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Sample records for tze huang pzh

  1. Protective effects and potential mechanisms of Pien Tze Huang on cerebral chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stroke caused by brain ischemia is the third leading cause of adult disability. Active prevention and early treatment of stroke targeting the causes and risk factors may decrease its incidence, mortality and subsequent disability. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a Chinese medicine formula, was found to have anti-edema, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects that can prevent brain damage. This study aims to investigate the potential mechanisms of the preventive effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain damage caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats. Methods The effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain protein expression in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and stroke prone SHR (SHRsp) were studied with 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF tandem mass spectrometer and on brain cell death with enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining. Results Pien Tze Huang decreased cell death in hippocampus and cerebellum caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke. Immunostaining of caspase-3 results indicated that Pien Tze Huang prevents brain cells from apoptosis caused by ischemia. Brain protein expression results suggested that Pien Tze Huang downregulated QCR2 in the electron transfer chain of mitochondria preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage and possibly subsequent cell death (caspase 3 assay) as caused by chronic ischemia or hypertensive stroke to hippocampus and cerebellum. Conclusion Pien Tze Huang showed preventive effects on limiting the damage or injury caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats. The effect of Pien Tze Huang was possibly related to prevention of cell death from apoptosis or ROS/oxidative damage in mitochondria. PMID:20955558

  2. Rapid simultaneous determination of twelve major components in Pien Tze Huang by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqing; Zhao, Haiyu; Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2013-12-01

    An efficient method using ultra-performance LC coupled with triple quadrupole MS was developed for the rapid determination of 12 major active components in Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XBridge BEH RP18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm id, 1.7 μm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The chromatographic peaks of 12 components were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with the related reference compounds. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for the quantitative analysis. Ten batches of PZH were analyzed with a good linear regression relationship (r, 0.9987–0.9995), intraday precisions (RSD, 2.05–4.80%), interday precisions (RSD, 1.99–4.98%), repeatability (RSD, 2.21–4.20%), stability (RSD, 3.52–4.81%), and recovery (95.63–104.80%). By using this established method, the present study offered highly sensitive, specific, and speedy determination of 12 major components, which promoted the quality control investigation of PZH greatly.

  3. Identification and quantification of the anti-inflammatory constituents in Pian-Tze-Huang by liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqing; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jing; Peng, Jun; Lu, Jinjian

    2016-08-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative analyses combined with activity evaluation were used for the integrated quality control study of Pien-Tze-Huang (PZH), a precious lozenge used for 460 years in China. In qualitative analysis, a high performance LC-quadrupole time-of-flight MS method was developed for the identification of chemical profiling in PZH. 27 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference substances, and 12 compounds were tentatively deduced based on their MS data and comparing with literatures. Then the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of 27 compounds were evaluated, and 9 saponins, 11 bile acids, taurine and muscone exhibited significant inhibitory activities on TNF-α production with IC50 values ranging from 12.34 to 147.24μM. In quantitative analysis, 21 active compounds, selected as quality control markers, were simultaneously detected in 15 batches of PZH samples by ultra-performance LC-triple quadrupole MS. All the analytes were detected within 15min. Satisfactory linearity was achieved with wide linear range and fine determination coefficient (r(2)>0.9990). The respective relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions, repeatability, stability, and recovery were less than 4.32%, 4.94%, 4.78%, 4.87%, and 4.91%. This study established a high sensitive and efficient method for the integrated quality control of PZH, including qualitative and quantitative analyses combined with pharmacological activity evaluation.

  4. Identification and quantification of the anti-inflammatory constituents in Pian-Tze-Huang by liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqing; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jing; Peng, Jun; Lu, Jinjian

    2016-08-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative analyses combined with activity evaluation were used for the integrated quality control study of Pien-Tze-Huang (PZH), a precious lozenge used for 460 years in China. In qualitative analysis, a high performance LC-quadrupole time-of-flight MS method was developed for the identification of chemical profiling in PZH. 27 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference substances, and 12 compounds were tentatively deduced based on their MS data and comparing with literatures. Then the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of 27 compounds were evaluated, and 9 saponins, 11 bile acids, taurine and muscone exhibited significant inhibitory activities on TNF-α production with IC50 values ranging from 12.34 to 147.24μM. In quantitative analysis, 21 active compounds, selected as quality control markers, were simultaneously detected in 15 batches of PZH samples by ultra-performance LC-triple quadrupole MS. All the analytes were detected within 15min. Satisfactory linearity was achieved with wide linear range and fine determination coefficient (r(2)>0.9990). The respective relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions, repeatability, stability, and recovery were less than 4.32%, 4.94%, 4.78%, 4.87%, and 4.91%. This study established a high sensitive and efficient method for the integrated quality control of PZH, including qualitative and quantitative analyses combined with pharmacological activity evaluation. PMID:27240301

  5. On Green-Cusson Ansätze and deformed supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.; Debergh, N.

    1996-11-01

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics cannot be deformed when the superposition of only a pair of usual bosons and fermions is considered, but it can if nontrivial parabosons and parafermions of the same order p of paraquantization are superposed. We take the simplest case p=2 and exhibit reducibility problems in that context by using Green-Cusson Ansätze following Macfarlane methods. Specific representations of the Lie superalgebra osp (2|2, R) play an interesting role in connection with possible deformations.

  6. Three new species of Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) and redescription of C. abdominis Huang and C. furviflagellatus Huang from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are described from China, Coccobius bimaculatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Coccobius jinshanensis Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Coccobius leptocerus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Coccobius abdominis Huang 1994 and Coccobius furviflagellatus Huang 1994, originally described in Chinese, are redescribed in English and illustrated by macrophotography based on newly collected material. All five species were reared from Diaspididae (Hemiptera) scale insects on bamboo. Both the male of C. furviflagellatus and the diaspidid host association of C. abdominis and C. furviflagellatus are recorded for the first time.

  7. Hilbert-Huang Transform in Ocean Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongxiang

    2013-04-01

    Hilbert-Huang Transform is a relative novel time-frequency analysis technique for multi-scale processes. It is a wavelet-like data-driven methodology without a priori basis assumption. This meets the requirement of the analysis of the nonstationary and nonlinear data with short length or irregular sampling time interval. Since it is introduced in 1998 by Dr. N.E Huang, it has been widely applied to different scientific research fields and engineering problems, showing its simplicity and successes. We develop further this method to characterize the scale invariance for turbulence-like/scaling processes, e.g., velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen observed in ocean, etc. In this talk, we first present a general introduction of this method. The key feature of this Hilbert-based method is that it is free with sub-harmonics when dealing with nonstationary and nonlinear data. This is accomplished by using an Intrawave-Frequency Modulation mechanism to characterize the so-called nonlinear distortion. Therefore, unlike the Fourier based methodologies, artificial energy redistribution in spectral space is constrained. We then show several applications of this method to experimental data from wind tunnel experiments and ocean observations. The interaction between two different scales and two variables are also discussed in statistics sense. The method is general and applicable to other systems, in which the multi-scale is relevant. Reference 1. Huang, N. E.; Shen, Z.; Long, S. R.; Wu, M. C.; Shih, H. H.; Zheng, Q.; Yen, N.; Tung, C. C. & Liu, H. H. The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, Royal Society, 1998, 454, 903-995 2. Huang, Y.; Schmitt, F.; Lu, Z. & Liu, Y. An amplitude-frequency study of turbulent scaling intermittency using Hilbert spectral analysis, Europhys. Lett., 2008, 84, 40010 3. Huang, Y.; Schmitt, F.; Lu, Z.; Fougairolles, P.; Gagne, Y. & Liu, Y. Second

  8. Multivariate hypergeometric cascades, isomonodromy problems and Ward ansätze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. R.; Woodhouse, N. M. J.

    2010-10-01

    The Ward ansätze in twistor theory generate solutions of the SL(2,\\m{C}) anti-self-dual Yang-Mills equations from solutions of the wave equation in spacetime. The theory has a straightforward generalization in which the 'spacetime' is an open set in the Grassmannian Gr(2, N). The linear 'wave equation' in this case has special solutions, called the generalized confluent hypergeometric functions, which are equivariant under the natural action of Jordan groups on spacetime. Using the generalized Penrose-Ward transform, Ward ansätze of increasing weight arising from such hypergeometric functions give a cascade of solutions to isomonodromy problems for systems of ordinary differential equations, generally with irregular singularities. The extended construction is explored in detail, and two examples are given. In the first, solutions of the Schlesinger equations are constructed from the Lauricella FD functions; in the second, solutions of the isomonodromy problem for systems with two double poles and any number of simple poles are obtained from the generalized Bessel functions.

  9. Applications of the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new method, the Hilbert-Huang Transform, has been developed for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data. The key part of the method is the Empirical Mode Decomposition with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). An M is defined as any function having the same numbers of zero-crossing and extrema, and also having symmetric envelopes defined by the local maxima and minima respectively. The IMF also admits well-behaved Hilbert transform. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. Since the decomposition is based on the local characteristic time scale of the data, it is applicable to nonlinear and nonstationary processes. With the Hilbert transform, the Intrinsic Mode Functions yield instantaneous frequencies'as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. With this technique we can examine the detailed dynamics characteristics of a nonlinear system through the instantaneous frequency rather than harmonics. Thus it constitutes a new view of the nonlinear dynamics. Examples of classic nonlinear equations and other nonlinear and nonstationary data sets will be used as examples to illustrate the advantage of the application of this new data analysis method.

  10. [Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture with golden needles].

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually.

  11. The Application of Hilbert-Huang Transforms to Meteorological Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a new spectral technique as been developed for the analysis of aperiodic and nonlinear signals - the Hilbert-Huang transform. This paper shows how these transforms can be used to discover synoptic and climatic features: For sea level data, the transforms capture the oceanic tides as well as large, aperiodic river outflows. In the case of solar radiation, we observe variations in the diurnal and seasonal cycles. Finally, from barographic data, the Hilbert-Huang transform reveals the passage of extratropical cyclones, fronts, and troughs. Thus, this technique can flag significant weather events such its a flood or the passage of a squall line.

  12. Aeroelastic Flight Data Analysis with the Hilbert-Huang Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Prazenica, Chad

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the utility of the Hilbert Huang transform for the analysis of aeroelastic flight data. It is well known that the classical Hilbert transform can be used for time-frequency analysis of functions or signals. Unfortunately, the Hilbert transform can only be effectively applied to an extremely small class of signals, namely those that are characterized by a single frequency component at any instant in time. The recently-developed Hilbert Huang algorithm addresses the limitations of the classical Hilbert transform through a process known as empirical mode decomposition. Using this approach, the data is filtered into a series of intrinsic mode functions, each of which admits a well-behaved Hilbert transform. In this manner, the Hilbert Huang algorithm affords time-frequency analysis of a large class of signals. This powerful tool has been applied in the analysis of scientific data, structural system identification, mechanical system fault detection, and even image processing. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the potential applications of the Hilbert Huang algorithm for the analysis of aeroelastic systems, with improvements such as localized online processing. Applications for correlations between system input and output, and amongst output sensors, are discussed to characterize the time-varying amplitude and frequency correlations present in the various components of multiple data channels. Online stability analyses and modal identification are also presented. Examples are given using aeroelastic test data from the F-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing airplane, an Aerostructures Test Wing, and pitch plunge simulation.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Huang Lang chicken.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi-Fang; Liu, Li-Li; Fu, Chen-Xing; He, Shao-Ping; Li, Si; He, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Huang Lang chicken is the native breed of Hunan province in China. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence plays an important role in the accurate determination of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans. It is the first time that the complete mt genome sequence of the Huang Lang chicken was reported in this work, which was determined through the polymerase chain reaction-based method. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,786 bp, with the base composition of 30.25% for A, 23.71% for T, 32.53% for C and 13.51% for G, in the order C > A > T > G feature occurs in the Huang Lang chicken. It contains the typical structure, including two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mt genome sequence of the Huang Lang chicken provided an important data for further study on the genetic mechanism.

  14. [Herbological studies on Chinese crude drug Ma-huang. Part 1-On the botanical origin of Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Chieko; Kitade, Makiko; Mikage, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    The botanical origin of a Chinese crude drug Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang were herbologically studied. The results showed that the plants of Ephedra sinica Stapf, E. intermedia Schrenk & C. A. Meyer and E. equisetina Bunge were used as Ma-huang in China, and the first species was considered to be of high quality. The characters of Mao-zhou Ma-huang and Tong-zhou Ma-huang printed in Tu-jing-ben-cao, published in the Song Dynasty in China, were identified as E. likiangensis Florin and E. intermedia, respectively, and both species were recognized as excellent Ma-huang in the Ming Dynasty. The word origin of Katsune-kusa, the Japanese name for Ma-huang in the Heian Era, was etymologically considered as meaning the plant having reddish brown roots. In Japan, the plant of Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. var.japonicum Milde, of the family Equisetaceae, was substituted for Ma-huang in the middle of Edo Era, and it was designated that this action was based on the confusion of Ephedra plants and Equisetum plants those days in China.

  15. Application of Huang-Hilbert Transforms to Geophysical Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2003-01-01

    The Huang-Hilbert transform is a promising new method for analyzing nonstationary and nonlinear datasets. In this talk I will apply this technique to several important geophysical datasets. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of this method, multi- year, hourly datasets of the sea level heights and solar radiation will be analyzed. Then we will apply this transform to the analysis of gravity waves observed in a mesoscale observational net.

  16. Aeroelastic Flight Data Analysis with the Hilbert-Huang Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Marty; Prazenica, Chad

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility of the Hilbert-Huang transform for the analysis of aeroelastic flight data. It is well known that the classical Hilbert transform can be used for time-frequency analysis of functions or signals. Unfortunately, the Hilbert transform can only be effectively applied to an extremely small class of signals, namely those that are characterized by a single frequency component at any instant in time. The recently-developed Hilbert-Huang algorithm addresses the limitations of the classical Hilbert transform through a process known as empirical mode decomposition. Using this approach, the data is filtered into a series of intrinsic mode functions, each of which admits a well-behaved Hilbert transform. In this manner, the Hilbert-Huang algorithm affords time-frequency analysis of a large class of signals. This powerful tool has been applied in the analysis of scientific data, structural system identification, mechanical system fault detection, and even image processing. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential applications of the Hilbert-Huang algorithm for the analysis of aeroelastic systems, with improvements such as localized/online processing. Applications for correlations between system input and output, and amongst output sensors, are discussed to characterize the time-varying amplitude and frequency correlations present in the various components of multiple data channels. Online stability analyses and modal identification are also presented. Examples are given using aeroelastic test data from the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing aircraft, an Aerostructures Test Wing, and pitch-plunge simulation.

  17. Hilbert-Huang Transform in MHD Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kakurin, A.M.; Orlovsky, I.I.

    2005-12-15

    A new method for processing experimental data from MHD diagnostics is discussed that provides a more detailed study of the dynamics of large-scale MHD instabilities. The method is based on the Hilbert-Huang transform method and includes an empirical mode decomposition algorithm, which is used to decompose the experimental MHD diagnostic signals into a set of frequency- and amplitude-modulated harmonics in order to construct the time evolutions of the amplitudes and frequencies of these harmonics with the help of the Hilbert transform. The method can also be applied to analyze data from other diagnostics that measure unsteady oscillating signals.

  18. Ma Huang, du complement alimentaire a l'abus.

    PubMed

    Arditti, J; Bourdon, J H; Spadari, M; de Haro, L; Richard, N; Valli, M

    2002-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing Ma Huang (chinease ephedra) are available on the web sites and dietary shops in USA. They are widely promoted and used as a mean of weight reduction and energy enhancement. They contain Ma Huang alone or combined with Guarana (caffeine), creatine, St Jonh's wort, carnitine and are proposed with different labels. Numerous reports of adverse reactions and acute intoxication related to these products use were described in the medical literature. In the light of the severity of these cases, some of which resulted in permanent injury and death, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed limits on the dose and duration of use of such supplements. A review of 140 reports submitted to the FDA between June 1997 and March 1999, 47 % involved cardiovascular symptoms, 18 % neurological symptoms. Severe hypertension was the single most frequent adverse effect followed by tachycardia, myocardial infarction, stroke, seizure. Ten events resulted in death and 13 produced permanent impairment. In France, ampleness of the use of dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids is unknown. Two French recent severe poisonings (one with "ripped Fuel" for losing weight and the other with "Energy pills" in a body builder) show that there is serious health risks for the chronic users. Dietary supplements are not subject to control under "la Direction Générale de la Santé". Informations for general public, medical community and health-care authorities are necessary to be aware of potential health hazards of these products use.

  19. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Theoretical Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Blank, Karin; Huang, Norden E.

    2004-01-01

    The Hilbert-Huang Transform [HHT] is a novel empirical method for spectrum analysis of non-linear and non-stationary signals. The HHT is a recent development and much remains to be done to establish the theoretical foundation of the HHT algorithms. This paper develops the theoretical foundation for the convergence of the HHT sifting algorithm and it proves that the finest spectrum scale will always be the first generated by the HHT Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) algorithm. The theoretical foundation for cutting an extrema data points set into two parts is also developed. This then allows parallel signal processing for the HHT computationally complex sifting algorithm and its optimization in hardware.

  20. Magnetotelluric Response Function Estimation Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jian-hua

    2013-11-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data series are non-stationary random signals that do not meet the basic requirements of conventional methods based on the Fourier transform. To minimize the estimation bias errors brought about by the non-stationary characteristics of MT data, a new method, based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), is proposed for the first time for estimating the MT response functions from a time series of electromagnetic field variations. With the HHT method, the amplitude of data series are expressed as a function of frequency and time and then response functions are estimated statistically from the time-frequency spectrum. Mathematical model and calculation processes are introduced and some simulated data are analyzed to verify the correctness of the method. Finally, the measured MT data is facilitated by applying the HHT to assess the ability of HHT method to quantify meaningful geologic information.

  1. The Hilbert-Huang transform: Theory, applications, development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, Bradley Lee

    Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is a data analysis tool, first developed in 1998, which can be used to extract the periodic components embedded within oscillatory data. This thesis is dedicated to the understanding, application, and development of this tool. First, the background theory of HHT will be described and compared with other spectral analysis tools. Then, a number of applications will be presented, which demonstrate the capability for HHT to dissect and analyze the periodic components of different oscillatory data. Finally, a new algorithm is presented which expands HHT ability to analyze discontinuous data. The sum result is the creation of a number of useful tools developed from the application of HHT, as well as an improvement of the HHT tool itself.

  2. Detection of earthquake induced radon precursors by Hilbert Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Chiranjib; Ghose, Debasis; Sinha, Bikash; Deb, Argha

    2016-10-01

    Continuous measurement of radon-222 concentration in soil was carried out across duration of one year at a geologically faulted area having high regional heat flow to detect anomalies caused by seismic activities. The data reveals a range of periodicities present in the radon time series. To identify seismic induced radon changes we treat the time series data through various filtering methods to remove inherent periodicities. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is deployed to decompose the signal into its characteristic modes. Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) is applied for the first time on the physically significant modes obtained by EEMD to represent time-energy-frequency of the recorded soil radon time series. After removing the periodic and quasi-periodic constituents from the original time series, the simulated result shows a forceful correlation in recorded radon-222 anomalies with regional and local seismic events.

  3. Hilbert-Huang transformation: application to postural stability analysis.

    PubMed

    Amoud, Hassan; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim objective of this paper is the analysis of the Centre Of Pressure (COP) time series by the means of the Hilbert Huang Transformation (HHT). The HHT consists of extracting the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) from an Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), and then applying the Hilbert Transformation on the IMFs. The trace of the HHT in the complex plane has a circular form, with each IMF having its own rotation frequency. The area of the circle represents a possible indicator of the postural stability status of the subjects. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the area of this circle in order to identify the post-vibratory effects on standing posture in healthy adult subjects.

  4. [Academic heritage of Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) in Japan].

    PubMed

    He, Huiling; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) was the first monograph on famines herbal in the history of China, which creates a new research field of edible plants. Around the middle and late 17th century, Jiu huang ben cao was spread to Japan and aroused great attention of famous Japanese herbalists. Thus, all versions of different edition systems were circulated in Japan. Later, some famous Japanese scholar ssuccessively quoted texts of Jiu huang ben cao from the Nong zheng quan shu (Whole book on Agricultural Administration) spread in Japan, and block-printed it as an independent work. As a result, Jiu huang ben cao virtually circulated widely in Japan.

  5. Effect of Rhizoma coptidis (Huang Lian) on Treating Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Wang, Han; Gu, Cheng-Juan; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue globally; considerable progress has been made in the field of western hypoglycemic drug and insulin, but some shortages still exist. As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) performs a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the treatment of DM. TCM therapy has certain advantages of less toxicity and/or side effects, and Chinese herbal medicine which usually contains various active ingredients could provide multiple therapeutic effects. Huang Lian (Rhizoma coptidis, RC) is a herb frequently used in many traditional formulas for properties of "clearing damp-heat, quenching fire, and counteracting poison" in Asia for centuries. In this review, we summarize the application of RC in the treatment of DM from two aspects of contents. Firstly, theoretical principles are explained, including the properties and related records about RC in ancient references and modern pharmacological researches and pharmacokinetics on RC and its active components. Secondly, the clinical application of RC is mainly reviewed, such as applicable stage and syndrome, the reasonable dose range, the preparation formulations, and the toxicity and/or side effects and solutions to its adverse actions. This review provides scientific evidence about the effective components, pharmacological researches, and toxicity of RC, as well as introducing traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical experience, in order to guide clinician to use RC more suitably and reasonably in the clinical practice.

  6. Identification of Velcro rales based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue; Shao, Jie; Long, Yingjiao; Que, Chengli; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Velcro rales, as a kind of crackles, are relatively specific for lung fibrosis and usually the first clinical clue of interstitial lung disease (ILD). We proposed an automatic analytic tool based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the computerized identification of Velcro rales. In particular, HHT was utilized to extract the energy weight in various frequency bands (EW) of crackles and to calculate the portion of crackles during late inspiration. Support vector machine (SVM) based on the HHT-derived measures was used to differentiate Velcro rales from other crackles. We found that there were significant differences in the extracted parameters between Velcro rales and other crackles, including EW, EW and the proportion of crackles that appeared during the late inspiration. The discrimination results obtained from SVM achieved a concordance rate up to 92.20%±1.80% as confirmed by the diagnosis from experienced physicians. For practical purpose, the proposed approach may have potential applications to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of auscultation and conduct automatic ILD diagnose system.

  7. Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform to Financial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden

    2005-01-01

    A paper discusses the application of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method to time-series financial-market data. The method was described, variously without and with the HHT name, in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles and supporting documents. To recapitulate: The method is especially suitable for analyzing time-series data that represent nonstationary and nonlinear phenomena including physical phenomena and, in the present case, financial-market processes. The method involves the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), in which a complicated signal is decomposed into a finite number of functions, called "intrinsic mode functions" (IMFs), that admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms. The HHT consists of the combination of EMD and Hilbert spectral analysis. The local energies and the instantaneous frequencies derived from the IMFs through Hilbert transforms can be used to construct an energy-frequency-time distribution, denoted a Hilbert spectrum. The instant paper begins with a discussion of prior approaches to quantification of market volatility, summarizes the HHT method, then describes the application of the method in performing time-frequency analysis of mortgage-market data from the years 1972 through 2000. Filtering by use of the EMD is shown to be useful for quantifying market volatility.

  8. Effect of Rhizoma coptidis (Huang Lian) on Treating Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Wang, Han; Gu, Cheng-Juan; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue globally; considerable progress has been made in the field of western hypoglycemic drug and insulin, but some shortages still exist. As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) performs a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the treatment of DM. TCM therapy has certain advantages of less toxicity and/or side effects, and Chinese herbal medicine which usually contains various active ingredients could provide multiple therapeutic effects. Huang Lian (Rhizoma coptidis, RC) is a herb frequently used in many traditional formulas for properties of "clearing damp-heat, quenching fire, and counteracting poison" in Asia for centuries. In this review, we summarize the application of RC in the treatment of DM from two aspects of contents. Firstly, theoretical principles are explained, including the properties and related records about RC in ancient references and modern pharmacological researches and pharmacokinetics on RC and its active components. Secondly, the clinical application of RC is mainly reviewed, such as applicable stage and syndrome, the reasonable dose range, the preparation formulations, and the toxicity and/or side effects and solutions to its adverse actions. This review provides scientific evidence about the effective components, pharmacological researches, and toxicity of RC, as well as introducing traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical experience, in order to guide clinician to use RC more suitably and reasonably in the clinical practice. PMID:26508987

  9. On Certain Theoretical Developments Underlying the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Blank, Karin; Flatley, Thomas; Huang, Norden E.; Petrick, David; Hestness, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    One of the main traditional tools used in scientific and engineering data spectral analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Both carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as being linear and stationary, and of satisfying the Dirichlet conditions. A recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectral analysis problems. Using a-posteriori data processing based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) sifting process (algorithm), followed by the normalized Hilbert Transform of the decomposed data, the HHT allows spectral analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data. The EMD sifting process results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real-value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). These functions form a nearly orthogonal derived from the data (adaptive) basis. The IMFs can be further analyzed for spectrum content by using the classical Hilbert Transform. A new engineering spectral analysis tool using HHT has been developed at NASA GSFC, the HHT Data Processing System (HHT-DPS). As the HHT-DPS has been successfully used and commercialized, new applications pose additional questions about the theoretical basis behind the HHT and EMD algorithms. Why is the fastest changing component of a composite signal being sifted out first in the EMD sifting process? Why does the EMD sifting process seemingly converge and why does it converge rapidly? Does an IMF have a distinctive structure? Why are the IMFs nearly orthogonal? We address these questions and develop the initial theoretical background for the HHT. This will contribute to the development of new HHT processing options, such as real-time and 2-D processing using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA

  10. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Data Processing System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Huang, Norden E.; Cornwell, Evette; Smith, Darell

    2003-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The Fourier view of nonlinear mechanics that had existed for a long time, and the associated FFT (fairly recent development), carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as linearity and of being stationary. Natural phenomena measurements are essentially nonlinear and nonstationary. A very recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectrum analysis problems. Using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) followed by the Hilbert Transform of the empirical decomposition data (HT), the HHT allows spectrum analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data by using an engineering a-posteriori data processing, based on the EMD algorithm. This results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that can be further analyzed for spectrum interpretation by the classical Hilbert Transform. This paper describes phase one of the development of a new engineering tool, the HHT Data Processing System (HHTDPS). The HHTDPS allows applying the "T to a data vector in a fashion similar to the heritage FFT. It is a generic, low cost, high performance personal computer (PC) based system that implements the HHT computational algorithms in a user friendly, file driven environment. This paper also presents a quantitative analysis for a complex waveform data sample, a summary of technology commercialization efforts and the lessons learned from this new technology development.

  11. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Theoretical Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Blank, Karin; Flatley, Thomas; Huang, Norden E.; Patrick, David; Hestnes, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Both carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as linearity, of being stationary, and of satisfying the Dirichlet conditions. A recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectrum analysis problems. Using a-posteriori data processing based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) sifting process (algorithm), followed by the normalized Hilbert Transform of the decomposition data, the HHT allows spectrum analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data. The EMD sifting process results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). These functions form a near orthogonal adaptive basis, a basis that is derived from the data. The IMFs can be further analyzed for spectrum interpretation by the classical Hilbert Transform. A new engineering spectrum analysis tool using HHT has been developed at NASA GSFC, the HHT Data Processing System (HHT-DPS). As the HHT-DPS has been successfully used and commercialized, new applications post additional questions about the theoretical basis behind the HHT and EMD algorithms. Why is the fastest changing component of a composite signal being sifted out first in the EMD sifting process? Why does the EMD sifting process seemingly converge and why does it converge rapidly? Does an IMF have a distinctive structure? Why are the IMFs near orthogonal? We address these questions and develop the initial theoretical background for the HHT. This will contribute to the developments of new HHT processing options, such as real-time and 2-D processing using Field Programmable

  12. Fault pattern and oil migration in Huang Hua depression, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Guojun )

    1994-08-01

    Huang Hua depression is a back-arc intercratonic rift basin that developed on the north China platform in the Cenozoic. Controlled by the basement anisotropy, multidirectional fault sets on the plane are developed along the preexisting zone of weakness. According to the scale of tectonic elements controlled by faults, as well as its time of activity and depth, normal faults are divided into four grades in this basin. Seismic data and geological information have shown that 70% of the faults are listric faults. Flattening of the faults reflect tilting of fault block or detachment along the unconformity surfaces and ductile beds. Because of gravity creep and local extension main faults and secondary faults are united into a [open quotes]horse tail[close quotes] or [open quotes]Y[close quotes] patterns. Results of oil-source rock correlation and oil migration parameters all demonstrate that oil and gas migrate in or through faults (fracture zones), and form the [open quotes]step-like[close quotes] migration model. Faults in sandstone-shale sequences play the role of conduits for hydrocarbon, but faults in gypsum beds and thick undercompacted shales generally act as a top seal. To prevent oil migration through faults, reservoirs and ductile rocks with a high capillary displacement pressure must be juxtaposed. Whether faults are rejuvenated during hydrocarbon migration is not required for faults opening, but it is important to investigate the activity history of growth faults and the role of juxtaposed sediments in a sandstone-shale sequence in creating sealing and nonsealing faults.

  13. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) for low frequency waves determination: THEMIS data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloff, Natalia; Nathaniel, Ekong

    The application of Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is considered for the determination of the instantaneous wave vector of the low frequency plasma waves in the turbulent magnetosheath. Downstream of a quasi-perpendicular bow shock of the Earth, various wave modes associated with the different boundaries have been confirmed and different methods have been used to find frequency and instantaneous frequency of the different modes. We applied Hilbert-Huang Transform in the determination of instantaneous frequency by decomposing the data observed by in-situ spacecraft in magnetosheath into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique of Huang et al., 1998. Instantaneous frequencies for the different IMFs were computed using Hilbert transform. The determined instantaneous frequency supports the non-stationary and non-linear nature of the data. Near-bow shock region data from the THEMIS mission were used.

  14. [Research progress on Huang Fu-mi's A-B classic of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing-kun; Xing, Yu-rui

    2014-11-01

    In order to understand the research status of HUANG Fu-mi's A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 83 pieces of literature that have been publically published since 1978 were analyzed. A summary was performed according to 7 aspects including version origin, emendation, arrangement and summary, theory discussion, clinical research, value evaluation, the rest questions, etc. It is believed that deep research work has been done on explanations, emendation and translation regarding A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. However, the exploration work on the theory and application is far from enough. Therefore, beginning from historical and cultural background, we should analyze the humanistic spirit of HUANG Fu-mi combined with A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion to perform a deep exploration, so we could have a thorough and comprehensive research on HUANG Fu-mi's academic thoughts.

  15. Authentication of official Da-huang by sequencing and multiplex allele-specific PCR of a short maturase K gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guojie; Wang, Xueyong; Liu, Chunsheng; Li, Weidong; Wei, Shengli; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoli; Liu, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Rhubarb (official Da-huang) is an important medicinal herb in Asia. Many adulterants of official Da-huang have been discovered in Chinese markets in recent years, which has resulted in adverse effects in medicinal treatment. Here, novel molecular markers based on a short maturase K (matK) gene were developed for authenticating official Da-huang. This study showed that all the species from official Da-huang were clustered together in one clade in the polygenetic trees based on short matK. Two highly conserved single nucleotide polymorphisms of short matK were mined in the species from official Da-huang. Based on these polymophisms, four improved specific primers of official Da-huang were successfully developed that generated reproducible specific bands. These results suggest that the short matK sequence can be considered as a favorable candidate for distinguishing official Da-huang from its adulterants. The established multiplex allele-specific PCR was determined to be simple and accurate and may serve as a preferable tool for authentication of official Da-huang. In addition, we suggest that short-sized specific bands be developed to authenticate materials used in traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. [Birthplace of the Qi-Huang culture-Xinmi of the Henan Province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Min

    2012-05-01

    Located in the central plains and the eastern slope of songhsan, Xinmi has a long history and unique advantage in environment. As the birthplace of Qi-Huang culture, it has abundant Qibo and Huangdi relics (Xuanyuan tpe, Qibo tomb, Qibo temple, Qibo spring, Huangdi palace and Qibo mountain), folk tales about their academic discussion which were popular long time ago, many archaeological discoveries with academic value and genuine Chinese medicinal materials. Qi-Huang culture is the valuable Chinese culture heritage and it needs to be further studied and developed.

  17. The Value of SCMC in SLA: Comments on Lin, Huang & Liou (2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods are often used to determine the effectiveness of certain treatments across studies. However, we are often unaware of how a meta-analysis can provide value to researchers and practitioners. This paper offers a brief commentary on a meta-analysis conducted by Lin, Huang and Liou (2013) in LLT, providing further statistical…

  18. The state of the reward comparison hypothesis: theoretical comment on Huang and Hsiao (2008).

    PubMed

    Grigson, Patricia Sue

    2008-12-01

    Rats avoid intake of a gustatory cue following pairings with a drug of abuse, such as morphine or cocaine. Despite the well-established rewarding properties of these drugs, the reduction in intake of the taste cue has been interpreted as a conditioned taste aversion for decades. In 1997, I proposed the reward comparison hypothesis suggesting that rats avoided intake of the drug-associated taste cue because the value of the taste cue pales in comparison to the highly rewarding drug of abuse expected in the near future. In this issue of Behavioral Neuroscience, A. C. W. Huang and S. Hsiao challenge the reward comparison hypothesis by showing parallels between amphetamine and LiCl-induced suppression of CS intake. This commentary addresses the current state of the reward comparison hypothesis in the context of the experiments completed by Huang and Hsiao and their new task-dependent drug effects hypothesis.

  19. Employing the Hilbert-Huang Transform to analyze observed natural complex signals: Calm wind meandering cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Luis Gustavo Nogueira; Stefanello, Michel Baptistella; Degrazia, Gervásio Annes; Acevedo, Otávio Costa; Puhales, Franciano Scremin; Demarco, Giuliano; Mortarini, Luca; Anfossi, Domenico; Roberti, Débora Regina; Denardin, Felipe Costa; Maldaner, Silvana

    2016-11-01

    In this study we analyze natural complex signals employing the Hilbert-Huang spectral analysis. Specifically, low wind meandering meteorological data are decomposed into turbulent and non turbulent components. These non turbulent movements, responsible for the absence of a preferential direction of the horizontal wind, provoke negative lobes in the meandering autocorrelation functions. The meandering characteristic time scales (meandering periods) are determined from the spectral peak provided by the Hilbert-Huang marginal spectrum. The magnitudes of the temperature and horizontal wind meandering period obtained agree with the results found from the best fit of the heuristic meandering autocorrelation functions. Therefore, the new method represents a new procedure to evaluate meandering periods that does not employ mathematical expressions to represent observed meandering autocorrelation functions.

  20. Grundsätze über die Anlagen neuer Sternwarten mit Beziehung auf die Sternwarte der Universität Göttingen. Von Georg Heinrich Borheck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuermann, Klaus; Borheck, Georg Heinrich

    Die Göttinger Sternwarte, Wirkungsstätte des berühmten Gelehrten Carl Friedrich Gauß, ist ein bedeutendes Baudenkmal. Im Jahre 2005 wird sie gemeinsam von der Georg-August-Universität und der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen renoviert, um dann als repräsentatives Gebäude der Universität und Arbeitsstätte der Akademie zu dienen. Die Nutzung der historischen Räume für Ausstellungen macht diesen imposanten Bau erstmals der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich. Die Sternwarte war bei ihrer Errichtung vor 200 Jahren ein nach seinerzeit neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen konzipierter Bau, der die Universität Göttingen in eine der vordersten Stellen Europa rückte. Auch aufgrund ihrer Architektur ist sie ein großer Wurf des Göttinger Universitätsbaumeisters Georg Heinrich Borheck. Durch die Kriegswirren der Napoleonischen Zeit zerschlug sich Borhecks Versuch einer Publikation seiner Beschreibung des Baus der Göttinger Sternwarte 1805. Doch seine Schrift ist auch heute noch aktuell und wird mit diesem Band erstmals einer breiten Öffentlichkeit zugängig gemacht. Er zeigt die Grundsätze, nach denen damals öffentliche Bauten konzipiert wurden, erläutert die Bedeutung des Baus aus kunst- und wissenschaftshistorischer Sicht und informiert über die Pläne zur Restaurierung der Sternwarte in einem separaten Beitrag und im Geleitwort des Präsidenten der Georg-August Universität Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Kurt von Figura.

  1. Quantitative phase imaging by single-shot Hilbert-Huang phase microscopy.

    PubMed

    Trusiak, Maciej; Mico, Vicente; Garcia, Javier; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-15

    We propose a novel single-shot Hilbert-Huang transform-based algorithm applied to digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for robust, fast, and accurate single-shot quantitative phase imaging in on-axis and off-axis configurations. Fringe pattern with possible defects and closed fringes are adaptively filtered and accurately phase demodulated using local fringe direction estimation. Experimental validation of the proposed techniques is presented as the DHM study of microbeads and red blood cells phase samples. Obtained results compare very favorably with the Fourier approach (off-axis) and temporal phase shifting (on-axis). PMID:27628393

  2. Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform to the Search for Gravitational Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan B.; Cannizzo, John K.; Numata, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    We present the application of a novel method of time-series analysis, the Hilbert-Huang Transform, to the search for gravitational waves. This algorithm is adaptive and does not impose a basis set on the data, and thus the time-frequency decomposition it provides is not limited by time-frequency uncertainty spreading. Because of its high time-frequency resolution it has important applications to both signal detection and instrumental characterization. Applications to the data analysis of the ground and space based gravitational wave detectors, LIGO and LISA, are described.

  3. [Medico-psychology in Huang di nei jing (Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Min

    2004-01-01

    Huang di nei jing (Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon) discusses spirit, mood, soul, idea, will, anxiety, worry, wisdom, morale and their relations with human life, physiology, and body-mind health. It also expounds the developmental rule of human body and mind, methods for keeping fit. These simple thinking of medico-psychology reflects that Chinese doctors had advocated science since ancient times. The methodology of systematically and comprehensively discussing the relationship among nature, human body, visceral functions, and emotional activities reflects, again, the rather strong physiological dialectical thinking of ancient people. PMID:15555247

  4. Application of the Hilbert-Huang transform to the search for gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan B.; Cannizzo, John K.; Numata, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    We present the application of a novel method of time-series analysis, the Hilbert-Huang transform, to the search for gravitational waves. This algorithm is adaptive and does not impose a basis set on the data, and thus the time-frequency decomposition it provides is not limited by time-frequency uncertainty spreading. Because of its high time-frequency resolution it has important applications to both signal detection and instrumental characterization. Applications to the data analysis of the ground and space based gravitational wave detectors, LIGO and LISA, are described.

  5. Improving Ultrasonic C-Scan Resolution Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisk, G. G.; Miller, E. S.; Murphy, D. J.

