding, R L

    2016-12-05

    Myogenic satellite cells are an adult stem cell responsible for all post-hatch muscle growth in poultry. As a stem cell population, satellite cells are highly heterogeneous, but the origin of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Heterogeneity is, in part, regulated by gene expression. One method of endogenous gene regulation that may contribute to heterogeneity is microRNAs (miRNAs). Two miRNAs previously shown to regulate poultry myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, miR-128 and miR-24, were studied to determine if they also affected satellite cell migration. Satellite cell migration is an essential step for both proliferation and differentiation. During proliferation, satellite cells will migrate and align to form new myofibers or donate their nuclei to existing myofibers leading to muscle fiber hypertrophy or regeneration. Transient transfection of miRNA specific mimics to each miRNA reduced migration of satellite cells following a cell culture scratch at 72 h of proliferation when the cultures were 90 to 100% confluent. However, only the migration in cells transfected with miR-24 mimics at 24 and 30 h following the scratch was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to around 70% of the distance migrated by controls. Alternately, transfection with inhibitors specific to miR-128 or miR-24 significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased migration between 147 and 252% compared to their controls between 24 and 48 h following the scratch. These data demonstrate that miR-128 and miR-24 play a role in myogenic satellite cell migration, which will impact muscle development and growth.

  3. Crossing boundaries: a comprehensive survey of medical licensing laws and guidelines regulating the interstate practice of pathology.

    PubMed

    Hiemenz, Matthew C; Leung, Stanley T; Park, Jason Y

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, recent judicial interpretation of interstate licensure laws has found pathologists guilty of malpractice and, more importantly, the criminal practice of medicine without a license. These judgments against pathologists highlight the need for a timely and comprehensive survey of licensure requirements and laws regulating the interstate practice of pathology. For all 50 states, each state medical practice act and state medical board website was reviewed. In addition, each medical board was directly contacted by electronic mail, telephone, or US registered mail for information regarding specific legislation or guidelines related to the interstate practice of pathology. On the basis of this information, states were grouped according to similarities in legislation and medical board regulations. This comprehensive survey has determined that states define the practice of pathology on the basis of the geographic location of the patient at the time of surgery or phlebotomy. The majority of states (n=32) and the District of Columbia allow for a physician with an out-of-state license to perform limited consultation to a physician with the specific state license. Several states (n=5) prohibit physicians from consultation without a license for the specific state. Overall, these results reveal the heterogeneity of licensure requirements between states. Pathologists who either practice in multiple states, send cases to out-of-state consultants, or serve as consultants themselves should familiarize themselves with the medical licensure laws of the states from which they receive or send cases.

  4. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  5. 25 CFR 162.203 - When can the regulations in this subpart be superseded or modified by tribal laws and leasing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... modified by tribal laws and leasing policies? 162.203 Section 162.203 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... When can the regulations in this subpart be superseded or modified by tribal laws and leasing policies... resolution establishing a general policy for the leasing of tribal and individually-owned agricultural...

  6. [Organic Law 10/2007, of October 8, regulating the police database on identifiers obtained from DNA: historic background and genetic view].

    PubMed

    García, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Basic Law 10/2007 of 8 October has entered into effect, which regulates the police database on identifiers that are obtained from DNA. In the following lines, the author reveals the process of approval of this law as well as approaching certain of its aspects from a genetic perspective.

  7. Guidance on New York State's Annual Professional Performance Review Law and Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Department, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Education Law Section 3012-c requires a new performance evaluation system for classroom teachers ("teachers") and building principals ("principals"). New York State will implement a statewide comprehensive evaluation system for school districts and boards of cooperative educational services (BOCES). The evaluation system is…

  8. Labor Law Reform: The Regulation of Free Speech and Equal Access in NLRB Representational Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    After examining the existing legal standards governing free speech and equal access in representation elections, the author analyzes various reform possibilities and suggests a unified approach for legislative action. Available from the University of Pennsylvania Law School, 3400 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $3.00 sc.…

  9. 50 CFR 85.48 - Compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... environmental and other laws, as defined in Service Manual 523 FW Chapter 1, may require additional documentation. Consult with Regional Offices for specific applicability. (c) For method of payment, refer to 43..., and policies. 85.48 Section 85.48 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE...

  10. 50 CFR 85.48 - Compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environmental and other laws, as defined in Service Manual 523 FW Chapter 1, may require additional documentation. Consult with Regional Offices for specific applicability. (c) For method of payment, refer to 43..., and policies. 85.48 Section 85.48 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE...

  11. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-03-19

    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  12. 15 CFR 990.24 - Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.24 Compliance with...

  13. 15 CFR 990.24 - Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.24 Compliance with...

  14. 15 CFR 990.24 - Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.24 Compliance with...

  15. 15 CFR 990.24 - Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.24 Compliance with...

  16. 15 CFR 990.24 - Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.24 Compliance with...

  17. F.T.C. Regulation of Advertising and Its Basis in the Law, 1914-1938.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett-John, Sue

    The early efforts of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to regulate advertising take on new historical interest in the wake of the United States Supreme Court's landmark decision to grant limited First Amendment protection to commercial speech. An examination of the FTC's advertising regulation from its beginning in 1914 to 1938, when its…

  18. Agriculture: Laws and Regulations that Apply to Your Agricultural Operation by Farm Activity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A general description of EPA’s requirements applicable to agriculture, and should only be used as a guide. Since rules and regulations may change use this information is a starting place to determine which regulations apply to your agricultural operation.

  19. 50 CFR 622.3 - Relation to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section. (b) Except for regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and... application. Regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and live rock do...) Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (15 CFR part 922, subpart P). (2) Gray's Reef National...

  20. 50 CFR 622.3 - Relation to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Except for regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and live rock.... Regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and live rock do not apply... National Marine Sanctuary (15 CFR part 922, subpart P). (2) Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (15...

  1. 50 CFR 622.3 - Relation to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section. (b) Except for regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and... application. Regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and live rock do...) Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (15 CFR part 922, subpart P). (2) Gray's Reef National...

  2. 50 CFR 622.3 - Relation to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Except for regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and live rock.... Regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and live rock do not apply... National Marine Sanctuary (15 CFR part 922, subpart P). (2) Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (15...

  3. 48 CFR 970.5204-2 - Laws, regulations, and DOE directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... directives. 970.5204-2 Section 970.5204-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... requirements of those Department of Energy directives, or parts thereof, identified in the List of Applicable... regulatory relief specified in the regulation. (d) Except as otherwise directed by the Contracting...

  4. 48 CFR 970.5204-2 - Laws, regulations, and DOE directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... directives. 970.5204-2 Section 970.5204-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... requirements of those Department of Energy directives, or parts thereof, identified in the List of Applicable... regulatory relief specified in the regulation. (d) Except as otherwise directed by the Contracting...

  5. 50 CFR 622.3 - Relation to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Except for regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and live rock.... Regulations on allowable octocoral, Gulf and South Atlantic prohibited coral, and live rock do not apply... National Marine Sanctuary (15 CFR part 922, subpart P). (2) Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (15...

  6. A time to regulate? Possible implications of European human rights law on abortion in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W N

    2001-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Abortion Act 1967 the legality and status of abortion in Northern Ireland, being excluded from the provisions of the 1967 Act, has remained shrouded in uncertainty. In light of the introduction of the Human Rights Act 1998, this article will explore whether this inconsistency in the UK is in breach of the provisions laid down in Articles 8 and 14. It will be shown that while compelling arguments can be built under these provisions, perhaps the most persuasive arguments in favour of law reform are the inequities that the current legal regime has perpetuated.

  7. 31 CFR 598.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN... chapter, including part 536 of this chapter, “Narcotics Trafficking Sanctions Regulations,” with...

  8. 31 CFR 598.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN... chapter, including part 536 of this chapter, “Narcotics Trafficking Sanctions Regulations,” with...

  9. 31 CFR 598.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN... chapter, including part 536 of this chapter, “Narcotics Trafficking Sanctions Regulations,” with...

  10. 31 CFR 598.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN... chapter, including part 536 of this chapter, “Narcotics Trafficking Sanctions Regulations,” with...

  11. 31 CFR 598.101 - Relation of this part to other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN... chapter, including part 536 of this chapter, “Narcotics Trafficking Sanctions Regulations,” with...

  12. 49 CFR 350.343 - How may a State obtain a new exemption for State laws and regulations for a specific industry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... laws and regulations for a specific industry involved in intrastate commerce? 350.343 Section 350.343... regulations for a specific industry involved in intrastate commerce? The FMCSA strongly discourages exemptions... performance of that specific industry (e.g., accident frequency, rates and comparative figures)....

  13. 49 CFR 350.343 - How may a State obtain a new exemption for State laws and regulations for a specific industry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... laws and regulations for a specific industry involved in intrastate commerce? 350.343 Section 350.343... regulations for a specific industry involved in intrastate commerce? The FMCSA strongly discourages exemptions... performance of that specific industry (e.g., accident frequency, rates and comparative figures)....

  14. 49 CFR 350.343 - How may a State obtain a new exemption for State laws and regulations for a specific industry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How may a State obtain a new exemption for State laws and regulations for a specific industry involved in intrastate commerce? 350.343 Section 350.343... regulations for a specific industry involved in intrastate commerce? The FMCSA strongly discourages...

  15. Regulation for the enforcement of federal health care provider conscience protection laws. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-02-23

    The Department of Health and Human Services issues this final rule which provides that enforcement of the federal statutory health care provider conscience protections will be handled by the Department's Office for Civil Rights, in conjunction with the Department's funding components. This Final Rule rescinds, in part, and revises, the December 19, 2008 Final Rule entitled "Ensuring That Department of Health and Human Services Funds Do Not Support Coercive or Discriminatory Policies or Practices in Violation of Federal Law" (the "2008 Final Rule"). Neither the 2008 final rule, nor this final rule, alters the statutory protections for individuals and health care entities under the federal health care provider conscience protection statutes, including the Church Amendments, Section 245 of the Public Health Service Act, and the Weldon Amendment. These federal statutory health care provider conscience protections remain in effect.

  16. Research on embryos in Turkey with ethical and legal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vatanoğlu-Lutz, Emine Elif

    2012-01-01

    Technically, the term embryo refers to the products of conception after implantation into the wall of the womb, usually nearly two weeks after fertilization, up until the eighth week. Embryos contain stem cells which, according to scientists, could be used to cure a wide range of conditions. Stem cells can be coaxed into growing cells of any other type, which makes them potentially very useful indeed. However, removing stem cells from an embryo will kill the embryo, which some people object to. From the mid 1970s, IVF was being developed and research was carried out on the spare embryos produced. This research helped to improve IVF techniques, as well as to better understand the earliest stages of human development. Research also shed light on a variety of inheritable disorders. In Turkish Law, assisted reproduction treatment (ART) services are regulated with the Regulation of Assisted Reproductive Treatment Centers Act (RAPTCA) The Regulation was issued in 1987, but it has been amended several times since. Also, article 90 of the Turkish Penal Code covers some aspects of research on embryos. At the same time, the Biomedicine Convention (Oviedo Convention), signed by Turkey and which entered into force in 2003, has binding regulations about this issue. Different legal regulations and some ethical guidelines are in conflict with each other, creating much confusion for the researchers. In this paper these conflicts are discussed, giving some practical proposals. PMID:24592037

  17. Life in a Regulated Environment: Do You Comply with Environmental Laws?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeague, Kevin J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the following issues: (1) implications of the Americans with Disabilities Act; (2) Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act regulations; (3) new lead guidelines; (4) requirements regarding underground storage tanks; (5) potential indoor air quality requirements; and (6) Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines. (MLF)

  18. 50 CFR 300.102 - Relationship to other treaties, conventions, laws, and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implements the Antarctic Treaty Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (12 U.S.T... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to other treaties... RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources §...

