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Sample records for tze huang pzh

  1. Pien Tze Huang suppresses the stem-like side population in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lihui; Chen, Pangyu; Chen, Youqin; Shen, Aling; Chen, Hongwei; Lin, Wei; Hong, Zhenfeng; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that a small population of cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) are crucial in tumor development and drug resistance, leading to cancer relapse and metastasis and eventually the failure of clinical cancer treatment. Therefore, targeting CSCs is a promising approach for anticancer therapies. Due to the drug resistance and adverse effects of currently used chemotherapies, traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have recently received attention due to the relatively few side-effects. Thus, they have been used as important alternative remedies for various diseases, including cancer. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known TCM formula that was first prescribed more than 450 years ago in the Ming Dynasty, has been used in China and Southeast Asia for centuries as a folk remedy for various types of cancer. Previously, it was reported that PZH inhibits colon cancer growth via the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, which is probably mediated by its regulatory effect on multiple intracellular signaling pathways. To elucidate the mechanism of the tumoricidal activity of PZH, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of PZH on CSCs that were isolated as the side population (SP) from the HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line. The results demonstrated that PZH significantly and dose-dependently reduced the percentage of the colorectal cancer stem-like SP cells, decreased the viability and sphere-forming capacity of HT-29 SP cells, indicating that PZH is potent in suppressing the growth of colorectal cancer stem cells. Moreover, PZH treatment in HT-29 SP cells markedly inhibited the mRNA levels of ABCB1 and ABCG2, which are members of the ABC transporter superfamily, thereby contributing to the SP phenotype and multi-drug resistance. Findings of the present study suggest that inhibiting the growth of CSCs is a potential mechanism by which PZH can be used in cancer treatment.

  2. Pien Tze Huang Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis via HIF-1α/VEGF-A Pathway in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Yuchen; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis plays an important role in the development and metastasis of solid tumors and is highly regulated by HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. Therefore, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling represents a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. As a traditional Chinese medicine formula, Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer in China and Southeast Asia. Previously, we reported that PZH inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) growth both in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the antitumor mechanisms of PZH, in the present study we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and colorectal carcinoma HCT-8 cells to evaluate the effects of PZH on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH could inhibit hypoxia-induced migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells in a dose-dependent manner, although the low concentrations of PZH had no effect on HUVEC viability. Moreover, PZH inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1α signaling and the expression of VEGF-A and/or VEGFR2 in both HCT-8 and HUVEC cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that PZH can inhibit hypoxia-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. PMID:25649293

  3. Pien Tze Huang Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis via HIF-1 α /VEGF-A Pathway in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Yuchen; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis plays an important role in the development and metastasis of solid tumors and is highly regulated by HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. Therefore, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling represents a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. As a traditional Chinese medicine formula, Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer in China and Southeast Asia. Previously, we reported that PZH inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) growth both in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the antitumor mechanisms of PZH, in the present study we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and colorectal carcinoma HCT-8 cells to evaluate the effects of PZH on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH could inhibit hypoxia-induced migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells in a dose-dependent manner, although the low concentrations of PZH had no effect on HUVEC viability. Moreover, PZH inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1α signaling and the expression of VEGF-A and/or VEGFR2 in both HCT-8 and HUVEC cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that PZH can inhibit hypoxia-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway.

  4. Pien Tze Huang inhibits tumor angiogenesis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer via suppression of multiple cellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Aling; Lin, Jiumao; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Wei; Liu, Liya; Hong, Zhenfeng; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Angiogenesis plays an essential role in cancer progression, which therefore has become an attractive target for anticancer treatment. Tumor angiogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple signaling pathways that usually function redundantly; in addition, crosstalk between these pathways forms a complicated network that is regulated by compensatory mechanisms. Given the complexity of pathogenic mechanisms underlying tumor angiogenesis, most currently used angiogenesis inhibitors that only target single pathways may be insufficient and probably generate drug resistance, thus, increasing the necessity for development of novel anticancer agents. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are receiving great interest since they have relatively fewer side-effects and have been used for thousands of years to clinically treat various types of diseases including cancer. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formulation that was first prescribed 450 years ago, has long been used as an alternative remedy for cancers. However, the precise mechanism of PZH's anticancer activity remains to be further elucidated. Using a colorectal cancer mouse xenograft model, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of PZH on tumor angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH inhibited tumor growth since PZH treatment resulted in decrease in both tumor volume and tumor weight in CRC mice. In addition, PZH suppressed the activation of several signaling pathways such as STAT3, Akt and MAPKs. Consequently, the inhibitory effect of PZH on these pathways resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis as demonstrated by the decrease of microvessel density in tumor tissues. Moreover, PZH treatment reduced the expression of angiogenic factors including iNOS, eNOS, VEGF-A, bFGF as well as their specific receptors VEGFR2 and bFGFR. Altogether, our findings suggest that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via suppression of multiple signaling pathways

  5. Pien Tze Huang Overcomes Multidrug Resistance and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells via Suppression of TGF-β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Aling; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Wei; Liu, Liya; Sferra, Thomas J.; Peng, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine formula Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer. To elucidate the mode of action of PZH against cancer, in the present study we used a 5-FU resistant human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-8/5-FU) to evaluate the effects of PZH on multidrug resistance (MDR) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as the activation of TGF-β pathway. We found that PZH dose-dependently inhibited the viability of HCT-8/5-FU cells which were insensitive to treatment of 5-FU and ADM, demonstrating the ability of PZH to overcome chemoresistance. Furthermore, PZH increased the intercellular accumulation of Rhodamine-123 and downregulated the expression of ABCG2 in HCT-8/5-FU cells. In addition, drug resistance induced the process of EMT in HCT-8 cells as evidenced by EMT-related morphological changes and alteration in the expression of EMT-regulatory factors, which however was neutralized by PZH treatment. Moreover, PZH inhibited MDR/EMT-enhanced migration and invasion capabilities of HCT-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed MDR-induced activation of TGF-β signaling in HCT-8/5-FU cells. Taken together, our study suggests that PZH can effectively overcome MDR and inhibit EMT in human colorectal carcinoma cells via suppression of the TGF-β pathway. PMID:25505925

  6. Pien Tze Huang Overcomes Multidrug Resistance and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells via Suppression of TGF-β Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Aling; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Liu, Liya; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine formula Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer. To elucidate the mode of action of PZH against cancer, in the present study we used a 5-FU resistant human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-8/5-FU) to evaluate the effects of PZH on multidrug resistance (MDR) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as the activation of TGF-β pathway. We found that PZH dose-dependently inhibited the viability of HCT-8/5-FU cells which were insensitive to treatment of 5-FU and ADM, demonstrating the ability of PZH to overcome chemoresistance. Furthermore, PZH increased the intercellular accumulation of Rhodamine-123 and downregulated the expression of ABCG2 in HCT-8/5-FU cells. In addition, drug resistance induced the process of EMT in HCT-8 cells as evidenced by EMT-related morphological changes and alteration in the expression of EMT-regulatory factors, which however was neutralized by PZH treatment. Moreover, PZH inhibited MDR/EMT-enhanced migration and invasion capabilities of HCT-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed MDR-induced activation of TGF-β signaling in HCT-8/5-FU cells. Taken together, our study suggests that PZH can effectively overcome MDR and inhibit EMT in human colorectal carcinoma cells via suppression of the TGF-β pathway.

  7. Pien Tze Huang inhibits tumor cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via suppressing the STAT3 pathway in a colorectal cancer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qunchuan; Hong, Fei; Shen, Aling; Zheng, Liangpu; Zeng, Jianwei; Lin, Wei; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a critical role in cell survival and proliferation. Constitutive activation of STAT3 is strongly correlated with pathogenesis of various types of malignant tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore is a major focus in the development of anti-cancer agents. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula prescribed already in the Ming Dynasty, has been demonstrated to be clinically effective in the treatment of CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its anti-cancer activity remains largely unknown. In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of PZH against tumor growth in vivo in the CRC mouse xenograft model, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that administration of PZH reduced tumor volume and tumor weight but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that PZH can inhibit colon cancer growth in vivo without apparent adverse effect. We also observed that PZH treatment inhibited the phosphorylation level of STAT3 in tumor tissues. Consequently, the inhibitory effect of PZH on STAT3 activation resulted in the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as well as down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, leading to the induction of apoptosis as well as the inhibition of cell proliferation. These results suggest that promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation via suppression of STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which PZH treats colorectal cancer.

  8. Pien Tze Huang suppresses IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation in human colon carcinoma cells through induction of SOCS3.

    PubMed

    Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Hong, Fei; Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Hong, Zhenfeng; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2012-12-01

    IL-6/STAT3 is one of the most critical cellular signal transduction pathways known to malfunction in colorectal cancer (CRC). As a target gene of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) can be quickly induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulation but it then strongly inhibits IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation, functioning as a negative feedback regulator of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Aberrant activation of STAT3 and/or reduced expression of SOCS are strongly correlated with carcinogenesis, which therefore becomes a promising target for the development of novel anticancer chemotherapies. Pien Tze Huang (PZH) is a well-known traditional Chinese formula that was first prescribed by a royal physician 450 years ago in the Ming Dynasty. It has been used in China and Southeast Asia for centuries as a folk remedy for various types of cancer including CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its antitumor activity remains largely unclear. In the present study, we found that PZH could significantly and dose-dependently inhibit IL-6-mediated increase of STAT3 phosphorylation levels and transcriptional activity in the human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells, resulting in the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, PZH treatment profoundly inhibited IL-6-induced upregulation of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2, two key target genes of the STAT3 pathway. Moreover, PZH treatment increased the expression of SOCS3. These results suggest that PZH could effectively inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of human colon carcinoma cells via modulation of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and its target genes.

  9. Pien Tze Huang inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells through suppression of the HIF-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Aling; Zhang, Yuchen; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas; Peng, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxia-induced activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is frequently observed in solid tumors and is strongly associated with numerous pathophysiological processes, including the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which result in cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, inhibiting EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway may be a promising strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-established traditional Chinese medicine has been prescribed for >450 years and has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of human cancer. We previously reported that PZH suppresses multiple intracellular signaling pathways and thereby promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells and the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH, HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions and the effect of PZH on hypoxia-induced EMT was assessed. Hypoxia was found to induce EMT-associated morphological changes in HCT-8 cells, including loss of cell adhesion and the development of spindle-shaped fibroblastoid-like morphology. In addition, hypoxia was observed to reduce the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, but increase that of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia significantly enhanced HCT-8 cell migration and invasion and induced the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. However, treatment of the HCT-8 cells with PZH significantly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT and HIF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that PZH inhibits hypoxia-induced cancer EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which PZH exerts its antitumor activity.

  10. Pien Tze Huang inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells through suppression of the HIF-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, HONGWEI; SHEN, ALING; ZHANG, YUCHEN; CHEN, YOUQIN; LIN, JIUMAO; LIN, WEI; SFERRA, THOMAS; PENG, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is frequently observed in solid tumors and is strongly associated with numerous pathophysiological processes, including the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which result in cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, inhibiting EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway may be a promising strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-established traditional Chinese medicine has been prescribed for >450 years and has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of human cancer. We previously reported that PZH suppresses multiple intracellular signaling pathways and thereby promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells and the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH, HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions and the effect of PZH on hypoxia-induced EMT was assessed. Hypoxia was found to induce EMT-associated morphological changes in HCT-8 cells, including loss of cell adhesion and the development of spindle-shaped fibroblastoid-like morphology. In addition, hypoxia was observed to reduce the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, but increase that of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia significantly enhanced HCT-8 cell migration and invasion and induced the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. However, treatment of the HCT-8 cells with PZH significantly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT and HIF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that PZH inhibits hypoxia-induced cancer EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which PZH exerts its antitumor activity. PMID:24940418

  11. Pien Tze Huang inhibits metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma cells via modulation of TGF-β1/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Aling; Lin, Wei; Chen, Youqin; Liu, Liya; Chen, Hongwei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Lin, Jiumao; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Tumor metastasis, a complex process involving the spread of malignant tumor cells from a primary tumor site to a distant organ, is a major cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step for the initiation of cancer metastasis. The processes of EMT and metastasis are highly regulated by a double-negative feedback loop consisting of TGF-β1/ZEB pathway and miR-200 family, which therefore has become a promising target for cancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula first prescribed in the Ming Dynasty, has been demonstrated to be clinically effective in the treatment of various types of human malignancy including colorectal cancer (CRC). Our published data proposed that PZH was able to induce apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, leading to the suppression of CRC growth in vitro and in vivo. To further elucidate the mode of action of PZH, in the present study we evaluated its effects on the metastatic capacities of human colorectal carcinoma HCT-8 cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HCT-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PZH treatment inhibited the expression of key mediators of TGF-β1 signaling, such as TGF-β1, Smad2/3 and Smad4. Moreover, PZH treatment suppressed the expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2, two critical target genes of TGF-β1 pathway, leading to a decrease in the expression of mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and an increased expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin. Furthermore, PZH treatment upregulated the expression of miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c. Collectively, our findings in this study suggest that PZH can inhibit metastasis of colorectal cancer cells via modulating TGF-β1/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network, which might be one of the mechanisms whereby PZH exerts its anticancer function.

  12. Rapid simultaneous determination of twelve major components in Pien Tze Huang by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqing; Zhao, Haiyu; Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2013-12-01

    An efficient method using ultra-performance LC coupled with triple quadrupole MS was developed for the rapid determination of 12 major active components in Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XBridge BEH RP18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm id, 1.7 μm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The chromatographic peaks of 12 components were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with the related reference compounds. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for the quantitative analysis. Ten batches of PZH were analyzed with a good linear regression relationship (r, 0.9987–0.9995), intraday precisions (RSD, 2.05–4.80%), interday precisions (RSD, 1.99–4.98%), repeatability (RSD, 2.21–4.20%), stability (RSD, 3.52–4.81%), and recovery (95.63–104.80%). By using this established method, the present study offered highly sensitive, specific, and speedy determination of 12 major components, which promoted the quality control investigation of PZH greatly.

  13. Hilbert-Huang Transform in Ocean Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongxiang

    2013-04-01

    Hilbert-Huang Transform is a relative novel time-frequency analysis technique for multi-scale processes. It is a wavelet-like data-driven methodology without a priori basis assumption. This meets the requirement of the analysis of the nonstationary and nonlinear data with short length or irregular sampling time interval. Since it is introduced in 1998 by Dr. N.E Huang, it has been widely applied to different scientific research fields and engineering problems, showing its simplicity and successes. We develop further this method to characterize the scale invariance for turbulence-like/scaling processes, e.g., velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen observed in ocean, etc. In this talk, we first present a general introduction of this method. The key feature of this Hilbert-based method is that it is free with sub-harmonics when dealing with nonstationary and nonlinear data. This is accomplished by using an Intrawave-Frequency Modulation mechanism to characterize the so-called nonlinear distortion. Therefore, unlike the Fourier based methodologies, artificial energy redistribution in spectral space is constrained. We then show several applications of this method to experimental data from wind tunnel experiments and ocean observations. The interaction between two different scales and two variables are also discussed in statistics sense. The method is general and applicable to other systems, in which the multi-scale is relevant. Reference 1. Huang, N. E.; Shen, Z.; Long, S. R.; Wu, M. C.; Shih, H. H.; Zheng, Q.; Yen, N.; Tung, C. C. & Liu, H. H. The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, Royal Society, 1998, 454, 903-995 2. Huang, Y.; Schmitt, F.; Lu, Z. & Liu, Y. An amplitude-frequency study of turbulent scaling intermittency using Hilbert spectral analysis, Europhys. Lett., 2008, 84, 40010 3. Huang, Y.; Schmitt, F.; Lu, Z.; Fougairolles, P.; Gagne, Y. & Liu, Y. Second

  14. [Academic characteristics of Huang's school of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Xia, Yong; Liu, Li-Gong

    2012-09-01

    Huang's school of acupuncture and moxibustion, whose representative figures are HUANG Hong-fang and HUANG Xian-ming, is one of the schools of acupuncture and moxibustion in Shanghai. The life stories of the representative figures of Huang's school of acupuncture and moxibustion and three academic viewpoints of Huang's school are briefly introduced in this article: (1) syndrome differentiation for seeking the pathogenic roots and developing treatment principle based on the roots; (2) focusing on spleen and stomach and putting stomach first in the treatment; (3) simple point selection with clear structures showing major and assistant points. Their characteristics of the needling techniques are summarized, involving needling manipulations, qi induction, reinforcing and reducing method, etc. so as to lay a foundation for further study and inheritance of the academic thought in Huang's school of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  15. [Huang Yizhou's study on Nei jing (Inner Canon)].

    PubMed

    Hu, Benxiang; Huang, Youmei; Yu, Chengfen

    2002-01-01

    Being a great classical scholar of the late Qing dynasty, Huang Yizhou collated Nei jing (Inner Canon) by textual criticism. But most of his works were missing. By reviewing historical documents and literature, it has been found that his collated books include Huang di nei jing su wen jiao ben (Collated Edition of Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Huang di nei jing su wen chong jiao zheng (Recollated Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Nei jing zhen ci (Acupuncture in Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing jiu juan ji zhu (Variorum of Nine Volumes of Huangdi's Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing ming tang (Acupuncture Chart of Huangdi's Inner Canon), and Jiu chao tai su jiao ben (Old Extremely Plain Question Recension). Many of his disciples became famous scholars in the Republican period.

  16. Ma-huang strikes again: ephedrine nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Powell, T; Hsu, F F; Turk, J; Hruska, K

    1998-07-01

    Ephedrine and its metabolites are naturally occurring alkaloids that can be derived from evergreens worldwide and have been used as medicinals for hundreds of years. Because they have "real" pharmacological alpha and beta catecholamine effects and are "natural" products, the alternative medicine industry has popularized them for multiple uses, including asthma, weight loss, energy and sexual enhancement, and euphoria. Several recent reviews have documented the dangerous nature of using these "drugs" unsupervised, including multiple deaths, and the FDA is currently reviewing ephedrine's use in the alternative medicine industry. We report a new toxicity, ephedrine nephrolithiasis, in a patient using an energy supplement, Ma-Huang extract, which contains ephedrine. Although previously not reported, the Louis C. Herring and Company kidney stone database show that this is an endemic complication of ephedrine with hundreds of previous episodes. Using gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry, we were able to positively identify the chemical structure of our patient's stone, as well as other similar stones from Louis Herring, as containing ephedrine, norephedrine, and pseudoephedrine.

  17. [Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture with golden needles].

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually.

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra-) Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang-hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-ling; Xing, Xue-feng; Chen, Fei-long; Tan, Xiao-mei; Luo, Jia-bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination. PMID:25691910

  19. Neuroprotective effect of gui zhi (ramulus cinnamomi) on ma huang- (herb ephedra-) induced toxicity in rats treated with a ma huang-gui zhi herb pair.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang-Hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-Ling; Xing, Xue-Feng; Chen, Fei-Long; Tan, Xiao-Mei; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  20. Aeroelastic Flight Data Analysis with the Hilbert-Huang Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Prazenica, Chad

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the utility of the Hilbert Huang transform for the analysis of aeroelastic flight data. It is well known that the classical Hilbert transform can be used for time-frequency analysis of functions or signals. Unfortunately, the Hilbert transform can only be effectively applied to an extremely small class of signals, namely those that are characterized by a single frequency component at any instant in time. The recently-developed Hilbert Huang algorithm addresses the limitations of the classical Hilbert transform through a process known as empirical mode decomposition. Using this approach, the data is filtered into a series of intrinsic mode functions, each of which admits a well-behaved Hilbert transform. In this manner, the Hilbert Huang algorithm affords time-frequency analysis of a large class of signals. This powerful tool has been applied in the analysis of scientific data, structural system identification, mechanical system fault detection, and even image processing. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the potential applications of the Hilbert Huang algorithm for the analysis of aeroelastic systems, with improvements such as localized online processing. Applications for correlations between system input and output, and amongst output sensors, are discussed to characterize the time-varying amplitude and frequency correlations present in the various components of multiple data channels. Online stability analyses and modal identification are also presented. Examples are given using aeroelastic test data from the F-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing airplane, an Aerostructures Test Wing, and pitch plunge simulation.

  1. Influence of gastrointestinal digestion and edible plant combination on oral bioavailability of triterpene saponins, using a biomimetic digestion and absorption system and determination by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Mu, Yang; Zheng, Feng-Ying

    2013-11-06

    Saponins have many biological activities, but their overload could cause toxicity to the human body. Bionic gastrointestinal digestion and monolayer liposome extraction were used for oral bioavailability assessment of triterpene saponins (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd1) in an edible herb (San-Chi) and its compound herbal medicine (Pien Tze Huang, PZH). The concentrations of affinity-monolayer liposome saponins in the chyme were determined by HPLC and used for oral bioavailability assessment. With the digestion of San-Chi and PZH from the stomach to the intestine, the release of saponins in their chyme was increased. The intestinal absorption ratios of N-R1, G-Rb1, G-Rd1, and total saponins from San-Chi were 86.57, 18.56, 73.30, and 40.20%, respectively, which were more than those from PZH (i.e., 19.56, 10.11, 30.11, and 16.08%). The oral bioavailability of saponins was controlled by saponin species, gastrointestinal digestion, and edible plants combination.

  2. Aeroelastic Flight Data Analysis with the Hilbert-Huang Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Marty; Prazenica, Chad

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility of the Hilbert-Huang transform for the analysis of aeroelastic flight data. It is well known that the classical Hilbert transform can be used for time-frequency analysis of functions or signals. Unfortunately, the Hilbert transform can only be effectively applied to an extremely small class of signals, namely those that are characterized by a single frequency component at any instant in time. The recently-developed Hilbert-Huang algorithm addresses the limitations of the classical Hilbert transform through a process known as empirical mode decomposition. Using this approach, the data is filtered into a series of intrinsic mode functions, each of which admits a well-behaved Hilbert transform. In this manner, the Hilbert-Huang algorithm affords time-frequency analysis of a large class of signals. This powerful tool has been applied in the analysis of scientific data, structural system identification, mechanical system fault detection, and even image processing. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential applications of the Hilbert-Huang algorithm for the analysis of aeroelastic systems, with improvements such as localized/online processing. Applications for correlations between system input and output, and amongst output sensors, are discussed to characterize the time-varying amplitude and frequency correlations present in the various components of multiple data channels. Online stability analyses and modal identification are also presented. Examples are given using aeroelastic test data from the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing aircraft, an Aerostructures Test Wing, and pitch-plunge simulation.

  3. Magnetotelluric Response Function Estimation Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jian-hua

    2013-11-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data series are non-stationary random signals that do not meet the basic requirements of conventional methods based on the Fourier transform. To minimize the estimation bias errors brought about by the non-stationary characteristics of MT data, a new method, based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), is proposed for the first time for estimating the MT response functions from a time series of electromagnetic field variations. With the HHT method, the amplitude of data series are expressed as a function of frequency and time and then response functions are estimated statistically from the time-frequency spectrum. Mathematical model and calculation processes are introduced and some simulated data are analyzed to verify the correctness of the method. Finally, the measured MT data is facilitated by applying the HHT to assess the ability of HHT method to quantify meaningful geologic information.

  4. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Theoretical Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Blank, Karin; Huang, Norden E.

    2004-01-01

    The Hilbert-Huang Transform [HHT] is a novel empirical method for spectrum analysis of non-linear and non-stationary signals. The HHT is a recent development and much remains to be done to establish the theoretical foundation of the HHT algorithms. This paper develops the theoretical foundation for the convergence of the HHT sifting algorithm and it proves that the finest spectrum scale will always be the first generated by the HHT Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) algorithm. The theoretical foundation for cutting an extrema data points set into two parts is also developed. This then allows parallel signal processing for the HHT computationally complex sifting algorithm and its optimization in hardware.

  5. Detection of earthquake induced radon precursors by Hilbert Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Chiranjib; Ghose, Debasis; Sinha, Bikash; Deb, Argha

    2016-10-01

    Continuous measurement of radon-222 concentration in soil was carried out across duration of one year at a geologically faulted area having high regional heat flow to detect anomalies caused by seismic activities. The data reveals a range of periodicities present in the radon time series. To identify seismic induced radon changes we treat the time series data through various filtering methods to remove inherent periodicities. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is deployed to decompose the signal into its characteristic modes. Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) is applied for the first time on the physically significant modes obtained by EEMD to represent time-energy-frequency of the recorded soil radon time series. After removing the periodic and quasi-periodic constituents from the original time series, the simulated result shows a forceful correlation in recorded radon-222 anomalies with regional and local seismic events.

  6. [Academic heritage of Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) in Japan].

    PubMed

    He, Huiling; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) was the first monograph on famines herbal in the history of China, which creates a new research field of edible plants. Around the middle and late 17th century, Jiu huang ben cao was spread to Japan and aroused great attention of famous Japanese herbalists. Thus, all versions of different edition systems were circulated in Japan. Later, some famous Japanese scholar ssuccessively quoted texts of Jiu huang ben cao from the Nong zheng quan shu (Whole book on Agricultural Administration) spread in Japan, and block-printed it as an independent work. As a result, Jiu huang ben cao virtually circulated widely in Japan.

  7. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis methods in biomedical signal applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Zhu, Jin-De

    2012-03-01

    Hilbert-Huang transformation, wavelet transformation, and Fourier transformation are the principal time-frequency analysis methods. These transformations can be used to discuss the frequency characteristics of linear and stationary signals, the time-frequency features of linear and non-stationary signals, the time-frequency features of non-linear and non-stationary signals, respectively. The Hilbert-Huang transformation is a combination of empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert spectral analysis. The empirical mode decomposition uses the characteristics of signals to adaptively decompose them to several intrinsic mode functions. Hilbert transforms are then used to transform the intrinsic mode functions into instantaneous frequencies, to obtain the signal's time-frequency-energy distributions and features. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis can be applied to natural physical signals such as earthquake waves, winds, ocean acoustic signals, mechanical diagnosis signals, and biomedical signals. In previous studies, we examined Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram FPI signals of clinical alcoholics, and 'sharp I' wave-based Hilbert-Huang transformation time-frequency features. In this paper, we discuss the application of Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis to biomedical signals, such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram signals, electrogastrogram recordings, and speech signals.

  8. Effect of Rhizoma coptidis (Huang Lian) on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Wang, Han; Gu, Cheng-Juan; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue globally; considerable progress has been made in the field of western hypoglycemic drug and insulin, but some shortages still exist. As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) performs a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the treatment of DM. TCM therapy has certain advantages of less toxicity and/or side effects, and Chinese herbal medicine which usually contains various active ingredients could provide multiple therapeutic effects. Huang Lian (Rhizoma coptidis, RC) is a herb frequently used in many traditional formulas for properties of “clearing damp-heat, quenching fire, and counteracting poison” in Asia for centuries. In this review, we summarize the application of RC in the treatment of DM from two aspects of contents. Firstly, theoretical principles are explained, including the properties and related records about RC in ancient references and modern pharmacological researches and pharmacokinetics on RC and its active components. Secondly, the clinical application of RC is mainly reviewed, such as applicable stage and syndrome, the reasonable dose range, the preparation formulations, and the toxicity and/or side effects and solutions to its adverse actions. This review provides scientific evidence about the effective components, pharmacological researches, and toxicity of RC, as well as introducing traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical experience, in order to guide clinician to use RC more suitably and reasonably in the clinical practice. PMID:26508987

  9. Tan's distributions and Fermi-Huang pseudopotential in momentum space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The long-standing question of finding the momentum representation for the s-wave zero-range interaction in three spatial dimensions is here solved. This is done by expressing a certain distribution, introduced in a formal way in [S. Tan, Ann. Phys. (NY)APNYA60003-491610.1016/j.aop.2008.03.004 323, 2952 (2008)], explicitly. The resulting form of the Fourier-transformed pseudopotential remains very simple. Operator forms for the so-called Tan's selectors, which, together with Fermi-Huang pseudopotential, largely simplify the derivation of Tan's universal relations for the Fermi gas, are here derived and are also very simple. A momentum cutoff version of the pseudopotential is also provided, and with this no apparent contradiction to the notion of integrals in Tan's methods is left. The equivalence, even at the intermediate-step level, between the pseudopotential approach and momentum-space renormalization of the bare Dirac delta interaction is then shown by using the explicit form of the cutoff pseudopotential.

  10. Identification of Velcro rales based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue; Shao, Jie; Long, Yingjiao; Que, Chengli; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Velcro rales, as a kind of crackles, are relatively specific for lung fibrosis and usually the first clinical clue of interstitial lung disease (ILD). We proposed an automatic analytic tool based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the computerized identification of Velcro rales. In particular, HHT was utilized to extract the energy weight in various frequency bands (EW) of crackles and to calculate the portion of crackles during late inspiration. Support vector machine (SVM) based on the HHT-derived measures was used to differentiate Velcro rales from other crackles. We found that there were significant differences in the extracted parameters between Velcro rales and other crackles, including EW, EW and the proportion of crackles that appeared during the late inspiration. The discrimination results obtained from SVM achieved a concordance rate up to 92.20%±1.80% as confirmed by the diagnosis from experienced physicians. For practical purpose, the proposed approach may have potential applications to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of auscultation and conduct automatic ILD diagnose system.

  11. Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform to Financial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden

    2005-01-01

    A paper discusses the application of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method to time-series financial-market data. The method was described, variously without and with the HHT name, in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles and supporting documents. To recapitulate: The method is especially suitable for analyzing time-series data that represent nonstationary and nonlinear phenomena including physical phenomena and, in the present case, financial-market processes. The method involves the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), in which a complicated signal is decomposed into a finite number of functions, called "intrinsic mode functions" (IMFs), that admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms. The HHT consists of the combination of EMD and Hilbert spectral analysis. The local energies and the instantaneous frequencies derived from the IMFs through Hilbert transforms can be used to construct an energy-frequency-time distribution, denoted a Hilbert spectrum. The instant paper begins with a discussion of prior approaches to quantification of market volatility, summarizes the HHT method, then describes the application of the method in performing time-frequency analysis of mortgage-market data from the years 1972 through 2000. Filtering by use of the EMD is shown to be useful for quantifying market volatility.

  12. Non-linear uplift Ansätze for the internal metric and the four-form field-strength of maximal supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Olaf

    2016-05-01

    The uplift of SO(8) gauged N = 8 supergravity to 11-dimensional supergravity is well studied in the literature. It is given by consistent relations between the respective vector and scalar fields of both theories. For example, recent work provided non-linear uplift Ansätze for the scalar degrees of freedom on the internal manifold: the inverse metric and the three-form flux with mixed index structure. However, one always found the metric of the compactified manifold by inverting the inverse metric — a task that was only possible in particular cases, e.g. for the G2, SO(3)×SO(3) or SU(3)×U(1)×U(1) invariant solutions of 11-dimensional supergravity.

  13. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Data Processing System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Huang, Norden E.; Cornwell, Evette; Smith, Darell

    2003-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The Fourier view of nonlinear mechanics that had existed for a long time, and the associated FFT (fairly recent development), carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as linearity and of being stationary. Natural phenomena measurements are essentially nonlinear and nonstationary. A very recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectrum analysis problems. Using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) followed by the Hilbert Transform of the empirical decomposition data (HT), the HHT allows spectrum analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data by using an engineering a-posteriori data processing, based on the EMD algorithm. This results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that can be further analyzed for spectrum interpretation by the classical Hilbert Transform. This paper describes phase one of the development of a new engineering tool, the HHT Data Processing System (HHTDPS). The HHTDPS allows applying the "T to a data vector in a fashion similar to the heritage FFT. It is a generic, low cost, high performance personal computer (PC) based system that implements the HHT computational algorithms in a user friendly, file driven environment. This paper also presents a quantitative analysis for a complex waveform data sample, a summary of technology commercialization efforts and the lessons learned from this new technology development.

  14. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Theoretical Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Blank, Karin; Flatley, Thomas; Huang, Norden E.; Patrick, David; Hestnes, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Both carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as linearity, of being stationary, and of satisfying the Dirichlet conditions. A recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectrum analysis problems. Using a-posteriori data processing based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) sifting process (algorithm), followed by the normalized Hilbert Transform of the decomposition data, the HHT allows spectrum analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data. The EMD sifting process results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). These functions form a near orthogonal adaptive basis, a basis that is derived from the data. The IMFs can be further analyzed for spectrum interpretation by the classical Hilbert Transform. A new engineering spectrum analysis tool using HHT has been developed at NASA GSFC, the HHT Data Processing System (HHT-DPS). As the HHT-DPS has been successfully used and commercialized, new applications post additional questions about the theoretical basis behind the HHT and EMD algorithms. Why is the fastest changing component of a composite signal being sifted out first in the EMD sifting process? Why does the EMD sifting process seemingly converge and why does it converge rapidly? Does an IMF have a distinctive structure? Why are the IMFs near orthogonal? We address these questions and develop the initial theoretical background for the HHT. This will contribute to the developments of new HHT processing options, such as real-time and 2-D processing using Field Programmable

  15. [Research progress on Huang Fu-mi's A-B classic of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing-kun; Xing, Yu-rui

    2014-11-01

    In order to understand the research status of HUANG Fu-mi's A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 83 pieces of literature that have been publically published since 1978 were analyzed. A summary was performed according to 7 aspects including version origin, emendation, arrangement and summary, theory discussion, clinical research, value evaluation, the rest questions, etc. It is believed that deep research work has been done on explanations, emendation and translation regarding A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. However, the exploration work on the theory and application is far from enough. Therefore, beginning from historical and cultural background, we should analyze the humanistic spirit of HUANG Fu-mi combined with A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion to perform a deep exploration, so we could have a thorough and comprehensive research on HUANG Fu-mi's academic thoughts.

  16. Temporal and spatial variability of drought in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhe; Yan, Deng-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yin, Jun; Yuan, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Drought is a kind of extreme hydrological event. With the penetration of climate change impact, severity, areal extent, and frequency of drought are increasing, especially in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, which plays a key role in China's agriculture production. Analyzing the regional temporal and spatial variability in the context of climate change could provide a basis for the evasion of disasters and risk. The maximum number of consecutive dry days was selected as the indicator to analyze the decadal variability of drought severity, areal extent, and spatial variability of drought frequency in different seasons in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Based on these, temporal and spatial variability of two kinds of special extreme events—consecutive drought and heavy rain after drought—were studied. The results showed that: (1) Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin mainly experienced moderate drought and severe drought. Moderate drought mainly occurs in autumn. High-frequency region of moderate drought is located in the plain of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, and its area is approximately 22.7 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Severe drought often occurs in spring with high-frequency region in the upstream of the Yellow River. The area of this high-frequency region is about 6 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. (2) During 1961~2011, the areal extent of summer severe drought, autumn severe drought, and extreme drought all showed increasing trend, in which the increasing trend of the autumn severe drought area in the Yellow River has reached the significance level α = 0.05. (3) Consecutive drought of several seasons often took place in Ningxia plain and Hetao plain which lie in the northwest of the Yellow River Basin. In the recent 20 years, consecutive drought from spring to summer and consecutive drought from summer to autumn occurred frequently. Drought-flood abrupt alternation such as heavy rain after drought often occurred in summer temporally and Huaihe River Basin spatially.

  17. [Chengjiang school descendant Mr. Huang Zong-Xu's academic characteristics of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Zhu, An-Ning; Meng, Xian-Jun; Qian, Lin-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Zhong

    2013-04-01

    HUANG Zong-xu, who studied from Mr. Cheng Dan-an, the founder of Chengjiang acupuncture school, is a famous acupuncturist of Fujian Province. Through collecting and sorting of Mr. Huang's theses and medical records, his academic characteristics of acupuncture and moxibustion were summarized as follows. Paying attention to meridians and collaterals and treatment based on syndrome differentiation; valuing the needling sensation as well as being good at reinforcing and reducing methods; thinking highly of taking care of spleen and stomach, ombination of needles and herbal medicine to treat difficult miscellaneous diseases; being adept in externd therapy and penetration needling and diet prescriptions, as well as attaching importance on health preserving.

  18. Authentication of official Da-huang by sequencing and multiplex allele-specific PCR of a short maturase K gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guojie; Wang, Xueyong; Liu, Chunsheng; Li, Weidong; Wei, Shengli; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoli; Liu, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Rhubarb (official Da-huang) is an important medicinal herb in Asia. Many adulterants of official Da-huang have been discovered in Chinese markets in recent years, which has resulted in adverse effects in medicinal treatment. Here, novel molecular markers based on a short maturase K (matK) gene were developed for authenticating official Da-huang. This study showed that all the species from official Da-huang were clustered together in one clade in the polygenetic trees based on short matK. Two highly conserved single nucleotide polymorphisms of short matK were mined in the species from official Da-huang. Based on these polymophisms, four improved specific primers of official Da-huang were successfully developed that generated reproducible specific bands. These results suggest that the short matK sequence can be considered as a favorable candidate for distinguishing official Da-huang from its adulterants. The established multiplex allele-specific PCR was determined to be simple and accurate and may serve as a preferable tool for authentication of official Da-huang. In addition, we suggest that short-sized specific bands be developed to authenticate materials used in traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Discussion of "Atmospheric deposition as an important nitrogen load to a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain" by Huang et al. (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Xu, Wen; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Tian, Shili

    2017-03-01

    In a recent publication of Atmospheric Environment, Huang et al. (2016) reported nitrogen (N) deposition estimates using the water surrogate surface method. This method may be suitable to evaluate the atmospheric N input to a body of water, wetland or paddy fields rather than dry crop land without sustained waterlogged conditions. Such a method may also result in the potential underestimation of both dry and wet N deposition due to the release of ammonia (NH3) from water evaporation and/or N loss from biological activities, and hence bias the relative contribution of dry deposition to total deposition. Besides the uncertainties regarding the magnitude and pathways of N deposition, the statement by Huang et al. (2016) that "nitrate was the dominant species in N deposition even in cropland" is also questionable. We suggest that reduced species dominate the N deposition in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (i.e., North China Plain) even in urban and industrial regions due to the abundance of NH3.

  20. The Value of SCMC in SLA: Comments on Lin, Huang & Liou (2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods are often used to determine the effectiveness of certain treatments across studies. However, we are often unaware of how a meta-analysis can provide value to researchers and practitioners. This paper offers a brief commentary on a meta-analysis conducted by Lin, Huang and Liou (2013) in LLT, providing further statistical…

  1. Response to discussion of "Atmospheric deposition as an important nitrogen load to a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain" by Huang et al. (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Zhang, Jiabao; Ma, Donghao; Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Garland, Gina; Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol; Zhu, Anning; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi

    2017-03-01

    We thank Pan et al. (2017) for their comments and discussions to our work on the nitrogen (N) deposition in a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using the water surrogate surface method (Huang et al., 2016). We appreciate this opportunity to respond to their comments, and we hope it will further clarify the findings in our work as well.

  2. Effect of girdling on levels of catechins in fresh leaf in relation to quality of 'Huang Zhi Xiang' Oolong' tea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Duan, Jun; Yang, Shaoyu; Yang, En; Jiang, Yuming

    2009-12-01

    Oolong tea is one of the most popular beverages due to the presence of significant amount of catechins. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of girdling treatment on levels of catechins in fresh tea leaf related to quality of the 'Huang Zhi Xiang' Oolong tea (Camellia sinensis). The variations in the levels of catechins in fresh tea leaf and the quality score (QS) of the 'Huang Zhi Xiang' Oolong tea were examined. The study demonstrated that girdling treatment increased significantly the levels of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, total catechins, simple catechin, and catechin gallate present in fresh leaf of tea trees. Furthermore, the girdling treatment improved significantly the quality of the 'Huang Zhi Xiang' Oolong tea. Thus, it was suggested that application of girdling treatment could be an effective agronomic practice to increase the quality of 'Huang Zhi Xiang' Oolong tea.

  3. Employing the Hilbert-Huang Transform to analyze observed natural complex signals: Calm wind meandering cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Luis Gustavo Nogueira; Stefanello, Michel Baptistella; Degrazia, Gervásio Annes; Acevedo, Otávio Costa; Puhales, Franciano Scremin; Demarco, Giuliano; Mortarini, Luca; Anfossi, Domenico; Roberti, Débora Regina; Denardin, Felipe Costa; Maldaner, Silvana

    2016-11-01

    In this study we analyze natural complex signals employing the Hilbert-Huang spectral analysis. Specifically, low wind meandering meteorological data are decomposed into turbulent and non turbulent components. These non turbulent movements, responsible for the absence of a preferential direction of the horizontal wind, provoke negative lobes in the meandering autocorrelation functions. The meandering characteristic time scales (meandering periods) are determined from the spectral peak provided by the Hilbert-Huang marginal spectrum. The magnitudes of the temperature and horizontal wind meandering period obtained agree with the results found from the best fit of the heuristic meandering autocorrelation functions. Therefore, the new method represents a new procedure to evaluate meandering periods that does not employ mathematical expressions to represent observed meandering autocorrelation functions.

  4. 6-month evaluation of JinHuang Chinese herbal medicine study in asymptomatic HIV infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Bussaratid, Valai; Chamnachanan, Supat; Naksrisook, Supa; Peonim, Wantanee; Thantamnu, Narumon; Muanaum, Rungrapat; Ngamdee, Vatcharachai

    2003-06-01

    Good results of in vitro study of anti-HIV effects of JinHuang, a Chinese herbal medicine led to in vivo study of safety and efficacy among asymptomatic HIV infected individuals. It was a prospective open study of 21 asymptomatic HIV infected Thai volunteers. Twelve and 9 were female and male, respectively, with mean age of 29.24 +/- 3.94 years. JinHuang preparation, 6 capsules and 2 bottles of liquid formula orally three times a day, was given on an outpatient basis initially for 6 months. Regular close monitoring and follow-up were done. The side effects reported included : increased bowel movements (81%), vague taste, and smell of drug after initiation (52%). No serious adverse event related to JinHuang was detected during study. No significant changes in terms of log viral load and CD4 count were observed after 6-months' duration. Most of the patients felt that the quality of life was better in terms of better appetite, good sleep and healthy during study participation, however, these were subjective.

  5. Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform to the Search for Gravitational Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan B.; Cannizzo, John K.; Numata, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    We present the application of a novel method of time-series analysis, the Hilbert-Huang Transform, to the search for gravitational waves. This algorithm is adaptive and does not impose a basis set on the data, and thus the time-frequency decomposition it provides is not limited by time-frequency uncertainty spreading. Because of its high time-frequency resolution it has important applications to both signal detection and instrumental characterization. Applications to the data analysis of the ground and space based gravitational wave detectors, LIGO and LISA, are described.

  6. A Case of Ischemic Colitis Associated with the Herbal Food Supplement Ma Huang

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Joo; Ryu, Kum Hei; Kim, Tae Hun; Jung, Sung-Ae; Yoo, Kwon

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is a condition that usually occurs in the elderly, as a form of vascular disease. However, ischemic colitis also occurs, though rarely, in healthy young adults. Moreover, food supplements containing Ephedra sinica or ma huang have been linked to adverse central nervous and cardiovascular events. A 40-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department after 2 episodes of abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea that lasted 24 hours. His medical history was unremarkable for risk factors of bowel ischemia, except for well-controlled hypertension. However, a weight-loss supplement, Ephedra sinica, had been prescribed for daily use during the previous month. Both abdominal/pelvic computed tomography and colonoscopy revealed findings compatible with ischemic colitis. His conditions spontaneously improved without any serious complications, and he was advised to discontinue the use of herbal medications containing ephedrine. In this paper, we describe a case of ischemic colitis that was potentially linked to the use of ma huang with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:18581601

  7. [Herbological studies on the Chinese crude drug ma-huang--part 2--on the confusion between ma-huang, Ephedrae Herba, and Equisetum plants in Medieval China and Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Chieko; Kitade, Makiko; Mikage, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    As we previously reported, ma-huang ([Chinese characters: see text], Ephedrae Herba) has been sometimes used together with mu-zei ([Chinese characters: see text], Equiseti Herba) in medieval China and Japan. We herbologically studied this confusion and found that, in China, the confusion was found in literature in the Song dynasty, and Li Shi-Zhen recorded in Ben-cao-gang-mu that both drugs were morphologically and medicinally the same in the Ming dynasty. Though the main reason why the plant of the genus Equisetum, especially E. ramosissimum Desf., had been substituted for Ephedra plants is thought to be their morphological similarity, the doctors who lived in the area where no Ephedra plants grew might have used Equisetum plants as ma-huang based on Li's description. Owing to this confusion in China, the plants of E. ramosissimum were sometimes imported to Japan as ma-huang, and it caused the tentative use of E. ramosissimum as ma-huang in the middle of the Edo era in Japan.

  8. A Meta-Discursive Analysis of Online Comments of Chinese Netizens on Huang Xiaoming's Appropriation of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Xi

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the ideologies of English in China through a meta-discursive analysis of Chinese netizens' comments on the performance of English by Huang Xiaoming, a famous Chinese actor. By applying Park and Wee's framework for analysing ideological evaluations of appropriation (i.e. ideologies of allegiance, competence, and authenticity) to…

  9. Event Trigger Generator for Gravitational-Wave Data based on Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Edwin J.; Chu, Hyoungseok; Kim, Young-Min; Blackburn, Lindy; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kim, Hwansun; Oh, John J.; Oh, Sang Hoon; Robinet, Florent

    2015-08-01

    The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is composed of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA). The EMD decomposes any time series data into a small number of components called the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), compared to the Discrete Fourier Transform which decomposes a data into a large number of harmonic functions. Each IMF has varying amplitude and frequency with respect to time, which can be obtained by HSA. The time resolution of the modes in HHT is the same as that of the given time series, while in the Wavelet Transform, Constant Q Transform and Short-Time Fourier Transform, there is a tradeoff between the resolutions in frequency and time. Based on the time-dependent amplitudes of IMFs, we develop an Event Trigger Generator and demonstrate its efficiency by applying it to gravitational-wave mock data.