    2005-04-01

    The Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) is applied to ultrasonic mapping of simulated defects in an aluminum plate. C-Scanning tests are conducted using pulse-echo ultrasound on a water-immersed aluminum plate containing a matrix of 16 unevenly-spaced flat-bottomed holes. After decomposing the time-gated echo waveforms into simpler waveforms with HHT, the Hilbert transform is applied and a single RMS parameter derived for every transducer location. HHT provides good capability for sizing and locating defects and excellent defect/non-defect contrast. There are clear implications for improved mapping of more subtle defects.

  6. Improving Ultrasonic C-Scan Resolution Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    SciTech Connect

    Leisk, G.G.; Miller, E.S.; Murphy, D.J.

    2005-04-09

    The Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) is applied to ultrasonic mapping of simulated defects in an aluminum plate. C-Scanning tests are conducted using pulse-echo ultrasound on a water-immersed aluminum plate containing a matrix of 16 unevenly-spaced flat-bottomed holes. After decomposing the time-gated echo waveforms into simpler waveforms with HHT, the Hilbert transform is applied and a single RMS parameter derived for every transducer location. HHT provides good capability for sizing and locating defects and excellent defect/non-defect contrast. There are clear implications for improved mapping of more subtle defects.

  7. Pulse transit time-based blood pressure estimation using hilbert-huang transform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Shi, Yang; Teng, Daniel; Dinh, Anh; Ko, Seok-Bum; Chen, Li; Basran, Jenny; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Choi, Younhee

    2009-01-01

    The pulse transit time (PTT) based method has been suggested as a continuous, cuffless and non-invasive approach to estimate blood pressure. It is of paramount importance to accurately determine the pulse transit time from the measured electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmo-gram (PPG) signals. We apply the celebrated Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to process both the ECG and PPG signals, and improve the accuracy of the PTT estimation. Further, the blood pressure variation is obtained by using a well-established formula reflecting the relationship between the blood pressure and the estimated PTT. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. [Characteristics of precipitation pH and conductivity at Mt. Huang].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chun-e; Deng, Xue-liang; Wu, Bi-wen; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Su; Yang, Yuan-jian

    2013-05-01

    To understand the general characteristics of pH distribution and pollution in precipitation at Mt. Huang, statistical analyses were conducted for the routine measurements of pH and conductivity (K) at Mt. Huang during 2006-2011. The results showed that: (1) Over the period of study, the annual volume weighted mean (VWM) precipitation pH varied from 4.81 to 5.57, with precipitation acidity strengthening before 2009 and weakening thereafter. The precipitation acidity showed evident seasonal variations, with the VWM pH lowest in winter (4.78), and highest in summer (5.33). The occurrence frequency of acid rain was 46% , accounting for 45% of total rainfalls and with the most frequent pH falling into weak acid to neutral rain. (2) The annual VWM K varied from 16.91 to 27.84 microS x cm(-1), with no evident trend. As for ions pollution, the precipitation was relatively clean at Mt. Huang, with the most frequent K range being below 15 microS x cm(-1), followed by 15-25 microS x cm(-1). From February 2010 to December 2011, precipitation samples were collected on daily basis for ions analysis, as well as pH and K measurement in lab. Detailed comparisons were conducted between the two sets of pH and K, one set from field measurement and the other from lab measurement. The results indicated: (1) The lab measured pH (K) was highly correlated with the field pH (K); however, the lab pH tended to move towards neutral comparing with the corresponding field pH, and the shift range was closely correlated with the field pH and rainfall. The shift range of K from field to lab was highly correlated with the total ion concentration of precipitation. The field K showed evident negative correlation with the field pH with a correlation coefficient of -0.51. (2) When sampling with nylon-polyethylene bags, the statistics showed smaller bias between two sets of pH, with higher correlation coefficient between two sets of K. Furthermore, the lab K also showed evident negative correlation with

  9. [Characteristics of precipitation pH and conductivity at Mt. Huang].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chun-e; Deng, Xue-liang; Wu, Bi-wen; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Su; Yang, Yuan-jian

    2013-05-01

    To understand the general characteristics of pH distribution and pollution in precipitation at Mt. Huang, statistical analyses were conducted for the routine measurements of pH and conductivity (K) at Mt. Huang during 2006-2011. The results showed that: (1) Over the period of study, the annual volume weighted mean (VWM) precipitation pH varied from 4.81 to 5.57, with precipitation acidity strengthening before 2009 and weakening thereafter. The precipitation acidity showed evident seasonal variations, with the VWM pH lowest in winter (4.78), and highest in summer (5.33). The occurrence frequency of acid rain was 46% , accounting for 45% of total rainfalls and with the most frequent pH falling into weak acid to neutral rain. (2) The annual VWM K varied from 16.91 to 27.84 microS x cm(-1), with no evident trend. As for ions pollution, the precipitation was relatively clean at Mt. Huang, with the most frequent K range being below 15 microS x cm(-1), followed by 15-25 microS x cm(-1). From February 2010 to December 2011, precipitation samples were collected on daily basis for ions analysis, as well as pH and K measurement in lab. Detailed comparisons were conducted between the two sets of pH and K, one set from field measurement and the other from lab measurement. The results indicated: (1) The lab measured pH (K) was highly correlated with the field pH (K); however, the lab pH tended to move towards neutral comparing with the corresponding field pH, and the shift range was closely correlated with the field pH and rainfall. The shift range of K from field to lab was highly correlated with the total ion concentration of precipitation. The field K showed evident negative correlation with the field pH with a correlation coefficient of -0.51. (2) When sampling with nylon-polyethylene bags, the statistics showed smaller bias between two sets of pH, with higher correlation coefficient between two sets of K. Furthermore, the lab K also showed evident negative correlation with

  10. Advantages of the Hilbert Huang transform for marine mammals signals analysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Olivier

    2006-11-01

    While marine mammals emit variant signals (in time and frequency), the Fourier spectrogram appears to be the most widely used spectral estimator. In certain cases, this approach is suboptimal, particularly for odontocete click analysis and when the signal-to-noise ratio varies during the continuous recordings. We introduce the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) as an efficient means for analysis of bioacoustical signals. To evaluate this method, we compare results obtained from three time-frequency representations: the Fourier spectrogram, the wavelet transform, and the Hilbert Huang transform. The results show that HHT is a viable alternative to the wavelet transform. The chosen examples illustrate certain advantages. (1) This method requires the calculation of the Hilbert transform; the time-frequency resolution is not restricted by the uncertainty principle; the frequency resolution is finer than with the Fourier spectrogram. (2) The original signal decomposition into successive modes is complete. If we were to multiply some of these modes, this would contribute to attenuate the presence of noise in the original signal and to being able to select pertinent information. (3) Frequency evolution for each mode can be analyzed as one-dimensional (1D) signal. We not need a complex 2D post-treatment as is usually required for feature extraction.

  11. A Meta-Discursive Analysis of Online Comments of Chinese Netizens on Huang Xiaoming's Appropriation of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Xi

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the ideologies of English in China through a meta-discursive analysis of Chinese netizens' comments on the performance of English by Huang Xiaoming, a famous Chinese actor. By applying Park and Wee's framework for analysing ideological evaluations of appropriation (i.e. ideologies of allegiance, competence, and…

  12. An Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform to the LISA Mock Data Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannizzo, John K.; Camp, J.

    2006-12-01

    We analyze time series generated for the LISA Mock Data Challenge utilizing the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), an adaptive, two-step procedure in which a time series is first decomposed into orthonormal basis sets (intrinsic mode functions, IMFs) via ``sifting'' on the extrema in the data, and second each IMF is Hilbert-transformed so that a time series of instantaneous frequency f(t) is generated. By convolving f(t) with the instantaneous power versus time, one can select on time intervals of high signal strength, and thereby derive a much more finely graduated and high fidelity f(t) than is possbile through standard FFT techniques, even for cases where the signal consists of just a few oscillations. The difference in techniques is particularly noticeable for the case of BH-BH mergers with spin-orbit coupling included.

  13. Event Trigger Generator for Gravitational-Wave Data based on Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Edwin J.; Chu, Hyoungseok; Kim, Young-Min; Blackburn, Lindy; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kim, Hwansun; Oh, John J.; Oh, Sang Hoon; Robinet, Florent

    2015-08-01

    The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is composed of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA). The EMD decomposes any time series data into a small number of components called the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), compared to the Discrete Fourier Transform which decomposes a data into a large number of harmonic functions. Each IMF has varying amplitude and frequency with respect to time, which can be obtained by HSA. The time resolution of the modes in HHT is the same as that of the given time series, while in the Wavelet Transform, Constant Q Transform and Short-Time Fourier Transform, there is a tradeoff between the resolutions in frequency and time. Based on the time-dependent amplitudes of IMFs, we develop an Event Trigger Generator and demonstrate its efficiency by applying it to gravitational-wave mock data.

  14. Indices of ionospheric GPS phase fluctuation derived by using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Liu, J.

    2008-12-01

    Variations in phase and amplitude of the GPS signal have been used to monitor irregularities of the ionospheric electron density. Based on the Fourier analysis, fluctuations in the total electron content (TEC) recorded by ground-based GPS receivers have been derived the indices of Fp and fp to stand for the hourly and quarterly GPS phase fluctuations. However, it has been well known the ionospheric GPS phase fluctuation to be a non-stationary and nonlinear phenomenon. Therefore, base on the intrinsic and adaptive characters of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we develop a new detrained procedure computing the indices of GPS phase fluctuation. Results confirm that the two indices derived by the HHT yield a better performance.

  15. A new method for investigating heterogeneities from well logs using the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima; Hachay, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Borehole logs exhibit multi-scale properties that cannot be analyzed using the conventional tools. Here, we propose a new method based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a combination of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert transform (HT), for estimating a local scaling coefficient from well logs. This parameter measures heterogeneities degree of the layers crossed by the borehole. The proposed technique has been applied on P- and S-wave seismic velocity logs recorded at the KTB main borehole drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling program. The calculated depth-dependent scaling parameter highlighted the lithological discontinuities occurred within the logged depth interval, and allowed to measure the complexity of underground heterogeneities. To conclude, the suggested method presents a new way to explore multi-scale features of the logs data, and may bring additional information to the conventional analysis tools. More datasets are needed to establish a possible relationship between the local scaling parameter and lithology.

  16. Periodicity of flare index revisited using the Hilbert-Huang transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. X.; Liang, H. F.; Zhu, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) method, we investigate the periodicity in the monthly mean flare indices from 1966 to 2007 (corresponding to almost four complete solar cycles), calculated by T. Atac and A. Ozguc. The results show as following. (1) The periods of 9.37 ± 2.53, 11.8 ± 0.172 and 23.6 ± 0.316 years are found to be statistically significant in the flare index. The most eminent period is 9.37 ± 2.53 years. (2) Other periods of 0.237 ± 0.196 years (86.6 ± 71.6 days), 0.525 ± 0.0508 years (191 ± 18.5 days), 1.05 ± 0.478 years (383 ± 174 days) and 2.37 ± 0.395 years are below the 99% confidence level line, suggesting they are due to stochastic random noise.

  17. Digital carrier superposition by Hilbert-Huang transform for optical phase recovery in speckle shearing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Said; Bahich, Mustapha; Dalimi, Hanane; Barj, ElMostapha; Afifi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Industrial production constraints often require technical tests and controls. Optical metrology methods allow a non destructive test of wide range of parameters, such as defects and displacements, with very good accuracy. The phase retrieval is an effective way that allows three-dimensional profile reconstruction from intensity shearograms. This research work focuses on the extraction of the phase from one uncarrier shearogram using the Hilbert-Huang transform. An algorithm for the phase calculation based on the bidimensional empirical mode decomposition, Hilbert transform (HT), and Fourier transform (FT) is presented. A spatial digital carrier has been superimposed before the application of the FT or HT which uses two π/2 shifted shearograms, to get access to the phase map via a global analysis of intensity images. An evaluation was made through a numerical simulation to validate and confirm the performance of the proposed algorithm. The main advantage of this technique is its ability to provide a metrological solution for fast dynamic analysis.

  18. Analysis of gravitational waves from binary neutron star merger by Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyama, Masato; Oohara, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we analyze gravitational waves from late inspiral, merger, and post-merger phases of binary neutron stars coalescence, computed by a general relativistic numerical simulation. The HHT analysis has been developed as a method for time series analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data, and it enables us to perform a high resolution time frequency analysis of signals with strong frequency modulation by evaluating the instantaneous variation of amplitude and frequency of data. We find that we can clearly observe the time evolution of the instantaneous frequency of the post-merger waveforms. It is found that temporal variation of frequency of post-merger waveforms can be evaluated within 5% error if BNS coalescences occur within 10 Mpc. This accuracy allows us to constrain the equation of state of neutron stars and to evaluate the radius of a fiducial neutron star of 1.8 M⊙ with a few hundred meters accuracy.

  19. Phase demodulation using adaptive windowed Fourier transform based on Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenxing; Da, Feipeng

    2012-07-30

    The phase demodulation method of adaptive windowed Fourier transform (AWFT) is proposed based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). HHT is analyzed and performed on fringe pattern to obtain instantaneous frequencies firstly. These instantaneous frequencies are further analyzed based on the condition of AWFT to locate local stationary areas where the fundamental spectrum will not be interfered by high-order spectrum. Within each local stationary area, the fundamental spectrum can be extracted accurately and adaptively by using AWFT with the background, which has been determined previously with the presented criterion during HHT, being eliminated to remove the zero-spectrum. This method is adaptive and unconstrained by any precondition for the measured phase. Experiments demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness for measuring the object with discontinuities or complex surface.

  20. Mean frequency derived via Hilbert-Huang transform with application to fatigue EMG signal analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongbo; Wang, Zhizhong

    2006-05-01

    The mean frequency (MNF) of surface electromyography (EMG) signal is an important index of local muscle fatigue. The purpose of this study is to improve the mean frequency (MNF) estimation. Three methods to estimate the MNF of non-stationary EMG are compared. A novel approach based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), which comprises the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert transform, is proposed to estimate the mean frequency of non-stationary signal. The performance of this method is compared with the two existing methods, i.e. autoregressive (AR) spectrum estimation and wavelet transform method. It is observed that our method shows low variability in terms of robustness to the length of the analysis window. The time-varying characteristic of the proposed approach also enables us to accommodate other non-stationary biomedical data analysis.

  1. [Research of neuronal structures target localization based on Hilbert-Huang transform for neuronal discharges].

    PubMed

    Xue, Han; Qian, Zhiyu; Yang, Tianming

    2009-06-01

    Electrophysiological target localization is the key technology in microelectrode-guided stereotactic neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease (PD). A neuronal discharge signal analysis method based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was introduced. By decomposing the clinical microelectrode recording (MER) data of PD into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), the marginal spectrums of IMFs were achieved, and the characteristic factor correlated with brain structure was explored, then the HHT characteristic factor curve of neuronal discharge signals of microelectrode piqure locus could be achieved. The structures of neuronal and boundaries can be distinguished by the characteristic factor curve, and then damage range and damage point can be identified. This method can assist clinicians in ascertaining operation target effectively and researching into the cases of PD.

  2. [A study of mechanomyography analysis for muscle fatigue with Hilbert-Huang transform].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuxian; Shi, Jun

    2011-04-01

    The mechanomyography (MMG) records and quantifies the low-frequency lateral oscillations of active muscle fibers. It can represent the mechanical characteristics of muscle activity. MMG has been used to evaluate muscle fatigue. Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a time-frequency method with the feature of self-adaptation, and designed specifically for nonlinear and nonstationary signal analysis. In this study, MMG signal was recorded from biceps brachii during isometric fatigue contraction. HHT was used to calculate the difference between the maximum and minimum values of instantaneous frequency, named as the band ratio, to estimate muscle fatigue. The results showed that the band ratios were 0.431 +/- 0.607 and 0.286 +/- 0.218 after fatigue for the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of 50% and 70%, respectively. These indicated that the frequency declined after muscles fatigue.

  3. A framework for the damage evaluation of acoustic emission signals through Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siracusano, Giulio; Lamonaca, Francesco; Tomasello, Riccardo; Garescì, Francesca; Corte, Aurelio La; Carnì, Domenico Luca; Carpentieri, Mario; Grimaldi, Domenico; Finocchio, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) is a powerful and potential nondestructive testing method for structural monitoring in civil engineering. Here, we show how systematic investigation of crack phenomena based on AE data can be significantly improved by the use of advanced signal processing techniques. Such data are a fundamental source of information that can be used as the basis for evaluating the status of the material, thereby paving the way for a new frontier of innovation made by data-enabled analytics. In this article, we propose a framework based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform for the evaluation of material damages that (i) facilitates the systematic employment of both established and promising analysis criteria, and (ii) provides unsupervised tools to achieve an accurate classification of the fracture type, the discrimination between longitudinal (P-) and traversal (S-) waves related to an AE event. The experimental validation shows promising results for a reliable assessment of the health status through the monitoring of civil infrastructures.

  4. The Early ULF Signal of the Gigantic Jets Revealed By Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Hsun; Bing-Chih Chen, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    The conventional Fourier analysis on the sferics in ULF and VLF bandpasses has been done for years. Several phenomena e.g. whistler and Schumann resonance have been well studied by the Fourier spectrum comprehensively. But the Fourier analysis is computed by an integration over time, therefore, the temporal resolution is smoothed, and limited not only by the sampling rate but also the size of the integration window. The instantaneous frequency can't be obtained through this conventional approach. We introduce the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) instead of Fourier transform to analyze the sferics of TLEs recorded at Lulin observatory. The Hilbert-Huang transform decomposes a signal into so-called intrinsic mode functions (IMF), and derive instantaneous frequency data by differentiating the phase angle yielded by Hilbert transform. Our analysis of HHT on several gigantic jets recorded by ground observation surprisingly revealed an early signal of frequency-change during the phase of the leading jet, and this early signal can not be identified by Fourier analysis. In the phase of leading jet, the amplitude of the sferics remains a constant and no significant features are recognized in the recorded waveform, but an obvious frequency change about 100-200 millisecond prior to the main discharge of the full development jets (FDJs), which can be clearly recognized in the HHT spectra of all observed gigantic jets. From a further simulation, this frequency change is confirmed to come from the nature of the discharge, not an alias or a false signal generated by the analysis method. This early signal may implies an in-cloud discharge process which is suggested by Krehbiel et al. [2008

  5. Time-frequency analysis of non-stationary fusion plasma signals using an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yangqing Tan, Yi; Xie, Huiqiao; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2014-07-15

    An improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is developed to the time-frequency analysis of non-stationary signals in tokamak plasmas. Maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform rather than wavelet packet transform is proposed as a preprocessor to decompose a signal into various narrow-band components. Then, a correlation coefficient based selection method is utilized to eliminate the irrelevant intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition of those narrow-band components. Subsequently, a time varying vector autoregressive moving average model instead of Hilbert spectral analysis is performed to compute the Hilbert spectrum, i.e., a three-dimensional time-frequency distribution of the signal. The feasibility and effectiveness of the improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is demonstrated by analyzing a non-stationary simulated signal and actual experimental signals in fusion plasmas.

  6. Time-frequency analysis of non-stationary fusion plasma signals using an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangqing; Tan, Yi; Xie, Huiqiao; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2014-07-01

    An improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is developed to the time-frequency analysis of non-stationary signals in tokamak plasmas. Maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform rather than wavelet packet transform is proposed as a preprocessor to decompose a signal into various narrow-band components. Then, a correlation coefficient based selection method is utilized to eliminate the irrelevant intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition of those narrow-band components. Subsequently, a time varying vector autoregressive moving average model instead of Hilbert spectral analysis is performed to compute the Hilbert spectrum, i.e., a three-dimensional time-frequency distribution of the signal. The feasibility and effectiveness of the improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is demonstrated by analyzing a non-stationary simulated signal and actual experimental signals in fusion plasmas.

  7. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  8. Diurnal variation of surface ozone in mountainous areas: Case study of Mt. Huang, East China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jin, Lianji; Zhao, Tianliang; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Bin; Shan, Yunpeng; Guo, Xiaomei; Tan, Chenghao; Gao, Jinhui; Wang, Haoliang

    2015-12-15

    To explore the variations in atmospheric environment over mountainous areas, measurements were made from an intensive field observation at the summit of Mt. Huang (30.13°N, 118.15°E, 1841m above sea level), a rural site located in East China, from June to August 2011. The measurements revealed a diurnal change of surface O3 with low concentrations during the daytime and high concentrations during the nighttime. The causes of diurnal O3 variations over the mountain peak in East China were investigated by using a fairly comprehensive WRF-Chem and HYSPLIT4 modeling approach with observational analysis. By varying model inputs and comparing the results to a baseline modeling and actual air quality observations, it is found that nearby ozone urban/anthropogenic emission sources were contributing to a nighttime increase in mountaintop ozone levels due to a regional transport lag and residual layer effects. Positive correlation of measured O3 and CO concentrations suggested that O3 was associated with anthropogenic emissions. Sensitivity modeling experiments indicated that local anthropogenic emissions had little impact on the diurnal pattern of O3. The diurnal pattern of O3 was mainly influenced by regional O3 transport from the surrounding urban areas located 100-150km away from the summit, with a lag time of 10h for transport. PMID:26318811

  9. Multimodal Pressure-Flow Analysis: Application of Hilbert Huang Transform in Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun; Liu, Yanhui; Peng, C.-K.; Novak, Vera

    2008-12-01

    Quantification of nonlinear interactions between two nonstationary signals presents a computational challenge in different research fields, especially for assessments of physiological systems. Traditional approaches that are based on theories of stationary signals cannot resolve nonstationarity-related issues and, thus, cannot reliably assess nonlinear interactions in physiological systems. In this review we discuss a new technique called multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) method that utilizes Hilbert-Huang transformation to quantify interaction between nonstationary cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood pressure (BP) for the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA). CA is an important mechanism responsible for controlling cerebral blood flow in responses to fluctuations in systemic BP within a few heart-beats. The MMPF analysis decomposes BP and BFV signals into multiple empirical modes adaptively so that the fluctuations caused by a specific physiologic process can be represented in a corresponding empirical mode. Using this technique, we showed that dynamic CA can be characterized by specific phase delays between the decomposed BP and BFV oscillations, and that the phase shifts are significantly reduced in hypertensive, diabetics and stroke subjects with impaired CA. Additionally, the new technique can reliably assess CA using both induced BP/BFV oscillations during clinical tests and spontaneous BP/BFV fluctuations during resting conditions.

  10. Effects of Huang Qi Decoction on Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction can be induced by homocysteine (Hcy) through promoted oxidative stress. Huang Qi decoction (HQD) is a traditional Chinese medical formula and its components possess antioxidant effect. The study herein was therefore designed to investigate the effects of HQD at different dosage on endothelial dysfunction induced by Hcy. Tempol and apocynin were used to investigate whether antioxidant mechanisms were involved. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortas was investigated by isometric tension recordings. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was determined by DHE staining. The assessment related to oxidative stress and NO bioavailability was performed by assay kits and western blot. In isometric tension experiment, HQD at the dose of 30 or 100 μg/mL, tempol, or apocynin prevented impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated aortas elicited by Hcy. In cellular experiments, substantial enhancement in NADPH oxidase and ROS generation and reduction in NO bioavailability triggered by Hcy were reversed by pretreatment of HQD at the dose of 100 μg/mL, tempol, or apocynin. The results proved that HQD at an appropriate dosage presented favorable effects on endothelial dysfunction initiated by Hcy through antioxidant mechanisms. HQD can act as a potent prescription for the treatment of endothelium related vascular complications. PMID:27725840

  11. Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform for Improved Defect Detection in Terahertz NDE of Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect the adhesive bond-line of Space Shuttle tiles for defects. Terahertz signals are generated and detected, using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. Shuttle tile samples were manufactured with defects that included repair regions unbond regions, and other conditions that occur in Shuttle structures. These samples were inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scanned a tile and generated a data set of RF signals. The signals were post processed to generate C-scan type images that are typically seen in ultrasonic NDE. To improve defect visualization the Hilbert-Huang Transform, a transform that decomposes a signal into oscillating components called intrinsic mode functions, was applied to test signals identified as being in and out of the defect regions and then on a complete data set. As expected with this transform, the results showed that the decomposed low-order modes correspond to signal noise while the high-order modes correspond to low frequency oscillations in the signal and mid-order modes correspond to local signal oscillations. The local oscillations compare well with various reflection interfaces and the defect locations in the original signal.

  12. Diurnal variation of surface ozone in mountainous areas: Case study of Mt. Huang, East China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jin, Lianji; Zhao, Tianliang; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Bin; Shan, Yunpeng; Guo, Xiaomei; Tan, Chenghao; Gao, Jinhui; Wang, Haoliang

    2015-12-15

    To explore the variations in atmospheric environment over mountainous areas, measurements were made from an intensive field observation at the summit of Mt. Huang (30.13°N, 118.15°E, 1841m above sea level), a rural site located in East China, from June to August 2011. The measurements revealed a diurnal change of surface O3 with low concentrations during the daytime and high concentrations during the nighttime. The causes of diurnal O3 variations over the mountain peak in East China were investigated by using a fairly comprehensive WRF-Chem and HYSPLIT4 modeling approach with observational analysis. By varying model inputs and comparing the results to a baseline modeling and actual air quality observations, it is found that nearby ozone urban/anthropogenic emission sources were contributing to a nighttime increase in mountaintop ozone levels due to a regional transport lag and residual layer effects. Positive correlation of measured O3 and CO concentrations suggested that O3 was associated with anthropogenic emissions. Sensitivity modeling experiments indicated that local anthropogenic emissions had little impact on the diurnal pattern of O3. The diurnal pattern of O3 was mainly influenced by regional O3 transport from the surrounding urban areas located 100-150km away from the summit, with a lag time of 10h for transport.

  13. Using Bioinformatics Approach to Explore the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Multiple Ingredients in Shuang-Huang-Lian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bai-xia; Li, Jian; Gu, Hao; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tian-jiao; Wang, Yun; Cai, Cheng-ke

    2015-01-01

    Due to the proved clinical efficacy, Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) has developed a variety of dosage forms. However, the in-depth research on targets and pharmacological mechanisms of SHL preparations was scarce. In the presented study, the bioinformatics approaches were adopted to integrate relevant data and biological information. As a result, a PPI network was built and the common topological parameters were characterized. The results suggested that the PPI network of SHL exhibited a scale-free property and modular architecture. The drug target network of SHL was structured with 21 functional modules. According to certain modules and pharmacological effects distribution, an antitumor effect and potential drug targets were predicted. A biological network which contained 26 subnetworks was constructed to elucidate the antipneumonia mechanism of SHL. We also extracted the subnetwork to explicitly display the pathway where one effective component acts on the pneumonia related targets. In conclusions, a bioinformatics approach was established for exploring the drug targets, pharmacological activity distribution, effective components of SHL, and its mechanism of antipneumonia. Above all, we identified the effective components and disclosed the mechanism of SHL from the view of system. PMID:26495421

  14. Segmentation of Killer Whale Vocalizations Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    The study of cetacean vocalizations is usually based on spectrogram analysis. The feature extraction is obtained from 2D methods like the edge detection algorithm. Difficulties appear when signal-to-noise ratios are weak or when more than one vocalization is simultaneously emitted. This is the case for acoustic observations in a natural environment and especially for the killer whales which swim in groups. To resolve this problem, we propose the use of the Hilbert-Huang transform. First, we illustrate how few modes (5) are satisfactory for the analysis of these calls. Then, we detail our approach which consists of combining the modes for extracting the time-varying frequencies of the vocalizations. This combination takes advantage of one of the empirical mode decomposition properties which is that the successive IMFs represent the original data broken down into frequency components from highest to lowest frequency. To evaluate the performance, our method is first applied on the simulated chirp signals. This approach allows us to link one chirp to one mode. Then we apply it on real signals emitted by killer whales. The results confirm that this method is a favorable alternative for the automatic extraction of killer whale vocalizations.

  15. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of dynamic and earthquake motion recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Ma, S.; Safak, E.; Hartzell, S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the rationale of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for analyzing dynamic and earthquake motion recordings in studies of seismology and engineering. In particular, this paper first provides the fundamentals of the HHT method, which consist of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert spectral analysis. It then uses the HHT to analyze recordings of hypothetical and real wave motion, the results of which are compared with the results obtained by the Fourier data processing technique. The analysis of the two recordings indicates that the HHT method is able to extract some motion characteristics useful in studies of seismology and engineering, which might not be exposed effectively and efficiently by Fourier data processing technique. Specifically, the study indicates that the decomposed components in EMD of HHT, namely, the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components, contain observable, physical information inherent to the original data. It also shows that the grouped IMF components, namely, the EMD-based low- and high-frequency components, can faithfully capture low-frequency pulse-like as well as high-frequency wave signals. Finally, the study illustrates that the HHT-based Hilbert spectra are able to reveal the temporal-frequency energy distribution for motion recordings precisely and clearly.

  16. Structural modal parameter identification and damage diagnosis based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianping; Zheng, Peijuan; Wang, Hongtao

    2014-03-01

    Traditional modal parameter identification methods have many disadvantages, especially when used for processing nonlinear and non-stationary signals. In addition, they are usually not able to accurately identify the damping ratio and damage. In this study, methods based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) are investigated for structural modal parameter identification and damage diagnosis. First, mirror extension and prediction via a radial basis function (RBF) neural network are used to restrain the troublesome end-effect issue in empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which is a crucial part of HHT. Then, the approaches based on HHT combined with other techniques, such as the random decrement technique (RDT), natural excitation technique (NExT) and stochastic subspace identification (SSI), are proposed to identify modal parameters of structures. Furthermore, a damage diagnosis method based on the HHT is also proposed. Time-varying instantaneous frequency and instantaneous energy are used to identify the damage evolution of the structure. The relative amplitude of the Hilbert marginal spectrum is used to identify the damage location of the structure. Finally, acceleration records at gauge points from shaking table testing of a 12-story reinforced concrete frame model are taken to validate the proposed approaches. The results show that the proposed approaches based on HHT for modal parameter identification and damage diagnosis are reliable and practical.

  17. Inhibition of endosomal fusion activity of influenza virus by Rheum tanguticum (da-huang).

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Chung; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Rhubarb (Rheum tanguticum; da-huang in Chinese medicine) is a herbal medicine that has been used widely for managing fever and removing toxicity. In this study, we investigated how rhubarb inhibits influenza virus during the early stage of the infectious cycle using different functional assays. A non-toxic ethanolic extract of rhubarb (Rex) inhibited several H1N1 subtypes of influenza A viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, including strains that are clinically resistant to oseltamivir. Time course analysis of Rex addition showed that viral entry was one of the steps that was inhibited by Rex. We also confirmed that Rex effectively inhibited viral attachment and penetration into the host cells. The inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis and cell-cell fusion by Rex suggests that Rex may block haemagglutinin-mediated fusion (virus-endosome fusion) during the fusion/uncoating step. Rex has the capacity to inhibit influenza viruses by blocking viral endocytosis. Thus, rhubarb might provide an alternative therapeutic approach when resistant viruses become more prevalent. PMID:27302738

  18. Application of Hilbert-Huang transform for defect recognition in pulsed eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoling; Huang, Pingjie; Hou, Dibo; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Guangxin

    2015-07-01

    Defect recognition plays an important role in the structure integrity and health monitor of in-service equipment. However, it is difficult to recognise deep-layer defect or small-size defect in conductive structure during pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing. Aiming at the issue, this article proposes a method based on Hilbert-Huang transform which consists of two modules: data processing and defect recognition. In the data processing module, the PEC response signal is decomposed into a few of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. The IMFs whose variance contribution rates are bigger than 1% are chosen to reconstruct signal in order to remove noise. In the defect recognition module, the features based on specific frequency components of marginal spectrum (MS) of the reconstructed signals are extracted to discriminate those defects in surface and subsurface. Furthermore, the normalisation MS energy ratio is proposed to quantify defects which cannot be distinguished using peak value in time domain. Experiments show that the proposed method can achieve better de-noising effect and defect evaluation, which contributes to the recognition of those complicated defects such as deep-layered and small-sized defect.

  19. Analysis of fatigue and tremor during sustained maximal grip contractions using Hilbert-Huang Transformation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Duchêne, Jacques; Hewson, David J

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate muscle fatigue and tremor during a Sustained Maximal Grip Contraction (SMGC) using the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT). Thirty-nine healthy subjects volunteered for the study and performed a 25-s SMGC. Fatigue parameters such as the relative force output (RFO) were calculated from the residual of SMGC after applying Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Using the energy spectrum of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) obtained using HHT, isometric force tremor was identified from the 4 to 12 Hz region in IMF3 and IMF4. Data were analysed for five consecutive 5-s epochs to identify changes in fatigue and tremor over time. The HHT method was able to identify a greater resistance to fatigue in women compared to men (p≤0.05) and in non-dominant hands compared to dominant hands (p≤0.05). Consistent with the results for fatigue, women had less tremor than men (p≤0.05), while non-dominant hands trembled less than did dominant hands (p≤0.05). Higher levels of tremor were observed for non-fatigue-resistant subjects for both 10-15 s and 15-20 s epochs (p≤0.05). The HHT is an appropriate method to identify both fatigue and tremor during SMGC. It would be of interest to apply this method to the study the elderly or patients with neuromuscular disorders.

  20. NINJA data analysis with a detection pipeline based on the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeer, Alexander; Camp, Jordan

    2009-06-01

    The NINJA data analysis challenge allowed the study of the sensitivity of data analysis pipelines to binary black hole numerical relativity waveforms in simulated Gaussian noise at the design level of the LIGO observatory and the VIRGO observatory. We analyzed NINJA data with a pipeline based on the Hilbert-Huang transform, utilizing a detection stage and a characterization stage: detection is performed by triggering on excess instantaneous power, characterization is performed by displaying the kernel density enhanced (KD) time-frequency trace of the signal. Using the simulated data based on the two LIGO detectors, we were able to detect 77 signals out of 126 above signal-to-noise ratio, SNR 5 in coincidence, with 43 missed events characterized by SNR < 10. Characterization of the detected signals revealed the merger part of the waveform in high time and frequency resolution, free from time-frequency uncertainty. We estimated the timelag of the signals between the detectors based on the optimal overlap of the individual KD time-frequency maps, yielding estimates accurate within a fraction of a millisecond for half of the events. A coherent addition of the data sets according to the estimated timelag eventually was used in a final characterization of the event.

  1. Hilbert-Huang transform and S-transform of geomagnetic pulsations at auroral expansion onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, R.; Miyoshi, Y.; Morioka, A.

    2009-12-01

    The waveform of geomagnetic pulsations at auroral expansion onset looks irregular and is hardly resolved by Fourier transform. Here we perform a novel analysis of the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to address this problem, focusing on the event investigated in detail by Morioka et al. [2008], in which the AKR (auroral kilometric radiation) breakup was clearly identified. From the HHT analysis of high-latitude search-coil ground magnetometer data, Pi1, Pc3, and Pi2 pulsations are extracted as the first, second, and third intrinsic mode functions, respectively. Amplification of the Pi1 and Pc3 pulsations is first detected as a clear precursor to the AKR breakup. The Pi1 and Pc3 pulsations show sudden enhancement at the AKR breakup. We suggest that the HHT is capable of automatically extracting the Pi1, Pi2, and Pc3 from the irregular high-latitude geomagnetic pulsations, providing a new type of diagnostic tools for understanding the onset mechanism of auroral substorms. A comprehensive time-frequency spectral view is obtained from the instantaneous frequency, especially when complemented with the S-transform, and the instantaneous frequency provides a new objective criterion to identify the type of geomagnetic pulsations such as Pi and Pc. It would be useful to apply the HHT to all the available both ground- and space-based magnetic datasets across all local times and latitudes for diagnosing the wave activities and underlying physics associated with the substorm onset.

  2. Hilbert-Huang Transform of geomagnetic pulsations at auroral expansion onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Morioka, Akira

    2009-09-01

    The waveform of geomagnetic pulsations at auroral expansion onset looks irregular and is hardly resolved by Fourier transform. Here we perform a novel analysis of the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to address this problem, focusing on the event investigated in detail by Morioka et al. (2008), in which the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) breakup was clearly identified. From the HHT analysis of high-latitude search coil ground magnetometer data, Pi1, Pc3, and Pi2 pulsations are extracted as the first, second, and third intrinsic mode functions, respectively. Amplification of the Pi1 and Pc3 pulsations is first detected as a clear precursor to the AKR breakup. The Pi1 and Pc3 pulsations show sudden enhancement at the AKR breakup. We suggest that the HHT is capable of automatically extracting the Pi1, Pi2, and Pc3 from the irregular high-latitude geomagnetic pulsations, providing a new type of diagnostic tools for understanding the onset mechanism of auroral substorms.

  3. Instantaneous phase shift of annual subsurface temperature cycles derived by the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang-Yi; Chen, Chieh-Hung; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Wang, Chung-Ho; Chen, Deng-Lung

    2015-03-01

    This study uses the Hilbert-Huang transform to compute the instantaneous (daily) phase shift between temperature signals at the ground surface and at a depth of 5 m. This approach is not restricted to the stationary harmonic surface temperature assumptions invoked by analytical solutions. The annual cycles are extracted from the ground surface temperatures and the shallow subsurface temperatures at 5 m depth recorded at the Hualien (23.98°N, 121.61°E) and Ilan (24.77°N, 121.75°E) meteorology stations of Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan from 1952 to 2008. Significant reductions in the phase shift and increases in the estimated thermal diffusivity from 1980s to 1990s are found and suggest that the recent warming of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation may affect heat transport in the subsurface environment. The marginal spectra of the instantaneous phase shifts and the precipitation intensity records at Hualien and Ilan reveal that precipitation may play a role in the evolution of seasonal variation in shallow subsurface heat transport.

  4. [Research of movement imagery EEG based on Hilbert-Huang transform and BP neural network].

    PubMed

    Jin, Hailong; Zhang, Zhihui

    2013-04-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and studies the classification of movement imagery EEG based on the HHT method and BP neural network. After preprocessed, the movement imagery EEG data were descomposed with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then the low frequency IMFs were removed, and the rest of IMFs were conducted by Hilbert transform to get Hilbert marginal spectrum. The marginal spectrum subtracted values between the channal C3 and channal C4 were selected as the original features which were then decreased the dimension by the principal components analysis so as to be jointed with EEG complexity to construct the feature vector. The BP neural network was utilized to classify the EEG pattern of left and right hand motor imagery. The brain computer interface (BCI) competition II data set III was selected to carry out the discrimination, and the classification accuracy rate is up to 87.14%, which is a comparably good result and proves HHT to be a feasible and effective method on EEG analysis.

  5. Time-frequency characterization of atrial fibrillation from surface ECG based on Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Chen, Y; Pan, M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we develop a new non-invasive time-frequency analysis method to characterize the dynamic behaviour of atrial fibrillation (AF) from surface ECG. We first extract f waves from single-lead ECG records of AF patients using PCA analysis. To capture the non-stationary behaviours of AF signals at different time scales, we use HHT to find the Hilbert spectrum and instantaneous frequency (IF) distribution of residual signals from principal component analysis. Two important feature variables, namely mean IF (mIF) and index of frequency stability over time (IS), are derived from the IF distribution, and in combination will be able to effectively discriminate two different AF types: self-terminating and non-terminating termination. The proposed AF signal decomposition and analysis method will help us efficiently differentiate individual AF patients, advance our understanding of AF mechanisms, and provide useful guidelines for improving administration of AF patients, especially paroxysmal AF.