  19. Regulating Water Quality: Policy, Standards, and Laws. January 1993 - January 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makuch, Joe

    The 127 citations in this annotated bibliography provide a substantial resource describing recent investigations on the regulation of water quality. The listing, prepared by NAL's Water Quality Information Center, is part of the Quick Bibliography Series of the National Agricultural Library (NAL), intended primarily for communicating current…

  20. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    policy makers were dramatic, challenging, and worrying. At a stroke, the strategic center of gravity moved from Germany to Turkey, but the extinction of...with Arab neighbors, and the Sevres- phobia of an assault on Turkey’s territorial integrity were all accusations thrown at the government as these

  1. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests.

  2. International infectious disease law: revision of the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2004-06-02

    The International Health Regulations (IHR), the only global regulations for infectious disease control, have not been significantly changed since they were first issued in 1951. The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently engaged in a process to modernize the IHR. This article reviews WHO's draft revised IHR and recommends new reforms to improve global health, which include (1) a robust mission, emphasizing the WHO's core public health purposes, functions, and essential services; (2) broad scope, flexibly covering diverse health threats; (3) global surveillance, developing informational networks of official and unofficial data sources; (4) national public health systems, setting performance criteria, measuring outcomes, and holding states accountable; (5) human rights protection, setting science-based standards and fair procedures; and (6) good governance, adopting the principles of fairness, objectivity, and transparency. The WHO should ensure state compliance with health norms and generous economic and technical assistance to poorer countries. An important issue for the international community is how sovereign countries can join together to make global health work for everyone, the poor and the wealthy alike.

  3. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Decree No. 2.405, Regulations for the Law on the Protection of Minors, 11 January 1984.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1984, Venezuela issued regulations for the Law on the Protection of Minors which emphasize two major points: 1) the paternity of a minor may be recognized voluntarily or compulsorily and 2) public and private organizations are to prevent any abuse, exploitation, manipulation, or negligent care of a minor. With respect to the first point, either parent can initiate a recognition proceeding voluntarily and any interested person can initiate a compulsory recognition proceeding when the mother or father refuses to recognize the concerned minor. With respect to the second point, the Regulations define abuse, exploitation of a minor, manipulation of a minor, and negligent care. The Regulations also create a legal mechanism known as a support solvency document to ensure the fulfillment of support obligations toward minors. The document states whether a parent has paid support owed to a minor and must be presented when the parent wishes to make a property transaction, leave the country, or obtain social benefits from the State. The Regulations call for the National Institute of Minors to design and present to the Ministry of Youth general and specific objectives to contribute to the development of minors and the family and to form model rules for orienting national action. Priority is to be given to families with the least resources. The Regulations also create a Youth Assistance Service to monitor and protect minors who have been abandoned or are in danger (because they consume drugs, live or socialize with persons of dubious reputation, are employed in occupations not suitable to their moral or physical health, or are engaged in begging). To protect such minors, the Service is authorized to inspect places of entertainment and gambling; to examine any visual or printed material directed at minors; to support the Ministry of Labor in monitoring the working conditions of minors; to intervene to provide food and shelter for minors; to help locate missing minors; and to

  5. Regulations and ethical considerations in animal experiments: international laws and islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarvari, Ali; Milanifar, Alireza; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-07-01

    Growing usage of animals in the research projects has drawn more attention to their welfare and ethics surrounding this practice. Dissemination of information about the existing ethical consideration and alternatives in animal experiments has two important functions; first, it increases the researcher's awareness of the possible methods of using animals in the experiment, and second, to ensure that potential users are aware of the established alternatives. For example, legislations enacted in many countries during the 1980s state that laboratory animal applications should be reduced, refined and replaced wherever possible according to principles of the 3Rs. Thus, scientists around the world tried to apply the 3Rs in their biomedical researches regarding welfare of the laboratory animals. However, the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims, and also Hadiths contain the obligatory ways to keep and treat animals since their revelations. According to Islamic viewpoint, animals represent Allah's ability and wisdom, and humans must pay attention to their health and living conditions. Several Islamic manuscripts state that animals have their own position in the creation hierarchy and humans are responsible for supplying minimal facilities and their welfare. This paper has tried to review ethical consideration in animal experiments and regarding Islamic resources in this case to encourage providing comprehensive ethical regulations in animal experiments which its establishment could be beneficial for animal ethics committees or research institutes.

  6. Administrative Law Judges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  7. Normative lessons: codes of conduct, self-regulation and the law.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm H

    2010-06-07

    Good medical practice: a code of conduct for doctors in Australia provides uniform standards to be applied in relation to complaints about doctors to the new Medical Board of Australia. The draft Code was criticised for being prescriptive. The final Code employs apparently less authoritative wording than the draft Code, but the implicit obligations it contains are no less prescriptive. Although the draft Code was thought to potentially undermine trust in doctors, and stifle professional judgement in relation to individual patients, its general obligations always allowed for flexibility of application, depending on the circumstances of individual patients. Professional codes may contain some aspirational statements, but they always contain authoritative ones, and they share this feature with legal codes. In successfully diluting the apparent prescriptivity of the draft Code, the profession has lost an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to the raison d'etre of self-regulation - the protection of patients. Professional codes are not opportunities for reflection, consideration and debate, but are outcomes of these activities.

  8. Regulations and Ethical Considerations in Animal Experiments: International Laws and Islamic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarvari, Ali; Milanifar, Alireza; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Growing usage of animals in the research projects has drawn more attention to their welfare and ethics surrounding this practice. Dissemination of information about the existing ethical consideration and alternatives in animal experiments has two important functions; first, it increases the researcher's awareness of the possible methods of using animals in the experiment, and second, to ensure that potential users are aware of the established alternatives. For example, legislations enacted in many countries during the 1980s state that laboratory animal applications should be reduced, refined and replaced wherever possible according to principles of the 3Rs. Thus, scientists around the world tried to apply the 3Rs in their biomedical researches regarding welfare of the laboratory animals. However, the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims, and also Hadiths contain the obligatory ways to keep and treat animals since their revelations. According to Islamic viewpoint, animals represent Allah's ability and wisdom, and humans must pay attention to their health and living conditions. Several Islamic manuscripts state that animals have their own position in the creation hierarchy and humans are responsible for supplying minimal facilities and their welfare. This paper has tried to review ethical consideration in animal experiments and regarding Islamic resources in this case to encourage providing comprehensive ethical regulations in animal experiments which its establishment could be beneficial for animal ethics committees or research institutes. PMID:23407588

  9. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  10. Energy Security and Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc...Necdet Pamir. “Energy in Security and the Most Recent Lesson: The Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara...Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc (accessed May 21, 2008). 53

  11. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  12. SUMMARY OF RULES, REGULATIONS AND LAWS THAT AFFECT SEASONAL FARM AND FOOD PROCESSING WORKERS AND THEIR EMPLOYERS IN NEW YORK STATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Interdepartmental Committee on Farm and Food Processing Labor, Albany.

    NUMEROUS PROVISIONS HAVE BEEN MADE BY NEW YORK STATE TO ASSIST AND TO PROTECT FARMERS, THEIR WORKERS, AND THE PUBLIC. SPECIAL SERVICES AND LAWS SHOW THE NATURE OF THIS ASSISTANCE WITH REGARD TO THE ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF MIGRANT CHILD CARE PROGRAMS, EDUCATION OF MIGRANT CHILDREN, SANITARY REGULATIONS FOR FARM LABOR CAMPS, FARM LABOR…

  13. 36 CFR 3.2 - Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? 3.2 Section 3.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.2 Do...

  14. 36 CFR 3.2 - Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do other boating laws and regulations apply to me when I operate my boat on park waters? 3.2 Section 3.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.2 Do...

  15. French Jardé's law and European regulation on drug trials: Harmonization and implementation of new rules.

    PubMed

    Deplanque, Dominique; Sénéchal-Cohen, Sophie; Lemaire, François

    2017-02-01

    Jardé's law, concerning research studies in humans, was enacted in March 2012 but did not come into force until November 2016. This delay is largely explained by the adoption of a European regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products that will probably not be applicable until October 2018. In addition to covering the respective areas of the French and European legislation, the round table provided an opportunity to discuss the principal measures that will apply to future research, particularly those concerning the operational procedures of the ethics committees and the national committee for research in humans, as well as measures relating to the management of serious adverse effects, more specifically in phase I studies in subjects not presenting with any disorder. This round table also enabled the formulation of recommendations to better anticipate the practical difficulties that the regulatory changes might engender. Finally, we highlight the numerous challenges in terms of training that these important regulatory changes impose and the absolute necessity to best adapt the restrictions to those that are planned in numerous other European countries so that France remains competitive in terms of clinical research and so that French patients may continue to benefit rapidly from the most innovative treatments.

  16. The hydrometeorological implications of zoning laws: Can land use regulations of urban density and sprawl improve a city's resilience?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Ryu, Y. H.; Smith, J. A.; Newburn, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The intensification of heat waves and of the hydrological cycle due to global climate change pose particularly high risks to urban residents. Cities are already hotter than their surroundings due to the urban heat island effect and are known to result in local intensification of rainfall and flooding due to their coupled impacts on the surface and the lower atmosphere. These interacting local and global changes can adversely affect the health and well being of urban residents, and city administrators are increasing efforts to mitigate and adapt to the potential disruptions though various infrastructure and preparedness programs. However, as cities worldwide continue to expand, a key decision is how to manage that urban sprawl and regulate its spatial features to aid in the mitigation and adaptation effort. This study assesses whether alternative zoning regulations that modify the density and extent of a metropolitan region, but have a minimal impact on total population and demographic growth, have an appreciable impact on its response to extreme weather events, and as such, whether they can be used to increase urban resilience. We consider Baltimore (the city and its surrounding suburbs), which in 1967 adopted one of the first urban growth boundaries (UGBs) in the United States, as our test case. Departing from the urban extent circa 1900, we create alternative land use patterns that, compared to the actual current land use baseline, would have resulted from drastically different policy scenarios and approaches to zoning that the city would have undertaken. We consider various alternatives where the city is smaller and denser, due to stricter regulation, versus larger and less dense than the actual baseline, while maintaining the same total population. Our findings indicate that lower densities have significant benefits: compared to the current landscape and to denser patterns, they reduce both extreme temperatures during heat waves and spatio-temporal rainfall

  17. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

  18. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  19. A stochastic regulator for integrated communication and control systems. I - Formulation of control law. II - Numerical analysis and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Luen-Woei; Ray, Asok

    1991-01-01

    A state feedback control law for integrated communication and control systems (ICCS) is formulated by using the dynamic programming and optimality principle on a finite-time horizon. The control law is derived on the basis of a stochastic model of the plant which is augmented in state space to allow for the effects of randomly varying delays in the feedback loop. A numerical procedure for synthesizing the control parameters is then presented, and the performance of the control law is evaluated by simulating the flight dynamics model of an advanced aircraft. Finally, recommendations for future work are made.