  10. A framework for the damage evaluation of acoustic emission signals through Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siracusano, Giulio; Lamonaca, Francesco; Tomasello, Riccardo; Garescì, Francesca; Corte, Aurelio La; Carnì, Domenico Luca; Carpentieri, Mario; Grimaldi, Domenico; Finocchio, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) is a powerful and potential nondestructive testing method for structural monitoring in civil engineering. Here, we show how systematic investigation of crack phenomena based on AE data can be significantly improved by the use of advanced signal processing techniques. Such data are a fundamental source of information that can be used as the basis for evaluating the status of the material, thereby paving the way for a new frontier of innovation made by data-enabled analytics. In this article, we propose a framework based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform for the evaluation of material damages that (i) facilitates the systematic employment of both established and promising analysis criteria, and (ii) provides unsupervised tools to achieve an accurate classification of the fracture type, the discrimination between longitudinal (P-) and traversal (S-) waves related to an AE event. The experimental validation shows promising results for a reliable assessment of the health status through the monitoring of civil infrastructures.

  11. [Analysis on academic frame of A-B classic of acupuncture and moxibustion by Huang Fumi].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbin

    2015-01-01

    The acupuncture-moxibustion academic frame system was firstly and systematically established in A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion authored by HUANG Fu-mi, which explained the knowledge and logical relationship among different parts of acupuncture-moxibustion. The academic frame consisted of acupuncture-moxibustion basis and clinical application. In the basic theory, zang-fu, qi-blood, meridians, acupoint, pulse diagnosis, acupuncture manipulation, etiology and pathogenesis, etc. were included; in the clinical application, various kinds of clinical diseases and their acupuncture treatment were included. The academic frame established by A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion is broader than the modern academic frame of acupuncture-moxibustion, in which the attribution and location of four-seas theory has certain differences from modern acupuncture-moxibustion theory.

  12. Analysis of gravitational waves from binary neutron star merger by Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyama, Masato; Oohara, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we analyze gravitational waves from late inspiral, merger, and post-merger phases of binary neutron stars coalescence, computed by a general relativistic numerical simulation. The HHT analysis has been developed as a method for time series analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data, and it enables us to perform a high resolution time frequency analysis of signals with strong frequency modulation by evaluating the instantaneous variation of amplitude and frequency of data. We find that we can clearly observe the time evolution of the instantaneous frequency of the post-merger waveforms. It is found that temporal variation of frequency of post-merger waveforms can be evaluated within 5% error if BNS coalescences occur within 10 Mpc. This accuracy allows us to constrain the equation of state of neutron stars and to evaluate the radius of a fiducial neutron star of 1.8 M⊙ with a few hundred meters accuracy.

  13. The Early ULF Signal of the Gigantic Jets Revealed By Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Hsun; Bing-Chih Chen, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    The conventional Fourier analysis on the sferics in ULF and VLF bandpasses has been done for years. Several phenomena e.g. whistler and Schumann resonance have been well studied by the Fourier spectrum comprehensively. But the Fourier analysis is computed by an integration over time, therefore, the temporal resolution is smoothed, and limited not only by the sampling rate but also the size of the integration window. The instantaneous frequency can't be obtained through this conventional approach. We introduce the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) instead of Fourier transform to analyze the sferics of TLEs recorded at Lulin observatory. The Hilbert-Huang transform decomposes a signal into so-called intrinsic mode functions (IMF), and derive instantaneous frequency data by differentiating the phase angle yielded by Hilbert transform. Our analysis of HHT on several gigantic jets recorded by ground observation surprisingly revealed an early signal of frequency-change during the phase of the leading jet, and this early signal can not be identified by Fourier analysis. In the phase of leading jet, the amplitude of the sferics remains a constant and no significant features are recognized in the recorded waveform, but an obvious frequency change about 100-200 millisecond prior to the main discharge of the full development jets (FDJs), which can be clearly recognized in the HHT spectra of all observed gigantic jets. From a further simulation, this frequency change is confirmed to come from the nature of the discharge, not an alias or a false signal generated by the analysis method. This early signal may implies an in-cloud discharge process which is suggested by Krehbiel et al. [2008

  14. Diurnal variations and source apportionment of ozone at the summit of Mount Huang, a rural site in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Zhu, B; Xiao, H; Kang, H; Hou, X; Yin, Y; Zhang, L; Miao, Q

    2017-03-01

    Comprehensive measurements were conducted at the summit of Mount (Mt.) Huang, a rural site located in eastern China during the summer of 2011. They observed that ozone showed pronounced diurnal variations with high concentrations at night and low values during daytime. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate the ozone concentrations at Mt. Huang in June 2011. With processes analysis and online ozone tagging method we coupled into the model system, the causes of this diurnal pattern and the contributions from different source regions were investigated. Our results showed that boundary layer diurnal cycle played an important role in driving the ozone diurnal variation. Further analysis showed that the negative contribution of vertical mixing was significant, resulting in the ozone decrease during the daytime. In contrast, ozone increased at night owing to the significant positive contribution of advection. This shifting of major factor between vertical mixing and advection formed this diurnal variation. Ozone source apportionment results indicated that approximately half was provided by inflow effect of ozone from outside the model domain (O3-INFLOW) and the other half was formed by ozone precursors (O3-PBL) emitted in eastern, central, and southern China. In the O3-PBL, 3.0% of the ozone was from Mt. Huang reflecting the small local contribution (O3-LOC) and the non-local contributions (O3-NLOC) accounted for 41.6%, in which ozone from the southerly regions contributed significantly, for example, 9.9% of the ozone originating from Jiangxi, representing the highest geographical contributor. Because the origin and variation of O3-NLOC was highly related to the diurnal movements in boundary layer, the similar diurnal patterns between O3-NLOC and total ozone both indicated the direct influence of O3-NLOC and the importance of boundary layer diurnal variations in the formation of such distinct diurnal ozone variations

  15. [The false positive reaction of the Triage panel drug-of-abuse by herbal drugs ma-huang (Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae))].

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, M; Kinoshita, H; Higasa, K; Taniguchi, T; Ouchi, H; Minami, T; Marukawa, S; Yoshinaga, K; Yamauchi, J; Aoki, S; Hishida, S

    2001-11-01

    We investigated false-positive reactions obtained from a drug screening test using a Triage panel. We detected 2 cases giving false-positive reaction for AMP (amphetamine, methamphetamine) during the screening of 187 normal subjects. Subsequent follow up testing by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showed both to be false-positive reactions. As both cases have a history of ingesting the herbal drug, Ma-huang (Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae)), containing ephedrine, we examined the relationship between false-positive reactions on Triage and Ma-huang. All urine samples collected from 7 healthy volunteers following administration of Ma-huang indicated AMP positive on Triage. Also a high ratio of AMP positives was observed in the patients who were administered Ma-huang-containing drugs at the hospital. However, none of them were identified as true-positives by HPLC or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The extract of Ma-huang contained in herbal drugs, which otherwise contain neither amphetamine nor its derivatives, gives (AMP) positive indications on Triage. We speculate that unidentified components of Ma-huang cause the false-positive reactions. We suggest that follow-up tests by GC/MS or HPLC are needed wherever a positive result is obtained from a screening test by Triage. Furthermore, it will be established to continue collecting information on prescribed and non-prescribed drugs.

  16. Microbial Diversity Analysis of Fermented Mung Beans (Lu-Doh-Huang) by Using Pyrosequencing and Culture Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Yang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Kang, Ya-Huei; Watanabe, Koichi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    In Taiwanese alternative medicine Lu-doh-huang (also called Pracparatum mungo), mung beans are mixed with various herbal medicines and undergo a 4-stage process of anaerobic fermentation. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to profile the bacterial community structure of Lu-doh-huang samples. Pyrosequencing of samples obtained at 7 points during fermentation revealed 9 phyla, 264 genera, and 586 species of bacteria. While mung beans were inside bamboo sections (stages 1 and 2 of the fermentation process), family Lactobacillaceae and genus Lactobacillus emerged in highest abundance; Lactobacillus plantarum was broadly distributed among these samples. During stage 3, the bacterial distribution shifted to family Porphyromonadaceae, and Butyricimonas virosa became the predominant microbial component. Thereafter, bacterial counts decreased dramatically, and organisms were too few to be detected during stage 4. In addition, the microbial compositions of the liquids used for soaking bamboo sections were dramatically different: Exiguobacterium mexicanum predominated in the fermented soybean solution whereas B. virosa was predominant in running spring water. Furthermore, our results from pyrosequencing paralleled those we obtained by using the traditional culture method, which targets lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, the microbial communities during Lu-doh-huang fermentation were markedly diverse, and pyrosequencing revealed a complete picture of the microbial consortium. PMID:23700436

  17. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  18. Hilbert-Huang-based tremor removal to assess postural properties from accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Mellone, Sabato; Palmerini, Luca; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2011-06-01

    Tremor is one of the symptoms of several disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The impairment of postural control is another symptom of PD. The conventional method of posture analysis uses force plates, but accelerometers can be a valid and reliable alternative. Both these measurement techniques are sensitive to tremor. Tremor affects postural measures and may thus lead to misleading results or interpretations. Linear low-pass filters (LPFs) are commonly employed for tremor removal. In this study, an alternative method, based on Hilbert-Huang transformation (HHT), is proposed. We examined 20 PD subjects, with and without tremor, and 20 control subjects. We compared the effectiveness of LPF and HHT-based filtering on a set of postural parameters extracted from acceleration signals. HHT has the advantage of providing a filter, which with no a priori knowledge, efficiently manages the nonlinear, nonstationary interference due to tremor, and beyond tremor, gives descriptive measures of postural function. Some of the differences found using LPF can instead be ascribed to inefficient noise/tremor suppression. Filter order and cutoff frequency are indeed critical when subjects exhibit a tremorous behavior, in which case LPF parameters should be chosen very carefully.

  19. Frequency Clustering Analysis for Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Tong; Liu, Chenghua; Wen, Xiaotong; Yao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Exploring resting-state functional networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a hot topic in the field of brain functions. Previous studies suggested that the frequency dependence between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals may convey meaningful information regarding interactions between brain regions. Methods: In this article, we introduced a novel frequency clustering analysis method based on Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and a label-replacement procedure. First, the time series from multiple predefined regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted. Second, each time series was decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by using HHT. Third, the improved k-means clustering method using a label-replacement method was applied to the data of each subject to classify the ROIs into different classes. Results: Two independent resting-state fMRI dataset of healthy subjects were analyzed to test the efficacy of method. The results show almost identical clusters when applied to different runs of a dataset or to different datasets, indicating a stable performance of our framework. Conclusions and Significance: Our framework provided a novel measure for functional segregation of the brain according to time-frequency characteristics of resting state BOLD activities. PMID:28261074

  20. Effects of Huang Qi Decoction on Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction can be induced by homocysteine (Hcy) through promoted oxidative stress. Huang Qi decoction (HQD) is a traditional Chinese medical formula and its components possess antioxidant effect. The study herein was therefore designed to investigate the effects of HQD at different dosage on endothelial dysfunction induced by Hcy. Tempol and apocynin were used to investigate whether antioxidant mechanisms were involved. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortas was investigated by isometric tension recordings. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was determined by DHE staining. The assessment related to oxidative stress and NO bioavailability was performed by assay kits and western blot. In isometric tension experiment, HQD at the dose of 30 or 100 μg/mL, tempol, or apocynin prevented impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated aortas elicited by Hcy. In cellular experiments, substantial enhancement in NADPH oxidase and ROS generation and reduction in NO bioavailability triggered by Hcy were reversed by pretreatment of HQD at the dose of 100 μg/mL, tempol, or apocynin. The results proved that HQD at an appropriate dosage presented favorable effects on endothelial dysfunction initiated by Hcy through antioxidant mechanisms. HQD can act as a potent prescription for the treatment of endothelium related vascular complications. PMID:27725840

  1. Segmentation of Killer Whale Vocalizations Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    The study of cetacean vocalizations is usually based on spectrogram analysis. The feature extraction is obtained from 2D methods like the edge detection algorithm. Difficulties appear when signal-to-noise ratios are weak or when more than one vocalization is simultaneously emitted. This is the case for acoustic observations in a natural environment and especially for the killer whales which swim in groups. To resolve this problem, we propose the use of the Hilbert-Huang transform. First, we illustrate how few modes (5) are satisfactory for the analysis of these calls. Then, we detail our approach which consists of combining the modes for extracting the time-varying frequencies of the vocalizations. This combination takes advantage of one of the empirical mode decomposition properties which is that the successive IMFs represent the original data broken down into frequency components from highest to lowest frequency. To evaluate the performance, our method is first applied on the simulated chirp signals. This approach allows us to link one chirp to one mode. Then we apply it on real signals emitted by killer whales. The results confirm that this method is a favorable alternative for the automatic extraction of killer whale vocalizations.

  2. Using Bioinformatics Approach to Explore the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Multiple Ingredients in Shuang-Huang-Lian

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bai-xia; Li, Jian; Gu, Hao; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tian-jiao; Wang, Yun; Cai, Cheng-ke

    2015-01-01

    Due to the proved clinical efficacy, Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) has developed a variety of dosage forms. However, the in-depth research on targets and pharmacological mechanisms of SHL preparations was scarce. In the presented study, the bioinformatics approaches were adopted to integrate relevant data and biological information. As a result, a PPI network was built and the common topological parameters were characterized. The results suggested that the PPI network of SHL exhibited a scale-free property and modular architecture. The drug target network of SHL was structured with 21 functional modules. According to certain modules and pharmacological effects distribution, an antitumor effect and potential drug targets were predicted. A biological network which contained 26 subnetworks was constructed to elucidate the antipneumonia mechanism of SHL. We also extracted the subnetwork to explicitly display the pathway where one effective component acts on the pneumonia related targets. In conclusions, a bioinformatics approach was established for exploring the drug targets, pharmacological activity distribution, effective components of SHL, and its mechanism of antipneumonia. Above all, we identified the effective components and disclosed the mechanism of SHL from the view of system. PMID:26495421

  3. Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform for Improved Defect Detection in Terahertz NDE of Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect the adhesive bond-line of Space Shuttle tiles for defects. Terahertz signals are generated and detected, using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. Shuttle tile samples were manufactured with defects that included repair regions unbond regions, and other conditions that occur in Shuttle structures. These samples were inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scanned a tile and generated a data set of RF signals. The signals were post processed to generate C-scan type images that are typically seen in ultrasonic NDE. To improve defect visualization the Hilbert-Huang Transform, a transform that decomposes a signal into oscillating components called intrinsic mode functions, was applied to test signals identified as being in and out of the defect regions and then on a complete data set. As expected with this transform, the results showed that the decomposed low-order modes correspond to signal noise while the high-order modes correspond to low frequency oscillations in the signal and mid-order modes correspond to local signal oscillations. The local oscillations compare well with various reflection interfaces and the defect locations in the original signal.

  4. [Differences in root developmenly of winter wheat cultivars in Huang-Huai Plain, China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xin-Qiang; Gao, Yang; Li, Xin-Qiang; Huang, Ling; Duan, Ai-Wang

    2012-07-01

    Selecting one presently popularized winter wheat cultivar (Zhengmai 9023) and two cultivars (Abo and Fengchan 3) introduced in the 1950s and 1960s in Huang-Huai Plain as test materials, and by using minirhizotron technique, this paper studied the live root length, root diameter distribution, and net root growth rate of the cultivars. Fine roots with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm occupied the majority of the whole root system, and the fine roots with a diameter less than 0.5 mm accounted for 98% of the live root length. The average root diameter varied with plant growth, the variation range being 0.15 - 0.22 mm, and no significant difference was observe among the cultivars. The live root length was significantly positively correlated root number, suggesting that root number was the main factor for the increase of live root length. The most vigorous growth period of the roots was from reviving to jointing stage, and Abo and Fengchan 3 had a longer period increased root vitality, as compared with Zhengmai 9023. For Zhengmai 9023, its fine roots with a diameter more than 0.1 mm had an increasing proportion after jointing stage, which was helpful for improving plant resistance, root activity, and grain-filling at late growth stages.

  5. Application of Hilbert-Huang transform for defect recognition in pulsed eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoling; Huang, Pingjie; Hou, Dibo; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Guangxin

    2015-07-01

    Defect recognition plays an important role in the structure integrity and health monitor of in-service equipment. However, it is difficult to recognise deep-layer defect or small-size defect in conductive structure during pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing. Aiming at the issue, this article proposes a method based on Hilbert-Huang transform which consists of two modules: data processing and defect recognition. In the data processing module, the PEC response signal is decomposed into a few of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. The IMFs whose variance contribution rates are bigger than 1% are chosen to reconstruct signal in order to remove noise. In the defect recognition module, the features based on specific frequency components of marginal spectrum (MS) of the reconstructed signals are extracted to discriminate those defects in surface and subsurface. Furthermore, the normalisation MS energy ratio is proposed to quantify defects which cannot be distinguished using peak value in time domain. Experiments show that the proposed method can achieve better de-noising effect and defect evaluation, which contributes to the recognition of those complicated defects such as deep-layered and small-sized defect.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang) on P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yuka; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Ito, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the effects of various Kampo medicines on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter, in vitro. The present study focused on Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang), which shows the most potent inhibitory effects on P-gp among the 50 Kampo medicines studied, and investigated the P-gp inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto herbal ingredients (rhubarb and licorice root) and their components by an ATPase assay using human P-gp membrane. Both rhubarb and licorice root significantly inhibited ATPase activity, and the effects of rhubarb were more potent than those of licorice root. The content of rhubarb in Daiokanzoto is double that in licorice root, and the inhibition patterns of Daiokanzoto and rhubarb involve both competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto are mainly due to rhubarb. Concerning the components of rhubarb, concentration-dependent inhibitory effects were observed for (−)-catechin gallate, (−)-epicatechin gallate, and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. In conclusion, rhubarb may cause changes in the drug dispositions of P-gp substrates through the inhibition of P-gp. It appears that attention should be given to the interactions between these drugs and Kampo medicines containing rhubarb as an herbal ingredient. PMID:22969825

  7. Damage Modes Recognition and Hilbert-Huang Transform Analyses of CFRP Laminates Utilizing Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-04-01

    Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.

  8. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Environmental Data of North Beijing District Using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyong; Moran, William

    2016-01-01

    Temperature, solar radiation and water are major important variables in ecosystem models which are measurable via wireless sensor networks (WSN). Effective data analysis is necessary to extract significant spatial and temporal information. In this work, information regarding the long term variation of seasonal field environment conditions is explored using Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) based analysis on the wireless sensor network data collection. The data collection network, consisting of 36 wireless nodes, covers an area of 100 square kilometres in Yanqing, the northwest of Beijing CBD, in China and data collection involves environmental parameter observations taken over a period of three months in 2011. The analysis used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD/EEMD) to break a time sequence of data down to a finite set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Both spatial and temporal properties of data explored by HHT analysis are demonstrated. Our research shows potential for better understanding the spatial-temporal relationships among environmental parameters using WSN and HHT. PMID:27936056

  9. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of dynamic and earthquake motion recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Ma, S.; Safak, E.; Hartzell, S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the rationale of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for analyzing dynamic and earthquake motion recordings in studies of seismology and engineering. In particular, this paper first provides the fundamentals of the HHT method, which consist of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert spectral analysis. It then uses the HHT to analyze recordings of hypothetical and real wave motion, the results of which are compared with the results obtained by the Fourier data processing technique. The analysis of the two recordings indicates that the HHT method is able to extract some motion characteristics useful in studies of seismology and engineering, which might not be exposed effectively and efficiently by Fourier data processing technique. Specifically, the study indicates that the decomposed components in EMD of HHT, namely, the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components, contain observable, physical information inherent to the original data. It also shows that the grouped IMF components, namely, the EMD-based low- and high-frequency components, can faithfully capture low-frequency pulse-like as well as high-frequency wave signals. Finally, the study illustrates that the HHT-based Hilbert spectra are able to reveal the temporal-frequency energy distribution for motion recordings precisely and clearly.

  10. Diurnal variation of surface ozone in mountainous areas: Case study of Mt. Huang, East China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jin, Lianji; Zhao, Tianliang; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Bin; Shan, Yunpeng; Guo, Xiaomei; Tan, Chenghao; Gao, Jinhui; Wang, Haoliang

    2015-12-15

    To explore the variations in atmospheric environment over mountainous areas, measurements were made from an intensive field observation at the summit of Mt. Huang (30.13°N, 118.15°E, 1841m above sea level), a rural site located in East China, from June to August 2011. The measurements revealed a diurnal change of surface O3 with low concentrations during the daytime and high concentrations during the nighttime. The causes of diurnal O3 variations over the mountain peak in East China were investigated by using a fairly comprehensive WRF-Chem and HYSPLIT4 modeling approach with observational analysis. By varying model inputs and comparing the results to a baseline modeling and actual air quality observations, it is found that nearby ozone urban/anthropogenic emission sources were contributing to a nighttime increase in mountaintop ozone levels due to a regional transport lag and residual layer effects. Positive correlation of measured O3 and CO concentrations suggested that O3 was associated with anthropogenic emissions. Sensitivity modeling experiments indicated that local anthropogenic emissions had little impact on the diurnal pattern of O3. The diurnal pattern of O3 was mainly influenced by regional O3 transport from the surrounding urban areas located 100-150km away from the summit, with a lag time of 10h for transport.

  11. Inhibition of endosomal fusion activity of influenza virus by Rheum tanguticum (da-huang)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Chung; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Rhubarb (Rheum tanguticum; da-huang in Chinese medicine) is a herbal medicine that has been used widely for managing fever and removing toxicity. In this study, we investigated how rhubarb inhibits influenza virus during the early stage of the infectious cycle using different functional assays. A non-toxic ethanolic extract of rhubarb (Rex) inhibited several H1N1 subtypes of influenza A viruses in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells, including strains that are clinically resistant to oseltamivir. Time course analysis of Rex addition showed that viral entry was one of the steps that was inhibited by Rex. We also confirmed that Rex effectively inhibited viral attachment and penetration into the host cells. The inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis and cell–cell fusion by Rex suggests that Rex may block haemagglutinin-mediated fusion (virus–endosome fusion) during the fusion/uncoating step. Rex has the capacity to inhibit influenza viruses by blocking viral endocytosis. Thus, rhubarb might provide an alternative therapeutic approach when resistant viruses become more prevalent. PMID:27302738

  12. A novel analysis method for near infrared spectroscopy based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Yang, Hongyu; Liu, Yun; Ruan, Zongcai; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Lu, Zuhong

    2007-05-01

    Near Infrared Imager (NIRI) has been widely used to access the brain functional activity non-invasively. We use a portable, multi-channel and continuous-wave NIR topography instrument to measure the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species and map cerebral cortex functional activation. By extracting some essential features from the BOLD signals, optical tomography is able to be a new way of neuropsychological studies. Fourier spectral analysis provides a common framework for examining the distribution of global energy in the frequency domain. However, this method assumes that the signal should be stationary, which limits its application in non-stationary system. The hemoglobin species concentration changes are of such kind. In this work we develop a new signal processing method using Hilbert-Huang transform to perform spectral analysis of the functional NIRI signals. Compared with wavelet based multi-resolution analysis (MRA), we demonstrated the extraction of task related signal for observation of activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in vision stimulation experiment. This method provides a new analysis tool for functional NIRI signals. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach provides the unique method for reconstructing target signal without losing original information and enables us to understand the episode of functional NIRI more precisely.

  13. Distinction between essential and physiological tremor using Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Ayache, S S; Al-Ani, T; Lefaucheur, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Neurophysiological investigation, based on accelerometric (ACC) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings, is an essential step in the diagnosis of tremor. Among various signal analysis methods, fast Fourier transform (FFT) is the most frequently used in this domain. However, FFT has several limitations: first, it assumes that tremor is a periodic and linear signal, which is not true; second, it cannot distinguish between different types of tremor, when their frequency overlap in similar range, such as essential tremor (ET) and physiological tremor (PT). Therefore, we decided to apply a non-linear method of signal analysis based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert Huang transform (HHT), according to various procedures and compared to a more classical FFT approach. A first group of 8 healthy subjects with PT and a second group of 8 patients with ET were included in this study. At individual level, FFT was effective to highlight ET in the 8 patients, but PT in only 2 subjects. The EMD-HHT procedures performed better than FFT, revealing a common peak of PT in all subjects. Moreover, at group level, our EMD-HHT method allowed to clearly differentiate the two groups, especially by giving evidence for the existence of low frequency oscillations (around 4Hz) in subjects with PT. Although their physiological origin remains largely unknown, such slow oscillations seem to be of great importance to highlight PT and they have been much underestimated in the literature. Our original EMD-HHT approach is able to provide substantial improvement in the neurophysiological characterisation of the different types of tremor, especially for diagnostic application.

  14. Huang Qi Decoction Prevents BDL-Induced Liver Fibrosis Through Inhibition of Notch Signaling Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Ying; Chen, Jia-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Du, Guang-Li; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Shi-Li; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Mu, Yong-Ping; Liu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Notch signaling has been demonstrated to be involved in ductular reactions and fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that Huang Qi Decoction (HQD) can prevent the progression of cholestatic liver fibrosis (CLF). However, whether HQD affects the Notch signaling pathway is unclear. In this study, CLF was established by common bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. At the end of the first week, the rats were randomly divided into a model group (i.e., BDL), an HQD group, and a sorafenib positive control group (SORA) and were treated for 3 weeks. Bile duct proliferation and liver fibrosis were determined by tissue staining. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway was evaluated by analyzing expressions of Notch-1, -2, -3, and -4, Jagged (JAG) 1, and Delta like (DLL)-1, -3, and -4. The results showed that HQD significantly reduced the deposition of collagen and the Hyp content of liver tissue and inhibited the activation of HSCs compared with the BDL group. In addition, HQD significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 and [Formula: see text]-SMA. In contrast, HQD significantly enhanced expression of the Smad 7 protein. HQD also reduced biliary epithelial cell proliferation, and reduced the mRNA levels of CK7, CK8, CK18, SRY-related high mobility group-box gene (SOX) 9, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the positive areas of CK19 and OV6. In addition, the mRNA and protein expressions of Notch-3, -4, JAG1, and DLL-1, -3 were significantly reduced in the HQD compared to the BDL group. These results demonstrated that HQD may prevent biliary liver fibrosis through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, and it may be a potential treatment for cholestatic liver disease.

  15. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Melanogenesis Inhibitory Properties of Pracparatum Mungo (Lu-Do Huang)

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yu-Yu; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang) is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (Lǜ Dòu) mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME) and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE) possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions. PMID:24716173

  16. Evaluation of the Hilbert-Huang transform for modal-based structural health monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, J. A.; Kosmatka, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    A new method for signal processing of non-linear and non-stationary data, the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT), offers insight into signals that cannot be achieved using conventional methods such as the Fourier transform and wavelet decompositions. This study investigates HHT as a potential tool for damage detection, to be eventually incorporated into a realistic structural health monitoring system. After a review of the method and supporting research, an analytical study begins to offer insight into the behavior of HHT. First, HHT is performed on simple sinusoid signals to see how it separates frequency content, then on the same signal with noise added. Finally HHT is performed on data generated from a numerical 8-degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with random burst excitation, where the stiffness of one spring can be decreased to simulate damage. The study finds that there is considerable variability associated with the implementation of HHT. Many variables, such as sampling frequency and overlapping frequencies, can affect the output of HHT drastically, possibly detracting from the value of the result. The method may, however, automatically separate noise from a signal. Application of HHT to the mass-spring system showed that there was only a noticeable pattern to the effect of damage when that damage became severe. However, the implementation process used may need to be more refined before final assessment can be made. Generally, the variability of HHT needs to be better quantified and understood so that a damage index can be derived based on the unique information that the method provides from signals. If this is possible, HHT could be an important tool for structural damage detection and health monitoring.

  17. Study of nonlinear oscillations in a glow discharge plasma using empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, A. M.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Janaki, M. S.

    2013-02-15

    Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) based time series analysis was carried out on nonlinear floating potential fluctuations obtained from hollow cathode glow discharge plasma in the presence of anode glow. HHT was used to obtain contour plots and the presence of nonlinearity was studied. Frequency shift with time, which is a typical nonlinear behaviour, was detected from the contour plots. Various plasma parameters were measured and the concepts of correlation coefficients and the physical contribution of each intrinsic mode function have been discussed. Physically important quantities such as instantaneous energy and their uses in studying physical phenomena such as intermittency and non-stationary data have also been discussed.

  18. Application of the Huang-Hilbert transform and natural time to the analysis of seismic electric signal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulou, K. A.; Skordas, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Huang method is applied to Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities in order to decompose them into their components, named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). We study which of these components contribute to the basic characteristics of the signal. The Hilbert transform is then applied to the IMFs in order to determine their instantaneous amplitudes. The results are compared with those obtained from the analysis in a new time domain termed natural time, after having subtracted the magnetotelluric background from the original signal. It is shown that these instantaneous amplitudes, when combined with the natural time analysis, can be used for the distinction of SES from artificial noises.

  19. Hilbert-Huang transform based instrumental assessment of intention tremor in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. This paper describes a method to extract upper limb intention tremor from gyroscope data, through the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a technique suitable for the study of nonlinear and non-stationary processes. The aims of the study were to: (i) evaluate the method’s ability to discriminate between healthy controls and MS subjects; (ii) validate the proposed procedure against clinical tremor scores assigned using Fahn’s tremor rating scale (FTRS); and (iii) compare the performance of the HHT-based method with that of linear band-pass filters. Approach. HHT was applied on gyroscope data collected on 20 MS subjects and 13 healthy controls (CO) during finger-to-nose tests (FNTs) instrumented with an inertial sensor placed on the hand. The results were compared to those obtained after traditional linear filtering. The tremor amplitude was quantified with instrumental indexes (TIs) and clinical FTRS ratings. Main results. The TIs computed after HHT-based filtering discriminated between CO and MS subjects with clinically-detected intention tremor (MS_T). In particular, TIs were significantly higher in the final part of the movement (TI2) with respect to the first part (TI1), and, for all components (X, Y, Z), MST showed a TI2 significantly higher than in CO subjects. Moreover, the HHT detected subtle alterations not visible from clinical ratings, as TI2 (Z-component) was significantly increased in MS subjects without clinically-detected tremor (MS_NT). The method’s validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between clinical FTRS scores and TI2 related to X (rs = 0.587, p = 0.006) and Y (rs = 0.682, p < 0.001) components. Contrarily, fewer differences among the groups and no correlation between instrumental and clinical indexes emerged after traditional filtering. Significance. The present results supported the use of the HHT-based procedure for a fully-automated quantitative and objective measure of intention tremor in MS, which can overcome

  20. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of periodicities in the last two solar activity cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated periodicities associated with the last two-and-a-half solar activity cycles with the novel Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method. Raw data signals of five different observational proxies: the 10.7 cm radio flux intensity, the helioseismic frequency shift, and the sunspot area signals recorded from the whole solar disc, and separately from the Northern and Southern hemispheres, were expanded into a set of intrinsic modes with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition technique. Instant and mean periods of each empirical mode were obtained with the use of the Hilbert transform applied independently to each separate mode. The periodicities were allocated to three distinct groups: short-term variations (with periods shorter than 0.5 yr), quasi-biennial oscillations (with typical periods from 0.5 yr to 3.9 yr), and longer periodicities, e.g. such as the 11 yr cycle. All periodicities detected in the examined solar cycles 22-24 are consistent with the well-known results found in the earlier solar epochs. We have demonstrated that the HHT method is a good tool for characterizing periodicities in the helioseismic data, which are necessarily relatively limited in terms of their time resolution. Periodicities obtained using the helioseismic data are, nevertheless, consistent with those found in other proxies. Since helioseismic oscillations are sensitive to the solar interior, this indicates that the behaviour of surface and atmospheric magnetic activity reflects that of the Sun's internal magnetic field. All identified intrinsic modes are seen to have clear amplitude modulation highly correlated with the 11 yr cycle. This amplitude modulation is most pronounced in the short-period modes. The short-term periodicities were found to be multiples of the shortest period, of 25 d. This ordering of the short-term periodicities is consistent with the previous findings. Signatures of the north-south asymmetry were detected in the individual hemisphere sunspot area

  1. Utilizing Hilbert-Huang transform in detection some of mechanical properties of the refractory metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Arshed Abdulhamed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki

    2016-02-01

    This study is one of the first to report on the use of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to determine the modulus of elasticity of a material, which is one of the most important properties of metals. In addition, this study involves an analytical study of the process of transfer of energy, which was represented in the form of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Moreover, the distribution of IMFs within the time-frequency-plain was determined by testing eight test specimens. Five test specimens were refractory materials, namely, Ti, Ti6AL4V, Zr, Nb, and Ta, and the other three were non-refractory materials, namely, Al, Brass, and ST4340. The new setup was composed of Mg and involves the use of two piezoelectric transducers, which were used as the emitter and receiver. The setup was designed and implemented in this research based on Mg usage to test the metals. First, a new relationship was derived between the pressure transmission coefficient (PTC) of the transmitted wave (through the emitter-water-test specimen-Mg to the receiver) and the corresponding values of the product of the density (ρ) and the modulus of elasticity (E) for the same test specimen. Another relationship was established between the PTCs and the total energy transmitted at high frequencies. This energy indicates the summation of IMFs that have high frequencies (THIMFs), higher than 10 kHz, can determine E better than TOF for most test specimens. To verify this results, with regard to the second conclusion, a new simulation for this setup was carried out using Simulink in MATLAB. Twelve theoretical tests were done, for high acoustic impedance metals, like Hf, Mo, WNiFe and W in addition to test the same group which was tested experimentally. The results of theoretical tests supported the experimental results except for Nb. Most of the conclusions were obtained through practical results and analytical studies. The results proved that THIMFs can determine the change in the microstructure of the alloys

  2. Analysis of spike waves in epilepsy using Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-De; Lin, Chin-Feng; Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Wang, Jung-Hua; Peng, Tsung-Ii; Chien, Yu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we used the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis method to examine the time-frequency characteristics of spike waves for detecting epilepsy symptoms. We obtained a sample of spike waves and nonspike waves for HHT decomposition by using numerous intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the Hilbert transform (HT) to determine the instantaneous, marginal, and Hilbert energy spectra. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the IMFs, and energy-IMF distributions for the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal without spike waves, Spike I, Spike II and Spike III sample waves were determined. The analysis results showed that the ratios of the referred wave and Spike III wave to the referred total energy for IMF1, IMF2, and the residual function exceeded 10%. Furthermore, the energy ratios for IMF1, IMF2, IMF3 and the residual function of Spike I, Spike II to their total energy exceeded 10%. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the IMF3 of the EEG signal without spike waves and Spike I wave, EEG signal without spike waves and Spike II wave, EEG signal without spike waves and Spike III wave, Spike I and II waves, Spike I and III waves, and Spike II and III waves were 0.002, 0.06, 0.01, 0.17, 0.03, and 0.3, respectively. The energy ratios of IMF3 in the δ band to its referred total energy for the EEG signal without spike waves, and of the Spike I, II, and III waves were 4.72, 6.75, 5.41, and 5.55%, respectively. The weighted average frequency of the IMF1, IMF2, and IMF3 of the EEG signal without spike waves was lower than that of the IMF1, IMF2, and IMF3 of the spike waves, respectively. The weighted average magnitude of the IMF3, IMF4, and IMF5 of the EEG signal without spike waves was lower than that of the IMF1, IMF2, and IMF3 of spike waves, respectively.

  3. Parameterization and comparative evaluation of the CCN number concentration on Mt. Huang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shasha; Han, Yongxiang; Chen, Kui; Lu, Chunsong; Yin, Yan; Tan, Haobo; Wang, Jin

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying regional CCN concentration is important for reliable estimations of aerosol indirect effects. Based on observational data of the number concentrations of total aerosol (NCN) and cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN), particle number size distribution (PNSD) and, size-resolved activation ratio (SRAR) obtained on Mt. Huang in southeast China from September 19 to October 11, 2012, seven parameterization schemes are used to calculate NCCN employing CCN spectra, bulk activation ratio, cut-off diameter and SRAR. The calculations and the observations are compared and analyzed at four supersaturations (S) from 0.109% to 0.67%. Results show that (1) the parameterization using the average cut-off diameter Dm, which is derived from the various measured PNSD and NCCN, provides the best estimate of NCCN, with coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.70-0.90 and NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.92-1.11, followed by the method of combining an average size-resolved activation curve with the PNSD, with R2 = 0.71-0.91 and NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.71-0.91; average D50 together with the PNSD also provides a rational scheme for NCCN prediction, with NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.86-0.94 and R2 = 0.70-0.89; (2) the method of parameterizing CCN spectra, though straightforward, has limits under polluted conditions. Reasonable NCCN estimate could only be obtained at high S (R2 ≥ 0.85 at S = 0.39% and 0.67%). (3) For the method employing the bulk activation ratio ARB(S), NCCN are substantially overestimated by using total mode-based ARB(S) (NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.94-1.39, R2 = 0.17-0.67), while applying ammonium sulfate-based ARB(S) yields improved CCN predictions (NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.91-1.11, R2 = 0.70-0.91). In southern China, when determining the parameterization schemes in climate models, it is first recommended to use the method of average cut-off diameter or SRAR, with the various measured PNSD to predict NCCN. Besides, the method using ammonium sulfate-based ARB(S) and parameterizing CCN spectra

  4. Monitoring the changes of water storage over the Huang-huai-hai plain based on the GRACE satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Zenghui; Liu, Chaoshun; Qiao, Fengxue; Gao, Wei; Chen, Maosi

    2016-09-01

    This study calculated the land water storage using the time-varying monthly gravity data from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experience) gravity satellite combined with Gaussian smoothing filter. The characteristics of spatiotemporal variations of long-term regional land water storage derived from the linear fitting method were then examined from January 2003 to December 2013. The results showed that the water storage over the huang-huai-hai plain showed an overall declining trend from 2003 to 2013 and the average declining rate is about 2.86 mm/a. The comparison between the GEACE calculation results with the soil moisture content products from the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) showed that they are very highly consistent. The variations of regional mean soil moisture over the huang-huai-hai plain also exhibited a downward trend from 2003 to 2013 with an average declining rate about 0.74 mm/a. Based on water balance equation, we obtained the change of average groundwater storage and it showed a decreasing variability with a general declining trend with an average rate about 2.22 mm/a. In addition, the retrieved groundwater data was proven to be accurate compared to observations from groundwater wells measurement with high consistency and correlations. . Further investigations focused on analyzing the impacts of precipitation factors on groundwater variations, implying that the human influences are the main reasons for the decline in groundwater.

  5. Single and two-shot quantitative phase imaging using Hilbert-Huang Transform based fringe pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Micó, Vicente; Patorski, Krzysztof; García-Monreal, Javier; Sluzewski, Lukasz; Ferreira, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    In this contribution we propose two Hilbert-Huang Transform based algorithms for fast and accurate single-shot and two-shot quantitative phase imaging applicable in both on-axis and off-axis configurations. In the first scheme a single fringe pattern containing information about biological phase-sample under study is adaptively pre-filtered using empirical mode decomposition based approach. Further it is phase demodulated by the Hilbert Spiral Transform aided by the Principal Component Analysis for the local fringe orientation estimation. Orientation calculation enables closed fringes efficient analysis and can be avoided using arbitrary phase-shifted two-shot Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization scheme aided by Hilbert-Huang Transform pre-filtering. This two-shot approach is a trade-off between single-frame and temporal phase shifting demodulation. Robustness of the proposed techniques is corroborated using experimental digital holographic microscopy studies of polystyrene micro-beads and red blood cells. Both algorithms compare favorably with the temporal phase shifting scheme which is used as a reference method.

  6. [Optimization of conservation network system for inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Long; Li, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Dian-Lin; Zhang, Li-Na; Zhang, Gui-Long

    2012-02-01

    By using systematic conservation planning (SCP) method, and taking catchment as planning unit, an optimization of conservation network system for the inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region was conducted, with a comprehensive consideration of 3-dimensional (lateral, longitudinal and vertical) connectivity and Inter-basin Water Transfer Project and by the methods of irreplaceability analysis and gap identification. The efficacy of the optimized conservation network system was evaluated, as compared with the existing conservation network system. According to the principles of irreplaceability and connectivity, the wetland conservation gaps could be divided into two types, i.e. , be conserved in priority and in general. After the optimization, the conservation status of the inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region had an overall improvement. The conserved percentage of the wetland types was from about 20% up to 46.8%, and, for each wetland type, its conserved level increased to some extent, almost above 40%. Both in the near future and in the long term, more attention should be paid to the conservation of lake wetland. In addition, the integration of ecosystem service function and biodiversity and the combination of protection with restoration would be the main task for the wetland ecosystem conservation planning in the future.

  7. Preparation of malaria resurgence in China: case study of vivax malaria re-emergence and outbreak in Huang-Huai Plain in 2006.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shao-Sen; Xu, Bian-Li; Li, Wei-Dong; Tang, Ji-Hai; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Huang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the patterns of malaria re-emergence and outbreak that occurred in the Huang-Huai Plain of China in 2006, and the way of quick response to curtail the outbreak by mass drug administration and case management. The contribution of the each intervention in quick response is discussed. Particularly due to the special ecological characteristics in the Huang-Huai Plain, the intervention of vector control is not implemented. Finally, the challenges in the elimination of malaria in this region are highlighted.

  8. On Hilbert-Huang Transform Based Synthesis of a Signal Contaminated by Radio Frequency Interference or Fringes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Shiri, Ron S.; Vootukuru, Meg; Coletti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Norden E. Huang et al. had proposed and published the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) concept correspondently in 1996, 1998. The HHT is a novel method for adaptive spectral analysis of non-linear and non-stationary signals. The HHT comprises two components: - the Huang Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), resulting in an adaptive data-derived basis of Intrinsic Mode functions (IMFs), and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA1) based on the Hilbert Transform for 1-dimension (1D) applied to the EMD IMF's outcome. Although paper describes the HHT concept in great depth, it does not contain all needed methodology to implement the HHT computer code. In 2004, Semion Kizhner and Karin Blank implemented the reference digital HHT real-time data processing system for 1D (HHT-DPS Version 1.4). The case for 2-Dimension (2D) (HHT2) proved to be difficult due to the computational complexity of EMD for 2D (EMD2) and absence of a suitable Hilbert Transform for 2D spectral analysis (HSA2). The real-time EMD2 and HSA2 comprise the real-time HHT2. Kizhner completed the real-time EMD2 and the HSA2 reference digital implementations respectively in 2013 & 2014. Still, the HHT2 outcome synthesis remains an active research area. This paper presents the initial concepts and preliminary results of HHT2-based synthesis and its application to processing of signals contaminated by Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI), as well as optical systems' fringe detection and mitigation at design stage. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP mission (SMAP) carries a radiometer instrument that measures Earth soil moisture at L1 frequency (1.4 GHz polarimetric - H, V, 3rd and 4th Stokes parameters). There is abundant RFI at L1 and because soil moisture is a strategic parameter, it is important to be able to recover the RFI-contaminated measurement samples (15% of telemetry). State-of-the-art only allows RFI detection and removes RFI-contaminated measurements. The HHT-based analysis and synthesis facilitates

  9. Automated Flaw Detection Scheme For Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Specimens Using Hilbert Huang Transform Of Ultrasonic Phased Array Data

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize the flaws using NDE ultrasonic data. Data was collected using cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) weld specimens on-loan from the U.S. nuclear power industry’s Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cast (SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection signals in the weld and heat affected zone of the base materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  10. [Realization of Heart Sound Envelope Extraction Implemented on LabVIEW Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Deping; Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    We proposed a research of a heart sound envelope extraction system in this paper. The system was implemented on LabVIEW based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). We firstly used the sound card to collect the heart sound, and then implemented the complete system program of signal acquisition, pretreatment and envelope extraction on LabVIEW based on the theory of HHT. Finally, we used a case to prove that the system could collect heart sound, preprocess and extract the envelope easily. The system was better to retain and show the characteristics of heart sound envelope, and its program and methods were important to other researches, such as those on the vibration and voice, etc.

  11. Using Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to Extract Infrasound Generated by the 2013 Lushan Earthquake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Xu, Q.; Liu, H. X.

    2017-03-01

    We applied the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method to extract the infrasound generated by the 2013 Lushan earthquake and its following aftershocks in China from a nearly continuous infrasound recode made 130 km from the earthquake epicenter. An improved STA/LTA algorithm was adopted for detecting the ambient infrasonic events from the data record. A powerful processing technique for non-stationary signal, the HHT, was applied to extract the significant intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the infrasonic signal associated with the earthquakes. The features of the extracted IMFs, such as the dominant frequency, the maximum amplitude and the spectral entropy, were investigated using Hilbert spectral analysis. Regression analysis between the maximum amplitude in the infrasound spectra and the magnitudes of the earthquakes was carried out to verify the source of the infrasound events detected. The results demonstrated that the HHT method could successfully identify the infrasound related to the earthquakes.

  12. Cubic spline interpolation with overlapped window and data reuse for on-line Hilbert Huang transform biomedical microprocessor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nai-Fu; Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2011-01-01

    On-chip implementation of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) has great impact to analyze the non-linear and non-stationary biomedical signals on wearable or implantable sensors for the real-time applications. Cubic spline interpolation (CSI) consumes the most computation in HHT, and is the key component for the HHT processor. In tradition, CSI in HHT is usually performed after the collection of a large window of signals, and the long latency violates the realtime requirement of the applications. In this work, we propose to keep processing the incoming signals on-line with small and overlapped data windows without sacrificing the interpolation accuracy. 58% multiplication and 73% division of CSI are saved after the data reuse between the data windows.

  13. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-05

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge.