  6. Damage detection in structures under traveling loads by Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveri, N.; Carcaterra, A.

    2012-04-01

    Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is an innovative data-processing technique for analyzing nonstationary and nonlinear signals. A novel HHT-based method for damage detection of bridge structures under a traveling load is proposed. The technique uses a single point measurement and is able to identify the presence and the location of the damage along the beam. The measured data are processed by the HHT technique, and none a priori information is needed about the response of the undamaged structure. Damage location is revealed by direct inspection of the first instantaneous frequency, which presents a sharp crest in correspondence of the damaged section. The identification capabilities of the proposed technique are studied varying the damage locations, crack depths and velocity of the moving load. The effect of ambient noise is also taken into account. Theoretical as well as numerical results show the identification is rather accurate, results are not very sensitive to the crack depth and ambient noise, while they are sensibly affected by the damage location and by the speed of the moving load as well. Theoretical analysis identifies a characteristic load velocity interval, depending both on the first natural frequency of the bridge and the damage location, within which the HHT can be successfully applied.

  7. Applying Hilbert-Huang Transform to Develop a Novel Rainfall Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Lien, W.; Tung, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources have drawn many attentions. More and more research have identified that not only human-induced climate change but also natural long-term trend should be also considered. The generation of rainfall is a useful tool for the management of water resources systems to climate change. Most of the generation models used previously only take into account daily and monthly variations in the model parameters. Some long-term patterns, such as decadal cycles or trends, are usually lost in the stochastic generation. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel rainfall generation. This research applies Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to decompose the historical rainfall data into intrinsic mod functions (IMF) and trends. Each IMF represents a generally simple component of the rainfall time series. The generated base rainfall series, which is generated from the arranged historical rainfall series by stochastic simulation, is added to the trends and IMFs with more than one year periods derived from the result of HHT. Thus the newly simulated rainfall series with long-term properties is formed, and can be further applied to the impact of climate change on water resources management.

  8. Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform to the Estimation of Air-Sea Turbulent Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Song, Jinbao; Huang, Yansong; Fan, Conghui

    2013-06-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is applied to analyzing the turbulent time series obtained within the atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. A method based on the HHT is introduced to reduce the influence of non-turbulent motions on the eddy-covariance based flux by removing non-turbulent modes from the time series. The scale dependence of the flux is examined and a gap mode is identified to distinguish between turbulent modes and non-turbulent modes. To examine the effectiveness of this method it is compared with three conventional methods (block average, moving-window average, and multi-resolution decomposition). The data used are from three sonic anemometers installed on a moored buoy at about 6, 4 and 2.7 m height above the sea surface. For each method, along-wind and cross-wind momentum fluxes and sensible heat fluxes at the three heights are calculated. According to the assumption of a constant-flux layer, there should be no significant difference between the fluxes at the three heights. The results show that the fluxes calculated using HHT exhibit a smaller difference and higher correlation than the other methods. These results support the successful application of HHT to the estimation of air-sea turbulent fluxes.

  9. Application of Hilbert-Huang transform based instantaneous frequency to seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanhui; Chen, Wenchao; Gao, Jinghuai; He, Yongqiang

    2012-07-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is designed to decompose non-stationary, nonlinear data into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) adaptively. This procedure is automatic, data-driven and time-variant. And then a Hilbert transform is applied to these IMFs. The combination of EMD with a Hilbert transform is known as Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). HHT can be used to calculate meaningful multi-resolution instantaneous frequency (HHT based instantaneous frequency). Currently, the application of EMD and HHT to seismic data is performed mainly for noise attenuation. In this paper, we demonstrate new insights of EMD and HHT to seismic data analysis. We first extend the research of Flandrin et al. and analyze how EMD behaves on a Gaussian band-pass signal; we then employ HHT based instantaneous frequency on wedge model and real seismic data to delineate thickness variations. Numerical examples of Gaussian band-pass noise indicate that EMD acts as an adaptive, multi-band overlapping filter bank. The analysis of a wedge model and 2D real seismic data illustrates that HHT based instantaneous frequency is more effective than conventional Hilbert transform based instantaneous frequency in delineating the thickness variation of seismic thin bed.

  10. Application of Hilbert-Huang transform for the study of motor imagery tasks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Guizhi; Wang, Jiang; Yang, Shuo; Yan, Weili

    2008-01-01

    A motor based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) translates the subject's motor intention into a control signal by means of the method which extracts characteristic feature from EEG recorded from the scalp. In this paper, the EEG signal recorded during three motor imagery tasks, which were imagination of left hand, right hand and foot movements, was investigated. A novel method named Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is introduced to extract the feature from signal. Firstly, raw signal is decomposed using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). And then, several Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) are gained. For further study, the IMFs whose main frequency is higher than 5 Hz are selected. Secondly, based on the IMFs selected above, Hilbert spectrum is calculated. In each motor imagery task, local instantaneous energies, within specific frequency band of electrode C3 and C4, are selected as the features. A three-layer BP Neural Network classifier is structured for pattern classification. The classification results show that HHT can be used in EEG-based BCI research as a method to analysis non-linear and non-stationary signal.

  11. Frequency analysis of eyes open and eyes closed EEG signals using the Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Thuraisingham, Ranjit A; Tran, Yvonne; Craig, Ashley; Nguyen, Hung

    2012-01-01

    Frequency analysis based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is examined as an alternative to Fourier spectral analysis in the study of EEG signals. This method overcomes the need for the EEG signal to be linear and stationary, assumptions necessary for the application of Fourier spectral analysis. The HHT method comprises two components: empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of the signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMF's); and the Hilbert transform of the IMF's. This technique is applied here in the study of consecutive eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) EEG signals of able bodied and spinal cord injured participants. The study found that in this EO, EC pair the instantaneous frequencies in the EO state were higher compared to the EC state. The Hilbert weighted frequency, a measure of the mean of the instantaneous frequencies present in an IMF, is used here to detect these changes from EO to the EC state in an EEG signal. Although there was a good detection of this change with information obtained from just one IMF (94% in able-bodied persons and 84% in SCI persons), almost 100% success in detecting between group differences was achieved using all the IMF's. This result has implications for assistive technology that rely on EEG changes in EO and EC states.

  12. Damage Modes Recognition and Hilbert-Huang Transform Analyses of CFRP Laminates Utilizing Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-04-01

    Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.

  13. Observations of cloud condensation nuclei in Mt. Huang: instrumentation and early observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui; Yin, Yan; Chen, Chen; Yang, Weifeng; Deng, Wei; Hu, Zhenghua; Wu, Fangfang

    2009-07-01

    A new commercial instrument for measuring Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), the Droplet Measurement Technologies Cylindrical Continuous-Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC), installed on Mount Huang meteorological station (30°19'N, 118°14'E, 1840m above sea level) from 16 April to 28 July 2008. This instrument can measure CCN concentrations at supersaturations from 0.1% to 2% (potentially up to 6%), as well as a 1 Hz sampling rate that is sufficient for ground-based or airborne platform operation. The instrument records data continuously at 1-second intervals 24 hours a day. For the 98-day, continuous study the average CCN concentration was found to range between a few hundred and a few thousand nuclei per cm3 at supersaturations between 0.3 and 1%. Diurnal variations were observed, as well as other possible influences, such as wind speed, wind direction and mixing depth. At a constant supersaturation of 0.5% the CCN concentration is typically on the order of 361 to 2297 nuclei per cm3. A description of the instrumentation and early observations are presented and discussed.

  14. Intestinal absorption of forsythoside A in different compositions of Shuang-Huang-Lian.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Di, Liu-qing; Shan, Jin-jun; Bi, Xiao-lin; Chen, Le-tian; Wang, Ling-chong

    2011-04-01

    Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL), a traditional Chinese formula containing Lonicerae japonicae flos (LJF), Scutellariae radix (SR) and Forsythiae fructus (FF), is commonly used to treat acute upper respiratory tract infection, acute bronchitis and light pneumonia. Forsythoside A is one of the main active ingredients in Forsythiae fructus, a key herb in SHL. In the present study, effects of different compositions in SHL on the intestinal absorption of forsythoside A were investigated. The observations from in situ intestinal circulation model showed that A/%(h(-1)) of forsythoside A in FF+LSF, FF+SR and SHL were all reduced greatly compared with that in FF. However, in pharmacokinetics study, C(max) and AUC(0→1440) of forsythoside A all increased and T(1/2) prolonged in SHL, FF+LJF and FF+SR compared with FF. The results indicated that the different compositions of SHL decreased absorption but increased bioavailability of forsythoside A, which may be related to its metabolism inhibited in intestine or liver.

  15. Inhibition of endosomal fusion activity of influenza virus by Rheum tanguticum (da-huang)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Chung; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Rhubarb (Rheum tanguticum; da-huang in Chinese medicine) is a herbal medicine that has been used widely for managing fever and removing toxicity. In this study, we investigated how rhubarb inhibits influenza virus during the early stage of the infectious cycle using different functional assays. A non-toxic ethanolic extract of rhubarb (Rex) inhibited several H1N1 subtypes of influenza A viruses in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells, including strains that are clinically resistant to oseltamivir. Time course analysis of Rex addition showed that viral entry was one of the steps that was inhibited by Rex. We also confirmed that Rex effectively inhibited viral attachment and penetration into the host cells. The inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis and cell–cell fusion by Rex suggests that Rex may block haemagglutinin-mediated fusion (virus–endosome fusion) during the fusion/uncoating step. Rex has the capacity to inhibit influenza viruses by blocking viral endocytosis. Thus, rhubarb might provide an alternative therapeutic approach when resistant viruses become more prevalent. PMID:27302738

  16. Number size distribution of aerosols at Mt. Huang and Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Effects of air masses and characteristics of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; An, Junlin; Yin, Yan; Kang, Hanqing

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol number spectra in the range of 10 nm-10 μm were observed at Mt. Huang (Aug. 15-Sep. 15) and Nanjing (Oct. 13-Nov. 15) by a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) in 2011. Based on the backward trajectories obtained using the HYSPLIT model, the transport pathways of observed air masses during the study periods were classified into the following four groups: maritime air mass, continental air mass, marine-continental mixed air mass and local air mass. The variations in the aerosol number spectrum and the new particle formation (NPF) events for various types of air masses were discussed, along with meteorological data. The results showed that the average number concentration was 12,540 cm- 3 at Nanjing and only 2791 cm- 3 at Mt. Huang. The aerosol number concentration in Nanjing was 3-7 times higher than that in Mt. Huang; the large discrepancy was in the range of 10-100 nm. Different types of air masses had different effects on number concentration distribution. The number concentration of aerosols was higher in marine air masses, continental air masses and continental-marine mixed air masses at 10-50 nm, 100-500 nm and 50-200 nm, respectively. Under the four types of air masses, the aerosol size spectra had bimodal distributions in Nanjing and unimodal distributions in Mt. Huang (except under continental air masses: HT1). The effects of the diverse air masses on aerosol size segments of the concentration peak in Mt. Huang were stronger than those in Nanjing. The local air masses were dominant at these two sites and accounted for 44% of the total air masses. However, the aerosol number concentration was the lowest in Mt. Huang and the highest in Nanjing when local air masses were present. The number concentrations for foreign air masses increased at Mt. Huang and decreased at Nanjing. Different types of air masses had greater effects on the aerosol spectrum distribution at Mt. Huang than at Nanjing. During the NPF events, the particle growth rates at Mt

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant and melanogenesis inhibitory properties of pracparatum mungo (lu-do huang).

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Yu; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang) is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (Lǜ Dòu) mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME) and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE) possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions.

  18. Energy spectrum analysis of blast waves based on an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, F.; Shang, F.; Jia, Y.; Zhao, C.; Kong, D.

    2016-07-01

    Using the improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), this paper investigates the problems of analysis and interpretation of the energy spectrum of a blast wave. It has been previously established that the energy spectrum is an effective feature by which to characterize a blast wave. In fact, the higher the energy spectra in a frequency band of a blast wave, the greater the damage to a target in the same frequency band. However, most current research focuses on analyzing wave signals in the time domain or frequency domain rather than considering the energy spectrum. We propose here an improved HHT method combined with a wavelet packet to extract the energy spectrum feature of a blast wave. When applying the HHT, the signal is first roughly decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition. The wavelet packet method is then performed on each IMF to eliminate noise on the energy spectrum. Second, a coefficient is introduced to remove unrelated IMFs. The energy of each instantaneous frequency can be derived through the Hilbert transform. The energy spectrum can then be obtained by adding up all the components after the wavelet packet filters and screens them through a coefficient to obtain the effective IMFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by 12 groups of experimental data, and an energy attenuation model is established based on the experimental data. The improved HHT is a precise method for blast wave signal analysis. For other shock wave signals from blasting experiments, an energy frequency time distribution and energy spectrum can also be obtained through this method, allowing for more practical applications.

  19. Analysis of natural mineral earthquake and blast based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuelong; Li, Zhonghui; Wang, Enyuan; Feng, Junjun; Kong, Xiangguo; Chen, Liang; Li, Baolin; Li, Nan

    2016-05-01

    There are important theoretical and scientific benefits to identify natural mineral earthquake and blast accurately to ensure the safety of mining. In the paper, we studied the wave characteristics of natural mineral earthquake and blast in a coal mine based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method. Results show that the dominant frequency of natural mineral earthquake wave is 20 Hz, which is lower than the other frequency bands. The blast wave frequency is relatively complex and its dominant frequency is 140 Hz, which is higher than the other frequency bands. The natural mineral earthquake wave amplitude is 50 mV and the blast signal amplitude reaches up to 250 mV. However, the decay rate of natural mineral earthquake wave is slower than the blast wave. Both of them could be decomposed into 9 intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). c2, c3, c4 and c5 are the main part of the natural mineral earthquake wave; while c2, c3, and c4 are the main part of the blast wave. These IMFs contain most of the signal energy and belong to the advantage part of the original signal. Besides, the instantaneous energy duration of natural mineral earthquake wave is longer, its peak energy arrival time is earlier and decay rate is slower, while the value is lower. The natural mineral earthquake wave Hilbert energy distributes in the sampling points 600-1200, frequency less than 50 Hz, and the energy peak 100 is at 25 Hz. By contrast, the blast wave Hilbert energy is concentrated on the sampling points 600-800, frequency around 50 Hz and 140 Hz, and the energy peak 170 is at 140 Hz.

  20. Monitoring Rock Failure Processes Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform of Acoustic Emission Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji; Peng, Weihong; Liu, Fengyu; Zhang, Haixiang; Li, Zhijian

    2016-02-01

    Rock fracturing generates acoustic emission (AE) signals that have statistical parameters referred to as AE signal parameters (AESP). Identification of rock fracturing or the failure process stage using such data raises several challenges. This study proposes a Hilbert-Huang transform-based AE processing approach to capture the time-frequency characteristics of both AE signals and AESP during rock failure processes. The damage occurring in tested rock specimens can be illustrated through analysis using this method. In this study, the specimens were 25 × 60 × 150 mm3 in size and were compressed at a displacement rate of 0.05 mm/min until failure. The recorded data included force and displacement, AE signals, and AESP. The AESP in the last third of the strain range period and 14 typical moments of strong AE signals were selected for further investigation. These results show that AE signals and AESP can be jointly used for identification of deformation stages. The transition between linear and nonlinear deformation stages was found to last for a short period in this process. The instantaneous frequency of the AE effective energy rate increased linearly from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz. Attenuation of elastic waves spreading in rock samples developed with deformation, as illustrated in the Hilbert spectra of AE signals. This attenuation is frequency dependent. Furthermore, AE signals in the softening process showed a complex frequency distribution attributed to the mechanical properties of the tested specimen. The results indicate that rock failure is predictable. The novel technology applied in this study is feasible for analysis of the entire deformation process, including softening and failure processes.

  1. Analysis of tremor in multiple sclerosis using Hilbert-Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Ayache, S-S; Al-ani, T; Farhat, W-H; Zouari, H-G; Créange, A; Lefaucheur, J-P

    2015-12-01

    Tremor is frequently described in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but remains poorly characterized using neurophysiological techniques. Accelerometric (ACC) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings were performed in 26 MS patients complaining of clumsiness, associated (n = 16) or not associated (n = 10) with visible tremor. Seventeen healthy subjects with physiological tremor (PT) and eight patients with essential tremor (ET) served as controls. Signals were analyzed using non-linear Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and related Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), compared to the standard linear spectral analysis using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The presence of cerebellar signs and motor deficit was assessed on clinical examination. Using FFT, tremor was found in all patients with ET and 12% of subjects with PT, but in none of the MS patients, even in the presence of visible tremor. In contrast, EMD-HHT analysis of ACC-EMG coupling showed common frequency peaks characterizing tremor related to a central generator in 62.5% of MS patients with visible tremor, 40% of MS patients without visible tremor, 29% of subjects with PT, and all patients with ET. In EMD-HHT analysis, tremor characteristics were similar in subjects with PT and MS patients, regardless of the presence of a visible tremor, but these characteristics clearly differed in patients with ET. A visible tremor in MS patients was associated with more frequent cerebellar signs and less motor deficit at the upper limb. The low-frequency tremor observed in MS patients could therefore originate in lesions of the brainstem (midbrain) or cerebellothalamic circuits, or may correspond to an enhanced PT, partly favored by cerebellar dysfunction and being more visible during movement execution in the absence of concomitant motor deficit.

  2. Hilbert-Huang transform for analysis of heart rate variability in cardiac health.

    PubMed

    Li, Helong; Kwong, Sam; Yang, Lihua; Huang, Daren; Xiao, Dongping

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a modified technique based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to improve the spectrum estimates of heart rate variability (HRV). In order to make the beat-to-beat (RR) interval be a function of time and produce an evenly sampled time series, we first adopt a preprocessing method to interpolate and resample the original RR interval. Then, the HHT, which is based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) approach to decompose the HRV signal into several monocomponent signals that become analytic signals by means of Hilbert transform, is proposed to extract the features of preprocessed time series and to characterize the dynamic behaviors of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system of heart. At last, the frequency behaviors of the Hilbert spectrum and Hilbert marginal spectrum (HMS) are studied to estimate the spectral traits of HRV signals. In this paper, two kinds of experiment data are used to compare our method with the conventional power spectral density (PSD) estimation. The analysis results of the simulated HRV series show that interpolation and resampling are basic requirements for HRV data processing, and HMS is superior to PSD estimation. On the other hand, in order to further prove the superiority of our approach, real HRV signals are collected from seven young health subjects under the condition that autonomic nervous system (ANS) is blocked by certain acute selective blocking drugs: atropine and metoprolol. The high-frequency power/total power ratio and low-frequency power/high-frequency power ratio indicate that compared with the Fourier spectrum based on principal dynamic mode, our method is more sensitive and effective to identify the low-frequency and high-frequency bands of HRV.

  3. Distinction between essential and physiological tremor using Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Ayache, S S; Al-Ani, T; Lefaucheur, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Neurophysiological investigation, based on accelerometric (ACC) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings, is an essential step in the diagnosis of tremor. Among various signal analysis methods, fast Fourier transform (FFT) is the most frequently used in this domain. However, FFT has several limitations: first, it assumes that tremor is a periodic and linear signal, which is not true; second, it cannot distinguish between different types of tremor, when their frequency overlap in similar range, such as essential tremor (ET) and physiological tremor (PT). Therefore, we decided to apply a non-linear method of signal analysis based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert Huang transform (HHT), according to various procedures and compared to a more classical FFT approach. A first group of 8 healthy subjects with PT and a second group of 8 patients with ET were included in this study. At individual level, FFT was effective to highlight ET in the 8 patients, but PT in only 2 subjects. The EMD-HHT procedures performed better than FFT, revealing a common peak of PT in all subjects. Moreover, at group level, our EMD-HHT method allowed to clearly differentiate the two groups, especially by giving evidence for the existence of low frequency oscillations (around 4Hz) in subjects with PT. Although their physiological origin remains largely unknown, such slow oscillations seem to be of great importance to highlight PT and they have been much underestimated in the literature. Our original EMD-HHT approach is able to provide substantial improvement in the neurophysiological characterisation of the different types of tremor, especially for diagnostic application.

  4. The protective effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang in salt-sensitive hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; He, Yanming; Wang, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is considered as a chronic and complex disease relating to multiple systemic systems. Apart from lowering blood pressure, the final purpose of the treatment lies in reducing the variability of blood pressure and other risk factors. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating hypertension. This study was designed to determine the effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang (L-W-D-H-F), a compound used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, to treat salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT) induced by a high-salt and high-fat diet. L-W-D-H-F was prepared from six plant extracts. It was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution prior to use. Male Sprague-Dawley (6 weeks) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet (CON); HSF (Without Drug Intervention); VAL (Valsartan 13.33 mg/kg/day); and LW (L-W-D-H-F 8.13 g/kg/day). Six weeks after blood pressure treatment, plasma biochemical analyses and histological and functional examination of the kidney were performed. L-W-D-H-F decreased the levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FG), insulin (INS), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and angiotensin II (Ang II) from plasma and Ang II and renin from kidney. It also promoted the excretion of urinary Na(+), reducing the loss of urinary K(+) and microalbuminuria (MAU), and improved the glomerular afferent arteriole, arterioles and each kidney unit. Together, these results suggest that L-W-D-H-F is capable of moderately reducing MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension and can work at different levels on multiple differential targets. PMID:24164386

  5. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Melanogenesis Inhibitory Properties of Pracparatum Mungo (Lu-Do Huang)

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yu-Yu; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang) is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (Lǜ Dòu) mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME) and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE) possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions. PMID:24716173

  6. Residence time analysis of photochemical buildup of ozone in central eastern China from surface observation at Mt. Tai, Mt. Hua, and Mt. Huang in 2004.

    PubMed

    Pochanart, Pakpong

    2015-09-01

    Using data from surface observation, backward trajectories, and residence time analysis, the amounts of regional photochemical ozone buildup due to the large-scale anthropogenic sources in central eastern China (CEC, 30.5-40.5 N, 112.5-122.5 E) at Mt. Tai, Mt. Hua, and Mt. Huang in 2004 were quantified. It was found that the CEC anthropogenic sources influenced the air masses and the associated ozone production most at Mt. Tai, located at the center of CEC domain. At Mt. Hua to the west of CEC domain and at Mt. Huang to the south of CEC domain, the air masses and the associated ozone production showed less CEC anthropogenic influences on a regional scale. At Mt. Tai and Mt. Huang, the ozone mixing ratios in the air masses that passed over polluted source regions in CEC increased during the first 40-70 h after arrival and showed the highest production rate of 31.2 and 12.2 ppb/day, respectively, in May and June. It was estimated that the CEC anthropogenic sources contributed 34-42% of ozone at Mt. Tai and 8-14% at Mt. Huang during this ozone peak season. The large contributions from CEC sources during fall season (Sep-Nov) were also estimated as 31-44 and 17-23% but with the lower ozone production rate of 22.6 and 8.4 ppb/day, respectively, for Mt. Tai and Mt. Huang.

  7. Effects of Huang Bai (Phellodendri Cortex) and Three Other Herbs on GnRH and GH Levels in GT1–7 and GH3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Kwak, Sung Chul; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young-Sik; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ju Won; Lee, Chang Gon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cho, Sung-Min; Shin, Yu Jeong; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hocheol; Chang, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Mai Ya, and Xia Ku Cao on hormone using the GT1–7 and GH3 cells. The GT1–7 and GH3 cell lines were incubated with DW; DMSO; and 30, 100, or 300 μg/mL of one of the four extract solutions in serum-free media for 24 hours. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the four herbs. The GT1–7 and GH3 cells were incubated in DW, estradiol (GT1–7 only), or noncytotoxic herb solutions in serum-free medium for 24 hours. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure the GnRH expression in GT1–7 cells and GH expression in GH3 cells. Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Xia Ku Cao, and Mai Ya inhibited the GnRH mRNA expression in GT1–7 cells, whereas Huang Bai enhanced GH mRNA expression in GH3 cells. Additionally, Xia Ku Cao inhibited GnRH protein expression in GT1–7 cells and Huang Bai promoted GH protein expression in GH3 cells. The findings suggest that Huang Bai can delay puberty by inhibiting GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus while also accelerating growth by promoting GH synthesis and secretion in the pituitary. PMID:26925153

  8. Study of nonlinear oscillations in a glow discharge plasma using empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, A. M.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Janaki, M. S.

    2013-02-15

    Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) based time series analysis was carried out on nonlinear floating potential fluctuations obtained from hollow cathode glow discharge plasma in the presence of anode glow. HHT was used to obtain contour plots and the presence of nonlinearity was studied. Frequency shift with time, which is a typical nonlinear behaviour, was detected from the contour plots. Various plasma parameters were measured and the concepts of correlation coefficients and the physical contribution of each intrinsic mode function have been discussed. Physically important quantities such as instantaneous energy and their uses in studying physical phenomena such as intermittency and non-stationary data have also been discussed.

  9. Application of the Huang-Hilbert transform and natural time to the analysis of seismic electric signal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulou, K. A.; Skordas, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Huang method is applied to Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities in order to decompose them into their components, named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). We study which of these components contribute to the basic characteristics of the signal. The Hilbert transform is then applied to the IMFs in order to determine their instantaneous amplitudes. The results are compared with those obtained from the analysis in a new time domain termed natural time, after having subtracted the magnetotelluric background from the original signal. It is shown that these instantaneous amplitudes, when combined with the natural time analysis, can be used for the distinction of SES from artificial noises.

  10. Identification of varying time scales in sediment transport using the Hilbert-Huang Transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Ken Z.; Tsai, Christina W.

    2012-02-01

    SummarySediment transport processes vary at a variety of time scales - from seconds, hours, days to months and years. Multiple time scales exist in the system of flow, sediment transport and bed elevation change processes. As such, identification and selection of appropriate time scales for flow and sediment processes can assist in formulating a system of flow and sediment governing equations representative of the dynamic interaction of flow and particles at the desired details. Recognizing the importance of different varying time scales in the fluvial processes of sediment transport, we introduce the Hilbert-Huang Transform method (HHT) to the field of sediment transport for the time scale analysis. The HHT uses the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to decompose a time series into a collection of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), and uses the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) to obtain instantaneous frequency data. The EMD extracts the variability of data with different time scales, and improves the analysis of data series. The HSA can display the succession of time varying time scales, which cannot be captured by the often-used Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. This study is one of the earlier attempts to introduce the state-of-the-art technique for the multiple time sales analysis of sediment transport processes. Three practical applications of the HHT method for data analysis of both suspended sediment and bedload transport time series are presented. The analysis results show the strong impact of flood waves on the variations of flow and sediment time scales at a large sampling time scale, as well as the impact of flow turbulence on those time scales at a smaller sampling time scale. Our analysis reveals that the existence of multiple time scales in sediment transport processes may be attributed to the fractal nature in sediment transport. It can be demonstrated by the HHT analysis that the bedload motion time scale is better represented by the

  11. Parameterization and comparative evaluation of the CCN number concentration on Mt. Huang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shasha; Han, Yongxiang; Chen, Kui; Lu, Chunsong; Yin, Yan; Tan, Haobo; Wang, Jin

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying regional CCN concentration is important for reliable estimations of aerosol indirect effects. Based on observational data of the number concentrations of total aerosol (NCN) and cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN), particle number size distribution (PNSD) and, size-resolved activation ratio (SRAR) obtained on Mt. Huang in southeast China from September 19 to October 11, 2012, seven parameterization schemes are used to calculate NCCN employing CCN spectra, bulk activation ratio, cut-off diameter and SRAR. The calculations and the observations are compared and analyzed at four supersaturations (S) from 0.109% to 0.67%. Results show that (1) the parameterization using the average cut-off diameter Dm, which is derived from the various measured PNSD and NCCN, provides the best estimate of NCCN, with coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.70-0.90 and NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.92-1.11, followed by the method of combining an average size-resolved activation curve with the PNSD, with R2 = 0.71-0.91 and NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.71-0.91; average D50 together with the PNSD also provides a rational scheme for NCCN prediction, with NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.86-0.94 and R2 = 0.70-0.89; (2) the method of parameterizing CCN spectra, though straightforward, has limits under polluted conditions. Reasonable NCCN estimate could only be obtained at high S (R2 ≥ 0.85 at S = 0.39% and 0.67%). (3) For the method employing the bulk activation ratio ARB(S), NCCN are substantially overestimated by using total mode-based ARB(S) (NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.94-1.39, R2 = 0.17-0.67), while applying ammonium sulfate-based ARB(S) yields improved CCN predictions (NCCN,cal/NCCN,obs = 0.91-1.11, R2 = 0.70-0.91). In southern China, when determining the parameterization schemes in climate models, it is first recommended to use the method of average cut-off diameter or SRAR, with the various measured PNSD to predict NCCN. Besides, the method using ammonium sulfate-based ARB(S) and parameterizing CCN spectra

  12. Analysis of spike waves in epilepsy using Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-De; Lin, Chin-Feng; Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Wang, Jung-Hua; Peng, Tsung-Ii; Chien, Yu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we used the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis method to examine the time-frequency characteristics of spike waves for detecting epilepsy symptoms. We obtained a sample of spike waves and nonspike waves for HHT decomposition by using numerous intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the Hilbert transform (HT) to determine the instantaneous, marginal, and Hilbert energy spectra. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the IMFs, and energy-IMF distributions for the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal without spike waves, Spike I, Spike II and Spike III sample waves were determined. The analysis results showed that the ratios of the referred wave and Spike III wave to the referred total energy for IMF1, IMF2, and the residual function exceeded 10%. Furthermore, the energy ratios for IMF1, IMF2, IMF3 and the residual function of Spike I, Spike II to their total energy exceeded 10%. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the IMF3 of the EEG signal without spike waves and Spike I wave, EEG signal without spike waves and Spike II wave, EEG signal without spike waves and Spike III wave, Spike I and II waves, Spike I and III waves, and Spike II and III waves were 0.002, 0.06, 0.01, 0.17, 0.03, and 0.3, respectively. The energy ratios of IMF3 in the δ band to its referred total energy for the EEG signal without spike waves, and of the Spike I, II, and III waves were 4.72, 6.75, 5.41, and 5.55%, respectively. The weighted average frequency of the IMF1, IMF2, and IMF3 of the EEG signal without spike waves was lower than that of the IMF1, IMF2, and IMF3 of the spike waves, respectively. The weighted average magnitude of the IMF3, IMF4, and IMF5 of the EEG signal without spike waves was lower than that of the IMF1, IMF2, and IMF3 of spike waves, respectively.

  13. Hilbert-Huang transform based instrumental assessment of intention tremor in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. This paper describes a method to extract upper limb intention tremor from gyroscope data, through the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a technique suitable for the study of nonlinear and non-stationary processes. The aims of the study were to: (i) evaluate the method’s ability to discriminate between healthy controls and MS subjects; (ii) validate the proposed procedure against clinical tremor scores assigned using Fahn’s tremor rating scale (FTRS); and (iii) compare the performance of the HHT-based method with that of linear band-pass filters. Approach. HHT was applied on gyroscope data collected on 20 MS subjects and 13 healthy controls (CO) during finger-to-nose tests (FNTs) instrumented with an inertial sensor placed on the hand. The results were compared to those obtained after traditional linear filtering. The tremor amplitude was quantified with instrumental indexes (TIs) and clinical FTRS ratings. Main results. The TIs computed after HHT-based filtering discriminated between CO and MS subjects with clinically-detected intention tremor (MS_T). In particular, TIs were significantly higher in the final part of the movement (TI2) with respect to the first part (TI1), and, for all components (X, Y, Z), MST showed a TI2 significantly higher than in CO subjects. Moreover, the HHT detected subtle alterations not visible from clinical ratings, as TI2 (Z-component) was significantly increased in MS subjects without clinically-detected tremor (MS_NT). The method’s validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between clinical FTRS scores and TI2 related to X (rs = 0.587, p = 0.006) and Y (rs = 0.682, p < 0.001) components. Contrarily, fewer differences among the groups and no correlation between instrumental and clinical indexes emerged after traditional filtering. Significance. The present results supported the use of the HHT-based procedure for a fully-automated quantitative and objective measure of intention tremor in MS, which can overcome

  14. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of periodicities in the last two solar activity cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated periodicities associated with the last two-and-a-half solar activity cycles with the novel Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method. Raw data signals of five different observational proxies: the 10.7 cm radio flux intensity, the helioseismic frequency shift, and the sunspot area signals recorded from the whole solar disc, and separately from the Northern and Southern hemispheres, were expanded into a set of intrinsic modes with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition technique. Instant and mean periods of each empirical mode were obtained with the use of the Hilbert transform applied independently to each separate mode. The periodicities were allocated to three distinct groups: short-term variations (with periods shorter than 0.5 yr), quasi-biennial oscillations (with typical periods from 0.5 yr to 3.9 yr), and longer periodicities, e.g. such as the 11 yr cycle. All periodicities detected in the examined solar cycles 22-24 are consistent with the well-known results found in the earlier solar epochs. We have demonstrated that the HHT method is a good tool for characterizing periodicities in the helioseismic data, which are necessarily relatively limited in terms of their time resolution. Periodicities obtained using the helioseismic data are, nevertheless, consistent with those found in other proxies. Since helioseismic oscillations are sensitive to the solar interior, this indicates that the behaviour of surface and atmospheric magnetic activity reflects that of the Sun's internal magnetic field. All identified intrinsic modes are seen to have clear amplitude modulation highly correlated with the 11 yr cycle. This amplitude modulation is most pronounced in the short-period modes. The short-term periodicities were found to be multiples of the shortest period, of 25 d. This ordering of the short-term periodicities is consistent with the previous findings. Signatures of the north-south asymmetry were detected in the individual hemisphere sunspot area

  15. Utilizing Hilbert-Huang transform in detection some of mechanical properties of the refractory metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Arshed Abdulhamed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki

    2016-02-01

    This study is one of the first to report on the use of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to determine the modulus of elasticity of a material, which is one of the most important properties of metals. In addition, this study involves an analytical study of the process of transfer of energy, which was represented in the form of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Moreover, the distribution of IMFs within the time-frequency-plain was determined by testing eight test specimens. Five test specimens were refractory materials, namely, Ti, Ti6AL4V, Zr, Nb, and Ta, and the other three were non-refractory materials, namely, Al, Brass, and ST4340. The new setup was composed of Mg and involves the use of two piezoelectric transducers, which were used as the emitter and receiver. The setup was designed and implemented in this research based on Mg usage to test the metals. First, a new relationship was derived between the pressure transmission coefficient (PTC) of the transmitted wave (through the emitter-water-test specimen-Mg to the receiver) and the corresponding values of the product of the density (ρ) and the modulus of elasticity (E) for the same test specimen. Another relationship was established between the PTCs and the total energy transmitted at high frequencies. This energy indicates the summation of IMFs that have high frequencies (THIMFs), higher than 10 kHz, can determine E better than TOF for most test specimens. To verify this results, with regard to the second conclusion, a new simulation for this setup was carried out using Simulink in MATLAB. Twelve theoretical tests were done, for high acoustic impedance metals, like Hf, Mo, WNiFe and W in addition to test the same group which was tested experimentally. The results of theoretical tests supported the experimental results except for Nb. Most of the conclusions were obtained through practical results and analytical studies. The results proved that THIMFs can determine the change in the microstructure of the alloys

  16. The Hilbert-Huang Transform Applied to Quasi-Periodic Volcanic Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. C.; Lees, J. M.; Johnson, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is applied to nonlinear, quasi-periodic harmonic tremor on an erupting volcano to extract detailed variations in explosion dynamics. The HHT relies upon the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to split signals into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) that are amenable to the Hilbert Transform. Instantaneous time/frequency/power traces of each transformed IMF can be combined to yield a composite Hilbert spectrogram of the signal's evolution through time. Unlike Fourier-based methods, the HHT does not use linear combinations of sinusoids to approximate signals. The advantage of the HHT is that it does not require its basis to be linear and stationary; furthermore, it can provide instantaneous amplitude and frequency for each sample in the data set. We use the HHT to examine tremor signals recorded at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, in 2009. The time interval between successive tremor pulses exhibits a linear relationship with amplitude over several sequences, suggesting a nonlinear process. This indicates that at least some of the pulse sequences cannot be modeled as sinusoidal signal. For this reason, the HHT, rather than a Fourier method, is used to examine how signal frequency and amplitude change through time. We focus on an example tremor signal that has both seismic and infrasound recordings. The infrasound portion of the example event includes two frequency modulated signals, one centered at 0.5 Hz and the other centered at 1 Hz. In contrast, the seismic portion of this event is a frequency modulated signal centered at 1 Hz with distributed energy in the 2-5 Hz range. Certain time intervals contain series of repeating frequency modulations that may indicate either nonlinear waveforms or the superposition of low amplitude riding waves on higher amplitude carrier waves. These frequency modulations do not correlate between infrasound and seismic records. Detailed deconstruction of the tremor via HHT provides a basis for

  17. Preparation of malaria resurgence in China: case study of vivax malaria re-emergence and outbreak in Huang-Huai Plain in 2006.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shao-Sen; Xu, Bian-Li; Li, Wei-Dong; Tang, Ji-Hai; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Huang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the patterns of malaria re-emergence and outbreak that occurred in the Huang-Huai Plain of China in 2006, and the way of quick response to curtail the outbreak by mass drug administration and case management. The contribution of the each intervention in quick response is discussed. Particularly due to the special ecological characteristics in the Huang-Huai Plain, the intervention of vector control is not implemented. Finally, the challenges in the elimination of malaria in this region are highlighted.

  18. Effects of Lu-Do-Huang Extract (LDHE) on Apoptosis Induction in Human Hep3B Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chen, Li-Han; Liu, Chen-Wei; Chien, Ting-Yi; Yu, Yu-Ping; Kao, Yu-Yu; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2015-06-30

    Lu-Do-Huang (Pracparatum mungo) is a fermented mung bean [corrected] (Vigna radiata) and has long been used as a traditional and functional food in Traditional Chinese Medicine, especially for treating a variety of liver disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate the apoptotic effects of Lu-Do-Huang ethanol extract (LDHE) on Hep3B cells, a human hepatoma cell line. A variety of cellular assays, flow cytometry and immunoblotting were used. Our results showed that LDHE significantly inhibited Hep3B cells growth. Additionally, the cell cycle assay showed that LDHE prevented Hep3B cell entry into S phase and led to an arrest of Hep3B cells in the G₀/G₁ phase. LDHE induced Hep3B cells to undergo apoptosis as determined through Hep3B cell morphology changes, increase of apoptotic bodies, apoptotic cells, DNA fragmentations and caspase activity. We further examined the protein expression of TRADD, FADD, and Bax to verify the possible apoptotic pathways. The results indicated that LDHE-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells might be mediated [corrected] by an extrinsic signaling pathway leading to an induction of apoptosis in Hep3B cells. In conclusion, LDHE induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in Hep3B cells. Our data provide the evidences regarding the anti-hepatoma potential of LDHE in Hep3B cells.