  20. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  1. A cross-cultural study on noise problems: Comparison of the results obtained in Japan, West Germany, the U.S.A., China and Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, S.; Kuwano, S.; Schick, A.; Açlar, A.; Florentine, M.; Da Rui, Zheng

    1991-12-01

    Neighborhood noise has become a serious problem in many countries, and it is difficult to regulate by physical means alone. A cross-cultural survey was conducted in five countries, Japan, West Germany, the United States, China and Turkey, among residents of apartment houses in order to examine the cultural differences involved. Interesting differences were found in preferred countermeasures, highly annoying sounds, attitudes against noise, expectations for laws, etc. The use of loudspeakers in public places was accepted in all five countries, provided that they were used for conveying necessary information. The results suggest that it is important to take cultural or social backgrounds into consideration in order to find suitable countermeasures.

  2. [The new organic law 10/2007, of October 8th, regulating the police database on identifiers obtained from DNA. Procedural aspects].

    PubMed

    Reverón Palenzuela, Benito

    2008-01-01

    In this work one studies the new "Ley Orgánica" 10/2007 where it regulates the data base police on identifiers obtained from the DNA. And, particularly, the procedural aspects that the same one contains. With this new regulation, the Spanish legislator completes the dispositions on the use of the criminal identification from the DNA techniques, that they were already contained in the Spanish Law of Criminal Judgment. Thus Spain to the rest of countries of our surroundings adds itself in which already it was counted on this type of data bases, very useful and effectiveness for the investigation of certain crimes with special gravity.

  3. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  4. On Turkey Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbee, Kristin Sheridan; Libbee, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Human relations skills are more widely taught and used, and inevitably misused. This aritcle is intended as a brief self-defense course identifying those who undergo this usually temporary, metamorphosis into "turkeys." It provides a rough categorization of subspecies with their identifying characteristics and a proposal for return to personhood.…

  5. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  6. Educational Institutions: Terminology. Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    Prepared from interviews with personnel of the Turkish Ministry of National Education, and other educational administrators in that country, this publication provides a guide to the terminology used to name the types of public educational institutions found in Turkey. Private educational institutions, military schools, higher schools attached to…

  7. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  8. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Necmi

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

  9. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    PubMed

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  10. The Interplay of Public Health Law and Industry Self-Regulation: The Case of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Sales in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Michelle M.; Pomeranz, Jennifer; Moran, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption contributes to childhood obesity. Most states have adopted laws that regulate the availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in school settings. However, such policies have encountered resistance from consumer and parent groups, as well as the beverage industry. The beverage industry’s recent adoption of voluntary guidelines, which call for the curtailment of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, raises the question, Is further policy intervention in this area needed, and if so, what form should it take? We examine the interplay of public and private regulation of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, by drawing on a 50-state legal and regulatory analysis and a review of industry self-regulation initiatives. PMID:17901427

  11. [The legal regulation of mother and child health care in the Federal Law "On the fundamentals of health care of citizen in the Russian Federation"].

    PubMed

    Rastegaeva, I N

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of legal foundations of mother and child health care in the Federal Law No 323-FZ November 21 2011 "On the fundamentals of health care of citizen in the Russian Federation". The regulation applied in the Law concerning the public relations in the area of maternity and children care is supported by the public protection of mother and child interests and enhancement of their individual rights. This measure is provided by the development and implementation of programs targeted to prevention early detection and treatment of diseases, decrease of maternity and infant mortality, and development in children and their parents the motivation to healthy life-style and applying mechanisms of prevention and dispensarization.

  12. Family practice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozsahin, Akatli Kursad

    2014-03-01

    The national project 'Transformation in Health' was started in 2005 to provide expert primary care by family physicians, and decrease expenses in Turkey. The number of family physicians was far below the need, so public physicians were promoted to family physician status after a 10-day intensive course. The government declared some satisfactory results, but privately paid family physicians were not accepted into the system. Furthermore, the government stopped paying for their services from private settings. Some family physicians became unemployed as the major payer for all forms of medical care in Turkey denied their services. The process showed it's value in time. Nevertheless, family physicians should be the core of this transformation as family medicine is an academic and a scientific discipline and a primary care-oriented specialty with its own specific educational content, research and base of evidence, which cannot be achieved through standard medical education.

  13. 42 CFR 418.116 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Conditions of participation: Organizational Environment § 418.116... health and safety of patients. The hospice and its staff must operate and furnish services in compliance... patients. If State or local law provides for licensing of hospices, the hospice must be licensed....

  14. 7 CFR 352.2 - Purpose; relation to other regulations; applicability; preemption of State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... local laws. (a) Importations of plants, plant products, plant pests, noxious weeds, soil, and other products and articles that may be infested or infected by or contain plant pests or noxious weeds are... article, means of conveyance, plant, biological control organism, plant pest, noxious weed, or...

  15. 7 CFR 352.2 - Purpose; relation to other regulations; applicability; preemption of State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... local laws. (a) Importations of plants, plant products, plant pests, noxious weeds, soil, and other products and articles that may be infested or infected by or contain plant pests or noxious weeds are... article, means of conveyance, plant, biological control organism, plant pest, noxious weed, or...

  16. 7 CFR 352.2 - Purpose; relation to other regulations; applicability; preemption of State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... local laws. (a) Importations of plants, plant products, plant pests, noxious weeds, soil, and other products and articles that may be infested or infected by or contain plant pests or noxious weeds are... article, means of conveyance, plant, biological control organism, plant pest, noxious weed, or...

  17. 7 CFR 352.2 - Purpose; relation to other regulations; applicability; preemption of State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... local laws. (a) Importations of plants, plant products, plant pests, noxious weeds, soil, and other products and articles that may be infested or infected by or contain plant pests or noxious weeds are... article, means of conveyance, plant, biological control organism, plant pest, noxious weed, or...

  18. 42 CFR 137.373 - Do Federal real property laws, regulations and procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.373 Do Federal real property laws... property with funds provided under a construction project agreement? No, unless the Self-Governance Tribe... procedures that apply to the Secretary also apply to Self-Governance Tribes that purchase real property...

  19. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  20. [Stranger in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dorhout Mees, E J

    1997-12-20

    The author, a professor of nephrology, reports some impressions of his 7-year stay in Turkey. He worked at the Ege University in Izmir, traditionally one of the most 'western' cities. He and his wife, who gave unpaid assistance to dialysis patients, attempted to integrate into Turkish society as fully as possible. They traversed the country in weekends and holidays and introduced as many Dutch guests as they could to the unique archeological treasures, the magnificent nature and the extremely friendly population. Work at the university focused increasingly on cultivating a critical attitude with regard to the self, society and the trends and commercialization of medicine in Turkey and in the rest of the world. Self-reliance, also, had to be strengthened. Although this contravened the authority-based Turkish educational system, the efforts were clearly appreciated and even stirred enthusiasm in many of the younger people. There is no doubt that a foreign worker is regarded much more favourable in Turkey than in the Netherlands.

  1. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. California Special Education Programs: A Composite of Laws: Education Code--Part 30, Other Related Laws, and California Code of Regulations--Title 5. Revised to Cover Laws Enacted during 1990. Thirteenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Paul D.

    This compilation cites the legal provisions of Part 30 of the California Education Code relative to special education programs; Chapter 1 of Division 3 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations relative to special education for children with disabilities; and other parts of the Education Code, Health and Safety Code, Government Code, and…

  3. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Melissa S.; Cardona, Carol J.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  4. Characterizing, Classifying, and Understanding Information Security Laws and Regulations: Considerations for Policymakers and Organizations Protecting Sensitive Information Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaw, David Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Current scholarly understanding of information security regulation in the United States is limited. Several competing mechanisms exist, many of which are untested in the courts and before state regulators, and new mechanisms are being proposed on a regular basis. Perhaps of even greater concern, the pace at which technology and threats change far…

  5. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  6. Academic Procrastination and Motivation of Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Kuzucu, Elcin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a study of academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 508 adolescents from a general secondary school in central Turkey. Girls reported higher levels of self-efficacy for self-regulation and predicted higher Turkish grades than boys, but there was no difference in levels of procrastination. Academic…

  7. Assisted suicide: Models of legal regulation in selected European countries and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Claudia; Grosse, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents three different models of the legal regulation of assisted suicide in European countries. First, the current legal regime governing assisted suicide in the Netherlands is described where both euthanasia and assisted suicide have been legalised. This section also includes some empirical data on euthanasia and assisted-suicide practices in the Netherlands, as well as a comparison with the current legal legislation in Belgium and Luxembourg. Next, Switzerland is presented as a country where euthanasia is punishable by law but assisted suicide is legally allowed, provided it is not carried out with selfish motives. This section also focuses on the assisted-suicide-related case law of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights. Last, the current legal situation regarding assisted suicide in Austria and Germany is described. While the Austrian Penal Code explicitly prohibits assisted suicide, assistance with suicide is not specifically regulated by the German Penal Code. However, medical doctors are not allowed to assist suicides according to the professional codes of conduct drawn up by the German medical associations under the supervision of the health authorities.

  8. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-05

    1980’ s many changes took place among these countries; however, there are many indications that the IsB still controls these countries’ intelligence ...for opm Zblkadom vote TERRORISM EFFECTS ON TURKEY BY COLONEL TURAN OLCAY Turkish Army ~Is~RI~~tO S EMHT A’: A~pproved for publ~c 03. RMYWARCOLLG...Distribution is unlimited. 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) Ga. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b

  9. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  10. Public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-09-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agen cies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system.

  11. Public Health Law Reform

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2001-01-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agencies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system. PMID:11527757

  12. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other laws. 15.17 Section 15... TRAINING CENTER § 15.17 Other laws. Nothing in the rules and regulations in this part will be construed to abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  13. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or...

  14. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or...

  15. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or...

  16. 49 CFR 350.335 - What are the consequences if my State has laws or regulations incompatible with the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to interstate commerce (i.e., rules identical to the FMCSRs and HMRs) and intrastate commerce (i.e... regulations pertaining to intrastate commerce and receiving 50 percent of their basic formula allocation on... enforcement practice pertaining to CMV safety, in either interstate or intrastate commerce, is...

  17. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  18. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study…

  19. Regulation of firearm dealers in the United States: an analysis of state law and opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Mair, Julie Samia

    2006-01-01

    Firearms were associated with 30, 136 deaths in the United States in 2003. Most guns are initially sold to the public through a network of retail dealers. Licensed firearm dealers are an important source of guns for criminals and gun traffickers. Just one percent of licensed dealers were responsible for more than half of all guns traced to crime. Federal law makes it difficult for ATF to inspect and revoke the licenses of problem gun dealers. State licensing systems, however, are a greatly under-explored opportunity for firearm dealer oversight. We identify and categorize these state systems to identify opportunities for interventions to prevent problem dealers from supplying guns to criminals, juveniles, or gun traffickers. Just seventeen states license gun dealers. Twenty-three states permit routine inspections of dealers but only two mandate that those inspections occur on a regular basis. Twenty-six states impose record-keeping requirements for gun sales. Only thirteen states require some form of store security measures to minimize firearm theft. We conclude with recommendations for a comprehensive system of state licensing and oversight of gun dealers. Our findings can be useful for the coalition of more than fifty U.S. mayors that recently announced it would work together to combat illegal gun trafficking.