  14. Impact of land-use induced changes on agricultural productivity in the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gui; Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhan; Chu, Xi; Li, Zhihui

    The water resource allocation is greatly influenced by the land use, agricultural productivity and farmers' income. Therefore analyzing the impacts of land use changes on agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farmer's income is an important basis of the further study on the management mechanism and optimal water resource allocation. Taking the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin as the study area, this study examined the impacts of conversion from cultivated land to built-up land from 2000-2005 and 2005-2008. Then the agricultural productivity was estimated with the Estimation System for Agricultural Productivity model, and the changes in agricultural productivity caused by land conversion were analyzed. Thereafter, Simultaneous Equations Model was used to analyze the impacts of the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land on the agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farmer's income. The results showed that: (1) The agricultural productivity was stable during the whole period, reaching about 2.84 ton/ha, 3.09 ton/ha and 2.80 ton/ha on average in 2000, 2005 and 2008, respectively, but the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land had important influence on the spatial pattern of agricultural productivity. (2) The land productivity, total power of agricultural machinery and the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land had an overall positive effect on the agricultural productivity. (3) The agricultural productivity and gross domestic product had positive influence on the farmers' income, while the cultivated land area per capita and percentage of farming employee had negative influence, indicating that the farmer's income was mainly contributed by non-agricultural income. These results in this study showed that optimal land use management can play an important role in promoting virtuous ecosystem cycle and sustainable socioeconomic development, which can also lay an important foundation for further research on the optimal

  15. II. Comment on “Critique and correction of the currently accepted solution of the infinite spherical well in quantum mechanics” by Huang Young-Sea and Thomann Hans-Rudolph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, Antonio; Plata, Carlos A.

    2016-12-01

    We comment on the paper "Critique and correction of the currently accepted solution of the infinite spherical well in quantum mechanics" by Huang Young-Sea and Thomann Hans-Rudolph, EPL 115, 60001 (2016) .

  16. The Three-Herb Formula Shuang-Huang-Lian stabilizes mast cells through activation of mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Hou, Rui; Fei, Qiaoling; Fang, Lei; Han, Yixin; Cai, Runlan; Peng, Cheng; Qi, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are key effector cells of IgE-FcεRI- or MrgprX2-mediated signaling event. Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL), a herbal formula from Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been clinically used in type I hypersensitivity. Our previous study demonstrated that SHL exerted a non-negligible effect on MC stabilization. Herein, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the prominent anti-allergic ability of SHL. MrgprX2- and IgE-FcεRI-mediated MC activation in vitro and in vivo models were developed by using compound 48/80 (C48/80) and shrimp tropomyosin (ST), respectively. Our data showed that SHL markedly dampened C48/80- or ST-induced MC degranulation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic study indicated that cytosolic Ca2+ (Ca2+[c]) level decreased rapidly and sustainably after SHL treatment, and then returned to homeostasis when SHL was withdrawn. Moreover, SHL decreases Ca2+[c] levels mainly through enhancing the mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca2+[m]) uptake. After genetically silencing or pharmacologic inhibiting mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), the effect of SHL on the Ca2+[c] level and MC degranulation was significantly weakened. Simultaneously, the activation of SHL on Ca2+[m] uptake was completely lost. Collectively, by activating MCU, SHL decreases Ca2+[c] level to stabilize MCs, thus exerting a remarkable anti-allergic activity, which could have considerable influences on clinical practice and research. PMID:28045016

  17. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-15

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  18. Time-frequency spectral analysis of TMS-evoked EEG oscillations by means of Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Pigorini, Andrea; Casali, Adenauer G; Casarotto, Silvia; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Mariotti, Maurizio; Massimini, Marcello; Rosanova, Mario

    2011-06-15

    A single pulse of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) generates electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations that are thought to reflect intrinsic properties of the stimulated cortical area and its fast interactions with other cortical areas. Thus, a tool to decompose TMS-evoked oscillations in the time-frequency domain on a millisecond timescale and on a broadband frequency range may help to understand information transfer across cortical oscillators. Some recent studies have employed algorithms based on the Wavelet Transform (WT) to study TMS-evoked EEG oscillations in healthy and pathological conditions. However, these methods do not allow to describe TMS-evoked EEG oscillations with high resolution in time and frequency domains simultaneously. Here, we first develop an algorithm based on Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to compute statistically significant time-frequency spectra of TMS-evoked EEG oscillations on a single trial basis. Then, we compared the performances of the HHT-based algorithm with the WT-based one by applying both of them to a set of simulated signals. Finally, we applied both algorithms to real TMS-evoked potentials recorded in healthy or schizophrenic subjects. We found that the HHT-based algorithm outperforms the WT-based one in detecting the time onset of TMS-evoked oscillations in the classical EEG bands. These results suggest that the HHT-based algorithm may be used to study the communication between different cortical oscillators on a fine time scale.

  19. The response of local power grid at low-latitude to geomagnetic storm: An application of the Hilbert Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Chuan-Bing; Liu, Lu; Sun, Wei-Huai

    2016-04-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is an adaptive data analysis method that can accommodate the variety of data generated by nonlinear and nonstationary processes in nature. In this paper, we focus on the small geomagnetically induced current (GIC) at the local substations in low-latitude power grid of China, responding to a moderate storm on 14-18 July 2012. The HHT is applied to analyze the neutral point currents (NPCs) of transformers measured at different substations, and the GIC indices converted from local geomagnetic field measurements. The original data are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition. After removal of the quasi-diurnal components related with the solar quiet variation, the IMFs representing storm disturbances are transformed into Hilbert energy spectra. The results show that some transformers have more or less responses to the moderate storm in the form of Hilbert energy spectra with the frequency around 2-3 mHz. A comparison on the amplitude changes of the spectra total energy of NPCs' perturbation during storm time intervals at different sites suggests that a shell type of three-phase single transformer group seems to be more vulnerable in the storm. Although the low-latitude power grids usually show very small GIC, these can be used to investigate the potential risk of space weather to the system.

  20. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  1. Mechanism underlying the bio-effects of an electromagnetic field based on the Huang-Ferrell model.

    PubMed

    Geng, D Y; Hu, G; Wang, L; Jia, N; Wang, F X

    2016-06-27

    To understand the beneficial and harmful bio-effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, we studied the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway based on the Huang-Ferrell model. The sensitivity analysis method was used to study the influence of the model parameters on the activity of ERK, and to further investigate the key biochemical reactions and proteins. The results of the simulation show that an increase in the reaction rate of MAPK/ERK kinase had little effect on ERK activation and the steady-state molecular number. However, a decrease in the reaction rate of MAPK/ERK kinase significantly affected the trigger time of ERK activation and decreased the steady-state molecular number. Together with the biological significance of ERK activity, our findings indicate that the effects of electromagnetic fields are a result of the decrease in the reaction rate of MAPK/ERK kinase, which eventually determines whether these effects cause physical damage or are beneficial in treatment.

  2. Characterization of gear faults in variable rotating speed using Hilbert-Huang Transform and instantaneous dimensionless frequency normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Wang, C. C.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the instantaneous dimensionless frequency (DLF) normalization and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to characterize the different gear faults in case of variable rotating speed. The normalized DLF of the vibration signals are calculated based on the rotating speed of shaft and the instantaneous frequencies of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) which are decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) process. The faulty gear features on DLF-energy distribution of vibration signal can be extracted without the presence of shaft rotating speed, so that the proposed approach can be applied for characterizing the malfunctions of gearbox system under variable shaft rotating speed. A test rig of gear transmission system is performed to illustrate the gear faults, including worn tooth, broken tooth and gear unbalance. Different methods to determine the instantaneous frequency are employed to verify the consistence of characterization results. The DLF-energy distributions of vibration signals are investigated in different faulty gear conditions. The analysis results demonstrate the capability and effectiveness of the proposed approach for characterizing the gear malfunctions at the DLFs corresponding to the meshing frequency as well as the shaft rotating frequency. The support vector machine (SVM) is then employed to classify the vibration patterns of gear transmission system at different malfunctions. Using the energy distribution at the characteristic DLFs as the features, the different fault types of gear can be identified by SVM with high accuracy.

  3. Feature Extraction and Classification of EHG between Pregnancy and Labour Group Using Hilbert-Huang Transform and Extreme Learning Machine

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yaru

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity, which results in significant health and economic problems. The early detection of PTB has great significance for its prevention. The electrohysterogram (EHG) related to uterine contraction is a noninvasive, real-time, and automatic novel technology which can be used to detect, diagnose, or predict PTB. This paper presents a method for feature extraction and classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group, based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and extreme learning machine (ELM). For each sample, each channel was decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Then, the Hilbert transform was applied to IMF to obtain analytic function. The maximum amplitude of analytic function was extracted as feature. The identification model was constructed based on ELM. Experimental results reveal that the best classification performance of the proposed method can reach an accuracy of 88.00%, a sensitivity of 91.30%, and a specificity of 85.19%. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 0.88. Finally, experimental results indicate that the method developed in this work could be effective in the classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group. PMID:28316639

  4. Feature Extraction and Classification of EHG between Pregnancy and Labour Group Using Hilbert-Huang Transform and Extreme Learning Machine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Hao, Yaru

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity, which results in significant health and economic problems. The early detection of PTB has great significance for its prevention. The electrohysterogram (EHG) related to uterine contraction is a noninvasive, real-time, and automatic novel technology which can be used to detect, diagnose, or predict PTB. This paper presents a method for feature extraction and classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group, based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and extreme learning machine (ELM). For each sample, each channel was decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Then, the Hilbert transform was applied to IMF to obtain analytic function. The maximum amplitude of analytic function was extracted as feature. The identification model was constructed based on ELM. Experimental results reveal that the best classification performance of the proposed method can reach an accuracy of 88.00%, a sensitivity of 91.30%, and a specificity of 85.19%. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 0.88. Finally, experimental results indicate that the method developed in this work could be effective in the classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group.

  5. Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formulation (Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) on the Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Limopasmanee, Wirin; Chansakaow, Sunee; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    A combination of soy isoflavones and Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW) is potentially effective for postmenopausal women with intolerable vasomotor episodes who are not suitable candidates for hormonal therapy. The objective of this open-label, three-phase, crossover study was to determine the influence of both single and multiple oral doses of LWDHW on isoflavone pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women. Eleven subjects were assigned to receive the following regimens in a fixed sequence with washout periods of at least one week: Phase A, a single oral dose of soy milk; Phase B, a single oral dose of soy milk coadministered with LWDHW; and Phase C, multiple oral doses of LWDHW for 14 days followed by a single oral dose of soy milk. Blood samples were collected and mixed with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze isoflavone conjugates to their respective aglycones (i.e., daidzein and genistein) and were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t1/2). The results found no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein among the three regimens. PMID:26146635

  6. Tracking the evolution of quasi-periodic oscillation in RE J1034+396 using the Hilbert-Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2014-06-10

    RE J1034+396, a narrow-line Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN), is the first example of AGNs that exhibited a nearly coherent quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) for the data collected by XMM-Newton in 2007. The spectral behaviors and timing properties of the QPO have been studied since its discovery. We present an analysis of the QPO in RE J1034+396 based on the Hilbert-Huang transform. Comparing with other time-frequency analysis methods, the Hilbert spectrum reveals the variation of the QPO period in great detail. Furthermore, the empirical mode decomposition provides bandpass-filtered data that can be used in the O – C and correlation analysis. We suggest that it is better to divide the evolution of the QPO in this observation into three epochs according to their different periodicities. In addition to the periodicities, the correlations between the QPO periods and corresponding mean count rates are also different in these three epochs. Further examining the phase lags in these epochs, we found no significant phase lags between the soft and hard X-ray bands, which is also confirmed in the QPO phase-resolved spectral analysis. Finally, we discuss the indications of current models including a spotted accretion disk, diskoseismology, and oscillation of shock according to the observed time-frequency and spectral behaviors.

  7. [Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Huan-Chao; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Cong-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i. e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  8. Huang Qi Jian Zhong Pellet Attenuates TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats via Mechanisms Involving Improvement of Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Duan-Yong; Pan, Chun-Shui; Liu, Yu-Ying; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Chang-Man; Sun, Kai; He, Ke; Li, Chong; Yan, Li; Fan, Jing-Yu; Wang, Chuan-She; Hibi, Toshifumi; Liu, Hong-Ning; Han, Jing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Huang Qi Jian Zhong Pellet (HQJZ) is a famous Chinese medicine formula for treatment of various gastrointestinal tract diseases. This study investigated the role of HQJZ in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis and its underlying mechanism. Colonic mucosal injury was induced by TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. In the HQJZ treatment group, HQJZ was administered (2 g/kg) for 14 days starting from day 1 after TNBS infusion. Colonic mucosal injury occurred obviously 1 day after TNBS challenge and did not recover distinctively until day 15, including an increase in macro- and microscopic scores, a colonic weight index, a decrease in colonic length, a number of functional capillaries, and blood flow. Inverted intravital microscopy and ELISA showed colonic microcirculatory disturbances and inflammatory responses after TNBS stimulation, respectively. TNBS decreased occludin, RhoA, and ROCK-I, while increasing Rac-1, PAK-1, and phosphorylated myosin light chain. In addition, ATP content and ATP5D expression in colonic mucosa decreased after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with HQJZ significantly attenuated all of the alterations evoked by TNBS, promoting the recovery of colonic injury. The present study demonstrated HQJZ as a multitargeting management for colonic mucosal injury, which set in motion mechanisms involving improvement of energy metabolism.

  9. A new approach to early diagnosis of congestive heart failure disease by using Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Altan, Gokhan; Kutlu, Yakup; Allahverdi, Novruz

    2016-12-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a degree of cardiac disease occurring as a result of the heart's inability to pump enough blood for the human body. In recent studies, coronary artery disease (CAD) is accepted as the most important cause of CHF. This study focuses on the diagnosis of both the CHF and the CAD. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), which is effective on non-linear and non-stationary signals, is used to extract the features from R-R intervals obtained from the raw electrocardiogram data. The statistical features are extracted from instinct mode functions that are obtained applying the HHT to R-R intervals. Classification performance is examined with extracted statistical features using a multilayer perceptron neural network. The designed model classified the CHF, the CAD patients and a normal control group with rates of 97.83%, 93.79% and 100%, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Also, early diagnosis of the CHF was performed by interpretation of the CAD with a classification accuracy rate of 97.53%, specificity of 98.18% and sensitivity of 97.13%. As a result, a single system having the ability of both diagnosis and early diagnosis of CHF is performed by integrating the CAD diagnosis method to the CHF diagnosis method.

  10. Climate change impacts on agriculture and soil carbon sequestration potential in the Huang-Hai Plain of China

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; He, Xiaoxia

    2006-03-01

    The Huang-Hai Plain in northeast China has been cultivated for thousands of years and is the most productive wheat growing region in the country. Its agricultural future will be determined in large part by how global climatic changes affect regional conditions and by the actions China takes to mitigate or adapt to climate change impacts. One potential mitigation strategy is to promote soil carbon (C) sequestration, which would improve soil quality while simultaneously contributing to the mitigation of climate change. The IPCC estimates that 40 Pg of C could be sequestered in cropland soils worldwide over the next century. Here we assess the potential for soil C sequestration with conversion of a conventional till (CT) continuous wheat system to a wheat-corn double cropping system and by implementing no till (NT) management for both continuous wheat and wheat-corn systems. To assess the influence of these management changes under a changing climate, we use two climate change scenarios at two time periods in the EPIC agro-ecosystem simulation model. The applied climate change scenarios are from the HadCM3 Global Climate Model for the time periods 2015-2045 and 2070-2099. The HadCM3 model projects that both temperature and precipitation will increase throughout the next century with increases of greater than 5 °C and up to 300 mm possible by 2099. An increase in the variability of temperature is also projected and is, accordingly, applied in the simulations. The EPIC model indicates that winter wheat yields would increase on average by 0.2 Mg ha-1 in the 2030 period and by 0.8 Mg ha-1 in the 2085 period due largely to the warmer nighttime temperatures and higher precipitation projected by the HadCM3 model. Simulated yields were not significantly affected by imposed changes in crop management. Simulated soil organic C content was higher under both NT management and double cropping than under CT continuous wheat. Soil C sequestration rates for continuous wheat systems

  11. Rapid HPLC Quantification Approach for Detection of Active Constituents in Modern Combinatorial Formula, San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Liou, Jing-Ru; Lo, I-Wen; Chung, Tang-Chia; Lee, Li-Yao; Chi, Chun-Chen; Du, Ying-Chi; Wong, Man-Hon; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Lee, Chun-Chen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, is comprised by three herbal medicines, the rhizome of Rheum officinale [or Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae) (Dahuang in Chinese)], the root of Scutellaria baicalensis (Labiatae) (Huangqin in Chinese), and the rhizome of Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae) (Huanglian in Chinese) in the ratios of 2:1:1 or 1:1:1. This study is aimed to quantitate and qualify of SHXXT, by a rapid, convenient, and effective HPLC-PDA approach associated with LC-MS technique. Of which method, nine chosen major bioactive components in SHXXT, including aloe-emodin (Ale), baicalin (Ba), berberine (Be), coptisine (Co), palmatine (Pa), resveratroloside (Res), rhein (Rh), sennoside A (Se-A), and wogonin (Wo), were evaluated within 30 min. The nine chemical markers were monitored in a high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.01−0.55 μg/mL and the correlation coefficient of the regression curve revealed a good linearity with R2 > 0.99. Moreover, the extraction solution system and the HPLC elution conditions were also optimized in the present study. This present developed protocol was then successfully applied to quantify nine chemical markers of 10 SHXXT products from eight Taiwanese TCM pharmaceutical companies. In quantitative results, Res was found as the major compound in SHXXT-1~5 and 8 with significantly higher amounts than those in other products, indicating the products SHXXT-1~5 and 8 may use R. tanguticum as the raw material, which possessed a higher concentration of the bioactive composition Res, instead of R. officinale. Simultaneously, Ale, Rh, and Wo were < 2% in these 10 products. Different chemical profiles of commercial products indicated that, probably, each product with the same named formula might be regarded as a sole medicine and need to be investigated individually. Importantly, it is never too much to emphasize the importance of quality control in TCM development. PMID

  12. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500–800 and a m range of 50–300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy

  13. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-11-03

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500-800 and a m range of 50-300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy and a

  14. Assessment of arterial distension based on continuous wave Doppler ultrasound with an improved Hilbert-Huang processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Su, Nafeng; Li, Zhiyao; Gou, Zhengpin; Chen, Qiuying; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach based on continuous wave (CW) Doppler ultrasound and the Hilbert-Huang transform with end-effect restraint by mirror extending is proposed to assess arterial distension. In the approach, bidirectional Doppler signals were first separated using the phasing-filter technique from the mixed quadrature Doppler signals, which were produced by bidirectional blood and vessel wall movements. Each separated unidirectional signal was decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the empirical mode decomposition with end effect restraint by mirror extending algorithm, and then the relevant IMFs that contribute to the vessel wall components were identified. Finally, the displacement waveforms of the vessel wall were calculated by integrating its moving velocity waveforms, which were extracted from the bidirectional Hilbert spectrum estimated from the identified wall IMFs. This approach was applied to simulated and clinical Doppler signals from normal common carotid arteries (CCAs). In the simulation study, the estimated wall moving velocity and displacement waveforms were compared with the theoretical ones, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of the root-mean-square errors between the estimated and theoretical wall distension of the 30 realizations was 4.2 +/- 0.4 microm. In the clinical study, peak-to-peak distension was extracted in a subject and then averaged over 15 cardiac cycles, resulting in 603 +/- 22 microm. The mean and standard deviation of the CCA distension averaged over the experimental measurements of 12 healthy subjects gave the result of 620 +/- 154 microm. The clinical results were in agreement with those measured by using the multigate Doppler ultrasound and echo tracking systems. The results show that based on the CW Doppler ultrasound, the proposed approach is practical for extracting arterial wall peak-to-peak distension correctly and could be an alternative method for the vessel wall distension estimation.

  15. Plasma Metabolomic Profiling to Reveal Antipyretic Mechanism of Shuang-Huang-Lian Injection on Yeast-Induced Pyrexia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Long; Liu, Haiyu; Zhang, Li; Bai, Xu; Wang, Yingxin; Li, Jian; Cai, Chengke

    2014-01-01

    Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1) 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2) leucine, 3) 16∶0 LPC, 4) allocholic acid, 5) vitamin B2, 6) Cys-Lys-His, 7) 18∶2 LPC, and 8) 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1) valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2) glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3) ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4) bile acid biosynthesis, and 5) riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug. PMID:24940599

  16. Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Method with Multi-Features Extracted from Hilbert-Huang Transform

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huile; Liu, Jinyi; Hu, Haibo; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Wearable sensors-based human activity recognition introduces many useful applications and services in health care, rehabilitation training, elderly monitoring and many other areas of human interaction. Existing works in this field mainly focus on recognizing activities by using traditional features extracted from Fourier transform (FT) or wavelet transform (WT). However, these signal processing approaches are suitable for a linear signal but not for a nonlinear signal. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for dealing with activity data with properties such as nonlinearity and non-stationarity. A multi-features extraction method based on HHT is then proposed to improve the effect of activity recognition. The extracted multi-features include instantaneous amplitude (IA) and instantaneous frequency (IF) by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), as well as instantaneous energy density (IE) and marginal spectrum (MS) derived from Hilbert spectral analysis. Experimental studies are performed to verify the proposed approach by using the PAMAP2 dataset from the University of California, Irvine for wearable sensors-based activity recognition. Moreover, the effect of combining multi-features vs. a single-feature are investigated and discussed in the scenario of a dependent subject. The experimental results show that multi-features combination can further improve the performance measures. Finally, we test the effect of multi-features combination in the scenario of an independent subject. Our experimental results show that we achieve four performance indexes: recall, precision, F-measure, and accuracy to 0.9337, 0.9417, 0.9353, and 0.9377 respectively, which are all better than the achievements of related works. PMID:27918414

  17. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Shuang-Huang-Lian oral liquid using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and HPLC-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Bo; Yue, Rui-Qi; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chau, Siu-Leung; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao; Han, Quan-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Shuang-Huang-Lian oral liquid (SHL) is a well-known Chinese patent drug containing three herbal medicines: Radix Scutellariae, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Fructus Forsythiae. It is usually used to treat acute upper respiratory tract infection caused by virus or bacteria. Although the licensing of botanical drug Veregen approved by FDA has indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines, quantitative evaluation of a Chinese patent drug like SHL remains a challenge due to the complex chemical profile. In this study, 15 small molecular components of SHL (four flavonoids, six quinic acid derivatives, three saponins and two phenylethanoid glycosides) were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The contents of the three major saccharides, namely fructose, glucose and sucrose were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amino column (HPLC-ELSD). The macromolecules were quantified by precipitating in 80% ethanol, drying the precipitate, and then weighing. The established methods were validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to analyze 12 batches of commercial products of SHL produced by four different manufacturers. The results indicated that 57.52-78.11% (w/w) of SHL could be quantitatively determined (non-saccharide small molecules: 1.77-3.75%, monosaccharides: 0.93-20.93%, macromolecules: 2.63-5.76% and sucrose: 49.20-65.94%). This study may provide a useful way to comprehensively evaluate the quality of SHL.

  18. CHARACTERIZING INTERMITTENCY OF 4-Hz QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION IN XTE J1550–564 USING HILBERT–HUANG TRANSFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2015-12-10

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550–564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550–564. By adaptively decomposing the ∼4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ∼4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense–Thirring precession model.

  19. Characterizing Intermittency of 4-Hz Quasi-periodic Oscillation in XTE J1550-564 Using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang

    2015-12-01

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550-564. By adaptively decomposing the ˜4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ˜4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense-Thirring precession model.

  20. Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Method with Multi-Features Extracted from Hilbert-Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huile; Liu, Jinyi; Hu, Haibo; Zhang, Yi

    2016-12-02

    Wearable sensors-based human activity recognition introduces many useful applications and services in health care, rehabilitation training, elderly monitoring and many other areas of human interaction. Existing works in this field mainly focus on recognizing activities by using traditional features extracted from Fourier transform (FT) or wavelet transform (WT). However, these signal processing approaches are suitable for a linear signal but not for a nonlinear signal. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for dealing with activity data with properties such as nonlinearity and non-stationarity. A multi-features extraction method based on HHT is then proposed to improve the effect of activity recognition. The extracted multi-features include instantaneous amplitude (IA) and instantaneous frequency (IF) by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), as well as instantaneous energy density (IE) and marginal spectrum (MS) derived from Hilbert spectral analysis. Experimental studies are performed to verify the proposed approach by using the PAMAP2 dataset from the University of California, Irvine for wearable sensors-based activity recognition. Moreover, the effect of combining multi-features vs. a single-feature are investigated and discussed in the scenario of a dependent subject. The experimental results show that multi-features combination can further improve the performance measures. Finally, we test the effect of multi-features combination in the scenario of an independent subject. Our experimental results show that we achieve four performance indexes: recall, precision, F-measure, and accuracy to 0.9337, 0.9417, 0.9353, and 0.9377 respectively, which are all better than the achievements of related works.

  1. Quantifying Tidal Flat Areal Change of Yellow River (Huang He) Delta in China using SAR Intensity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.

    2010-12-01

    Coast areas are highly dynamic units, and are ecologically and economically significant. However, particularly in Asia, delta systems, which characterize Asian coastal features, are increasingly being degraded and destroyed by human activities and by global warming. A variety of remote sensing systems can be used to monitor morphological changes in coastal areas as it has wide spatial coverage and high temporal repeatability. The Yellow River, Huang He, Delta in China is one of the fastest changing coasts on the Earth's surface. These drastic changes were caused by a number of factors, including heavy sediment loads, recent water demands, and frequent river course changes. In this paper, JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data acquired during 1992 and 1997, a minimum temporal interval of 44 days, are used for monitoring of land cover changes in the Yellow River delta. Raw SAR data are processed, coregistered and geocoded, to make SAR backscatter intensity images. Radar backscatter intensity depends on various factors, including the physical properties of the surface, primarily its surface roughness and its dielectric constant. Dielectric constant of the soil, which depends primarily on the soil moisture content, and the target area are wet, boggy, and sometimes under water. Therefore, the image intensity mainly depends on the roughness of the surface. A binary image having only two intensity levels (black and white, where black represents smooth area, tidal flats in this case) was created from each SAR backscatter intensity image by choosing a threshold level using the Otsu method. A series of binary image of JERS-1 data demonstrates the ability to monitor tidal flat area quantitatively. Tidal flat area increased until 1995, and then eroded between 1995 and 1997. In May 1996, a new channel was cut near the tip of the delta, with the result that tidal flat area again increased. This area change is well correlated with annual

  2. Spatial correlation between malaria cases and water-bodies in Anopheles sinensis dominated areas of Huang-Huai plain, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria re-emerged in the Huang-Huai Plain of central China during 2006–2008, dominated with Anopheles sinensis as a vector. However, there is no information on strategies based on multi-factor analysis to effectively control the re-emergence of malaria in these areas. Previous experience indicates some relationship between the distribution of water bodies and malaria cases, but more detailed data are not available and in-depth studies have not been conducted up to now. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between the distribution of water bodies and presentation of malaria cases using spatial analysis tools in order to provide guidance to help formulate effective strategies for use in controlling the sources of malaria infection, based on the identification of risk areas and population. Methods The geographic information of malaria cases and their surrounding water bodies were collected from Suixi, Guoyang, Guzhen, Yingshang, Fengyang and Yongqiao County in Anhui province, Yongcheng and Tongbai County in Henan province. All malaria cases distributed in 113 villages in these 8 counties were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and confirmed by household investigation. Data on GIS and malaria cases were mapped and analyzed with the software of ArcGIS 9.2 to identify the spatial correlation between malaria cases and water bodies. The distance from households with malaria cases to the nearest water bodies was used to calculate the OR value by Chi-square test. The risk area was identified through the comparison of OR values in different distances. Results 357 malaria cases and their GPS data as well as surrounding water bodies were collected and analyzed. 74% of malaria cases were located within the extent of 60 m proximity to the water bodies. The risk rate of people living there and presenting with malaria was significantly higher than others (OR = 1.6,95%CI (1.042, 2.463),P < 0

  3. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis on Inflammation Rat Model after Oral Administration of Huang Lian Jie Du Decoction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Wang, Hong-Jie; Yang, Jian; Xin, Shao-Kun; Han, Ling-Yu; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Han, Shu-Yan; Gao, Bo; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Bian, Bao-Lin; Si, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR) of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs) in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax) and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HLJDD may

  4. Automated flaw detection scheme for cast austenitic stainless steel weld specimens using Hilbert-Huang transform of ultrasonic phased array data

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Tariq; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, Lalita; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan; Diaz, Aaron; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-05-17

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize flaws using ultrasonic phased-array data. Data was collected on cast austenitic stainless stell (CASS) weld specimens onloan from the U.S. nuclear power industry' Pressurized Walter Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) traveling specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless stell (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cst(SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection singals from the weld and heat affected zone of the based materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The Accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  5. Automated flaw detection scheme for cast austenitic stainless stell weld specimens using Hilbert-Huang transform of ultrasonic phased array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Tariq; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, Lalita; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan; Diaz, Aaron; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize flaws using ultrasonic phased-array data. Data was collected on cast austenitic stainless stell (CASS) weld specimens onloan from the U.S. nuclear power industry' Pressurized Walter Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) traveling specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless stell (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cst(SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection singals from the weld and heat affected zone of the based materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The Accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  6. Bogoliubov theory and Lee-Huang-Yang corrections in spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of the quadratic Zeeman effect

    SciTech Connect

    Uchino, Shun; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-06-15

    We develop Bogoliubov theory of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a quadratic Zeeman effect, and derive the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) corrections to the ground-state energy, pressure, sound velocity, and quantum depletion. We investigate all the phases of spin-1 and spin-2 BECs that can be realized experimentally. We also examine the stability of each phase against quantum fluctuations and the quadratic Zeeman effect. Furthermore, we discuss a relationship between the number of symmetry generators that are spontaneously broken and that of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes. It is found that in the spin-2 nematic phase there are special Bogoliubov modes that have gapless linear dispersion relations but do not belong to the NG modes.

  7. Dry Matter Production, Photosynthesis of Flag Leaves and Water Use in Winter Wheat Are Affected by Supplemental Irrigation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China.

    PubMed

    Man, Jianguo; Shi, Yu; Yu, Zhenwen; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is threatened by drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China, thus, effective water-saving irrigation practices are urgently required to maintain its high winter wheat production. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine how supplemental irrigation (SI) affected soil moisture, photosynthesis, and dry matter (DM) production of winter wheat by measuring the moisture in 0-20 cm (W2), 0-40 cm (W3), and 0-60 cm (W4) soil profiles. Rainfed (W0) and local SI practice (W1, irrigation with 60 mm each at jointing and anthesis) treatments were designed as controls. The irrigation amount for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. The soil relative water content (SRWC) in 0-40 cm soil profiles at jointing after SI for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. W3 exhibited lower SRWC in 100-140 and 60-140 cm soil profiles at anthesis after SI and at maturity, respectively, but higher root length density in 60-100 cm soil profiles than W1, W2 and W4. Compared with W1, W2 and W4, photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal conductance of flag leaves for W3 were significantly greater during grain filling, particularly at the mid and later stages. The total DM at maturity, DM in grain and leaves, post-anthesis DM accumulation and its contribution to grain and grain filling duration were higher for W3. The 1000-grain weight, grain yield and water use efficiency for W3 were the highest. Therefore, treatment of increasing SRWC in the 0-40 cm soil profiles to 65% and 70% field capacities at jointing and anthesis (W3), respectively, created a suitable soil moisture environment for winter wheat production, which could be considered as a high yield and water-saving treatment in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

  8. Dry Matter Production, Photosynthesis of Flag Leaves and Water Use in Winter Wheat Are Affected by Supplemental Irrigation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Jianguo; Shi, Yu; Yu, Zhenwen; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is threatened by drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China, thus, effective water-saving irrigation practices are urgently required to maintain its high winter wheat production. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine how supplemental irrigation (SI) affected soil moisture, photosynthesis, and dry matter (DM) production of winter wheat by measuring the moisture in 0–20 cm (W2), 0–40 cm (W3), and 0–60 cm (W4) soil profiles. Rainfed (W0) and local SI practice (W1, irrigation with 60 mm each at jointing and anthesis) treatments were designed as controls. The irrigation amount for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. The soil relative water content (SRWC) in 0–40 cm soil profiles at jointing after SI for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. W3 exhibited lower SRWC in 100–140 and 60–140 cm soil profiles at anthesis after SI and at maturity, respectively, but higher root length density in 60–100 cm soil profiles than W1, W2 and W4. Compared with W1, W2 and W4, photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal conductance of flag leaves for W3 were significantly greater during grain filling, particularly at the mid and later stages. The total DM at maturity, DM in grain and leaves, post-anthesis DM accumulation and its contribution to grain and grain filling duration were higher for W3. The 1000-grain weight, grain yield and water use efficiency for W3 were the highest. Therefore, treatment of increasing SRWC in the 0–40 cm soil profiles to 65% and 70% field capacities at jointing and anthesis (W3), respectively, created a suitable soil moisture environment for winter wheat production, which could be considered as a high yield and water-saving treatment in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China. PMID:26335019

  9. Characterization of the chemical constituents in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Chen, Pinghong; Xu, Yimin; Li, Xiaodong; Fan, Xiaohui

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, a traditional Chinese formula, were studied by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry for the first time. Among the 146 compounds detected in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, 104 compounds were identified unambiguously or tentatively based on their accurate molecular weight and multistage MS data, including one potential novel compound and two reported in Glycyrrhiza genus for the first time. The possible fragmentation pathways were proposed and fragmentation rules of the major types of compounds were concluded. This study provided an example to facilitate the tedious identification of chemical composition in traditional Chinese medicine, and maybe a promising reference approach to research the analogous formulae.

  10. Non-Destructive Detection of Wire Rope Discontinuities from Residual Magnetic Field Images Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Compressed Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juwei; Tan, Xiaojiang; Zheng, Pengbo

    2017-03-16

    Electromagnetic methods are commonly employed to detect wire rope discontinuities. However, determining the residual strength of wire rope based on the quantitative recognition of discontinuities remains problematic. We have designed a prototype device based on the residual magnetic field (RMF) of ferromagnetic materials, which overcomes the disadvantages associated with in-service inspections, such as large volume, inconvenient operation, low precision, and poor portability by providing a relatively small and lightweight device with improved detection precision. A novel filtering system consisting of the Hilbert-Huang transform and compressed sensing wavelet filtering is presented. Digital image processing was applied to achieve the localization and segmentation of defect RMF images. The statistical texture and invariant moment characteristics of the defect images were extracted as the input of a radial basis function neural network. Experimental results show that the RMF device can detect defects in various types of wire rope and prolong the service life of test equipment by reducing the friction between the detection device and the wire rope by accommodating a high lift-off distance.

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine Qi Ju Di Huang Wan for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Guoyan; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Li, Jun; Yang, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbs are potentially effective for hypertension. Qi Ju Di Huang Wan (QJDHW) is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine as a monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on the effectiveness and safety of QJDHW for EH. Methods and Findings. CENTRAL, PubMed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of QJDHW for essential hypertension up to January 2013 with no language restrictions. A total of 10 randomized trials involving 1024 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in lowering blood pressure and improving TCM syndrome for the treatment of essential hypertension than antihypertensive drugs used alone. No trials reported severe adverse events related to QJDHW. Conclusions. Our review suggests that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs might be an effective treatment for lowering blood pressure and improving symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the finding should be interpreted with caution because of the poor methodological quality of included trials. There is an urgent need for well-designed, long-term studies to assess the effectiveness of QJDHW in the treatment of essential hypertension. PMID:23878593

  12. Huang-lian-jie-du-tang protects rats from cardiac damages induced by metabolic disorder by improving inflammation-mediated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan Bao; Li, Xiao Xing; Chen, Yu Guo; Gao, Hai Qing; Bu, Pei Li; Zhang, Yun; Ji, Xiao Ping

    2013-01-01

    Huang-lian-jie-du-tang (HLJDT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to improve insulin resistance (IR) induced by inflammation, a key event in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of HLJDT on MS and explore the underlying mechanism. MS rats were established with obese-diets and treated with normal saline, aspirin or HLJDT. The myocardial lesions were identified by echocardiogram, transmission electron microscope, and Sirius-red staining. The inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. The activation of NF-κB, JNK, SOCS3, IRS1 and AKT in the heart was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Compared with the controls, MS rats developed obvious obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, IR, inflammation, and cardiac damage. Moreover, phosphorylated IRS-1 at Ser307 was correlated with the activation of NF-κB, JNK and SOCS3 and the inhibition of AKT in the heart from MS rats. These data suggest that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in response to inflammation is mediated, in part, by NF-κB, JNK and SOCS3. Notably, HLJDT inhibited the activation of NF-κB and reduced serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. In summary, HLJDT protects myocardium from IR-mediated injury by inhibiting serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in MS rats.

  13. Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang, a Polyphenol-Rich Chinese Medicine Formula, in Rats and Ex-Vivo Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shia, Chi-Sheng; Hou, Yu-Chi; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hsieh, Pei-Hsun; Ho, Lu-Ching; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2011-01-01

    San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a widely used Chinese herbal formula, consists of rhizomes of Rheum officinale, roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and rhizomes of Coptis chinesis. This study investigated the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of polyphenols in SHXXT, including baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein and chrysophanol. The quantitation methods of SHXXT decoction and rat serum using high performance liquid chromatography were developed and validated in this study. After oral administration of SHXXT decoction to rats, the parent forms of various constituents and their conjugated metabolites in serum were determined before and after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase. The results showed that only free form of rhein can be quantitated, whereas the parent forms of coptisine, palmatine, berberine, baicalein, wogonin, emodin, aloe-emodin and chrysophanol were not detected in serum. The glucuronides of baicalein, wogonin, emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein and chrysophanol were the predominant forms in bloodstream. In order to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant activity of SHXXT, the serum metabolite of SHXXT was prepared, characterized and followed by evaluation of the effect on AAPH-induced hemolysis. The results indicated that metabolites of SHXXT exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity. We suggest that biologists redirect their focus to the bioactivity of the conjugated metabolites of these polyphenols. PMID:19737807

  14. Comparison between Hilbert-Huang transform and scalogram methods on non-stationary biomedical signals: application to laser Doppler flowmetry recordings.

    PubMed

    Roulier, Rémy; Humeau, Anne; Flatley, Thomas P; Abraham, Pierre

    2005-11-07

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application on healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a comparison between two signal processing methods that provide a clarification of this phenomenon. Analyses by the scalogram and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied at different time intervals in order to take into account the dynamics of the phenomenon. The results show that both the scalogram and the HHT methods lead to the same conclusions concerning the comparisons of the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities-during the progressive pressure and at rest-in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the HHT shows more details that may be obscured by the scalogram. Indeed, the non-locally adaptative limitations of the scalogram can remove some definition from the data. These results may improve knowledge on the above-mentioned reflex as well as on non-stationary biomedical signal processing methods.

  15. Vibrational Spectrum of an Excited State and Huang-Rhys Factors by Coherent Wave Packets in Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyeongjin; Kim, Junwoo; Kim, So Young; Kim, Dong Eon; Joo, Taiha

    2017-01-10

    Coherent nuclear wave packet motions in an electronic excited state of a molecule are measured directly by time-resolved spontaneous fluorescence spectroscopy with an unprecedented time resolution by using two-photon absorption excitation and fluorescence upconversion by noncollinear sum frequency generation. With an estimated time resolution of approximately 25 fs, wave packet motions of vibrational modes up to 1600 cm(-1) are recorded for coumarin 153 in ethanol. Two-color transient absorption at 13 fs time resolution are measured to confirm the result. Vibrational displacements between the ground and excited states and Huang-Rhys factors (HRFs) are calculated by quantum mechanical methods and are compared with the experimental results. HRFs calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT reproduce the experiment adequately. This fluorescence-based method provides a unique and direct way to obtain the vibrational spectrum of a molecule in an electronic excited state and the HRFs, as well as the dynamics of excited states, and it might provide information on the structure of an excited state through the HRFs.

  16. Non-Destructive Detection of Wire Rope Discontinuities from Residual Magnetic Field Images Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juwei; Tan, Xiaojiang; Zheng, Pengbo

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic methods are commonly employed to detect wire rope discontinuities. However, determining the residual strength of wire rope based on the quantitative recognition of discontinuities remains problematic. We have designed a prototype device based on the residual magnetic field (RMF) of ferromagnetic materials, which overcomes the disadvantages associated with in-service inspections, such as large volume, inconvenient operation, low precision, and poor portability by providing a relatively small and lightweight device with improved detection precision. A novel filtering system consisting of the Hilbert-Huang transform and compressed sensing wavelet filtering is presented. Digital image processing was applied to achieve the localization and segmentation of defect RMF images. The statistical texture and invariant moment characteristics of the defect images were extracted as the input of a radial basis function neural network. Experimental results show that the RMF device can detect defects in various types of wire rope and prolong the service life of test equipment by reducing the friction between the detection device and the wire rope by accommodating a high lift-off distance. PMID:28300790

  17. Optimization of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction for Ischemic Stroke Treatment and Mechanistic Study by Metabolomic Profiling and Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Junsong; Liao, Shanting; Li, Pei; Xu, Dingqiao; Lv, Yan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2017-01-01

    Optimal drug proportions and mechanism deciphering of multicomponent drugs are critical for developing novel therapies to cope with complex diseases, such as stroke. In the present study, orthogonal experimental design was applied to explore the optimal proportion of the four component herbs in Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction (HLJDD) on the treatment of ischemic stroke. The treatment efficacies and mechanisms were assessed using global and amino acids (AAs) targeted metabolomics, as well as correlation network analysis. The global NMR metabolomics results revealed that AAs metabolism was significantly perturbed in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The levels of 23 endogenous AAs were then subjected to HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis. These results complemented with neurobehavioral evaluations, cerebral infarct assessments, biochemical evaluations, histological inspections and immunohistochemistry observations strongly demonstrated that HLJDD with optimal proportion of 6 (Rhizoma coptidis): 4 (Radix scutellariae): 1 (Cortex phellodendr): 3 (Fructus Gardeniae) had the best efficacy on ischemic stroke, which could be ascribed to its modulation on AA metabolism. This integrated metabolomics approach showed the potential and applicable in deciphering the complex mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine formulae on the treatment of complicated diseases, which provided new means to assess the treatment effects of herb combinations and to further development of drugs or therapies based on these formulae.

  18. Ma Huang Tang Suppresses the Production and Expression of Inflammatory Chemokines via Downregulating STAT1 Phosphorylation in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong-Eun; Lee, Mee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Ma huang tang (MHT) is a traditional herbal medicine comprising six medicinal herbs and is used to treat influenza-like illness. However, the effects of MHT on inflammatory skin diseases have not been verified scientifically. We investigated determining the inhibitory effects of MHT against inflammation responses in skin using HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. We found that MHT suppressed production of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), regulated on activation of normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ- (IFN-γ-) stimulated HaCaT cells. Consistently, MHT suppressed the mRNA expression of TARC, MDC, RANTES, and IL-8 in TNF-α and IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Additionally, MHT inhibited TNF-α and IFN-γ-stimulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner and nuclear translocation in HaCaT cells. Our finding indicates that MHT inhibits production and expression of inflammatory chemokines in the stimulated keratinocytes by downregulating STAT1 phosphorylation, suggesting that MHT may be a possible therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27847527

  19. The components of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction act synergistically to exert protective effects in a rat ischemic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Chao; Liao, Shanting; Li, Pei; Xu, Dingqiao; Lv, Yan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction (HLJDD, Oren-gedoku-to in Japanese) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat ischemic stroke. This study investigated the efficacy of various combinations of the major components of HLJDD, berberine (A), baicalin (B), and jasminoidin (C), on the treatment of ischemic stroke modeled by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. The effects of A, B and C individually and their combinations were investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomics complemented with neurologic deficit scoring, infarct volume measurement, biochemistry, histopathology and immunohistochemistry, as well as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Ischemic stroke produces severe oxidative stress, which induces further damage. Our results show that the ABC combination treatment increased levels of cellular antioxidants that scavenged reactive oxygen species during ischemia-reperfusion via the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling cascade. These protective effects were not observed with the other treatments. These results suggest that a combination of component herbs in HLJDD exhibit stronger effects than the individual herbs alone. Our integrated metabolomics approach also provides a tractable, powerful tool for understanding the science behind TCM formulations. PMID:27779107

  20. Metabolic changes at the early stage of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats and the interventional effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yufen; Gao, Na; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Zu, Xianpeng; Hu, Zhenlin; Zhang, Weidong; Yin, Jun; Liu, Xinru

    2016-07-15

    Sepsis is a disease with high mortality that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. This study used a metabolomic approach to profile the metabolic changes at the early stage of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats and investigated the interventional effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT). Male SD rats were intragastrically administered 270mg/kg HLJDT 2h prior to CLP, serum extracts were profiled by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-Q-TOF-MS) and multivariate analytical (MVA) methods were employed to evaluate the metabolic changes of extracts. A Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plot indicated that septic rats undergo significant metabolic changes 2h after CLP, and HLJDT administration could reverse the metabolic changes induced by CLP. Sixteen biomarkers involved in amino acid metabolism, unsaturated fatty acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and lipid metabolism were identified after Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Analysis (OPLS). Among the 16 metabolites, 10 were regulated by HLJDT. This study established the foundation for further research of the early diagnosis biomarkers and therapeutic evaluation biomarkers discovery of sepsis.