  19. Qualitative analysis and quantitative simulation on Yin-Huang water salinization mechanism in Bei-Da-Gang Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-yu; Wang, Qi-shan; Wu, Li-bo; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xiao-qin

    2005-01-01

    Yellow River water transfer for Tianjin is important in solving the water shortage in Tianjin, which facilitate economic development and social progress for many years. Fresh water drawn from Yellow River (i.e., Yin-Huang water) becomes saltier and saltier when being stored in the Bei-Da-Gang reservoir. We qualitatively analyze the water salinization mechanism based on mass transfer theory. The main factors are salinity transfer of saline soil, evaporation concentrating, and the agitation of wind. A simulative experimental pond and an evaporation pond were built beside the Bei-Da-Gang reservoir to quantitatively investigate the water salinization based on water and solute balance in the simulative pond. 80% of increased [Cl-] is due to the salinity transfer of the saline soil and the other 20% is due to evaporation concentrating, so the former is the most important factor. We found that the salinization of Yin-Huang water can be described with a zero-dimension linear model.

  20. Hilbert–Huang transform in detecting and analyzing the uterine contraction activities

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Kemal; Demirer, Murat; Bayrak, Coşkun

    2015-01-01

    Objective The diagnosis of labor is currently one of the most difficult problems encountered by obstetrical healthcare providers. A major health problem is the increase in the rate of preterm delivery, which is responsible for 75% of all deaths in newborns. In addition, preterm delivery is associated with several cognitive and health problems in later life and enormous costs for the health system. A better understanding of myometrial activities could help to reduce preterm deliveries and the costs associated with prematurity in the following years. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether using the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) to analyze the uterine contraction data would help us gain a better insight of the myometrial activities of the human uterus during pregnancy. Material and Methods Uterine magnetomyographic (MMG) signals were recorded from pregnant patients at gestational ages of 32–38 weeks. The study was approved by the Human Research Advisory Board of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) and performed after obtaining written consent from each patient. The recording of transabdominal MMG signals was conducted with the SQUID Array for Reproductive Assessment (SARA, VSM MedTech Inc; Coquitlam, BC, Canada) system, which has 151 primary magnetic sensors allocated approximately 3 cm apart over an area of 850 cm2. The arrangement of sensors is concave in nature and, in a similar lateral distance, spans the maternal abdomen longitudinally from the symphysis pubis to the uterine fundus. The recording times ranged from 12 to 28 min, and the sampling rate was 250 Hz. The data were down-sampled to 25 Hz to reduce the computational complexity and post-processed with a bandpass filter (0.05–1 Hz) because the uterine contraction activity is a band-limited process (0.05–1 Hz). The recordings of one intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC) dataset and two mother-perceived contraction datasets were compared with the HHT results

  1. On Hilbert-Huang Transform Based Synthesis of a Signal Contaminated by Radio Frequency Interference or Fringes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Shiri, Ron S.; Vootukuru, Meg; Coletti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Norden E. Huang et al. had proposed and published the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) concept correspondently in 1996, 1998. The HHT is a novel method for adaptive spectral analysis of non-linear and non-stationary signals. The HHT comprises two components: - the Huang Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), resulting in an adaptive data-derived basis of Intrinsic Mode functions (IMFs), and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA1) based on the Hilbert Transform for 1-dimension (1D) applied to the EMD IMF's outcome. Although paper describes the HHT concept in great depth, it does not contain all needed methodology to implement the HHT computer code. In 2004, Semion Kizhner and Karin Blank implemented the reference digital HHT real-time data processing system for 1D (HHT-DPS Version 1.4). The case for 2-Dimension (2D) (HHT2) proved to be difficult due to the computational complexity of EMD for 2D (EMD2) and absence of a suitable Hilbert Transform for 2D spectral analysis (HSA2). The real-time EMD2 and HSA2 comprise the real-time HHT2. Kizhner completed the real-time EMD2 and the HSA2 reference digital implementations respectively in 2013 & 2014. Still, the HHT2 outcome synthesis remains an active research area. This paper presents the initial concepts and preliminary results of HHT2-based synthesis and its application to processing of signals contaminated by Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI), as well as optical systems' fringe detection and mitigation at design stage. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP mission (SMAP) carries a radiometer instrument that measures Earth soil moisture at L1 frequency (1.4 GHz polarimetric - H, V, 3rd and 4th Stokes parameters). There is abundant RFI at L1 and because soil moisture is a strategic parameter, it is important to be able to recover the RFI-contaminated measurement samples (15% of telemetry). State-of-the-art only allows RFI detection and removes RFI-contaminated measurements. The HHT-based analysis and synthesis facilitates

  2. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-01

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge. PMID:27131804

  3. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-01

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge.

  4. Cubic spline interpolation with overlapped window and data reuse for on-line Hilbert Huang transform biomedical microprocessor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nai-Fu; Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2011-01-01

    On-chip implementation of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) has great impact to analyze the non-linear and non-stationary biomedical signals on wearable or implantable sensors for the real-time applications. Cubic spline interpolation (CSI) consumes the most computation in HHT, and is the key component for the HHT processor. In tradition, CSI in HHT is usually performed after the collection of a large window of signals, and the long latency violates the realtime requirement of the applications. In this work, we propose to keep processing the incoming signals on-line with small and overlapped data windows without sacrificing the interpolation accuracy. 58% multiplication and 73% division of CSI are saved after the data reuse between the data windows.

  5. Automated Flaw Detection Scheme For Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Specimens Using Hilbert Huang Transform Of Ultrasonic Phased Array Data

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize the flaws using NDE ultrasonic data. Data was collected using cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) weld specimens on-loan from the U.S. nuclear power industry’s Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cast (SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection signals in the weld and heat affected zone of the base materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  6. Comparison between Windowed FFT and Hilbert-Huang Transform for Analyzing Time Series with Poissonian Fluctuations: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2006-08-01

    Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is a novel data analysis technique for nonlinear and non-stationary data. We present a time-frequency analysis of both simulated light curves and an X-ray burst from the X-ray burster 4U 1702--429 with both the HHT and the Windowed Fast Fourier Transform (WFFT) methods. Our results show that the HHT method has failed in all cases for light curves with Poissonian fluctuations which are typical for all photon counting instruments used in astronomy, whereas the WFFT method can sensitively detect the periodic signals in the presence of Poissonian fluctuations; the only drawback of the WFFT method is that it cannot detect sharp frequency variations accurately.

  7. Energy-based indexes for analysis of vibrations from rotating machinery based on the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Laura; Vacca, Gaetano

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to introduce a parameter indicating a possible progressive deterioration of rotating machinery affected by any dynamic misalignment (due to increasing eccentricities, uneven mass distribution, propagating cracks, etc.). Such parameter, which has to be considered as a damage index, is based on a series of post-processing algorithms to be implemented on the vibration signals acquired on static supporting elements. The vibrations acquired from rotating machinery could be influenced by non-stationary and non-linear features, especially when the rotating elements are affected by dynamical unbalances due to misalignments or uneven mass distribution. The authors use the Hibert-Huang Transform tool, that is able to decompose the original signal into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), each of them holding quite significant information about the instantaneous frequencies and the energy content of the original signal.

  8. [Realization of Heart Sound Envelope Extraction Implemented on LabVIEW Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Deping; Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    We proposed a research of a heart sound envelope extraction system in this paper. The system was implemented on LabVIEW based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). We firstly used the sound card to collect the heart sound, and then implemented the complete system program of signal acquisition, pretreatment and envelope extraction on LabVIEW based on the theory of HHT. Finally, we used a case to prove that the system could collect heart sound, preprocess and extract the envelope easily. The system was better to retain and show the characteristics of heart sound envelope, and its program and methods were important to other researches, such as those on the vibration and voice, etc.

  9. Cubic spline interpolation with overlapped window and data reuse for on-line Hilbert Huang transform biomedical microprocessor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nai-Fu; Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2011-01-01

    On-chip implementation of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) has great impact to analyze the non-linear and non-stationary biomedical signals on wearable or implantable sensors for the real-time applications. Cubic spline interpolation (CSI) consumes the most computation in HHT, and is the key component for the HHT processor. In tradition, CSI in HHT is usually performed after the collection of a large window of signals, and the long latency violates the realtime requirement of the applications. In this work, we propose to keep processing the incoming signals on-line with small and overlapped data windows without sacrificing the interpolation accuracy. 58% multiplication and 73% division of CSI are saved after the data reuse between the data windows. PMID:22255972

  10. Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

  11. On the origin of bistability in the Stage 2 of the Huang-Ferrell model of the MAPK signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadač, O.; Schreiber, I.; Přibyl, M.

    2013-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important signal transducing enzymes, unique to eukaryotes, that are involved in many pathways of cellular regulation. Successive phosphorylation cascades mediated by MAPKs serve as sensitive switches initiating various cellular processes. Apart from this basic feature, the underlying reaction network is capable of displaying other nonlinear phenomena including bistable steady states and hysteresis as well as periodic oscillations. We show that from the mechanistic point of view, bistability is a consequence of interaction between single and double phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathways in a Stage 2 subsystem of the Huang-Ferrell model. Within this subsystem we uncover the core subnetwork obtained by systematic reduction relying on the methods of stoichiometric network analysis. For the core model we show that there is either one stable steady state or three steady states of which two are stable and point out the role of interplay between the single and double phosphorylation subnetworks in generating bistability.

  12. [Genetic improvement of cotton varieties in Huang-Huai region in China since 1950's. III. Improvement on agronomy properties, disease resistance and stability].

    PubMed

    Jiang, B G; Kong, F L; Zhang, Q Y; Yang, F X; Jiang, R Q

    2000-01-01

    Data from a set of 5-location and 2-year experiments on 10 representative historical cotton varieties and the data of Huang-Huai Regional Cotton Trials from 1973 to 1996 were analyzed to estimate the effects of genetic improvement in agronomy properties, disease resistance and stability of cotton in Huang-Huai Region in China. The results indicated that a great genetic progress of earliness and disease resistance had been achieved by breeding programs since 1950's. The maturity was shortened 3-5 days; The rate of preforst yield was increased about 7 percentages. The problem of resistance to Fususium wilt has been solved and the resistance to Verticillum wilt was improving. Some progress in stability of cotton varieties also has been achieved by breeding programs since 1950.

  13. Correlation of black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide in the high-altitude environment of Mt. Huang in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X. L.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Akimoto, H.; Sun, Y. L.; Dong, H. B.; Li, J.; Irie, H.; Takigawa, M.

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) will help improve BC emission inventories and the evaluation of global/regional climate forcing effects. In the present work, the BC (PM1) mass concentration and CO mixing ratio were continuously measured at a high-altitude background station on the summit of Mt. Huang (30.16° N, 118.26° E, 1840 m a.s.l.). Annual mean BC mass concentration was 1004.5 ± 895.5 ng m-3 with maxima in spring and autumn, and annual mean CO mixing ratio was 424.1 ± 159.2 ppbv. A large increase of CO was observed in the cold season, implying the contribution from the large-scale domestic coal/biofuel combustion for heating. The BC-CO relationship was found to show different seasonal features but strong positive correlation (R>0.8). In Mt. Huang area, the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio showed unimodal diurnal variations and had a maximum during the day (09:00-17:00 LST) and minimum at night (21:00-04:00 LST) in all seasons, indicating the impact of planetary boundary layer and the intrusion of clean air masses from the high troposphere. Back trajectory cluster analysis showed that the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio of plumes from the Eastern China (Jiangsu, Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai) was 8.8 ± 0.9 ng m-3 ppbv-1. Transportation and industry were deemed as controlling factors of the BC-CO relationship in this region. The ΔBC/ΔCO ratios for air masses from Northern China (Anhui, Henan, Shanxi and Shandong provinces) and southern China (Jiangxi, Fujian and Hunan provinces) were quite similar with mean values of 6.5 ± 0.4 and 6.5 ± 0.2 ng m-3 ppbv-1 respectively. The case studies combined with satellite observations demonstrated that the ΔBC/ΔCO ratio for biomass burning (BB) plumes were 10.3 ± 0.3 and 11.6 ± 0.5ng m-3 ppbv-1, significantly higher than those during non-BB impacted periods. The loss of BC during transport was also investigated on the basis of the ΔBC/ΔCO-RH (relative humidity) relationship along air mass

  14. Learning Curve of the Application of Huang Three-Step Maneuver in a Laparoscopic Spleen-Preserving Splenic Hilar Lymphadenectomy for Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ze-Ning; Huang, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the learning curve of the application of Huang 3-step maneuver, which was summarized and proposed by our center for the treatment of advanced upper gastric cancer. From April 2012 to March 2013, 130 consecutive patients who underwent a laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy (LSPL) by a single surgeon who performed Huang 3-step maneuver were retrospectively analyzed. The learning curve was analyzed based on the moving average (MA) method and the cumulative sum method (CUSUM). Surgical outcomes, short-term outcomes, and follow-up results before and after learning curve were contrastively analyzed. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used for a multivariable analysis to determine the factors that affect the operative time using Huang 3-step maneuver. Based on the CUSUM, the learning curve for Huang 3-step maneuver was divided into phase 1 (cases 1-40) and phase 2 (cases 41-130). The dissection time (DT) (P < 0.001), blood loss (BL) (P < 0.001), and number of vessels injured in phase 2 were significantly less than those in phase 1. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological characteristics, short-term outcomes, or major postoperative complications between the learning curve phases. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that body mass index (BMI), short gastric vessels (SGVs), splenic hilar artery (SpA) type, and learning curve phase were significantly associated with DT. In the entire group, 124 patients were followed for a median time of 23.0 months (range, 3-30 months). There was no significant difference in the survival curve between phases. AUGC patients with a BMI less than 25 kg/m², a small number of SGVs, and a concentrated type of SpA are ideal candidates for surgeons who are in phase 1 of the learning curve.

  15. Learning Curve of the Application of Huang Three-Step Maneuver in a Laparoscopic Spleen-Preserving Splenic Hilar Lymphadenectomy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ze-Ning; Huang, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the learning curve of the application of Huang 3-step maneuver, which was summarized and proposed by our center for the treatment of advanced upper gastric cancer. From April 2012 to March 2013, 130 consecutive patients who underwent a laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy (LSPL) by a single surgeon who performed Huang 3-step maneuver were retrospectively analyzed. The learning curve was analyzed based on the moving average (MA) method and the cumulative sum method (CUSUM). Surgical outcomes, short-term outcomes, and follow-up results before and after learning curve were contrastively analyzed. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used for a multivariable analysis to determine the factors that affect the operative time using Huang 3-step maneuver. Based on the CUSUM, the learning curve for Huang 3-step maneuver was divided into phase 1 (cases 1–40) and phase 2 (cases 41–130). The dissection time (DT) (P < 0.001), blood loss (BL) (P < 0.001), and number of vessels injured in phase 2 were significantly less than those in phase 1. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological characteristics, short-term outcomes, or major postoperative complications between the learning curve phases. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that body mass index (BMI), short gastric vessels (SGVs), splenic hilar artery (SpA) type, and learning curve phase were significantly associated with DT. In the entire group, 124 patients were followed for a median time of 23.0 months (range, 3–30 months). There was no significant difference in the survival curve between phases. AUGC patients with a BMI less than 25 kg/m2, a small number of SGVs, and a concentrated type of SpA are ideal candidates for surgeons who are in phase 1 of the learning curve. PMID:27043698

  16. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

  17. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction.

  18. Anti-apoptotic effect of San Huang Shel Shin Tang cyclodextrin complex (SHSSTc) on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic loading is heavier in liver especially when injured or inflammation. San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST) was an old traditional herbal decoction, which composed with Rheum officinale Baill, Scutellaria baicalnsis Geprgi and Coptis chinensis Franch (1:1:2 in weight), can provide a liver protection effects. We used a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drug modification method in reduce of the necessary dose of the SHSST. As the results, the FAS-FADD expressions leaded apoptosis in CCl4 intraperitoneal (IP) injection induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, baicalein, SHSST, and SHSST β-CD complex (SHSSTc) pretreatments protected liver through the decreasing of the expressions of FAS-FADD and downstream caspase-3 and caspase-8. Particularly, SHSSTc (30 mg/kg day) treatment enhanced cell survival pathway activation through the PI3K, Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Compared with SHSST as well as silymarin and baicalein, SHSSTc provided a magnificent liver protection effect, especially in survival pathway activation/TUNEL-apoptotic cell reduction/serum cholesterol level suppression. All these data suggested that β-CD complex modified the SHSST and promoted the bioavailability and liver protection effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 663-670, 2016.

  19. Identifying the trend of the morphological change of a natural river using the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia-Hsin Liu, Chelsie; Tsai, Christina W.

    2015-04-01

    This study introduces a more recent data analysis method, Hilbert Huang transform method (HHT), to analyze transport of sediment particles of a non-stationary and non-linear nature. In order to improve the modeling of the sediment concentrations and bed elevation change, it is proposed to first process the data using the Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method from HHT to obtain a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). In this study, an analysis of time series of bed elevations, sediment concentrations, and flow rates is proposed. Multiple time scales exist in the system of flow, sediment transport and bed elevation change processes. With EMD method, we could decompose the original data into several independent intrinsic mode functions (IMF), each of which may be caused by various factors at different time scales. Then, we use HHT to transform every IMF from time-dependent functions into frequency-functions. A case study of the Chou-Shui River in Taiwan is presented. This study will present an alternative for identifying the trend and variability of the bed elevation change, sediment concentration and flow rate. It is hypothesized that the behavior of bed elevation change can be better described at a different time scales using HHT. The lag between the change in flow, sediment concentration and the bed elevation can also be identified in this study. It is expected that the HHT method can provide a viable alternative for an enhanced understanding of sediment transport processes in natural rivers.

  20. Nonlinear phase interaction between nonstationary signals: a comparison study of methods based on Hilbert-Huang and Fourier transforms.

    PubMed

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Novak, Vera; Peng, C-K; Liu, Yanhui; Hu, Kun

    2009-06-01

    Phase interactions among signals of physical and physiological systems can provide useful information about the underlying control mechanisms of the systems. Physical and biological recordings are often noisy and exhibit nonstationarities that can affect the estimation of phase interactions. We systematically studied effects of nonstationarities on two phase analyses including (i) the widely used transfer function analysis (TFA) that is based on Fourier decomposition and (ii) the recently proposed multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) analysis that is based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)-an advanced nonlinear decomposition algorithm. We considered three types of nonstationarities that are often presented in physical and physiological signals: (i) missing segments of data, (ii) linear and step-function trends embedded in data, and (iii) multiple chaotic oscillatory components at different frequencies in data. By generating two coupled oscillatory signals with an assigned phase shift, we quantify the change in the estimated phase shift after imposing artificial nonstationarities into the oscillatory signals. We found that all three types of nonstationarities affect the performances of the Fourier-based and the HHT-based phase analyses, introducing bias and random errors in the estimation of the phase shift between two oscillatory signals. We also provided examples of nonstationarities in real physiological data (cerebral blood flow and blood pressure) and showed how nonstationarities can complicate result interpretation. Furthermore, we propose certain strategies that can be implemented in the TFA and the MMPF methods to reduce the effects of nonstationarities, thus improving the performances of the two methods.

  1. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) analysis and studies on the stability of Shuang-Huang-Lian preparations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Hou, Feifei; Ma, Jie; Luo, Mai; Chen, Alice; Jin, Peter; Lu, Shane; Xu, Iris

    2011-01-25

    Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a traditional Chinese formula which comprises of three medicinal herbs: Flos Lonicerae, Radix Scutellariae and Fructus Forsythiae, and is commonly used to treat acute upper respiratory tract infection, acute bronchitis and light pneumonia. A simple, reliable and reproducible rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) method was developed for the quality control of SHL preparations, which baseline separates the major bioactive compounds within 6min. The method uses a C18-HST column (2.5μm, 100mm×3.0mm) kept at 40°C. The mobile phases consist of 0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile. Flow rate is 1.0ml/min and UV detection is performed at 327nm from 0 to 4min and 229nm from 4 to 7min. This method was further validated according to the ICH guidelines. Eight batches of commercial SHL preparations obtained from different pharmaceutical manufacturers as well as individual herbs were examined and their chromatographic profiles were compared. The stability test revealed that chlorogenic acid is stable only at acidic pH, and hence it is necessary to further evaluate and optimize the preparatory procedures and storage conditions for commercial SHL preparations.

  2. Projection of extreme precipitation in the context of climate change in Huang-Huai-Hai region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; Yan, Denghua; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Zhe; Yuan, Yong; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Based on the national precipitation dataset (0.5∘×0.5∘) 1961-2011, published by the National Meteorological Information Center of China and the five Global Climate Models provided by ISI-MIP, annual maximum precipitation for 1 day, 3 days and 7 days could be calculated. Extreme precipitation was fitted via Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution to explore the changes of extreme precipitation with the return period of 20 years and 50 years during 1961-2000 and 2001-2050. Based on this, extreme precipitation projection in Huang-Huai-Hai region was done. The results showed that the five Global Climate Models could simulate the statistical features of extreme precipitation quite well, in which IPSL-CM5A-LR has the highest precision. Simulation of IPSL-CM5A-LR indicates that precipitation with the return period of 20 years and 50 years in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River and plain area of the southern Haihe River will increase considerably in the future. Extreme precipitation in some of the places will even increase by more than 30%, which means that these places will face larger flood risk and their capacity to respond to flood disasters should be improved.

  3. [The influence of Huang di nei jing (Huangdi's inner classic) on Shuo wen jie zi (the origin of Chinese characters)].

    PubMed

    Lan, Feng-li

    2006-10-01

    It is very likely that The Origin of Chinese Characters is influenced by Huang Di's Inner Classic after investigating the author of The Origin of Chinese Characters and identifying the publishing times of them. The following conclusions are reached through comparing and analyzing thinking modes, philosophical conception, and knowledge of human anatomy, disease and treatment in them: the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) contained in The Origin of Chinese Characters is in direct line of succession with the Inner Classic; the universe and ecomedical thinking modes of "heaven-earth-human being" in The Origin of Chinese Characters and the Inner Classic respectively are cut from the same cloth; the theories of qi, yin-yang, and the five phases, the theoretical foundation of the Inner Classic, can be traced back to their sources through The Origin of Chinese Characters; The Origin of Chinese Characters traces back to characters' origin and original meanings through analyzing their structures, therefore, the book is important for us to study and read the Inner Classic, and to probe into the origin of TCM as well.

  4. Compositions, Formation Mechanism, and Neuroprotective Effect of Compound Precipitation from the Traditional Chinese Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenze; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Wenqiang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Menglu; Zhu, Nailiang; Zhu, Yindi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Compounds in the form of precipitation (CFP) are universally formed during the decocting of Chinese prescriptions, such as Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT). The formation rate of HLJDT CFP even reached 2.63% ± 0.20%. The identification by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) proved that the main chemical substances of HLJDT CFP are baicalin and berberine, which is coincident with the theory that the CFP might derive from interaction between acidic and basic compounds. To investigate the formation mechanism of HLJDT CFP, baicalin and berberine were selected to synthesize a simulated precipitation and then the baicalin-berberine complex was obtained. Results indicated that the melting point of the complex interposed between baicalin and berberine, and the UV absorption, was different from the mother material. In addition, ¹H-NMR integral and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS) can validate that the binding ratio was 1:1. Compared with baicalin, the chemical shifts of H and C on glucuronide had undergone significant changes by ¹H-, (13)C-NMR, which proved that electron transfer occurred between the carboxylic proton and the lone pair of electrons on the N atom. Both HLJDT CFP and the baicalin-berberine complex showed protective effects against cobalt chloride-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. It is a novel idea, studying the material foundation of CFP in Chinese prescriptions. PMID:27548137

  5. The response of local power grid at low-latitude to geomagnetic storm: An application of the Hilbert Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Chuan-Bing; Liu, Lu; Sun, Wei-Huai

    2016-04-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is an adaptive data analysis method that can accommodate the variety of data generated by nonlinear and nonstationary processes in nature. In this paper, we focus on the small geomagnetically induced current (GIC) at the local substations in low-latitude power grid of China, responding to a moderate storm on 14-18 July 2012. The HHT is applied to analyze the neutral point currents (NPCs) of transformers measured at different substations, and the GIC indices converted from local geomagnetic field measurements. The original data are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition. After removal of the quasi-diurnal components related with the solar quiet variation, the IMFs representing storm disturbances are transformed into Hilbert energy spectra. The results show that some transformers have more or less responses to the moderate storm in the form of Hilbert energy spectra with the frequency around 2-3 mHz. A comparison on the amplitude changes of the spectra total energy of NPCs' perturbation during storm time intervals at different sites suggests that a shell type of three-phase single transformer group seems to be more vulnerable in the storm. Although the low-latitude power grids usually show very small GIC, these can be used to investigate the potential risk of space weather to the system.

  6. Tracking the Evolution of Quasi-periodic Oscillation in RE J1034+396 Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao

    2014-06-01

    RE J1034+396, a narrow-line Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN), is the first example of AGNs that exhibited a nearly coherent quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) for the data collected by XMM-Newton in 2007. The spectral behaviors and timing properties of the QPO have been studied since its discovery. We present an analysis of the QPO in RE J1034+396 based on the Hilbert-Huang transform. Comparing with other time-frequency analysis methods, the Hilbert spectrum reveals the variation of the QPO period in great detail. Furthermore, the empirical mode decomposition provides bandpass-filtered data that can be used in the O - C and correlation analysis. We suggest that it is better to divide the evolution of the QPO in this observation into three epochs according to their different periodicities. In addition to the periodicities, the correlations between the QPO periods and corresponding mean count rates are also different in these three epochs. Further examining the phase lags in these epochs, we found no significant phase lags between the soft and hard X-ray bands, which is also confirmed in the QPO phase-resolved spectral analysis. Finally, we discuss the indications of current models including a spotted accretion disk, diskoseismology, and oscillation of shock according to the observed time-frequency and spectral behaviors.

  7. Influence of signals length and noise in power spectral densities computation using Hilbert-Huang Transform in synthetic HRV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, María. G.; Altuve, Miguel; Lollett, Carlos; Wong, Sara

    2013-11-01

    Among non-invasive techniques, heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has become widely used for assessing the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Research in this area has not stopped and alternative tools for the study and interpretation of HRV, are still being proposed. Nevertheless, frequency-domain analysis of HRV is controversial when the heartbeat sequence is non-stationary. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is a relative new technique for timefrequency analyses of non-linear and non-stationary signals. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of time serieś length and noise in HRV from synthetic signals, using HHT and to compare it with Welch method. Synthetic heartbeat time series with different sizes and levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR) were investigated. Results shows i) sequencés length did not affect the estimation of HRV spectral parameter, ii) favorable performance for HHT for different SNR. Additionally, HHT can be applied to non-stationary signals from nonlinear systems and it will be useful to HRV analysis to interpret autonomic activity when acute and transient phenomena are assessed.

  8. The application of Hilbert-Huang transform in the analysis of muscle fatigue during cyclic dynamic contractions.

    PubMed

    Srhoj-Egekher, Vedran; Cifrek, Mario; Medved, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a common technique used in the assessment of local muscle fatigue. As opposed to static contraction situations, sEMG recordings during dynamic contractions are particularly characterised by non-stationary (and non-linear) features. Standard signal processing methods using Fourier and wavelet based procedures demonstrate well known restrictions on time-frequency resolution and the ability to process non-stationary and/or non-linear time-series, thus aggravating the spectral parameters estimation. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), comprising of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert spectral analysis (HSA), provides a new approach to overcome these issues. The time-dependent median frequency estimate is used as muscle fatigue indicator, and linear regression parameters are derived as fatigue quantifiers. The HHT method is utilised for the analysis of the sEMG signals recorded over quadriceps muscles during cyclic dynamic contractions. The results are compared with those obtained by the Fourier and wavelet based methods. It is shown that HHT procedure provides the most consistent and reliable assessment of spectral and derived linear regression parameters, given the time epoch width and sampling interval in the time domain. The suggested procedure successfully deals with non-stationary and non-linear properties of biomedical signals.

  9. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  10. Time-frequency spectral analysis of TMS-evoked EEG oscillations by means of Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Pigorini, Andrea; Casali, Adenauer G; Casarotto, Silvia; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Mariotti, Maurizio; Massimini, Marcello; Rosanova, Mario

    2011-06-15

    A single pulse of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) generates electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations that are thought to reflect intrinsic properties of the stimulated cortical area and its fast interactions with other cortical areas. Thus, a tool to decompose TMS-evoked oscillations in the time-frequency domain on a millisecond timescale and on a broadband frequency range may help to understand information transfer across cortical oscillators. Some recent studies have employed algorithms based on the Wavelet Transform (WT) to study TMS-evoked EEG oscillations in healthy and pathological conditions. However, these methods do not allow to describe TMS-evoked EEG oscillations with high resolution in time and frequency domains simultaneously. Here, we first develop an algorithm based on Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to compute statistically significant time-frequency spectra of TMS-evoked EEG oscillations on a single trial basis. Then, we compared the performances of the HHT-based algorithm with the WT-based one by applying both of them to a set of simulated signals. Finally, we applied both algorithms to real TMS-evoked potentials recorded in healthy or schizophrenic subjects. We found that the HHT-based algorithm outperforms the WT-based one in detecting the time onset of TMS-evoked oscillations in the classical EEG bands. These results suggest that the HHT-based algorithm may be used to study the communication between different cortical oscillators on a fine time scale.

  11. Improved synthetic aperture focusing technique by Hilbert-Huang transform for imaging defects inside a concrete structure.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jian-Hua; Chiu, Chin-Lung; Wang, Chung-Yue

    2010-11-01

    A useful nondestructive testing tool for civil engineering should immediately reveal defects inside concrete structures at the construction sites. To date, there are few effective methods to image defects inside concrete structures. In this paper, a new nondestructive testing method using elastic waves for imaging possible defects inside concrete is developed. This method integrates the point-source/point receiver scheme with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) to increase functioning depth and enhance received signals. To improve image quality, received signals are processed by Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to get time-frequency curves for the SAFT process. Compared with conventional SAFT method processing with time-amplitude signals, this new method is capable of providing a better image of defects not only in the numerical simulation but also in the experimental result. The image can reveal the number of defects and their locations and front-end profiles. The results shown in this paper indicate that this new elastic-wave-based method exhibits high capability in imaging the defects of in situ concrete structures.

  12. An approach based on wavelet packet decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform (WPD-HHT) for spindle bearings condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Leh-Sung; Kim, Jong Hyun; Liew, Willey Y. H.; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2012-11-01

    In order to prevent possible damages to the spindle systems, reliable monitoring techniques are required to provide valuable information on the condition of the spindle condition. A technique is proposed for monitoring spindle bearings conditions via the use of acoustic emission (AE) signals, which implements Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis to extract the crucial characteristic from the measured data to correlate spindle running condition. The HHT becomes a promising technique in extracting the properties of nonlinear and non-stationary signal. However, the original HHT has several deficiencies, which eventually lead to misinterpretation to the final results. The improved version of HHT is proposed and used to overcome the weakness of the original HHT. The simulation and experimental results are used to verify the effectiveness of the WPD-HHT and therefore Hilbert marginal spectral, compared to traditional Fourier transform. Experimental results are presented to examine and explore the effectiveness of AE for monitoring spindle bearings conditions. It is concluded that good correlation existed between the results obtained by AE data and the increase in the preload, and change in the dimensions and geometry of the spindle bearings and their housings as the temperature increases. In support of this finding, vibration and acceleration data are also used to assess the amount changes in the antistrophic stiffness and radial error motion.

  13. Characterization of gear faults in variable rotating speed using Hilbert-Huang Transform and instantaneous dimensionless frequency normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Wang, C. C.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the instantaneous dimensionless frequency (DLF) normalization and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to characterize the different gear faults in case of variable rotating speed. The normalized DLF of the vibration signals are calculated based on the rotating speed of shaft and the instantaneous frequencies of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) which are decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) process. The faulty gear features on DLF-energy distribution of vibration signal can be extracted without the presence of shaft rotating speed, so that the proposed approach can be applied for characterizing the malfunctions of gearbox system under variable shaft rotating speed. A test rig of gear transmission system is performed to illustrate the gear faults, including worn tooth, broken tooth and gear unbalance. Different methods to determine the instantaneous frequency are employed to verify the consistence of characterization results. The DLF-energy distributions of vibration signals are investigated in different faulty gear conditions. The analysis results demonstrate the capability and effectiveness of the proposed approach for characterizing the gear malfunctions at the DLFs corresponding to the meshing frequency as well as the shaft rotating frequency. The support vector machine (SVM) is then employed to classify the vibration patterns of gear transmission system at different malfunctions. Using the energy distribution at the characteristic DLFs as the features, the different fault types of gear can be identified by SVM with high accuracy.

  14. [The study of the pulse signals of atherosclerosis based on Hilbert-Huang transform and sample entropy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Wang, Xuemin; Sun, Tao; Yu, Hongqiang; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Peng

    2012-12-01

    Atherosclerosis, one of the serious cardiovascular diseases, is very harmful to human bodies. The early diagnosis of arteriosclerosis is of great significance. In this paper, we collected pulse from healthy adults and patients with atherosclerosis. Using Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and sample entropy, we analyzed the pulse and found the differences between the patients and healthy people. After using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to process pulse signals, we calculated sample entropy for each intrinsic mode function (IMF), and did statistical analysis of the IMF. The sample entropy of a first IMF from patients with atherosclerosis is less than that from healthy persons, and there was significant differences between the healthy and patient groups. In calculating the energy value of different frequencies on the HHT marginal spectrum, we found the energy in patients moved to low frequencies obviously. The energy value of frequency between 0-1 Hz was significantly higher in patients than in the healthy group. The t test also showed that the values between the two groups had significant differences. The statistics and figures showed that early diagnosis was feasible based on HHT and sample entropy.

  15. Network Pharmacology-Based Antioxidant Effect Study of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang Decoction for Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Li; Feng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used for centuries to treat alcoholic liver disease. Reliable therapeutics of ZZDHD has also been validated in clinical practice. In this study, molecular docking and network analysis were carried out to explore the antioxidative mechanism of ZZDHD as an effective therapeutic approach to treat alcoholic liver disease. Multiple active compounds of ZZDHD were screened based on four key original enzymes (cytochrome P450 2E1, xanthine oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2) involved in ethanol-induced oxidative stress damage. A drug-target network was constructed through network pharmacology analysis, which predicted the relationships of active ingredients to the targets. Some results had been verified by the previous experimental pharmacological studies; meanwhile, it was first reported that xanthine oxidase and eriocitrin, neoeriocitrin, isorhoifolin, and poncirin had interactions. The network pharmacology strategy used provided a forceful tool for searching the mechanism of action of TCM formula and novel bioactive ingredients. PMID:25922610

  16. Tracking the evolution of quasi-periodic oscillation in RE J1034+396 using the Hilbert-Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2014-06-10

    RE J1034+396, a narrow-line Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN), is the first example of AGNs that exhibited a nearly coherent quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) for the data collected by XMM-Newton in 2007. The spectral behaviors and timing properties of the QPO have been studied since its discovery. We present an analysis of the QPO in RE J1034+396 based on the Hilbert-Huang transform. Comparing with other time-frequency analysis methods, the Hilbert spectrum reveals the variation of the QPO period in great detail. Furthermore, the empirical mode decomposition provides bandpass-filtered data that can be used in the O – C and correlation analysis. We suggest that it is better to divide the evolution of the QPO in this observation into three epochs according to their different periodicities. In addition to the periodicities, the correlations between the QPO periods and corresponding mean count rates are also different in these three epochs. Further examining the phase lags in these epochs, we found no significant phase lags between the soft and hard X-ray bands, which is also confirmed in the QPO phase-resolved spectral analysis. Finally, we discuss the indications of current models including a spotted accretion disk, diskoseismology, and oscillation of shock according to the observed time-frequency and spectral behaviors.

  17. Comparison between Hilbert Huang transform and scalogram methods on non-stationary biomedical signals: application to laser Doppler flowmetry recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulier, Rémy; Humeau, Anne; Flatley, Thomas P.; Abraham, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application on healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a comparison between two signal processing methods that provide a clarification of this phenomenon. Analyses by the scalogram and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied at different time intervals in order to take into account the dynamics of the phenomenon. The results show that both the scalogram and the HHT methods lead to the same conclusions concerning the comparisons of the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities—during the progressive pressure and at rest—in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the HHT shows more details that may be obscured by the scalogram. Indeed, the non-locally adaptative limitations of the scalogram can remove some definition from the data. These results may improve knowledge on the above-mentioned reflex as well as on non-stationary biomedical signal processing methods.

  18. The Hilbert-Huang Transform-Based Denoising Method for the TEM Response of a PRBS Source Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Li; Guo-qiang, Xue; Pan, Zhao; Hua-sen, Zhong; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2016-08-01

    The denoising process is critical in processing transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding data. For the full waveform pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS) response, an inadequate noise estimation may result in an erroneous interpretation. We consider the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and its application to suppress the noise in the PRBS response. The focus is on the thresholding scheme to suppress the noise and the analysis of the signal based on its Hilbert time-frequency representation. The method first decomposes the signal into the intrinsic mode function, and then, inspired by the thresholding scheme in wavelet analysis; an adaptive and interval thresholding is conducted to set to zero all the components in intrinsic mode function which are lower than a threshold related to the noise level. The algorithm is based on the characteristic of the PRBS response. The HHT-based denoising scheme is tested on the synthetic and field data with the different noise levels. The result shows that the proposed method has a good capability in denoising and detail preservation.