  20. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gürel, Mehmet Salih; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania protozoon parasites is a disease which is characterized by long-term nodulo-ulcerative lesions healing spontaneously with scarring. The disease has been well-known in Anatolia for centuries and has different names such as; Urfa boil, Antep boil, year boil, Halep boil, oriental sore and beauty scar. The causative agents are Leishmania tropica and Leishmania tropica/Leishmania infantum in Southeastern Anatolia and East Mediterranean, respectively. CL is a notifiable disease in Turkey and, according to the Ministry of Health official records, 46.003 new cases were reported between 1990 and 2010. Among those cases, 96% of them were reported from the Şanlıurfa, Adana, Osmaniye, Hatay, Diyarbakır, İçel and Kahramanmaraş provinces. Although 45% of cases were notified from Şanlıurfa in the past 20 years, its ratio is currently decreasing while other regions' ratios have been showing an increasing trend. Easier transportation between cities, increased travel migration of the population from rural areas to the peripheral suburbs with inadequate infrastructure and unhealthy housing are thought to be the main factors for spreading the disease from Southeastern Anatolia to other regions of Turkey. Lack of treatment of patients as reservoir hosts because of different reasons and ineffective and inadequate use of insecticides against vector sand flies have also played an important role in spreading the disease. Neglect of this disease by patients and health institutions can also be considered as other factors for the spreading. We believe that, after the strategic plan for leishmaniasis prepared by the Turkish Ministry of Health with the contribution of scientists in 2011 is put into practice, the control of the disease will be more effective.

  1. Accuracy of drug advertisements in medical journals under new law regulating the marketing of pharmaceutical products in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Macarena Gonzalez; Bucher, Heiner C; Nordmann, Alain J

    2008-01-01

    Background New legal regulations for the marketing of pharmaceutical products were introduced in 2002 in Switzerland. We investigated whether claims in drug advertisements citing published scientific studies were justified by these studies after the introduction of these new regulations. Methods In this cross-sectional study, two independent reviewers screened all issues of six major Swiss medical journals published in the year 2005 to identify all drug advertisements for analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and evaluated all drug advertisements referring to at least one publication. The pharmaceutical claim was rated as being supported, being based on a potentially biased study or not to be supported by the cited study according to pre-specified criteria. We also explored factors likely to be associated with supported advertisement claims. Results Of 2068 advertisements 577 (28%) promoted analgesic, psychopharmacologic or gastrointestinal drugs. Among them were 323 (56%) advertisements citing at least one reference. After excluding multiple publications of the same drug advertisement and advertisements with non-informative references, there remained 29 unique advertisements with at least one reference to a scientific study. These 29 advertisements contained 78 distinct pairs of claims of analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and referenced studies. Thirty-seven (47%) claims were supported, 16 (21%) claims were not supported by the corresponding reference, and 25 (32%) claims were based on potentially biased evidence, with no relevant differences between drug groups. Studies with conflict of interest and studies stating industry funding were more likely to support the corresponding claim (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07–2.17 and RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.98–2.28) than studies without identified conflict of interest and studies without information on type of funding. Conclusion Following the introduction of new regulations for drug

  2. Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Namoğlu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects.

  3. Regulations of 23 December 1986 for the implementation of the General Law on health, in the field of health research.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the text of health legislation approved in Mexico on December 23, 1986, setting forth ethical issues and professional responsibilities in the area of health research. Health research is conceptualized as activities that contribute to knowledge regarding biological and physiological processes in humans; knowledge of the links between the causes of disease, medical practice, and social structures; prevention and control of health problems; evaluation of the harmful effects of the environment on health; the study of techniques recommended or used for the delivery of health services; and the production of goods for the health sector. Title 1 of these regulations outlines responsibilities of the Secretariat of Health and calls for the establishment of an Inter-Institutional Commission on Health Research. Title II defines ethical aspects of research on human subjects, with separate provisions for research involving minors, incompetent persons, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, women during labor or childbirth, nursing mothers, embryos, stillborn fetuses, and cadavers. In general, research is permissible on human subjects only if it confers health benefits and carries minimal risks. Title III sets forth regulations on research on new prophylactic, diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative methods, while Title IV concerns the biosafety of research. Clinical research in the field of pharmacology must include 4 phases preceded by full preclinical studies. Finally, Title V of this legislation defines the duties of internal committees in health institutions.

  4. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.

  5. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  6. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  7. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  8. Turkey Masquerade. An Idea Worth Trying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of planning for art projects by first producing sketches and then selecting the best sketch. Illustrates this by describing an activity used with fifth-grade students in which they make cut-paper collage turkeys and turkey disguises. Lists possible turkey disguises. (CMK)

  9. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  10. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry.

  11. Darwin's laws.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Chris

    2012-03-01

    There is widespread agreement among contemporary philosophers of biology and philosophically-minded biologists that Darwin's insights about the intrusion of chance processes into biological regularities undermines the possibility of there being biological laws. Darwin made references to "designed laws." He also freely described some laws as having exceptions. This paper provides a philosophical analysis of the notion of scientific laws that was dominant in Darwin's time, and in all probability the one which he inherited. The analysis of laws is then used to show how it could have been natural for Darwin to believe in designed laws that had exceptions, and to highlight the continuity between the metaphysics of pre-Darwinian, Darwinian, and contemporary biological science. One important result is the removal of one motivation for the anti-laws sentiment in philosophy and biology.

  12. 75 FR 24394 - Somalia Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Other Laws and Regulations Sec. 551.101 Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. Subpart B... Laws and Regulations Sec. 551.101 Relation of this part to other laws and regulations. This part is... or issued pursuant to any other provision of law or regulation authorizes any transaction...

  13. Autopsy evaluation of coal mining deaths in the city of Zonguldak, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Erdal; Yilmaz, Riza; Evcuman, Durmus; Yildirim, Ali; Cetin, Ilhan; Kocak, Ugur; Ergen, Kivanc

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, our aim was to evaluate the fatal occupational accidents that occurred in Zonguldak coal mines between the years 2005–2008. Material/Methods We retrospectively evaluated 42 fatal coal mine occupational accidents in Zonguldak (Turkey) between the years 2005–2008. The forensic records of autopsies referred to the chief prosecutors’ office during 2005–2008 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 42 cases. The cases were evaluated with respect to age, mechanism of injury, body region of wound, cause of death, and legality of the mine. Results Ages of the deceased ranged between 17 and 52 (median: 32.9 yrs). Deaths were mostly in the 21–30 (35.8%), and 31–40 (30.9%) age groups. Only 1 case was younger than 18 years of age. Review of occupational fatalities has revealed that fatal accidents occurred mostly (76.2%) in the private, and fewer (23.8%) in the public mining enterprises. Crime scene investigation findings have demonstrated that of all occupational deaths (total n=42), 27 (64.3%) were due to subsidence, followed by methane gas poisoning (n=6, 14.2%), tram crash (n=3, 7.1%), log falls (n=2, 4.8%), electrocution (n=2, 4.8%), and methane explosion (n=2, 4.8%). Conclusions Despite laws and regulations concerning mining and because of problems in their implementation, Turkey leads the world in work-related accidents, occupational injuries, and deaths. Evaluation of autopsy findings of deaths in fatal occupational accidents occurring in coal mines is quite important in planning to decrease rates of occupational fatalities. PMID:24643126

  14. EPA's Implementation of Laws Regulating Asbestos Hazards in Schools and in the Air. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    A hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of laws regulating asbestos hazards in schools and in the air. Presented are testimony as well as letters and statements submitted for the record by leading authorities in the area including: (1) James…

  15. Excerpts from New York State Education Law, Rules of the Board of Regents and Regulations of the Commissioner of Education Pertaining to Public and Free Association Libraries, Library Systems, Trustees and Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Library Development.

    This document includes all pertinent changes in New York Education Law enacted through the December 1984 legislative session, and changes of rules of the Board of Regents and regulations of the Commissioner through the Regents Meeting in December 1984, that pertain to public libraries, library systems, trustees, and librarians. Education Law…

  16. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  17. 12 CFR 213.9 - Relation to state laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relation to state laws. 213.9 Section 213.9... LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.9 Relation to state laws. (a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that is... a lessor cannot comply with a state law without violating a provision of this part, the state law...

  18. Modelling (18)O2 and (16)O2 unidirectional fluxes in plants. IV: role of conductance and laws of its regulation in C3 plants.

    PubMed

    André, Marcel J

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies focus on the measurement of conductances for CO2 transfer in plants and especially on their regulatory effects on photosynthesis. Measurement accuracy is strongly dependent on the model used and on the knowledge of the flow of photochemical energy generated by light in chloroplasts. The only accurate and precise method to quantify the linear electron flux (responsible for the production of reductive energy) is the direct measurement of O2 evolution, by (18)O2 labelling and mass spectrometry. The sharing of this energy between the carboxylation (P) and the oxygenation of photorespiration (PR) depends on the plant specificity factor (Sp) and on the corresponding atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and O2 (André, 2013). The concept of plant specificity factor simplifies the equations of the model. It gives a new expression of the effect of the conductance (g) between atmosphere and chloroplasts. Its quantitative effect on photosynthesis is easy to understand because it intervenes in the ratio of the plant specificity factor (Sp) to the specificity of Rubisco (Sr). Using this 'simple' model with the data of (18)O2 experiments, the calculation of conductance variations in response to CO2 and light was carried out. The good fitting of experimental data of O2 and CO2 exchanges confirms the validity of the simple model. The calculation of conductance variation during the increase of external CO2 concentration reveals a linear law of regulation between external and internal CO2 concentrations. During CO2 variations, the effects of g regulation tend to maintain a higher level of oxygenation (PR) in expense of a better carboxylation (P). Contrary to CO2, the variation of O2 creates a negative feedback effect compatible with a stabilization of atmospheric O2. The regulation of g amplifies this result. The effect of light in combination with CO2 is more complex. Below 800μmolquantam(-2)s(-1) the ratio PR/P is maintained unchangeable in expense of carboxylation

  19. Survey report: Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kent, M

    1987-06-01

    The 1983 Turkish Population and Health Survey, involving 5398 ever-married women under 50 years of age, revealed that the demand for family planning services in Turkey exceeds current availability. Although almost 3/4 of survey respondents indicated they wanted only 2-3 children, actual fertility rates in the 1978-83 period averaged 4.2 births/woman. The percent of currently married women under 50 years of age using birth control increased from 50% in 1978 to 62% in 1983, but half of this increase was attributable to a greater reliance on withdrawal. Withdrawal was the contraceptive method used by 49% of family planning acceptors in 1983; only 27% reported use of a modern method. Inadequate supplies was the main reason cited for the low use of modern methods, especially in the more rural eastern regions of the country. The prevalence of traditional methods, and an increasing abortion ratio (25.6/100 live births in 1983), indicates a high unmet need for family planning. 78% of the women surveyed in 1983 asserted that they did not want any more children. The 1983 survey also reported an infant mortality rate of 112/1000 live births. Most Turkish women breastfeed their infants for the 1st year of life, but other traditional practices such as reliance on untrained attendants for childbirth and packing earth into the swaddling cloth with the infant have been linked to higher infant mortality. The survey report concluded that improvements in the education and status of women would enhance their acceptance of family planning and contribute to life-styles more promotive of infant survival.

  20. Multimedia regulated chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Mao, Y.L.

    1999-10-01

    This article examines those chemicals that are listed in either environmental laws or regulations. Its objective is to help readers determine which laws regulate what types of chemicals and which types of chemicals are regulated by what laws. It is multimedia in scope, describing the various chemicals that are regulated in the different media (i.e., air, water, or land).