  1. Climatic effects of irrigation over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in China simulated by the weather research and forecasting model: Simulated Irrigation Effects in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ben; Zhang, Yaocun; Qian, Yun; Tang, Jian; Liu, Dongqing

    2016-03-14

    In this study, we apply the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with an operational-like irrigation scheme to investigate the climatic effects of irrigation over the Huang-Huai-Hai plain (3HP) in China. Multiple numerical experiments with irrigation off/on during spring, summer and both spring and summer are conducted, respectively. Our results show that the warm bias in surface temperature and dry bias in soil moisture are reduced over the 3HP region during growing seasons when irrigation is turned on in the model. Air temperature during non-growing seasons is also affected by irrigation due to the persistent effects of soil moisture on land-air energy exchanges and ground heat storage. Irrigation can induce a cooler planetary boundary layer (PBL) during growing seasons, causing a wetter PBL with more low-level clouds during spring but relatively dryer PBL in summer. Further analyses indicate that the dryer summer is highly related to the changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation that is modified by irrigation effect. Spring irrigation may induce a decreased land-ocean thermal contrast, leading to a possible weaker EASM. Summer irrigation, however, evidently cools the atmosphere column and forces a southward shift of the upper-level jet, which results in more precipitation in Yangtze River basin but less over southern and northern China during summer.

  2. Toxicology Evaluation of Realgar-Containing Niu-Huang-Jie-Du Pian as Compared to Arsenicals in Cell Cultures and in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jia-Wei; Liang, Shi-Xia; Wu, Qin; Liu, Jie; Sun, An-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Niu-Huang-Jie-Du Pian (NHJD) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine containing realgar (As4S4). Realgar has been included in many traditional medicines, but is often taken as arsenite for risk assessment. To evaluate true risk of realgar and realgar-containing NHJD, their toxicity was compared with common arsenicals. In cultured cells, the LC50 for NHJD (1200 μM) and realgar (2000 μM) was much higher than arsenite(35 μM), arsenic trioxide (280 μM), and arsenate (400 μM). Acute toxicity in mice showed more severe liver and kidney injury after arsenite or arsenate, but was mild after realgar and NHJD, corresponding to cellular and tissue arsenic accumulation. The expressions of arsenic-sensitive stress gene metallothionein-1 were increased 3–7-folds after arsenite or arsenate, but were unaltered after NHJD and realgar. Thus, realgar and NHJD are much less toxic than arsenite and arsenate. The use of total arsenic to evaluate the safety of realgar and realgar-containing NHJD is inappropriate. PMID:23724280

  3. San Huang Decoction downregulates Aurora kinase A to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and enhance chemosenstivity to anti-tumor drugs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanlei; Chen, Xu; Chen, Xiyan; Bian, Weihe; Yao, Chang; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Chen, Jiajing; Ye, Xiaozhou

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to explore whether San Huang Decoction (SHD) inhibited the development of breast cancer by regulating Aurora A. Human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were cultured and SHD extract was prepared. Cell growth assay and apoptosis analysis were respectively performed to detect the effects of SHD on breast cancer cells. In addition, the effects of SHD on the expression of Aurora A and p53 were determined by RT-PCR and western blot. Besides, we used Aurora A siRNA to knock down Aurora A. We then co-administrated SHD and tamoxifen or epirubicin to detect the effect of SHD on chemosensitivity to tamoxifen or epirubicin. SHD treatment significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SHD treatment resulted in a marked decrease in Aurora A expression and obvious increase in p53 expression. In addition, knockdown of Aurora A induced cell growth inhibition, which was similar to the effect of SHD treatment. Besides, SHD exerted an additive effect on cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction when breast cancer cells were co-administration of SHD with tamoxifen or epirubicin. Our study indicates that SHD treatment may inhibit cell growth and enhance chemosenstivity to other anti-tumor drugs in breast cancer via down-regulation of Aurora A.

  4. Dynamic response of the Trinity River Relief Bridge to controlled pile damage: modeling and experimental data analysis comparing Fourier and Hilbert Huang techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ray Ruichong; King, Robert; Olson, Larry; Xu, You-Lin

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a method for nonlinear, nonstationary data processing, namely the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) in traditional vibration-based approaches to characterizing structural damage and shows the frequency signature of local structural damage in nonstationary vibration recordings. In particular, following the review of traditional approaches to characterizing structural damage from nonstationary vibration recordings, this study first offers the justifications of the HHT as an alternative and complementary data process in addressing the nonstationarity of the vibration. With the use of recordings from controlled field vibration tests of substructures in the Trinity River Relief Bridge in Texas in its intact, minor- and severe-damage pile states, this study then shows that the HHT-based approach can single out some natural frequencies of the structure from a mixed frequency content in recordings that also contain the time-dependent excitation and noise frequencies. Subsequently, this study exposes that the frequency downshift for the damaged pile relative to the undamaged one is an indicative index for the damage extent. The above results are also validated by an ANSYS model-based analysis. Finally, a comprehensive HHT-based characterization of structural damage is discussed, and the potential use for cost-effective, efficient structural damage diagnosis procedures and health-monitoring systems is provided.

  5. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-06-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (‑8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (‑15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups.

  6. San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang Constituents Exert Drug-Drug Interaction of Mutual Reinforcement at Both Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetic Level: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiasi; Hu, Yingfan; Xiang, Li; Li, Sheng; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Wenge; Meng, Xianli; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders underlie varieties of human diseases. San-Huang-Xie-xin-Tang (SHXXT), composed with Rhizoma Rhei (Rheum palmatum L.), Rhizoma Coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch), and Radix Scutellaria (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi), is a famous formula which has been widely used in the fight against inflammatory abnormalities. Mutual reinforcement is one of the basic theories of traditional Chinese medicine. Here this article reviewed and analyzed the recent research on (1) How the main constituents of SHXXT impact on inflammation-associated signaling pathway molecules. (2) The interaction between the main constituents and efflux pumps or intestinal transporters. The goal of this work was to, (1) Provide evidence to support the theory of mutual reinforcement. (2) Clarify the key targets of SHXXT and suggest which targets need further investigation. (3) Give advice for the clinical use of SHXXT to elevated the absorption of main constituents and eventually promote oral bioavailability. We search literatures in scientific databases with key words of "each main SHXXT constituent," in combination with "each main inflammatory pathway target molecule" or each main intestinal transporter, respectively. We report the effect of five main constituents on target molecules which lies in three main inflammatory signaling pathways, we as well investigate the interaction between constituents and intestinal transporter. We conclude, (1) The synergistic effect of constituents at both levels confirm the mutual reinforcement theory of TCM as it is proven in this work. (2) The effect of main constituents on downstream targets in nuclear need more further investigation. (3) Drug elevating the absorption of rhein, berberine and baicalein can be employed to promote oral bioavailability of SHXXT.

  7. San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang Constituents Exert Drug-Drug Interaction of Mutual Reinforcement at Both Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetic Level: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiasi; Hu, Yingfan; Xiang, Li; Li, Sheng; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Wenge; Meng, Xianli; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders underlie varieties of human diseases. San-Huang-Xie-xin-Tang (SHXXT), composed with Rhizoma Rhei (Rheum palmatum L.), Rhizoma Coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch), and Radix Scutellaria (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi), is a famous formula which has been widely used in the fight against inflammatory abnormalities. Mutual reinforcement is one of the basic theories of traditional Chinese medicine. Here this article reviewed and analyzed the recent research on (1) How the main constituents of SHXXT impact on inflammation-associated signaling pathway molecules. (2) The interaction between the main constituents and efflux pumps or intestinal transporters. The goal of this work was to, (1) Provide evidence to support the theory of mutual reinforcement. (2) Clarify the key targets of SHXXT and suggest which targets need further investigation. (3) Give advice for the clinical use of SHXXT to elevated the absorption of main constituents and eventually promote oral bioavailability. We search literatures in scientific databases with key words of “each main SHXXT constituent,” in combination with “each main inflammatory pathway target molecule” or each main intestinal transporter, respectively. We report the effect of five main constituents on target molecules which lies in three main inflammatory signaling pathways, we as well investigate the interaction between constituents and intestinal transporter. We conclude, (1) The synergistic effect of constituents at both levels confirm the mutual reinforcement theory of TCM as it is proven in this work. (2) The effect of main constituents on downstream targets in nuclear need more further investigation. (3) Drug elevating the absorption of rhein, berberine and baicalein can be employed to promote oral bioavailability of SHXXT. PMID:27965575

  8. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (−8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (−15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  9. Lipidomics study of plasma phospholipid metabolism in early type 2 diabetes rats with ancient prescription Huang-Qi-San intervention by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Zhu, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Wei-Min; Rong, Xiang-Lu; Feng, Yi-Fan

    2016-08-25

    Potential impact of lipid research has been increasingly realized both in disease treatment and prevention. An effective metabolomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) along with multivariate statistic analysis has been applied for investigating the dynamic change of plasma phospholipids compositions in early type 2 diabetic rats after the treatment of an ancient prescription of Chinese Medicine Huang-Qi-San. The exported UPLC/Q-TOF-MS data of plasma samples were subjected to SIMCA-P and processed by bioMark, mixOmics, Rcomdr packages with R software. A clear score plots of plasma sample groups, including normal control group (NC), model group (MC), positive medicine control group (Flu) and Huang-Qi-San group (HQS), were achieved by principal-components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Biomarkers were screened out using student T test, principal component regression (PCR), partial least-squares regression (PLS) and important variable method (variable influence on projection, VIP). Structures of metabolites were identified and metabolic pathways were deduced by correlation coefficient. The relationship between compounds was explained by the correlation coefficient diagram, and the metabolic differences between similar compounds were illustrated. Based on KEGG database, the biological significances of identified biomarkers were described. The correlation coefficient was firstly applied to identify the structure and deduce the metabolic pathways of phospholipids metabolites, and the study provided a new methodological cue for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolites in the process of regulating Huang-Qi-San for treating early type 2 diabetes.

  10. Impact of thermal time shift on wheat phenology and yield under warming climate in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Qi, Yongqing; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rende; Moiwo, Juana P.; Liu, Fengshan

    2017-03-01

    Given climate change can potentially influence crop phenology and subsequent yield, an investigation of relevant adaptation measures could increase the understanding and mitigation of these responses in the future. In this study, field observations at 10 stations in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China (HHHP) are used in combination with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model to determine the effect of thermal time shift on the phenology and potential yield of wheat from 1981-2009. Warming climate speeds up winter wheat development and thereby decreases the duration of the wheat growth period. However, APSIM-Wheat model simulation suggests prolongation of the period from flowering to maturity (Gr) of winter wheat by 0.2-0.8 d•10yr-1 as the number of days by which maturity advances, which is less than that by which flowering advances. Based on computed thermal time of the two critical growth phases of wheat, total thermal time from floral initiation to flowering (TT_floral_initiation) increasesd in seven out of the 10 investigated stations. Alternatively, total thermal time from the start of grainfilling to maturity (TT_start_ grain_fill) increased in all investigated stations, except Laiyang. It is thus concluded that thermal time shift during the past three decades (1981-2009) prolongs Gr by 0.2-3.0 d•10yr-1 in the study area. This suggests that an increase in thermal time (TT) of the wheat growth period is critical for mitigating the effect of growth period reduction due to warming climatic condition. Furthermore, climate change reduces potential yield of winter wheat in 80% of the stations by 2.3-58.8 kg•yr-1. However, thermal time shift (TTS) increases potential yield of winter wheat in most of the stations by 3.0-51.0 kg•yr-1. It is concluded that wheat cultivars with longer growth periods and higher thermal requirements could mitigate the negative effects of warming climate on crop production in the study area.

  11. Impact of thermal time shift on wheat phenology and yield under warming climate in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Qi, Yongqing; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rende; Moiwo, Juana P.; Liu, Fengshan

    2016-05-01

    Given climate change can potentially influence crop phenology and subsequent yield, an investigation of relevant adaptation measures could increase the understanding and mitigation of these responses in the future. In this study, field observations at 10 stations in the Huang- Huai-Hai Plain of China (HHHP) are used in combination with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model to determine the effect of thermal time shift on the phenology and potential yield of wheat from 1981-2009.Warming climate speeds up winter wheat development and thereby decreases the duration of the wheat growth period. However, APSIM-Wheat model simulation suggests prolongation of the period from flowering to maturity (Gr) of winter wheat by 0.2-0.8 d•10yr-1 as the number of days by which maturity advances, which is less than that by which flowering advances. Based on computed thermal time of the two critical growth phases of wheat, total thermal time from floral initiation to flowering (TT_floral_initiation) increasesd in seven out of the 10 investigated stations. Alternatively, total thermal time from the start of grainfilling to maturity (TT_start_ grain_fill) increased in all investigated stations, except Laiyang. It is thus concluded that thermal time shift during the past three decades (1981-2009) prolongs Gr by 0.2-3.0 d•10yr-1 in the study area. This suggests that an increase in thermal time (TT) of the wheat growth period is critical for mitigating the effect of growth period reduction due to warming climatic condition. Furthermore, climate change reduces potential yield of winter wheat in 80% of the stations by 2.3-58.8 kg•yr-1. However, thermal time shift (TTS) increases potential yield of winter wheat in most of the stations by 3.0-51.0 kg•yr-1. It is concluded that wheat cultivars with longer growth periods and higher thermal requirements could mitigate the negative effects of warming climate on crop production in the study area.

  12. Hilbert-Huang spectral analysis for characterizing the intrinsic time-scales of variability in decennial time-series of surface solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of the variability of the surface solar irradiance (SSI) at different local time-scales is presented in this study. Since geophysical signals, such as long-term measurements of the SSI, are often produced by the non-linear interaction of deterministic physical processes that may also be under the influence of non-stationary external forcings, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), an adaptive, noise-assisted, data-driven technique, is employed to extract locally - in time and in space - the embedded intrinsic scales at which a signal oscillates. The transform consists of two distinct steps. First, by means of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), the time-series is "de-constructed" into a finite number - often small - of zero-mean components that have distinct temporal scales of variability, termed hereinafter the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The signal model of the components is an amplitude modulation - frequency modulation (AM - FM) one, and can also be thought of as an extension of a Fourier series having both time varying amplitude and frequency. Following the decomposition, Hilbert spectral analysis is then employed on the IMFs, yielding a time-frequency-energy representation that portrays changes in the spectral contents of the original data, with respect to time. As measurements of surface solar irradiance may possibly be contaminated by the manifestation of different type of stochastic processes (i.e. noise), the identification of real, physical processes from this background of random fluctuations is of interest. To this end, an adaptive background noise null hypothesis is assumed, based on the robust statistical properties of the EMD when applied to time-series of different classes of noise (e.g. white, red or fractional Gaussian). Since the algorithm acts as an efficient constant-Q dyadic, "wavelet-like", filter bank, the different noise inputs are decomposed into components having the same spectral shape, but that are translated to the

  13. Impact of climate change on potential evapotranspiration under a historical and future climate scenario in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qin; Yan, Changrong; Ju, Hui; Garré, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is widely accepted to be one of the most critical problems faced by the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain), which is a region in which there is an over-exploitation of groundwater and where future warmer and drought conditions might intensify crop water demand. In this study, the spatiotemporal patterns of ET0 and primary driving meteorological variables were investigated based on a historical and RCP 8.5 scenario daily data set from 40 weather stations over the 3H Plain using linear regression, spline interpolation method, a partial derivative analysis, and multivariate regression. The results indicated a negative trend in all the analysed periods (except spring) of the past 54 years of which only summer and the entire year were statistically significant (p < 0.01) with slopes of -1.09 and -1.29 mm a-1, respectively. In contrast, a positive trend was observed in all four seasons and the entire year under the RCP 8.5 scenario, with the biggest increment equal to 1.36 mm a-1 in summer and an annual increment of 3.37 mm a-1. The spatial patterns of the seasonal and annual ET0 exhibited the lowest values in southeastern regions and the highest values in northeastern parts of Shandong Province, probably because of the combined effects of various meteorological variables over the past 54 years. Relative humidity (RH) together with solar radiation (RS) were detected to be the main climatic factors controlling the reduction of ET0 in summer, autumn, and the entire year on the 3H Plain. ET0 in spring was mainly sensitive to changes in RS and RH, whereas ET0 in winter was most sensitive to changes in wind speed (WS) and decreased due to declining RH. Under the future RCP 8.5 scenario, the annual ET0 distribution displays a rich spatial structure with a clear northeast-west gradient and an area with low values in the southern regions, which is similarly detected in spring and summer. The most sensitive and primary controlling variables with respect to the

  14. [The soul outlook in the bamboo slips Fan yin (Anti-excessiveness) of Western Han Dynasty collected at Peking University and in Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor)].

    PubMed

    DU, Feng

    2013-09-01

    The bamboo slips Fan yin (Anti-excessiveness) of the Western Han Dynasty, written in the form of conversation in 7-syllable prose-verse between hun (ethereal soul) and po (corporeal soul), with po as the host, and hun as the guest, reflecting the dualism of hun and po. In Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor), appeared nearly at the same time, in which the hypothesis of all the five viscera embodies the spirit and its soul defined at the level of spirit-emotion, claiming that the physique and ethereal soul are born at the same time, and the spirit of Yang qi within the corporeal soul is the ethereal soul, which is different from the description in the Fan yin.

  15. Metabolic fate analysis of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction in rat urine and feces by LC-IT-MS combining with LC-FT-ICR-MS: a feasible strategy for the metabolism study of Chinese medical formula.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ran; Ren, Wei; Bian, Bao-Lin; Wang, Hong-Jie; Wang, Yao-Nan; Hu, Hao; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Si, Nan

    2016-01-01

    1. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is widely used for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, inflammation and neural system diseases in clinic. In the present study, the comprehensive metabolic profile of HLJDD was demonstrated reliably and rapidly followed by the metabolic pathway analysis of six typical pure compounds (four alkaloids, one flavonoid and one iridoid) in HLJDD using LC-IT-MS combined with high resolution LC-FT-ICR-MS. 2. Totally, 85 compounds, including 32 prototype components and 53 biotransformed metabolites were detected and characterized in the urine and feces after oral administration of HLJDD and six pure compounds to rats, respectively. Among them, 17 prototypes were identified definitely with standard references. 3. Hydroxylation, demethylation and glucuronidation reactions of alkaloids, as well as glucuronidation and sulfonation reactions of iridoids and flavonoids, were observed as the major metabolic pathways of HLJDD. Flavonoids, iridoids and their metabolites were mainly excreted from urine. However, amount of alkaloids were detected in feces. 4. In general, the distinctive metabolic process of three kinds of representative components in HLJDD was clarified. The in vivo metabolic network of HLJDD was demonstrated. Meanwhile, the investigation of representative pure compounds in metabolic study provided a valuable strategy to elucidate the full-scale metabolic fate of HLJDD. This might be helpful to understand the in vivo mechanism of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  16. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid in Beagle plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Ma Huang Tang.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianhua; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Shiping

    2015-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of Ma Huang Tang (MHT) in Beagles. Beagle plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using a linear gradient of water-formic acid mixture (0.1%). The pharmacokinetic parameters of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid from MHT in Beagles were quantitatively determined by UPLC with tandem mass detector. The qualitative detection of the four compounds was accomplished by selected ion monitoring in negative/positive ion modes electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection was based on multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 166.096-116.983 (ephedrine), m/z 179.034-146.087 (methylephedrine), m/z 456.351-323.074 (amygdalin), and m/z 821.606-351.062 (glycyrrhizic acid). The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of MHT in Beagles.

  17. [Changes of China agricultural climate resources under the background of climate change. IV. Spatiotemporal change characteristics of agricultural climate resources in sub-humid warm-temperate irrigated wheat-maize agricultural area of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-juan; Yang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Wen-feng

    2011-04-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 observation data from 66 meteorological stations in the sub-humid and warm-temperate irrigated wheat-maize agricultural area of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal change characteristics of agro-climate resources for chimonophilous and thermophilic crops in the area in 1961-1980 and 1981-2007. The analyzed items included the length of temperature-defined growth season and the active accumulative temperature, sunshine hours, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, and aridity index during the temperature-defined growth season. With climate warming, the length of temperature-defined growth season of chimonophilous and thermophilic crops in the area in 1981-2007 extended by 7. 4 d and 6. 9 d, and the > or = 0 degrees C and > or = 10 degrees C accumulative temperature increased at a rate of 4.0-137.0 and 1.0-142.0 degrees C d (10 a)(-1), respectively, compared with those in 1961-1980. The sunshine hours during the temperature-defined growth season of the crops decreased markedly; and the precipitation during the temperature-defined growing season decreased in most parts of the area, being obvious in Hebei and north Shandong Province, but increased in north Anhui and southeast Henan Province. In most parts of the area, the reference evapotranspiration of chimonophilous and thermophilic crops during their temperature-defined growth season decreased, and the aridity index increased.

  18. Simultaneous determination of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS after oral administration of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Huang-Lian-Jie-Du decoction and the pharmacokinetic application of the method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tong; Liang, Yan; Song, Jue; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guang Ji; Liu, Xiao Dong

    2006-03-18

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma. After the addition of the internal standard (IS) and alkalization with 0.5M sodium hydroxide solution, plasma samples were extracted by ethyl ether and separated by HPLC on a Shim-pack ODS (4.6 microm, 150 mm x 2.0mm i.d.) column using a mobile phase composed of A (0.08% formic acid and 2 mmol/l ammonium acetate) and B (acetonitrile) with linear gradient elution. Analysis was performed on a Shimadzu LC/MS-2,010A in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with a positive electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. [M](+)=336 for berberine; 352 for palmatine and [M+H](+)=340 for IS were selected as detecting ions, respectively. The method was validated over the concentration range of 0.31-20 ng/ml for berberine and palmatine. Inter- and intra-CV precision (R.S.D.%) were all within 15% and accuracy (%bias) ranged from -5 to 5%. The lower limits of quantification were 0.31 ng/ml for both analytes. The extraction recovery was on average 68.6% for berberine, 64.2% for palmatine. The validated method was used to study the pharmacokinetic profile of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma after oral administration of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du decoction.

  19. Simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides, two anthraquinones and four flavonoid glycosides of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by UFLC-MS/MS: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and cholestatic liver injury rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Tang, Zheng; Chen, Kelin; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Yin, Ran; Hou, Xiaohong

    2014-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (geniposide and genipin gentiobioside), two anthraquinones (rhein and emodin) and four flavonoid glycosides (isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin), the major active ingredients of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), in rat plasma using paeoniflorin as internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v), separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm×3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Detection was performed on 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometry equipped with turbo ion spray source in the negative ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were less than 11.4%, and accuracy (as relative error) was within ± 10.0%. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 4.0, 0.5, 2.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0 ng/mL for geniposide, genipin gentiobioside, rhein, emodin, isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin, respectively. The extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 86.0%. The method was fully validated and applied to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes in normal and cholestatic liver injury (CLI) rats after oral administration of ZZDHD. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes between normal and CLI group.

  20. An untargeted metabolomics-driven approach based on LC-TOF/MS and LC-MS/MS for the screening of xenobiotics and metabolites of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Li, Xixi; Yan, Xuemei; An, Li; Luo, Kaiwen; Shao, Mingjing; Jiang, Yue; Xie, Rui; Feng, Fang

    2015-11-10

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a typical traditional Chinese medicine prescription, is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. However, due to lack of holistic metabolic research, the active ingredients of ZZDHD have not been fully elucidated. It entails a huge obstacle for the quality evaluation, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical-safe medication administration of ZZDHD. In this work, an untargeted metabolomics-driven approach was proposed to rapidly screen and characterize xenobiotics and related metabolites in vivo conducted by LC-TOF/MS and LC-QqQ/MS. The tR-m/z pairs which were present in the ZZDHD-dosed group and absent in the control group could be clearly displayed by XCMS Online platform combined with supervised orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Among them, a total of 61 ZZDHD-related xenobiotics and metabolites including 34 prototype components and 27 metabolites were rapidly identified or tentatively characterized in rat plasma. The results indicated that iridoid glycosides and monoterpenoids from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, flavonoid glycosides from Citrus aurantium L., as well as anthraquinones from Rheum palmatum L. were the main absorbed chemical components of ZZDHD. Hydrolysis, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of ZZDHD in vivo. The present study provided a solid basis for further revealing the relationship between the xenobiotic metabolome and pharmacological activity of ZZDHD. In addition, the application of untargeted metabolomics-driven approach offers a fresh insight for rapid screening and identifying xenobiotics and metabolites of ZZDHD and other multiherb prescription.

  1. [Simultaneous determination and quantitation of anthraquinones, lignans and flavonoids in Xiao-Cheng-Qi Tang, Hou-Po-San-Wu Tang and Hou-Po-Da-Huang Tang by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Li, Tao; Wang, Yan-li; Dong, Yu; Zhuang, Shuai-xing; Wang, Dun-fang; Yang, Wei-peng

    2015-07-01

    A simple and selective HPLC method for simultaneous determination and quantification of anthraquinones, lignans and flavonoids in Xiao-Cheng-Qi Tang (XCQT), Hou-Po-San-Wu Tang (HPSWT) and Hou-Po-Da-Huang Tang (HPDHT) was developed and validated. An Agilent Zorbax SB-C 18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 µm) column with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.5% acetic acid aqueous solution in gradient elution mode was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL · min(-1) at 30 °C, and injection volume was 10 µL. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm and 294 nm simultaneously for the quantitative analysis. The current HPLC assay was validated for linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, recovery and stability. The method was applied to the content comparison of the gallic acid, cinnamic acid, sennoside A, sennoside B, rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, magnolol, honokiol, narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, hesperetin, naringenin and nobiletin in XCQT, HPSWT and HPDHT. The good linear equations of eighteen constituents were obtained within the investigated ranges (r > 0.998). The recovery of the method was 94.28%-99.89% and the precision was less than 5%. The sample was stable within 16 h. There were some differences between the contents of anthraquinones, lignans and flavonoids in analogous formulae about XCQT. XCQT contained the greatest abundance of anthraquinones and flavonoid, HPSWT contained the greatest abundance lignans. In conclusion, the methods are simple, low-cost, precise, accurate and reliable for the determination of eighteen constituents in analogous formulae about XCQT, and these results provide methodological support for its quality control.

  2. Atmospheric deposition as an important nitrogen load to a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. 2. Seasonal and inter-annual variations and their implications (2008-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Zhang, Jiabao; Ma, Donghao; Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Garland, Gina; Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol; Zhu, Anning; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, an important N source to agro-ecosystems, has increased intensively in China during recent decades. However, knowledge on temporal variations of total N deposition and their influencing factors is limited due to lack of systematic monitoring data. In this study, total N deposition, including dry and wet components, was monitored using the water surrogate surface method for a typical agro-ecosystem with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain from May 2008 to April 2012. The results indicated that annual total N deposition ranged from 23.8 kg N ha-1 (2009-2010) to 40.3 kg N ha-1 (2008-2009) and averaged 31.8 kg N ha-1. Great inter-annual variations were observed during the sampling period, due to differences in annual rainfall and gaseous N losses from farmlands. Monthly total N deposition varied greatly, from less than 0.6 kg N ha-1 (January, 2010) to over 8.0 kg N ha-1 (August, 2008), with a mean value of 2.6 kg N ha-1. In contrast to wet deposition, dry portions generally contributed more to the total, except in the precipitation-intensive months, accounting for 65% in average. NH4+ -N was the dominant species in N deposition and its contribution to total deposition varied from 6% (December, 2009) to 79% (July, 2008), averaging 53%. The role of organic N (O-N) in both dry and wet deposition was equal to or even greater than that of NO3- -N. Influencing factors such as precipitation and its seasonal distribution, reactive N sources, vegetation status, field management practices, and weather conditions were responsible for the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and its components. These results are helpful for reducing the knowledge gaps in the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and their influencing factors in different ecosystems, to improve the understandings on N budget in the typical agro-ecosystem, and to provide references

  3. Chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of traditional and simplified decoction methods on the holistic quality of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuemei; Zhang, Qianying; Feng, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction, consisting of Rheum officinale Baill, Mirabilitum, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of jaundice. As described in "Jin Kui Yao Lue", a traditional multistep decoction of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction was required while simplified one-step decoction was used in recent repsorts. To investigate the chemical difference between the decoctions obtained by the traditional and simplified preparations, a sensitive and reliable approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established. As a result, a total of 105 compounds were detected and identified. Analysis of the chromatogram profiles of the two decoctions showed that many compounds in the decoction of simplified preparation had changed obviously compared with those in traditional preparation. The changes of constituents would be bound to cause the differences in the therapeutic effects of the two decoctions. The present study demonstrated that certain preparation methods significantly affect the holistic quality of traditional Chinese medicines and the use of a suitable preparation method is crucial for these medicines to produce special clinical curative effect. This research results elucidated the scientific basis of traditional preparation methods in Chinese medicines.

  4. Ansätze zur Ordnungsreduktion von nichtlinearen Oszillatormodellen zur Anwendung im Schaltungsentwurf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reit, M.; Bremer, J.-K.; Mathis, W.; Stoop, R.

    2010-10-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein Konzept zur Ordnungsreduktion von höherdimensionalen nichtlinearen Oszillatormodellen vorgestellt. Hierbei werden zwei wesentliche Ziele verfolgt. Zum einen wird eine höherdimensionale Modellierung der Oszillatorschaltung verwendet. Hierdurch lassen sich die Einflüsse parasitärer Effekte sowie struktureller Erweiterungen auf das dynamische Verhalten des Systems berücksichtigen. Zum anderen wird durch eine anschließende Ordnungsreduktion über die Methode der Zentrumsmannigfaltigkeit eine zweidimensionale Systembeschreibung erzeugt, deren wesentliche Dynamik derjenigen des höherdimensionalen Systems entspricht. Durch diese, in der Ordnung reduzierte, nichtlineare und parameterabhängige Systembeschreibung wird die Anwendbarkeit nichtlinearer Analysemethoden ermöglicht bzw. vereinfacht. Mit der Anwendung der Andronov-Hopf-Bifurkationsanalyse auf das reduzierte System lässt sich eine Stabilitätsuntersuchung durchführen sowie die Amplitude und Frequenz aller Zustandsgrößen approximieren. Das vorgestellte Konzept wird anhand des Beispielsystems eines LC-Tank-VCOs durchgeführt. In this paper, an order reduction technique for higher-dimensional nonlinear oscillator models, based on a center manifold approach, is presented. By modeling the oscillator circuit in the higher-dimensional state space, influences of parasitic elements and of structural extensions of the oscillator architecture on the dynamical system behavior can be examined. Using the proposed order reduction technique, a generalized second order model will be derived, which includes selected design parameters of the higher order model. By using an Andronov-Hopf bifurcation analysis, the reduced system can be studied with respect to stability as well as the amplitude and frequency of the individual state variables. The concept is applied to the design of LC-tank VCOs.

  5. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (黃連解毒湯 Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (黃連解毒湯 Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

  6. Impact of climatic and environmental changes on flood-duration-frequencies in the Fengle Rriver (YangTze Basin, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles, Christian; Chu, Yin; Tournoud, Marie-George; Ou, Mengli; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Cres, François-Noël; Ma, Youhua

    2016-04-01

    Future water management challenges such as flood risk are highly relevant to climate and land use changes. Climate change is expected to lead to an ongoing intensification of effects on changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration which could exacerbate flooding issues. Land use changes, modifications of agricultural practices and urbanization alter the apportionment of the different hydrological processes at the basin scale and could significantly affect the seasonality of streamflow. At the local scale, the consequences of climate and land use changes on flood occurrence and magnitude are a major issue for the economic development and management policy of basin area. This study apply a methodology for investigating the potential consequences of land use ,as well as precipitation and temperature changes on flood occurrence, duration and magnitude, accounting for uncertainties in scenario data and hydrological model parameters. The discharge time series predicted for the future were simulated from a calibrated and validated distributed hydrological model. The model was run from inputs which are -predicted rainfall time series based on scenarios of changes identified from a literature review, -future evapotranspiration rates assessed from temperature changes identified from a literature review -and scenarios of land-use changes The study area, the Fengle River basin (1500 km2), is located in the northeast part of Yangtze basin. The river is one of the main tributaries of the Chao Lake, the fifth largest natural lake of China. The lake catchment is 9130 km2 in area, including the city of Hefei and a large extent of agricultural and rural areas. Many changes are expected in land use and agricultural practices in the future, due to the touristic appeal of the Chao Lake shore and the growth of the city of Hefei. Climate changes are also expected in this region, with a high impact on rainfall regime. In the current period heavy storms and floods occur predominantly during summer. Using the above methodology the future dynamics of the Fengle River is characterized on discharge-duration-frequency curves. Results will be discussed with regards to the sensitivity of predicted flood occurrence, duration and magnitude by quantifying the impact of rainfall, temperature and land-use changes.

  7. Tai-Nan Formosa/Neu-Cheu-tze. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-06-15

    4,2 94,1 94,6 94,6 9497 94*9 940g 94s9. 94a,01 > 500 3.0 071 89.6 92,0 93*6 93,6 94 96 4t894,8 9T2 952 95,3 95.5 95.5 9505 95461S400 3.0 d8,l 90s6 93.0...9607 96,7 96.9 97,5 970 97.5 97o5i. > 1200 -𔃺i*5 78,6 85, nb f9, 92. -- 93 95,2 96 b 96 9703 97#3 97,5 98,1 9Oi -, 11 98.1 -> 0o 0,6 70.7 8Bo .9,1...7,7 42,8 61,2 69,4 80.3 81,7 88. 89 7 90,1 93,5 93,5 93,7 9497 94,7 94,7 94.9 200 1 7.7 -1, Z,6 69o 8097 0292 8-.4 90 1 9o W0 9T+h 9602 9502 9§2 93o2

  8. Kreativität im Alltag: Über Grundsätze kreativitätsorientierten Lehrens und Lernens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropley, Arthur J.

    1990-09-01

    School pupils frequently find it difficult to be imaginative and original in tackling the tasks they are set in the classroom, and to behave — in the sense of the present article — creatively. Although applied creativity offers new propects for humanitarian education, there is still a lack of a practical and scientifically based concept of creativity which can also embrace the creative aspects of daily life. If cognitive, motivational and social elements of creativity are clearly recognized, it is possible to construct a Three Component Model of Practical Creativity. The Creativity Diagnosis derived from this provides criteria for the promotion of creativity in the classroom. The dimensions of this diagnostic schema are expert ability, aptitudes and skills relevant to creativity, and personal attributes conducive to creativity. The development of these three elements of pupils' personality can be encouraged not only by the proper planning and conduct of didactic teaching, but also by the teacher's use of creative stimuli and appropriate evaluation procedures. In the field of creativity promotion there are already a number of reports discussing individual aspects of the components of creativity drawn out here, which can only receive a brief mention in this paper.

  9. Tetranuclear organometallic complexes containing Mo2O4(2+) and allylmolybdenum(II) moieties.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Paloma; López-Calzada, Angel; Miguel, Daniel; Villafañe, Fernando

    2010-11-14

    Refluxing toluene solutions of [Mo(η(3)-allyl)(O(2)CMe)(CO)(2)(pz*H)(2)] (pz*H = pzH, pyrazole, or dmpzH, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) without exclusion of air, give the tetranuclear complexes [Mo(2)O(2)(O(2)CCH(3))(2){(μ(3)-O)(μ-pz*)Mo(η(3)-allyl)(CO)(2)(pz*H)}(2)], where two chelating acetato ligands and two "Mo(η(3)-allyl)(CO)(2)(pz*H)(μ-pz*)" fragments are bonded to a central Mo(2)O(4)(2+) moiety.

  10. Ansätze für eine Bifurkationsanalyse von RF LC-Tank VCOs unter Berücksichtigung nichtlinearer Bauelementegleichungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, C.; Bremer, J.-K.; Mathis, W.

    2008-05-01

    Es wird ein alternativer Ansatz zum Entwurf von vollintegrierten LC Oszillatoren mit Hilfe der Andronov-Hopf Bifurkationsanalyse unter Einbeziehung eines nichtlinearen Overall-Modells für MOS-Transistoren (EKV-Modell) vorgestellt. Das in dieser Arbeit vorgestellte Verfahren beschreibt die MOS-Kapazität des VCOs über geometrische Gundgrößen, die damit nur als Längen- und Weitenverhältnisse in die Bifurkationsanalyse eingehen. Zur Beschreibung der MOS-Kapazität wurde ein Basic-Charge-Modell, wie es in den Arbeiten von Enz und Vittoz vorgestellt wurde, in Verbindung einer expliziten analytischen Näherung des Oberflächenpotenzials verwendet. Das Verfahren ermöglicht es, als zusätzlichen Freiheitsgrad für den Designer auch die Amplitude zur Optimierung der Bauteilparameter heranzuziehen und vorab eine genauere Abschätzung der Parameter des Varaktors zu erhalten. Zusammengefasst in einer Toolbox führt die Anwendung des Verfahrens auf einen grafischen Optimierungsprozess, mit dessen Hilfe die Parameter analytisch bestimmt werden können. Die verwendete Methode erweitert den von Hajimiri und Ham vorgestellten Entwurfsprozess von LC-Tank VCOs um eine Stabilitätsanalyse, die Berücksichtigung harmonischer höherer Ordnung und die physikalisch exakte Modellierung der Varaktorkapazitäten.

  11. "Lösen Sie Schachtelsätze Möglichst Auf"': The Impact of Editorial Guidelines on Sentence Splitting in German Business Article Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisiada, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Sentence splitting is assumed to occur mainly in translations from languages that prefer a hierarchical discourse structure, such as German, to languages that prefer an incremental structure. This article challenges that assumption by presenting findings from a diachronic corpus study of English-German business article translations, which shows…

  12. Computational investigation of the anti-HIV activity of Chinese medicinal formula Three-Huang Powder.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jack Z; Bai, Li; Chen, Da-Gang; Xu, Qi-Tai; Southerland, William M

    2010-06-01

    An essential step in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is integration of the double-stranded retroviral DNA into the genome of the host cell. HIV-1 integrase, the enzyme that inserts the vital DNA into the host chromosome, is an attractive and rational target for anti-AIDS drug design because it is essential for HIV replication and there are no known counterparts in the host cell. Inhibitors of this enzyme have the great potential to complement the therapeutic use of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Natural products have provided a source of new drug candidates for anti-AIDS therapy. Baicalein and baicalin, identified components of a Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, have been shown to inhibit infectivity and replication of HIV. They are therefore promising lead compounds for developing new anti-AIDS drugs. To understand how the inhibitors work and therefore design more potent and specific inhibitors, we have used molecular modeling techniques to investigate the binding modes of these inhibitors. The three-dimensional structures of these inhibitors were first built. Then, computational binding studies of these inhibitors, based on the crystal structure of the HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain, were performed to study the complex structure. The preliminary results of our computational modeling study demonstrated that Baicalein binds to the active site region of the HIV-1 integrase. Our study will be of help to identify the pharmacophores of inhibitors binding to HIV-1 integrase and design new pharmaceuticals for the treatment of AIDS.

  13. Computational Investigation of the Anti-HIV Activity of Chinese Medicinal Formula Three-Huang Powder

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jack Z.; Bai, Li; Chen, Da-Gang; Xu, Qi-Tai; Southerland, William M.

    2011-01-01

    An essential step in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is integration of the double-stranded retroviral DNA into the genome of the host cell. HIV-1 integrase, the enzyme that inserts the vital DNA into the host chromosome, is an attractive and rational target for anti-AIDS drug design because it is essential for HIV replication and there are no known counterparts in the host cell. Inhibitors of this enzyme have the great potential to complement the therapeutic use of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Natural products have provided a source of new drug candidates for anti-AIDS therapy. Baicalein and baicalin, identified components of a Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, have been shown to inhibit infectivity and replication of HIV. They are therefore promising lead compounds for developing new anti-AIDS drugs. To understand how the inhibitors work and therefore design more potent and specific inhibitors, we have used molecular modeling techniques to investigate the binding modes of these inhibitors. The three-dimensional structures of these inhibitors were first built. Then, computational binding studies of these inhibitors, based on the crystal structure of the HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain, were performed to study the complex structure. The preliminary results of our computational modeling study demonstrated that Baicalein binds to the active site region of the HIV-1 integrase. Our study will be of help to identify the pharmacophores of inhibitors binding to HIV-1 integrase and design new pharmaceuticals for the treatment of AIDS. PMID:20640783

  14. Improved candidate biomarker detection based on mass spectrometry data using the Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ching; Hsieh, Ping-Heng; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Jou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Chia-Der; Cheng, Kuang-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Chen, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry biomarker discovery may assist patient's diagnosis in time and realize the characteristics of new diseases. Our previous work built a preprocess method called HHTmass which is capable of removing noise, but HHTmass only a proof of principle to be peak detectable and did not tested for peak reappearance rate and used on medical data. We developed a modified version of biomarker discovery method called Enhance HHTMass (E-HHTMass) for MALDI-TOF and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry data which improved old HHTMass method by removing the interpolation and the biomarker discovery process. E-HHTMass integrates the preprocessing and classification functions to identify significant peaks. The results show that most known biomarker can be found and high peak appearance rate achieved comparing to MSCAP and old HHTMass2. E-HHTMass is able to adapt to spectra with a small increasing interval. In addition, new peaks are detected which can be potential biomarker after further validation.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The CGS. IV. Elliptical galaxies colors (Huang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Ho, L. C.; Peng, C. Y.; Li, Z.-Y.; Barth, A. J.

    2016-07-01

    This work uses the multi-band optical images of nearby ellipticals from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS; Ho et al. 2011, J/ApJS/197/21, Paper I). The observations were made using the 100 inch du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory to provide high-quality Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI images during the period 2003 February to 2006 June. (1 data file).

  16. A Bridge Health Monitoring Method Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Chiang, Weiling; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new method for nondestructive instrument method to monitor the health of a bridge. This new method is based on a transient test load and simple data collection. The nuclear of the method is the new invented nonstationary and nonlinear time series analysis method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis. The final decision on the health of the bridge structure is based on the nonlinear characteristic of the data, and on the comparison between the free and the forced vibration frequencies. Thus this alternative method enjoys many advantages: (1) no a priori data required, (2) simple data collection, and (3) minimum traffic disruption. Results from a case study of the Shing-Nan Bridge in Hou-Wei will be reported.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Teff against colours calibrations (Huang+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, X.-W.; Yuan, H.-B.; Xiang, M.-S.; Chen, B.-Q.; Zhang, H.-W.

    2016-07-01

    Based on nearly two hundred dwarf (luminosity classes: IV/V) and giant (luminosity classes: II/III) stars with direct effective temperature measurements of better than 2.5 per cent collected from the literature, we have derived metallicity-dependent Teff-colour relations in twenty-one colours for dwarfs and eighteen colours for giants in four photometric systems (the Johnson, Cousins, SDSS and 2MASS). The compiled data of dwarf and giant sample stars employed in the current work is presented. (1 data file).

  18. Analyzing nonstationary financial time series via hilbert-huang transform (HHT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus, computer program product and method of analyzing non-stationary time varying phenomena. A representation of a non-stationary time varying phenomenon is recursively sifted using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to extract intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The representation is filtered to extract intrinsic trends by combining a number of IMFs. The intrinsic trend is inherent in the data and identifies an IMF indicating the variability of the phenomena. The trend also may be used to detrend the data.

  19. Derivative-optimized Empirical Mode Decomposition for the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    A cubic spline (10) is used to fill the gap between two neighboring local maxima (minima) between amt and 1 a mt  with given...t1 – 0) [using the quadratic spline (15)] to (t1 + 0) [using the cubic spline (10)] leads to   2 11 1 1 2 1 4 2 6 ,L L L L e...in the time interval [tk, tk+1] for the upper envelope and the time interval [tj, tj+1] for the lower envelope since the cubic spline (10) and

  20. First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D’Oriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi ‘Tao and Science’ will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  1. First International Conference between West and East-Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Flavio

    2008-03-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D'Oriente(Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi 'Tao and Science' will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com.

  2. Search for the Frequency Content of Hall Effect Thruster HF Electrostatic Wave with the Hilbert-Huang Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzyna, J.; Makowski, K.; Lazurenko, A.; Mazouffre, S.; Dudeck, M.; Bonhomme, G.; Peradzynski, Z.

    2006-01-15

    Hall Effect Thruster (HET) plasma oscillations are studied. A set of antennas and an electric probe is used to pick-up the signals. All the detectors are located in the thruster channel exit plane, at its outer circumference, close to the zone of maximum magnetic barrier of SPT100-ML device. Each non-stationary signal is expanded into a finite set of intrinsic modes with the use of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. Characteristic bands of instantaneous frequency and power are filtered out by means of Hilbert transform. The analysis is applied to signals recorded in different operating conditions of the HET. The HF oscillations in the frequency range of {approx} 1 divide 20 MHz are identified as an electrostatic drift wave propagating along the thruster azimuth. In this band the decrease of discharge voltage results in less defined and broadened frequency spectrum when compared to nominal operating conditions.

  3. Variations of NDVI and the relationship with climate in Huang-huai-hai region of China from 1981-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huailiang; Zou, Chunhui; Liu, Yujie; Xu, Xiangde; Wang, Shitao

    2005-09-01

    Vegetation cover is the primary index of the earth's ecological system and the change in large-scale vegetation cover represents the effects of natural and human activities upon ecological environments and change in vegetation bears an intimate relation with that of climate, thus being one of the heated issues in the research of global change. In the context of 1981-2001 NOAA/AVHRR NDVI satellite sensings, classified vegetation types and climate data for the Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe (HHH) zone and based on a range of vegetation types selected, including forested land, grassland, meadow and farmland, study is conducted on the dynamic variations of NDVI on a seasonal and an interannual basis, together with their relations to climate change investigated, thus achieving some preliminary findings regarding the seasonal and interannual variation features of the HHH vegetation. Results show that, viewing the situation as a whole, the yearly variation displays intense seasonality under the control of monsoon climate while looking at the interannual variation, the 1981-2001 mean NDVI exhibits insignificant rise trend, bigger in spring compared to other seasons; types of scattered vegetation and forests are more steady on an interannual basis but the agricultural types change dramatically, indicating relatively greater effect of human activities; the vegetation degradation has occurred in the HHH zone in recent years; farmland vegetation is dominant and natural vegetation is about half the agricultural area; for different vegetation types, multi-yearly mean NDVI follows almost the same course on an interannual basis, except for some difference in range between them; yearly rainfall and temperature have positive effect on dynamic NDVI variation while evaporation is in higher negative correlation with the NDVI; Water is a sensitive factor to the growth of conifers, grassland and crops in spring and summer. Water and heat are important to biannual crops, broadleaf trees and grassland vegetation in autumn. In winter all types of vegetation are insignificantly correlated to climate factors.