  19. Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formulation (Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) on the Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Limopasmanee, Wirin; Chansakaow, Sunee; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    A combination of soy isoflavones and Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW) is potentially effective for postmenopausal women with intolerable vasomotor episodes who are not suitable candidates for hormonal therapy. The objective of this open-label, three-phase, crossover study was to determine the influence of both single and multiple oral doses of LWDHW on isoflavone pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women. Eleven subjects were assigned to receive the following regimens in a fixed sequence with washout periods of at least one week: Phase A, a single oral dose of soy milk; Phase B, a single oral dose of soy milk coadministered with LWDHW; and Phase C, multiple oral doses of LWDHW for 14 days followed by a single oral dose of soy milk. Blood samples were collected and mixed with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze isoflavone conjugates to their respective aglycones (i.e., daidzein and genistein) and were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t1/2). The results found no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein among the three regimens. PMID:26146635

  20. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-15

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  1. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response. PMID:25273766

  2. Network pharmacology-based antioxidant effect study of zhi-zi-da-huang decoction for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    An, Li; Feng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used for centuries to treat alcoholic liver disease. Reliable therapeutics of ZZDHD has also been validated in clinical practice. In this study, molecular docking and network analysis were carried out to explore the antioxidative mechanism of ZZDHD as an effective therapeutic approach to treat alcoholic liver disease. Multiple active compounds of ZZDHD were screened based on four key original enzymes (cytochrome P450 2E1, xanthine oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2) involved in ethanol-induced oxidative stress damage. A drug-target network was constructed through network pharmacology analysis, which predicted the relationships of active ingredients to the targets. Some results had been verified by the previous experimental pharmacological studies; meanwhile, it was first reported that xanthine oxidase and eriocitrin, neoeriocitrin, isorhoifolin, and poncirin had interactions. The network pharmacology strategy used provided a forceful tool for searching the mechanism of action of TCM formula and novel bioactive ingredients. PMID:25922610

  3. Climate change impacts on agriculture and soil carbon sequestration potential in the Huang-Hai Plain of China

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; He, Xiaoxia

    2006-03-01

    The Huang-Hai Plain in northeast China has been cultivated for thousands of years and is the most productive wheat growing region in the country. Its agricultural future will be determined in large part by how global climatic changes affect regional conditions and by the actions China takes to mitigate or adapt to climate change impacts. One potential mitigation strategy is to promote soil carbon (C) sequestration, which would improve soil quality while simultaneously contributing to the mitigation of climate change. The IPCC estimates that 40 Pg of C could be sequestered in cropland soils worldwide over the next century. Here we assess the potential for soil C sequestration with conversion of a conventional till (CT) continuous wheat system to a wheat-corn double cropping system and by implementing no till (NT) management for both continuous wheat and wheat-corn systems. To assess the influence of these management changes under a changing climate, we use two climate change scenarios at two time periods in the EPIC agro-ecosystem simulation model. The applied climate change scenarios are from the HadCM3 Global Climate Model for the time periods 2015-2045 and 2070-2099. The HadCM3 model projects that both temperature and precipitation will increase throughout the next century with increases of greater than 5 °C and up to 300 mm possible by 2099. An increase in the variability of temperature is also projected and is, accordingly, applied in the simulations. The EPIC model indicates that winter wheat yields would increase on average by 0.2 Mg ha-1 in the 2030 period and by 0.8 Mg ha-1 in the 2085 period due largely to the warmer nighttime temperatures and higher precipitation projected by the HadCM3 model. Simulated yields were not significantly affected by imposed changes in crop management. Simulated soil organic C content was higher under both NT management and double cropping than under CT continuous wheat. Soil C sequestration rates for continuous wheat systems

  4. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500–800 and a m range of 50–300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy

  5. Study on the antiviral activity of San Huang Yi Gan Capsule against hepatitis B virus with seropharmacological method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Seropharmacology arising recently is a novel method of in vitro pharmacological study on Chinese herb using drug-containing animal serum. As seropharmacology possesses the advantages of experiments in vitro and in vivo, it is increasingly applied in pharmacological research on Chinese medicine. However, some issues of seropharmacology remain controversial and need to be clearly defined. San Huang Yi Gan Capsule (SHYGC) is a Chinese herbal formula with antiviral property against hepatitis B virus (HBV), but little is known about the mechanism underlying its anti-HBV activity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the action mechanism of SHYGC using seropharmacological method and systematically address the methodology of preparing drug-containing serum. Methods New Zealand rabbits were orally administrated SHYGC with various regimens, followed by preparation of SHYGC-containing rabbit sera with a variety of methods. After HBV-producing HepG2 2.2.15 cells were treated with SHYGC-containing sera or entecavir for 9 days, the levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA and the activity of DNA Polymerase were determined in HepG2 2.2.15 cells-conditioned media. Results An optimally standardized method of preparing drug-containing serum was raised for seropharmacology, with which SHYGC was demonstrated to suppress HBsAg expression, HBV DNA replication and DNA Polymerase activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions This seropharmacological study shows SHYGC is a potentially powerful anti-HBV agent. Additionally, seropharmacology is a promising pharmacological method with a broad range of advantages, and it can be widely used in biomedical research, if combined with pharmacokinetics. PMID:24073917

  6. CHARACTERIZING INTERMITTENCY OF 4-Hz QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION IN XTE J1550–564 USING HILBERT–HUANG TRANSFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2015-12-10

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550–564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550–564. By adaptively decomposing the ∼4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ∼4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense–Thirring precession model.

  7. Characterizing Intermittency of 4-Hz Quasi-periodic Oscillation in XTE J1550-564 Using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang

    2015-12-01

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550-564. By adaptively decomposing the ˜4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ˜4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense-Thirring precession model.

  8. Rapid HPLC Quantification Approach for Detection of Active Constituents in Modern Combinatorial Formula, San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Liou, Jing-Ru; Lo, I-Wen; Chung, Tang-Chia; Lee, Li-Yao; Chi, Chun-Chen; Du, Ying-Chi; Wong, Man-Hon; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Lee, Chun-Chen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, is comprised by three herbal medicines, the rhizome of Rheum officinale [or Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae) (Dahuang in Chinese)], the root of Scutellaria baicalensis (Labiatae) (Huangqin in Chinese), and the rhizome of Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae) (Huanglian in Chinese) in the ratios of 2:1:1 or 1:1:1. This study is aimed to quantitate and qualify of SHXXT, by a rapid, convenient, and effective HPLC-PDA approach associated with LC-MS technique. Of which method, nine chosen major bioactive components in SHXXT, including aloe-emodin (Ale), baicalin (Ba), berberine (Be), coptisine (Co), palmatine (Pa), resveratroloside (Res), rhein (Rh), sennoside A (Se-A), and wogonin (Wo), were evaluated within 30 min. The nine chemical markers were monitored in a high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.01−0.55 μg/mL and the correlation coefficient of the regression curve revealed a good linearity with R2 > 0.99. Moreover, the extraction solution system and the HPLC elution conditions were also optimized in the present study. This present developed protocol was then successfully applied to quantify nine chemical markers of 10 SHXXT products from eight Taiwanese TCM pharmaceutical companies. In quantitative results, Res was found as the major compound in SHXXT-1~5 and 8 with significantly higher amounts than those in other products, indicating the products SHXXT-1~5 and 8 may use R. tanguticum as the raw material, which possessed a higher concentration of the bioactive composition Res, instead of R. officinale. Simultaneously, Ale, Rh, and Wo were < 2% in these 10 products. Different chemical profiles of commercial products indicated that, probably, each product with the same named formula might be regarded as a sole medicine and need to be investigated individually. Importantly, it is never too much to emphasize the importance of quality control in TCM development. PMID

  9. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500-800 and a m range of 50-300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy and a

  10. Plasma Metabolomic Profiling to Reveal Antipyretic Mechanism of Shuang-Huang-Lian Injection on Yeast-Induced Pyrexia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Long; Liu, Haiyu; Zhang, Li; Bai, Xu; Wang, Yingxin; Li, Jian; Cai, Chengke

    2014-01-01

    Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1) 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2) leucine, 3) 16∶0 LPC, 4) allocholic acid, 5) vitamin B2, 6) Cys-Lys-His, 7) 18∶2 LPC, and 8) 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1) valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2) glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3) ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4) bile acid biosynthesis, and 5) riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug. PMID:24940599

  11. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-11-03

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500-800 and a m range of 50-300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy and a

  12. A revised Hilbert Huang transformation based on the neural networks and its application in vibration signal analysis of a deployable structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Jian; Yan, Shaoze

    2008-10-01

    A revised Hilbert-Huang method is proposed to deal with the non-linear and non-stationary signals generated from any kinds of the sensors, in order to overcome shortcomings of the Hilbert-Huang method, such as the end swings problem and the undesired intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) at the low-frequency range. Firstly, a radial basis function neural network is used as a pre-processor to extend the length of the signal at the both ends. Secondly, the empirical mode decomposition is applied to obtain IMFs. Thirdly, the selection process is employed to select the optimal IMFs. Finally, an energy-frequency-time distribution can be gained after the Hilbert transformation. Two simulated signals are analyzed to explain the pre- and the post-processor, respectively, by using the above two techniques. The efficiencies of the different bases are compared, and the length of signal extended is analyzed. The correlation coefficients between the analyzed signal and the IMFs are introduced to eliminate the undesired IMFs. In this paper, the revised HHT method has been applied to analyze vibration signals of a deployable structure. A simulated solar array setup is built, which contains six parts: the basal body, a locked mechanism, the synchronism mechanism, the connection joints, the driven parts, and two simulated panels. Vibration signals of the solar array setup in the deployed case that is knocked by a single impulse on the middle of the second panel are estimated, and the results show that the revised Hilbert-Huang method is efficient for non-linear and non-stationary signal analysis.

  13. Analysis of defects in externally driven dust-density wavefronts in cogenerated dusty plasma using the time-resolved Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sanjib; Barman, Chiranjib; Mondal, Malay; Bose, M.; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of defects in externally driven dust-density wavefronts (DDWs) in cogenerated dusty plasma has been carried out. The DDWs are excited for threshold positive bias through another T-shaped electrode which is placed inbetween two main discharge electrodes. Spatiotemporal evolution of the DDWs reveals a wave defect and non-propagating wave mode in the DDW field. A space-time plot and the time-resolved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) were employed to analyze the spatiotemporal wave data at a specific location in the wave field.

  14. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis on Inflammation Rat Model after Oral Administration of Huang Lian Jie Du Decoction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Zuo, Ran; Wang, Yao-Nan; Wang, Hong-Jie; Yang, Jian; Xin, Shao-Kun; Han, Ling-Yu; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Han, Shu-Yan; Gao, Bo; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Bian, Bao-Lin; Si, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR) of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs) in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax) and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HLJDD may

  15. Realgar, cinnabar and An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan are much less chronically nephrotoxic than common arsenicals and mercurials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Wu, Qin; Yan, Jun-Wen; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2011-02-01

    Realgar (As(4)S(4)) and cinnabar (HgS) are frequently included in traditional Chinese medicines and Indian Ayurvedic medicines. Both As and Hg are well known for toxic effects, and their safety is of concern. The aim of this study was to compare chronic nephrotoxicity of An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH), realgar and cinnabar with common arsenicals and mercurials. Mice were orally administrated with AGNH (3 g/kg, 6-fold of clinical dose), cinnabar (0.3 g/kg, amount in AGNH) and realgar (0.3 g/kg, amount in AGNH), HgCl(2) (0.118 mmol/kg, 1/10 of cinnabar), MeHg (0.012 mmol/kg, 1/100 of cinnabar), NaAsO(2) (As(3+) 0.028 mmol/kg, 1/100 of realgar) or Na(2)HAsO(4) (As(5+) 0.056 mmol/kg, 1/50 of realgar), daily for six weeks, and nephrotoxicity was examined. Animal body weights were decreased by MeHg and HgCl(2). Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were elevated by MeHg. Renal pathology was severe in the MeHg and HgCl(2) groups, moderate in the arsenite, arsenate and realgar groups and mild in the cinnabar and AGNH groups. Renal Hg accumulation in the MeHg and HgCl(2) groups was 50-200 folds higher than the cinnabar group. Expressions of metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, biomarkers for metal toxicity, were increased 2-5 folds by arsenite, arsenate, MeHg and HgCl(2), but not by realgar, cinnabar and AGNH. The chemokine and glutathione-S transferase-α4, markers for inflammation, were also increased by MeHg and HgCl(2). Expressions of cell adhesion gene S100a9 and E-cadherin were altered by HgCl(2), arsenite and realgar. Taken together, chemical forms of mercury and arsenic are major determinants in their disposition and toxicity.

  16. Realgar, cinnabar and An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan are much less chronically nephrotoxic than common arsenicals and mercurials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Wu, Qin; Yan, Jun-Wen; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2011-02-01

    Realgar (As(4)S(4)) and cinnabar (HgS) are frequently included in traditional Chinese medicines and Indian Ayurvedic medicines. Both As and Hg are well known for toxic effects, and their safety is of concern. The aim of this study was to compare chronic nephrotoxicity of An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH), realgar and cinnabar with common arsenicals and mercurials. Mice were orally administrated with AGNH (3 g/kg, 6-fold of clinical dose), cinnabar (0.3 g/kg, amount in AGNH) and realgar (0.3 g/kg, amount in AGNH), HgCl(2) (0.118 mmol/kg, 1/10 of cinnabar), MeHg (0.012 mmol/kg, 1/100 of cinnabar), NaAsO(2) (As(3+) 0.028 mmol/kg, 1/100 of realgar) or Na(2)HAsO(4) (As(5+) 0.056 mmol/kg, 1/50 of realgar), daily for six weeks, and nephrotoxicity was examined. Animal body weights were decreased by MeHg and HgCl(2). Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were elevated by MeHg. Renal pathology was severe in the MeHg and HgCl(2) groups, moderate in the arsenite, arsenate and realgar groups and mild in the cinnabar and AGNH groups. Renal Hg accumulation in the MeHg and HgCl(2) groups was 50-200 folds higher than the cinnabar group. Expressions of metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, biomarkers for metal toxicity, were increased 2-5 folds by arsenite, arsenate, MeHg and HgCl(2), but not by realgar, cinnabar and AGNH. The chemokine and glutathione-S transferase-α4, markers for inflammation, were also increased by MeHg and HgCl(2). Expressions of cell adhesion gene S100a9 and E-cadherin were altered by HgCl(2), arsenite and realgar. Taken together, chemical forms of mercury and arsenic are major determinants in their disposition and toxicity. PMID:21321321

  17. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis on Inflammation Rat Model after Oral Administration of Huang Lian Jie Du Decoction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Wang, Hong-Jie; Yang, Jian; Xin, Shao-Kun; Han, Ling-Yu; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Han, Shu-Yan; Gao, Bo; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Bian, Bao-Lin; Si, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR) of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs) in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax) and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HLJDD may

  18. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis on Inflammation Rat Model after Oral Administration of Huang Lian Jie Du Decoction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Zuo, Ran; Wang, Yao-Nan; Wang, Hong-Jie; Yang, Jian; Xin, Shao-Kun; Han, Ling-Yu; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Han, Shu-Yan; Gao, Bo; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Bian, Bao-Lin; Si, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR) of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs) in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax) and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HLJDD may

  19. Automated flaw detection scheme for cast austenitic stainless steel weld specimens using Hilbert-Huang transform of ultrasonic phased array data

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Tariq; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, Lalita; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan; Diaz, Aaron; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-05-17

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize flaws using ultrasonic phased-array data. Data was collected on cast austenitic stainless stell (CASS) weld specimens onloan from the U.S. nuclear power industry' Pressurized Walter Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) traveling specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless stell (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cst(SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection singals from the weld and heat affected zone of the based materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The Accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  20. Time-frequency analysis of VLF for seismic-ionospheric precursor detection: Evaluation of Zhao-Atlas-Marks and Hilbert-Huang Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeberis, C.; Zaharis, Z. D.; Xenos, T. D.; Spatalas, S.; Arabelos, D. N.; Contadakis, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    This work investigates the application of two post-processing methods of extracting spectra from VLF signals in order to detect disturbances that could be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursory phenomena. Although precursory phenomena have been investigated in detail in past studies, a different application of time-frequency analysis methods may produce distinct patterns, which reveal disturbances in the VLF spectra received from stations that are in the propagation path over preparation zones, and also pinpoint disturbances that could be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursors. To this purpose, three different methods of post processing are compared. These are the Wavelet Transform as a benchmark method in the form of the Continuous Wavelet Transform, a noise-assisted variant of the Hilbert-Huang Transform and the Zhao-Atlas-Marks Distribution. Comparative diagrams are presented and the advantages and weaknesses of each method are presented.

  1. Automated flaw detection scheme for cast austenitic stainless stell weld specimens using Hilbert-Huang transform of ultrasonic phased array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Tariq; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, Lalita; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan; Diaz, Aaron; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize flaws using ultrasonic phased-array data. Data was collected on cast austenitic stainless stell (CASS) weld specimens onloan from the U.S. nuclear power industry' Pressurized Walter Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) traveling specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless stell (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cst(SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection singals from the weld and heat affected zone of the based materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The Accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  2. Bogoliubov theory and Lee-Huang-Yang corrections in spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of the quadratic Zeeman effect

    SciTech Connect

    Uchino, Shun; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-06-15

    We develop Bogoliubov theory of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a quadratic Zeeman effect, and derive the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) corrections to the ground-state energy, pressure, sound velocity, and quantum depletion. We investigate all the phases of spin-1 and spin-2 BECs that can be realized experimentally. We also examine the stability of each phase against quantum fluctuations and the quadratic Zeeman effect. Furthermore, we discuss a relationship between the number of symmetry generators that are spontaneously broken and that of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes. It is found that in the spin-2 nematic phase there are special Bogoliubov modes that have gapless linear dispersion relations but do not belong to the NG modes.

  3. Hilbert-Huang Spectrum as a new field for the identification of EEG event related de-/synchronization for BCI applications.

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Konstantinos I; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J; Panas, Stavros M

    2008-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) usually utilize the suppression of mu-rhythm during actual or imagined motor activity. In order to create a BCI system, a signal processing method is required to extract features upon which the discrimination is based. In this article, the Empirical Mode Decomposition along with the Hilbert-Huang Spectrum (HHS) is found to contain the necessary information to be considered as an input to a discriminator. Also, since the HHS defines amplitude and instantaneous frequency for each sample, it can be used for an online BCI system. Experimental results when the HHS applied to EEG signals from an on-line database (BCI Competition III) show the potentiality of the proposed analysis to capture the imagined motor activity, contributing to a more enhanced BCI performance.

  4. Monitoring As and Hg variation in An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) intermediates in a pilot scale blending process using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaona; Ma, Qun; Liu, Shanshan; Shi, Xinyuan; Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Zhisheng; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to assess the cinnabar and realgar blending of An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) in a pilot-scale experiment, including the blending end-point. The blending variability of two mineral medicines, cinnabar and realgar, were measured by signal relative intensity changing rate (RICR) and moving window standard deviation (MWSD) based on LIBS. Meanwhile, relative concentration changing rate (RCCR) was obtained based on the reference method involving inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The LIBS result was consistent with ICP-OES at blending end-point determinations of both mineral medicines. Unlike the ICP-OES method, LIBS does not have an elaborate digestion procedure. LIBS is a promising and rapid technique to understand the blending process of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) containing cinnabar and realgar. These results demonstrate the potential of LIBS in monitoring CMM pharmaceutical production. PMID:26162343

  5. Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations.

  6. Dry Matter Production, Photosynthesis of Flag Leaves and Water Use in Winter Wheat Are Affected by Supplemental Irrigation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Jianguo; Shi, Yu; Yu, Zhenwen; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is threatened by drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China, thus, effective water-saving irrigation practices are urgently required to maintain its high winter wheat production. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine how supplemental irrigation (SI) affected soil moisture, photosynthesis, and dry matter (DM) production of winter wheat by measuring the moisture in 0–20 cm (W2), 0–40 cm (W3), and 0–60 cm (W4) soil profiles. Rainfed (W0) and local SI practice (W1, irrigation with 60 mm each at jointing and anthesis) treatments were designed as controls. The irrigation amount for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. The soil relative water content (SRWC) in 0–40 cm soil profiles at jointing after SI for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. W3 exhibited lower SRWC in 100–140 and 60–140 cm soil profiles at anthesis after SI and at maturity, respectively, but higher root length density in 60–100 cm soil profiles than W1, W2 and W4. Compared with W1, W2 and W4, photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal conductance of flag leaves for W3 were significantly greater during grain filling, particularly at the mid and later stages. The total DM at maturity, DM in grain and leaves, post-anthesis DM accumulation and its contribution to grain and grain filling duration were higher for W3. The 1000-grain weight, grain yield and water use efficiency for W3 were the highest. Therefore, treatment of increasing SRWC in the 0–40 cm soil profiles to 65% and 70% field capacities at jointing and anthesis (W3), respectively, created a suitable soil moisture environment for winter wheat production, which could be considered as a high yield and water-saving treatment in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China. PMID:26335019

  7. Dry Matter Production, Photosynthesis of Flag Leaves and Water Use in Winter Wheat Are Affected by Supplemental Irrigation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China.

    PubMed

    Man, Jianguo; Shi, Yu; Yu, Zhenwen; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is threatened by drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China, thus, effective water-saving irrigation practices are urgently required to maintain its high winter wheat production. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine how supplemental irrigation (SI) affected soil moisture, photosynthesis, and dry matter (DM) production of winter wheat by measuring the moisture in 0-20 cm (W2), 0-40 cm (W3), and 0-60 cm (W4) soil profiles. Rainfed (W0) and local SI practice (W1, irrigation with 60 mm each at jointing and anthesis) treatments were designed as controls. The irrigation amount for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. The soil relative water content (SRWC) in 0-40 cm soil profiles at jointing after SI for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. W3 exhibited lower SRWC in 100-140 and 60-140 cm soil profiles at anthesis after SI and at maturity, respectively, but higher root length density in 60-100 cm soil profiles than W1, W2 and W4. Compared with W1, W2 and W4, photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal conductance of flag leaves for W3 were significantly greater during grain filling, particularly at the mid and later stages. The total DM at maturity, DM in grain and leaves, post-anthesis DM accumulation and its contribution to grain and grain filling duration were higher for W3. The 1000-grain weight, grain yield and water use efficiency for W3 were the highest. Therefore, treatment of increasing SRWC in the 0-40 cm soil profiles to 65% and 70% field capacities at jointing and anthesis (W3), respectively, created a suitable soil moisture environment for winter wheat production, which could be considered as a high yield and water-saving treatment in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China. PMID:26335019

  8. Gene expression and enzyme activity of lipoprotein lipase correlate with intramuscular fat content in Guangxi san-huang and Arbor Acres chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y N; Wang, J; Chen, B J; Jiang, Q Y; Guo, Y F; Lan, G Q; Jiang, H S

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. This study investigated LPL gene expression, LPL enzyme activity, and the correlation of each with intramuscular fat (IMF) in Chinese Guangxi san-huang (GXSH) and Arbor Acres (AA) chickens. The results showed that age and breed had significant effects on LPL expression and enzyme activity. Correlation analyses showed significant positive correlations between LPL expression levels and IMF contents in the breast and thigh tissues of both GXSH (r = 0.712, P = 0.001; r = 0.792, P < 0.001, respectively) and AA (r = 0.644, P < 0.001; r = 0.545, P < 0.001, respectively) chickens. The results also indicated a significant positive correlation between LPL enzyme activity and IMF contents in the breast and thigh tissues of both GXSH (r = 0.615, P = 0.001; r = 0.685, P < 0.001, respectively) and AA (r = 0.600, P = 0.001; r = 0.528, P = 0.003, respectively) chickens. The results indicated that the LPL gene was significantly correlated with IMF in these two breeds. The results presented here could contribute to knowledge of LPL mRNA developmental expression patterns and enzyme activity, and it could facilitate further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in chickens.

  9. Climatic effects of irrigation over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in China simulated by the weather research and forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ben; Zhang, Yaocun; Qian, Yun; Tang, Jian; Liu, Dongqing

    2016-03-01

    The climatic effects of irrigation over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3HP) in China are investigated by using the weather research and forecasting model coupled with an operational-like irrigation scheme. Multiple numerical experiments with irrigation off/on during spring, summer, and both spring and summer are conducted. Results show that the warm bias in surface temperature and dry bias in soil moisture are reduced over the 3HP region during the growing seasons by considering the irrigation in the model. The air temperature during nongrowing seasons is also affected by irrigation because of the persistent effects of soil moisture on land-air energy exchanges and ground heat storage. Irrigation can induce significant cooling in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during the growing seasons and lead to a relatively wet PBL with increased low-level clouds during spring but a relatively dry condition in summer. Further analyses indicate that irrigation leads to increased summer precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin and decreased summer precipitation in southern and northern China. These responses are associated with the changes in the large-scale circulation induced by irrigation. Irrigation tends to cool the atmosphere and forces a possible southward shift of the upper level jet that can further affect the precipitation distribution. Our model results suggest that in addition to local-scale processes, large-scale impacts should also be considered when studying the precipitation response to irrigation over East Asia.

  10. Simultaneous extraction of phase and phase shift from two interferograms using Lissajous figure and ellipse fitting technology with Hilbert-Huang prefiltering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengwei; Wang, Jing; Wu, Yongqian; Wu, Fan; Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Wan, Yongjian; Chen, Qiang; Hou, Xi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method to extract the phase shift and phase distribution from two interferograms simultaneously. By employing Hilbert-Huang transform based prefiltering, the background intensities and modulation amplitudes of the two interferograms are suppressed and normalized respectively. With the addition and subtraction operation of the two prefiltered interferograms, two parametric equations are achieved which can be regarded as the complex harmonic motion of the Lissajous figure. The phase of the Lissajous figure can be directly demodulated by the ellipse fitting algorithm. Apart from the advantages of other well-known two-step phase demodulation algorithms, i.e., high accuracy and efficiency of the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization (GS) method and the less stringent requirement concerning the fringe number in the extreme value of interference (EVI) method, proposed Lissajous figure and ellipse fitting (LEF) approach has another bonus related to its robustness to the fluctuations of the fringe patterns noise, background intensity and modulation amplitude. Simulations demonstrate the outstanding performance of the proposed method, and experiments further corroborate its effectiveness.

  11. An Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform on the Non-Stationary Astronomical Time Series: The Superorbital Modulation of SMC X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Wu, Ming-Chya; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao

    2013-06-01

    We present the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis on the quasi-periodic modulation of SMC X-1. SMC X-1, consisting of a neutron star and a massive companion, exhibits superorbital modulation with a period varying between ~40 d and ~65 d. We applied the HHT on the light curve observed by the All-Sky Monitor onboard Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to obtain the instantaneous frequency of the superorbital modulation of SMC X-1. The resultant Hilbert spectrum is consistent with the dynamic power spectrum while it shows more detailed information in both the time and frequency domains. According to the instantaneous frequency, we found a correlation between the superorbital period and the modulation amplitude. Combining the spectral observation made by the Proportional Counter Array onboard RXTE and the superorbital phase derived in the HHT, we performed a superorbital phase-resolved spectral analysis of SMC X-1. An analysis of the spectral parameters versus the orbital phase for different superorbital states revealed that the diversity of nH has an orbital dependence. Furthermore, we obtained the variation in the eclipse profiles by folding the All Sky Monitor light curve with orbital period for different superorbital states. A dip feature, similar to the pre-eclipse dip of Her X-1, can be observed only in the superorbital ascending and descending states, while the width is anti-correlated with the X-ray flux.

  12. Evaluation of single-shot and two-shot fringe pattern phase demodulation algorithms aided by the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Sluzewski, Lukasz; Sunderland, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we evaluate single and two-shot techniques, namely the Hilbert spiral transform (HST) and the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization (GSO) in terms of phase demodulation accuracy in the complex fringe patterns analysis (i.e., with strong background/contrast variations, severe noise, considerable local gradients of fringe shape/orientation). Both methods are aided by the novel Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) processing to adaptively reduce demodulation errors. The HST utilizes a spiral phase function and a spatial fringe orientation map to demodulate phase of complex fringes. It is especially susceptible to uneven bias term and noise. The HHT method realizes bias/noise suppression adaptively with outstanding accuracy. The GSO is a fast two-shot fringe-shape-robust phase demodulation scheme. It treats two arbitrarily phase shifted interferograms as vectors and conducts orthogonal projection of one vector onto another. The GSO is susceptible to background, contrast and noise fluctuations, however. The HHT method is perfectly suitable to perform efficient pre-filtering. Both methods (HHT-HST and HHT-GSO) are proven versatile and robust to fringe pattern defects using simulation and experiment.

  13. Cross-correlation analysis and time delay estimation of a homologous micro-seismic signal based on the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Mei; Jia, Rui-Sheng; Du, Qian-Qian; Fu, You

    2016-06-01

    A micro-seismic signal's transient features are non-stationary. The traditional weighted generalized cross-correlation (GCC) algorithm is based on the cross-power spectrum density. This algorithm diminishes the performance of the time delay estimation for homologous micro-seismic signals. This paper analyzed the influence of calculation error on the cross-power spectrum density of a non-stationary signal and proposed a new cross-correlation analysis and time delay estimation method for homologous micro-seismic signals based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). First, the original signals are decomposed into intrinsic mode function (IMF) components using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for de-noising. Subsequently, the IMF components and the original signals are analyzed using a cross-correlation analysis. The IMF components are subsequently remodeled at different scales using the Hilbert transform. The marginal spectrum density is obtained via a time integration of the remodeled components. The cross-marginal spectrum density of the two signals can also be obtained. Finally, the cross-marginal spectrum density is used in the weighted GCC algorithm for time delay estimation instead of the cross-power spectrum density. The time delay estimation is determined by searching for the weighted GCC function peak. The experiments demonstrated the superior time delay estimation performance of the new method for non-stationary transient signals. Therefore, a new time delay estimation method for non-stationary random signals is presented in this paper.

  14. Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Spectral Analysis Tool Applied to Sunspot Number and Total Solar Irradiance Variations, as well as Near-Surface Atmospheric Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, B. L.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a relatively new data analysis tool which is used to analyze nonstationary and nonlinear time series data. It consists of an algorithm, called empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which extracts the cyclic components embedded within time series data, as well as Hilbert spectral analysis (HSA) which displays the time and frequency dependent energy contributions from each component in the form of a spectrogram. The method can be considered a generalized form of Fourier analysis which can describe the intrinsic cycles of data with basis functions whose amplitudes and phases may vary with time. The HHT will be introduced and compared to current spectral analysis tools such as Fourier analysis, short-time Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis and Wigner-Ville distributions. A number of applications are also presented which demonstrate the strengths and limitations of the tool, including analyzing sunspot number variability and total solar irradiance proxies as well as global averaged temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. Also, near-surface atmospheric quantities such as temperature and wind velocity are analyzed to demonstrate the nonstationarity of the atmosphere.

  15. Reconstruction of the in-plane mode shape of a rotating tire with a continuous scanning measurement using the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsuh; Wang, Semyung; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim; Kindt, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Generally, the dynamic characteristics (natural frequency, damping, and mode shape) of a structure can be estimated by experimental modal analysis. Among these dynamic characteristics, mode shape requires multiple measurements of the structure at different positions, which increases the experimental cost and time. Recently, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method has been introduced to extract mode-shape information from a continuous measurement, which requires vibration measurements from one position to another position continuously with a non-contact sensor. In this research study, an effort has been made to estimate the mode shapes of a rolling tire with a single measurement instead of using the conventional experimental setup (i.e., measurement of the vibration of a rolling tire at multiple positions similar to the case of a non-rotating structure), which is used to estimate the dynamic behavior of a rolling tire. For this purpose, HHT, which was used in the continuous measurement of a non-rotating structure in previous research studies, has been used for the case of a rotating system in this study. Ambiguous mode combinations can occur in this rotating system, and therefore, a method to overcome this ambiguity is proposed in this study. In addition, the specific phenomenon for a rotating system is introduced, and the effect of this phenomenon with regard to the obtained results through HHT is investigated.

  16. Assessing the expression of large-scale climatic fluctuations in the hydrological variability of daily Seine river flow (France) between 1950 and 2008 using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massei, Nicolas; Fournier, Matthieu

    2012-07-01

    SummaryDaily Seine river flow variability from 1950 to 2008 was analyzed and compared to the winter-months North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) using Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). For the last 10 years, HHT has proven its efficiency for the analysis of transient oscillatory signals. HHT provides an interesting alternative to other techniques for time-frequency or time scale analysis of non-stationary signals. In this study we aimed at delineating the different components characterizing daily flow of the Seine river, on the short-term, intra-seasonal, annual and interannual time scales and eventually interpret them in the context of regional North-Atlantic climate regime fluctuations. HHT results highlighted the existence of similar scales of variability beard by internal components of each NAO or river flow signal at interannual scales. Hypotheses on a possible link between the Madden-Julian Oscillation pattern and intra-seasonal variability of river flow could be also proposed, which would highlight linkages between river flow variability and global climate oscillations. Finally, all oscillating components were found to increase in amplitude in both climatic and hydrological signals in the end of the 1950-2008 period of study, with a first step in the late 1960s-early 1970s and a second step in the early 1990s, which demonstrated the capabilities of HHT to handle non-stationarity of natural processes and to help interpreting hydrological variability in a context of climate changes.

  17. Analysis and Recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pulse Based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Random Forest in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Yiqin; Yan, Hanxia; Yan, Jianjun; Yuan, Fengyin; Xu, Zhaoxia; Liu, Guoping; Xu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This research provides objective and quantitative parameters of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pulse conditions for distinguishing between patients with the coronary heart disease (CHD) and normal people by using the proposed classification approach based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and random forest. Methods. The energy and the sample entropy features were extracted by applying the HHT to TCM pulse by treating these pulse signals as time series. By using the random forest classifier, the extracted two types of features and their combination were, respectively, used as input data to establish classification model. Results. Statistical results showed that there were significant differences in the pulse energy and sample entropy between the CHD group and the normal group. Moreover, the energy features, sample entropy features, and their combination were inputted as pulse feature vectors; the corresponding average recognition rates were 84%, 76.35%, and 90.21%, respectively. Conclusion. The proposed approach could be appropriately used to analyze pulses of patients with CHD, which can lay a foundation for research on objective and quantitative criteria on disease diagnosis or Zheng differentiation.

  18. Comparison between Hilbert-Huang transform and scalogram methods on non-stationary biomedical signals: application to laser Doppler flowmetry recordings.

    PubMed

    Roulier, Rémy; Humeau, Anne; Flatley, Thomas P; Abraham, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application on healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a comparison between two signal processing methods that provide a clarification of this phenomenon. Analyses by the scalogram and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied at different time intervals in order to take into account the dynamics of the phenomenon. The results show that both the scalogram and the HHT methods lead to the same conclusions concerning the comparisons of the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities-during the progressive pressure and at rest-in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the HHT shows more details that may be obscured by the scalogram. Indeed, the non-locally adaptative limitations of the scalogram can remove some definition from the data. These results may improve knowledge on the above-mentioned reflex as well as on non-stationary biomedical signal processing methods.

  19. Reconstruction of the in-plane mode shape of a rotating tire with a continuous scanning measurement using the Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsuh; Wang, Semyung; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim; Kindt, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Generally, the dynamic characteristics (natural frequency, damping, and mode shape) of a structure can be estimated by experimental modal analysis. Among these dynamic characteristics, mode shape requires multiple measurements of the structure at different positions, which increases the experimental cost and time. Recently, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method has been introduced to extract mode-shape information from a continuous measurement, which requires vibration measurements from one position to another position continuously with a non-contact sensor. In this research study, an effort has been made to estimate the mode shapes of a rolling tire with a single measurement instead of using the conventional experimental setup (i.e., measurement of the vibration of a rolling tire at multiple positions similar to the case of a non-rotating structure), which is used to estimate the dynamic behavior of a rolling tire. For this purpose, HHT, which was used in the continuous measurement of a non-rotating structure in previous research studies, has been used for the case of a rotating system in this study. Ambiguous mode combinations can occur in this rotating system, and therefore, a method to overcome this ambiguity is proposed in this study. In addition, the specific phenomenon for a rotating system is introduced, and the effect of this phenomenon with regard to the obtained results through HHT is investigated.

  20. Dynamic response of the Trinity River Relief Bridge to controlled pile damage: modeling and experimental data analysis comparing Fourier and Hilbert Huang techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ray Ruichong; King, Robert; Olson, Larry; Xu, You-Lin

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a method for nonlinear, nonstationary data processing, namely the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) in traditional vibration-based approaches to characterizing structural damage and shows the frequency signature of local structural damage in nonstationary vibration recordings. In particular, following the review of traditional approaches to characterizing structural damage from nonstationary vibration recordings, this study first offers the justifications of the HHT as an alternative and complementary data process in addressing the nonstationarity of the vibration. With the use of recordings from controlled field vibration tests of substructures in the Trinity River Relief Bridge in Texas in its intact, minor- and severe-damage pile states, this study then shows that the HHT-based approach can single out some natural frequencies of the structure from a mixed frequency content in recordings that also contain the time-dependent excitation and noise frequencies. Subsequently, this study exposes that the frequency downshift for the damaged pile relative to the undamaged one is an indicative index for the damage extent. The above results are also validated by an ANSYS model-based analysis. Finally, a comprehensive HHT-based characterization of structural damage is discussed, and the potential use for cost-effective, efficient structural damage diagnosis procedures and health-monitoring systems is provided.

  1. Validation of crop model for simulating summer maize in the Huang-Huai Plain of China and its application on analyzing drought effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuyan; Liu, Ronghua; Cheng, Lin; Fang, Wensong; Wang, Xinli

    2009-08-01

    Using datasets of 1991-2004 meteorological and soil data as well as field management from 8 stations in the summer-sown maize zone over the Huang-Huai River Basin, North China, study is performed of the water deficit in various phases of growth of the crop impacting on the final yield by means of CERES-Maize of DSSAT Version 4.0, whose parameters are adjusted for local conditions. Results show that 1) in the jointing stage of vegetative growth and the filling stage (especially its earlier part) of the reproduction growth, field moisture acts as a key factor affecting the yield; 2) deficient moisture in the 7-leaf and jointing periods would cause maximum leaf area index to significantly drop, keeping dry matter from accumulation, leading to appreciable diminution of weight of dry stem and leaves; 3) water deficit in the earlier (middle) filling stage would result in reduced number of grains per cob (decrease substantially the weight of 100 grains). The findings in conjunction with measured moisture can be used to implement the "efficient irrigation with less water" practice in this vast region.

  2. Functional representation for the born-oppenheimer diagonal correction and born-huang adiabatic potential energy surfaces for isotopomers of H3.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Steven L; Schwenke, David W; Schatz, George C; Garrett, Bruce C; Peterson, Kirk A

    2009-04-23

    Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations of the Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction (BODC) for H(3) were performed at 1397 symmetry-unique configurations using the Handy-Yamaguchi-Schaefer approach; isotopic substitution leads to 4041 symmetry-unique configurations for the DH(2) mass combination. These results were then fit to a functional form that permits calculation of the BODC for any combination of isotopes. Mean unsigned fitting errors on a test grid of configurations not included in the fitting process were 0.14, 0.12, and 0.65 cm(-1) for the H(3), DH(2), and MuH(2) isotopomers, respectively. This representation can be combined with any Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface (PES) to yield Born-Huang (BH) PESs; herein, we choose the CCI potential energy surface, the uncertainties of which ( approximately 0.01 kcal/mol) are much smaller than the magnitude of the BODC. Fortran routines to evaluate these BH surfaces are provided. Variational transition state theory calculations are presented comparing thermal rate constants for reactions on the BO and BH surfaces to provide an initial estimate of the significance of the diagonal correction for the dynamics. PMID:19290604

  3. A traditional Chinese medicine JiuHuangLian (Rhizoma coptidis steamed with rice wine) reduces oxidative stress injury in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-chuan; Shen, Xiao-fei; Meng, Xian-li

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress and oxidative stress mediated β-cell injury are the initial factors of diabetes pathogenesis. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that JiuHuangLian (JHL, Rhizoma Coptidis steamed with rice wine) is an effective agent on diabetes treatment. In present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and lightening β-cell injury of JHL in streptozotocin and a high-glucose/high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. After 30 days treatment with JHL, glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance of diabetic rats were improved significantly. JHL also could decrease fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, increase insulin level and insulin sensitivity index. Moreover, lipid metabolism disorder also adjusted, which manifested as decreased total cholesterol, total glyceride and free fatty acid levels. Meanwhile, a significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content were observed in JHL treated rats, oxidative stress markers such as reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide also were decreased by JHL treatment. Furthermore, low expression of caspase-3 were shown in pancreatic immunohistochemistry of JHL treated rats, which exhibited anti-apoptosis effect of β-cell. The histological evidence suggests that JHL effectively rescues the islet atrophied from oxidative stress-mediated β-cell damage. These findings demonstrate the β-cell functional protective nature of JHL by attenuating oxidative stress and inhibiting β-cell damage.