  1. A comparison of the result of a three-part study with the rights of cancer patients presented in public reports, laws and regulations.

    PubMed

    Saegrov, S

    2007-11-01

    People diagnosed with cancer often state that they are left to their own resources after receiving their diagnosis and possibly receiving treatment at a hospital. In all likelihood, most of those afflicted with cancer will require follow-up care. The Norwegian Cancer Plan of 1997 proposed that more should be done for people afflicted with cancer. With these factors as the starting point, a three-part study with use of interviews and questionnaires was conducted to identify and evaluate the scope of follow-up care in one Norwegian county with 26 municipalities in a sparsely populated region. This article examines consequences of the sickness for those afflicted. Next, the article discusses who is responsible for organizing follow-up care, and the related official reports, laws and regulations. The article also discusses the results of a three-part study that sought to identify those components of follow-up care that worked effectively and those that did not, with the aim of drafting a follow-up care programme.

  2. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  3. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  4. Comparison of Ukrainian and Turkish Law Students' Attitudes towards Democratic Values: Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayalar, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Ukrainian and Turkish law students' attitudes towards democratic values and the factors that may affect these values and to compare them in terms of different variables. This study is a descriptive survey model. The research consists of total 226 students from three Schools of Law, two in Turkey and one in…

  5. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  6. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  7. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  8. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  9. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  10. Avian metapneumovirus infection of chicken and turkey tracheal organ cultures: comparison of virus-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sandra; Sid, Hicham; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, which can cause high economic losses in infected poultry. aMPV mainly causes infection of the upper respiratory tract in both chickens and turkeys, although turkeys seem to be more susceptible. Little is known about virus-host interactions at epithelial surfaces after aMPV infection. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) are a suitable model to investigate virus-host interaction in the respiratory epithelium. Therefore, we investigated virus replication rates and lesion development in chicken and turkey TOC after infection with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Aspects of the innate immune response, such as interferon-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression, as well as virus-induced apoptosis were determined. The aMPV-replication rate was higher in turkey (TTOC) compared to chicken TOC (CTOC) (P < 0.05), providing circumstantial evidence that indeed turkeys may be more susceptible. The interferon-α response was down-regulated from 2 to 144 hours post infection in both species compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05); this was more significant for CTOC than TTOC. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly up-regulated in aMPV-A-infected TTOC and CTOC compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05). However, the results suggest that NO may play a different role in aMPV pathogenesis between turkeys and chickens as indicated by differences in apoptosis rate and lesion development between species. Overall, our study reveals differences in innate immune response regulation and therefore may explain differences in aMPV - A replication rates between infected TTOC and CTOC, which subsequently lead to more severe clinical signs and a higher rate of secondary infections in turkeys.

  11. Medical waste management in Turkey: A case study of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Birpinar, Mehmet Emin; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan; Erdoğan, Tuğba

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the present status of medical waste management in the light of the Medical Waste Control Regulation (MWCR) in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey. About 17% of the hospitals, 20% of bed capacity, and 54% of private hospitals in Turkey are located in Istanbul. The first regulation about medical waste management in Turkey was published in 1993, and as a candidate state, it was changed in 2005 in accordance with EU Environmental Directives. In this work, a survey of 14 questions about the amount, collection, and temporary storage of medical wastes was applied to 192 hospitals in Istanbul through face-to-face interviews. It was found that the estimated quantity of medical waste from the hospitals is about 22tons/day and the average generation rate is 0.63kg/bed-day. Recyclable materials are collected separately at a rate of 83%. Separate collection of different types of wastes is consistently practiced, but 25% of the hospitals still use inappropriate containers for medical waste collection. Almost 77% of the hospitals use appropriate equipment for the medical waste collection personnel. The percentage of the hospitals that have temporary storage depots is 63%. Medical waste management in Istanbul is carried out by applying the MWCR.

  12. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

    2000-01-01

    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  13. The Golden Arches Meet the Hallowed Halls: Franchise Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Danaya

    1995-01-01

    A law school course in franchise law focuses on how various legal issues and categories interact within the context of the narrowly defined business relationship of a franchise. Four major topics included federal and state disclosure regulations, trademarks and service marks, common law contract issues, and antitrust law. Class exercises included…

  14. Postgraduate forensic science education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, S; Cologlu, A S; Abaci-Kalfoglu, E; Polat, O

    1996-03-01

    Legal medicine in Turkey, has an educational background that goes back to 1839 and the first autopsy in modern terms was performed in 1841. In the early days, it was common practice for those involved in this work to extend their investigative knowledge into areas not directly concerned with medical matters. However forensic medical investigations cannot be entrusted in the hands of single investigators, but should rather be dealt with by cooperative groups of experts nowadays. This need was the major force for the establishment of the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences by a special article of the law (section 2547) as a training and research center in 1982. The Institute being the first and only institution giving master's and doctorate degrees in Forensic Sciences, has 3 major departments: 1) Medical Sciences Department, 2) Basic Sciences Department and 3) Social Sciences Department. Graduates of various fields ranging from medical doctors specialized in any field, biologists, chemists to lawyers, district attorneys, psychologists and other related fields are composing the multidisciplinary structure of the institute. The main research fields of the Institute are: population genetics, paternity investigation, child abuse, and identification of human remains.

  15. Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive and the EIA decision in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Bilgin, Ayla

    2015-07-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive first entered into force in the United States in 1969, and began to be implemented in many other countries by 1990. The first Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive in Turkey was published on February 7, 1993, under the Environmental Law No. 2872. The EIA Directive was revised seven times on June 23, 1997, June 6, 2002, December 16, 2003, July 17, 2008, October 3, 2013, and November 25, 2014. Several amendments were made during this process. The first EIA Directive dated 1993 was narrow in scope and its procedure was long, while the amendments in 2003, 2008, 2013, and 2014 widened the scope of the EIA, and shortened the EIA assessment procedures. In this study, the amendments to the Turkish EIA Directive were analysed, and their effect on the number of EIA decisions made was addressed. It was concluded that the uncertainties in EIA procedures were removed, procedures were shortened, and as a result, the number of EIA decisions increased thanks to the revisions made in line with harmonisation with European Union (EU) acquis. - Highlights: • Demonstrates the Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Turkey. • Demonstrates the application of the EIA in Turkey by sector. • Demonstrates the amendments of the EIA by-laws in Turkey. • Demonstrates the changes in EIA practices and EIA decisions.

  16. Women and leprosy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiner, T; Yüksel, A; Soydan, M; Saylan, T; Bahçeci, E

    1993-01-01

    Women in Turkey have many social, cultural and economical problems. Women with leprosy have problems in common with other women as well as those related to physical and social consequences of leprosy. There are 2,414 patients with leprosy in Turkey, registered to Istanbul Leprosy Hospital and 829 of them are females. The mean age and duration of disease of our female leprosy patients are high. Most women with leprosy were born in eastern part of Turkey where prevalence of leprosy is higher and most have moved to western regions. The proportion of women who have some kind of social security is very low. Their economic status is also not good and 79% of patients had stigma about their disease. Three fourths of these cases have been hospitalized some time, for different reasons. Most of them (97.2%) have inactive disease at present. Disability degrees of patients are high. Patients with disability degrees over one constitute 54% of total for eyes, 55% for hands and 51% for feet. High percentage of multibacillary form and long duration of disease, delayed diagnosis, insufficient self-care of patients due to low socio-economic and cultural status and failure of health personnel to control patients periodically may be among the reasons for such high ratios of moderate and severe disabilities. In the light of the data obtained in our study, some measures to alleviate the problems of patients resulting from their socio-economic, cultural and social status have been suggested.

  17. Underage mothers in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Erdal; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Yildirim, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Din, Hasan; Evcuman, Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Background All individuals under the age of 18 are considered as children by the Convention on the Rights of Children. Underage mothers are a pediatric-age group of children that become pregnant and give birth. It may be unfamiliar in Western countries, but in Middle-Eastern countries ruled by religious laws and old-fashioned traditions, it is common for an older man to marry a girl. The aim of this study was to describe the status of underage mothers within the framework of children’s rights and to draw attention to this issue. We presented this study to increase awareness and sensitivity, and to scrutinize and discuss these topics. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated cases of underaged pregnant girls who applied to Forensic Science Department outpatient clinics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department outpatient clinics of Gaziosmanpasa University Faculty of Medicine between 2003 and 2013. Results We accessed records of 163 underage mothers (≤18 age). Mean age was 16.9±0.83 (14–18 years). Gravida and parity rates increased proportionately with increasing age. Most of our cases were 16 and 17 years of age (n: 117, 71.8%). Conclusions Underage motherhood is not only a medical issue; it is a multi-dimensional problem with social, economic, traditional, religious, and legal aspects. PMID:24714663

  18. 48 CFR 1352.209-73 - Compliance with the laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with the laws... Compliance with the laws. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1309.507-2(c), insert the following clause: Compliance With the Laws (APR 2010) The contractor shall comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations...

  19. 48 CFR 1352.209-73 - Compliance with the laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with the laws... Compliance with the laws. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1309.507-2(c), insert the following clause: Compliance With the Laws (APR 2010) The contractor shall comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.209-73 - Compliance with the laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance with the laws... Compliance with the laws. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1309.507-2(c), insert the following clause: Compliance With the Laws (APR 2010) The contractor shall comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations...

  1. 12 CFR 202.11 - Relation to state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relation to state law. 202.11 Section 202.11... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.11 Relation to state law. (a) Inconsistent state laws. Except as otherwise provided in this section, this regulation alters, affects, or preempts only those state laws...

  2. 48 CFR 1352.209-73 - Compliance with the laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with the laws... Compliance with the laws. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1309.507-2(c), insert the following clause: Compliance With the Laws (APR 2010) The contractor shall comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations...

  3. State-Level Legal Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies in the U.S.: A Network Analysis of State Laws and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell Bjerke, Elizabeth; Galvan, Jared; Sweeney, Patricia; Potter, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explored if and to what extent the laws of U.S. states mirrored the U.S. federal laws for responding to nuclear-radiological emergencies (NREs). Methods Emergency laws from a 12-state sample and the federal government were retrieved and translated into numeric codes representing acting agents, their partner agents, and the purposes of activity in terms of preparedness, response, and recovery. We used network analysis to explore the relationships among agents in terms of legally directed NRE activities. Results States' legal networks for NREs appear as not highly inclusive, involving an average of 28% of agents among those specified in the federal laws. Certain agents are highly central in NRE networks, so that their capacity and effectiveness might strongly influence an NRE response. Conclusions State-level lawmakers and planners might consider whether or not greater inclusion of agents, modeled on the federal government laws, would enhance their NRE laws and if more agents should be engaged in planning and policy-making for NRE incidents. Further research should explore if and to what extent legislated NRE directives impose constraints on practical response activities including emergency planning. PMID:25355987

  4. Mechanistic modeling of turkey growth response to genotype and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Torres, V; Ferket, P R; Sauvant, D

    2011-10-01

    Along with the fast genetic improvement, nutritional and environmental effects on poultry growth performance have made it necessary to develop growth models that have the flexibility to adapt to different genotypes and growing conditions. A mechanistic simulation model of energy and nutrient utilization in growing turkeys is presented herein. The model consists of simulating the average homeorhetic and homeostatic regulations associated with the utilization of circulating glucose, fatty acid, AA, and acetyl-CoA for protein and lipid retention in carcass, viscera, and feathers in a turkey population. Homeorhesis plays a major role in the control of protein and lipid turnover for the definition of genetic potential and feed intake, whereas homeostasis adjusts growth rate through protein and lipid turnover rates and, therefore, BW gain and feed intake to the growing conditions. Also, homeostasis enables the maintenance of a dynamic balance state during all the growing period through the control of circulating nutrient concentration. The model was developed and calibrated with experimental data that described energy utilization in male and female growing turkeys. Then, the ability of the model to adapt to genotypes and to predict the average response of a turkey population to dietary energy was evaluated. Model calibration showed simulations of energy and nutrient utilization that fitted well with the experimental data because ME was satisfyingly partitioned into heat production and energy retention as protein and lipid, and nutrient intake accurately partitioned BW gain into carcass, viscera, and feathers. The evaluation of the model was also satisfactory because BW gain and feed-to-gain ratio were globally in accordance with the observations in different male and female genotypes, in spite of an overestimation of the feed-to-gain ratio during the first weeks of age. Model evaluation showed that the BW gain and feed intake response of growing turkeys to dietary energy

  5. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  6. 43 CFR 8365.1-7 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State and local laws. 8365.1-7 Section... and local laws. Except as otherwise provided by Federal law or regulation, State and local laws and... not limited to, State and local laws and ordinances governing: (a) Operation and use of motor...