  4. Biological Observations on Aedes Seatoi Huang in Thailand with Notes on Rural Aedes Aegypti (L.) and Other Stegomyia Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-03-15

    potential sites that were dry. The 4 collections involved (1) larvae found in water collected in the tunnel of a Palm Weevil (Rhynch@zorus sp.) in the...prove difficult and costly. Gould et al. (1970)) after insecticide treatment of water jars in a study village, observed a cessation of A. aegypti...inside diameter and 20-30 cm deep) were placed in varied locations and filled with mosquito-free water . The number of cups set out varied with size

  5. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhengyao; Zhao, Weijuan; Li, Guoxia; Xie, Jianzhong; Han, Guohe; Feng, Songlin; Fan, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Rongwu; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Junxiao

    2003-02-01

    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin’s Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracotta warriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical. We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their clay sources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to the loam layer near Qin’s Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. A rational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin’s Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin’s Mausoleum, it could be deducted that the kiln sites might be located in around Qin’s Mausoleum.

  6. Qin, Han, and Huang: Text Reproduction and Literacy in Rural China, A Case for Euclid and Homer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Bruce; Yu, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    Debates the merits of the claim that "symbolic technologies push cognitive growth earlier and longer." The results of an assessment are presented that involved three adult male peasants (two literate, one nonliterate) living in rural China and their ability to recall the text of "The Lonesome Opossum." (25 references) (GLR)

  7. An Attentional Learning Account of the Shape Bias: Reply to Cimpian and Markman (2005) and Booth, Waxman, and Huang (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Samuelson, Larissa

    2006-01-01

    Recently, "Developmental Psychology" published 2 articles on the shape bias; both rejected the authors' previous proposals about the role of attentional learning in the development of a shape bias in object name learning. A. Cimpian and E. Markman (2005; see record EJ733667) did so by arguing that the shape bias does not exist but is an…

  8. Different structural preference of Ag(I) and Au(I) in neutral and cationic luminescent heteropolynuclear platinum(II) complexes: Z (U)-shaped Pt2M2 type vs. trinuclear PtM2 type.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Kazuki; Ueda, Misa; Higashitani, Ami; Nakao, Yoshihide; Arikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Shinnosuke; Sakuda, Eri; Umakoshi, Keisuke

    2016-03-28

    The reactions of monocationic Pt(II) complexes bearing N^C chelate ligands and Me2pzH, [Pt(N^C)(Me2pzH)2]PF6 (N^C = 2-phenylpyridinate (ppy(-)), 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridinate (dfppy(-)), benzo[h]quinolinate (bzq(-)); Me2pzH = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole), with Ag(I) ions gave Z (or U)-shaped neutral tetranuclear Pt2Ag2 complexes [Pt2Ag2(N^C)2(Me2pz)4], while those with Au(I) ions gave neutral trinuclear PtAu2 complexes [PtAu2(N^C)(Me2pz)3]. On the contrary, the reactions of the dicationic Pt(II) complex bearing a N^N chelate ligand and Me2pzH, [Pt(bpy)(Me2pzH)2](PF6)2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), with Ag(I) and Au(I) ions both gave Z (or U)-shaped dicationic tetranuclear Pt2M2 complexes, [Pt2M2(bpy)2(Me2pz)4](PF6)2 (M = Ag, Au). The structures of heteropolynuclear Pt(II) complexes were dominated by the nature of incorporated group 11 metal ions and the charge of complexes.

  9. First-principles assessment of CO2 capture mechanisms in aqueous piperazine solution.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Haley M; Paek, Eunsu; Hwang, Gyeong S

    2016-09-14

    Piperazine (PZ) and its blends have emerged as attractive solvents for CO2 capture, but the underlying reaction mechanisms still remain uncertain. Our study particularly focuses on assessing the relative roles of PZCOO(-) and PZH(+) produced from the PZ + CO2 reaction. PZCOO(-) is found to directly react with CO2 forming COO(-)PZCOO(-), whereas PZH(+) will not. However, COO(-)PZCOO(-) appears very unlikely to be produced in thermodynamic equilibrium with monocarbamates, suggesting that its existence would predominantly originate from the surface reaction that likely occurs. We also find production of H(+)PZCOO(-) to be more probable with increasing CO2 loading, due partly to the thermodynamic favorability of the PZH(+) + PZCOO(-) → H(+)PZCOO(-) + PZ reaction; the facile PZ liberation may contribute to its relatively high CO2 absorption rate. This study highlights an accurate description of surface reaction and the solvent composition effect is critical in thermodynamic and kinetic models for predicting the CO2 capture processes.

  10. [Evaluating the response of yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and the adaptation by adjusting crop variety to climate change in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shi; Mo, Xing-guo; Lin, Zhong-hui

    2015-04-01

    Based on the multi-model datasets of three representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios from IPCC5, the response of yield and accumulative evapotranspiration (ET) of winter wheat to climate change in the future were assessed by VIP model. The results showed that if effects of CO2 enrichment were excluded, temperature rise would lead to a reduction in the length of the growing period for wheat under the three climate change scenarios, and the wheat yield and ET presented a decrease tendency. The positive effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment could offset most negative effect introduced by temperature rising, indicating that atmospheric CO2 enrichment would be the prime reason of the wheat yield rising in future. In 2050s, wheat yield would increase 14.8% (decrease 2.5% without CO2 fertilization) , and ET would decrease 2.1% under RCP4.5. By adoption of new crop variety with enhanced requirement on accumulative temperature, the wheat yield would increase more significantly with CO2 fertilization, but the water consumption would also increase. Therefore, cultivar breeding new irrigation techniques and agronomical management should be explored under the challenges of climate change in the future.

  11. PreliminaryEquatorial Paleomagnetic results from Mt Kenya lavas. Neil D Opdyke, 1, Dennis V Kent, 2, Kainian Huang ,1, J.P. Patel , 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opdyke, N. D.; Kent, D. V.; Huang, K.; Patel, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    Field work on this study was carried out in August of 2006 by field parties from the University of Florida and Rutgers University. Mt Kenya is believed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age and an Argon dating survey is underway Ten samples were taken at each site consisting of one exposure in individual lava Flows. These exposures are usually in road cuts, streambeds and in some cases roadbeds. We sampled 100 sites distributed around the Mt Kenya Massif and to the northeast along the Nyambini range. The equator bisex's Mt Kenya and all sites were sampled within 40" north or south of the equator . The samples were returned to the US and processed at the University of Florida paleomagnetic laboratory. Many sites were severely affected by lightning however after demagnetization 68 sites yielded directions with alpha 95's equal to or less than 10°. Normal magnetized sites dominate, with N=58 (Dec=1°,Inc -0.1°,α95=2.6°) whereas only 10 reverse sites(Dec. =181.9,Inc. .6°α 95=8°) were identified. The combined site mean direction is Dec=1.1°, Inc..= -0.2° and α 95=3.2°. This result is not significantly different from what is expected from the geocentric axial dipole. VGP's were calculated from each site and the dispersion is low with the ASD = 11° which is in agreement with model "G" of MacFadden and McElhinny .No transitional directions were identified . Quadrupole components are not resolved. 1 Department of geological Sciences, the University of Florida , 2 Dept of Geology, Rutgers University,3,dept of Physics ,The University of Nairobi

  12. Carbon sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in a long-term experiment on a vertisol in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Keke; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Guo, Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982-2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate  = 0.16 Cinput -0.10, R = 0.95, P<0.01), suggesting a C sequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols.

  13. Investigating Power Density and the Degree of Nonlinearity in Intrinsic Components of Anesthesia EEG by the Hilbert-Huang Transform: An Example Using Ketamine and Alfentanil

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Feng-Fang; Fan, Shou-Zen; Lin, Yi-Shiuan; Huang, Norden E.; Yeh, Jia-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an adaptive filter bank for processing nonlinear and non-stationary signals, such as electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. EMD works well to decompose a time series into a set of intrinsic mode functions with specific frequency bands. An IMF therefore represents an intrinsic component on its correspondingly intrinsic frequency band. The word of ‘intrinsic’ means the frequency is totally adaptive to the nature of a signal. In this study, power density and nonlinearity are two critical parameters for characterizing the amplitude and frequency modulations in IMFs. In this study, a nonlinearity level is quantified using degree of waveform distortion (DWD), which represents the characteristic of waveform distortion as an assessment of the intra-wave modulation of an IMF. In the application of anesthesia EEG analysis, the assessments of power density and DWD for a set of IMFs represent dynamic responses in EEG caused by two different anesthesia agents, Ketamine and Alfentanil, on different frequency bands. Ketamine causes the increase of power density and the decrease of nonlinearity on γ-band neuronal oscillation, which cannot be found EEG responses of group B using Alfentanil. Both agents cause an increase of power density and a decrease of nonlinearity on β-band neuronal oscillation accompany with a loss of consciousness. Moreover, anesthesia agents cause the decreases of power density and nonlinearity (i.e. DWD) for the low-frequency IMFs. PMID:27973590

  14. An Inquiry: Effectiveness of the Complex Empirical Mode Decomposition Method, the Hilbert-Huang Transform, and the Fast-Fourier Transform for Analysis of Dynamic Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    CEMDC_FIX(T,X,NB_ITERATIONS,MAX_IMFS, NDIRS ); % % % Description % % % computes bivariate EMD, first algorithm [1] with NB_ITERATONS sifting...empty or unspecified, the default behavior is to extract as % many IMFs as possible. % - NDIRS : number of directions used to compute...the local mean. % If unspecified, the default value is 4. % rem: the actual number of directions (according to [1]) is 2* NDIRS

  15. Composition and repellency of the essential oils of Evodia calcicola Chun ex Huang and Evodia trichotoma (Lour.) Pierre against three stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Shan-Shan; Li, Yin-Ping; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-β-pinene (44.02%), β-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects.

  16. 76 FR 22104 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Forwarding, LLC (NVO & OFF), 922 East E. Street, B, Wilmington, CA 90744, Officer: Teresa Huang, President..., Officer: Zhong (Simon) M. Huang, Member Manager (Qualifying Individual), Lanie Pan, Member...

  17. [National Institute of Hygiene during the World War 1939-1944].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The article presents history of the National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) in the period from September 1939 until the fall of Warsaw Uprising (1944). German occupation left unaltered activities, structure and Polish personnel of the Institute, enforcing commissoner board by professor Ernst Nauck, and subsequently--professor Robert Kudicke from Frankfurt. German production of vaccine against typhus exanthematous for German army was managed by German physician--Herman Wohlrab. National Institute of Hygiene was to be a place modelled on Institute for Tropical Diseases in Hamburg. Polish personnel was subject to military regime, however Feliks Przesmycki, PhD started underground production of vaccine against typhus exanthematous for Polish citizens, which was distributed to prisons (Pawiak Prison) and ghetto. Hospital personnel in Warsaw was also vaccinated. Underground studies programme, including editing handbooks, was set up for the students of closed Microbiology Faculty of Warsaw University, and other wartime conspiracy actions were taken. Personnel of National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) protected research equipment and supplies from war plundering, and supported Polish civilians by e.g. reporting about harmfulness of low-quality and polluted food for the Polish, which Germans supplied market with. During Warsaw Uprising Personnel helped the injured and protected the premises of National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) from burning down; mobile army surgical hospital and pharmacy for the participans of Warsaw Uprising functioned within PZH.

  18. Gauge equivalence of two different IAnsaaumlItze Rfor non-Abelian charged vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.K.

    1987-05-15

    Recently the existence of non-Abelian charged vortices has been established by taking two different Ansa$uml: tze in SU(2) gauge theories. We point out that these two Ansa$uml: tze are in two topologically equivalent prescriptions. We show that they are gauge equivalent only at infinity. We also show that this gauge equivalence is not possible for Z/sub N/ vortices in SU(N) gauge theories for Ngreater than or equal to3.

  19. Chemical consequences of pyrazole orientation in Ru(II) complexes of unsymmetric quinoline-pyrazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Hedberg Wallenstein, Joachim; Fredin, Lisa A; Jarenmark, Martin; Abrahamsson, Maria; Persson, Petter

    2016-08-07

    A series of homoleptic Ru(II) complexes including the tris-bidentate complexes of a new bidentate ligand 8-(1-pyrazol)-quinoline (Q1Pz) and bidentate 8-(3-pyrazol)-quinoline (Q3PzH), as well as the bis-tridentate complex of bis(quinolinyl)-1,3-pyrazole (DQPz) was studied. Together these complexes explore the orientation of the pyrazole relative to the quinoline. By examining the complexes structurally, photophysically, photochemically, electrochemically, and computationally by DFT and TD-DFT, it is shown that the pyrazole orientation has a significant influence on key properties. In particular, its orientation has noticeable effects on oxidation and reduction potentials, photostability and proton sensitivity, indicating that [Ru(Q3PzH)3](2+) is a particularly good local environment acidity-probe candidate.

  20. Distorted cubic tetranuclear vanadium(IV) phosphonate cages: double-four-ring (D4R) containing transition metal ion phosphonate cages.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Dey, Atanu; Senapati, Tapas; Sañudo, E Carolina

    2012-01-21

    The reaction of VCl(3) with 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-Me(2)PzH) and trichloromethylphosphonic/tert-butylphosphonic acid in the presence of triethylamine as a hydrogen chloride scavenger afforded the tetranuclear V(IV) assemblies, [(VO)(4)(3,5-Me(2)PzH)(8)(CCl(3)PO(3))(4)] (1) and [(VO)(4)(3,5-Me(2)PzH)(4)(t-BuPO(3))(4)] (2). Both of these compounds possess a distorted cubic framework structures containing V(IV) ions and phosphorus atoms in the alternate corners of the cube. The edges of the cube contain oxygen atoms derived from the phosphonate ligand. The phosphonate ligand in both of these compounds is dianionic and helps to bind to three V(IV) centers. The faces of the cubic ensembles contain puckered V(2)P(2)O(4) eight-membered rings. The V(IV) center in 1 is six-coordinate in a distorted octahedral geometry while in 2 it is five-coordinate in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Magnetic studies carried out on 1 and 2 reveal that the V(IV) centers are anti-ferromagnetically coupled to each other, albeit weakly, through the mediation of the phosphonate ligands.

  1. The Effect of Hachimi-Jio-Gan (Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan) on the Quality of Life in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease - A Prospective Study Using Kampo Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kawago, Koji; Shindo, Shunya; Inoue, Hidenori; Akasaka, Junetsu; Motohashi, Shinya; Urabe, Go; Sato, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Hirotomo; Ogino, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether Hachimi-jio-gan (HJG), a preparation of Kampo medicine (traditional Japanese medicine), improves quality of life (QOL) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Materials and Methods: Among the patients with PAD being followed in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, those with intermittent claudication (IC) and in stable condition regarding PAD severity were registered. We registered the patients from April 2014 to March 2015. We administered HJG extract for 6 months to the patients. The primary endpoint was Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) score, which was approved as an indicator of QOL of the patient with PAD. We assessed WIQ score both before and after administration of the HJG. Results: We analyzed 14 patients. WIQ items of pain, distance, and speed improved significantly. Furthermore, the median of the total score of WIQ improved significantly from 162.5 points to 308.0 points. All patients showed improvement in the total score and 7 patients out of 14 patients (50%) showed a remarkably effective improvement in score of more than 100 points. Conclusion: HJG might improve the QOL in patients with IC due to PAD.

  2. The Effect of Hachimi-Jio-Gan (Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan) on the Quality of Life in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease – A Prospective Study Using Kampo Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Shunya; Inoue, Hidenori; Akasaka, Junetsu; Motohashi, Shinya; Urabe, Go; Sato, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Hirotomo; Ogino, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether Hachimi-jio-gan (HJG), a preparation of Kampo medicine (traditional Japanese medicine), improves quality of life (QOL) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Materials and Methods: Among the patients with PAD being followed in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, those with intermittent claudication (IC) and in stable condition regarding PAD severity were registered. We registered the patients from April 2014 to March 2015. We administered HJG extract for 6 months to the patients. The primary endpoint was Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) score, which was approved as an indicator of QOL of the patient with PAD. We assessed WIQ score both before and after administration of the HJG. Results: We analyzed 14 patients. WIQ items of pain, distance, and speed improved significantly. Furthermore, the median of the total score of WIQ improved significantly from 162.5 points to 308.0 points. All patients showed improvement in the total score and 7 patients out of 14 patients (50%) showed a remarkably effective improvement in score of more than 100 points. Conclusion: HJG might improve the QOL in patients with IC due to PAD. PMID:28018500

  3. Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal) Medicine “Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang)” on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Erika; Aoki, Yuka; Hokari, Rei

    2014-01-01

    A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6 g/kg/day) was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4 hours to 52 hours postinfection (p.i.) significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3 g/kg/day) significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies. PMID:24778699

  4. Retraction: 'Number needed to treat with 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for urgent warfarin reversal' by Andrew Chua, Vishal Patel, Allison Perrin, Lee Stern, Jenifer Ehreth, Laurel Omert, Christopher Hood, Julie Farley, Michael McGlynn and Liping Huang.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    The above abstract from the THSNA 2016 Summit Abstract Proceedings, first published online in the American Journal of Hematology on 20 July 2016 in Wiley OnlineLibrary (www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com), and in Volume 91, Issue 9, p. E427, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Carlo Brugnara, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to concerns from the submitting authors that the abstract was inadvertently submitted prior to receiving approval from all authors and proper review of data analytics, thereby rendering it incomplete.

  5. Comment on Viscoelastic properties of confined polymer films measured via thermal wrinkling by E. P. Chan, K. A. Page, S. H. Im, D. L. Patton, R. Huang, and C. M. Stafford, Soft Matter, 2009, 5, 4638-4641

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    elastic material is needed for the superstrate . As a final observation we remark that the meaning of the viscosity as introduced in the paper under...strain rate, however, the specific value of S depends on many factors including the thickness of the superstrate , the CTE values and the testing

  6. 77 FR 59935 - Center for Scientific Review Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Huang, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health... Circle NW., Washington, DC 20005. Contact Person: Jin Huang, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center...

  7. Fake "Returnee" Earns 4 Million through Fraudulent Marriages: More than Ten Women Fall for His Claims of Being a Boss and Possessing a House and Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the case of Wang Ruiliang. Ms. Huang filed a case against Wang Jun, alleging that he had defrauded her. Ms. Huang met a man named Wang Jun in April 2002 through a certain matrimonial agency. Before they had been together for very long, Wang Jun asked to borrow money from Ms. Huang, claiming that he was having difficulties in…

  8. Coordination versus coupling of dicyanamide in molybdenum and manganese pyrazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Marta; Gómez-Iglesias, Patricia; Martín-Alvarez, Jose Miguel; Alvarez, Celedonio M; Miguel, Daniel; Villafañe, Fernando

    2012-06-04

    The reactions of cis-[MoCl(η(3)-methallyl)(CO)(2)(NCMe)(2)] (methallyl = CH(2)C(CH(3))CH(2)) with Na(NCNCN) and pz*H (pzH, pyrazole, or dmpzH, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) lead to cis-[Mo(η(3)-methallyl)(CO)(2)(pz*H)(μ-NCNCN-κ(2)N,N)](2) (pzH, 1a; dmpzH, 1b), where dicyanamide is coordinated as bridging ligand. Similar reactions with fac-[MnBr(CO)(3)(NCMe)(2)] lead to the pyrazolylamidino complexes fac-[Mn(pz*H)(CO)(3)(NH═C(pz*)NCN-κ(2)N,N)] (pzH, 2a; dmpzH, 2b), resulting from the coupling of pyrazol with one of the CN bonds of dicyanamide. The second CN bond of dicyanamide in 2a undergoes a second coupling with pyrazole after addition of 1 equiv of fac-[MnBr(CO)(3)(pzH)(2)], yielding the dinuclear doubly coupled complex [{fac-Mn(pzH)(CO)(3)}(2)(μ-NH═C(pz)NC(pz)=NH-κ(4)N,N,N,N)]Br (3). The crystal structure of 3 reveals the presence of two isomers, cis or trans, depending on whether the terminal pyrazoles are coordinated at the same or at different sides of the approximate plane defined by the bridging bis-amidine ligand. Only the cis isomer is detected in the crystal structure of the perchlorate salt of the same bimetallic cation (4), obtained by metathesis with AgClO(4). All the N-bound hydrogen atoms of the cations in 3 or 4 are involved in hydrogen bonds. Some of the C-N bonds of the pyrazolylamidino ligand have a character intermediate between single and double, and theoretical studies were carried out on 2a and 3 to confirm its electronic origin and discard packing effects. Calculations also show the essential role of bromide in the planarity of the tetradentate ligand in the bimetallic complex 3.

  9. Pyrazole cleavage of tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate with Ruthenium(II) complexes: Synthesis, structural characterization and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharbani, Donkupar; Deb, Debojit Kumar; Mawnai, Ibaniewkor L.; Kurbah, Sunshine D.; Sarkar, Biplab; Rymmai, E. K.

    2017-04-01

    The reaction of [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(PPh3)3] (1) with KTp* (KTp* = Potassium tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate) in a refluxing toluene yields a mixture of [RuTp*(H)(CO)(PPh3)] (2), [Ru(H)(Cl)(pz*H)(CO)(PPh3)2] (3), and [H(pz*)B(μ-pz*)2B(pz*)H] (4) (pz*H = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole). The products (3) and (4) were obtained by the degradation of the scorpionate ligand, Tp*. These complexes were characterised by IR, 1H NMR, UV, X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations.

  10. Role of Polyamine Oxidase (PAOh1/SMO) in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    and DNA damage. REFERENCES Babbar, N. and Casero , R. Jr. 2006. Cancer Research. 66: 11125-11130. Babbar, N., Hacker, A., Huang, Y., and Casero , R...Marton LJ, Ward TD, Woster PM, Casero RA. Jr. 2003. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 52: 383-390. Huang, Y., Pledgie, A., Casero , R. Jr, and...Davidson, N. 2005. Anti-Cancer Drugs. 16: 229-241. Pledgie, A., Huang, Y., Hacker, A., Zhang, Z., Woster, P., Davidson, N., Casero , R. Jr. 2005

  11. Deposition of Selected Airborne Particles into a Microfluidic Flow Cytometer for Bioanalysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Deposition of Selected Airborne Particles Into a Microfluidic Flow Cytometer for Bioanalysis by Hermes Huang , Yong -Le Pan, Steven C. Hill...Bioanalysis Hermes Huang , Yong -Le Pan, and Richard K. Chang Yale University, New Haven, CT Steven C. Hill Computational and Information...Bioanalysis 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hermes Huang , Yong -Le Pan, Steven C. Hill, and Richard K

  12. A 37-mm Ceramic Gun Nozzle Stress Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    A 37-mm Ceramic Gun Nozzle Stress Analysis by Xiaogang Huang , James Garner, and Paul Conroy ARL-TR-3804 May 2006...Gun Nozzle Stress Analysis Xiaogang Huang , James Garner, and Paul Conroy Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...622618.H8011 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Xiaogang Huang , James Garner, and Paul Conroy 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  13. Assessment of Impact Damage in Composites via Self-Sensing Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    categories: Received Paper 08/27/2012 2.00 M. Ogawa, C. Huang, T. Nakamura. Damage detection of CFRP laminates via self-sensing fibres and thermal...Chong Huang, Toshio Nakamura. Damage detection of CFRP laminates via self-sensing fibers and thermal sprayed electrodes, Journal of Nondestructive...Bibliography [1] M. Ogawa, C. Huang and T. Nakamura, Damage detection of CFRP laminates via self- sensing fibers and thermal sprayed electrodes (2012

  14. What Made Your Essay Successful? I "T.A.C.K.L.E.D" the Essay Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tze Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Teaching in Singapore, Tze Kwang Teo cannot conceive of a history teacher unfamiliar with the mnemonic "PEE" (or "PEEL") used to structure students' essays. Its ubiquity is testimony to its power, reminding students both to explain and to substantiate their claims. Yet, as Foster and Gadd have argued, its neat formulation can…

  15. Langfristige Performance mit Thin Clients bei HSBC Trinkaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HSBC Trinkaus nutzt Thin Clients als grafikstarke Desktops einer Citrix-basierenden Server Based Computing-Umgebung. Die neuen Dualview-Arbeitsplätze sind zuverlässiger, pflegeleichter und stromsparender als die bisherigen Terminal-PCs. Selbst die Administration erfolgt im Zweibildschirmbetrieb.

  16. Some exact solutions of (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations with the Chern-Simons term

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, C. H.; Sia, L. C.; Teh, R.

    1989-07-15

    Two /ital Ansa/$/ital uml/---/ital tze/ for the gauge field potential are given so that the(2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations with the Chern-Simons termcan be solved in terms of the modified Bessel functions and the ellipticfunction respectively.

  17. Chiral symmetry breaking in quenched massive strong-coupling four-dimensional QED

    SciTech Connect

    Hawes, F.T. ); Williams, A.G. )

    1995-03-15

    We present results from a study of subtractive renormalization of the fermion propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) in massive strong-coupling quenched four-dimensional QED. The results are compared for three different fermion-photon proper vertex [ital Ansa]$[ital uml---tze]: bare [gamma][sup [mu

  18. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    (Edinburgh), D Y H Chui (Mainz), D Deb (Graz), C Dellago (Vienna), J Dhont (Jülich), P Dillmann (Konstanz), G Dominguez (Leipzig), M Duits (Enschede), B Dünweg (Mainz), F Ebert (Konstanz), S Egelhaaf (Düsseldorf), E Eggen (Utrecht), R Eichhorn (Bielefeld), E Eiser (Cambridge), H B Eral (Enschede), A Erbe (Konstanz), L Filion (Utrecht), G Foffi (Lausanne), J Fornleitner (Vienna), K Franzrahe (Konstanz), D Frenkel (Cambridge), M Fuchs (Konstanz), G Fytas (Heraklion), P Garstecki (Warsaw), I Gazuz (Konstanz), N Geerts (Amsterdam), G Gompper (Jülich), E Gonzalez-Tovar (San Luis Potosi), I Götze (Jülich), S Grandner (Berlin), L Gránásy (London), C Gutsche (Leipzig), D Hajnal (Mainz), R Hanes (Düsseldorf), A Härtel (Düsseldorf), P Henseler (Konstanz), C Hertlein (Stuttgart), C Holm (Mainz), J Hoogenboom (Barcelona), P Hopkins (Bristol), J Horbach (Cologne), C-C Huang (Jülich), K Huang (Göttingen), S Huißmann (Düsseldorf), M Humar (Ljubljana), S Iacopini (Mainz), A Imhof (Utrecht), A Ivlev (Garching), K Jacobs (Saarbrücken), J Jakobi (Hannover), O Jansen (Düsseldorf), M Jenkins (Düsseldorf), J Jordanovic (Berlin), S Jungblut (Mainz), M Kahn (Vienna), T Kalwarczyk (Warsaw), K Kegler (Leipzig), P Keim (Konstanz), Z Keqin (Singapore), U F Keyser (Leipzig), T Köller (Mainz), K Kremer (Mainz), M Krüger (Konstanz), A Kuijk (Utrecht), P Lang (Jülich), M Laurati (Düsseldorf), W Lechner (Vienna), H Lehle (Stuttgart), P Leiderer (Konstanz), H Lekkerkerker (Utrecht), P Lettinga (Jülich), A Libal (San Mart), B Lonetti (Jülich), N J Lorenz (Mainz), H Löwen (Düsseldorf), H Maleki (Mainz), J-G Malherbe (Paris), M Marechal (Utrecht), G Maret (Konstanz), C Mayer (Rome), S Mazoyer (Konstanz), M McPhie (Jülich), M Medina-Noyola (San Luis Potosi), A Melzer (Greifswald), A Menéndez-Manjón (Hannover), R Messina (Düsseldorf), H Michiel (Utrecht), P Mishra (Düsseldorf), J Mixteco (Guanajuato), B Moser (Düsseldorf), G Nägele (Jülich), R R Netz (Munich), P Nielaba (Konstanz

  19. Novel dinuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato and tetranuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato-polyoxo zirconium(IV) complexes. Synthesis and structural characterisation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Martial; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2009-04-14

    The dinuclear dimethylamido-tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)-zirconium(IV) complex [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 1 is prepared by treatment of [Zr(NMe2)4] with 3 equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-Me2PzH) with elimination of dimethylamine. When [Zr(NMe2)4] reacted with 2 equivalents of 3,5-Me2PzH, the bis(dimethylamido)-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)zirconium(IV) compound [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)2(NMe2)2]2 2 is obtained. Hydrolysis of [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 in wet toluene affords the tetranuclear oxo compound [Zr4(eta2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(NMe2)2(mu3-O)2(mu2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(mu2-NMe2)2] . All synthesised compounds are characterised by NMR spectroscopic and analytical methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has established the molecular structures of 1 and 4.

  20. Pyrazolylamidino ligands from coupling of acetonitrile and pyrazoles: a systematic study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Iglesias, Patricia; Arroyo, Marta; Bajo, Sonia; Strohmann, Carsten; Miguel, Daniel; Villafañe, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Mixed pyrazole-acetonitrile complexes, both neutral fac-[ReBr(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)] (pz*H = pzH, pyrazole; dmpzH, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole; or indzH, indazole) and cationic fac-[Re(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)2]A (A = BF4, ClO4, or OTf), are described. Their role as the only starting products to obtain final pyrazolylamidino complexes fac-[ReBr(CO)3(NH═C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)] and fac-[Re(CO)3(pz*H)(NH═C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)]A, respectively, is examined. Other products involved in the processes, such as fac-[ReBr(CO)3(pz*H)2], fac-[Re(CO)3(NCMe)(NH═C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)]A, and fac-[Re(CO)3(pz*H)2(OTf)] are also described. Warming CD3CN solutions of fac-[Re(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)2]A at 40 °C gives cleanly the pyrazolylamidino complexes [Re(CO)3(pz*H)(NH═C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)]A as the only products, pointing to an intramolecular process. This is confirmed by carrying out reactions in the presence of one equivalent of a pyrazole different from that coordinated, which affords complexes where the pyrazolylamidino ligand contains only the pyrazole previously coordinated. When the reactions lead to an equilibrium mixture of the final and starting products, the reverse reaction gives the same equilibrium mixture, which indicates that the coupling reaction of pyrazoles and nitriles to obtain pyrazolylamidino ligands is a reversible intramolecular process. A systematic study of the possible factors which may affect the reaction gives the following results: (a) the yields of the direct reactions are higher for lower temperatures; (b) the tendency of the pyrazoles to give pyrazolylamidino complexes follows the sequence indzH > pzH > dmpzH; and (c) the reaction rates do not depend on the nature of the anion even when a large excess is added. The presence of a small amount of aqueous solution of NaOH catalyzes the reaction. Thus, addition of 0.5-1% of NaOH (aq) to solutions of fac-[ReBr(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)] (in CD3CN) or fac-[Re(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)2]A (in CD3CN, CD3NO2 or (CD3)2CO) allowed the syntheses of the

  1. Effects of ice storm on forest ecosystem of southern China in 2008 Shaoqiang Wang1, Lei Zhou1, Weimin Ju2, Kun Huang1 1Key Lab of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing, 10010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoqiang

    2014-05-01

    Evidence is mounting that an increase in extreme climate events has begun to occur worldwide during the recent decades, which affect biosphere function and biodiversity. Ecosystems returned to its original structures and functions to maintain its sustainability, which was closely dependent on ecosystem resilience. Understanding the resilience and recovery capacity of ecosystem to extreme climate events is essential to predicting future ecosystem responses to climate change. Given the overwhelming importance of this region in the overall carbon cycle of forest ecosystems in China, south China suffered a destructive ice storm in 2008. In this study, we used the number of freezing day and a process-based model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS) to characterize the spatial distribution of ice storm region in southeastern China and explore the impacts on carbon cycle of forest ecosystem over the past decade. The ecosystem variables, i.e. Net primary productivity (NPP), Evapotranspiration (ET), and Water use efficiency (WUE, the ratio of NPP to ET) from the outputs of BEPS models were used to detect the resistance and resilience of forest ecosystem in southern China. The pattern of ice storm-induced forest productivity widespread decline was closely related to the number of freezing day during the ice storm period. The NPP of forest area suffered heavy ice storm returned to normal status after five months with high temperature and ample moisture, indicated a high resilience of subtropical forest in China. The long-term changes of forest WUE remain stable, behaving an inherent sensitivity of ecosystem to extreme climate events. In addition, ground visits suggested that the recovery of forest productivity was attributed to rapid growth of understory. Understanding the variability and recovery threshold of ecosystem following extreme climate events help us to better simulate and predict the variability of ecosystem structure and function under current and future climate change.

  2. Improving Intercultural Education at Chinese Institutions from German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihe

    2015-01-01

    In this reflection paper, Lihe Huang describes his experience studying abroad in Germany as a visiting scholar. Through the well-designed introductory seminar and study tour arranged by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, which provided the grant for Huang's research on foreign languages teaching and intercultural education in Germany, he…

  3. High Temperature Mass Spectrometry of Liquid Nickel-Aluminum Alloys at 2000 K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    estimated at < 104 K/s. It is apparent that the maximum carbon segregation to the grain boundaries observed by Briant and Huang corresponds to the...rapidly solidified Ni3Al-C alloys. Scri. Metall., 17, 281-284. 32. Briant, C.L. and Huang, S.C. (1986). Carbon segregation to grain boundaries in

  4. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    8217News Analysis’ Examines START Accord [Wei Guoqiang, Huang Yong ; XINHUA 19 Jul] 2 Building of Strategic Missile Bases Reported [Beijing Radio...Domestic Service in Chinese 0312 GMT 19 Jul 91 [News analysis by XINHUA reporters Wei Guoqiang (7614 0948 1730) and Huang Yong (7806 0516): "How Did the

  5. Methods for Trustworthy Design of On-Chip Bus Interconnect for General-Purpose Processors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Technology Andrew Huang, was able to test the security properties of HyperTransport bus protocol on an Xbox [20]. In his research, he was able to...Huang. (2003). Hacking the Xbox : An introduction to reverse engineering (Unlimited). [Online]. Available: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip045

  6. On Tuning the Knobs of Distribution-Based Methods for Detecting VoIP Covert Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-04

    for use, because of the high bandwidth provided by the channels. However, Huang et al. [16] present a VoIP covert channel using steganography that...approximation theory. In Proc. of 49th IEEE FOCS, 2008. [16] Y F Huang, S Tang, and J Yuan. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by

  7. Ephedra and Its Application To Sport Performance: Another Concern for the Athletic Trainer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for the ergogenic claims regarding ma huang (ephedra), comparing these claims with data from searches of MEDLINE and SPORT Discus from 1970-00 and discussing the use of ephedra in athletic training. Results indicate that there are many serious side effects associated with using ma huang, and they far outweigh any possible…

  8. Protection by Purines in Toxin Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    21 (RC143), 1–6. Chen, H., Mosley, T.H., Alonso, A., Huang, X., 2009. Plasma urate and Parkinson’s disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities...Alonso, A.; Huang, X. Chicago: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; 2008. Plasma urate and parkinson’s disease in the atherosclerosis risk

  9. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Security Studies Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    CNBC’s “Strategy Session” and “The Wall Street Journal Report.” His most recent book, co-authored with Gregory T. Huang, Guanxi (The Art of...World War II: Was Spykman Right?” Security Studies, December 2005. Robert Buderi/Gregory T. Huang, Guanxi (The Art of Relationships): Microsoft, China

  10. Proceedings of the Annual RAND-China Reform Forum Conference (6th) Held in Beijing, China on August 28-29, 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Bijian Zheng and Charles Wolf, Jr. William Overholt, Angang Hu, Edward Leamer, Renwei Huang, Benjamin Zycher, Yuanlong Wang , K.C. Yeh, Fanzhang...Huang, John Despres, Gary Hufbauer, Harold Brown, Jisi Wang Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit...47 “The Status Quo and Prospect of China’s Banking Industry” by Wang Yuanlong

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Rand-China Reform Forum Conference (6th) held in Santa Monica, California on 28-29 August 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Hu, Edward Leamer, Renwei Huang, Benjamin Zycher, Yuanlong Wang , K.C. Yeh, Fanzhang Huang, John Despres, Gary Hufbauer, Harold Brown, Jisi Wang ...China’s Banking Industry” by Wang Yuanlong..............................................................53 “China’s Financial Sector: Challenges and...by Dr. Harold Brown...............................137 “New Elements In China-U.S. Strategic Relations” by Wang Jisi........141 ix AGENDA Conference

  12. Workflow-Management für organisationsübergreifende Datenübertragung am Beispiel des E-Learning-Systems der TUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa

    In diesem Paper werden im ersten Schritt die Voraussetzungen und Anforderungen für Workflow-Management zur Bereitstellung einer organisationsübergreifenden Datenübertragung ausgeführt. Weiter werden auf einfache Art und Weise die Grundlagen des Identity Managements (IDM) und der Provisionierung von Zielsystemen erläutert sowie die technischen Lösungsideen für die genannten Anforderungen eingeführt. Am Beispiel des E-Learning-Systems der TU München zeigen wir zwei Lösungsansätze. Zu jedem Lösungsansatz werden die technischen Workflows genauer betrachtet und der Funktionsumfang erläutert. Ein paar Uses Cases bei den Datenkonvertierungen, die sich auf die verschiedenen Identity-Management-Schnittstellen beziehen werden auch präsentiert. Am Ende schließt ein Vergleich der beiden Lösungsansätze die Analyse ab.

  13. Cornering Gapless Quantum States via Their Torus Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witczak-Krempa, William; Hayward Sierens, Lauren E.; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-02-01

    The entanglement entropy (EE) has emerged as an important window into the structure of complex quantum states of matter. We analyze the universal part of the EE for gapless systems on tori in 2D and 3D, denoted by χ . Focusing on scale-invariant systems, we derive general nonperturbative properties for the shape dependence of χ and reveal surprising relations to the EE associated with corners in the entangling surface. We obtain closed-form expressions for χ in 2D and 3D within a model that arises in the study of conformal field theories (CFTs), and we use them to obtain Ansätze without fitting parameters for the 2D and 3D free boson CFTs. Our numerical lattice calculations show that the Ansätze are highly accurate. Finally, we discuss how the torus EE can act as a fingerprint of exotic states such as gapless quantum spin liquids, e.g., Kitaev's honeycomb model.

  14. Some new solutions for the Derrida-Lebowitz-Speer-Spohn equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, J.; Romero, J. L.; Tracinà, R.

    2013-09-01

    The well-known Derrida-Lebowitz-Speer-Spohn equation is investigated. By using specific ansätze and the classical symmetries of the equation, several families of new exact solutions have been found. In particular, there appear traveling waves that include compactons and soliton-compactons. Some other solutions conserve the mass and exhibit diffusion and convection processes from an instantaneous source and localized peakons.

  15. Initial data for gravity coupled to scalar, electromagnetic, and Yang-Mills fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Viqar

    1999-02-01

    We give Ansätze for solving classically the initial value constraints of general relativity minimally coupled to a scalar field, electromagnetism, or Yang-Mills theory. The results include both time-symmetric and asymmetric data. The time-asymmetric examples are used to test Penrose's cosmic censorship inequality. We find that the inequality can be violated if only the weak energy condition holds.

  16. Context and Structure in Automated Full-Text Information Access

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-29

    interactions with my coauthors Anne Fontaine, Greg Grefenstette, David Palmer, Chris Plaunt, Philip Resnik , and Hinrich Schütze, and conference...19 2.5.2 Lexical Cohesion Relations The seminal linguistic work on lexical cohesion relations is that of Halliday & Hasan (1976). In a more...Following Halliday & Hasan (1976), they describe two forms of lexical cohesion, reiteration and collocation, where the former refers to repetition

  17. Erweiterung modellbasierter Segmentierung durch lokale Deformationskriterien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdt, Marius; Tulchiner, Roman; Sakas, Georgios

    Modellbasierte Ansätze sind heutzutage Stand der Technik zur automatischen Organsegmentierung in medizinischen Bilddatensätzen. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, welches die modellbasierte Segmentierung durch lokale Deformationskriterien erweitert, um eine bessere lokale Anpassung der Oberflächenmodelle an Bildstrukturen sowohl hoher als auch niedriger Frequenz zu erreichen. Die beschriebene Methode wird anhand von Computer-Tomographie Datensätzen der Niere beschrieben und evaluiert.

  18. Buried Target Detection using a 3-band LWIR Airborne Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-11

    0(17180%(5 G352-(&7180%(5 H7$6.180%(5 I :25.81,7180%(5 6321625021,725 65(3257 180%(5 6 6(&85,7<&/$66,),&$7,212...Gradient (Sobel) and Si /Sh T l tze ape emp a es Sobel operator with template matching d d i i h S b lE ge etect on w t o e operator Annular

  19. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-09-15

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles.

  20. Vulnerability Assessment Tools for Complex Information Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Takehiro Takahashi No Cliff Zou No Yong Huang No Jie Sun No Sheng Xiao No Yan Cai No Songlin Cai No Hanping Feng No Jonathan Lee No X.C. Lin No Jinghua Hu...Transactions on Modeling and Simulation, 2004. 31. Yongguang Zhang, Wenke Lee, and Yi-an Huang , “Intrusion Detection Techniques for Mobile Wireless Networks...Energy-Efficient Wireless Networks with Real-Time Constraints", Proc. of 45th IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, pp. 2997-3002, Dec. 2006. 29. Y. Huang , W

  1. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  2. Combustion-Supporting Effect of Common Carbonous Solid Waste on Anthracites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Ren, Shan; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhou, Yun; Meng, Fanyi; Su, Buxin

    2012-08-01

    In order to study the combustion characteristics of anthracite with additives, the influence of common carbonous solid waste (CSW) on anthracite is studied by thermogravimetry. The results show that appropriate CSW additives mixed with pulverized coal (PC) at PZH Steel can promote the combustion of PC and increase the burning ratio of anthracite greatly. The greater the additive content, the higher the burning ratio at the same conditions. The dynamics models show that the particle size of CSW additives, oxygen concentration, and the diffusion coefficient of oxygen are all very influential for their combustion characteristics. The heat of CSW combustion is absorbed by coal powder, and it consists of part of the coal powder accumulated heat. Then, accumulated heat is higher than dissipation heat ahead of time, so CSW can support combustion of coal powder effectively.

  3. New structural forms in molecular metal phosphonates: novel tri- and hexanuclear zinc(II) cages containing phosphonate and pyrazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Kingsley, Savariraj; Rhatigan, Brian; Lam, Matthew K; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2002-03-11

    The reaction of ZnCl(2) with tert-butylphosphonic acid and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole in the presence of triethylamine as a hydrogen chloride scavenger affords a trinuclear molecular zinc phosphonate [Zn(3)Cl(2)(3,5-Me(2)Pz)(4)(t-BuPO(3))(2)]. The structure of this compound contains a planar trizinc assembly containing two bicapping mu(3) [t-BuPO(3)](2-) ligands and terminal pyrazole and chloride ligands. In contrast an analogous reaction of ZnCl(2) with phenylphosphonic acid and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole affords a hexanuclear zinc phosphonate [Zn(6)Cl(4)(3,5-Me(2)PzH)(8)(PhPO(3))(4)]. The six zinc centers are arranged in a chairlike conformation. The four phosphonates in this complex also act as bridging tripodal mu(3) [RPO(3)](2-) ligands.

  4. Direct C-N Coupling in an in Situ Ligand Transformation and the Self-Assembly of a Tetrametallic [Ni(II)4] Staircase.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aloke Kumar; Singha Mahapatra, Tufan; Clérac, Rodolphe; Mathonière, Corine; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ray, Debashis

    2015-06-01

    A [Ni(II)4] staircase complex was serendipitously prepared from the reaction of the binucleating Schiff base proligand 2,6-bis[[(3-hydroxypropyl)imino]methyl]-4-methylphenol (H3L2) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (Me2pzH) with nickel(II) nitrate in a reaction at room temperature, initially aimed to yield a dinuclear complex. From a room temperature metal ion/ligand reaction, the proligand H3L2 in situ transformed to modified forms HL3(2-) and HL4(2-), allowing the [Ni4] formation. Variable-temperature magnetic behavior of a [Ni4] complex reveals antiferromagnetic interactions with stabilization of a diamagnetic ground state (ST = 0).

  5. Luminescent rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with pyrazolylamidino ligands: photophysical, electrochemical, and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Iglesias, Patricia; Guyon, Fabrice; Khatyr, Abderrahim; Ulrich, Gilles; Knorr, Michael; Martín-Alvarez, Jose Miguel; Miguel, Daniel; Villafañe, Fernando

    2015-10-28

    New pyrazolylamidino complexes fac-[ReCl(CO)3(NH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)] (pz*H = pyrazole, pzH; 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, dmpzH; indazole, indzH) and fac-[ReBr(CO)3(NH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(Ph)pz*-κ(2)N,N)] are synthesized via base-catalyzed coupling of the appropriate nitrile with pyrazole, or via metathesis by halide abstraction with AgBF4 from a bromido pyrazolylamidino complex and the subsequent addition of LiCl. In order to study both the influence of the substituents present at the pyrazolylamidino ligand, and that of the "sixth" ligand in the complex, photophysical, electrochemical, and computational studies have been carried out on this series and other complexes previously described by us, of the general formula fac-[ReL(CO)3(NH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(R')pz*-κ(2)N,N)](n+) (L = Cl, Br; R' = Me, Ph, n = 0; or L = NCMe, dmpzH, indzH, R' = Me, n = 1). All complexes exhibit phosphorescent decays from a prevalently (3)MLCT excited state with quantum yields (Φ) in the range between 0.007 and 0.039, and long lifetimes (τ∼ 8-1900 ns). The electrochemical study reveals irreversible reduction for all complexes. The oxidation of the neutral complexes was found to be irreversible due to halido-dissociation, whereas the cationic species display a reversible process implying the ReI/ReII couple. Density functional and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations provide a reasonable trend for the values of emission energies in line with the experimental photophysical data, supporting the (3)MLCT based character of the emissions.