  4. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (−8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (−15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  5. Novel non-linear processing methods of VLF signals for seismic-ionospheric precursor detection: Evaluation of Zhao-Atlas-Marks and Hilbert-Huang Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeberis, Christos; Zaharis, Zaharias; Xenos, Thomas; Theochari, Sophia; Spatalas, Spyridon; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Contadakis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the application of three different methods of extracting spectra from VLF signals in order to detect disturbances that can be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena. The methods tested here are the Wavelet Transform (WT) as a benchmark method, the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and the application of Zhao-Atlas-Marks (ZAM) Distribution, which is a quadratic representation, to process the signals in question. For the purpose of this paper, data acquired in Thessaloniki (40.59N, 22,78E) from the VLF station in Tavolara, Italy (ICV station Lat 40.923, Lon. 9.731) for over three years (December 2010 - December 2013) are used. The receiver was developed by Elettronika Srl and is part of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). A normalization of the received VLF signals is applied prior to their analysis. The efficacy of the processing methods and the results produced by these processes are then discussed. Finally, comparative spectra are presented along with an evaluation of the discrimination and detection capabilities of each method on disturbances of the received signals. These methods provide different resolution and filtering capabilities. HHT provides frequency range filtering by making Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) selection thus allowing us to focus on specific frequency ranges on the phenomena in question, whereas ZAM has an emphasis on improving frequency resolution and thus provides cross-term suppression, therefore this method gives clearer spectra without having the option of filtering that HHT provides. Based upon the results, a suitable processing method can be chosen to further improve the current analysis method by using data produced by seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena and also contribute to a real-time method for correlating seismic activity with the observed disturbances.

  6. Time-frequency Analysis of the Superorbital Modulation of the X-Ray Binary SMC X-1 Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Wu, Ming-Chya; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao

    2011-10-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary SMC X-1 exhibits a superorbital modulation with a dramatically varying period ranging between ~40 days and ~60 days. This research studies the time-frequency properties of the superorbital modulation of SMC X-1 based on the observations made by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We analyzed the entire ASM database collected since 1996. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), developed for non-stationary and nonlinear time-series analysis, was adopted to derive the instantaneous superorbital frequency. The resultant Hilbert spectrum is consistent with the dynamic power spectrum as it shows more detailed information in both the time and frequency domains. The RXTE observations show that the superorbital modulation period was mostly between ~50 days and ~65 days, whereas it changed to ~45 days around MJD 50,800 and MJD 54,000. Our analysis further indicates that the instantaneous frequency changed to a timescale of hundreds of days between ~MJD 51,500 and ~MJD 53,500. Based on the instantaneous phase defined by HHT, we folded the ASM light curve to derive a superorbital profile, from which an asymmetric feature and a low state with barely any X-ray emissions (lasting for ~0.3 cycles) were observed. We also calculated the correlation between the mean period and the amplitude of the superorbital modulation. The result is similar to the recently discovered relationship between the superorbital cycle length and the mean X-ray flux for Her X-1.

  7. TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERORBITAL MODULATION OF THE X-RAY BINARY SMC X-1 USING THE HILBERT-HUANG TRANSFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao; Wu, Ming-Chya E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2011-10-20

    The high-mass X-ray binary SMC X-1 exhibits a superorbital modulation with a dramatically varying period ranging between {approx}40 days and {approx}60 days. This research studies the time-frequency properties of the superorbital modulation of SMC X-1 based on the observations made by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We analyzed the entire ASM database collected since 1996. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), developed for non-stationary and nonlinear time-series analysis, was adopted to derive the instantaneous superorbital frequency. The resultant Hilbert spectrum is consistent with the dynamic power spectrum as it shows more detailed information in both the time and frequency domains. The RXTE observations show that the superorbital modulation period was mostly between {approx}50 days and {approx}65 days, whereas it changed to {approx}45 days around MJD 50,800 and MJD 54,000. Our analysis further indicates that the instantaneous frequency changed to a timescale of hundreds of days between {approx}MJD 51,500 and {approx}MJD 53,500. Based on the instantaneous phase defined by HHT, we folded the ASM light curve to derive a superorbital profile, from which an asymmetric feature and a low state with barely any X-ray emissions (lasting for {approx}0.3 cycles) were observed. We also calculated the correlation between the mean period and the amplitude of the superorbital modulation. The result is similar to the recently discovered relationship between the superorbital cycle length and the mean X-ray flux for Her X-1.

  8. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ(13)C (-8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ(15)N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ(13)C (-15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ(15)N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  9. Lipidomics study of plasma phospholipid metabolism in early type 2 diabetes rats with ancient prescription Huang-Qi-San intervention by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Zhu, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Wei-Min; Rong, Xiang-Lu; Feng, Yi-Fan

    2016-08-25

    Potential impact of lipid research has been increasingly realized both in disease treatment and prevention. An effective metabolomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) along with multivariate statistic analysis has been applied for investigating the dynamic change of plasma phospholipids compositions in early type 2 diabetic rats after the treatment of an ancient prescription of Chinese Medicine Huang-Qi-San. The exported UPLC/Q-TOF-MS data of plasma samples were subjected to SIMCA-P and processed by bioMark, mixOmics, Rcomdr packages with R software. A clear score plots of plasma sample groups, including normal control group (NC), model group (MC), positive medicine control group (Flu) and Huang-Qi-San group (HQS), were achieved by principal-components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Biomarkers were screened out using student T test, principal component regression (PCR), partial least-squares regression (PLS) and important variable method (variable influence on projection, VIP). Structures of metabolites were identified and metabolic pathways were deduced by correlation coefficient. The relationship between compounds was explained by the correlation coefficient diagram, and the metabolic differences between similar compounds were illustrated. Based on KEGG database, the biological significances of identified biomarkers were described. The correlation coefficient was firstly applied to identify the structure and deduce the metabolic pathways of phospholipids metabolites, and the study provided a new methodological cue for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolites in the process of regulating Huang-Qi-San for treating early type 2 diabetes. PMID:27369808

  10. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

  11. Impact of thermal time shift on wheat phenology and yield under warming climate in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Qi, Yongqing; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rende; Moiwo, Juana P.; Liu, Fengshan

    2016-05-01

    Given climate change can potentially influence crop phenology and subsequent yield, an investigation of relevant adaptation measures could increase the understanding and mitigation of these responses in the future. In this study, field observations at 10 stations in the Huang- Huai-Hai Plain of China (HHHP) are used in combination with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model to determine the effect of thermal time shift on the phenology and potential yield of wheat from 1981-2009.Warming climate speeds up winter wheat development and thereby decreases the duration of the wheat growth period. However, APSIM-Wheat model simulation suggests prolongation of the period from flowering to maturity (Gr) of winter wheat by 0.2-0.8 d•10yr-1 as the number of days by which maturity advances, which is less than that by which flowering advances. Based on computed thermal time of the two critical growth phases of wheat, total thermal time from floral initiation to flowering (TT_floral_initiation) increasesd in seven out of the 10 investigated stations. Alternatively, total thermal time from the start of grainfilling to maturity (TT_start_ grain_fill) increased in all investigated stations, except Laiyang. It is thus concluded that thermal time shift during the past three decades (1981-2009) prolongs Gr by 0.2-3.0 d•10yr-1 in the study area. This suggests that an increase in thermal time (TT) of the wheat growth period is critical for mitigating the effect of growth period reduction due to warming climatic condition. Furthermore, climate change reduces potential yield of winter wheat in 80% of the stations by 2.3-58.8 kg•yr-1. However, thermal time shift (TTS) increases potential yield of winter wheat in most of the stations by 3.0-51.0 kg•yr-1. It is concluded that wheat cultivars with longer growth periods and higher thermal requirements could mitigate the negative effects of warming climate on crop production in the study area.

  12. Coordinate Bethe ANSÄTZE for Non-Diagonal Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragoucy, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Bethe ansatz goes back to 1931, when H. Bethe invented it to solve some one-dimensional models, such as XXX spin chain, proposed by W. Heisenberg in 1928. Although it is a very powerful method to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the corresponding Hamiltonian, it can be applied only for very specific boundary conditions: periodic boundary ones, and so-called open-diagonal boundary ones. After reviewing this method, we will present a generalization of it that applies also to open-triangular boundary conditions. This short note presents only the basic ideas of the technique, and does not attend to give a general overview of the subject. Interested readers should refer to the original papers and references therein.

  13. Hilbert-Huang spectral analysis for characterizing the intrinsic time-scales of variability in decennial time-series of surface solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of the variability of the surface solar irradiance (SSI) at different local time-scales is presented in this study. Since geophysical signals, such as long-term measurements of the SSI, are often produced by the non-linear interaction of deterministic physical processes that may also be under the influence of non-stationary external forcings, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), an adaptive, noise-assisted, data-driven technique, is employed to extract locally - in time and in space - the embedded intrinsic scales at which a signal oscillates. The transform consists of two distinct steps. First, by means of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), the time-series is "de-constructed" into a finite number - often small - of zero-mean components that have distinct temporal scales of variability, termed hereinafter the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The signal model of the components is an amplitude modulation - frequency modulation (AM - FM) one, and can also be thought of as an extension of a Fourier series having both time varying amplitude and frequency. Following the decomposition, Hilbert spectral analysis is then employed on the IMFs, yielding a time-frequency-energy representation that portrays changes in the spectral contents of the original data, with respect to time. As measurements of surface solar irradiance may possibly be contaminated by the manifestation of different type of stochastic processes (i.e. noise), the identification of real, physical processes from this background of random fluctuations is of interest. To this end, an adaptive background noise null hypothesis is assumed, based on the robust statistical properties of the EMD when applied to time-series of different classes of noise (e.g. white, red or fractional Gaussian). Since the algorithm acts as an efficient constant-Q dyadic, "wavelet-like", filter bank, the different noise inputs are decomposed into components having the same spectral shape, but that are translated to the

  14. Metabolic fate analysis of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction in rat urine and feces by LC-IT-MS combining with LC-FT-ICR-MS: a feasible strategy for the metabolism study of Chinese medical formula.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ran; Ren, Wei; Bian, Bao-Lin; Wang, Hong-Jie; Wang, Yao-Nan; Hu, Hao; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Si, Nan

    2016-01-01

    1. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is widely used for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, inflammation and neural system diseases in clinic. In the present study, the comprehensive metabolic profile of HLJDD was demonstrated reliably and rapidly followed by the metabolic pathway analysis of six typical pure compounds (four alkaloids, one flavonoid and one iridoid) in HLJDD using LC-IT-MS combined with high resolution LC-FT-ICR-MS. 2. Totally, 85 compounds, including 32 prototype components and 53 biotransformed metabolites were detected and characterized in the urine and feces after oral administration of HLJDD and six pure compounds to rats, respectively. Among them, 17 prototypes were identified definitely with standard references. 3. Hydroxylation, demethylation and glucuronidation reactions of alkaloids, as well as glucuronidation and sulfonation reactions of iridoids and flavonoids, were observed as the major metabolic pathways of HLJDD. Flavonoids, iridoids and their metabolites were mainly excreted from urine. However, amount of alkaloids were detected in feces. 4. In general, the distinctive metabolic process of three kinds of representative components in HLJDD was clarified. The in vivo metabolic network of HLJDD was demonstrated. Meanwhile, the investigation of representative pure compounds in metabolic study provided a valuable strategy to elucidate the full-scale metabolic fate of HLJDD. This might be helpful to understand the in vivo mechanism of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicine Niu Huang Jie Du Pill using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tunable UV detector and rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xu; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xi; Dai, Weixing; Li, Haiyun; Hu, Liwei; Liu, Hui; Su, Juan; Zhang, Weidong

    2010-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tunable UV detector (UPLC-TUV) and rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF) method was developed for the quality assessment of Niu Huang Jie Du Pill (NHJDP), a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ten compounds were simultaneously identified by electrospray ion mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and comparison with reference standards and literature data. All of them were quantified by UPLC method. Baseline separation was achieved on an ODS-140HTP C(18) column (2.3mum, 100mmx2.1mm I.D.) with linear gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid. This developed method provides good linearity (r(2)>0.9996), repeatability (RSD<3.63%), intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD<0.86%) with accuracies (97.88-101.56%) and recovery (98.88-101.92%) of 10 major constituents, namely baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with the UPLC fingerprint was applied to classify the NHJDP samples according to their manufacture corporation. This proposed method with high sensitivity and selectivity was successfully utilized to analyze 10 major bioactive compounds in 30 batches of NHJDPs, and the results demonstrate that this analytical method is simple and suitable for the original discrimination and quality control of this TCM.

  16. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid in Beagle plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Ma Huang Tang.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianhua; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Shiping

    2015-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of Ma Huang Tang (MHT) in Beagles. Beagle plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using a linear gradient of water-formic acid mixture (0.1%). The pharmacokinetic parameters of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid from MHT in Beagles were quantitatively determined by UPLC with tandem mass detector. The qualitative detection of the four compounds was accomplished by selected ion monitoring in negative/positive ion modes electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection was based on multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 166.096-116.983 (ephedrine), m/z 179.034-146.087 (methylephedrine), m/z 456.351-323.074 (amygdalin), and m/z 821.606-351.062 (glycyrrhizic acid). The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of MHT in Beagles.

  17. Dai Huang Fu Zi Tang could ameliorate intestinal injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock by regulating intestinal blood flow and intestinal expression of p-VASP and ZO-1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dai Huang Fu Zi Tang (DHFZT), an oriental herbal formula, has long been used clinically in treatment of intestinal obstruction, acute pancreatitis, cholecystalgia and chronic diarrhea for thousands of years. Recent studies have demonstrated that DHFZT can reduce intestinal pathological injury and the concentration of enterogenous endotoxin in an animal model. But the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Methods SD male rats in adult were used to model HS and treated with DHFZT. The serum concentration of endotoxin were analyzed by dynamic turbidimetric method. In addition, the blood flow of small intestine were measured using laser speckle technique. Phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP) and zonula occludens (ZO)-1 protein, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) were measured by Western Blotting, RT-PCR, ELISA respectively. Results Present study showed that DHFZT markedly elevated the blood flow of small intestine, protected the intestinal barrier function by up-regulating the expression of ZO-1 protein and down-regulating expression of p-VASP, and notely decreased serum concentration of IFABP and endotoxin in HS. Conclusions These results reveal that DHFZT improves intestinal blood flow, protects the intestinal barrier function, and ameliorates intestinal endotoxaemia in rats with HS. PMID:24580804

  18. Simultaneous multi-component quantitation of Chinese herbal injection Yin-zhi-huang in rat plasma by using a single-tube extraction procedure for mass spectrometry-based pharmacokinetic measurement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Le; Wang, Meiling; Yuan, Yu; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Meiling; Ding, Li; Chen, Bo

    2014-09-15

    Ying-zhi-huang injection (YZH-I) is an injectable multi-herbal prescription derived from the ancient Chinese remedy "Yin-chen-hao-tang", which is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases. To date, little information is available on the pharmacokinetic properties of this poly-herbal formulation. Herein, we reported a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of eight major ingredients of YZH-I (including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, geniposide, geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) in rat plasma. A fast single-tube multi-impurity precipitation extraction ("SMIPE") procedure was introduced for straightforward plasma preparation, based on one-pot deproteinization precipitation with acidified methanol extraction and in-situ multifunction impurity removal by a solid sorbent mixture (anh. magnesium sulfate plus octadecylsilane). Particularly, the addition of ascorbic acid in methanol (10 mg/mL) was found to exhibit a pronounced protective effect and significantly increase extraction effectiveness of the herbal phenolic components. Some pretreatment variables (protein precipitating solvent, acidifying agent and sorbent) were optimized with acceptable matrix effect (-18 to 7.7%), extraction recovery (65-88%) and process efficiency (62-91%) for the SMIPE-based LC-MRM multi-analyte quantitation using matrix-matched calibration (5-1000 ng/mL) without using internal standard. Mean accuracies were obtained in the range of 83-114% at three different fortification levels, with intra- and inter-day variations within 13%. This validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous measurement and pharmacokinetic investigation of the chemical constituents in rats following an intravenous administration of YZH-I.

  19. Identification of the absorbed components and metabolites of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Yin, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), consisting of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Rheum palmatum L., Citrus aurantium L. and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine preparation for the treatment of acute or chronic hepatic diseases. In the present study, a sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed to separate and identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of ZZDHD. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on an Agilent 6520 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ion modes. By comparing the retention time, high resolution mass data of blank plasma and dosed plasma, a total of 43 constituents, including 21 prototype compounds and 22 metabolites were identified or tentatively characterized. Results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones, glucuronidation was the main metabolic pathways of flavanone-related compounds. It is concluded the developed UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the absorbed components and metabolites of ZZDHD, and the results will provide essential data for further studying the relationship between the chemical components and pharmacological activity of ZZDHD. PMID:25912849

  20. Simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides, two anthraquinones and four flavonoid glycosides of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by UFLC-MS/MS: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and cholestatic liver injury rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Tang, Zheng; Chen, Kelin; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Yin, Ran; Hou, Xiaohong

    2014-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (geniposide and genipin gentiobioside), two anthraquinones (rhein and emodin) and four flavonoid glycosides (isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin), the major active ingredients of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), in rat plasma using paeoniflorin as internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v), separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm×3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Detection was performed on 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometry equipped with turbo ion spray source in the negative ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were less than 11.4%, and accuracy (as relative error) was within ± 10.0%. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 4.0, 0.5, 2.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0 ng/mL for geniposide, genipin gentiobioside, rhein, emodin, isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin, respectively. The extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 86.0%. The method was fully validated and applied to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes in normal and cholestatic liver injury (CLI) rats after oral administration of ZZDHD. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes between normal and CLI group.

  1. Simultaneous multi-component quantitation of Chinese herbal injection Yin-zhi-huang in rat plasma by using a single-tube extraction procedure for mass spectrometry-based pharmacokinetic measurement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Le; Wang, Meiling; Yuan, Yu; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Meiling; Ding, Li; Chen, Bo

    2014-09-15

    Ying-zhi-huang injection (YZH-I) is an injectable multi-herbal prescription derived from the ancient Chinese remedy "Yin-chen-hao-tang", which is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases. To date, little information is available on the pharmacokinetic properties of this poly-herbal formulation. Herein, we reported a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of eight major ingredients of YZH-I (including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, geniposide, geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) in rat plasma. A fast single-tube multi-impurity precipitation extraction ("SMIPE") procedure was introduced for straightforward plasma preparation, based on one-pot deproteinization precipitation with acidified methanol extraction and in-situ multifunction impurity removal by a solid sorbent mixture (anh. magnesium sulfate plus octadecylsilane). Particularly, the addition of ascorbic acid in methanol (10 mg/mL) was found to exhibit a pronounced protective effect and significantly increase extraction effectiveness of the herbal phenolic components. Some pretreatment variables (protein precipitating solvent, acidifying agent and sorbent) were optimized with acceptable matrix effect (-18 to 7.7%), extraction recovery (65-88%) and process efficiency (62-91%) for the SMIPE-based LC-MRM multi-analyte quantitation using matrix-matched calibration (5-1000 ng/mL) without using internal standard. Mean accuracies were obtained in the range of 83-114% at three different fortification levels, with intra- and inter-day variations within 13%. This validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous measurement and pharmacokinetic investigation of the chemical constituents in rats following an intravenous administration of YZH-I. PMID:25129410

  2. An untargeted metabolomics-driven approach based on LC-TOF/MS and LC-MS/MS for the screening of xenobiotics and metabolites of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Li, Xixi; Yan, Xuemei; An, Li; Luo, Kaiwen; Shao, Mingjing; Jiang, Yue; Xie, Rui; Feng, Fang

    2015-11-10

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a typical traditional Chinese medicine prescription, is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. However, due to lack of holistic metabolic research, the active ingredients of ZZDHD have not been fully elucidated. It entails a huge obstacle for the quality evaluation, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical-safe medication administration of ZZDHD. In this work, an untargeted metabolomics-driven approach was proposed to rapidly screen and characterize xenobiotics and related metabolites in vivo conducted by LC-TOF/MS and LC-QqQ/MS. The tR-m/z pairs which were present in the ZZDHD-dosed group and absent in the control group could be clearly displayed by XCMS Online platform combined with supervised orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Among them, a total of 61 ZZDHD-related xenobiotics and metabolites including 34 prototype components and 27 metabolites were rapidly identified or tentatively characterized in rat plasma. The results indicated that iridoid glycosides and monoterpenoids from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, flavonoid glycosides from Citrus aurantium L., as well as anthraquinones from Rheum palmatum L. were the main absorbed chemical components of ZZDHD. Hydrolysis, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of ZZDHD in vivo. The present study provided a solid basis for further revealing the relationship between the xenobiotic metabolome and pharmacological activity of ZZDHD. In addition, the application of untargeted metabolomics-driven approach offers a fresh insight for rapid screening and identifying xenobiotics and metabolites of ZZDHD and other multiherb prescription. PMID:26275719

  3. Characterization of large-scale fluctuations and short-term variability of Seine river daily streamflow (France) over the period 1950-2008 by empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massei, N.; Fournier, M.

    2010-12-01

    Daily Seine river flow from 1950 to 2008 was analyzed using Hilbert-Huang Tranform (HHT). For the last ten years, this method which combines the so-called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) multiresolution analysis and the Hilbert transform has proven its efficiency for the analysis of transient oscillatory signals, although the mathematical definition of the EMD is not totally established yet. HHT also provides an interesting alternative to other time-frequency or time-scale analysis of non-stationary signals, the most famous of which being wavelet-based approaches. In this application of HHT to the analysis of the hydrological variability of the Seine river, we seek to characterize the interannual patterns of daily flow, differenciate them from the short-term dynamics and eventually interpret them in the context of regional climate regime fluctuations. In this aim, HHT is also applied to the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) through the annual winter-months NAO index time series. For both hydrological and climatic signals, dominant variability scales are extracted and their temporal variations analyzed by determination of the intantaneous frequency of each component. When compared to previous ones obtained from continuous wavelet transform (CWT) on the same data, HHT results highlighted the same scales and somewhat the same internal components for each signal. However, HHT allowed the identification and extraction of much more similar features during the 1950-2008 period (e.g., around 7-yr, between NAO and Seine flow than what was obtained from CWT, which comes to say that variability scales in flow likely to originate from climatic regime fluctuations were much properly identified in river flow. In addition, a more accurate determination of singularities in the natural processes analyzed were authorized by HHT compared to CWT, in which case the time-frequency resolution partly depends on the basic properties of the filter (i.e., the reference wavelet chosen

  4. Atmospheric deposition as an important nitrogen load to a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. 2. Seasonal and inter-annual variations and their implications (2008-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Zhang, Jiabao; Ma, Donghao; Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Garland, Gina; Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol; Zhu, Anning; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, an important N source to agro-ecosystems, has increased intensively in China during recent decades. However, knowledge on temporal variations of total N deposition and their influencing factors is limited due to lack of systematic monitoring data. In this study, total N deposition, including dry and wet components, was monitored using the water surrogate surface method for a typical agro-ecosystem with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain from May 2008 to April 2012. The results indicated that annual total N deposition ranged from 23.8 kg N ha-1 (2009-2010) to 40.3 kg N ha-1 (2008-2009) and averaged 31.8 kg N ha-1. Great inter-annual variations were observed during the sampling period, due to differences in annual rainfall and gaseous N losses from farmlands. Monthly total N deposition varied greatly, from less than 0.6 kg N ha-1 (January, 2010) to over 8.0 kg N ha-1 (August, 2008), with a mean value of 2.6 kg N ha-1. In contrast to wet deposition, dry portions generally contributed more to the total, except in the precipitation-intensive months, accounting for 65% in average. NH4+ -N was the dominant species in N deposition and its contribution to total deposition varied from 6% (December, 2009) to 79% (July, 2008), averaging 53%. The role of organic N (O-N) in both dry and wet deposition was equal to or even greater than that of NO3- -N. Influencing factors such as precipitation and its seasonal distribution, reactive N sources, vegetation status, field management practices, and weather conditions were responsible for the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and its components. These results are helpful for reducing the knowledge gaps in the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and their influencing factors in different ecosystems, to improve the understandings on N budget in the typical agro-ecosystem, and to provide references

  5. Chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of traditional and simplified decoction methods on the holistic quality of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuemei; Zhang, Qianying; Feng, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction, consisting of Rheum officinale Baill, Mirabilitum, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of jaundice. As described in "Jin Kui Yao Lue", a traditional multistep decoction of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction was required while simplified one-step decoction was used in recent repsorts. To investigate the chemical difference between the decoctions obtained by the traditional and simplified preparations, a sensitive and reliable approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established. As a result, a total of 105 compounds were detected and identified. Analysis of the chromatogram profiles of the two decoctions showed that many compounds in the decoction of simplified preparation had changed obviously compared with those in traditional preparation. The changes of constituents would be bound to cause the differences in the therapeutic effects of the two decoctions. The present study demonstrated that certain preparation methods significantly affect the holistic quality of traditional Chinese medicines and the use of a suitable preparation method is crucial for these medicines to produce special clinical curative effect. This research results elucidated the scientific basis of traditional preparation methods in Chinese medicines.

  6. Chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of traditional and simplified decoction methods on the holistic quality of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuemei; Zhang, Qianying; Feng, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction, consisting of Rheum officinale Baill, Mirabilitum, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of jaundice. As described in "Jin Kui Yao Lue", a traditional multistep decoction of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction was required while simplified one-step decoction was used in recent repsorts. To investigate the chemical difference between the decoctions obtained by the traditional and simplified preparations, a sensitive and reliable approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established. As a result, a total of 105 compounds were detected and identified. Analysis of the chromatogram profiles of the two decoctions showed that many compounds in the decoction of simplified preparation had changed obviously compared with those in traditional preparation. The changes of constituents would be bound to cause the differences in the therapeutic effects of the two decoctions. The present study demonstrated that certain preparation methods significantly affect the holistic quality of traditional Chinese medicines and the use of a suitable preparation method is crucial for these medicines to produce special clinical curative effect. This research results elucidated the scientific basis of traditional preparation methods in Chinese medicines. PMID:26914461

  7. Impact of climatic and environmental changes on flood-duration-frequencies in the Fengle Rriver (YangTze Basin, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles, Christian; Chu, Yin; Tournoud, Marie-George; Ou, Mengli; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Cres, François-Noël; Ma, Youhua

    2016-04-01

    Future water management challenges such as flood risk are highly relevant to climate and land use changes. Climate change is expected to lead to an ongoing intensification of effects on changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration which could exacerbate flooding issues. Land use changes, modifications of agricultural practices and urbanization alter the apportionment of the different hydrological processes at the basin scale and could significantly affect the seasonality of streamflow. At the local scale, the consequences of climate and land use changes on flood occurrence and magnitude are a major issue for the economic development and management policy of basin area. This study apply a methodology for investigating the potential consequences of land use ,as well as precipitation and temperature changes on flood occurrence, duration and magnitude, accounting for uncertainties in scenario data and hydrological model parameters. The discharge time series predicted for the future were simulated from a calibrated and validated distributed hydrological model. The model was run from inputs which are -predicted rainfall time series based on scenarios of changes identified from a literature review, -future evapotranspiration rates assessed from temperature changes identified from a literature review -and scenarios of land-use changes The study area, the Fengle River basin (1500 km2), is located in the northeast part of Yangtze basin. The river is one of the main tributaries of the Chao Lake, the fifth largest natural lake of China. The lake catchment is 9130 km2 in area, including the city of Hefei and a large extent of agricultural and rural areas. Many changes are expected in land use and agricultural practices in the future, due to the touristic appeal of the Chao Lake shore and the growth of the city of Hefei. Climate changes are also expected in this region, with a high impact on rainfall regime. In the current period heavy storms and floods occur predominantly during summer. Using the above methodology the future dynamics of the Fengle River is characterized on discharge-duration-frequency curves. Results will be discussed with regards to the sensitivity of predicted flood occurrence, duration and magnitude by quantifying the impact of rainfall, temperature and land-use changes.

  8. Kreativität im Alltag: Über Grundsätze kreativitätsorientierten Lehrens und Lernens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropley, Arthur J.

    1990-09-01

    School pupils frequently find it difficult to be imaginative and original in tackling the tasks they are set in the classroom, and to behave — in the sense of the present article — creatively. Although applied creativity offers new propects for humanitarian education, there is still a lack of a practical and scientifically based concept of creativity which can also embrace the creative aspects of daily life. If cognitive, motivational and social elements of creativity are clearly recognized, it is possible to construct a Three Component Model of Practical Creativity. The Creativity Diagnosis derived from this provides criteria for the promotion of creativity in the classroom. The dimensions of this diagnostic schema are expert ability, aptitudes and skills relevant to creativity, and personal attributes conducive to creativity. The development of these three elements of pupils' personality can be encouraged not only by the proper planning and conduct of didactic teaching, but also by the teacher's use of creative stimuli and appropriate evaluation procedures. In the field of creativity promotion there are already a number of reports discussing individual aspects of the components of creativity drawn out here, which can only receive a brief mention in this paper.

  9. "Lösen Sie Schachtelsätze Möglichst Auf"': The Impact of Editorial Guidelines on Sentence Splitting in German Business Article Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisiada, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Sentence splitting is assumed to occur mainly in translations from languages that prefer a hierarchical discourse structure, such as German, to languages that prefer an incremental structure. This article challenges that assumption by presenting findings from a diachronic corpus study of English-German business article translations, which shows…

  10. A Bridge Health Monitoring Method Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Chiang, Weiling; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new method for nondestructive instrument method to monitor the health of a bridge. This new method is based on a transient test load and simple data collection. The nuclear of the method is the new invented nonstationary and nonlinear time series analysis method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis. The final decision on the health of the bridge structure is based on the nonlinear characteristic of the data, and on the comparison between the free and the forced vibration frequencies. Thus this alternative method enjoys many advantages: (1) no a priori data required, (2) simple data collection, and (3) minimum traffic disruption. Results from a case study of the Shing-Nan Bridge in Hou-Wei will be reported.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The CGS. IV. Elliptical galaxies colors (Huang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Ho, L. C.; Peng, C. Y.; Li, Z.-Y.; Barth, A. J.

    2016-07-01

    This work uses the multi-band optical images of nearby ellipticals from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS; Ho et al. 2011, J/ApJS/197/21, Paper I). The observations were made using the 100 inch du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory to provide high-quality Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI images during the period 2003 February to 2006 June. (1 data file).

  12. A Novel Ship-rocking Forecasting Method based on Hilbert- Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De-yong, Kang; Yu-jian, Li; Xu-liang, Wang; Zhi, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The ship-rocking is a crucial factor which affects the accuracy of the ocean-based aerospace vehicle measurement. Here we have analysed groups of ship-rocking time series in horizontal and vertical directions utilizing a Hilbert based method from statistical physics. Based on these results we could predict certain amount of future values of the ship-rocking time series based on the current and the previous values. Our predictions are as accurate as the conventional methods from stochastic processes and provide a much wider prediction time range.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Teff against colours calibrations (Huang+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, X.-W.; Yuan, H.-B.; Xiang, M.-S.; Chen, B.-Q.; Zhang, H.-W.

    2016-07-01

    Based on nearly two hundred dwarf (luminosity classes: IV/V) and giant (luminosity classes: II/III) stars with direct effective temperature measurements of better than 2.5 per cent collected from the literature, we have derived metallicity-dependent Teff-colour relations in twenty-one colours for dwarfs and eighteen colours for giants in four photometric systems (the Johnson, Cousins, SDSS and 2MASS). The compiled data of dwarf and giant sample stars employed in the current work is presented. (1 data file).

  14. Analyzing nonstationary financial time series via hilbert-huang transform (HHT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus, computer program product and method of analyzing non-stationary time varying phenomena. A representation of a non-stationary time varying phenomenon is recursively sifted using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to extract intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The representation is filtered to extract intrinsic trends by combining a number of IMFs. The intrinsic trend is inherent in the data and identifies an IMF indicating the variability of the phenomena. The trend also may be used to detrend the data.

  15. Different structural preference of Ag(I) and Au(I) in neutral and cationic luminescent heteropolynuclear platinum(II) complexes: Z (U)-shaped Pt2M2 type vs. trinuclear PtM2 type.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Kazuki; Ueda, Misa; Higashitani, Ami; Nakao, Yoshihide; Arikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Shinnosuke; Sakuda, Eri; Umakoshi, Keisuke

    2016-03-28

    The reactions of monocationic Pt(II) complexes bearing N^C chelate ligands and Me2pzH, [Pt(N^C)(Me2pzH)2]PF6 (N^C = 2-phenylpyridinate (ppy(-)), 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridinate (dfppy(-)), benzo[h]quinolinate (bzq(-)); Me2pzH = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole), with Ag(I) ions gave Z (or U)-shaped neutral tetranuclear Pt2Ag2 complexes [Pt2Ag2(N^C)2(Me2pz)4], while those with Au(I) ions gave neutral trinuclear PtAu2 complexes [PtAu2(N^C)(Me2pz)3]. On the contrary, the reactions of the dicationic Pt(II) complex bearing a N^N chelate ligand and Me2pzH, [Pt(bpy)(Me2pzH)2](PF6)2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), with Ag(I) and Au(I) ions both gave Z (or U)-shaped dicationic tetranuclear Pt2M2 complexes, [Pt2M2(bpy)2(Me2pz)4](PF6)2 (M = Ag, Au). The structures of heteropolynuclear Pt(II) complexes were dominated by the nature of incorporated group 11 metal ions and the charge of complexes.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhengyao; Zhao, Weijuan; Li, Guoxia; Xie, Jianzhong; Han, Guohe; Feng, Songlin; Fan, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Rongwu; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Junxiao

    2003-02-01

    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin’s Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracotta warriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical. We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their clay sources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to the loam layer near Qin’s Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. A rational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin’s Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin’s Mausoleum, it could be deducted that the kiln sites might be located in around Qin’s Mausoleum.

  17. An Attentional Learning Account of the Shape Bias: Reply to Cimpian and Markman (2005) and Booth, Waxman, and Huang (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Samuelson, Larissa

    2006-01-01

    Recently, "Developmental Psychology" published 2 articles on the shape bias; both rejected the authors' previous proposals about the role of attentional learning in the development of a shape bias in object name learning. A. Cimpian and E. Markman (2005; see record EJ733667) did so by arguing that the shape bias does not exist but is an…

  18. Qin, Han, and Huang: Text Reproduction and Literacy in Rural China, A Case for Euclid and Homer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Bruce; Yu, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    Debates the merits of the claim that "symbolic technologies push cognitive growth earlier and longer." The results of an assessment are presented that involved three adult male peasants (two literate, one nonliterate) living in rural China and their ability to recall the text of "The Lonesome Opossum." (25 references) (GLR)

  19. Search for the Frequency Content of Hall Effect Thruster HF Electrostatic Wave with the Hilbert-Huang Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzyna, J.; Makowski, K.; Lazurenko, A.; Mazouffre, S.; Dudeck, M.; Bonhomme, G.; Peradzynski, Z.

    2006-01-15

    Hall Effect Thruster (HET) plasma oscillations are studied. A set of antennas and an electric probe is used to pick-up the signals. All the detectors are located in the thruster channel exit plane, at its outer circumference, close to the zone of maximum magnetic barrier of SPT100-ML device. Each non-stationary signal is expanded into a finite set of intrinsic modes with the use of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. Characteristic bands of instantaneous frequency and power are filtered out by means of Hilbert transform. The analysis is applied to signals recorded in different operating conditions of the HET. The HF oscillations in the frequency range of {approx} 1 divide 20 MHz are identified as an electrostatic drift wave propagating along the thruster azimuth. In this band the decrease of discharge voltage results in less defined and broadened frequency spectrum when compared to nominal operating conditions.

  20. Variations of NDVI and the relationship with climate in Huang-huai-hai region of China from 1981-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huailiang; Zou, Chunhui; Liu, Yujie; Xu, Xiangde; Wang, Shitao

    2005-09-01

    Vegetation cover is the primary index of the earth's ecological system and the change in large-scale vegetation cover represents the effects of natural and human activities upon ecological environments and change in vegetation bears an intimate relation with that of climate, thus being one of the heated issues in the research of global change. In the context of 1981-2001 NOAA/AVHRR NDVI satellite sensings, classified vegetation types and climate data for the Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe (HHH) zone and based on a range of vegetation types selected, including forested land, grassland, meadow and farmland, study is conducted on the dynamic variations of NDVI on a seasonal and an interannual basis, together with their relations to climate change investigated, thus achieving some preliminary findings regarding the seasonal and interannual variation features of the HHH vegetation. Results show that, viewing the situation as a whole, the yearly variation displays intense seasonality under the control of monsoon climate while looking at the interannual variation, the 1981-2001 mean NDVI exhibits insignificant rise trend, bigger in spring compared to other seasons; types of scattered vegetation and forests are more steady on an interannual basis but the agricultural types change dramatically, indicating relatively greater effect of human activities; the vegetation degradation has occurred in the HHH zone in recent years; farmland vegetation is dominant and natural vegetation is about half the agricultural area; for different vegetation types, multi-yearly mean NDVI follows almost the same course on an interannual basis, except for some difference in range between them; yearly rainfall and temperature have positive effect on dynamic NDVI variation while evaporation is in higher negative correlation with the NDVI; Water is a sensitive factor to the growth of conifers, grassland and crops in spring and summer. Water and heat are important to biannual crops, broadleaf trees and grassland vegetation in autumn. In winter all types of vegetation are insignificantly correlated to climate factors.

  1. First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D’Oriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi ‘Tao and Science’ will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  2. Bacterial mutagenicity of dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram.

    PubMed

    Rahden-Staroń, I; Czeczot, H; Pieńkowska, M; Szymczyk-Wasiluk, T

    1997-01-01

    In the present work, within a project of re-evaluation of authorized pesticides coordinated by PZH (National Institute of Hygiene) we aimed at looking for a mechanism of induction of chromosomal aberrations by thiram. We checked its ability to damage bacterial DNA.

  3. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German

  4. Soil CO2 flux in hydrothermal areas of the Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Lan, Tefang F.; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Sano, Yuji; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2016-07-01

    We measured soil CO2 flux in the representative hydrothermal areas of the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), to better understand the volcano's dynamic nature, and to estimate its soil CO2 degassing output. Results show that the average soil CO2 fluxes obtained at Da-You-Keng (DYK), Geng-Tze-Ping (GTP), She-Haung-Ping (SHP), and Tatun Natural Park (TNP) were 128 g m- 2 d- 1, 518 g m- 2 d- 1, 420 g m- 2 d- 1, and 25 g m- 2 d- 1, respectively. The range is comparable to other active volcanic/hydrothermal areas in the world. Along with Liu-Huang-Ku (LHK), where the soil CO2 flux is known, the total soil CO2 output from measured areas is evaluated at 82 t d- 1. Furthermore, a first total soil CO2 output from the whole hydrothermal areas of the TVG is roughly estimated at 113 t d- 1, which includes 15 t d- 1 mantle contribution. Considering the mantle-derived CO2 flux and H2O/CO2 ratio of fumarolic gas, thermal energy associated with the diffuse degassing at the TVG hydrothermal area is estimated at 8.2 MW. Carbon (δ13C) and helium (3He/4He) isotopic ratios of soil samples of the studied areas ranged from - 4.4 to - 6.7‰, and 2.45 to 6.98 RA, respectively. The extent of air involvement in the soil-degassing system, as constrained by the helium and carbon isotopic compositions, provides essential information for depicting regional degassing features of the hydrothermal areas.