  7. 31 CFR 212.9 - Preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preemption of State law. 212.9 Section... PAYMENTS § 212.9 Preemption of State law. (a) Inconsistent law preempted. Any State or local government law... inconsistency. A State law or regulation is inconsistent with this part if it requires a financial...

  8. Dyslexia laws in the USA.

    PubMed

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and regulations for both identification and treatment, and the provision of equal access to students who are diagnosed with dyslexia. The majority of states, however, have not developed such laws and guidelines. The purposes of this article are to review the present status and content of these dyslexia laws, highlight some differences among the laws and regulations across states, and suggest strategies for initiating such laws.

  9. Isolation and characterization of an ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor from Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Słowińska, Mariola; Liszewska, Ewa; Nynca, Joanna; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Szubstarski, Jarosław; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Turkey seminal plasma contains three serine proteinase inhibitors. Two of them, with low molecular masses (6 kDa), were identified as single-domain Kazal-type inhibitors responsible for regulating acrosin activity. Our experimental objective was to isolate and characterize the inhibitor with the high molecular weight from turkey seminal plasma. The inhibitor was purified using hydrophobic interaction and affinity chromatography. Pure preparations of the inhibitor were used for identification by mass spectrometry, for determination of physicochemical properties (molecular weight, pI, and content and composition of the carbohydrate component), for kinetic studies, and for antibacterial tests. Gene expression and immunohistochemical detection of the inhibitor were analyzed in the testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens. The inhibitor with a high molecular weight from turkey seminal plasma was identified as an ovoinhibitor, which was found in avian semen for the first time. The turkey seminal plasma ovoinhibitor was a six-tandem homologous Kazal-type domain serine proteinase inhibitor that targeted multiple proteases, including subtilisin, trypsin, and elastase, but not acrosin. Our results suggested that hepatocyte growth factor activator was a potential target proteinase for the ovoinhibitor in turkey seminal plasma. The presence of the ovoinhibitor within the turkey reproductive tract suggested that its role was to maintain a microenvironment for sperm in the epididymis and ductus deferens. The turkey seminal plasma ovoinhibitor appeared to play a significant role in an antibacterial semen defense against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. 43 CFR 2650.3 - Lawful entries, lawful settlements, and mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lawful entries, lawful settlements, and mining claims. 2650.3 Section 2650.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining claims....

  11. 43 CFR 2650.3 - Lawful entries, lawful settlements, and mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lawful entries, lawful settlements, and mining claims. 2650.3 Section 2650.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining claims....

  12. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  13. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  14. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  15. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  16. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  17. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor...

  18. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  19. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  20. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  1. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  2. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not a citizen, national,...

  3. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  4. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  5. Selection, Placement and Instatement of School Managers in Turkey: Evaluation of the Current Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the new regulations and current practices in terms of how they apply--to the selection, training and instatement of school administrators in Turkey. The successful implementation of Turkish National Development Plans is closely related to the knowledge and skills of managers working at various levels in every…

  6. 9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...” shall be fabricated from boneless, turkey thigh meat with skin and the surface fat attached to the...

  7. 50 CFR 10.3 - Other applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other applicable laws. 10.3 Section 10.3... GENERAL PROVISIONS Introduction § 10.3 Other applicable laws. No statute or regulation of any State shall..., or customs laws or regulations, or other Service enforced statutes or regulations....

  8. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  9. World Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, David

    This consultant paper is intended to provide information useful to a goal of this curriculum development project in the war/peace field, that is to encourage students to search intelligently for alternatives to war. The most fundamental assumptions used in thinking about international law are described, including some assumptions about systemic…

  10. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  11. Experiences on Licensed Offices of Surveying and Cadastre (losc) in Adana, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, G.; Ates, H. B.

    2016-10-01

    Modern cadastre means to integrate the registration of the real estates with the data of the other related activities such as taxation, mortgage, valuation, land-use, land cover,..etc. In Turkey cadastral technical activities were carried out by General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre until 2005. But then cadastre sustainment services were transferred to private sector according to "Law on Cadastre" technical parts of initial cadastre and according to the Law on "Licensed Engineers of Surveying and Cadastre and Offices". In this article services of Licensed Offices of Surveying and Cadastre (LOSCs) are presented and the experiences in Adana are shared.

  12. 25 CFR 224.105 - How may a person or entity obtain copies of tribal laws, regulations, or procedures that would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How may a person or entity obtain copies of tribal laws....105 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT Interested...

  13. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a) Vessels... empty tankers which are not gas free, and vessels carrying dangerous substances whether break-bulk...

  14. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  16. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  17. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  18. Law and public health at CDC.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  19. Health and social inequities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dedeoglu, N

    1990-01-01

    Social and economic policies of governments directly influence the health of the people. These policies, in turn, are determined by the national and foreign controllers of power. Economic and social factors in Turkey during the late 1970s led to a new modelling of the economic system, from a Keynesian to a market-oriented and monetarist model. The state mechanism was also altered to form a centralized, authoritarian regime in order to enforce the requirements of the economy. As a result, the middle class diminished in size, inequalities in income distribution increased, unemployment climbed, the purchasing power of wage earners decreased, government spending for education and health was cut and new oppressive laws were enacted. Health services were already urban-biased and hospital-oriented, but new free-market measures were instituted which promoted private health institutions and attempted to transform state-owned and financed hospitals into self-supporting, independent business enterprises. The only school of public health was closed down; preventive medicine expenditures were lowered while hospital rates and drug prices were increased. All these changes affected the health status of the population. Mortality and morbidity inequalities had already existed between the rich and the poor, men and women, urban and rural settlements, educated and illiterate, West and East, always in favour of the former. However, the new policies exacerbated the inequities. Infectious diseases including tuberculosis increased, nutrition worsened, occupational diseases and work accidents rose to be the highest in Europe. The power-holding minority is not interested in the health of populations and is committed to pursue its social and economic policies. Ad hoc research, especially cross-sectional mortality studies repeated at regular intervals can provide data on the most vulnerable groups as no other valid information exists. There is little hope of these data being used for

  20. Stigma law.

    PubMed

    1998-10-30

    Massachusetts enacted a law, called House No. 2099, that relieves real estate brokers from liability for not disclosing the history of a property to a potential buyer. The statute says that certain information does not need to be disclosed in a real estate transaction. Such information includes whether any previous occupants had HIV/AIDS or any other disease that is unlikely to be transmitted casually.

  1. An aftermath analysis of the 2014 coal mine accident in Soma, Turkey: Use of risk performance indicators based on historical experience.

    PubMed

    Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    On the 13th of May 2014 a fire related incident in the Soma coal mine in Turkey caused 301 fatalities and more than 80 injuries. This has been the largest coal mine accident in Turkey, and in the OECD country group, so far. This study investigated if such a disastrous event should be expected, in a statistical sense, based on historical observations. For this purpose, PSI's ENSAD database is used to extract accident data for the period 1970-2014. Four different cases are analyzed, i.e., OECD, OECD w/o Turkey, Turkey and USA. Analysis of temporal trends for annual numbers of accidents and fatalities indicated a non-significant decreasing tendency for OECD and OECD w/o Turkey and a significant one for USA, whereas for Turkey both measures showed an increase over time. The expectation analysis revealed clearly that an event with the consequences of the Soma accident is rather unlikely for OECD, OECD w/o Turkey and USA. In contrast, such a severe accident has a substantially higher expectation for Turkey, i.e. it cannot be considered an extremely rare event, based on historical experience. This indicates a need for improved safety measures and stricter regulations in the Turkish coal mining sector in order to get closer to the rest of OECD.

  2. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-eight. Oklahoma. Final report of a study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Oklahoma governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities, Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One: An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  4. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  5. Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

    In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

  6. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  7. Nutrition and gastric cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Suayib

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains to be one of leading causes of cancer deaths despite worldwide decreasing incidence. In Turkey gastric cancer incidence is 9.6/100,000 in men and 5.7/100,000 in females. Gastric cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Turkey with a crude death rate of 5.84/100,000 in men, 3.7/100,000 in women. The mean age of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer is 56 years in Turkey. The relatively high rate of gastric cancer in Turkey is mainly due to dietary factors. The traditional food preservation such as salt curing or smoking and lack of refrigeration of food play a significant role in gastric cancer development in the country. There are etiological and epidemiological differences among geographical regions in Turkey. Gastric cancer is seen much more often in the central, northeastern, and eastern part of Turkey. Increased HP pylori infection is also another important reason for increased incidence of gastric cancer in some parts of the country.

  8. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  9. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  10. 46 CFR 5.19 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 5.19 Section 5.19 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Definitions § 5.19 Administrative Law Judge. (a) An Administrative Law Judge... has delegated to Administrative Law Judges the authority to admonish, suspend, with or...

  11. 29 CFR 417.6 - Powers of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powers of Administrative Law Judge. 417.6 Section 417.6... Administrative Law Judge. The designated Administrative Law Judge shall have authority: (a) To give notice... other actions authorized by the regulations in this part. The Administrative Law Judge's authority...

  12. 12 CFR 213.9 - Relation to state laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relation to state laws. 213.9 Section 213.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.9 Relation to state laws. (a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that...

  13. 12 CFR 229.20 - Relation to state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relation to state law. 229.20 Section 229.20... Availability Policies § 229.20 Relation to state law. (a) In general. Any provision of a law or regulation of...; and (2) Apply to all federally insured banks located within the state. No amendment to a state law...

  14. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law. 776.57 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.57 Unauthorized practice of law. (a) Unauthorized practice of law. A... law in a jurisdiction where doing so is prohibited by the regulations of the legal profession in...

  15. 37 CFR 11.505 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law... Rules of Professional Conduct Law Firms and Associations § 11.505 Unauthorized practice of law. A practitioner shall not practice law in a jurisdiction in violation of the regulation of the legal profession...

  16. 36 CFR 327.26 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State and local laws. 327.26... § 327.26 State and local laws. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part or by Federal law or regulation, state and local laws and ordinances shall apply on project lands and waters. This includes,...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5453 - Law governing other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Law governing other interests. 615.5453 Section... § 615.5453 Law governing other interests. (a) To the extent not inconsistent with these regulations, the law (not including the conflict-of-law rules) of a securities intermediary's jurisdiction governs:...