  6. Creatine

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss. Inherited nerve damage (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy). Early research in people with inherited nerve damage ... concern that combining creatine with caffeine and the herb ephedra (also called Ma Huang) might increase the ...

  7. 77 FR 24968 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Scholarly Works G13. Date: July 11, 2012... Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Zoe H. Huang, MD,...

  8. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... and should be avoided: Artemesia Atractylis gummifera Bush tea Callilepsis laureola Chapparal leaf (creosote bush, greasewood) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Crotalaria Germander Gordolobo herbal tea Heliotropium Jin-Bu-Huang Kava (Piper methysticum) Kombucha ...

  9. Chinese Cyber Espionage: A Complementary Method to Aid PLA Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    States of upholding individual intellectual or private property 106 Eugene Kaspersky, “The Most...Berkowitz, Bob Boorstin, Jeff A. Brueggeman, Peter Cleveland, Esther Dyson, Martha Finnemore, Patrick Gorman, Michael V. Hayden, Eugene J. Huang

  10. Mystery #24 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... MISR Mystery Image Quiz #24 : Shandong Province, China     View Larger Image ... Qin Shi Huang. 3.   Sedimentation and industrial pollution in the river whose outlet is near the top of the image has dampened ...

  11. A mysterious blood pressure increase in a drilling Naval reservist.

    PubMed

    Wettach, George E; Falvey, Shelley G

    2002-06-01

    This is a case report of a reservist who presented for a physical examination with hypertension. It was discovered that the reservist was unknowingly taking large doses of Ephedra sinica, or ma huang, a Chinese herbal supplement, for body-building. One of the ingredients in ma huang is ephedrine, an active alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulant that produces increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output. Ma huang has been reported to cause hypertension, hepatitis, nephrolithiasis, and sudden death in healthy, normotensive people. Ma huang will produce a positive urinary drug screen for stimulants and can be a drug of abuse. A recommendation is made to screen for dangerous supplement use before physical readiness training and to stop the supplement for 1 month before beginning any exercise program.

  12. Acquistion of High Resolution Electroencephalogram Systems for Advancing Brain-Machine Interaction Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-21

    measurement of human brain activities at high spatial-temporal resolution in both laboratory and real-life environments. Our long-term vision is to develop...state-of-the-art Biosemi Active Two EEG device to enable real-time measurement of brain 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13...ARO 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Yufei Huang Yufei Huang 206022 c . THIS PAGE The

  13. Role of Polyamine Oxidase (PAOh1/SMO) in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Huang Y, Hacker A, Woster PM, Casero RA, and Davidson NE. Proc AACR. Page 1224, 2004 Publications: Spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1), not N1...Hacker A, Zhang Z, Woster PM, Davidson NE, and Casero RA Jr. J Biol Chem, 280: 39843-41, 2005. Page 8 Presentations: The role of spermine oxidase...perspective of polyamine metabolism. Biochem J. 376: 1-14, 2003. 2. Huang Y, Pledgie A, Casero RA, and Davidson NE. Molecular mechanisms of polyamine

  14. Role of Polyamine Oxidase (PAOH1/SMO) in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    activity in human breast cancer cell lines. Pledgie A, Huang Y, Hacker A, Woster PM, Casero RA, and Davidson NE. Proc AACR. Page 1224, 2004...polyamine metabolism. Biochem J. 376: 1-14, 2003. 2. Huang Y, Pledgie A, Casero RA, and Davidson NE. Molecular mechanisms of polyamine analogs in cancer...Devereux W, Hacker A, Frydman B, Woster PM, and Casero RA. Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO. Biochem Biophys Res

  15. Real-Time Head Pose Estimation Using a WEBCAM: Monocular Adaptive View-Based Appearance Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Huang (2006). Graph embedded analysis for head pose estimation. In Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition , pp. 3–8. Fu, Y. and T...of human- computer and human-robot interaction. Possible appli- cations include novel computer input devices (Fu and Huang, 2007), head gesture ... recognition , driver fatigue recognition systems (Baker et al., 2004), attention aware- ness for intelligent tutoring systems, and social interac- tion

  16. Chinese Journal of Space Science (Selected Articles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-05

    F at Haikou and Huancayo Stations; by Han Fufen, Huang Changli.................... )1 -4Frequency p~ediction by Q~’iquej nogram.,by Zhao Delin...IN SPREAD-F AT HAIKOU AND HUANCAYO STATIONS Han Fufen and Huang Changli China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation Abstract The paper...vatriations. Comparisons were made between the Haikou and the Huancayo stations; differences are pointed out in frequency spread-F at these two stations. I

  17. A New Direction for China’s Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Sichuan Province, where SAIC is headquartered. See Chen Lan, “Xie Shijie, Zhang Zhongwei Address, Huang Yinki Presides, at Seminar Held by Provincial...Itself as a Business Empire,” Wall Street Journal, May 24, 1994. Chen Lan, “Xie Shijie, Zhang Zhongwei Address, Huang Yinki Presides, at Seminar Held...p. 1, as translated in FBIS, March 8, 2003. As of Sep- tember 2004, the new head of the GAD is General Chen Bingde. 5 These three broad pathways

  18. Guerrilla Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Quartermaster Corps REPRODUCTION OF THIS DOCUMENT IN WHOLE OR IN PART IS PROHIBITED EXCEPT WITH PERMISSION OF THE COMMANDANT, US ARMY WAR COLLEGE...360 B.C. , when Emperor Huang was engaged in a protracted conflict with Tsi Yao, the leader of the Miao race. It was Emperor Huang who...Warfare. New York - Washington: Penguin Books, Inc., 1942. (U240 L4) (A detailed account of guerrilla methods of fighting—practical guide for small

  19. A Novel Anti-Beta2-Microglobulin Antibody Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Expression, Survival, and Progression in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-31

    expression and survival through a lipogenic pathway in prostate cancer Wen-Chin Huang, Guodong Zhu , Haiyen E. Zhau and Leland W. K. Chung Emory...Clinical Cancer Research Online (http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/). Requests for reprints: Wen-Chin Huang or Leland W.K. Chung , Molecular Urology...Konaka H, Sodek J, Zhau HE, Chung LW. Human Osteocalcin and Bone Sialoprotein Mediating Osteomimicry of Prostate Cancer Cells: Role of cAMP

  20. Human Leukocyte Antigen-DQ8 Transgenic Mice: A Model to Examine the Toxicity of Aerosolized Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-30

    enterotoxins: a novel model for superantigen vaccines. J. Infect. Dis. 185:1754–1760. 12. Edling, A. E., S. Choksi, Z . Huang, and R. Korngold. 2001. Effect of...D. L. Hoover, W. R. Bryne , J. A. Pavlin, G. W. Christopher, and E. M. Eitzen, Jr. 1997. Clinical recognition and management of patients exposed to...Gao, T. Satoh, T. M. Friedman, A. E. Edling, U. Koch, S. Choksi, X. Han, R. Korngold, and Z . Huang. 1997. A computer screening approach to

  1. Shared Displays: An Overview of Perceptual and Cognitive Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    to help users integrate and manage information from a wide range of sources ( Mynatt , Huang, Voite, & MacIntyre, 2003). There are potential...a shared display to facilitate SA. The command elements are in agreement – rapid, shared SA is a high priority. Mynatt et al. (2003) have...Conference, 305. Mynatt , E. D., Huang, E. M., Voida, S., MacIntyre, B. (2003). Large displays for knowledge work. In O’Hara, K., Perry, M., Churchill

  2. Incremental Syntactic Language Models for Phrase-Based Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    al., 2006; Liu et al., 2007; Mi et al., 2008; Mi and Huang, 2008; Huang and Mi, 2010), tree-to-tree (Abeillé et al., 1990; Shieber and Schabes , 1990...properties of the right-corner transform that limit the number of decisions between successive time steps. 628 References Anne Abeillé, Yves Schabes ...Stuart M. Shieber and Yves Schabes . 1990. Synchronous tree adjoining grammars. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computational Linguis

  3. Cause-Effect Dynamics of Computer and Network Systems for QoS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Systems for QoS Paper ID: 967 Nong Ye, Steve Yau, Dazhi Huang, Mustafa Baydogan, Billibaldo Martinez Aranda , and Auttawut Roontiva School... Aranda , and Hurley and actions of QoS configuration and adaptation. However, models of such activity-state-QoS relations are not readily...experiment Ye, Yau, Huang, Baydogan, Roontiva, Aranda , and Hurley stands alone without connections with any other computer and network system to avoid

  4. Molecular authentication and quality control using a high performance liquid chromatography technique of Fructus Evodiae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Li, Shun Xiang; Cai, Guang Xian; Yue, Chun Hua; Wei, Li Jun; Zhang, Ping

    2008-02-01

    In present paper, the properties of molecular authentication combined with the fingerprints of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were validated by analyzing ten batches of Fructus Evodiae samples (the dried nearly ripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH., Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG or Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG). The results of this investigation show that the similarities of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were almost 100% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG, 97% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH., and 96% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG. The percentage of identity between the two groups of Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG and Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG is almost 96%, but the identity among the group of these three species is only 73%. The results show that Fructus Evodiae comes from three species respectively. The fingerprints of HPLC show that Fructus Evodiae revealed 20 major common peaks. And the three species have almost the same chemical constituents. ITS sequence fingerprint combining the fingerprint of HPLC can not only be developed to identify and distinguish the three species in detail, but also can be used for optimizing location where Fructus Evodiae has much higher bioactive constituents and yield.

  5. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Yu; Lai, Jung-Nien; Hsu, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given as a therapy for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods. The use of TCM for type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 77.9% (n = 31,289) of type 2 diabetic patients utilized TCM and 13.9% (n = 4,351) of them used TCM for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Among the top ten most frequently prescribed herbal formulae, four remedies, Zhi-Bo-Di-Huang-Wan, Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan and Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan are derivative formulae of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan. In other words, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan and its derivatives were found to be the most common herbal formulae prescribed by TCM doctors for the treatment of diabetes in Taiwan. Conclusion. Although some evidence does support the use TCM to treat diabetes, the results from the current study may have been confounded by placebo effect, which emphasize the need for well conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in order to further evaluate the efficacy of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan on patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23843864

  6. Schwinger mechanism in linear covariant gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we explore the applicability of a special gluon mass generating mechanism in the context of the linear covariant gauges. In particular, the implementation of the Schwinger mechanism in pure Yang-Mills theories hinges crucially on the inclusion of massless bound-state excitations in the fundamental nonperturbative vertices of the theory. The dynamical formation of such excitations is controlled by a homogeneous linear Bethe-Salpeter equation, whose nontrivial solutions have been studied only in the Landau gauge. Here, the form of this integral equation is derived for general values of the gauge-fixing parameter, under a number of simplifying assumptions that reduce the degree of technical complexity. The kernel of this equation consists of fully dressed gluon propagators, for which recent lattice data are used as input, and of three-gluon vertices dressed by a single form factor, which is modeled by means of certain physically motivated Ansätze. The gauge-dependent terms contributing to this kernel impose considerable restrictions on the infrared behavior of the vertex form factor; specifically, only infrared finite Ansätze are compatible with the existence of nontrivial solutions. When such Ansätze are employed, the numerical study of the integral equation reveals a continuity in the type of solutions as one varies the gauge-fixing parameter, indicating a smooth departure from the Landau gauge. Instead, the logarithmically divergent form factor displaying the characteristic "zero crossing," while perfectly consistent in the Landau gauge, has to undergo a dramatic qualitative transformation away from it, in order to yield acceptable solutions. The possible implications of these results are briefly discussed.

  7. Melnikov's method in String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuhma; Kyono, Hideki; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-09-01

    Melnikov's method is an analytical way to show the existence of classical chaos generated by a Smale horseshoe. It is a powerful technique, though its applicability is somewhat limited. In this paper, we present a solution of type IIB supergravity to which Melnikov's method is applicable. This is a brane-wave type deformation of the AdS5×S5 background. By employing two reduction ansätze, we study two types of coupled pendulum-oscillator systems. Then the Melnikov function is computed for each of the systems by following the standard way of Holmes and Marsden and the existence of chaos is shown analytically.

  8. The NPT and Iran: A Case of Domestic and Bureaucratic Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    to support tze . obJectr\\ e was somewnat slow to get up ant runnmg, u- r 199’ an NIT Tas c Yc:ce XX as formed to brmg toget lcr tr e agencies Iin...of of-ier countries to adopt slrnl-ar m;a;ures ;Ieant that contammen- M as nor 1% orsmg to change Iranian beha\\ nor 8 ,hls r -a\\+ m U S pohcy was a:so...replacement of the current regrme m Iran r ’9 Farlure of me U S to persuade otter countrtes to adopt a tougher pohcy toward Iran and the emerging

  9. Nichtlineare Rauschmodellierung von LC Tank VCOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, T.; Bremer, J.-K.; Mathis, W.

    2008-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein alternativer Ansatz zur Phasenrauschoptimierung von LC-Tank Oszillatoren (VCOs) unter Verwendung stochastischer Differentialgleichungen vorgestellt. Zunächst werden die linearen Ansätze von Leeson, Hajimiri und Lee analysiert und bewertet. Danach wird ein Konzept vorgestellt, mit dem man die Rauscheigenschaften von VCOs auf der Grundlage stochastischer Differentialgleichungen und Fokker-Planck-Gleichungen untersuchen kann. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist eine Beschreibung des Phasenrauschens auf der Basis einer nichtlinearen Rauschmodellierung, welche Parameter eines VCOs für eine Optimierung beinhaltet. Es wurde ein Matlab-Tool erstellt und die Funktionalität anhand von Simulationen verifiziert.

  10. Integrierte Segmentierung und Trajektorienberechnung mittels diffeomorpher Registrierung in räumlich-zeitlichen CT-Bildfolgen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Handels, Heinz

    Verfahren zur integrierten Segmentierung und Registrierung von 4D-Bilddaten ermöglichen die Berücksichtigung der gegenseitigen Abhängigkeiten beider Komponenten. Bestehende Ansätze konzentrieren sich dabei meist auf die Betrachtung zweier 3D-Bilder und lassen sich nicht direkt auf vollständige Bildfolgen übertragen. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, in dem ein diffeomorpher Registrierungsansatz verwendet wird, um eine integrierte Berechnung von Segmentierungen und 3D-Voxeltrajektorien in 4D-Daten zu ermöglichen.

  11. Chaos in the BMN matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuhma; Kawai, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2015-06-01

    We study classical chaotic motions in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model. For this purpose, it is convenient to focus upon a reduced system composed of two-coupled anharmonic oscillators by supposing an ansatz. We examine three ansätze: 1) two pulsating fuzzy spheres, 2) a single Coulomb-type potential, and 3) integrable fuzzy spheres. For the first two cases, we show the existence of chaos by computing Poincaré sections and a Lyapunov spectrum. The third case leads to an integrable system. As a result, the BMN matrix model is not integrable in the sense of Liouville, though there may be some integrable subsectors.

  12. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  13. Virtual photon structure functions and the parton content of the electron

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, M. ); Godbole, R.M. )

    1994-09-01

    We point out that in processes involving the parton content of the photon the usual effective photon approximation should be modified. The reason is that the parton content of virtual photons is logarithmically suppressed compared to real photons. We describe this suppression using several simple, physically motivated [ital Ansa]$[ital uml---tze]. Although the parton content of the electron in general no longer factorizes into an electron flux function and a photon structure function, it can still be expressed as a single integral. Numerical examples are given for the [ital e][sup +][ital e][sup [minus

  14. Model-independent analysis of quark mass matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, D.; Sarkar, U.

    1989-06-01

    In view of the apparent inconsistency of the Stech, Fritzsch-Stech, and Fritzsch-Shin models and only marginal agreement of the Fritzsch and modified Fritzsch-Stech models with recent data on /ital B//sub /ital d///sup 0/-/bar B/ /sub /ital d///sup 0/ mixing, we analyze the general quark mass matrices for three generations. Phenomenological considerations restrict the range of parameters involved to different sectors. In the present framework, the constraints corresponding to various /ital Ansa/$/ital uml/---/ital tze/ have been discussed.

  15. Variational methods in supersymmetric lattice field theory: The vacuum sector

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Meyer-Ortmanns, H.; Roskies, R.

    1987-12-15

    The application of variational methods to the computation of the spectrum in supersymmetric lattice theories is considered, with special attention to O(N) supersymmetric sigma models. Substantial cancellations are found between bosonic and fermionic contributions even in approximate Ansa$uml: tze for the vacuum wave function. The nonlinear limit of the linear sigma model is studied in detail, and it is shown how to construct an appropriate non-Gaussian vacuum wave function for the nonlinear model. The vacuum energy is shown to be of order unity in lattice units in the latter case, after infinite cancellations.

  16. Workplace learning: an analysis of students' expectations of learning on the ward in the Department of Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hintergrund: Innerhalb der medizinischen Ausbildung angehender Ärzte kommt dem Lernen am späteren Arbeitsplatz als praxisrelevante Vorbereitung auf die spätere ärztliche Tätigkeit eine entscheidende Rolle zu. Doch studentische Stationseinsätze sind aufgrund verdichteter Arbeitsabläufe auf Station und Arbeitsbelastung der betreuenden Stationsärzte problembehaftet. Erstmals werden hier im deutschsprachigen Raum die studentischen Erwartungen und Befürchtungen im Hinblick auf die Stationseinsätze im klinischen Studienabschnitt für den Fachbereich der Inneren Medizin untersucht.Methodik: 28 Medizinstudierende des 6. Semesters der Medizinischen Fakultät Heidelberg (m=8; w=20; Ø 23,6 Jahre) nahmen 3-5 Tage vor ihrem Stationseinsatz in der Inneren Medizin verteilt auf vier Fokusgruppen an jeweils einer Fokusgruppenanalyse teil. Die Protokolle wurden transkribiert und inhaltsanalytisch auf der Grundlage der Grounded Theory ausgewertet.Ergebnisse: Es wurden insgesamt 489 relevante Einzelaussagen erfasst: Die Studierenden wünschen sich eine gelungene Integration auf Station, verlässliche und unterstützende ärztliche Betreuer und eine Betreuung in kleinen Gruppen; sie erwarten sich die häufigsten Krankheitsbilder kennenzulernen, die wichtigsten ärztlichen Fertigkeiten zu trainieren, Verantwortung für eigene Patienten zu übernehmen und eine eigene ärztliche Identität zu entwickeln. Die Studierenden befürchten einen zu knappen zeitlichen Rahmen, zu wenig Patientenkontakt und eine mangelhafte ärztliche Betreuung.Schlussfolgerung: Bei der Entwicklung und Standardisierung effektiver studentischer Stationseinsätze sollte der ärztlichen Betreuung und Supervision durch professionell geschulte und gut vorbereitete ärztliche Dozenten höchste Relevanz zukommen, was einen erheblichen Mehraufwand an personellen und finanziellen Ressourcen bedeutet. Es bedarf strukturell gelungener Rahmenbedingungen, die es ermöglichen, den Studierenden frühzeitig und

  17. Blue-emitting platinum(II) complexes bearing both pyridylpyrazolate chelate and bridging pyrazolate ligands: synthesis, structures, and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Jing-Lin; Chi, Yun; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Jiang, Chang-Ming; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2007-12-24

    A new Pt(II) dichloride complex [Pt(fppzH)Cl2] (1), in which fppzH = 3-(trifluoromethyl)-5-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole, was prepared by the treatment of a pyridylpyrazole chelate fppzH with K2PtCl4 in aqueous HCl solution. Complex 1 could further react with its parent pyrazole (pzH), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (dmpzH), or 3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazole (dbpzH) to afford the monometallic [Pt(fppz)(pzH)Cl] (2), [Pt(fppz)(dmpzH)Cl] (3), [Pt(fppz)(dmpzH)2]Cl (4), or two structural isomers with formula [Pt(fppz)(dbpzH)Cl] (5a,b). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 2, 4, and 5a,b revealed a square planar Pt(II) framework, among which a strong interligand hydrogen bonding occurred between fppz and pzH ligands in 2. This interligand H-bonding is replaced by dual N-H...Cl interaction in 4 and both intermolecular N-H...O (with THF solvate) and N-H...Cl interaction in 5a,b, respectively; the latter are attributed to the bulky tert-butyl substituents that force the dbpzH ligand to adopt the perpendicular arrangement. Furthermore, complex 2 underwent rapid deprotonation in basic media to afford two isomeric complexes with formula [Pt(fppz)(mu-pz)]2 (6a,b), which are related to each other according to the spatial orientation of the fppz chelates, i.e., trans- and cis-isomerism. Similar reaction exerted on 3 afforded isomers 7a,b. Both 6a,b (7a,b) are essentially nonemissive in room-temperature fluid state but afford strong blue phosphorescence in solid state prepared via either vacuum-deposited thin film or 77 K CH2Cl2 matrix. As also supported by the computational approaches, the nature of emission has been assigned to be ligand-centered triplet pipi* mixed with certain metal-to-ligand charge-transfer character.

  18. Variation of exciton-vibrational coupling in photosystem II core complexes from Thermosynechococcus elongatus as revealed by single-molecule spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Skandary, Sepideh; Hussels, Martin; Konrad, Alexander; Renger, Thomas; Müh, Frank; Bommer, Martin; Zouni, Athina; Meixner, Alfred J; Brecht, Marc

    2015-03-19

    The spectral properties and dynamics of the fluorescence emission of photosystem II core complexes are investigated by single-molecule spectroscopy at 1.6 K. The emission spectra are dominated by sharp zero-phonon lines (ZPLs). The sharp ZPLs are the result of weak to intermediate exciton-vibrational coupling and slow spectral diffusion. For several data sets, it is possible to surpass the effect of spectral diffusion by applying a shifting algorithm. The increased signal-to-noise ratio enables us to determine the exciton-vibrational coupling strength (Huang-Rhys factor) with high precision. The Huang-Rhys factors vary between 0.03 and 0.8. The values of the Huang-Rhys factors show no obvious correlation between coupling strength and wavelength position. From this result, we conclude that electrostatic rather than exchange or dispersive interactions are the main contributors to the exciton-vibrational coupling in this system.

  19. Computational study of bindings of olive leaf extract (OLE) to HIV-1 fusion protein gp41.

    PubMed

    Bao, J; Zhang, D W; Zhang, J Z H; Huang, P Lee; Huang, P Lin; Lee-Huang, S

    2007-06-12

    Recent experimental study found that OLE (olive leaf extract) has anti-HIV activity by blocking the HIV virus entry to host cells [Lee-Huang, S., Zhang, L., Huang, P.L., Chang, Y. and Huang, P.L. (2003) Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) and modulation of host cell gene expression by HIV-1 infection and OLE treatment. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 1029; Lee-Huang, S., Huang, P.L., Zhang, D., Lee, J.W., Bao, J., Sun, Y., Chang, Y.-Tae, Zhang, J.Z.H. and Huang, P.L. (2007) Discovery of small-molecule HIV-1 fusion and integrase inhibitors oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 354, 872-878, 879-884]. As part of a joint experimental and theoretical effort, we report here computational study to help identify and characterize the binding complexes of several main compounds of OLE (olive leaf extract) to HIV-1 envelop protein gp41. A number of possible binding modes are found by docking oleuropein and its metabolites, aglycone, elenolic acid and hydroxytyrosol, onto the hydrophobic pocket on gp41. Detailed OLE-gp41 binding interactions and free energies of binding are obtained through molecular dynamics simulation and MM-PBSA calculation. Specific molecular interactions in our predicted OLE/gp41 complexes are identified and hydroxytyrosol is identified to be the main moiety for binding to gp41. This computational study complements the corresponding experimental investigation and helps establish a good starting point for further refinement of OLE-based gp41 inhibitors.

  20. Theoretical Issues in Adaptive Set-Membership-Based Signal Processing. 1991 Year End Report of Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-20

    time dependent scalar, A, _(t) A,(t) - Vt < n- (7) ((n-I) - ((.) is a scaling sequence which depends on the nature of the method. A common use for such...in particular QR-WRLS, let us henceforth restrict our attention to weight sequences which conform to the simple forms of time variance described in... sequences , (’), used in creating time varying weights. Fogel and Huang’s original OBE algorithm (henceforth called Fogel-Huang OBE) (61, and the more recent

  1. Mechanism of RhoB/FTI Action in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    Cancer Research describing work on cyclin B1 as a proapoptotic effector target for RhoB signaling (Kamasani, U., Huang, M., DuHadaway, J ., Prochownik...disease: a potential new marker for small breast carcinomas with metastatic ability. Am. J . Pathol. 2002; 160: 579-584. 3. Liu, A-X, Rane, N, Liu, J -P...USA 2001; 98: 6192-6197. 16a. Kamasani, U., Huang, M., DuHadaway, J ., Prochownik, E.V., Donover, P.S. and Prendergast, G.C. Cyclin B1 is a critical

  2. Signal Processing Methods Monitor Cranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Norden Huang, of Goddard Space Flight Center, invented a set of algorithms (called the Hilbert-Huang Transform, or HHT) for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary signals that developed into a user-friendly signal processing technology for analyzing time-varying processes. At an auction managed by Ocean Tomo Federal Services LLC, licenses of 10 U.S. patents and 1 domestic patent application related to HHT were sold to DynaDx Corporation, of Mountain View, California. DynaDx is now using the licensed NASA technology for medical diagnosis and prediction of brain blood flow-related problems, such as stroke, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.

  3. Beta 2-Microglobulin: A Novel Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Human Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-14

    Odero-Marah V, Lue HW, Nomura T, Wang R, Chu G, Huang WC, and Chung LWK. (2008). Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Human Prostate...Cancer: Lessons Learned from ARCaP Model. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis. 25 (6):601-10, 2008. 4. Odero-Marah V, Wang R, Chu G, Xu J, Shi C...6198-206. 3. Zhau HE, Odero-Marah V, Lue HW, Nomura T, Wang R, Chu G, Huang WC, and Chung LWK. (2008). Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT

  4. MRI-Derived Cellularity Index as a Potential Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Reiter, R.E., Marks, L., Kesari, S., Mundt, A.J., Kane, C.J., Carter, B.S., Bradley , W.G., and Dale, A.M. Diffusion- Weighted Imaging in Cancer...Parsons, J.K., Choi, H.W., Liss, M.A., Kuperman, J.M., Schenker-Ahmed, N., Bartsch, H., Mattrey, R.F., Bradley , W.G., Shabaik, A., Huang, J., Margolis...J.M, Bartsch, H., Choi, H.W., Mattrey, R.F., Bradley , W.G., Shabaik, A., Huang, J., Margolis, D.J., Raman, S.S., Marks, L., Kane, C.J., Reiter, R.E

  5. Development of a Magnetospheric Specification Model. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-30

    2 [DY(L)] 2 I (y L) 2 .. IID Y (L)]T B(L) = (2.4-1 b)B (xL z - [DX(L)] 2 2.4.2.4. Calculation of A, B, DX, DY for Ellipse 1. As discussed in section...Huang and Frank [1986]. We choose values consistent with z = 0, i.e., as close as possible to the center of the central plasma sheet. We associate AE...Huang and Frank [19861. We choose values consistent with z = 0, i.e., as close as possible to the center of the central plasma sheet. We associate AE

  6. System Considerations in the Design of Residue Processors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    MANDEVILLE , J E GOODMAN AFOSR-77-3219 UNCLASSIFIED SU-SEL-79G008 AFOSR-TR-81-0744 NL 2 ffffffffffff AFOSR-TR. 8 -074 A LEVEL/v SEL-79-008 SYSTM...CONSIDERAT IONS IN THE DESIGN OF RESIDUE PROCESSORS Alan Huang Jon Mandeville Joseph W. Goodman Ott Satoshi Ishihara ,W. March 1979 This manuscript is...GRANT NUMBERIs) Alan Huang, Jon Mandeville , AFOSR-77-3219 Joseph W. Goodman, S. Ishihara 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Programming Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    4 Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Prog ramm in(I Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions by A. Chames Z. M. Huang J. J. Rousseau 0. B. Sun 0. L...Report 606 Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Programming: Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions by A. Chames Z. M. Huang J. J. Rousseau D. B. Sun...permitted for any purpose of the U.S. Govemement. Tr% C CENTER FOR CYBERNETIC STUDIES cV- A. Chames , Director V 3 D 1 College of Business Administration

  8. Finite-temperature time-dependent variation with multiple Davydov states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang

    2017-03-28

    The Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational approach with Davydov Ansätze is a sophisticated, yet efficient technique to obtain an accurate solution to many-body Schrödinger equations for energy and charge transfer dynamics in molecular aggregates and light-harvesting complexes. We extend this variational approach to finite temperature dynamics of the spin-boson model by adopting a Monte Carlo importance sampling method. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we compare calculated real-time quantum dynamics of the spin-boson model with that from numerically exact iterative quasiadiabatic propagator path integral (QUAPI) technique. The comparison shows that our variational approach with the single Davydov Ansätze is in excellent agreement with the QUAPI method at high temperatures, while the two differ at low temperatures. Accuracy in dynamics calculations employing a multitude of Davydov trial states is found to improve substantially over the single Davydov Ansatz, especially at low temperatures. At a moderate computational cost, our variational approach with the multiple Davydov Ansatz is shown to provide accurate spin-boson dynamics over a wide range of temperatures and bath spectral densities.

  9. Natural constraints on the gluon-quark vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binosi, Daniele; Chang, Lei; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.

    2017-02-01

    In principle, the strong-interaction sector of the standard model is characterized by a unique renormalization-group-invariant (RGI) running interaction and a unique form for the dressed-gluon-quark vertex, Γμ; but, whilst much has been learnt about the former, the latter is still obscure. In order to improve this situation, we use a RGI running-interaction that reconciles top-down and bottom-up analyses of the gauge sector in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to compute dressed-quark gap equation solutions with 1,660,000 distinct Ansätze for Γμ. Each one of the solutions is then tested for compatibility with three physical criteria and, remarkably, we find that merely 0.55% of the solutions survive the test. Evidently, even a small selection of observables places extremely tight bounds on the domain of realistic vertex Ansätze. This analysis and its results should prove useful in constraining insightful contemporary studies of QCD and hadronic phenomena.

  10. Schlusswort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Michael; Reinhardt, Andreas

    Im Rahmen des BMBF-Verbundprojektes ProMoLeS wurde bereits zu Projektbeginn der Industriearbeitskreis Montagelösungen für die Leistungselektronik" gegründet, welcher unter der organisatorischen und fachlichen Leitung vom bayerischen Cluster Leistungselektronik im ECPE e.V. eine Plattform für den Austausch zwischen Unternehmen der Leistungselektronik bietet. Ziel des Industriearbeitskreises ist es daher, mit neuen und innovativen Lösungen einen Beitrag zur Sicherung der Montagearbeitsplätze am Standort Deutschland zu leisten. Der Arbeitskreis richtet sich an Fach- und Führungskräfte von Unternehmen, die leistungselektronische Systeme oder deren Komponenten entwickeln und herstellen: Entwicklungsingenieure, Fertigungsplaner, Fertigungstechnologen, Fertigungsleiter, Arbeitsorganisatoren, Qualitätsbeauftragte sowie Wissenschaftler an Hochschulen, die auf den genannten Gebieten arbeiten. Ziel und Zweck des Arbeitskreises ist es, Wissen und Erfahrung auszutauschen, persönliche Kontakte von Fachleuten zwischen Unternehmen und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen zu verstärken, Kooperationen in dem Gebieten der Entwicklung, Fertigung, Logistik oder Qualifizierung aufzubauen, strategisch relevante Themen zu erkennen und gemeinsame Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekte zu initiieren. Damit soll die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Unternehmen verbessert und Arbeitsplätze am Standort gesichert werden.

  11. Special symmetric quark mass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Marcos, J. I.

    1998-12-01

    We give a procedure to construct a special class of symmetric quark mass matrices near the democratic limit of equal Yukawa couplings for each sector. It is shown that within appropriate weak-bases, the requirements of symmetry and arg[det(M)]=0 are very strong conditions, that necessarily lead to a Cabibbo angle given by Vus=sqrt(md/ms), and to Vcb~ms/mb, in first order. In addition, we prove that the recently classified ansätze, which also reproduce these mixing matrix relations, and which were based on the hypothesis of the Universal Strength for Yukawa couplings, where all Yukawa couplings have equal moduli while the flavour dependence is only in their phases, are, in fact, particular cases of the generalized symmetric quark mass matrix ansätze we construct here. In an excellent numerical example, the experimental values on all quark mixings and masses are accommodated, and the CP violation phase parameter is shown to be crucially dependent on the values of mu and Vus.

  12. Thermal dilepton rates and electrical conductivity of the QGP from the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Heng-Tong; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Meyer, Florian

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the thermal dilepton rate and the electrical conductivity of the gluon plasma at temperatures of 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5 Tc in quenched QCD. Making use of nonperturbatively clover-improved Wilson valence quarks allows for a clean extrapolation of the vector meson correlation function to the continuum limit. We found that the vector correlation function divided by T3 is almost temperature independent in the current temperature window. The spectral functions are obtained by χ2 fitting of phenomenologically inspired Ansätze for the spectral function to the continuum extrapolated correlator data, where the correlations between the data points have been included. Systematic uncertainties arising from varying the Ansätze motivated from strong coupling theory as well as perturbation theory are discussed and estimated. We found that the electrical conductivity of the hot medium, related to the slope of the vector spectral function at zero frequency and momentum, is 0.2 Ce m≲σ /T ≲0.7 Ce m for T =1.1 Tc and 0.2 Ce m≲σ /T ≲0.4 Ce m for the higher temperatures. The dilepton rates and soft photon rates, resulting from the obtained spectral functions, show no significant temperature dependence, either.

  13. Influence of manganese on sintering processes in the Ti-Fe system. 1. Volume changes in sintering of Ti-Fe-Mn compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kivalo, L.I.; Skorokhod, V.V.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of manganese on the sintering processes in the titanium-iron system in the area of temperatures of existence of the first ternary eutectic point. Powders of titanium obtained by hydride-calcium reduction, ferromanganese, and types PZh4M2 and V3 iron were used. A figure presents data on the character of the volume changes in sintering of compacts of mixtures of titanium and iron powders with and without manganese. The x-ray analysis was made on a DRON-0.5 instrument. The profiles of intensities of the x-ray lines of Ti(Fe, Mn) phase present in specimens of mixture II are shown. With an increase in sintering temperature the line, which is diffuse at 1050 degrees C, gradually narrows, and at 1250 degrees C a doublet appears. At the time, the lattice parameter changes from 0.2976 for unalloyed TiFe to 0.2991 nm for Ti(Fe, Mn) obtained at 1250 degrees C. To obtain Ti(Fe, Mn) compounds of the required composition, it is necessary to take into account the amount of evaporated manganese.

  14. Removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from a UV-irradiated shuttle vector introduced into human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, A.K.; Hanawalt, P.C. )

    1994-05-01

    A shuttle vector (pZH-1) carrying the E. Coli lacZ gene under control of the SV40 early promoter was irradiated with UV and introduced into repair-proficient or repair-deficient human cell lines. The expression of irradiated lacZ compared to unirradiated lacZ was greater in repair-proficient cells (HT-1080) than in repair-deficient cells (XP12RO-SV40) belonging to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A. To ascertain whether the expression of lacZ in the repair-proficient cells was correlated with the removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), the authors purified DNA from the recipient cells and used the CPD-specific enzyme T4 endonuclease V to measure the frequency of CPDs remaining in the plasmid as a whole and in two restriction fragments derived from it. They found that removal of CPDs occurred in both fragments in the repair-proficient cells but not in the repair-deficient cells. The results provide the first direct evidence for the removal of CPDs from UV irradiated plasmids introduced into human cells and support the notion that expression of the UV-damaged lacZ gene in repair-proficient human cells reflects the removal of transcription blocking lesions from the gene.

  15. Non-covalent interactions at bis(pyrazole)silver(i) or -gold(i) cations.

    PubMed

    García-Pacios, Vanesa; Arroyo, Marta; Antón, Noelia; Miguel, Daniel; Villafañe, Fernando

    2009-03-28

    The reaction of AgBF(4) with two equivalents of pzH (pyrazole) or dmpzH (3,5-dimethylpyrazole) leads to [Ag(pzH)(2)]BF(4) or [Ag(dmpzH)(2)]BF(4). The reaction of [AuCl(tht)] with an equimolar amount of dmpzH in refluxing hexane leads to [Au(dmpzH)(2)][AuCl(2)]. Similar complexes [Au(dmpzH)(2)]A (A = BF(4) or NO(3)) are obtained from [AuCl(tht)], two equivalents of dmpzH, and AgBF(4) or AgNO(3). The complexes [Ag(dmpzH)(2)]BF(4) and [Au(dmpzH)(2)]A (A = [AuCl(2)], BF(4) or NO(3)) crystallize as ionic pairs where the NH groups of the pyrazoles are involved in short cation-anion interactions. The nitrate complex crystallizes as a dimer, where both molecules are supported by pi-stacking interactions between the pyrazole rings. The crystal structure of [Ag(pzH)(2)]BF(4) reveals a three dimensional array of cations and anions. In solution, [Ag(pzH)(2)]BF(4) and [Ag(dmpzH)(2)]BF(4) undergo intermolecular processes involving pyrazole decoordination, and behave as 1/1 electrolytes; whereas dimethylpyrazole gold complexes do not display any dynamic behavior, and show cation-anion association also in solution.

  16. Serological studies of an acid-labile O-polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris OX19 lipopolysaccharide using human and rabbit antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kaca, W; Swierzko, A S; Ziolkowski, A; Amano, K; Senchenkova, S N; Knirel, Y A

    1998-01-01

    In a Weil-Felix test, sera from patients infected with Rickettsia sp. agglutinate Proteus OX types of bacteria and Proteus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are responsible for the cross-reaction. Data on the character of LPS of one of the OX group strains, Proteus vulgaris OX19, are contradictory, and it remained unclear whether it has an O-polysaccharide (OPS) and is thus LPS of the smooth type (S) or not (rough-type LPS). Our studies showed that P. vulgaris OX19 (strain PZH-24) produces a smooth-type LPS that contains a long-chain OPS, but it undergoes depolymerization during mild acid hydrolysis conventionally used for LPS delipidation and loses the serological activity. An elucidation of the complete structure of OPS demonstrated the presence of a glycosyl phosphate linkage responsible for the acid-lability of the polysaccharide chain. In ELISA, both IgM type antibodies in a Weil-Felix test with human anti-Rickettsia typhi sera and rabbit anti-P. vulgaris OX19 antibodies reacted with OPS. Rabbit antibodies did not inhibit the cross-reaction with human antibodies and thus bind to different epitopes.

  17. An Integrated Decision Model for Evaluating Educational Web Sites from the Fuzzy Subjective and Objective Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tony Cheng-Kui; Huang, Chih-Hong

    2010-01-01

    With advances in information and network technologies, lots of data have been digitized to reveal information for users by the construction of Web sites. Unfortunately, they are both overloading and overlapping in Internet so that users cannot distinguish their quality. To address this issue in education, Hwang, Huang, and Tseng proposed a group…

  18. Long Term Quadrotor Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    and Control of a Quad-Rotor Micro-UAV Using Vision Sensors. Master’s thesis, Brigham Young University, 2008. [10] Gladiator Technologies, Inc. A40 MEMS...Acc. Technical report, Gladiator Tech- nologies, Inc., 2010. [11] Huang, Haomiao, Gabriel M. Hoffmann, Steven L. Waslander, and Claire J. Tomlin

  19. Prescription for a pharmacyte

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-10

    The efficient homing capacity of T cells may be used to deliver cell-associated, drug-laden nanoparticles to lymphoma cells that are resident in lymph nodes, increasing drug efficacy compared with drug encapsulated in free nanoparticles or free drug (Huang et al., this issue).

  20. Unconsciously competing goals can collaborate or compromise as well as win or lose.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter

    2014-04-01

    This commentary offers a friendly extension of Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) account. Not only do active goals sometimes operate unconsciously to dominate or preempt others, but simultaneously active goals can also collaborate or compromise in shaping behavior. Because neither goal wins complete control of behavior, the result may be that each is only partly satisfied.

  1. Mechanism of Tumor Metastasis Suppression by the KAI1 Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    immunological synapse: lipid raft and tetraspan microdomains. Immunol Rev 2002;189:136–51. 12. Higashiyama M, Taki T, Ieki Y, et al. Reduced motility...leakiness. Am. J. Pathol. 156, 1363–1380. Higashiyama,M., Taki , T., Ieki, Y., Adachi,M., Huang, C.L., Koh, T., Kodama,K., Doi, O., Miyake, M., 1995

  2. Author Affiliation Index: A New Approach to Marketing Journal Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yue; Chen, Carl R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has adopted various methods to assess the relative quality of academic marketing journals. This study, as a replication and extension of Chen and Huang (2007), introduces the Author Affiliation Index (AAI) as an alternative approach to assessing marketing journal quality. The AAI is defined as the ratio of articles authored by…

  3. A Biophysico-Computational Perspective of Breast Cancer Pathogenesis and Treatment Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    be easily assessed by monitoring morphogenesis using immunofluoresence and morphometric assessment markers (Sections III.E.1 and III.E.2; Debnath et...Ingber, D. E. (1997). Geometric control of cell life and death. Science 5317, 1425–1428. Chen, C. S., Mrksich, M., Huang, S., Whitesides, G. M., and Ingber

  4. An Agile Framework for Real-Time Visual Tracking in Videos

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-05

    IMPLEMENTATION OF OUR APPROACH We implemented tracking in C++ using the OpenCV library for real-time computer vision. The ensemble in our case consisted...of the algorithm,” OpenCV Document, Intel, Microprocessor Research Labs, 2000. [6] Kaiki Huang and Tieniu Tan, “Vs-star: A Visual Interpretation

  5. 77 FR 19013 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ..., Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of a proposed settlement agreement; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air... above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Huang Branning, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A),...

  6. Development of an Injectable Salmon Fibrinogen-Thrombin Matrix to Enhance Healing of Compound Fractures of Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    will be saved [3]. The approach of this project is to inject fibrin sealants directly into the wound to stop the bleeding and into the bone lesion to...and H.F. Huang, Mesenchymal stem cell sheets revitalize nonviable dense grafts: implications for repair of large-bone and tendon defects

  7. Advances in membrane protein crystallography: in situ and in meso data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, Simone; Tate, Christopher G.

    2015-05-23

    Membrane protein structural biology has made tremendous advances over the last decade but there are still many challenges associated with crystallization, data collection and structure determination. Two independent groups, Axford et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1228–1237] and Huang et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1238–1256], have published methods that make a major contribution to addressing these challenges.

  8. Molecular Machine-Based Active Plasmonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    C. S. Lin, M. Lu, T. Gao, T.J. Huang), J. Appl. Phys. 2010, 108, 043514. 33. Ordered Au nanodisk and nanohole arrays: fabrication and applications...Stoddart), J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 4538–4547. 41. Frequency-addressed tunable transmission in optically thin metallic nanohole arrays with

  9. An Alternative Approach to Combination Vaccines: Intradermal Administration of Isolated Components for Control of Anthrax, Botulism, Plague and Staphylococcal Toxic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-03

    and identification of correlates of immunity. Clin Immunol 2003, 108:51-59. 18. Williamson ED, Eley SM , Stagg AJ, Green M, Russell P, Titball RW: A...2005, 159:1136-1144. 24. Mikszta JA, Sullivan VJ, Dean C, Waterston AM, Alarcon JB, Dekker JP 3rd, Brittingham JM, Huang J, Hwang CR, Ferriter M, Jiang

  10. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  11. Videodisks Offer a Detailed Portrait of Qin, the First Chinese Emperor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Project Emperor-I has issued two interactive videodiscs on China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di. The videodiscs contain film footage from the archaeological excavation in China, images of artifacts, interviews with Qin specialists, and the full text of articles about the ancient burial site. Development of the videodiscs for scholars involved…

  12. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  13. Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Nanorods Superlattice (SL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-29

    distinct dislocation network and side wall damage are observed as shown in the upper inset of Fig. 10 which indicates an image of transmission electron...Phys. 76, 304 (1994). [42] W. I. Lee, T. C. Huang, J. Guo, and M. S. Feng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1721 (1995). [43] D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield , and W

  14. Evaluating the effect of temperature on microbial growth rate - the Ratkowsky and a Belehrádek type models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper to conduct a parallel comparison of a new Belehradek-type growth rate (Huang model), Ratkowsky Square-root, and Ratkowsky Square equations as secondary models for evaluating the effect of temperature on the growth of microorganisms. Growth rates of psychrotrophs and meso...