  5. Composition and repellency of the essential oils of Evodia calcicola Chun ex Huang and Evodia trichotoma (Lour.) Pierre against three stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Shan-Shan; Li, Yin-Ping; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-β-pinene (44.02%), β-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects.

  6. Effect of various absorption enhancers based on tight junctions on the intestinal absorption of forsythoside A in Shuang-Huang-Lian, application to its antivirus activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Xuan Xuan; Yin, Ai Ling; Cai, Bao Chang; Wang, Hai Dan; Di, Liuqing; Shan, Jin Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forsythoside A (FTA), one of the main active ingredients in Shuang–Huang–Lian (SHL), possesses strong antibacterial, antioxidant and antiviral effects, and its pharmacological effects was higher than that of other ingredients, but the absolute bioavailability orally was approximately 0.72%, which was significantly low, influencing clinical efficacies of its oral preparations seriously. Materials and Methods: In vitro Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics study were simultaneously performed to investigate the effects of absorption enhancers based on tight junctions: sodium caprate and water-soluble chitosan on the intestinal absorption of FTA, and the eventual mucosal epithelial damage resulted from absorption enhancers was evaluated by MTT test and morphology observation, respectively. The pharmacological effects such as antivirus activity improvement by absorption enhancers were verified by MDCK damage inhibition rate after influenza virus propagation. Results: The observations from in vitro Caco-2 cell showed that the absorption of FTA in SHL could be improved by absorption enhancers. Meanwhile, the absorption enhancing effect of water-soluble chitosan may be almost saturable up to 0.0032% (w/v), and sodium caprate at concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL was safe, but water-soluble chitosan at different concentrations was all safe for these cells. In pharmacokinetics study, water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg improved the bioavailability of FTA in SHL to the greatest extent, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with SHL with water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation better significantly than that of control. Conclusion: Water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg might be safe and effective absorption enhancer for improving the bioavailability of FTA and the antivirus activity in vitro in SHL. PMID:24695554

  7. Carbon sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in a long-term experiment on a vertisol in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Keke; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Guo, Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982-2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate  = 0.16 Cinput -0.10, R = 0.95, P<0.01), suggesting a C sequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols. PMID:25265095

  8. Carbon Sequestration Efficiency of Organic Amendments in a Long-Term Experiment on a Vertisol in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Keke; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Guo, Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982–2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate  = 0.16 Cinput –0.10, R = 0.95, P<0.01), suggesting a C sequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols. PMID:25265095

  9. [Evaluating the response of yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and the adaptation by adjusting crop variety to climate change in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shi; Mo, Xing-guo; Lin, Zhong-hui

    2015-04-01

    Based on the multi-model datasets of three representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios from IPCC5, the response of yield and accumulative evapotranspiration (ET) of winter wheat to climate change in the future were assessed by VIP model. The results showed that if effects of CO2 enrichment were excluded, temperature rise would lead to a reduction in the length of the growing period for wheat under the three climate change scenarios, and the wheat yield and ET presented a decrease tendency. The positive effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment could offset most negative effect introduced by temperature rising, indicating that atmospheric CO2 enrichment would be the prime reason of the wheat yield rising in future. In 2050s, wheat yield would increase 14.8% (decrease 2.5% without CO2 fertilization) , and ET would decrease 2.1% under RCP4.5. By adoption of new crop variety with enhanced requirement on accumulative temperature, the wheat yield would increase more significantly with CO2 fertilization, but the water consumption would also increase. Therefore, cultivar breeding new irrigation techniques and agronomical management should be explored under the challenges of climate change in the future.

  10. PreliminaryEquatorial Paleomagnetic results from Mt Kenya lavas. Neil D Opdyke, 1, Dennis V Kent, 2, Kainian Huang ,1, J.P. Patel , 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opdyke, N. D.; Kent, D. V.; Huang, K.; Patel, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    Field work on this study was carried out in August of 2006 by field parties from the University of Florida and Rutgers University. Mt Kenya is believed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age and an Argon dating survey is underway Ten samples were taken at each site consisting of one exposure in individual lava Flows. These exposures are usually in road cuts, streambeds and in some cases roadbeds. We sampled 100 sites distributed around the Mt Kenya Massif and to the northeast along the Nyambini range. The equator bisex's Mt Kenya and all sites were sampled within 40" north or south of the equator . The samples were returned to the US and processed at the University of Florida paleomagnetic laboratory. Many sites were severely affected by lightning however after demagnetization 68 sites yielded directions with alpha 95's equal to or less than 10°. Normal magnetized sites dominate, with N=58 (Dec=1°,Inc -0.1°,α95=2.6°) whereas only 10 reverse sites(Dec. =181.9,Inc. .6°α 95=8°) were identified. The combined site mean direction is Dec=1.1°, Inc..= -0.2° and α 95=3.2°. This result is not significantly different from what is expected from the geocentric axial dipole. VGP's were calculated from each site and the dispersion is low with the ASD = 11° which is in agreement with model "G" of MacFadden and McElhinny .No transitional directions were identified . Quadrupole components are not resolved. 1 Department of geological Sciences, the University of Florida , 2 Dept of Geology, Rutgers University,3,dept of Physics ,The University of Nairobi

  11. Composition and repellency of the essential oils of Evodia calcicola Chun ex Huang and Evodia trichotoma (Lour.) Pierre against three stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Shan-Shan; Li, Yin-Ping; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-β-pinene (44.02%), β-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects. PMID:25341501

  12. Carbon sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in a long-term experiment on a vertisol in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Keke; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Guo, Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982-2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate  = 0.16 Cinput -0.10, R = 0.95, P<0.01), suggesting a C sequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols.

  13. Quantitative contribution of factors regulating rat colonic crypt epithelium: role of parenteral and enteral feeding, caloric intake, dietary cellulose level and the colon carcinogen DMH.

    PubMed

    Cameron, I L; Ord, V A; Hunter, K E; Van Nguyen, M; Padilla, G M; Heitman, D W

    1990-05-01

    To elucidate the role and quantitative contribution of several exogenous factors which may regulate colon crypt mitotic activity, proliferative zone height (PZH) and crypt height, groups of rats were subjected to various feeding regimens both with and without treatment with the colon carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The rats were divided into two major groups and one group was given eight weekly injections of DMH base at 9.5 mg kg-1 body weight. Throughout this period and for two additional weeks the rats were isocalorically fed either a defined nutritionally complete diet with different levels of dietary cellulose or they were parenterally (i.v.) fed a nutritionally complete liquid formula with different caloric levels. The rats were then injected with colchicine 3 h prior to sacrifice to arrest and to collect dividing cells at metaphase. The results of multiple regression analysis of all data were interpreted to indicate that parenteral feeding caused dramatic suppression of the colon crypt height (CH) and of the number of metaphase figures per crypt (MC). Increased cellulose intake stimulated CH but suppressed MC. The CH was also stimulated by DMH. CH was positively correlated to PZH and MC. The MC was suppressed by cellulose intake and negatively correlated to PZH but was positively correlated to CH. The PZH was positively correlated to CH. These findings were related to the role of luminal food, functional workload, kcal intake and treatment with DMH on the measured colon crypt parameters. A quantitative assessment of factors that regulate the measured colonic crypt parameters was accomplished.

  14. [Professor Czesław Gerwel (MD)--100th anniversary of birthday].

    PubMed

    Kociecka, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Professor Czesław Gerwel (1909-1974) physician and outstanding parasitologist set the base of clinical parasitology in Poland and organized first in Poland hospital ward for parasitic diseases in Poznan (1962) first affiliated with Chair of Biology and Parasitology at Medical School and later functioning as an independent clinical ward, which he headed until 1970. He initiated organization of District Parasitological Clinics by setting first such a clinic in Poznań. He scientific work he focused on diagnostic problems as well as clinical pathology and treatment of parasitic diseases of gastrointestinal system. He participated in comprehensive studies of trichinosis. In 1941-1944 he was working in the National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, now National Institute of Public Health--PZH, which at that time operated under name "Das General gouvernerus Stattlichen Institut fur Hygiene in Warschau" in the section of typhus. He was involved in underground conspiracy of AK (Home Army) with pseudonym "Orlos" belonging to the group of people smuggling typhus vaccine produced in the PZH to Warsaw Ghetto and to underground troops. In 1942-1944 he studied medicine in Polish Underground University of Western Territories functioning in PZH under supervision of Feliks Przesmycki.

  15. Gauge equivalence of two different IAnsaaumlItze Rfor non-Abelian charged vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.K.

    1987-05-15

    Recently the existence of non-Abelian charged vortices has been established by taking two different Ansa$uml: tze in SU(2) gauge theories. We point out that these two Ansa$uml: tze are in two topologically equivalent prescriptions. We show that they are gauge equivalent only at infinity. We also show that this gauge equivalence is not possible for Z/sub N/ vortices in SU(N) gauge theories for Ngreater than or equal to3.

  16. Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal) Medicine “Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang)” on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Erika; Aoki, Yuka; Hokari, Rei

    2014-01-01

    A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6 g/kg/day) was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4 hours to 52 hours postinfection (p.i.) significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3 g/kg/day) significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies. PMID:24778699

  17. Fake "Returnee" Earns 4 Million through Fraudulent Marriages: More than Ten Women Fall for His Claims of Being a Boss and Possessing a House and Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the case of Wang Ruiliang. Ms. Huang filed a case against Wang Jun, alleging that he had defrauded her. Ms. Huang met a man named Wang Jun in April 2002 through a certain matrimonial agency. Before they had been together for very long, Wang Jun asked to borrow money from Ms. Huang, claiming that he was having difficulties in…

  18. Non-linear multi-plane wave solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.

    1988-12-01

    New solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) equations are constructed in Minkowski space-time for the gauge group SL(2, ℂ). After proposing a Lorentz covariant formulation of Yang's equations, a set of Ansätze for exact non-linear multiplane wave solutions are proposed. The gauge fields are rational functions of e x·ki ( K {/i 2}=0, 1≦ i≦ N) for these Ansätze. At least, three families of multisoliton type solutions are derived explicitly. Their asymptotic behaviour shows that non-linear waves scatter non-trivially in Minkowski SDYM.

  19. Correction: β-Sialon nanowires, nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures: morphology control, growth mechanism and cathodoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juntong; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Fang, Minghao; Chen, Kai; Huang, Yaoting; Huang, Saifang; Ji, Haipeng; Yang, Jingzhou; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-07-01

    Correction for `β-Sialon nanowires, nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures: morphology control, growth mechanism and cathodoluminescence properties' by Juntong Huang, et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 424-432.

  20. 75 FR 6352 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009... Huang or Bobby Wong, AD/CVD Operations, Office 9, Import Administration, International...

  1. Some exact solutions of (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations with the Chern-Simons term

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, C. H.; Sia, L. C.; Teh, R.

    1989-07-15

    Two /ital Ansa/$/ital uml/---/ital tze/ for the gauge field potential are given so that the(2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations with the Chern-Simons termcan be solved in terms of the modified Bessel functions and the ellipticfunction respectively.

  2. Chiral symmetry breaking in quenched massive strong-coupling four-dimensional QED

    SciTech Connect

    Hawes, F.T. ); Williams, A.G. )

    1995-03-15

    We present results from a study of subtractive renormalization of the fermion propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) in massive strong-coupling quenched four-dimensional QED. The results are compared for three different fermion-photon proper vertex [ital Ansa]$[ital uml---tze]: bare [gamma][sup [mu

  3. Variable Input: What Sarah Reveals about Nonagreeing "Don't" and Theories of Root Infinitives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Two recent proposals link the use of nonagreeing "don't" to the Root Infinitive (RI) Stage. Guasti & Rizzi (2002) argue for a misset parameter involving how agreement is spelled out. Schütze (2010) proposes that Infl is underspecified in child language and that "do" surfaces to support the contracted clitic/affix…

  4. Creatio ex zero. Ursprungs-Konzepte in der mathematischen Naturphilosophie des 19. Jahrhunderts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuser, M.-L.

    Die Autorin zeigt in ihrem Beitrag, daß Ansätze der heutigen Selbstorganisationstheorien, die diese in Richtung einer vereinheitlichten dynamischen Theorie verallgemeinern wollen, zumindest in konzeptueller Hinsicht, schon in der Mathematik und Naturphilosophie des 19. Jahrhunderts gewisse Vorläufer finden könnten.

  5. What Made Your Essay Successful? I "T.A.C.K.L.E.D" the Essay Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tze Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Teaching in Singapore, Tze Kwang Teo cannot conceive of a history teacher unfamiliar with the mnemonic "PEE" (or "PEEL") used to structure students' essays. Its ubiquity is testimony to its power, reminding students both to explain and to substantiate their claims. Yet, as Foster and Gadd have argued, its neat formulation can…

  6. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    (Edinburgh), D Y H Chui (Mainz), D Deb (Graz), C Dellago (Vienna), J Dhont (Jülich), P Dillmann (Konstanz), G Dominguez (Leipzig), M Duits (Enschede), B Dünweg (Mainz), F Ebert (Konstanz), S Egelhaaf (Düsseldorf), E Eggen (Utrecht), R Eichhorn (Bielefeld), E Eiser (Cambridge), H B Eral (Enschede), A Erbe (Konstanz), L Filion (Utrecht), G Foffi (Lausanne), J Fornleitner (Vienna), K Franzrahe (Konstanz), D Frenkel (Cambridge), M Fuchs (Konstanz), G Fytas (Heraklion), P Garstecki (Warsaw), I Gazuz (Konstanz), N Geerts (Amsterdam), G Gompper (Jülich), E Gonzalez-Tovar (San Luis Potosi), I Götze (Jülich), S Grandner (Berlin), L Gránásy (London), C Gutsche (Leipzig), D Hajnal (Mainz), R Hanes (Düsseldorf), A Härtel (Düsseldorf), P Henseler (Konstanz), C Hertlein (Stuttgart), C Holm (Mainz), J Hoogenboom (Barcelona), P Hopkins (Bristol), J Horbach (Cologne), C-C Huang (Jülich), K Huang (Göttingen), S Huißmann (Düsseldorf), M Humar (Ljubljana), S Iacopini (Mainz), A Imhof (Utrecht), A Ivlev (Garching), K Jacobs (Saarbrücken), J Jakobi (Hannover), O Jansen (Düsseldorf), M Jenkins (Düsseldorf), J Jordanovic (Berlin), S Jungblut (Mainz), M Kahn (Vienna), T Kalwarczyk (Warsaw), K Kegler (Leipzig), P Keim (Konstanz), Z Keqin (Singapore), U F Keyser (Leipzig), T Köller (Mainz), K Kremer (Mainz), M Krüger (Konstanz), A Kuijk (Utrecht), P Lang (Jülich), M Laurati (Düsseldorf), W Lechner (Vienna), H Lehle (Stuttgart), P Leiderer (Konstanz), H Lekkerkerker (Utrecht), P Lettinga (Jülich), A Libal (San Mart), B Lonetti (Jülich), N J Lorenz (Mainz), H Löwen (Düsseldorf), H Maleki (Mainz), J-G Malherbe (Paris), M Marechal (Utrecht), G Maret (Konstanz), C Mayer (Rome), S Mazoyer (Konstanz), M McPhie (Jülich), M Medina-Noyola (San Luis Potosi), A Melzer (Greifswald), A Menéndez-Manjón (Hannover), R Messina (Düsseldorf), H Michiel (Utrecht), P Mishra (Düsseldorf), J Mixteco (Guanajuato), B Moser (Düsseldorf), G Nägele (Jülich), R R Netz (Munich), P Nielaba (Konstanz

  7. Ephedra and Its Application To Sport Performance: Another Concern for the Athletic Trainer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for the ergogenic claims regarding ma huang (ephedra), comparing these claims with data from searches of MEDLINE and SPORT Discus from 1970-00 and discussing the use of ephedra in athletic training. Results indicate that there are many serious side effects associated with using ma huang, and they far outweigh any possible…

  8. Improving Intercultural Education at Chinese Institutions from German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihe

    2015-01-01

    In this reflection paper, Lihe Huang describes his experience studying abroad in Germany as a visiting scholar. Through the well-designed introductory seminar and study tour arranged by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, which provided the grant for Huang's research on foreign languages teaching and intercultural education in Germany, he…

  9. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  10. Workflow-Management für organisationsübergreifende Datenübertragung am Beispiel des E-Learning-Systems der TUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa

    In diesem Paper werden im ersten Schritt die Voraussetzungen und Anforderungen für Workflow-Management zur Bereitstellung einer organisationsübergreifenden Datenübertragung ausgeführt. Weiter werden auf einfache Art und Weise die Grundlagen des Identity Managements (IDM) und der Provisionierung von Zielsystemen erläutert sowie die technischen Lösungsideen für die genannten Anforderungen eingeführt. Am Beispiel des E-Learning-Systems der TU München zeigen wir zwei Lösungsansätze. Zu jedem Lösungsansatz werden die technischen Workflows genauer betrachtet und der Funktionsumfang erläutert. Ein paar Uses Cases bei den Datenkonvertierungen, die sich auf die verschiedenen Identity-Management-Schnittstellen beziehen werden auch präsentiert. Am Ende schließt ein Vergleich der beiden Lösungsansätze die Analyse ab.

  11. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-09-15

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles.

  12. Modeling the Pion Generalized Parton Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezrag, C.

    2016-02-01

    We compute the pion Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) in a valence dressed quarks approach. We model the Mellin moments of the GPD using Ansätze for Green functions inspired by the numerical solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSE) and the Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE). Then, the GPD is reconstructed from its Mellin moment using the Double Distribution (DD) formalism. The agreement with available experimental data is very good.

  13. 76 FR 7532 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 75 FR 44224 (July 28, 2010). The...: Jerry Huang or Steven Hampton, AD/CVD Operations, Office 9, Import Administration, International...

  14. 75 FR 64694 - Second Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Rescission, in Part, of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 40777 (July 14, 2010..., 2010. For Further Information Contact: Steven Hampton or Jerry Huang, AD/ CVD Operations, Office...

  15. The Animism Controversy Revisited: A Probability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeets, Paul M.

    1973-01-01

    Considers methodological issues surrounding the Piaget-Huang controversy. A probability model, based on the difference between the expected and observed animistic and deanimistic responses is applied as an improved technique for the assessment of animism. (DP)

  16. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical and mental growth, slow development, and cause malnutrition 2 , 11 , 13-17 . References Huang DB, White ... and treatment of giardiasis in chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition. [PDF - 3 pages] Arch Dis Child. 1991;66( ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... DYSKINESIA 2 Sources for This Page Bruno MK, Lee HY, Auburger GW, Friedman A, Nielsen JE, Lang ... Citation on PubMed GeneReview: Familial Paroxysmal Nonkinesigenic Dyskinesia Lee HY, Xu Y, Huang Y, Ahn AH, Auburger ...

  18. Protection against aflatoxin-B1-induced liver mutagenesis by Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Johan G; Quiney, Brendan; Walter, Patrick B; Thomas, Cynthia; Hodgson, Kimberley; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2005-10-15

    We have measured the inhibition of the mutagenicity of the mycotoxin aflatoxin-B(1) in the liver of the rat by plant material of Scutellaria baicalensis, or Huang-qin. The addition of one percent dried Huang-qin to the feed of the animals reduced the mutant frequency of a subsequent administration of aflatoxin-B1 by approximately 60 and 77%, respectively, for two different batches of the plant material. The addition of Huang-qin also increased the expression of the gene for glutathione S-transferase A5 subunit by 2.5-3.0-fold, and decreased expression of P450 cytochrome 3A2 by 1.8-2.0-fold. The greater increase of the expression of the GST gene may result in the protection shown by Huang-qin. The sensitivity of the hepatic mitochondria to swelling, a measure of the mitochondrial permeability transition, is increased significantly in animals that are on a diet containing Huang-qin. This may lead to increased sensitivity to apoptosis on treatment with toxic compounds. The two batches of Huang-qin material show differences in both chemical composition and preventive potential. This study demonstrates how a combination of generating and analysis of plant varieties together with a mammalian assay for efficacy may improve the search for better plant-based prevention of cancer initiation. PMID:16202794

  19. Rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with poly(azolyl)borates generated in situ from an organometallic precursor containing the B-H...Re coordination motif.

    PubMed

    Videira, Margarida; Moura, Carolina; Datta, Amitabha; Paulo, António; Santos, Isabel C; Santos, I

    2009-05-01

    Complex fac-[Re(kappa(3)-H(mu-H)(2)B(tim(Me)))(CO)(3)] (1) reacts with protic azoles, like 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (tim(Me)H), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (bztH), or pyrazoles (pz*H), to afford fac-[Re(kappa(3)-H(mu-H)B(tim(Me))(2)(CO)(3)] (2), fac-[Re(kappa(3)-H(mu-H)B(tim(Me))(bzt))(CO)(3)] (3), fac-[Re(kappa(3)-H(mu-H)B(tim(Me))(pz))(CO)(3)] (4), fac-[Re(kappa(3)-HB(tim(Me))(pz)(2))(CO)(3)] (5), and fac-[Re(kappa(3)-H(mu-H)B(tim(Me))(3,5-Me(2)-4-EtOOCCH(2)pz))(CO)(3)] (6). Complexes 2-6 are stabilized by tridentate poly(azolyl)borates generated in situ, and their formation involves most probably a metal-assisted process which is considerably faster for the pyrazole derivatives. The characterization of the novel complexes, 3-6, has been done by common analytical techniques, including single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The solid state structures confirmed the presence of hybrid heteroscopionates, presenting (kappa(3)-H, S, S'), (kappa(3)-H, S, N), or (kappa(3)-S, N, N) binding motifs. Multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, and (11)B) NMR studies have also shown that the coordination mode found in the solid state is retained in solution.

  20. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe fusion gene hal3 encodes three distinct activities.

    PubMed

    Molero, Cristina; Petrényi, Katalin; González, Asier; Carmona, Mercè; Gelis, Samuel; Abrie, J Albert; Strauss, Erick; Ramos, José; Dombradi, Viktor; Hidalgo, Elena; Ariño, Joaquín

    2013-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hal3 and Vhs3 are moonlighting proteins, forming an atypical heterotrimeric decarboxylase (PPCDC) required for CoA biosynthesis, and regulating cation homeostasis by inhibition of the Ppz1 phosphatase. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe ORF SPAC15E1.04 (renamed as Sp hal3) encodes a protein whose amino-terminal half is similar to Sc Hal3 whereas its carboxyl-terminal half is related to thymidylate synthase (TS). We show that Sp Hal3 and/or its N-terminal domain retain the ability to bind to and modestly inhibit in vitro S. cerevisiae Ppz1 as well as its S. pombe homolog Pzh1, and also exhibit PPCDC activity in vitro and provide PPCDC function in vivo, indicating that Sp Hal3 is a monogenic PPCDC in fission yeast. Whereas the Sp Hal3 N-terminal domain partially mimics Sc Hal3 functions, the entire protein and its carboxyl-terminal domain rescue the S. cerevisiae cdc21 mutant, thus proving TS function. Additionally, we show that the 70 kDa Sp Hal3 protein is not proteolytically processed under diverse forms of stress and that, as predicted, Sp hal3 is an essential gene. Therefore, Sp hal3 represents a fusion event that joined three different functional activities in the same gene. The possible advantage derived from this surprising combination of essential proteins is discussed. PMID:23962284

  1. Protein phosphatase Z modulates oxidative stress response in fungi.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Éva; González, Asier; Erdei, Éva; Casado, Carlos; Kovács, László; Ádám, Csaba; Oláh, Judit; Miskei, Márton; Molnar, Monika; Farkas, Ilona; Hamari, Zsuzsanna; Ariño, Joaquín; Pócsi, István; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2012-09-01

    The genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans harbors the gene ppzA that codes for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase Z (PPZ), and the closely related opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus encompasses a highly similar PPZ gene (phzA). When PpzA and PhzA were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Schizosaccharomyces pombe they partially complemented the deleted phosphatases in the ppz1 or the pzh1 mutants, and they also mimicked the effect of Ppz1 overexpression in slt2 MAP kinase deficient S. cerevisiae cells. Although ppzA acted as the functional equivalent of the known PPZ enzymes its disruption in A. nidulans did not result in the expected phenotypes since it failed to affect salt tolerance or cell wall integrity. However, the inactivation of ppzA resulted in increased sensitivity to oxidizing agents like tert-butylhydroperoxide, menadione, and diamide. To demonstrate the general validity of our observations we showed that the deletion of the orthologous PPZ genes in other model organisms, such as S. cerevisiae (PPZ1) or Candida albicans (CaPPZ1) also caused oxidative stress sensitivity. Thus, our work reveals a novel function of the PPZ enzyme in A. nidulans that is conserved in very distantly related fungi.

  2. Model-independent analysis of quark mass matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, D.; Sarkar, U.

    1989-06-01

    In view of the apparent inconsistency of the Stech, Fritzsch-Stech, and Fritzsch-Shin models and only marginal agreement of the Fritzsch and modified Fritzsch-Stech models with recent data on /ital B//sub /ital d///sup 0/-/bar B/ /sub /ital d///sup 0/ mixing, we analyze the general quark mass matrices for three generations. Phenomenological considerations restrict the range of parameters involved to different sectors. In the present framework, the constraints corresponding to various /ital Ansa/$/ital uml/---/ital tze/ have been discussed.

  3. Virtual photon structure functions and the parton content of the electron

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, M. ); Godbole, R.M. )

    1994-09-01

    We point out that in processes involving the parton content of the photon the usual effective photon approximation should be modified. The reason is that the parton content of virtual photons is logarithmically suppressed compared to real photons. We describe this suppression using several simple, physically motivated [ital Ansa]$[ital uml---tze]. Although the parton content of the electron in general no longer factorizes into an electron flux function and a photon structure function, it can still be expressed as a single integral. Numerical examples are given for the [ital e][sup +][ital e][sup [minus

  4. Variational methods in supersymmetric lattice field theory: The vacuum sector

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Meyer-Ortmanns, H.; Roskies, R.

    1987-12-15

    The application of variational methods to the computation of the spectrum in supersymmetric lattice theories is considered, with special attention to O(N) supersymmetric sigma models. Substantial cancellations are found between bosonic and fermionic contributions even in approximate Ansa$uml: tze for the vacuum wave function. The nonlinear limit of the linear sigma model is studied in detail, and it is shown how to construct an appropriate non-Gaussian vacuum wave function for the nonlinear model. The vacuum energy is shown to be of order unity in lattice units in the latter case, after infinite cancellations.

  5. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  6. Workplace learning: an analysis of students' expectations of learning on the ward in the Department of Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hintergrund: Innerhalb der medizinischen Ausbildung angehender Ärzte kommt dem Lernen am späteren Arbeitsplatz als praxisrelevante Vorbereitung auf die spätere ärztliche Tätigkeit eine entscheidende Rolle zu. Doch studentische Stationseinsätze sind aufgrund verdichteter Arbeitsabläufe auf Station und Arbeitsbelastung der betreuenden Stationsärzte problembehaftet. Erstmals werden hier im deutschsprachigen Raum die studentischen Erwartungen und Befürchtungen im Hinblick auf die Stationseinsätze im klinischen Studienabschnitt für den Fachbereich der Inneren Medizin untersucht.Methodik: 28 Medizinstudierende des 6. Semesters der Medizinischen Fakultät Heidelberg (m=8; w=20; Ø 23,6 Jahre) nahmen 3-5 Tage vor ihrem Stationseinsatz in der Inneren Medizin verteilt auf vier Fokusgruppen an jeweils einer Fokusgruppenanalyse teil. Die Protokolle wurden transkribiert und inhaltsanalytisch auf der Grundlage der Grounded Theory ausgewertet.Ergebnisse: Es wurden insgesamt 489 relevante Einzelaussagen erfasst: Die Studierenden wünschen sich eine gelungene Integration auf Station, verlässliche und unterstützende ärztliche Betreuer und eine Betreuung in kleinen Gruppen; sie erwarten sich die häufigsten Krankheitsbilder kennenzulernen, die wichtigsten ärztlichen Fertigkeiten zu trainieren, Verantwortung für eigene Patienten zu übernehmen und eine eigene ärztliche Identität zu entwickeln. Die Studierenden befürchten einen zu knappen zeitlichen Rahmen, zu wenig Patientenkontakt und eine mangelhafte ärztliche Betreuung.Schlussfolgerung: Bei der Entwicklung und Standardisierung effektiver studentischer Stationseinsätze sollte der ärztlichen Betreuung und Supervision durch professionell geschulte und gut vorbereitete ärztliche Dozenten höchste Relevanz zukommen, was einen erheblichen Mehraufwand an personellen und finanziellen Ressourcen bedeutet. Es bedarf strukturell gelungener Rahmenbedingungen, die es ermöglichen, den Studierenden frühzeitig und

  7. Melnikov's method in String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuhma; Kyono, Hideki; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-09-01

    Melnikov's method is an analytical way to show the existence of classical chaos generated by a Smale horseshoe. It is a powerful technique, though its applicability is somewhat limited. In this paper, we present a solution of type IIB supergravity to which Melnikov's method is applicable. This is a brane-wave type deformation of the AdS5×S5 background. By employing two reduction ansätze, we study two types of coupled pendulum-oscillator systems. Then the Melnikov function is computed for each of the systems by following the standard way of Holmes and Marsden and the existence of chaos is shown analytically.

  8. Localized instanton in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'brien, G. M.; Tchrakian, D. H.

    1987-02-01

    A family of generalized Yang-Mills- (GYM) Higgs (H) systems is proposed as phenomenological models giving rise to localized instantons in four dimensions. An argument in favor of the (qualified) uniqueness of this system, which features a fundamental-representation Higgs field, is given. Two ``radial'' Ansa$auml-tze are made, and the compatibility of one of them with the field equation is analyzed in detail. It is suggested that such GYMH systems can be used in the computation of the confining potential.

  9. Signal Processing Methods Monitor Cranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Norden Huang, of Goddard Space Flight Center, invented a set of algorithms (called the Hilbert-Huang Transform, or HHT) for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary signals that developed into a user-friendly signal processing technology for analyzing time-varying processes. At an auction managed by Ocean Tomo Federal Services LLC, licenses of 10 U.S. patents and 1 domestic patent application related to HHT were sold to DynaDx Corporation, of Mountain View, California. DynaDx is now using the licensed NASA technology for medical diagnosis and prediction of brain blood flow-related problems, such as stroke, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.

  10. Thermal dilepton rates and electrical conductivity of the QGP from the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Heng-Tong; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Meyer, Florian

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the thermal dilepton rate and the electrical conductivity of the gluon plasma at temperatures of 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5 Tc in quenched QCD. Making use of nonperturbatively clover-improved Wilson valence quarks allows for a clean extrapolation of the vector meson correlation function to the continuum limit. We found that the vector correlation function divided by T3 is almost temperature independent in the current temperature window. The spectral functions are obtained by χ2 fitting of phenomenologically inspired Ansätze for the spectral function to the continuum extrapolated correlator data, where the correlations between the data points have been included. Systematic uncertainties arising from varying the Ansätze motivated from strong coupling theory as well as perturbation theory are discussed and estimated. We found that the electrical conductivity of the hot medium, related to the slope of the vector spectral function at zero frequency and momentum, is 0.2 Ce m≲σ /T ≲0.7 Ce m for T =1.1 Tc and 0.2 Ce m≲σ /T ≲0.4 Ce m for the higher temperatures. The dilepton rates and soft photon rates, resulting from the obtained spectral functions, show no significant temperature dependence, either.

  11. Notes on the geographic variation of Lopinga gerdae Nordström, 1934 Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Si-Yao; Lang, Song-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Lopinga gerdae Nordström, 1934 (Satyrini) is a species geographically restricted to S. Gansu, Northwest China. It was described from four males and one female collected from "Ka-tien-kou" on 18.VII.[1930] and "Kung-tze-tagga im Tsaluk-Tal, Minshan" on 19.VII.[1930] by Dr. David Hummel (Nordström, 1934). Though exact sites could not be located, we were able to confirm that "Ka-tien-kou" and "Kung-tze-tagga" are two small places in a valley of Minshan Mts. in the southwestern part of the Jone [Choni in Nordström (1934)] County. In recent years, specimens of this species were collected from Tewo by Eckweiler (Görgner, 1990), from Xiahe by Bozano (Bozano, 1999), from Daban-shan by Floriani I., Floriani A. and Saldaitis A. (Bozano pers. comm.), and from Liupan-shan by Chinese researchers. Specimens from different localities having been compared and their distribution considered, it is found that this species varies continuously from west to east in its small range (Fig. 16), with the individuals collected around the type locality being the intermediate form. However, after dissecting the male genitalia, the result suggests that the populations from Xiahe and Liupan-shan should still be regarded as extreme forms of the same species. PMID:27615915

  12. Darwinische Kulturtheorie - Evolutionistische und "evolutionistische`` Theorien sozialen Wandels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, Christoph

    Evolutionistische Argumentationen außerhalb der Biologie sind weit verbreitet. Wenn sie vertreten werden, heißt das mitnichten, dass sie notwendigerweise von darwinischen Argumenten geprägt sind. Wenn man Evolution und Kultur aus explizit darwinischer Perspektive zusammen bringt, bedeutet das noch lange nicht unbedingt Soziobiologie. Und es bedeutet sicherlich nicht Sozialdarwinismus. Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick der so genannten evolutionären Ansätze bzw. evolutionistischen Ansätze zu menschlichen Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen geben. Es soll gezeigt werden, was in den Ansätzen analytisch zu trennen ist und was synthetisch zusammen gehört. Mein Beitrag ist nicht wissenschaftsgeschichtlich angelegt, sondern systematisch ausgerichtet und hat zwei Schwerpunkte (Antweiler 2008; Antweiler 2009b). Zum einen geht es um kausale Zusammenhänge von organischer Evolution und gesellschaftlichem Wandel. Auf der anderen Seite werden Analogien zwischen biotischer und kultureller Evolution erläutert, die als spezifische Ähnlichkeiten dieser beiden als grundsätzlich verschieden gesehenen Prozesse aufgefasst werden. Dadurch wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Evolution von Organismen einerseits und die Transformation von Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen andererseits, spezielle Fälle eines allgemeinen Modells von Evolution darstellen.

  13. Silver(I) complexes of tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands bearing six trifluoromethyl and three additional electron-withdrawing substituents.

    PubMed

    Jayaratna, Naleen B; Pardue, Daniel B; Ray, Sriparna; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Thakur, Krishna G; Cundari, Thomas R; Dias, H V Rasika

    2013-11-21

    Sodium salts of two new tris(pyrazolyl)borates [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3](-) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3](-), which are not only highly fluorinated, but also loaded with additional electron-withdrawing substituents, have been synthesized by reacting 4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2PzH or 4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2PzH with NaBH4 under nitrogen in a solventless process, and isolated after a work up in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or diethyl ether (Et2O), as their THF or Et2O adducts. Metathesis of these sodium salts with AgOTf in THF leads to [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(THF) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(THF). The corresponding cis-cyclooctene (c-COE) complexes [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) were obtained by displacing THF with cis-cyclooctene. The related [HB(3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) can also be obtained via a similar process. X-ray crystal structures show that [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) (R = H, Cl, NO2) feature pseudo-tetrahedral silver sites supported by κ(3)-bound tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands. [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) displays the smallest upfield shift of the alkene carbon peak (versus free alkene) followed by [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) and [HB(3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE). Experimental and computational data indicate very electron poor silver(I) sites in all three [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) adducts with minimal Ag → (cis-cyclooctene) backbonding. Although the impact of R (H, Cl, NO2) on the alkene carbon chemical shift of these adducts and the olefin π/π* populations is small, the (13)C NMR chemical shifts and NBO analysis suggest that [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) possesses the most electrophilic metal site, which correlates with the pKa values of the free pyrazoles. [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) adducts effectively catalyze the insertion of the carbene moiety of ethyl diazoacetate into C-H bonds of 2,3-dimethylbutane. The [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) catalyst shows a higher selectivity

  14. Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept among Adolescent Students with Disabilities over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenheiser, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that academic achievement and self-concept among adolescents in the general education population are positively related (e.g., Huang, 2011). For students with disabilities, however, the correlation between academic achievement and self-concept is sometimes negative and non-significant (Daniel & King, 1995; Feiwell,…

  15. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Bibliographic Control Division. Section: Bibliography. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on bibliographic control presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Bibliographic Interchange/Coordination in Southeast Asia (Huck Tee Lim, Malaysia); (2) "Project for 'Chinese National Bibliography' and Its Progress" (Huang Jungui, China); (3) "Subject Bibliography in the…

  16. Books and Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonardo, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Special section includes two articles on academic library collection management: "Current Awareness: Acquisitions to Endusers" (Michael Lonardo and Dianne Taylor-Harding) describes methods for announcing recent library acquisitions to faculty; and "Book Acquisitions: A Purchasing System" (Ting Zheng and Joyce Huang) explains a purchasing system…

  17. Implementing Ten-Minute Tickers in Secondary Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynott, Francis J., III; Hushman, Glenn; Dixon, Jonette; McCarthy, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education class time started to be measured and questioned (Bar-Or, 1987; Lacey & LaMaster, 1990; McGing, 1989; Simons-Morton, Taylor, Snider, & Huang, 1993). Researchers suggested that the amount of time students spent in…

  18. A Comparative Study of Canadian and Taiwanese Grade 5 Children's Environmental Behaviors, Attitudes, Concerns, Emotional Dispositions, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Ping; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored the cultural influences on children's self-reported environmental actions, perceptions, and understandings; investigated the relationships among the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and demographic variables; and developed models of children's responsible environmental behavior (Huang, 2001). The cross-cultural comparison…

  19. My Classroom: China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the teaching practice of two senior high school English teachers, Yu Huang and Yu Zhu. Their school is in Hezhang County--the No. 2 Middle School in the province of Guizhou. In China, most middle schools consist of six grades of students; the first three years are considered junior middle school and the latter three years…

  20. Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

  1. 76 FR 49729 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Review, 76 FR 12054 (March 4, 2011). The final results are currently due no later than August 16, 2011... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 36519 (June 22, 2011). Statutory Time Limits In... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Pulongbarit, Paul Walker, or Jerry Huang, AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  2. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Conway, Christopher M.; Field, Suzanne L.; Houston, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that nonlinguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning (VSL) as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a…

  3. Motivation and Commitment: Pre-Service Teachers from Hong Kong and Mainland China at a Training Institute in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Mingyue; Lai, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that historical and social backgrounds influence individuals' motivation to teach and their commitment to teaching (Gordon, 2000; Su, Hawkins, Huang & Zhao, 2001). This article reports on a comparative study exploring the motivation to teach and the commitment to teaching among non-local prospective student teachers from…

  4. 75 FR 76954 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... and Preliminary Rescission, in Part, of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 40777 (July... the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results, 75 FR 64694 (October 20...: December 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steven Hampton or Jerry Huang, AD/CVD...