  18. 36 CFR 327.26 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true State and local laws. 327.26... § 327.26 State and local laws. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part or by Federal law or regulation, state and local laws and ordinances shall apply on project lands and waters. This includes,...

  19. 36 CFR 327.26 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State and local laws. 327.26... § 327.26 State and local laws. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part or by Federal law or regulation, state and local laws and ordinances shall apply on project lands and waters. This includes,...

  20. 32 CFR 1903.3 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State law applicable. 1903.3 Section 1903.3... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.3 State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by the regulations... installation are governed by State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made...

  1. 36 CFR 1004.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State law applicable. 1004.2... State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the... State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made a part of the...

  2. 12 CFR 1511.3 - Law governing other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Law governing other interests. 1511.3 Section... § 1511.3 Law governing other interests. (a) To the extent not inconsistent with the regulations in this part, the law (not including the conflict-of-law rules) of a Securities Intermediary's...

  3. 46 CFR 5.19 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 5.19 Section 5.19 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Definitions § 5.19 Administrative Law Judge. (a) An Administrative Law Judge... has delegated to Administrative Law Judges the authority to admonish, suspend, with or...

  4. 46 CFR 5.19 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 5.19 Section 5.19 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Definitions § 5.19 Administrative Law Judge. (a) An Administrative Law Judge... has delegated to Administrative Law Judges the authority to admonish, suspend, with or...

  5. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law. 776.57 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.57 Unauthorized practice of law. (a) Unauthorized practice of law. A... law in a jurisdiction where doing so is prohibited by the regulations of the legal profession in...

  6. 36 CFR 1004.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State law applicable. 1004.2... State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the... State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made a part of the...

  7. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  8. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  9. 29 CFR 102.6 - Administrative law judge; hearing officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge; hearing officer. 102.6 Section 102.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.6 Administrative law judge; hearing officer. The term administrative law...

  10. 31 CFR 91.14 - Penalties and other law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalties and other law. 91.14... GROUNDS § 91.14 Penalties and other law. Whoever shall be found guilty of violating any of the regulations... construed to abrogate any other Federal laws or regulations or those of any State or municipality...

  11. 31 CFR 407.14 - Penalties and other law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalties and other law. 407.14... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.14 Penalties and other law. Whoever shall be found guilty of violating the regulations... construed to abrogate any other Federal laws or regulations of the District of Columbia applicable to...

  12. The Effect of Group Work on Misconceptions of 9th Grade Students about Newton's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergin, Serap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method on 9th grade students' misconceptions about Newton Laws was investigated. The study was conducted in three classes in an Anatolian Vocational High School in Ankara/Turkey in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. Two of these classes were chosen as the experimental group and…

  13. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  14. Universal mortality law and immortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  15. [Examination related to revised test method for determination of formaldehyde, regulated by the law for the control of household products containing harmful substances].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Kaniwa, Masa-aki; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, the amount of formaldehyde in textile products was regulated by the low for the control of household products containing harmful substances. Formaldehyde was determined by measuring the optical density of acetylacetone derivative of formaldehyde extracted from textiles. The household products low stated that the increase in the optical density of color development of the extract from the textile products for babies or infants within 24 months after birth should not be more than 0.05. Collaborative study decided the amount of formaldehyde equivalent to the increase in absorbance described above, and the amount was 16 ppm. There are some reports that formaldehyde causes an allergic reaction even at a very low concentration, so continuous regulation for formaldehyde in the textiles was desirable using this level of amount. We developed HPLC method for the determination of formaldehyde in textile products. Formaldehyde was determined by the direct injection of acetylacetone derivative of samples into the system equipped with ODS column and UV-VIS detector (detection wavelength 413 nm) using the mixture of acetonitrile and water as mobile phase. The linearity was obtained between a peak area or height and the concentrations of formaldehyde solution in the range of 0.0625-2 micrograms/ml. The regulation level was sufficiently detected by the present HPLC method. We recommended that the HPLC test was adopted as a reexamination method for the products may violate the regulation as well as a dimedone test.

  16. Long Hair and the Law: A Look at Constitutional and Title VII Challenges to Public and Private Regulation of Male Grooming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troup, David P.

    1975-01-01

    Arguments that have been advanced in court by both sides of the controversy are examined, and it is concluded that male grooming regulations may effectively exclude a significant proportion of males from job opportunities or require them to alter their personal appearance for reasons probably unrelated to job performance. (LBH)

  17. Change-in-law provisions in a carbon-constrained America: the impact of carbon regulation on long-term power purchase agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, Brian C.

    2009-06-15

    Policymakers now are acting on climate change initiatives. As new regulations are discussed, adopted, and applied to power plants, sellers and buyers of power will have to negotiate the appropriate risk allocation, both in terms of price and passthrough of costs. (author)

  18. 45 CFR 309.90 - What governing Tribal law or regulations must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.90 Section 309.90 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL CHILD...

  19. 45 CFR 309.90 - What governing Tribal law or regulations must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.90 Section 309.90 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL CHILD...

  20. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  1. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... Pasta from Italy and Turkey: Investigation Nos. 701- TA-365-366 and 731-TA-734-735 (Third...

  2. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  3. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshan; Mor, Sunil K.; Porter, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O'Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon's tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys. PMID:28105381

  4. What Does the Law Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author provides legal explanations to the following concerns: (1) case law on specific learning disability (SLD) eligibility; (2) recent developments on response to intervention (RTI); (3) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) rules; and (4) the Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) regulation. The author's…

  5. Making School Bully Laws Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Edmondson, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, bully prevention activities moved from the local districts to the state houses where legislators amended public school laws to incorporate safety regulations. For instance, the 2001 authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, referred to as No Child Left Behind, included the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and…

  6. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  7. Comparison of pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Turkey and certain EU countries.

    PubMed

    Atikeler, Enver Kagan; Özçelikay, Gulbin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the need for health care services has increased gradually and the limitations in sources allocated for this area have been recognized. Moving from this fact, it has gained a supreme importance to determine what health programs or technologies will be given priority. According to Danzon (Reference pricing: theory and evidence, reference pricing and pharmaceutical policy: perspectives on economics and innovation, springer, New York, pp 86-126, 2001), arrangements towards controlling the expenses through price and profit controls, reimbursement methods and incentives have recently gained wide currency. This present study examines; along with the current situation in Turkey, pharmaceutical pricing methods, reimbursement methods and basic health indicators, within the scope of changing pharmaceutical policies, in Turkey, the EU countries which Turkey takes as reference and the United Kingdom, the implementations of which are of utmost importance for other countries. Upon the research conducted, it was detected that the pharmaceutical pricing in Turkey has been performed on the basis of the reference pricing system that takes Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece and France as reference. The regulations regarding the reimbursement process are determined by SSI. For Turkey's case; pricing and reimbursement system has been changed numerous times and the discount rates has incrementally risen. In pricing, on the other hand, during this period companies faced with difficulties in economic terms because of the fact that price discount of high rates are implemented over the reference price and that the European currency of Euro is determined as 70% of previous year average Euro sales rate which is 2,1166 for the year 2016. Each country has specific regulations and pricing and reimbursement policies of medicines based on economic situation, reimbursement methods and market size. The aim of pricing and reimbursement systems are reaching more efficient and sustainable

  8. [Health policy of the Republic of Turkey in accordance with the minutes of the Turkish Parliament (Part II)].

    PubMed

    Ozpekcan, Meliha

    2002-01-01

    Because of the invasion of the Ottoman territory after the World War I, the Turkish War of Liberty was initiated by Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends. While they aimed at a successful outcome of the battle, they at the same time tried to achieve a nation-wide organization. In order to look after the nation's medical and social service, on May 2nd 1920, a new ministry called the Ministry for Medical and Social Service was founded. The new ministry's task was not only to concern itself with the medical and social service, but also with immigration and of the immigrants. At the beginning the hitherto existing social system and certain laws were not abolished until they were replaced by new ones in order to prevent an interruption in the social service. In these years the aim of the social system was to struggle against infectious diseases, to prevent infections, to decrease infant mortality and to increase the population, to take measures against diseases from abroad, to pass the laws needed and to form a central authority. Besides these laws which were directly related with the medical and social service during the War of Liberty, the governing of the districts and the regulations concerning the miners in Zonguldak were passed in order to protect peoples' health. Our political existence was confirmed through the signing of the agreement reached by the Lausanne Conference after the War of Liberty and consequently the Medical Care Supreme Council of Istanbul, which had continued its validity as a capitulation, was abolished. The social state policy of the period which had started with the foundation of the Turkish Republic aimed to extend the state's medical organization, increase the number of the medical staff, continue the employment of the health personnel specialized in medicine, struggle against infectious diseases in an organized way, provide a wide-spread medical service, give priority to preventive health care and establish medical institutions, effect a

  9. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  10. Globalization and the trends of medical technology trade in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek; Demiral, Yücel

    2007-05-01

    Medical technology trade is one of the most affected health areas by global regulations in the developing countries. The aim of the study is to examine recent changes in medical technology import and export and their results in Turkey. Data show that the total medical technology imports (MTI) increased from $ 34.6 million to $ 3427.9 million between 1970 and 2003. While MTI constituted 3.6% of total imports in 1970 and 1.3% in 1980, this ratio raised up to 4.9% in 2003. The ratio of MTI in total health expenditures were also increased from 7.6% in 1970 to 31.5% in 2003. Medical technology exports (MTE) have been increased from $ 0.9 million in 1970 to $ 303.2 million in 2003. The ratio of MTE to MTI increased from 2.7% to 13.9% between 1970 and 1990 and decreased after 1990, to 8.8%. Our study implied that the medical technology trade in Turkey has been negatively affected and in some respects differs from some other important industries in the globalization era. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies in different developing countries such as China, Brazil, Mexico and India, are needed to explore the real state of medical technology trade, use and the effects of globalization on these topics.

  11. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  12. AUSTRALIAN COMPETITION AND CONSUMER COMMISSION v ACN 117 372 915: SHOULD CONSUMER LAW REGULATE DOCTOR-PATIENT RELATIONS IN A CORPORATISED HEALTH CARE SYSTEM?

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jessica; Pyman, Ella; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In April 2015, North J of the Federal Court of Australia made a finding of unconscionable conduct against Advanced Medical Institute, a promoter and provider of erectile dysfunction treatment, in a case concerning unfair contract terms (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission vACN 117 372 915 Pty Ltd (in liq) (formerly Advanced Medical Institute Pty Ltd) [2015] FCA 368). The contract required a minimum 12-month commitment, with costs exceeding treatments available from general practitioners, and made refunds available only after all possible treatment plans were exhausted which included penile injections. This column analyses that case, particularly in respect to the consumer law standards of practice under which it was litigated. Those standards refer to patients as "consumers" yet North J made extensive reference to the Good Medical Practice: A Code of Conduct for Doctors in Australia, a text which refers to "patients", as evidence of what constitutes appropriate professional conduct or practice for the health profession. This column considers whether legislative and judicial categorisation of patients (a class of people presumptively suffering, sick and vulnerable) as "consumers" undermines the formal and informal protections accorded to patients under normative systems of medical ethics such as those represented by the Code. The case, it is argued, also illuminates the contemporary tensions between the ethical, legal and human rights standards required of doctors in their treatment of patients and the commercial interests of businesses.