  15. Erratum to "A theoretical model of reversible adhesion in shape memory surface relief structures and its application in transfer printing" [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 77 (2015) 27-42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yeguang; Zhang, Yihui; Feng, Xue; Kim, Seok; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    The publisher regrets that in the final published version, Yihui Zhang and Yonggang Huang are listed with incorrect affiliations. This information is obviously inconsistent with the contacting address of these two authors listed on the bottom of the title page. The correct affiliations are Yihui Zhang with Northwestern University and Tsinghua University and

  16. A Computational Auditory Scene Analysis System for Speech Segregation and Robust Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Droppo, J., Acero , A., 2005. Dynamic compensation of HMM variances using the feature enhancement uncertainty computed from a parametric model of speech...analysis. IEEE Trans. on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing 15, 396–405. Huang, X., Acero , A., Hon, H., 2001. Spoken Language Processing. Prentice Hall

  17. My Classroom: China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the teaching practice of two senior high school English teachers, Yu Huang and Yu Zhu. Their school is in Hezhang County--the No. 2 Middle School in the province of Guizhou. In China, most middle schools consist of six grades of students; the first three years are considered junior middle school and the latter three years…

  18. A Chinese Nurse's Socio-Cultural Experiences in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her thoughts and experiences on studying abroad. Yang Huang explains that studying overseas for international students means a lot--not only being away from home but also experiencing quite a few unexpected difficulties. Studying abroad is full of challenges for every student due to the language barrier,…

  19. Modern Foreign Languages: A Refereed International Journal of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Du, Ed; Zidong, Huang, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues contain the following articles written in Chinese: "On Conflated Theme in Systemic Functional Grammar" (Huang Guo-Wen); "A Cognitive Approach to the Conceptual Semantic Structures of Causation" (Cheng Qi-Long); "Falsifying the Internal Argument Hypothesis" (Zhao Yan-Chun); "Existential…

  20. Differentially Constrained Motion Planning with State Lattice Motion Primitives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Mike Stil- man, Peter Barnum, Dmitry Berenson, Jonathan Huang, Lillian Chang, Boris Sofman, Gil Jones, Maxim Makatchev, Young-Woo Seo , Kiho Kwak...segment of such decomposition could be placed into the control set. Path Decomposition control sets were the first usable automatic control sets. Control

  1. Development of a Low-Cost Method for Whole-Spacecraft Isolation of Small Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-10

    CubeSat Constellation around Mars , Dec. 2013. [Online]. Available: http://ccar.colorado.edu/asen5050/projects/projects_2013/Naik _Siddhesh...Huang, “Performance analysis for a new whole-spacecraft isolation using viscoelastic damping material,” M. N. Ghasemi-Nejhad, Ed., Mar . 2011, pp. 79 772B

  2. The Development of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Countermeasures to WMD by the Advanced Medical Countermeasures Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    vivo murine model Study the interaction between Vitamin A deficiency (i.e. anemia) and Leishmania infection on murine peritoneal monocytes and...129. Ma Z, Otsuyama K, Liu S, et al. Baicalein , a component of Scutellaria radix from Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), leads to suppression of

  3. Fertilizer intensification and its impacts in China's HHH Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accomplishment of China’s food security by application of high rates of fertilizers has generated several controversies regarding the quality of soil and water resources. Thus, the objective of this article is to assess the effects and causes of the fertilizer intensification in the Huang Huai ...

  4. China’s Military Transformation -- Signaling an Aggressive Global Force Projection Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-16

    around the mainland and it has also stressed the desire to be able to counter US regional hegemony in regards to Taiwan. Since the days of Mao Zedong...History of Modern China." 35 Charles Wolf, Jr., Siddhartha Dalal, Julie DaVanzo, Eric V. Larson, Alisher Akhmedjonov, Harun Dogo, Meilinda Huang, Silvia

  5. CONTRIBUTION OF INSPIRATORY FLOW TO ACTIVATION OF EGFR, RAS, MAPK, ATF-2 AND C-JUN DURING LUNG STRETCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contribution of Inspiratory Flow to Activation of EGFR, Ras, MAPK, ATF-2 and c-Jun during Lung Stretch

    R. Silbajoris 1, Z. Li 2, J. M. Samet 1 and Y. C. Huang 1. 1 NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC .

    Mechanical ventilation with larg...

  6. Functional Electrical Therapy Systems: Neuroprostheses for Life-Like Reach and Grasp

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    but also as an orthosis . REFERENCES [1] Brown TIH, Ying Huang, Morgan DL, Proske U, Wise A. A new strategy for controlling the level of activation...physiological orthosis for the upper extremity in hemiplegia: feasibility study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 56:12 507-513, 1975. [6] Nathan R. Handmaster NMS

  7. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of egg and larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA using sentinel eggs and larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang, and one egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang, were introduced into the United Sta...

  8. Gamete and embryo-fetal origins of adult diseases.

    PubMed

    Monti, Manuela

    2016-08-10

    By putting together the most advanced evidences supporting the 'gamete and embryo-fetal origins of adult diseases' the two editors, Prof. He-Feng Huang and Prof. Jian-Zhong Sheng (Hangzhou, People's Republic of China) did a great workk.....

  9. Simultaneous Vascular Targeting and Tumor Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U U 5 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18...Thorsheim HR, Gaasch JA, Huang S, Palmieri D, Steeg PS, Smith QR . Heterogeneous blood-tumor barrier permeability determines drug efficacy in

  10. NITROTYROSINE ATTENUATES RSV-INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosine attenuates RSV-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells. Joleen Soukup, Zuowei Li, Susanne Becker and Yuh-Chin Huang. NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, North Carolina, CEMALB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) is a...

  11. When Biology Doesn't Add Up.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Robert; Theriot, Julie; Huang, K C; Goulian, Mark

    2016-03-10

    Physical models are increasingly used to inform our understanding of biology. Where such models still run into limits was the question that Cell's Robert Kruger posed to Julie Theriot, K.C. Huang, and Mark Goulian. Annotated excerpts from this conversation are presented below, and the full conversation is available with the article online.

  12. American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference (35th, Baltimore, Maryland, March 29-April 1, 1989). The Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsky, Mary L., Ed.

    Among the 90 papers in this volume, education-related titles are as follows: "The Colston Warne Legacy" (Peterson); "Keeping a File on Survey Respondents" (Huang); "Aging-in-Place: Are Responses in the Best Interest of Elderly Consumers?" (Stum); "Low-Income Elderly in Health Maintenance Organizations:…

  13. Emotive Qualities in Robot Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    con- on automatic face and gesture recognition , 1996. fused for "fear." [9] L. Chen and T. Huang, "Multimodal human emotion/expression recognition...34 Proceedings of the second international conference on automatic face and gesture recognition , pp. 366-371, April V. SUMMARY 1998. For the purposes of

  14. EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY. Yuh-Chin Huang, Jackie Stonehuerner, Jackie Carter, Andrew J. Ghio, Robert B. Devlin. NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.
    The mechanisms for cardiopulmonary morbidity associated with exposure to air po...

  15. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  16. Mapping International Cancer Activities – Global Cancer Project Map Launch

    Cancer.gov

    CGH’s Dr. Sudha Sivaram, Dr. Makeda Williams, and Ms. Kalina Duncan have partnered with Drs. Ami Bhatt and Franklin Huang at Global Oncology, Inc. (GO) to develop the Global Cancer Project Map - a web-based tool designed to facilitate cancer research and control activity planning.

  17. Mapping the goal space: personality integration and higher-order goals.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Jacob B

    2014-04-01

    By situating goals at the heart of human cognitive function, Huang & Bargh (H&B) provide a useful platform for understanding the process of personality integration as the gradual mapping of implicit motives into a coherently organized self-system. This integrative process is a critical feature of human development that must be accounted for by any complete goal theory.

  18. The conscious roots of selfless, unconscious goals.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Gordon B; Balcetis, Emily

    2014-04-01

    We counter Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) metaphoric description of the unconscious, selfish goal on three points. First, we argue, unconscious goals are rooted in conscious choices related to well-being. Second, unconscious goal pursuit occurs through early-stage orienting mechanisms that promote individuals' well-being. Third, unconscious goals work selflessly, resulting in their own demise.

  19. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  20. Lifelong Learning for Social Development: A Review of Global Perspectives. Papers Presented at the International Conference on Lifelong Learning for Social Development (Kerala, India, August 13-15, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains 67 papers from an international conference on lifelong learning for social development. The following papers are among those included: "Lifelong Learning for Social Development" (John Dewar Wilson); "Building Networks of Lifelong Learning for Social Development outside the Center" (Shen-Tzay Huang, Chi…

  1. Simulation of Blast on Porcine Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Huang a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) 410-278-6859...simulation uses the ALE3D code (LLNL 2014). In the following sections, the material models are discussed first, then the mesh setup for the simulations

  2. Improving Information Extraction and Translation Using Component Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    74 7. CASE STUDY ON MONOLINGUAL INTERACTION.....................................................................76 7.1 IMPROVING NAME TAGGING BY...interactions described above focused on the monolingual analysis pipeline. (Huang and Vogel, 2002) presented a cross-lingual joint inference example to...alignment consistency to the task of entity extraction in a monolingual test corpus. (Florian et al., 2007) used a similar idea to expand the

  3. Cognitive Tactical Radios: Cognition Through Learning and Strategy (CLearStrategy)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-08

    Sahand H. A. Ahmad . Atomic Congestion Games on Graphs and Their Applications in Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, (10 2012): 1541...Information Theory (12 2011) 12/27/2011 3.00 Cem Tekin, Mingyan Liu, Richard Southwell , Jianwei Huang , Sahand H. A. Ahmad. Atomic Congestion Games on

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-23

    Australia , and other regions and and are dedicated to the "integrated" business of has established offices in the United States, Soviet designing and...high loads of power to the eastern regions. The hydropower resource potential of the major river sys- [Article by reporter Huang Jin [7806 6580

  5. 2013 Review on the Extension of the AMedP-8(C) Methodology to New Agents, Materials, and Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    12 Teske et al., “Animal and Human Dose-Response Models for Brucella Species,” Risk Analysis 31 (2011...Dose-Response Model of Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever).” Risk Analysis 31, no. 1 (2011): 120–128. Teske , S. S., Huang, Y., Tamrakar, S. B., Bartrand, T

  6. Metabolism of Endosulfan-Alpha by Human Liver Microsomes and its Utility as a Simultaneous In Vitro Probe for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-30

    cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide (Huang et al., 2000), S-mephenytoin (Heyn et al., 1996; Ko et al., 1998), bupropion (Faucette et al., 2000; Hesse et al...cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide . Biochem Pharmacol 59:961-972. Khanna RN, Misra D, Anand M and Sharma HK (1979) Distribution of endosulfan in cat

  7. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  8. Simulations of the DARPA Suboff Submarine Including Self-Propulsion with the E1619 Propeller

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver FreSCo +. The codes gave similar results at advance coefficient (J) values higher than 1.3 but PPB dramatically under...Performance and Cavitation Behaviour using PPB and FreSCo . Second Int. Symp. Marine Propulsors, Hamburg, Germany. Groves N, Huang T, Chang M. 1989

  9. NITROTYROSINATION OF A TUBULIN INDUCES EPITHELIAL BARRIER DYSFUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosination of a-Tubulin Induces Epithelial Transport Dysfunction. Yuh-Chin Huang, Lisa Dailey, Wen-Li Zhang and Ilona Jaspers. ORD, Environmental Protection Agency and CEMLB, University of North Carolina

    a-Tubulin undergoes a cyclic removal and readdition of tyrosin...

  10. Navy Fuel Composition and Screening Tool (FCAST) v.2.5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-18

    F. J. Chromatogr. A 2008, 1201, 176. 13. Zeng Z. D.; Hugel, H. M; Marriott , P. J. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2011 401, 2373. 14. Zorzetti, B. M.; Harynuk...Piña, A.; Tran, T. C.; Morriso, P.; Marriott , P. J. J. Chromatogr. A 2008, 1201, 161. 20. Huang, X.; Shao, L.; Gong, Y.; Mao, Y.; Liu, C.; Qu, H

  11. 75 FR 28853 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... United States citizenship (within the meaning of section 877(a) or 877A) with respect to whom the... MARGARET DEUCHER FIONA CLARINA DEUCHER ANNINA XENIA CONCHITA DEVOURDY CHRISTINE DODDS BARRY A DUDLEY SON...-MERZBACHER JESSICA HENTSCH NIKOLAI HO EUNICE YUK LING HOTTINGER PETER A HUANG YU-CHING IKEDA MAKIKO...

  12. Identity, Stress, and Resilience in Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ilan H.

    2010-01-01

    The author addresses two issues raised in Moradi, DeBlaere, and Huang's Major Contribution to this issue: the intersection of racial/ethnic and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identities and the question of stress and resilience. The author expands on Moradi et al.'s work, hoping to encourage further research. On the intersection of identities,…

  13. Classroom Learning Environment & Student Motivational Differences between Exemplary, Recognized, & Acceptable Urban Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersh C.; Garcia, Andres; Read, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the essential principles for improving middle grade education is to establish a safe and healthy school environment (Jackson & Davis, 2000; Price & Waxman, 2005). The overall quality of the school climate or school environment has been argued to be one of the central problems of urban schools (Waxman & Huang, 1997). Several…

  14. Family League 2011-12 Out of School Time Programs in Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Linda S.; Connolly, Faith; Kommajesula, Alok H.

    2013-01-01

    Out of School Time (OST) programs have been shown to promote positive personal, academic and social development (Huang, Gribbons, Kim, Lee, & Baker, 2000; Welsh et al., 2002). The Family League of Baltimore City works with partners to sponsor a range of after-school programs in Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) to provide healthy…

  15. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Conway, Christopher M.; Field, Suzanne L.; Houston, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that nonlinguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning (VSL) as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a…

  16. Deja Vu All over Again: Re-Revisiting the Conceptual Status of Early Word Learning: Comment on Smith and Samuelson (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assert that L. B. Smith and L. Samuelson's (2006; see record EJ750228) most recent critique of A. E. Booth, S. R. Waxman, and Y. T. Huang's (2005; see record EJ684979) work missed its mark, deflecting attention from the important theoretical difference between the two sets of authors' positions and focusing instead on imagined…

  17. Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept among Adolescent Students with Disabilities over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenheiser, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that academic achievement and self-concept among adolescents in the general education population are positively related (e.g., Huang, 2011). For students with disabilities, however, the correlation between academic achievement and self-concept is sometimes negative and non-significant (Daniel & King, 1995; Feiwell,…

  18. Motivation and Commitment: Pre-Service Teachers from Hong Kong and Mainland China at a Training Institute in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Mingyue; Lai, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that historical and social backgrounds influence individuals' motivation to teach and their commitment to teaching (Gordon, 2000; Su, Hawkins, Huang & Zhao, 2001). This article reports on a comparative study exploring the motivation to teach and the commitment to teaching among non-local prospective student teachers from…

  19. The Function of Neuroendocrine Cells in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-20

    Bradley WG, Shabaik A, Huang J, Margolis DJ, Raman SS, Marks LS, Kane CJ, Reiter RE, Dale AM, Karow DS. MRI- 16 Derived Restriction Spectrum Imaging...68241-9) Cooperberg MR, Park S & Carroll PR 2004 Prostate cancer 2004: insights from national disease registries. Oncology 18 1239–1247 (discussion 1248

  20. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  1. A Comparative Study of Canadian and Taiwanese Grade 5 Children's Environmental Behaviors, Attitudes, Concerns, Emotional Dispositions, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Ping; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored the cultural influences on children's self-reported environmental actions, perceptions, and understandings; investigated the relationships among the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and demographic variables; and developed models of children's responsible environmental behavior (Huang, 2001). The cross-cultural comparison…

  2. MODULATION OF HYPOXIC PULMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION BY ERYTHROCYTIC NITRIC OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    American Heart Association 2001

    Modulation of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction by Erythrocytic NO
    McMahon TJ1, Gow AJ1, Huang YCT4, Stamler JS1,2,3
    Departments of Medicine1 and Biochemistry2, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute3,
    Duke University Med...

  3. Third Supplement to ’A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Le. GMC). interfor Dyar Harbach et al. 1986:141I (from synonymy of bidens). invidiosus Theobald chioroventer Theobald. 1909. Townsend 1990:59 (add 2...Diptera: Culicidae). Proc. En- and Culex interfor Dyar (Diptera: Culici- tomol. Soc. Wash. 90:153-163. dae) as separate species. Mosq. Syst. Huang, Y

  4. Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

  5. The Mesoscale Eddies and Kuroshio Transport in the Western North Pacific East of Taiwan from 8-year (2003-2010) Model Reanalysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-25

    in space and time. An oceanographic reanalysis product, on the other hand, is rarely available because global/re- gional ocean operational systems...10.1029/ 2005GL025416 Ko DS, Chao SY, Huang P, Lin SF (2009) Anomalous upwelling in Nan Wan: July 2008. Terr Atmos Ocean Sci 20(6):839–852. doi:10. 3319/TAO

  6. SOLO: Self Organizing Live Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    mance needs can vary in use-dependent ways. For example in a content sharing system, the lag-tolerance for a live - streaming use may depend on the kind...USA, Octo- ber 2005. [15] Qi Huang, Hai Jin, and Xiaofei Liao, “P2P Live Streaming with Tree-Mesh based Hybrid Overlay”, In Pro- ceedings of ICPP

  7. Implementing Ten-Minute Tickers in Secondary Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynott, Francis J., III; Hushman, Glenn; Dixon, Jonette; McCarthy, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education class time started to be measured and questioned (Bar-Or, 1987; Lacey & LaMaster, 1990; McGing, 1989; Simons-Morton, Taylor, Snider, & Huang, 1993). Researchers suggested that the amount of time students spent in…

  8. Total Electron Content Lunar Variation at Two Midlatitude Stations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-30

    the critical frequency, the virtual height or the height of the maximum of the layer. lNo- re recently, Huang (1978) made an analysis of the total...at libro has a zero value in the afternodnbet ween 15hr and 16hr local solar time, Besides the zero of the 8hr-10hr local solar time.The pha se in

  9. X-ray Scattering Investigation of Microalloying and Defect Structure in Ion Implanted Copper.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-26

    Metallic Solid Solutions," J. Mat. Sci, 1, pp. 79-90 (1966). 13. B. C. Larson and W. Schmatz, "Huang-Diffuse Scattering from Dislocation Loops and Cobalt ...Anaheim, CA 92803 St. Louis, 40 63178 Attn: Mr. A. G. Gross, Jr. Dept. 522-92 Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp. Alumin = Division Research Center for

  10. Assembly of Functional Porous Solids in Complex Hybrid Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Baughman, R. H., Iqbal, Z., Cui, C., Khayrullin , I., Dantas, S. O., Marti, J. & Ralchenko, V. G. "Carbon Structures with Three-Dimensional...34 Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1616-1618 (1997). 136. Eradat, N., Huang, J. D., Vardeny, Z. V., Zakhidov, A. A., Khayrullin , I., Udod, I. & Baughman, R. H

  11. Field Guide: The Culture of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    librarv/policv/army/fm/22-51/22-51 c.htm#3-10. 67 Li Xuezhi, Xia Xinxin, and Huang Yongjun (eds.), Political Instructor’s Handbook (zhidaoyuan daibing...Liu Yongshou and Wang Yongquan. "Military Party Committee System," in Song Shilin and Xiao Ke, eds., Chinese Military Encyclopedia (zhongguo junshi

  12. 75 FR 59865 - Short-Term Borrowings Disclosure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... and Funding Liquidity, 22 Rev. Fin. Stud. 2201 (2009); R. Huang, How Committed Are Bank Lines of.../ ~charvey/Research/Working--Papers/W99--Liquidity--management-- and.pdf; V. Ivashina & D. Scharfstein, Bank... Liquidity: Anatomy and Policy Options (Bank for International Settlements, Working Paper No. 158,...

  13. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    James M. Samet1,2, Robert Silbajoris1, Tony Huang1 and Ilona Jaspers3

    1Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborato...

  14. 78 FR 2252 - Xanthan Gum From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... campestris. The chemical structure of the repeating pentasaccharide monomer unit consists of a backbone of... Biochemical 74.67 Co. Ltd. Shanghai Smart Chemicals Co. Ltd. Deosen Biochemical Ltd.. 74.67 PRC-Wide Entity... Chemicals Co., Ltd., Sinotrans Xiamen Logistics Co., Ltd., and Zibo Cargill HuangHelong Bioengineering...

  15. Theory of the Tetragonal-to-Orthorhombic Structural Phase Transition in La2CuO4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    J. G. Bednorz and K. A. Muller, Z. Phys. B j4, 189 (1986). 2. C. W. Chu, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng, L. Gao, Z. J. Huang and Y. Q. Wang , Phys. Rev. Lett...Chemistry University of2 chester Pennsylvania State University Roches ew York 14627 University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 r. G. Rubloff Dr. Roald

  16. Simulation of Geometric Effects on Double-Gate Field Emission Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    and Tsung-Yu Yang Department of Electronic Engineering I-Shou University Ta-Hsu Hsiang , Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, R.O.C. ABSTRACT We report a study...1997. 3. Chi-Chang Wang, Jiin- Chuan , Chin-Ming Huang, IVMC󈨤, pp. 557, 1996. 4. Xieqing Zhu and Eric Munro, J. Van. Sci. Technol. B, 7, no 6, pp. 1862

  17. Identifying Molecular Factors in Androgen Receptor Nuclear Export

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    thalidomide in recent 3 years, Foreign Medical Sciences (Dermatology and Venerology), 26: 329~332, 2001 2. Junkui Ai, Xiao Huang, Yujuan Wang, et al...of thalidomide and some other drugs on the expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells, Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 32: 329~331, 2003 11

  18. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS.

    Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  19. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    V...

  20. Comparative Experiments on Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    training. But in this experiment, we also com- puted separate speaker-dependent models for the speakers with 50 -100 utterances, and each speaker...of Speech (R.ASTA-PLP), Proc. of the Second European Conf. on Speech Comm. and Tech. September, 1991. [12] Liu, F-H., Stern, R., Huang, X., Acero , A

  1. The Gender Gap in Yearly Earnings: Can Vocational Education Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Recent research conducted by K. Gray and N. Huang (1993) provided new insights into the gender gap in yearly earnings. These researchers tested Terrell's (1992) hypothesis that the issue now is not equal educational opportunity, but inequality in the distribution of women among all occupations. The study examined the variables that affected the…

  2. Center for the Evaluation of Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Implications for the use of erythro- poiesis-stimulating agents in cancer patients. Cancer 2007;110:477–488. 12 Um M, Gross AW, Lodish HF. A ‘‘classical...hematopoi- etic disorders. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2007;17:8–14. 17 Huang LJ, Constantinescu SN, Lodish HF. The N-terminal domain of Janus kinase 2 is required

  3. Organized Labor at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Wei-Chiao, Ed.

    These papers are organized around the theme that labor unions in the United States, having suffered a precipitous decline in membership and influence, must reassess their past practices and strategies and seek new methods and solutions. Following an introduction by Wei-Chiao Huang, the document includes "Bargaining Realities: Responding to a…

  4. H. pylori GPS: Modulating Host Metabolites for Location Sensing.

    PubMed

    Keilberg, Daniela; Ottemann, Karen M

    2015-08-12

    Almost 20 years ago, urea was described as a chemotaxis attractant for Helicobacter pylori. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Huang et al. (2015) report that H. pylori employs its urease enzyme to destroy urea to bring the concentration into a range that provokes an attractant response.

  5. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...

  6. Constraints on the symmetry noninheriting scalar black hole hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolić, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    Any recipe to grow black hole hair has to circumvent no-hair theorems by violating some of their assumptions. Recently discovered hairy black hole solutions exist due to the fact that their scalar fields don't inherit the symmetries of the spacetime metric. We present here a general analysis of the constraints which limit the possible forms of such a hair, for both the real and the complex scalar fields. These results can be taken as a novel piece of the black hole uniqueness theorems or simply as a symmetry noninheriting Ansätze guide. In addition, we introduce new classification of the gravitational field equations which might prove useful for various generalizations of the theorems about spacetimes with symmetries.

  7. A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Alberto; McClean, Jarrod; Shadbolt, Peter; Yung, Man-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2014-07-23

    Quantum computers promise to efficiently solve important problems that are intractable on a conventional computer. For quantum systems, where the physical dimension grows exponentially, finding the eigenvalues of certain operators is one such intractable problem and remains a fundamental challenge. The quantum phase estimation algorithm efficiently finds the eigenvalue of a given eigenvector but requires fully coherent evolution. Here we present an alternative approach that greatly reduces the requirements for coherent evolution and combine this method with a new approach to state preparation based on ansätze and classical optimization. We implement the algorithm by combining a highly reconfigurable photonic quantum processor with a conventional computer. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with an example from quantum chemistry--calculating the ground-state molecular energy for He-H(+). The proposed approach drastically reduces the coherence time requirements, enhancing the potential of quantum resources available today and in the near future.

  8. A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzo, Alberto; McClean, Jarrod; Shadbolt, Peter; Yung, Man-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; O’Brien, Jeremy L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum computers promise to efficiently solve important problems that are intractable on a conventional computer. For quantum systems, where the physical dimension grows exponentially, finding the eigenvalues of certain operators is one such intractable problem and remains a fundamental challenge. The quantum phase estimation algorithm efficiently finds the eigenvalue of a given eigenvector but requires fully coherent evolution. Here we present an alternative approach that greatly reduces the requirements for coherent evolution and combine this method with a new approach to state preparation based on ansätze and classical optimization. We implement the algorithm by combining a highly reconfigurable photonic quantum processor with a conventional computer. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with an example from quantum chemistry—calculating the ground-state molecular energy for He–H+. The proposed approach drastically reduces the coherence time requirements, enhancing the potential of quantum resources available today and in the near future. PMID:25055053

  9. Approach to exact solutions of cosmological perturbations: Tachyon field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ramón; Pérez, Roberto G.

    2016-03-01

    An inflationary universe scenario in the context of a tachyon field is studied. This study is carried out using an ansatz for the effective potential of cosmological perturbations U (η ). We describe in great detail the analytical solutions of the scalar and tensor perturbations for two different Ansätze for the effective potential of cosmological perturbations: Easther's model and an effective potential similar to power-law inflation. Also, we find from the background equations that the effective tachyonic potentials V (φ ) in both models satisfy the properties of a tachyonic potential. We consider the recent data from the Planck to constrain the parameters in our effective potential generating the cosmological perturbations.

  10. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  11. Synthese von analogen Filtern auf einer rekonfigurierbaren Hardware-Architektur mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendelenburg, S.; Becker, J.; Henrici, F.; Manoli, Y.

    2008-05-01

    Rekonfigurierbare Analog-Arrays (FPAAs) sind der Versuch, die Vorteile der aus der digitalen Welt bekannten FPGAs (Flexibilität, Entwurfsgeschwindigkeit) auch für analoge Anwendungen verfügbar zu machen. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der analogen Schaltungstechnik ist die Abbildung von vorgegebenen Schaltungskonzepten auf eine FPAA-Architektur nicht immer einfach lösbar. Diese Arbeit stellt einen neuen Ansatz für die Synthese von Filtern auf einer FPAA-Architektur für zeitkontinuierliche Analogfilter mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus (GA) vor. Anhand eines Matlab-Modells des FPAA, das eine gute übereinstimmung mit Simulationen des FPAA auf Transistorebene aufweist, wurde gezeigt, dass eine große Vielzahl verschiedener Filterstrukturen auf dieser Architektur dargestellt werden kann. Daraufhin wurde ein Genetischer Algorithmus entwickelt, der es erlaubt, aus einer gegebenen Filterspezifikation Konfigurationsdatensätze zu synthetisieren, die den gewünschten Filter auf die FPAA-Architektur abbilden.

  12. MediMax Elektronik-Marktkette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Die Elektronikkette MediMax setzt auf Server Based Computing mit Windows Server 2003® und Thin Clients. Mit über 100 Filialen ist MediMax die erfolgreiche Fachmarktlinie der ElectronicPartner-Verbundgruppe in Deutschland. Die Zugehörigkeit zum Mutterverbund garantiert den Franchisenehmern der Elektronikkette eine schnelle Warenversorgung und günstige Einkaufskonditionen. Über 50.000 Artikel zahlreicher namhafter Markenhersteller und unterschiedlicher Preisklassen sind ständig abrufbar. Darüber hinaus profitieren die Filialen von einer zentralen Organisation und Betreuung ihrer IT. Von Düsseldorf aus administriert ein internes Supportteam die Arbeitsplätze aller Standorte und stellt außerdem die Warenwirtschaftslösung zur Verfügung. Dank der Umstellung auf eine moderne Server Based Computing-Umgebung sind Wartung und Support künftig so effizient wie nie zuvor.

  13. Symmetry group analysis of an ideal plastic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamothe, Vincent

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we study a finite-dimensional Lie point symmetry group of a system describing an ideal plastic plane flow in two dimensions in order to find analytical solutions. The infinitesimal generators that span this Lie algebra are given. We completely classify the subalgebras of codimension up to two into conjugacy classes under the action of the symmetry group. Based on invariant forms, we use Ansätze to compute symmetry reductions in such a way that the obtained solutions simultaneously cover many invariant and partially invariant solutions. We calculate solutions of algebraic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric and elliptic type. Some solutions depending on one or two arbitrary functions of one variable have also been found. In some cases, the shape of a potentially feasible extrusion die corresponding to the solution is deduced. These tools could be used to thin, curve, undulate or shape a ring in an ideal plastic material.

  14. Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A. ); Silva, J.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau

  15. Self-consistent pseudopotentials in the thermodynamic limit. II. The state-dependent one-body field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, E. S.; Plastino, A.; Szybisz, L.

    1980-07-01

    We explore the concept of the pseudopotential, introduced in a previous paper, within the context of the exact boundary condition for a system of fermions interacting through a pair-wise, hard-core potential, in the thermodynamic limit. We discuss several Ansätze for the Lagrange multipliers that allow the inclusion of the boundary conditions into the variational principle. It is found that under a given Ansatz, a dynamical, microscopic interpretation of the pseudopotential can be put forward. A comparison between this situation and the coherent approximation induced by the use of the correlation function is also presented. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Hard-core interactions, boundary condition, variational principle constrained Hartree-Fock problem; Ansatz, structure of the pseudopotential, state dependence.

  16. Fische und Fischerzeugnisse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    Fische und Fischerzeugnisse lassen sich gemäß den "Leitsätzen für Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" des Deutschen Lebensmittelbuches einteilen. Tiefgefrorene Fische werden von den "Leitsätzen für tiefgefrorene Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" und Salate mit Fleisch von Fischen, Krebs- und/oder Weichtieren durch Abschnitt II.B. der "Leitsätze für Feinkostsalate" abgedeckt. Zu nennen sind: Frischfische, Getrocknete Fische, Räucherfische, Gesalzene Fische, Erzeugnisse aus gesalzenen Fischen, Anchosen, Marinaden, Bratfischwaren, Kochfischwaren, Fischerzeugnisse in Gelee, Pasteurisierte Fischerzeugnisse, Fischdauerkonserven, Erzeugnisse aus Surimi, Krebstiere und Krebstiererzeugnisse, Weichtiere und Weichtiererzeugnisse und tiefgekühlte Fischereierzeugnisse.

  17. Analyse unterschiedlicher Modellierungsvarianten des "Direct Power Injection" Verfahrens für die EMV Charakterisierung integrierter Schaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stürmer, U.; Ritzmann, S.; Jovic, O.; Wilkening, W.

    2009-05-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert zwei Ansätze zur Modellierung eines Teststandes zur Charakterisierung von integrierten Schaltungen mittels Direct Power Injection (DPI) auf einem Wafer. Die erste Variante ist zur Analyse bereits vorliegender integrierter Schaltungen nutzbar. Sie benötigt gemessene S-Parameterdaten, mit denen die an einem realen Messobjekt anliegenden Störspannungen frequenzabhängig bestimmt werden können. Die zweite Variante ist bereits anwendbar, bevor Silizium gefertigt worden ist. Sie modelliert einen Netzwerkanalysatorkanal der aus einer Signalquelle, einem Leistungsmesser und einem Verstärker mit nachgeschaltetem Richtkoppler und Entkoppelnetzwerken besteht. Zunächst werden die oben genannten verschiedenen Varianten der DPI-Streckenmodellierung dargestellt. Sie werden miteinander und anhand von Messdaten einer einfachen Teststruktur verglichen. Die Teststruktur besteht aus einem MOS-Transistor mit Arbeitswiderstand. Der Beitrag diskutiert Vor- und Nachteile der Varianten einschließlich Modellierungsaufwand und Simulationsgeschwindigkeit.

  18. Boson peak in supercooled liquids: Time domain observations and mode coupling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang, Hu; Li, Jie; Andersen, Hans C.; Fayer, M. D.

    2005-08-01

    Optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments are presented for the supercooled liquid acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin - ASP). The ASP data and previously published OHD-OKE data on supercooled dibutylphthalate (DBP) display highly damped oscillations with a periods of ˜2ps as the temperature is reduced to and below the mode coupling theory (MCT) temperature TC. The oscillations become more pronounced below TC. The oscillations can be interpreted as the time domain signature of the boson peak. Recently a schematic MCT model, the Sjögren model, was used to describe the OHD-OKE data for a number of supercooled liquids by Götze and Sperl [W. Götze and M. Sperl, Phys. Rev. E 92, 105701 (2004)], but the short-time and low-temperature behaviors were not addressed. Franosch et al. [T. Franosch, W. Gotze, M. R. Mayr, and A. P. Singh, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3183 (1997)] found that the Sjögren model could describe the boson peak observed by depolarized light-scattering (DLS) experiments on glycerol. The OHD-OKE experiment measures a susceptibility that is a time domain equivalent of the spectrum measured in DLS. Here we present a detailed analysis of the ASP and DBP data over a broad range of times and temperatures using the Sjögren model. The MCT schematic model is able to describe the data very well at all temperatures and relevant time scales. The trajectory of MCT parameters that fit the high-temperature data (no short-time oscillations) when continued below TC results in calculations that reproduce the oscillations seen in the data. The results indicate that increasing translational-rotational coupling is responsible for the appearance of the boson peak as the temperature approaches and drops below TC.

  19. Conversion of core oxos to water molecules by 4e-/4H+ reductive dehydration of the Mn4O2(6+) core in the manganese-oxo cubane complex Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)6: a partial model for photosynthetic water binding and activation.

    PubMed

    Ruettinger, W F; Dismukes, G C

    2000-03-06

    Reaction of the Mn4O4(6+) "cubane" core complex, Mn4O4L6 (1) (L = diphenylphosphinate, Ph2PO2-), with a hydrogen atom donor, phenothiazine (pzH), forms the dehydrated cluster Mn4O2L6 (2), which has lost two mu-oxo bridges by reduction to water (H2O). The formation of 2 was established by electrospray mass spectrometry, whereas FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the release of water molecules into solution during the reduction of 1. UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies established the stoichiometry and chemical form of the pzH product by showing the production of 4 equiv of the neutral pz radical. By contrast, the irreversible decomposition of 1 to individual Mn(II) ions occurs if the reduction is performed using electrons provided by various proton-lacking reductants, such as cobaltocene or electrochemical reduction. Thus, cubane 1 undergoes coupled four-electron/four-proton reduction with the release of two water molecules, a reaction formally analogous to the reverse sequence of the steps that occur during photosynthetic water oxidation leading to O2 evolution. 1H NMR of solutions of 2 reveal that all six of the phosphinate ligands exhibit paramagnetic broadening, due to coordination to Mn ions, and are magnetically equivalent. A symmetrical core structure is thus indicated. We hypothesize that this structure is produced by the dynamic averaging of phosphinato ligand coordination or exchange of mu-oxos between vacant mu-oxo sites. The paramagnetic 1H NMR of water molecules in solution shows that they are able to freely exchange with water molecules that are bound to the Mn ion(s) in 2, and this exchange can be inhibited by the addition of coordinating anions, such as chloride. Thus, 2 possesses open or labile coordination sites for water and anions, in contrast to solutions of 1, which reveal no evidence for water coordination. Complex 2 exhibits greater paramagnetism than that of 1, as seen by 1H NMR, and it possesses a broad (440 G wide) EPR absorption, centered at g = 2

  20. Specific maceration and induction of PR-3 gene in potato tuber tissue by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum type III secretion system mutants.

    PubMed

    Aghabozorgy, Sohrab; Niakan, Mohammad

    2009-12-15

    The exact function of type III secretion system in some phytopathogenes including Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum (Pca) is not understood and is a matter of debate. The aim of this study were to determine specific effect of type III secretion system on potato tubers and to reveal the connection of this system with potato resistant genes such as PR-3. A Pca hrpW fragment was subcloned into a low-copy-number cloning vector (pZH448). The resulting plasmid (pAS19) was then conjugated into the wild-type and mutant strains of Pca by type III secretion system. The virulence property of different Pca strains was studied and the influence of over expression of hrpW on maceration activity was also investigated. Furthermore, the effect of mentioned mutation on the maceration of carrot-root was evaluated. Finally, using real-time PCR, the copy-number of PR-3 gene in potato tuber tissue was assessed. In conclusion, for type III secretion system mutant strains, in contrast with the wild-type, the maceration amount of potato tuber tissue decreased after over expression of hrpW while inoculation of tubers by mutants, increased this amount. In the case of potato, HrpN and DspE proteins appeared to be avirulent factors. Compared with the wild-type strains, Pca nominated mutants significantly reduced potato PR-3 expression thus, PR-3 expression level in potato tuber tissue in answer to infiltration by Pca, depends on functional type III secretion system in the bacterium.

  1. Possibilities of the method of irreversible electroporation in treatment of the local and widespread pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaskin, S. G.; Ivanov, Yu V.; Panchenkov, D. N.; Chertyuk, V. B.; Astakhov, D. A.; Nechunayev, A. A.; Geraskin, V. S.; Fedotova, T. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Methods of a local destruction of tumors didn’t find till today wide circulation in treatment of patients with formations of the pancreas (P). It is bound to features of blood supply, anatomical and histological structure of PZh, and also a large number of complications and a recurrence. The technique of the irreversible elektroporation (IE) represents a new unique method of not thermal ablyation at which impact on tissues is carried out by short electric impulses of high voltage (to 3 kV) that involves irreversible rising of permeability of cellular membranes and death of cells. The optimum mechanism of rising of permeability of a cellular membrane electric impulses concerning their frequency or repetitions is yet not up to the end clear; it is recognized that outcomes depend on amplitude, duration and number of impulses. Influence has to be synchronized with a cordial rhythm in order to avoid development of an arrhythmia. Existence at the patient of an arrhythmia and the artificial driver of a rhythm is contraindication to carrying out an elektroporation. We have experience of use of a technique for 18 patients with a locally-spread pancreatic cancer. It was succeeded to reflect the main advantages of a new technique in our experience, such as comparative simplicity of workmanship, safety for vascular and pro-current structures, the minimum impact on function of a pancreas. Efficiency of a destruction is proved to ultrasonic, computer and morphological researches in the postoperative period. The maximum term of observation made 19 months. Though exact indications to use of NE still accurately aren’t defined, the international experience and the first own data allow to state efficiency of new technology in palliative surgical treatment of perivascular tumors of a pancreas, and also its safety.

  2. Shell deformation studies using holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmerter, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The buckling of shallow spherical shells under pressure has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental papers. Experimental data above the theoretical buckling load of Huang have given rise to speculation that shallow shell theory may not adequately predict the stability of nonsymmetric modes in higher-rise shells which are normally classified as shallow by the Reissner criterion. This article considers holographic interferometry as a noncontact, high-resolution method of measuring prebuckling deformations. Prebuckling deformations of a lambda = 9, h/b = 0.038 shell are Fourier-analyzed. Buckling is found to occur in an N = 5 mode as predicted by Huang's theory. The N = 4 mode was unusually stable, suggesting that even at this low value of h/b, stabilizing effects may be at work.

  3. Use of the moon and the large space telescope as an extrasolar planet detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, G. L.; Fennelly, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Roman (1959), Spitzer (1962), and Huang (1973) have discussed photometric detection of extrasolar planets using a 3-m space telescope such as the Large Space Telescope (LST). A space telescope could be an extrasolar planet detection system if used in conjunction with an occulter placed 10,000 km in front of the telescope. The occulter would reduce the amount of light received from the star under observation. For a semi-infinite plane occulter 10,000 km in front of the telescope, Spitzer and Huang's results indicate that a Jupiter-like planet would be observed with a signal/noise of 1.00, for observations at 0.4 micron using a 3-m telescope like the LST.

  4. Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images Via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new fast-computational technique based on fuzzy entropy measure has been developed to find an optimal binary image threshold. In this method, the image pixel membership functions are dependent on the threshold value and reflect the distribution of pixel values in two classes; thus, this technique minimizes the classification error. This new method is compared with two of the best-known threshold selection techniques, Otsu and Huang-Wang. The performance of the proposed method supersedes the performance of Huang-Wang and Otsu methods when the image consists of textured background and poor printing quality. The three methods perform well but yield different binarization approaches if the background and foreground of the image have well-separated gray-level ranges.

  5. Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images Via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new fast-computational technique based on fuzzy entropy measure has been developed to find an optimal binary image threshold. In this method, the image pixel membership functions are dependent on the threshold value and reflect the distribution of pixel values in two classes; thus, this technique minimizes the classification error. This new method is compared with two of the best-known threshold selection techniques, Otsu and Huang-Wang. The performance of the proposed method supersedes the performance of Huang- Wang and Otsu methods when the image consists of textured background and poor printing quality. The three methods perform well but yield different binarization approaches if the background and foreground of the image have well-separated gray-level ranges.

  6. An efficient and provably secure proxy signature scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhong; Liu, Xue; Gao, Shengnan

    2010-08-01

    Proxy signature is a special signature, it allows an original signer to delegate her signing capability to a proxy signer and the proxy signer can produce a signature on behalf of the original signer. At present, most of proxy signature in essence consists of two signatures. To overcome the problem, we propose a short efficient proxy signature scheme based on a certificateless signature scheme. And we show that the proposed scheme is secure in the random oracle model. The security of the scheme is related to Inverse Computational Diffie-Hellman Problem and the k-CCA problem. Comparison with Huang et.al scheme, our scheme has an advantage over Huang et.al's scheme in terms of the size of proxy signature. Since the length of proxy signature in our scheme is 160bit, it is very suitable for mobile devices.

  7. Identification of the optically active vibrational modes in the photoluminescence of MEH-PPV films.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M A T; Dias, I F L; Duarte, J L; Laureto, E; Silvestre, I; Cury, L A; Guimarães, P S S

    2008-03-07

    The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence properties of a thin film of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2(')-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene], MEH-PPV, fabricated by spin coating, is analyzed. The evolution with temperature of the peak energy of the purely electronic transition, of the first vibronic band, of the effective conjugation length, and of the Huang-Rhys factors are discussed. The asymmetric character of the pure electronic transition peak and the contribution of the individual vibrational modes to the first vibronic band line shape are considered by a model developed by Cury et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 3836 (2004)]. The temperature dependence of the Huang-Rhys factors of the main vibrational modes pertaining to the first vibronic band allows us to identify two competing vibrational modes. These results show that the electron coupling to different vibrational modes depends on temperature via reduction of thermal disorder.

  8. Two RFID-based solutions to enhance inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Chien, Hung-Yu; Yang, Chia-Chuan; Wu, Tzong-Chen; Lee, Chin-Feng

    2011-06-01

    Owing to the low cost and convenience of identifying an object without physical contact, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems provide innovative, promising and efficient applications in many domains. An RFID grouping protocol is a protocol that allows an off-line verifier to collect and verify the evidence of two or more tags simultaneously present. Recently, Huang and Ku (J. Med. Syst, 2009) proposed an efficient grouping protocol to enhance medication safety for inpatients based on low-cost tags. However, the Huang-Ku scheme is not secure; an attacker can easily make up fake grouping records to cheat the verifier. This weakness would seriously endanger the safety of inpatient medication safety. This paper will show the weaknesses, and then propose two RFID-based solutions to enhance medication safety for two different scenarios. The proposed schemes are practical, secure and efficient for medication applications.

  9. Instantaneous frequency time analysis of physiology signals: The application of pregnant women’s radial artery pulse signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-Chen; Wu, Tzuyin; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study used the Hilbert-Huang transform, a recently developed, instantaneous frequency-time analysis, to analyze radial artery pulse signals taken from women in their 36th week of pregnancy and after pregnancy. The acquired instantaneous frequency-time spectrum (Hilbert spectrum) is further compared with the Morlet wavelet spectrum. Results indicate that the Hilbert spectrum is especially suitable for analyzing the time series of non-stationary radial artery pulse signals since, in the Hilbert-Huang transform, signals are decomposed into different mode functions in accordance with signal’s local time scale. Therefore, the Hilbert spectrum contains more detailed information than the Morlet wavelet spectrum. From the Hilbert spectrum, we can see that radial artery pulse signals taken from women in their 36th week of pregnancy and after pregnancy have different patterns. This approach could be applied to facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of fetus’ physiological signals in the future.

  10. Conflict Prediction Through Geo-Spatial Interpolation of Radicalization in Syrian Social Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    insights into violence prediction and radicalization using statistical modeling techniques. 10 REFERENCES Hall, Steven B ., and Ryan G. Baird...2011; Fan, Zhao, Chen, and Xu. 2014; Ghiassi, Skinner , and Zimbra 2013; Golder and Macy 2011; Huang, Peng, Li, and Lee 2013; Jiang, Yu, Zhou, Liu, et...139. Bermingham, Adam, and Alan F . Smeaton. 2011. “On using Twitter to monitor political sentiment and predict election results.” In Sentiment

  11. Validating the FOCUS Model Through an Analysis of Identity Fragmentation in Nigerian Social Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    capture expressions of collective violence or socio-political conflict. 14 REFERENCES Hall, Steven B ., and Ryan G. Baird. Modeling the Influence...and Xu. 2014; Ghiassi, Skinner , and Zimbra 2013; Golder and Macy 2011; Huang, Peng, Li, and Lee 2013; Jiang, Yu, Zhou, Liu, et al. 2011; Mitchell...Bermingham, Adam, and Alan F . Smeaton. 2011. “On using Twitter to monitor political sentiment and predict election results.” In Sentiment Analysis where AI

  12. Solidago Virgaurea for Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Huang, H.S. Luo, J.P. Yu, J.J. Meier, H. Schrader, A. Bastian, W.E. Schmidt, F. Schmitz, The effects of acetylsalicylic acid on proliferation, apoptosis...agent by targeting a specific gene or pathway with well-defined clinical rationale is needed. We chose a target called Fatty acid synthase (FAS...virgaurea on tumorigenesis in an animal model. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Fatty acid synthase, Solidago virgaurea, 16. SECURITY

  13. Study on PCB Properties of Epoxy Based Nanocomposites with Different Types of Layered Hybrid Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-26

    and M.L. Roukes, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2682 (2004) [5] X.T. Wu, J. Hui, M. Young, P. Kayatta, J. Wong, D. Kennith, J. Zhe and C. Warde, Appl. Phys. Lett...Phys. Lett., 69, 2653 (1996) [15] D.W. Carr and H.G. Craighead, J.Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 15, 2760 (1997) [16] H.X. Tang , X.M.H. Huang, M.L. Roukes

  14. Assessing China’s Hegemonic Ambitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Huang Shi Gong San Lue, and the Tang Tai Zong Li Wen Gong Wen Dui, collectively dating from the fifth century B.C. to about the tenth century...the heartland was not fully established until after the migratory stages in the Tang , Song, and Ming Dynasties, where the remaining parts of...chu shi ji ren sheng zhe xue. San jun yue kan no. 163. Taipei. Brehms, Denise. 2001. Observers Debate China’s Economy: Market or Controlled? MIT

  15. Piezoelectric Composite Micromachined Multifrequency Transducers for High-Resolution, High-Contrast Ultrasound Imaging for Improved Prostate Cancer Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    682. S. Li, W. Chang, W. Huang, and X. Jiang, ൰-MHz Micromachined PMN-PT Composite Ultrasound Array for Medical Imaging ," in ASME 2015...Jiang, ൰-MHz Micromachined PMN-PT Composite Ultrasound Array for Medical Imaging ," in ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress...Resolution, High- Contrast Ultrasound Imaging For Improved Prostate Cancer Assessment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul A. Dayton CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION

  16. Cognition in the Brain: Investigations Using Positron Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-16

    0029 DDIRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE Of FUNDING NOS. _____________ .dg. 410 PROGRAM PROJECT TASKC WORK .,%r illing Air Force Base, DC...Bethesda, MD 20892 20. Daniel Bubb, M.D. Department of Neurolinguistics Montreal Neurological Institute 15. Sung-cheng tHuang, Ph.D. 3801 University...Chief of Pediatric Neu- rology Service Director, Center for Morphomet- 24. Terry Allard, Ph.D. ric Analysis Cognitive Science Programs Kennedy 9 Office

  17. Controlling Quantum-dot Light Absorption and Emission by a Surface-plasmon Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-03

    Controlling quantum-dot light absorption and emission by a surface- plasmon field Danhong Huang,1∗ Michelle Easter,2 Godfrey Gumbs,3 A. A. Maradudin,4...as well as photon conversion by a surface- plasmon - polariton near field is explored for a quantum dot located above a metal surface. In contrast to the...resulting from the interference between the surface- plasmon field and the probe or self-emitted light field in such a strongly-coupled nonlinear system. Our

  18. Bacteroides Fragilis OMP A: Utility as a Live Vaccine Vector for Biodefense Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    resistance breakpoint values in anaerobes for the tested antibiotics, a ≥2- fold difference in susceptibility was considered significant. MICs were...membrane protein A-promoted actin condensation of brain microvascular endothelial cells is required for Escherichia coli invasion. Infect.Immun. 67:5775...5783. 3. Prasadarao, N. V., C. A. Wass, J. N. Weiser, M. F. Stins, S. H. Huang, and K. S. Kim. 1996. Outer membrane protein A of Escherichia coli

  19. An Investigation of Fe xv Emission Lines in Solar Flare Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-05

    321.8 Å)/I(417.3 Å) ratio at 3 electron temperatures, namely that of maximum fractional abundance for Fe  in ionization equilibrium , Te = 106.3 K...spectra 5 pare with the observations. However, Huang et al. (1988) have detected the 2p2 3P–2p3s 3P lines in a tokamak spectrum, and found their

  20. Program on Resorbable Radio Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-05

    The sputtering was performed at room temperature (RT) with an RF power of 250 W, immediately after cleaning the target with Ar plasma for 5 min. The...with simulation results. The operating fre- quencies extend up to ∼ 6 GHz. Simple inductors (Figure 1 f) S.-W. Hwang, Dr. X. Huang, S. Kim, Dr. S...as inductances, capaci- tances, and resistances, that yield a good match with the measured characteristics. The circuit simulations use these

  1. JPRS Report China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    also had striking differ- ences of opinion. Yakovlev suggested that neither side should be bound by the "difficult problems" existing between the... suggests that both sides intend to improve their relations. So far, the two countries are only engaged in "outflanking tactics" in terms of...from the sea "beyond the ports of Quang Nam and Thuan Hoa" also suggests inshore islets and shoals. Second, although Le Qui Don referred to "Huang Sa

  2. Fundamental Concepts Relating Local Atomic Arrangements, Deformation, and Fracture of Intermetallic Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Takahashi and H. Oikawa, J. Mater. Sci., 25 (1990) 629. 1 18. S.C. Huang and D.S. Shih, in Microstructure/Property Relationships in Titanium Aluminides and...is often somewhat higher than the shear moduli of the constituent elements. In addition, the slip vector associated with superlattice dislocations is...1990) 35-44. 101. Bania, P.J. and Hall, J.A., in Titanium Science and Technology, Lutjering, G., Swicker, V., and Bunk, W. (eds.), Deutche

  3. Evaluation of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    topography.* (From Pettibone and Waddell 1969.) This tunnel is composed of two portions: the adit (a nearly horizontal pas- sage from the surface into a...ultimately into the weathered bedrock, where a Gravel Room was excavated ( Pettibone 1973). At the time of excavation, portions of the Gravel Room roof...gravels ( Pettibone 1973, Garbeil 1983, Huang 1985 and 1986). Two multiple-position borehole extensometers (MPBX) were installed during the 1983

  4. Genetic Variations in Mitochondria and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness and Progression in Caucasian and African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    levels has been explored in a few studies [68, 69]. Consistent with our findings, Lee et al found that visceral fat area was independently inversely...PubMed PMID: 19647296. 14. Wang L, McDonnell SK, Hebbring SJ, Cunningham JM, St Sauver J, Cerhan JR, et al. Polymorphisms in mitochondrial genes and...PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3916805. 21. Cui H, Huang P, Wang Z, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Xu W, et al. Association of decreased mitochondrial DNA content

  5. A Redescription of the Holotype Male of Aedes (Stegomyia) Tongae Edwards with a Note on Two Topotypic Females (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-09-01

    A REDESCRIPTION OF THE HOLOTYPE MALE OF AEDES (STEGOMYIA) TONGAE EDWARDS WITH A NOTE ON TWO TOPOTYPIC FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) YIAU-MIN...Stegomyia) Tongae Edwards with a Note on Two Topotypic Females 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d... FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) ‘v2 YIAU-MIN HUANG, Southeast Asia Mosquito Project, Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington

  6. Applying Genomic and Genetic Tools to Understand and Mitigate Damage from Exposure to Toxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    donepezil (brand name Aricept) are all water-soluble AChEIs that are currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and have...Huang da, B. T. Sherman, R. A. Lempicki, Systematic and integrative analysis of large gene lists using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Nat Protoc 4...large gene lists . Nucleic Acids Res 37, 1 (Jan, 2009). 13. T. Whistler et al., Impaired immune function in Gulf War Illness. BMC Med Genomics 2, 12

  7. Polyamine Analogues as Novel Anti-HER Family Agents in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    oligoamines. 11 References 1. Davidson NE, Hahm HA, McCloskey DE, Woster PM & Casero RA Jr. Clinical aspects of cell death in breast cancer: the...2000. 6. Pledgie A, Huang Y, Hacker A, Zhang Z, Woster PM, Davidson NE, & Casero RA Jr. Spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1), not N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase...39843-51. 2005. 7. McCloskey DE, Casero RA Jr, Woster PM & Davidson NE. Induction of programmed cell death in human breast cancer cells by an

  8. Tuberous Sclerosis with Epilepsy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    50% of individuals with TS have learning difficulties that include autism , attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), behavioral issues...These findings of TS manifest themselves symptomatically as seizures, epilepsy, and learning disabilities including autism , ADHD, behavioral...molecular pathogenesis to rationale for treatment”. J Child Neurol 2005; 20:318 –325. 15) Chandra PS, Salamon N, Huang J, et al. “FDG-PET/MRI

  9. Autophagy mediates nonselective RNA degradation in starving yeast

    PubMed Central

    Welter, Evelyn; Elazar, Zvulun

    2015-01-01

    During nitrogen starvation, a nonselective bulk degradation of cytosolic proteins and organelles including ribosomes, termed macro-autophagy (hereafter termed autophagy), is induced. The precise mechanism of RNA degradation by this pathway has not been yet elucidated. In this issue of the The EMBO Journal, Huang et al characterize an autophagy-dependent RNA catabolism in yeast and identify the enzymes responsible for the degradation process. PMID:25492883

  10. Phase II Tungsten Fate-and Transport Study for Camp Edwards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    J.L., N.C. Sturchio, L. Heraty, T. Abrajano, and L. Huang. 1997. Evaluation of Natural Attenuation Processes for Trichloroethene and Technetium -99...Paducah, KY. _____, J.L. and T.O. Early. 1992. The Migration of Trichloroethylene and Technetium in Groundwater at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant...Environmental Forensics. 5:5–13. Gu, B., K.E. Dowlen, and J.L. Clausen. 1996. Efficient separation and recovery of technetium -99 from contaminated

  11. Optical Design for Photonics. Organization of the 1993 Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Palm Springs, California on March 22 - 24, 1993. Technical Digest Series, Volume 9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-24

    from detailed diffraction analysis are applied to a variety of applications including waveguide grating couplers, high numerical aperture images...P.E. LAGASSE and P. VANDENBULCKE, "Finite Element Analysis of Optical Waveguides ", IEEE Trans. Mic. Theory Tech. MIT-29 (6) pp 660-605 (1981). 5. J.P...Applications", IEEE Trans. Mic. Theory Tech., MT-33, 1985. 9. S.T. CHU, W.P. HUANG and S.K. CHAUDHURI, "Simulation and analysis of waveguide based optical

  12. Transforming Binary Uncertainties for Robust Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    1-0117), an AFRL grant via Veridian and an NSF grant (IIS-0534707). We thank A. Acero and M. L. Seltzer for helpful suggestions. A preliminary...Deng, J. Droppo, and A. Acero , “Dynamic compensation of HMM variances using the feature enhancement uncertainty computed from a parametric model of...amplitude modulation,” IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, vol. 15, pp. 1135–1150, 2004. [16] X. Huang, A. Acero , and H. Hon, Spoken Language Processing

  13. Development and Application of Acoustic Metamaterials with Locally Resonant Microstructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-02

    August 2, 2012 Development and Application of Acoustic Metamaterials with Locally Resonant Microstructures Report Documentation Page Form...COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development and Application of Acoustic Metamaterials with Locally Resonant Microstructures 5a...Publications •H. H. Huang and C. T. Sun, “Locally Resonant Acoustic Metamaterials with 2D Anisotropic Effective Mass Density,” Philosophical Magazine

  14. Selecting the Fairest of kappa (> or = 2) mu-Sided Dice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Simpson index was introduced by Gini ( 1912 ) and Simpson (1949). Both these indices are Schur-concave functions of p. Gupta and Huang (1976) have...Tamkang Journal of Mathematics, 12, 206-208. Gini , C. ( 1912 ). Variabilita e Mutabiliti. Studi Economico-aguridici della facotta di Giurisprudegza dell...been commonly used. They are Shannon’s entropy and Gini -Simpson index. The notion of the entropy function was introduced by Shannon (1948). The Gini

  15. STRESS ANNEALING INDUCED DIFFUSE SCATTERING FROM Ni3(Al,Si) PRECIPITATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E; Karapetrova, Evgenia; Zschack, P.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse scattering caused by L12 type Ni3 (Al,Si) precipitates after stress annealing of Ni-Al-Si alloys is studied. Experimental reciprocal space maps are compared to the theoretical ones. Oscillations of diffuse scattering due to Ni3 (Al,Sc) precipitates are observed. Peculiarities of diffuse scattering in asymptotic region as compared to Huang scattering region are discussed. Coupling between the stress annealing direction and the precipitate shape is demonstrated.

  16. The Function of Neuroendocrine Cells in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    still many unanswered questions in prostate cancer. A fundamental and clinically important issue is why prostate cancer responds to hormonal therapy ...adenocarcinoma cells express low levels of CD49f. We then fractionated CD49fhi and CD49flo cells and transplanted both into recipient mice. Both phenotypic...Hsia E, Squires J, Li Z, Zhang Y, Li W, Chen X, Xu H, Huang J. Androgen-deprivation therapy -induced aggressive prostate cancer with neuroendocrine

  17. Resonant Scattering of Surface Plasmon Polaritons by Dressed Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    Resonant scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by dressed quantum dots Danhong Huang,1 Michelle Easter,2 Godfrey Gumbs,3 A. A. Maradudin,4 Shawn... polariton waves (SPP) by embedded semiconductor quantum dots above the dielectric/metal interface is explored in the strong-coupling regime. In con- trast to...induced polarization field, treated as a source term9 arising from photo-excited electrons, allows for a resonant scattering of surface plasmon- polariton

  18. Plasmonic Enhanced Infrared Detection with a Dynamic Hyper-Spectral Tuning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-19

    Photonics West Proceeding, San Francisco, volume 8632, 2013. 2. “Exact theory for split exciton-surface-plasmon- polariton modes and near-field...Review Letters, 91(14):143901, 2003 9. J. Dintinger et. al, “Strong coupling between surface plasmon- polaritons and organic molecules in...subwavelength hole arrays”, Physical Review B, 71, 035424, 2005 12 10. Danhong Huang et. al, “Exact theory for split exciton-surface-plasmon- polariton

  19. The bare essentials. Release of LOM report leaves HHS to determine what should be covered by health benefits packages.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Jessica

    2011-10-10

    In the wake of an IOM report on the criteria HHS should use to determine what benefits will be "essential" under reform, various stakeholders are weighing in. The National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems would like "enabling" services--such as language, transportation and case-management services--included, because they help make medical care more effective, says Xiaoyi Huang, left, of the NAPH.

  20. Measuring Ocean Waves: Proceedings of a Symposium and Workshop on Wave-Measurement Technology, April 22-24, 1981, Washington, DC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    umbilical cords or data links to shore; (in some cases) ability to sample in extreme conditions; and (for some systems) relatively low cost. N. E. Huang...In addition, the safety of recreational and commercial vessels and the integrity of offshore structures could be enhanced by improved wave data. Baer...events on vessels , fixed structures, and the nearshore environment. Long-term wave measurements would be required in areas prone to extreme events (such

  1. Detecting and Jamming Dynamic Communication Networks in Anti-Access Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    2006. ACM. [30] Chen Wang and Li Xiao. Sensor localization in concave environments. ACM Trans. Sen. Netw., 4(1): 1-31. 2008. [31] Kui Wu, Yong Gao...Chong Liu, Jianping Pan, and Dandan Huang . Robust range-free localization in wireless sensor net- works. Mob. Netw. Appl., 12(5):392-405. 2007. [33...sensor network survey. Comput. Netw., 52(12):2292-2330,2008. [37] Yong Yuan, Zongkai Yang, Min Chen, and Jianhua He. A survey on information

  2. Spatial Light Modulators and Applications: Summaries of Papers Presented at the Spatial Light Modulators and Applications Topical Meeting Held on March 15-17, 1993 in Palm Springs, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-17

    11 E4962.0-93-1-0181 S6. AUTHOR(S) i Dr Jar us W Quinn 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8~. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Optical Society...represen. gallium-arsenide-based MOW modulators by flip chip bonding are tatives from different countries with direct experience in organizing described The...00 pm SWD2 Photoanisotropic organic volume holograms for spatial light modulation, Tizhi Huang Samuel Weaver, Steve Blair. Kelvin Wagner, Univ Colorado

  3. Regulation & Development of Membrane Transport Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-15

    Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee DAVID W. PLMPLIN Department of Anatomy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland MARILYN D. RESH...Muscle 265 Douglas M. Fambrough, Barry A. Wolitzky, and David W. Pumplin Index 283 REGULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROCESSES 77, II PART 1...243 (Cell Physiol. 12). C 124-C132. 16. Huang. C. C.. Tsai. C. M.. and Canellakis, E. S. (1973) Bochiom. Biophys. Acta. 332, 59-68. 17. Hume . S. and

  4. A Methodology for Formal Hardware Verification, with Application to Microprocessors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-29

    Bartlett (and Digital Equipment Corporation), Soumitra Bose, Chris and Aksel Bothner-By, Jerry Burch, Karl Brace, Kyeongsoon Cho, Luc Claesen, Kevin...Journal, 11(3):235-50, June 1991. Citation obtained from Inspec. [14] Derek Beatty, Karl Brace, Randal E. Bryant, Kyeongsoon Cho, and Lawrence Huang...manipulation with ordered binary- decision diagrams. A CM Computing Surveys, 24(3):293-318, September 1992. [55] Randal E. Bryant, Derek Beatty, Karl Brace

  5. A Computational Study of Rigid Motion Perception.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Hubel and Wiesel [46, 47], who postulated a h.e hierarchical functional architecture for visual processing with successively ’.’ ,P. ’ St- 0~ X7...large. This case has been analyzed extensi ely in the literature, [5, 42, 79], are some examples. The above methods deal with local analysis of the image...Image Sequence Analysis, T. S. Huang, (ed.), Springer- 0 Verlag, 1981, ch. 1. 46. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel , "Receptive field and Functional

  6. Proceedings of the International Cryocoolers Conference (6th) Held in Plymouth, Massachusetts on October 25-26, 1990. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Pulse - Tube Cryocooler , BJ. Huang, L.T. Lee and C .W . Lu ................................................... 77 Pulse Tube Cooler Modeling . G.M...resistors, inductors and pulse generators. The design combines on one chip a test circuit and a sampler, which allows high frequency testing without...tube7 provides the opportunity to simplify the design and dispense with the reciprocating displacer shown in Figure 3. The superrniniaturised pulse

  7. Goals reconfigure cognition by modulating predictive processes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    I applaud Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) theory that places goals at the center of cognition, and I discuss two ingredients missing from that theory. First, I argue that the brains of organisms much simpler than those of humans are already configured for goal achievement in situated interactions. Second, I propose a mechanistic view of the "reconfiguration principle" that links the theory with current views in computational neuroscience.

  8. Massively representational minds are not always driven by goals, conscious or otherwise.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Bryce; Rupert, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    The language of conscious and unconscious goals is rooted in a folk-taxonomy that is likely to inhibit progress in cognitive science. Severing the commitment to this taxonomy would allow Huang & Bargh (H&B) to consider a wider variety of representational forms with motivational force and to entertain the intriguing possibility that variations in the number of active-but-redundant representations account for variance in social behavior.

  9. Research on Nonlinear and Stochastic Dynamics with Defense Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    Y.-C. Lai, " Fractal dimension in dissipative chaotic scatter- ing," Physical Review E 76, 016208(1-6) (2007). • J. M. Seoane, L. Huang, M. A. F...complex basin topology. We have also investigated how the fractal dimension of the set of singularities in scattering function varies as the system...exponents and fractal dimensions are developed for stationary dynamical systems. We have proposed a framework to characterize nonstationary dynamical

  10. Two new species in the leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-12-17

    Two new leafhopper species, Pythamus hainanensis sp. nov. and Pythamus rufus sp. nov. from China, are described and illustrated. Their diagnostic characteristics are compared with similar species. One new combination, Riseveinus chiabaotawow (Huang, 1992) n. comb., is also proposed. In addition, P. biramosus and P. bispinosus are illustrated based on paratypes. A key to known species of Pythamus is provided, excluding three species for which placement cannot presently be confirmed.

  11. Clinic and Functional Analysis of p73R1 Mutations in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    sequence variants in Marfan syndrome and related connective tissue disorders. Genet Test 1:237-42. Matsuoka S, Huang M, Elledge SJ. 1998. Linkage of ATM... Syndrome (LFS; MIM# 151623), a highly penetrant familial cancer phenotype, usually associated with inherited mutations in TP53 (Bell, et al., 1999...TP53 (Table 1). Mutually exclusive mutations of CHEK2 and TP53 have been reported in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and also in patients

  12. Supervised Dictionary Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    recently led to state-of-the-art results for numerous low-level image processing tasks such as denoising [2], show- ing that sparse models are well... denoising via sparse and redundant representations over learned dictio- naries. IEEE Trans. IP, 54(12), 2006. [3] K. Huang and S. Aviyente. Sparse...2006. [19] M. Aharon, M. Elad, and A. M. Bruckstein. The K- SVD : An algorithm for designing of overcomplete dictionaries for sparse representations

  13. Electromagnetic Scattering by Open Circular Waveguides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Camouflage Symposium , 18-20 November 1980 , sponsored by USAF Avionics Laboratory and Martin Marietta Corp. Pearson, J.D., (1953) "The Diffraction of...Huang, ( 1980 ) "An Analysis of the Electromag-: netic Fields Backscattered From a Jet Intake Configuration," Proceed- ings of the 1980 Radar ...8-AIBI 998 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGH4T-PATTERSON AFB ON F/6 21/B ELECTROMANETIC SCATTERING BY OPEN CIRCULAR WAVEUIDES.(U) 1980 T W JOHN4SON

  14. Self-Similar Subsets of Symmetric Cantor Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ying

    This paper concerns the affine embeddings of general symmetric Cantor sets. Under certain condition, we show that if a self-similar set F can be affinely embedded into a symmetric Cantor set E, then their contractions are rationally commensurable. Our result supports Conjecture 1.2 in [D. J. Feng, W. Huang and H. Rao, Affine embeddings and intersections of Cantor sets, J. Math. Pures Appl. 102 (2014) 1062-1079].

  15. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Harm , H.-C. Nägerl, F. Ferlaino, R. Grimm, P. S. Julienne, and J. M. Hutson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 120401 (2011). [9] M. Berninger, A. Zenesini, B...Huang, W. Harm , H.-C. Nägerl, F. Ferlaino, R. Grimm, P. S. Julienne, and J. M. Hutson, Phys. Rev. A 87, 032517 (2013). [10] J. F. E. Croft, J. M

  16. Does Environmental Enrichment Exposure Prior to Injury Influence Biomarkers Associated with Chronic Stage TBI?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    key cellular, biochemical and physiological changes; however the chronic stage is the longest and most damaging period. This stage is characterized...by inflammatory responses, breakdown of the blood brain barrier (BBB), delayed cell death, edema and swelling, and hippocampal damage resulting in...growth, synapse formation and function and repair of damaged neurons (Huang and Reichardt, 2001). In addition, BDNF increases the activity of free

  17. Large Scale Visual Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Sanjeev Satheesh, and Hao Su. I thank my colleagues, Barry Chai, Jia Li, Juan Carlos Niebles, Olga Russakovsky, Min Sun, Zhe Wang , and Bangpeng Yao...Fergus et al. explore semi-supervised learning on 126 hand labeled Tiny Images categories [83] and Wang et al. show classification on a maximum of 315...natural scene categories. In: CVPR06. (2006) [16] Wang , J., Yang, J., Yu, K., Lv, F., Huang, T., Gong, Y.: Locality-constrained linear coding for image

  18. Integrative Lifecourse and Genetic Analysis of Military Working Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0226 TITLE: Integrative Lifecourse and Genetic Analysis of Military Working Dogs PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kun Huang...Integrative Lifecourse and Genetic Analysis of Military Working Dogs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...of the military working dog population. There are several critical aspects to meeting the aims of this proposal. 1) development of data driven

  19. From Ultrafine Thiolate-Capped Copper Nanoclusters toward Copper Sulfide Nanodiscs: A Thermally-Activated Evolution Route

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-13

    Kim, K . T .; Jeong, Y. J .; Hong, S. H . 1. Mater. Res. 2006, 21 , 2371. (19) Wang, J. ; Huang, H. ; Kesapragada, S. V.; Gall , D . Nano. Lett...1183. ( 21 ) (a) Wang, T.; Yang, W. ; Wu, L. ; Chen, c.; Chu, C. Nanotechnology 2006, 17,7 19. (b) Kim, c.; Gu, W ; Briceno, M. ; Robertson, I. M.; Choi...104, 1206. Matt et al. deposition, 19,20 chemical vapor deposition, 21 y-irradiation,22 UV-light irradiation,23 and sonochemical methods. 24

  20. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    ICoughlin WF, Laberge JM, Dresner ML, Kennon WG, Huang YC: Percutaneous Drainage of Neonatal Hedrometrocolpos (Drainage of Hydrometrocolpos). Pediatr3...and its Beta Subunit in Three Events of Pregnancy. Armed Forces ACOG (AFACOG) Mtg, Washington D.C., 5-9 November 1989 Letterie GS, Laberge J, Miyazawa...advances from the TAMC General Surgery Residency. Shogun Medical Society, Honolulu, Hawaii, 23-25 May 1988 m Barcia PJ, Laberge J: Management of Oriental

  1. Bearing Damage Detection of BLDC Motors Based on Current Envelope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chun-Yao; Hsieh, Yu-Hua

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes current envelope analysis (CEA) to analyze bearing fault signals in brushless direct current (BLDC) motors, and back propagation neural networks (BPNN) to automatically identify bearing faults. We made sample motors which contained different types of fault, recorded the current signals, and extracted the current features using CEA and Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) for BPNN fault identification. The results indicate that this approach can efficiently identify bearing faults in BLDC motors.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Stable 33W Average Green Light Obtained With KTP-Crystal As Intracavity Frequency Doubler [Huang Chaoen, et al.; ZHONGGUO JIGUANG, No 10, 20 Oct 88...development, and economic growth supports the development of basic research. China is deciding on its projects for basic research in light of its own...development; in light , textile, and garment industries; in agricultural and sideline product intensive processing; and in mechanical and electrical

  3. Treatment strategies for combining immunostimulatory oncolytic virus therapeutics with dendritic cell injections.

    PubMed

    Wares, Joanna R; Crivelli, Joseph J; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choi, Il-Kyu; Gevertz, Jana L; Kim, Peter S

    2015-12-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are used to treat cancer, as they selectively replicate inside of and lyse tumor cells. The efficacy of this process is limited and new OVs are being designed to mediate tumor cell release of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, which attract cytotoxic T cells to target tumor cells, thus increasing the tumor-killing effects of OVs. To further promote treatment efficacy, OVs can be combined with other treatments, such as was done by Huang et al., who showed that combining OV injections with dendritic cell (DC) injections was a more effective treatment than either treatment alone. To further investigate this combination, we built a mathematical model consisting of a system of ordinary differential equations and fit the model to the hierarchical data provided from Huang et al. We used the model to determine the effect of varying doses of OV and DC injections and to test alternative treatment strategies. We found that the DC dose given in Huang et al. was near a bifurcation point and that a slightly larger dose could cause complete eradication of the tumor. Further, the model results suggest that it is more effective to treat a tumor with immunostimulatory oncolytic viruses first and then follow-up with a sequence of DCs than to alternate OV and DC injections. This protocol, which was not considered in the experiments of Huang et al., allows the infection to initially thrive before the immune response is enhanced. Taken together, our work shows how the ordering, temporal spacing, and dosage of OV and DC can be chosen to maximize efficacy and to potentially eliminate tumors altogether.

  4. The Effect of Bathymetric Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Filtering on Nearshore Process Model Results 6. AUTHOR(S) Nathaniel Plant, Kacey L. Edwards, James M. Kaihatu, Jayaram Veeramony, Yuan-Huang L. Hsu...filtering on nearshore process model results Nathaniel G. Plant **, Kacey L Edwardsb, James M. Kaihatuc, Jayaram Veeramony b, Larry Hsu’’, K. Todd Holland...assimilation efforts that require this information. Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Nearshore process models are capable of predicting

  5. Molecular Basis of Autophagic Cell Death in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Hsiung JW, Huang SA, Chien S. The role of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle ...lipid-binding proteinwith high affinity for phosphatidic acid (PA) and cardiolipin (CL). Previously, it has been shown that PA directly interacted...lyceride), PI (phosphatidylinositol), DAG (diacylglycerol), PI4P (PtdIns(4)P), PA ( phosphatidic acid ), PI4,5P2 (PtdIns(4,5)P2), PS (phosphatidylserine

  6. Role of IKKalpha in the EGFR Signaling Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    strategies for targeting various EGFR-associated cancers and/or non-cancerous diseases . In current study, we identified that EGFR serine phosphorylation...Rigo C, Piccinin S, Mizzau M, Sonego M, Fabris M, et al. Twist is substrate for caspase cleavage and proteasome-mediated degradation. Cell Death Differ...2008;133:704–15. 31. Thiery JP, Acloque H, Huang RY, Nieto MA. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in development and disease . Cell 2009;139:871–90. 32

  7. Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-09

    disorders, electron-electron interactions, spin- orbital interactions, and electromagnetic radiation on PCs, typically studied in the diffusive regime...chaos. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS electromagnetic wave scattering, chaos theory, waveform design 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF...1-14 (2014). 2 14. L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, H.-G. Luo, and C. Grebogi, “Universal formalism of Fano resonance,” AIP Advances 5, 017137, 1-18 (2015). 15

  8. Theoretical Transport Studies of Non-equilibrium Carriers Driven by High Electric Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-25

    incorporate many different kinds of scattering and make interesting predictions but found absent in it a simple way of providing physical ...quantum effects adequately. Commonly studied systems are GaAs- AlGaAs heterostructures, in which the difference in bandgap of the two materials causes a...wires are rough or dirty. From the published work of Lyo and Huang we have not been able to understand physically how the conductance behaves if the

  9. Trends in New U.S. Marine Corps Accessions During the Recent Conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    MILMED-D-13-00329 order, early attrition, and suicide). Prior studies have found specific preservice factors, such as adverse childhood experi- ences...was defined as reporting ever using caffeine or Ephedra/Ma Huang to improve physical performance. Adverse Past Events The number of adverse childhood ...experiences was based on 9 questions derived from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study,’’’•^° which adapted questions from the Child- hood

  10. Improved Modeling of Midlatitude D-Region Ionospheric Absorption of High Frequency Radio Signals During Solar X-Ray Flares

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Nickisch raytracing codes are examined. Figure 6.4.8 shows the raypaths predicted by the HASEL raytracing code for the 5 MHz blo-wwv and 15 MHz...regions in which ω ν>> and non-deviative absorption can be represented by an f -2 dependence. The raytracing code developed by Mark Hausman and L.J...Nickisch of NWRA [Huang and Reinisch, 2006; Nickisch, 1988], which is based upon the Jones-Stephenson raytracing algorithm [Jones and Stephenson

  11. Imaging and Forecasting of Ionospheric Structures and Their System Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-27

    with other radar and optical observations. In this drift mode, the digisonde is able to detect the spatial (horizontal) distribution of ionospheric... raytracing code by Xueqin Huang [Reinisch et al., 2005]. These satellite traces usually appear shortly after the vertical velocity maximum associated with...indicates that the raytracing codes widely used in the field may not describe reality. This has implications to understanding space-borne VLF-wave

  12. Theoretical Design and Experimental Evaluation of Molten Carbonate Modified LSM Cathode for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-07

    Min Lee, Kevin Huang. Mixed Oxide-Ion and Carbonate-Ion Conductors (MOCCs) as Electrolyte Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, 218th ECS Meeting... Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official...ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Oxygen Reduction, Molten Carbonate

  13. A Novel Anti-Beta2-Microglobulin Antibody Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Expression, Survival, and Progression in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    OUTCOMES: The third year of this DoD geant from May 1, 2010 to Apr 30, 2011: We collaborated with Dr. Leland Chung (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center) and...Sodek J, Zhau HE, Chung LW. Human Osteocalcin and Bone Sialoprotein Mediating Osteomimicry of Prostate Cancer Cells: Role of cAMP-Dependent Protein...Kinase A Signaling Pathway. Cancer Res 2005;65(6):2303-13. 10. Huang WC, Zhau HE, Chung LW. Androgen receptor survival signaling is blocked by anti

  14. Incorporating Digisonde Traces into the Ionospheric Data Assimilation Three Dimensional (IDA3D) Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-11

    digisonde data, two days of data from the Digital Ionogram DataBase (http://ulcar.uml.edu/DIDBase/), the largest digisonde database, were visually...examined. These data were processed by the Automatic Real Time Ionogram Scaler with True Height (ARTIST) [Reinisch and Huang, 1983] program into electron... ionograms are available for comparison. The first test run of the IDA3D used only O-mode autoscaled virtual height profiles from five different digisondes

  15. Periodic Structures in the Equatorial Ionosphere (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-13

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2012-0004 TP-2012-0004 PERIODIC STRUCTURES IN THE EQUATORIAL IONOSPHERE (POSTPRINT) Cheryl Y. Huang...in the Equatorial Ionosphere (Postprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2301...International Reference Ionosphere model to remove variations in density due to changes in spacecraft altitude and latitude along the orbit. In this

  16. Design and Implementation of A DICOM PACS With Secure Access Via Internet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    system, integrating them with the medical history data. Restricted access based on privileges were design to to make reports or only to consult data...like medium, a concept of exchange of information based on images and data between doctors, services and hospitals. It is a concept of integration...alfonso/pacs.html [2] SL. Lou, Hoogstrate, HK Huang. “Automated PACS image adquisition and recovery scheme for image integrity based on the DICOM

  17. A Targeted Multifunctional Platform for Imaging and Treatment of Breast Cancer and Its Metastases Based on Adenoviral Vectors and Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    our main contact person. Dr. Nikles is the Associate Director of the Center for Materials for Information Technology and an expert in the synthesis ...DNA replication, mRNA transport and splicing, in- hibition of host cell protein synthesis , and regulation of apoptosis (Bridge et al. 1989; Huang et al...potential use of the antiviral drug acyclovir , should replication become out of control. HSV-1 based vectors have been tested in various phases of clinical

  18. A Targeted Mulifunctional Platform for Imaging and Treatment of Breast Cancer and Its Metastases Based on Adenoviral Vectors and Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    synthesis , and regulation of apoptosis (Bridge et al. 1989; Huang et al. 1989). With regards to E4, viral vectors with modifications other than...one of the advantages of HSV-based oncolytic vectors is the potential use of the antiviral drug acyclovir , should replication become out of...such as mRNA transport and shut-off of host cell protein synthesis (Ring 2002). Another type of CRAds are those with tissue specific promoters to

  19. Interfacial and Thin Film Chemistry in Electron Device Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    conformation of polyacrylic acid adsorbed on alumina has been investigated simultaneously with various flocculation properties by employing a spectroscopic...Tjipangandara, Y-B Huang, P. Somasundaran and N.J. Turro, "Correlation of Alumina Flocculation with Adsorbed Polyacrylic Acid and Conformation...Gabor, "Formation of Premicellar Clusters Between 2,6-Toluidine Naphthalenesulfonate with Cationic Detergents ," Lang-muir 8, 1271 (1992). 53I III

  20. Global Ocean Tides. Part IV. The Diurnal Luni-Solar Declination Tide (K1), Atlas of Tidal Charts and Maps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-15

    1979). Private Communications: I). (. Simpson ((1977). National Ocean Survey, Rockville, Maryland, S. K. Gill and D. L. Porter ( IlIXS), National...80303 National Geodetic Survey ATTN: Dr. W. R. Holland Rockville, MD 20852 ATTN: Dr. B. Chovitz NASA/Goddard Space Flight (’enter Dr. J. M. Diamante ... Porter Branch R. A. Smith Wallops Island, VA 23337 B. B. Parker ATTN: C. I). Leitao N. I.. Huang NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and W. B. Krabill

  1. Global Ocean Tides. Part VIII. The Semidiurnal Luni-Solar Declination Tide (K2), Atlas of Tidal Charts and Maps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    and D. L. Porter (1978), National Ocean Survey, Rockville, Maryland; K. Wyrtki (1978), University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, and D. E. Cartwright...NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. J. M. Diamante Greenbelt, MD 20771 Dr. B. C. Douglas ATTN: Dr. J. W. Siry Dr. C. C. Goad D. E. Smith Dr. F...Simpson Information Processing and Analysis D. L. Porter Branch R. A. Smith Wallops Island, VA 23337 B. B. Parker ATTN: C.D. Leitao N. E. Huang NOAA

  2. Transplantation and Perfusion of Microvascular Fragments in a Rodent Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Microvascular transplantation after acute myocardial infarction . Tissue Eng 13: 2871-2879. Zuk PA, Zhu M, Mizuno H, Huang J, Futrell JW, Katz AJ...when grafts were implanted after murine myocardial infarction (Shepherd, 2007, text reference). However, caution should be made when extrapolating...these findings to the current study due to the differences between the models ( myocardial infarction vs. VML) and the time allowed for microvessel

  3. Traces of strong selective pressures in the genomes of C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis is nature's response to CO2 limitations, and evolved recurrently in several groups of plants. To identify genes related to C4 photosynthesis, Huang et al. looked for evidence of past episodes of adaptive evolution in the genomes of C4 grasses. They identified a large number of candidate genes that evolved under divergent selection, indicating that, besides alterations to expression patterns, the history of C4 involved strong selection on protein-coding sequences.

  4. MessyBoard: Lowering the Cost of Communication and Making it More Enjoyable

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-02

    located groups (Huang & Mynatt , 2003). The system displays four separate applications on a large pub- lic display in the authors’ lab, and each application...conversation. Mynatt reports that whiteboards are used for a variety of tasks including to-do list and reminders, organizing thoughts and illustrating...points in a discussion ( Mynatt , 1999). Participants in this study reported using their whiteboards in- tensely for short periods with long lulls in

  5. Prospective Analyses of Hormone Levels, Alcohol Intake, and Body Fat Distribution in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1323-1329. 40. Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food...Cancer in Postmenopausal Women. Susan E. Hankinson, Walter C. Willett, Dominique S.Michaud, JoAnn E. Manson, Graham A. Colditz, Christopher Longcope...65. 2. Huang Z, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, Manson JE et al. Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. JAMA

  6. Redesign of the Stabilized Pitch Control System of a Semi-Active Terminal Homing Missile System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-20

    34 AIEE Trans. Application and Industry , pp. 65-77, May 1961. [3] L. S. Shieh, "An Algebraic Approach to System Identification and Compensator Design...34A Quick Method for Estimating Closed-Loop Poles of Control Systems," Trans. AIEE, Applications and Industry , Vol. 76, pp. 80-87, May 1957. [101 C...Mathe- matical and Statistical Library). [16] C. J. Huang and L. S. Shieh, "Modeling Large Dynamical Systems with industrial Specifications," Int. J

  7. The Role of IL-17 in the Angiogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    of Microbiology and Immunology lectures in University of Illinois at Chicago 2011 The Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine lectures in...College of Rheumatology 2011 annual meeting held in Chicago 2012 Department of Microbiology and Immunology lectures in University of Illinois...rheumatoid arthritis? Immunology and cell biology 82:1-9. 2. Shahrara, S., Q. Huang, A. M. Mandelin, 2nd, and R. M. Pope. 2008. TH-17 cells in rheumatoid

  8. Precipitation Phenomena: Deformation and Aging. Proceedings of an International Conference Held in Conjunction with the 1988 World Materials Congress, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-30 September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Multiphase Stainless Steels ....... 35 F. D. S. Marquis, S. F. Wang , J. Qadri, M. Hadji, M. N. Datar Precipitating of Second Phase in Solid Solutions...AGING BEHAVIOR OF DOUBLE QUENCHED AND COLD WORKED MULTIPHASE STAINLESS STEELS F. D. S. Marquis, S. F. Wang , J. H. Qadri, M. Hadji, M. N. Datar Department...noticeable. REFERENCES [1] Zhou Huijiu, Wang Xiaotian, Huang Mingzhi aid Lou Qifu, Scientific Journal of Higher Educational Institution, Mechanical Engineering

  9. Unconscious goals: specific or unspecific? The potential harm of the goal/gene analogy.

    PubMed

    Nanay, Bence

    2014-04-01

    Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) definition of goals is ambiguous between "specific goals" - the end-state of a token action I am about to perform - and "unspecific goals" - the end-state of an action-type (without specifying how this would be achieved). The analogy with selfish genes pushes the authors towards the former interpretation, but the latter would provide a more robust theoretical framework.

  10. Sample Fabrication and Experimental Approach for Studying Interfacial Sliding in Thin Film-Substrate Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Technology 14.5 (1998): 405-410. 19. Zuruzi, A. S., H. Li, and G. Dong. "Diffusion Bonding of Aluminium Alloy 6061 in Air Using an Interface...428. 18. Huang, Y., F. J. Humphreys, N. Ridley, and Z. C. Wang. "Diffusion Bonding of Hot Rolled 7075 Aluminium Alloy." Materials Science and...and Takashi Ohnishi. "Effect of Aluminium Oxide Caps on Hillock Formation in Aluminium Alloy Films." Thin Solid Films 349 (1999): 191-198. 53

  11. Combustion Instability Mechanisms in a Pressure-coupled Gas-gas Coaxial Rocket Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Coaxial Rocket Injector 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Harvazinski, M. , Huang, C...Combustion Instability Mechanisms in a Pressure-coupled Gas-gas Coaxial Rocket Injector Matthew E. Harvazinski∗, Air Force Research Laboratory...downstream and the vortex partially decayed before impingement, the timing of this event was not well correlated with the acoustic mode.11 For the third

  12. Curvature Effects of Three-Dimensional Thick Stern Boundary Layers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    J.L. Hess I Woods Hole/Ocean Eng I Newport News Shipbuilding/Lib I Worchester P1/Tech Lib I Nielsen Eng & Research I SNAME/Tech Lib I Northrop Corp...McCarthy 1 54 P. Granville - 1 1542 T.T. Huang I N.C. Groves 15 Y.T. Lee *I M.S. Chang * -I F. Noblesse I D. Hendrix *1 1544 F. Peterson 1 156 D.S

  13. The Small Alternatively Spliced Amelogenin LRAP Modulates Early Stage Ameloblast Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-30

    matrix (Gibson et al., 2001). This phenotype is similar to some tooth phenotypes found in humans from families with X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta ...deficient mice display an amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype. J Biol Chem 276, 31871-31875. Gibson, C.W., Yuan, Z.A., Li, Y., Daly, B., Suggs, C., Aragon...Y.H., Al Hazzazzi, T., and Simmer, J.P. (2007). Enamel formation and amelogenesis imperfecta . Cells Tissues Organs 186, 78-85. 42 Huang, Y

  14. Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-06

    Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus I-Chueh Huang1*, Charles C. Bailey1, Jessica...identified viral restriction factors that inhibit infection mediated by the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Here we show that IFITM...Becker MM, et al. (2011) Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus. PLoS Pathog 7(1

  15. Optimization of Broadband Optical Response of Multilayer Nanospheres

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-27

    optimization-based theoretical approach to tailor the optical response of silver /silica multilayer nanospheres over the visible spectrum. We show that the...structure that provides the largest cross-section per volume/mass, averaged over a wide frequency range, is the silver coated silica sphere. We also show...Lett. 104, 207402 (2010). 2. X. Huang, S. Neretina, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanorods : From synthesis and properties to biological and biomedical

  16. Draft Software Metrics Panels Final Report. Papers Presented at the 30 June 1980 Meeting on Software Metrics, Washington DC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    measurements for quality assessment of software. ACM Computing Surveys , 1979, 11, 251-275. Morrison, D.F. Multivariate Statistical Methods . New York: McGraw-Hill...alidation as well as the effectiveness of individual methods . [Abstract] [P uang 79J J. C. Huang. Detection of Data Flow Anomaly Through Progrm...error might have boon committed. This paper describes a method for detecting such an anomaly by moans of program instrumenfion. The method is

  17. Taiwan - AFOSR Nanoscience Initiative Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-06

    University • 04 x, Synthesis and Study of Water-soluble Two- photon Absorptive Fullerene Compounds, Dr. Long Y. Chiang, National Taiwan University 15...Block Copolymer/Quantum Dot Nanocomposites for Optical Application, Kung-Hwa Wei, National Chiao Tung University – 044069, 3D Photonic Crystals Build...quantum nanojets – structures, dynamics and energetic, Huei-huang Chiu, National Cheng Kung University 19 Agenda • Overview • Research Funding • WOS

  18. The Role of Constitutively Active Prolactin Receptors in the Natural History of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Growth Hormone Gordon Research Conference 2008. One paper has been published and one manuscript was prepared for submission. 1. Tan D, Huang KT...Research Conference: Prolactin and Growth Hormone Family. CONCLUSION Given that the ΔS2 PRLRs are constitutively activated, these receptors are a...Ormandy, C. J., Kopchick, J. J., and Binart, N. The role of prolactin and growth hormone in mammary gland development. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 197: 127

  19. FastLane: An Agile Congestion Signaling Mechanism for Improving Datacenter Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    Raghavan, B., Huang, N., and Vahdat, A. Hedera: Dynamic flow scheduling for data center networks. In NSDI (2010). [7] Alizadeh , M., Greenberg, A...Maltz, D. A., Padhye, J., Patel, P., Prabhakar, B., 13 Sengupta, S., and Sridharan, M. Data center tcp (dctcp). In SIGCOMM (2010). [8] Alizadeh , M...NSDI (2012). [9] Alizadeh , M., Yang, S., Katti, S., McKeown, N., Prabhakar, B., and Shenker, S. Deconstructing datacenter packet transport. In

  20. China’s Historic Rights in the South China Sea: A Time for Reconsideration and Pacific Settlement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-18

    West disputed between China and Philippines. 12 The Paracel Islands group of about 130 small coral islands and reefs lie about 250 miles east...a ring-shaped coral reef , which has several rocks encircling a lagoon.” 196 China has asserted the position that Scarborough Shoal is Huang Yung...the north to the Malacca Strait in the south. 10 Inside this vast expanse of water are hundreds of islands, including rocks, and reefs , as well as