  13. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  14. Inclusion and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damer, Linda K.

    2001-01-01

    Describe four different laws related to the education of children with disabilities: (1) Public Law 94-142; (2) Public Law 99-457; (3) Public Law 101-336 ADA; and (4) Public Law 101-476 IDEA. Discusses the topic of mainstreaming and highlights the recent legal decisions that have occurred. (CMK)

  15. 76 FR 70220 - New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of Regulated Medical Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of... Federal hazardous material transportation law preempts regulations of the New Jersey Department of...'' requirements in the Federal hazardous material transportation law or the Hazardous Materials Regulations...

  16. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet

    2004-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of the fasciolosis in Erciş, a town in the Van province located in the Eastern Turkey. The study includes 500 asymptomatic subjects (322 males and 178 females) whose ages ranged from 5 to 75 years. In all subjects, stool samples were examined at initiation of the study and one week later to rule out pseudoparasitosis. The methods of flotation (in saturated saline solution) and sedimentation (in formalin-ether solution) were used in examination of the stool samples. Fasciola hepatica eggs were detected in nine (1.8%) out of 500 subjects. In conclusion, our data showed that the prevalence of human fasciolosis was high in our region because watercress consumption was common. We also think that human fasciolosis is more frequent than expected in Turkey. To determine the exact prevalence of the disease, extensive serological investigations should be performed in different regions of Turkey.

  17. One hundred years of radiotherapy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dincer, M; Kuter, S

    2001-10-01

    The study and practice of radiology in Turkey began in 1897, only 2 years after the discovery of X-rays. A simple X-ray machine was constructed in Istanbul, consisting of a Crookes tube, a Ruhmkorff coil, and a home-made battery. This machine was first used on wounded soldiers, for diagnostic purposes. The first report of X-rays being used therapeutically in Turkey was published in a national journal in 1904. By 1933, the most up-to-date radiotherapy equipment of the time had been installed in every major city in the country. Innovative radiotherapy techniques, such as rotational treatment, were also being tried in 1930s. Today, there are 45 radiotherapy centres in Turkey, and 400 radiation oncologists and 80 medical physicists practise there.

  18. Antigenicity of two turkey astrovirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Saif, Y M

    2004-12-01

    Astroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses cause gastroenteritis in humans and in a variety of animal species, including turkey poults. Only human astroviruses are well characterized antigenically. In the current study, two turkey astrovirus isolates, TAstV1987 and TAstV2001, were antigenically compared using cross-neutralization tests in turkey embryos, as well as cross-reactivity of the two isolates by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antigenic relatedness values (R) were calculated using the Archetti and Horsfall formula. The R value based on the cross-neutralization tests was 0.56%, which indicates that TAstV1987 and TAstV2001 belong to different serotypes; the R value of the two viruses based on ELISA was 70.7%, which suggests these two viruses share common antigen(s).

  19. The Law on Gifted Education: Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive, concise, and current overview of the law-- specifically, legislation, regulations, and published court/administrative decisions--relating to gifted education for K-12 students. For students whose legal rights are based solely on their gifted status, the law largely boils down to (a) varying state statutes…

  20. Introduction to China's Environmental Protection Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntao, Li; Wenzeng, Li

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with China's environmental protection laws. In order to coordinate the relationship between humankind and the environment, protect and improve the environment, protect people's health, and safeguard sustainable and steady economic and social development, the Chinese government has formulated a series of laws and regulations in…

  1. Legal Currency in Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    A review of some basic concepts in special education law will help principals better understand the complex laws and regulations implicated in common situations. This article cites a case scenario that illustrates various potential issues under IDEA 2004 and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Chris is in the 10th grade, and his parents have…

  2. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    PubMed

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  3. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  4. Turkey: Enduring Partner or Emerging Foe?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    de Gaulle in the 1960s, Turkey may opt for its own “force de frappe” – a nuclear deterrent – and its own “Realpolitik” with countries such as China...India, and Russia. It could even contemplate leaving, as France under de Gaulle did, the military structure of NATO, while maintaining its...President Obama to treat a Gaullist Turkey as President Kennedy treated de Gaulle in France in the 1960s—demonizing foreign policy and national grandeur as

  5. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  6. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  7. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, D J; Lashev, L D; Yanev, S G; Pandova, B

    2007-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (EFL) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP) was investigated in 7-8 month old turkeys (6 birds per sex). EFL was administered intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dose 10 mg kg(-1) body weight. Blood was taken prior to and at 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h following drug administration. The concentrations of EFL and CIP in blood serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum concentrations versus time were analysed by a noncompartmental analysis. The elimination half-live and the mean residence time of EFL after i.v. injection for the serum were after oral administration 6.64+/-0.90 h, 8.96+/-1.18 h and 6.92+/-0.97 h, 11.91+/-1.87 h, respectively. After single p.o. administration, EFL was absorbed slowly (MAT=2.76+/-0.48 h) with time to reach maximum serum concentrations of 6.33+/-2.54 h. Maximum serum concentrations was 1.23+/-0.30 microg mL(-1). Oral bioavailability for for EFL after oral administration was found to be 69.20+/-1.49%. The ratios C(max)/MIC and AUC(0 --> 24)/MIC were respectively from 161.23+/-5.9 h to 12.90+/-0.5 h for the pharmacodynamic predictor C(max)/MIC, and from 2153.44+/-66.6 h to 137.82+/-4.27 h for AUC(0 --> 24)/MIC, for the different clinically significant microorganisms, whose values for MIC varies from 0.008 microg L(-1) to 0.125 microg mL(-1).

  8. Elective Tracheotomy Practices in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Atalan, Hakan Korkut

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Elective tracheotomy (ET) procedures in intensive care units (ICU) might be different in accordance with countries and ICUs’ features. The aim of the present study was to search the epidemiology of ET procedures in Turkey. Methods A questionnaire which consists of 43 questions was sent by e-mail to 238 ICUs which were officially recognized by The Turkish Ministry of Health. All answers were obtained between August 1, 2015 and August 31, 2015. Results Two hundred and three ICUs (85.3%) participated in this study. 177 (87.2%) and 169 (83.4%) of ICU’s were level III and mixed ICUs respectively. Anesthesiologists were the director of 189 (93.0%) ICUs. Estimated total count of admitted, mechanically ventilated and tracheotomized patients in 2014 were 126282, 80569 (63.8%) and 8989 (7.1%) respectively. Most common indication for ET was prolonged mechanical ventilation (76.9%). The first choice for ET procedure was percutaneous in 162 (79.8%) ICUs. Griggs guide wire dilatational forceps (GWDF) technique was used as the first choice for elective percutaneous tracheotomy (EPT) by 143 (70.4%) ICUs. Most common early EPT complication was bleeding (68.0%) and late EPT complication was stenosis (35.0%). While facilitation of weaning was most important advantage (26.1%), bleeding and tracheal complications were most important disadvantages for EPT (29.1%). Conclusions Most common indications for ET are prolonged MV and coma in Turkish ICUs. EPT is the preferred procedure for ET and GWDF is the most common technique. Bronchoscopy and USG are rarely used as a guide. PMID:27846248

  9. [Health policy of the Republic of Turkey in accordance with the Minutes of the Turkish Parliament (part I)].

    PubMed

    Ozpekcan, M

    2001-01-01

    Because of the invasion of the Ottoman territory after the World War I, the Turkish War of Liberty was initiated by Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends. While they aimed at a successful outcome of the battle, they at the same time tried to achieve a nation-wide organization. In order to look after the nation's medical and social service, on May 2nd 1920, a new ministry called the Ministry for Medical and Social Service was founded. The new ministry's task was not only to concern itself with the medical and social service, but also with immigration and of the immigrants. At the beginning the hitherto existing social system and certain laws were not abolished until they were replaced by new ones in order to prevent an interruption in the social service. In these years the aim of the social system was to struggle against infectious diseases, to prevent infections, to decrease infant mortality and to increase the population, to take measures against diseases from abroad, to pass the laws needed and to form a central authority. Besides these laws which were directly related with the medical and social service during the War of Liberty, the governing of the districts and the regulations concerning the miners in Zonguldak were passed in order to protect peoples' health. Our political existence was confirmed through the signing of the agreement reached by the Lausanne Conference after the War of Liberty and consequently the Medical Care Supreme Council of Istanbul, which had continued its validity as a capitulation, was abolished. The social state policy of the period which had started with the foundation of the Turkish Republic aimed to extend the state's medical staff, continue the employment of the health personnel specialized in medicine, struggle against infectious diseases in an organised way, provide a wide-spread medical service, give priority to preventive health care and establish medical institutions, effect a cooperation of these institutes, pass the necessary

  10. Gender preference and perinatal depression in Turkey: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Senturk Cankorur, Vesile; Duman, Berker; Taylor, Clare; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Child gender preference is important in some cultures and has been found to modify risk for antenatal and postnatal depression. We investigated discrepancies in the child gender preference between participating women and other key family members and the extent to which these predicted perinatal depression. Methods In a large cohort study of perinatal depression in urban and rural Turkey, participants had been asked about child gender preferences: their own, and those of their husband, parents, and parents in-law. Of 730 participants recruited in their third trimester (94.6% participation), 578 (79.2%) were reassessed at a mean (SD) 4.1 (3.3) months after childbirth, and 488 (66.8%) were reassessed at 13.7 (2.9) months. Results No associations were found between any gender preference reported in the antenatal period and depression at any examination. On the other hand, we found associations of antenatal depression with differences in participant-reported gender preference and that reported for their mother-in-law (OR 1.81, 1.08–3.04). This non-agreement also predicted depression at the 4 month (OR 2.24, 1.24–4.03) and 14 month (OR 2.07, 1.05–4.04) post-natal examinations. These associations with postnatal depression persisted after adjustment for a range of covariates (ORs 3.19 (1.54–6.59) and 3.30 (1.49–7.33) respectively). Conclusions Reported disagreement in child gender preferences between a woman and her mother-in-law was a predictor of post-natal depression and may reflect wider family disharmony as an underlying factor. PMID:28355286

  11. The impact of German-speaking academicians on higher education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özduman, Koray; Güdük, Mustafa; Elmacı, Ilhan; Pamir, M Necmettin

    2013-01-01

    The transition from the medieval universities to the secular, second generation universities in Turkey occurred in the period from 1773 to 1945. The Ottoman Empire's efforts to establish a higher education system in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries only aimed at modernization of the armed forces, and the civil effects on the general society were only secondary. After the Turkish Republic was founded in 1923, complete modernization of all institutions of society, including political, social, educational, economic, and law reforms, were initiated by the President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. His establishment of the modern Istanbul University in Turkey was an experiment unforeseen in the history of education. Step by step, he created a new language, a new alphabet, achieved unified and secular education under government supervision, formed primary and secondary education to support higher education, took expert opinion on forming the new university, and finally established the modern university. German-speaking academicians have played a very important role during the creation of the modern secular university in Turkey. This is a short analysis of this period.

  12. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  13. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  14. Primary Education Curriculum Reforms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and evaluate the basic structure of changes in primary educational curricula in Turkey since the establishment of Republic. The study is mainly qualitative and is based on literature and document analyses and teaching curricular reviews. The research findings indicate that primary educational reforms in Turkey…

  15. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  16. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  17. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  18. Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kemal

    2006-01-01

    In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

  19. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  20. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…