  5. Family League 2011-12 Out of School Time Programs in Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Linda S.; Connolly, Faith; Kommajesula, Alok H.

    2013-01-01

    Out of School Time (OST) programs have been shown to promote positive personal, academic and social development (Huang, Gribbons, Kim, Lee, & Baker, 2000; Welsh et al., 2002). The Family League of Baltimore City works with partners to sponsor a range of after-school programs in Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) to provide healthy…

  6. Deja Vu All over Again: Re-Revisiting the Conceptual Status of Early Word Learning: Comment on Smith and Samuelson (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assert that L. B. Smith and L. Samuelson's (2006; see record EJ750228) most recent critique of A. E. Booth, S. R. Waxman, and Y. T. Huang's (2005; see record EJ684979) work missed its mark, deflecting attention from the important theoretical difference between the two sets of authors' positions and focusing instead on imagined…

  7. CONTRIBUTION OF INSPIRATORY FLOW TO ACTIVATION OF EGFR, RAS, MAPK, ATF-2 AND C-JUN DURING LUNG STRETCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contribution of Inspiratory Flow to Activation of EGFR, Ras, MAPK, ATF-2 and c-Jun during Lung Stretch

    R. Silbajoris 1, Z. Li 2, J. M. Samet 1 and Y. C. Huang 1. 1 NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC .

    Mechanical ventilation with larg...

  8. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: trisomy 18

    MedlinePlus

    ... 55(3):476-83. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Bronsteen R, Lee W, Vettraino IM, Huang R, Comstock CH. Second-trimester sonography and trisomy 18. J Ultrasound Med. 2004 Feb;23(2):233-40. Citation on PubMed Chen CP, Chern SR, Tsai FJ, Lin CY, Lin YH, ...

  10. Mapping the goal space: personality integration and higher-order goals.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Jacob B

    2014-04-01

    By situating goals at the heart of human cognitive function, Huang & Bargh (H&B) provide a useful platform for understanding the process of personality integration as the gradual mapping of implicit motives into a coherently organized self-system. This integrative process is a critical feature of human development that must be accounted for by any complete goal theory. PMID:24775131

  11. Lifelong Learning for Social Development: A Review of Global Perspectives. Papers Presented at the International Conference on Lifelong Learning for Social Development (Kerala, India, August 13-15, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains 67 papers from an international conference on lifelong learning for social development. The following papers are among those included: "Lifelong Learning for Social Development" (John Dewar Wilson); "Building Networks of Lifelong Learning for Social Development outside the Center" (Shen-Tzay Huang, Chi chuan Li, An-Chi Li);…

  12. Using the EMD method to determine fault criterion for medium-low pressure gas regulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Guobin; Du, Yi

    2015-11-01

    By extracting the outlet pressure data of gas regulators, this paper uses the EMD toolbox of the MATLAB software, which can perform data decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang Transform to find the rules with fault data. Eventually, the medium-low pressure gas regulator fault criterion can be established.

  13. Classroom Learning Environment & Student Motivational Differences between Exemplary, Recognized, & Acceptable Urban Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersh C.; Garcia, Andres; Read, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the essential principles for improving middle grade education is to establish a safe and healthy school environment (Jackson & Davis, 2000; Price & Waxman, 2005). The overall quality of the school climate or school environment has been argued to be one of the central problems of urban schools (Waxman & Huang, 1997). Several studies, for…

  14. MODULATION OF HYPOXIC PULMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION BY ERYTHROCYTIC NITRIC OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    American Heart Association 2001

    Modulation of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction by Erythrocytic NO
    McMahon TJ1, Gow AJ1, Huang YCT4, Stamler JS1,2,3
    Departments of Medicine1 and Biochemistry2, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute3,
    Duke University Med...

  15. Modern Foreign Languages: A Refereed International Journal of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Du, Ed; Zidong, Huang, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues contain the following articles written in Chinese: "On Conflated Theme in Systemic Functional Grammar" (Huang Guo-Wen); "A Cognitive Approach to the Conceptual Semantic Structures of Causation" (Cheng Qi-Long); "Falsifying the Internal Argument Hypothesis" (Zhao Yan-Chun); "Existential Sentences in English and Chinese: Towards a…

  16. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  17. A Chinese Nurse's Socio-Cultural Experiences in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her thoughts and experiences on studying abroad. Yang Huang explains that studying overseas for international students means a lot--not only being away from home but also experiencing quite a few unexpected difficulties. Studying abroad is full of challenges for every student due to the language barrier,…

  18. Videodisks Offer a Detailed Portrait of Qin, the First Chinese Emperor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Project Emperor-I has issued two interactive videodiscs on China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di. The videodiscs contain film footage from the archaeological excavation in China, images of artifacts, interviews with Qin specialists, and the full text of articles about the ancient burial site. Development of the videodiscs for scholars involved…

  19. NITROTYROSINE ATTENUATES RSV-INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosine attenuates RSV-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells. Joleen Soukup, Zuowei Li, Susanne Becker and Yuh-Chin Huang. NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, North Carolina, CEMALB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) is a...

  20. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    V...

  1. URBAN PARTICLE-INDUCED PULMONARY ARTERY CONSTRUCTION IS MEDIATED BY SUPEROXIDE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    URBAN PARTICLE-INDUCED PULMONARY ARTERY CONSTRICTION IS MEDIATED BY SUPEROXIDE PRODUCTION.Jacqueline D. Carter, Zhuowei Li, Lisa A. Dailey, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina, and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

    Exposure to particulate matter...

  2. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS.

    Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Communication Technology and Policy Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Communication Technology and Policy Division of the proceedings contains the following 15 papers: "Both Sides of the Digital Divide in Appalachia: Uses and Perceived Benefits of Internet Access" (Daniel Riffe); "Bridging Newsrooms and Classrooms: Preparing the Next Generation of Journalists for Converged Media" (Edgar Huang, Karen Davison,…

  4. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  5. American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference (35th, Baltimore, Maryland, March 29-April 1, 1989). The Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsky, Mary L., Ed.

    Among the 90 papers in this volume, education-related titles are as follows: "The Colston Warne Legacy" (Peterson); "Keeping a File on Survey Respondents" (Huang); "Aging-in-Place: Are Responses in the Best Interest of Elderly Consumers?" (Stum); "Low-Income Elderly in Health Maintenance Organizations: Enrollment, Satisfaction, & Understanding"…

  6. EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY. Yuh-Chin Huang, Jackie Stonehuerner, Jackie Carter, Andrew J. Ghio, Robert B. Devlin. NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.
    The mechanisms for cardiopulmonary morbidity associated with exposure to air po...

  7. Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Huang, decreasing the effectiveness of the drug. Fexofenadine (brand name Allegra) is available in both prescription and non-prescription forms to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. Fexofenadine may also be less effective if taken with orange or apple juice, so the drug label states “do not ...

  8. An Integrated Decision Model for Evaluating Educational Web Sites from the Fuzzy Subjective and Objective Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tony Cheng-Kui; Huang, Chih-Hong

    2010-01-01

    With advances in information and network technologies, lots of data have been digitized to reveal information for users by the construction of Web sites. Unfortunately, they are both overloading and overlapping in Internet so that users cannot distinguish their quality. To address this issue in education, Hwang, Huang, and Tseng proposed a group…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Visual Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Visual Communication section of the Proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "The Limits of Copyright Protection for the Use of Visual Works in Motion Pictures, Print Media, and Pop Art in the 1990s" (Andy Bechtel and Arati Korwar); "Afterthoughts on the Representational Strategies of the FSA Documentary" (Edgar Shaohua Huang); "Design…

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Kawasaki disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juo SH, Liang CD, Chen WC, Wang YS, Lee CH, Hsi E, Yu HR, Woon PY, Lin IC, Huang CF, Hwang DY, Lee CP, Lin LY, Chang WP, Chang WC. ITPKC ... Sun LC, Chen PL, Wu JF, Chang CC, Lee WL, Shen CT, Wang NK, Wu CS, Yeh ...

  11. Fertilizer intensification and its impacts in China's HHH Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accomplishment of China’s food security by application of high rates of fertilizers has generated several controversies regarding the quality of soil and water resources. Thus, the objective of this article is to assess the effects and causes of the fertilizer intensification in the Huang Huai ...

  12. Erratum to "A theoretical model of reversible adhesion in shape memory surface relief structures and its application in transfer printing" [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 77 (2015) 27-42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yeguang; Zhang, Yihui; Feng, Xue; Kim, Seok; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    The publisher regrets that in the final published version, Yihui Zhang and Yonggang Huang are listed with incorrect affiliations. This information is obviously inconsistent with the contacting address of these two authors listed on the bottom of the title page. The correct affiliations are Yihui Zhang with Northwestern University and Tsinghua University and

  13. Identity, Stress, and Resilience in Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ilan H.

    2010-01-01

    The author addresses two issues raised in Moradi, DeBlaere, and Huang's Major Contribution to this issue: the intersection of racial/ethnic and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identities and the question of stress and resilience. The author expands on Moradi et al.'s work, hoping to encourage further research. On the intersection of identities,…

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These four papers are from a symposium on evaluating the impact of human resource development (HRD). "Pre-Job Training and the Earnings of High-Tech Employees in Taiwan" (Tung-Chun Huang) reports on a study that concludes that public training programs have no impact on participants' earnings in later jobs, but participation in private training…

  15. NITROTYROSINATION OF A TUBULIN INDUCES EPITHELIAL BARRIER DYSFUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosination of a-Tubulin Induces Epithelial Transport Dysfunction. Yuh-Chin Huang, Lisa Dailey, Wen-Li Zhang and Ilona Jaspers. ORD, Environmental Protection Agency and CEMLB, University of North Carolina

    a-Tubulin undergoes a cyclic removal and readdition of tyrosin...

  16. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of egg and larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA using sentinel logs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang, and one egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang, were introduced into the United Sta...

  17. 77 FR 24968 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Scholarly Works G13. Date: July 11, 2012... Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Zoe H. Huang, MD,...

  18. Prescription for a pharmacyte

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-10

    The efficient homing capacity of T cells may be used to deliver cell-associated, drug-laden nanoparticles to lymphoma cells that are resident in lymph nodes, increasing drug efficacy compared with drug encapsulated in free nanoparticles or free drug (Huang et al., this issue).

  19. Advances in membrane protein crystallography: in situ and in meso data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, Simone; Tate, Christopher G.

    2015-05-23

    Membrane protein structural biology has made tremendous advances over the last decade but there are still many challenges associated with crystallization, data collection and structure determination. Two independent groups, Axford et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1228–1237] and Huang et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1238–1256], have published methods that make a major contribution to addressing these challenges.

  20. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  1. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  2. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  3. Author Affiliation Index: A New Approach to Marketing Journal Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yue; Chen, Carl R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has adopted various methods to assess the relative quality of academic marketing journals. This study, as a replication and extension of Chen and Huang (2007), introduces the Author Affiliation Index (AAI) as an alternative approach to assessing marketing journal quality. The AAI is defined as the ratio of articles authored by…

  4. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    James M. Samet1,2, Robert Silbajoris1, Tony Huang1 and Ilona Jaspers3

    1Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborato...

  5. Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A. ); Silva, J.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau

  6. Dynamics of linear compression of chirped femtosecond optical pulses under fourth-order dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeng Mandeng, Lucien; Ibraid Fewo, Serge; Tchawoua, Clément; Crépin Kofané, Timoléon

    2014-05-01

    In a linear dispersive optical medium under fourth-order dispersion (FOD), we study the dynamics of the chirped pulse compression with the help of trial Gaussian and raised-cosine (RC) ansätze pulses. The analysis based on the variational approach leads to the occurrence of compression conditions, highlighting the cases where both the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and the chirp could have the same sign or the case where both the FOD and the GVD have the same sign. Furthermore, we show that the compression process is dependent on the considered input profile. Particularly, a condition supposing that the GVD, the FOD and the chirp have the same sign leads to a compression only for the RC pulse in comparison to the previous results obtained for the Gaussian pulse. Numerical simulations, which confirm these features, are presented for the 380-fs input pulses undergoing ? value in the FOD.

  7. A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Alberto; McClean, Jarrod; Shadbolt, Peter; Yung, Man-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2014-01-01

    Quantum computers promise to efficiently solve important problems that are intractable on a conventional computer. For quantum systems, where the physical dimension grows exponentially, finding the eigenvalues of certain operators is one such intractable problem and remains a fundamental challenge. The quantum phase estimation algorithm efficiently finds the eigenvalue of a given eigenvector but requires fully coherent evolution. Here we present an alternative approach that greatly reduces the requirements for coherent evolution and combine this method with a new approach to state preparation based on ansätze and classical optimization. We implement the algorithm by combining a highly reconfigurable photonic quantum processor with a conventional computer. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with an example from quantum chemistry--calculating the ground-state molecular energy for He-H(+). The proposed approach drastically reduces the coherence time requirements, enhancing the potential of quantum resources available today and in the near future. PMID:25055053

  8. MediMax Elektronik-Marktkette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Die Elektronikkette MediMax setzt auf Server Based Computing mit Windows Server 2003® und Thin Clients. Mit über 100 Filialen ist MediMax die erfolgreiche Fachmarktlinie der ElectronicPartner-Verbundgruppe in Deutschland. Die Zugehörigkeit zum Mutterverbund garantiert den Franchisenehmern der Elektronikkette eine schnelle Warenversorgung und günstige Einkaufskonditionen. Über 50.000 Artikel zahlreicher namhafter Markenhersteller und unterschiedlicher Preisklassen sind ständig abrufbar. Darüber hinaus profitieren die Filialen von einer zentralen Organisation und Betreuung ihrer IT. Von Düsseldorf aus administriert ein internes Supportteam die Arbeitsplätze aller Standorte und stellt außerdem die Warenwirtschaftslösung zur Verfügung. Dank der Umstellung auf eine moderne Server Based Computing-Umgebung sind Wartung und Support künftig so effizient wie nie zuvor.

  9. Endoskopie, minimal invasive chirurgische und navigierte Verfahren in der Urologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Joachim; von Walter, Matthias; Jakse, Gerhard

    Betrachtet man die letzten 100 Jahre der Urologie in Deutschland seit Gründung ihrer Fachgesellschaft 1906 in Stuttgart, so sind sicherlich die letzten 25 Jahre von umfassenden Entwicklungen mit z. T. vollständigen Umwälzungen bisheriger Therapien und Methoden auf urologischen Fachgebiet gekennzeichnet. In erster Linie handelte es sich dabei um minimal invasive endoskopische Techniken wie perkutane Nierenchirurgie, Ureterorenoskopie, videoendoskopisch unterstütze transurethrale Elektroresektionen der Prostata und von Blasentumore sowie die Laparoskopie. Sie führten zu besseren operativen Ergebnissen und einer deutlichen Senkung der Morbidität der entsprechenden Behandlung urologischer Krankheitsbilder, mit der Konsequenz, dass einige bisher als Standard gültige offene Operationsverfahren abgelöst wurden.

  10. Symmetry group analysis of an ideal plastic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamothe, Vincent

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we study a finite-dimensional Lie point symmetry group of a system describing an ideal plastic plane flow in two dimensions in order to find analytical solutions. The infinitesimal generators that span this Lie algebra are given. We completely classify the subalgebras of codimension up to two into conjugacy classes under the action of the symmetry group. Based on invariant forms, we use Ansätze to compute symmetry reductions in such a way that the obtained solutions simultaneously cover many invariant and partially invariant solutions. We calculate solutions of algebraic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric and elliptic type. Some solutions depending on one or two arbitrary functions of one variable have also been found. In some cases, the shape of a potentially feasible extrusion die corresponding to the solution is deduced. These tools could be used to thin, curve, undulate or shape a ring in an ideal plastic material.

  11. Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  12. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  13. Products of Independent Elliptic Random Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Sean; Renfrew, David; Soshnikov, Alexander; Vu, Van

    2015-07-01

    For fixed , we study the product of independent elliptic random matrices as tends to infinity. Our main result shows that the empirical spectral distribution of the product converges, with probability , to the -th power of the circular law, regardless of the joint distribution of the mirror entries in each matrix. This leads to a new kind of universality phenomenon: the limit law for the product of independent random matrices is independent of the limit laws for the individual matrices themselves. Our result also generalizes earlier results of Götze-Tikhomirov (On the asymptotic spectrum of products of independent random matrices, available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2710) and O'Rourke-Soshnikov (J Probab 16(81):2219-2245, 2011) concerning the product of independent iid random matrices.

  14. [Phantoms for the collection of genital secretions in stallions].

    PubMed

    Klug, E; Brinkhoff, D; Flüge, A; Scherbarth, R; Essich, G; Kienzler, M

    1977-10-01

    Practical experiences of the phantom method for collection of genital secretions from stallions are reported. Taking a phantom used in the Richard-Götze-Haus Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover as a prototype two further models slightly modified have been constructed, baring a flat hollow in the right side of the caudal phantom body for manual inserting of the Artificial Vagina. These three models fulfill four important conditions for routine use: (1) sufficient sexual attractivity for the stallions; 80-85% successful collections of presecretions out of a total of 1050 using the dummy and 70% successful semen collections from more than 240 in total; (2) solid and resistant construction; (3) easy cleaning and desinfection of the surface of the phantom to get representative samples; (4) firm installation on a hygienic floor.

  15. Automatische Montagemaschinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Stefan

    Seit den 1950er Jahren werden Produkte in größerem Ausmaß automatisch montiert. Besonders bei ausgesprochenen Massenprodukten wurde inzwischen ein hoher technischer Stand erreicht. Die dazu benutzten Montageautomaten sind Sondermaschinen, die fur ein Produkt individuell angepasst sind. Typisch sind mittlerweile ein modularer Aufbau and die Kombination von erprobten Baukastenkomponenten zu einer Anlage. Es gibt verschiedene Bauformen, von denen sich jede in Verbindung mit bestimmten Erzeugnissen and Bedingungen bewährt hat. In manchen Anwendungen mit kleinen Stückzahlen, zahlreichen Varianten oder bei einzelnen diffizilen Arbeitsschritten können Handarbeitsplätze erforderlich sein, was zu sog. hybriden Montagesystemen als Kombination von Hand- und Maschinenarbeitsplätzen führt.

  16. Transition from bound to free excitons observed in deep- ultraviolet photoluminescence of AlN grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiying; Jin, Peng; Tang, Ning; Liu, Yali; Fu, Lei; Xu, Fujun; Qin, Zhixin; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    The transition from bound exciton to free exciton and exciton-phonon interaction in an AlN epilayer have been investigated by time resolved deep ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy. Based on the analysis of the energy position (S-shaped dependence with temperature), integrated intensity as well as decay time, the main X peak located at 6.06 eV at 7.7 K is assigned to originate from radiative recombination of excitons bound to some unintentionally doped Si or O impurities. While the other two peaks on the lower energy side should be from the bound exciton’s phonon replicas. The corresponding small Huang-Rhys factor indicates weak interaction between phonon and bound excitons, in comparison to the case of free exciton, for which our experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of the Huang-Rhys factors.

  17. Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images Via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new fast-computational technique based on fuzzy entropy measure has been developed to find an optimal binary image threshold. In this method, the image pixel membership functions are dependent on the threshold value and reflect the distribution of pixel values in two classes; thus, this technique minimizes the classification error. This new method is compared with two of the best-known threshold selection techniques, Otsu and Huang-Wang. The performance of the proposed method supersedes the performance of Huang-Wang and Otsu methods when the image consists of textured background and poor printing quality. The three methods perform well but yield different binarization approaches if the background and foreground of the image have well-separated gray-level ranges.

  18. Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images Via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new fast-computational technique based on fuzzy entropy measure has been developed to find an optimal binary image threshold. In this method, the image pixel membership functions are dependent on the threshold value and reflect the distribution of pixel values in two classes; thus, this technique minimizes the classification error. This new method is compared with two of the best-known threshold selection techniques, Otsu and Huang-Wang. The performance of the proposed method supersedes the performance of Huang- Wang and Otsu methods when the image consists of textured background and poor printing quality. The three methods perform well but yield different binarization approaches if the background and foreground of the image have well-separated gray-level ranges.

  19. Making metals transparency for white light by surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Fan, Ren-Hao; Li, Jia; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that metallic gratings consisting of narrow slits become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths under oblique incidence. This phenomenon can be explained by a concrete picture in which the incident wave drives free electrons on the conducting surfaces and part of the slit walls to form surface plasmons (SPs). The SPs then propagate on the slit walls but are abruptly discontinued by the bottom edges to form oscillating charges that emit the transmitted wave. This picture explicitly demonstrates the conversion between light and SPs and indicates clear guidelines for enhancing SP excitation and propagation. Making structured metals transparent may lead to a variety of applications. References: Xian-Rong Huang, Ru-Wen Peng, and Ren-Hao Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2010)105, 243901; and Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Jia Li, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, manuscript prepared(2011).

  20. Use of the moon and the large space telescope as an extrasolar planet detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, G. L.; Fennelly, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Roman (1959), Spitzer (1962), and Huang (1973) have discussed photometric detection of extrasolar planets using a 3-m space telescope such as the Large Space Telescope (LST). A space telescope could be an extrasolar planet detection system if used in conjunction with an occulter placed 10,000 km in front of the telescope. The occulter would reduce the amount of light received from the star under observation. For a semi-infinite plane occulter 10,000 km in front of the telescope, Spitzer and Huang's results indicate that a Jupiter-like planet would be observed with a signal/noise of 1.00, for observations at 0.4 micron using a 3-m telescope like the LST.

  1. Instantaneous frequency time analysis of physiology signals: The application of pregnant women’s radial artery pulse signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-Chen; Wu, Tzuyin; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study used the Hilbert-Huang transform, a recently developed, instantaneous frequency-time analysis, to analyze radial artery pulse signals taken from women in their 36th week of pregnancy and after pregnancy. The acquired instantaneous frequency-time spectrum (Hilbert spectrum) is further compared with the Morlet wavelet spectrum. Results indicate that the Hilbert spectrum is especially suitable for analyzing the time series of non-stationary radial artery pulse signals since, in the Hilbert-Huang transform, signals are decomposed into different mode functions in accordance with signal’s local time scale. Therefore, the Hilbert spectrum contains more detailed information than the Morlet wavelet spectrum. From the Hilbert spectrum, we can see that radial artery pulse signals taken from women in their 36th week of pregnancy and after pregnancy have different patterns. This approach could be applied to facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of fetus’ physiological signals in the future.

  2. On the quantum master equation for Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. F.; Huang, K.-N.

    2007-03-01

    A master equation symmetric with respect to particles and holes has been introduced for systems composed of non-interacting identical fermions. [C. F. Huang and K. -N. Huang Chinese J. Phys. 42, 221 (2004); R. Gebauer R and R. Car R Phys. Rev. B 70, 125324 (2004).] Extensions to such an equation, in fact, can be obtained by incorporating two anti-hermitian terms for the lifetimes of particles and holes to construct the quantum relaxation term. In this poster, we focus on the extended equation for the interacting Fermi systems modeled by Bardeen- Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) pairing theory. A constraint on the relaxation term is taken into account to preserve the pairing relation. Such a constraint, in fact, is also important when the coupling between quasiparticles and quasiholes is introduced to unify the BCS and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic models.

  3. Theoretical High-Resolution Spectroscopy Beyond Ccsd(t): the Interstellar Anions CN-, CCH-, C3N-, and C4H-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botschwina, Peter; Schröder, Benjamin; Sebald, Peter; Oswald, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Using extended coupled cluster methods well beyond fc-CCSD(T), spectroscopic properties of several molecular anions of astrochemical interest have been calculated. Excellent agreement with MW data is observed for CN-, CCH-, C3N-, and C4H- and accurate equilibrium structures are presented for all four species. The results for CCH- are superior to recent theoretical results of Huang and Lee and confirm the quality of our earlier predictions. The new calculations predict ν_1 = 3209.3 cm-1, ν_2 (band origin) = 510.0 cm-1, and ν_3 = 1804.4 cm-1, estimated errors not exceeding 1 cm-1. X. Huang, T. J. Lee J. Chem. Phys. 2009, {131}, 104301. M. Mladenović, P. Botschwina, P. Sebald, S. Carter, Theor. Chem. Acc. 1998, 100, 134

  4. Goals reconfigure cognition by modulating predictive processes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    I applaud Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) theory that places goals at the center of cognition, and I discuss two ingredients missing from that theory. First, I argue that the brains of organisms much simpler than those of humans are already configured for goal achievement in situated interactions. Second, I propose a mechanistic view of the "reconfiguration principle" that links the theory with current views in computational neuroscience.

  5. Unconscious goals: specific or unspecific? The potential harm of the goal/gene analogy.

    PubMed

    Nanay, Bence

    2014-04-01

    Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) definition of goals is ambiguous between "specific goals" - the end-state of a token action I am about to perform - and "unspecific goals" - the end-state of an action-type (without specifying how this would be achieved). The analogy with selfish genes pushes the authors towards the former interpretation, but the latter would provide a more robust theoretical framework. PMID:24775140

  6. STRESS ANNEALING INDUCED DIFFUSE SCATTERING FROM Ni3(Al,Si) PRECIPITATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E; Karapetrova, Evgenia; Zschack, P.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse scattering caused by L12 type Ni3 (Al,Si) precipitates after stress annealing of Ni-Al-Si alloys is studied. Experimental reciprocal space maps are compared to the theoretical ones. Oscillations of diffuse scattering due to Ni3 (Al,Sc) precipitates are observed. Peculiarities of diffuse scattering in asymptotic region as compared to Huang scattering region are discussed. Coupling between the stress annealing direction and the precipitate shape is demonstrated.

  7. High grain, low noise organic and nanoelectronic photodetectors (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    2015-08-01

    The dramatically reduction of cost of photodetectors without comprising their performance will enable new applications in many fields. In this talk, I will brief our progress in the development of sensitive photodetectors/photon counters using low-cost solution processable organic and nano-electronic materials. Four types of device structures will be compared in terms of device gain, noise, sensitivity, response speed and linear dynamic range: 1) traditional diode structure, 2) a structure combine the photodiode and photoconductor through the interface trap triggered secondary charge injection, 3) an organic phototransistor that has combined photoconductive gain and photovoltaic gain, and 4) quantum dots modulated transistor channel conductance. Broad response spectrum from UV to NIR will be demonstrated, and active material limited performance will be discussed. Solution-Processed Nanoparticle Super-Float-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor as Un-cooled Ultraviolet and Infrared Photon Counter Yongbo Yuan, Qingfeng Dong, Bin Yang, Fawen Guo, Qi Zhang, Ming Han, and Jinsong Huang*, Scientific Reports, 3, 2707 (2013) A nanocomposite ultraviolet photodetector enabled by interfacial trap-controlled charge injection Fawen Guo, Bin Yang, Yongbo Yuan, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong, Yu Bi, and Jinsong Huang*, Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 798-802, (2012) Large Gain, Low Noise Nanocomposite Ultraviolet Photodetectors with a Linear Dynamic Range of 120 dB Yanjun Fang, Fawen Guo,Zhengguo Xiao, Jinsong Huang*, Advanced Optical Materials, 348-353 (2014) High Gain and Low-Driving-Voltage Photodetectors Based on Organolead Triiodide Perovskites Rui Dong, Yanjun Fang, Jungseok Chae, Jun Dai, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong,Yongbo Yuan, Andrea Centrone,Xiao Cheng Zeng , Jinsong Huang*. ,Advanced Materials, 2015

  8. Ultrafast electronic relaxation and vibrational dynamics in a polyacetylene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Iiyama, Tsugumasa; Okamura, Kotaro; Du, Juan; Masuda, Toshio

    2013-04-01

    Real-time vibrational spectra in a polyacetylene derivative, poly[o-TFMPA([o-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]acetylene)] in a broad electronic spectral region were observed using a sub-7-fs laser. Using the frequencies and initial phases of vibrational modes obtained by the spectroscopy, the assignment of the wavepackets was made. From the first moment, Huang-Rhys parameters were determined for six most prominent modes, which characterize the potential hypersurface composed of multi-dimensional vibrational mode spaces.

  9. Flexible Supercapacitors: A Simple Approach to Boost Capacitance: Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Manganese Oxides@MOFs via Chemically Induced In Situ Self-Transformation (Adv. Mater. 26/2016).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Yang; Lai, Wen-Yong; Pang, Huan; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    W.-Y. Lai, H. Pang, W. Huang, and co-workers present a simple and effective method for transforming nanocubic MOFs (metal-organic frameworks) into MnOx -nanoflower-decorated MOFs. This liquid-phase method is metaphorically illustrated by the ocean background, as is the transformation process by the different cubes. The application of these materials in flexible supercapacitors is further described on page 5242. PMID:27383023

  10. Treatment strategies for combining immunostimulatory oncolytic virus therapeutics with dendritic cell injections.

    PubMed

    Wares, Joanna R; Crivelli, Joseph J; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choi, Il-Kyu; Gevertz, Jana L; Kim, Peter S

    2015-12-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are used to treat cancer, as they selectively replicate inside of and lyse tumor cells. The efficacy of this process is limited and new OVs are being designed to mediate tumor cell release of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, which attract cytotoxic T cells to target tumor cells, thus increasing the tumor-killing effects of OVs. To further promote treatment efficacy, OVs can be combined with other treatments, such as was done by Huang et al., who showed that combining OV injections with dendritic cell (DC) injections was a more effective treatment than either treatment alone. To further investigate this combination, we built a mathematical model consisting of a system of ordinary differential equations and fit the model to the hierarchical data provided from Huang et al. We used the model to determine the effect of varying doses of OV and DC injections and to test alternative treatment strategies. We found that the DC dose given in Huang et al. was near a bifurcation point and that a slightly larger dose could cause complete eradication of the tumor. Further, the model results suggest that it is more effective to treat a tumor with immunostimulatory oncolytic viruses first and then follow-up with a sequence of DCs than to alternate OV and DC injections. This protocol, which was not considered in the experiments of Huang et al., allows the infection to initially thrive before the immune response is enhanced. Taken together, our work shows how the ordering, temporal spacing, and dosage of OV and DC can be chosen to maximize efficacy and to potentially eliminate tumors altogether.

  11. Two new species in the leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Two new leafhopper species, Pythamus hainanensis sp. nov. and Pythamus rufus sp. nov. from China, are described and illustrated. Their diagnostic characteristics are compared with similar species. One new combination, Riseveinus chiabaotawow (Huang, 1992) n. comb., is also proposed. In addition, P. biramosus and P. bispinosus are illustrated based on paratypes. A key to known species of Pythamus is provided, excluding three species for which placement cannot presently be confirmed.

  12. Tissue transglutaminase inhibition as treatment for diabetic glomerular scarring: it's good to be glueless.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2009-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by enhanced glomerular and tubulointerstitial deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, which are bound together by tissue transglutaminase (TG2). Huang et al. demonstrate that infusion of a novel TG2 inhibitor in diabetic rats prevented renal scarring and albuminuria and preserved glomerular filtration rate. These studies confirm the role of TG2 in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and add to an emerging literature that demonstrates that TG2 is an attractive therapeutic target for sclerosing kidney diseases.

  13. Quantum convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tingsu; Huang, Xinmei; Tang, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, three families of quantum convolutional codes are constructed. The first one and the second one can be regarded as a generalization of Theorems 3, 4, 7 and 8 [J. Chen, J. Li, F. Yang and Y. Huang, Int. J. Theor. Phys., doi:10.1007/s10773-014-2214-6 (2014)], in the sense that we drop the constraint q ≡ 1 (mod 4). Furthermore, the second one and the third one attain the quantum generalized Singleton bound.

  14. The bare essentials. Release of LOM report leaves HHS to determine what should be covered by health benefits packages.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Jessica

    2011-10-10

    In the wake of an IOM report on the criteria HHS should use to determine what benefits will be "essential" under reform, various stakeholders are weighing in. The National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems would like "enabling" services--such as language, transportation and case-management services--included, because they help make medical care more effective, says Xiaoyi Huang, left, of the NAPH. PMID:22111491

  15. Topological insulators on a Mobius Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lang-Tao; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2012-02-01

    We study the two dimensional Chern insulator and spin Hall insulator on a non-orientable Riemann surface, the Mobius strip, where the usual bandstructure topological invariant is not defined. We show that while the flow pattern of edge currents can detect the twist of the Mobius strip in the case of Chern insulator, it can not do so in spin Hall insulator [1]. [4pt] [1] Lang-Tao Huang and Dung-Hai Lee, Phys. Rev. B 84, 193106 (2011)

  16. Decomposition of Gene Expression State Space Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Jessica C.; Quackenbush, John

    2009-01-01

    Representing and analyzing complex networks remains a roadblock to creating dynamic network models of biological processes and pathways. The study of cell fate transitions can reveal much about the transcriptional regulatory programs that underlie these phenotypic changes and give rise to the coordinated patterns in expression changes that we observe. The application of gene expression state space trajectories to capture cell fate transitions at the genome-wide level is one approach currently used in the literature. In this paper, we analyze the gene expression dataset of Huang et al. (2005) which follows the differentiation of promyelocytes into neutrophil-like cells in the presence of inducers dimethyl sulfoxide and all-trans retinoic acid. Huang et al. (2005) build on the work of Kauffman (2004) who raised the attractor hypothesis, stating that cells exist in an expression landscape and their expression trajectories converge towards attractive sites in this landscape. We propose an alternative interpretation that explains this convergent behavior by recognizing that there are two types of processes participating in these cell fate transitions—core processes that include the specific differentiation pathways of promyelocytes to neutrophils, and transient processes that capture those pathways and responses specific to the inducer. Using functional enrichment analyses, specific biological examples and an analysis of the trajectories and their core and transient components we provide a validation of our hypothesis using the Huang et al. (2005) dataset. PMID:20041215

  17. New scaling for compressible wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Jie; Chen, Jun; Fazle, Hussain; She, ZhenSu

    2013-09-01

    Classical Mach-number (M) scaling in compressible wall turbulence was suggested by van Driest (Van Driest E R. Turbulent boundary layers in compressible fluids. J Aerodynamics Science, 1951, 18(3): 145-160) and Huang et al. (Huang P G, Coleman G N, Bradshaw P. Compressible turbulent channel flows: DNS results and modeling. J Fluid Mech, 1995, 305: 185-218). Using a concept of velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS), defined by high correlation regions in a field of two-point cross-correlation coefficient between a velocity and a vorticity component, we have discovered a limiting VVCS as the closest streamwise vortex structure to the wall, which provides a concrete Morkovin scaling summarizing all compressibility effects. Specifically, when the height and mean velocity of the limiting VVCS are used as the units for the length scale and the velocity, all geometrical measures in the spanwise and normal directions, as well as the mean velocity and fluctuation (r.m.s) profiles become M-independent. The results are validated by direct numerical simulations (DNS) of compressible channel flows with M up to 3. Furthermore, a quantitative model is found for the M-scaling in terms of the wall density, which is also validated by the DNS data. These findings yield a geometrical interpretation of the semi-local transformation (Huang et al., 1995), and a conclusion that the location and the thermodynamic properties associated with the limiting VVCS determine the M-effects on supersonic wall-bounded flows.

  18. Nonperiodic metallic gratings transparent for broadband terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    Recently, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonperiodic metallic gratings can become transparent for broadband terahertz waves. Quasiperiodic and disordered metallic gratings effectively weaken and even eliminate Wood's anomalies, which are the diffraction-related characters of periodic gratings. Consequently, both the transparence bandwidth and transmission efficiency are significantly increased due to the structural aperiodicity. Furthermore, we show that for a specific light source, for example, a line source, a corresponding nonperiodic transparent grating can be also designed. We expect that our findings can be applied for transparent conducting panels, perfect white-beam polarizers, antireflective conducting solar cells, and beyond. References: X. P. Ren, R. H. Fan, R. W. Peng, X. R. Huang, D. H. Xu, Y. Zhou, and Mu Wang, Physical Review B, 91, 045111 (2015); R. H. Fan, R. W. Peng, X. R. Huang, J. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Hu, Mu. Wang, and X. Zhang, Advanced Materials, 24, 1980 (2012); and X. R. Huang, R. W. Peng, and R. H. Fan. Physical Review Letters, 105, 243901 (2010).

  19. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  20. Invited Commentary: Multigenerational Social Determinants of Health—Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alison K; Lê-Scherban, Félice

    2015-10-01

    An emerging area of social epidemiology examines the relationship between grandparental education and grandchild health. In an accompanying article, Huang et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(7):568-578) join the small but growing body of research on this topic. It is useful to contextualize Huang et al.'s work within the much larger body of research examining relationships between education and health within a single generation or across 2 generations. These investigators have generally concluded that higher educational attainment is robustly associated with better health. There are many potential mechanisms through which education and other social exposures may affect health outcomes in a single generation or across generations, and estimating direct and indirect effects can be helpful for assessing specific mechanisms. Researchers conducting multigenerational analyses are faced with several challenges, including limited availability of data for some measures (e.g., educational attainment, and sometimes for 1 grandparent only), limited age ranges of participants, disparate social and political contexts in which study participants of different generations have lived, and patterns of social class reproduction. We encourage future researchers to weave together the careful analytical considerations illustrated by Huang et al. with a rich understanding of the social context for each of the generations studied to help overcome these challenges and advance our understanding of multigenerational social determinants of health.

  1. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC.

  2. Fabrication and properties of silicon carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyun Woo

    2008-12-01

    (compressive) normal loads. Here, we show that the friction forces of SiC nanowires films is 5--12 that of macroscopic solids. For nanowires films, the maximum static frictional force varies linearly with, but is not proportional to, normal load; it increases linearly with interface area; and it is independent of loading speed. To summarize, the combined experimental and theoretical studies in this thesis demonstrated unique structures and surface properties of SiC nanowires, including: (1) Periodical twinning, surface faceting, and structure transition, [Shim & Huang, Appl. Phy. Lett. 90, 083106] (2) Twinning growth mechanism, [Shim, Zhang & Huang, J. Appl. Phys., submitted; Zhang, Shim, & Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261908] (3) Self-integration (nanowebs formation) during growth, [Shim & Huang, Nanotechnology 18, 335607] (4) Thermal stability and self-integration by annealing, [Shim, Kuppers & Huang, J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 8, 3999] and (5) Strong friction of nanowires film. [Shim, Kuppers & Huang, NATURE Nanotech., submitted] The collection of these results enhances the understanding of SiC nanowires growth, the better control of their microstructure and integration, and the application of ceramic nanowires as friction material at high temperature.

  3. IPMP 2013--a comprehensive data analysis tool for predictive microbiology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2014-02-01

    Predictive microbiology is an area of applied research in food science that uses mathematical models to predict the changes in the population of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms in foods exposed to complex environmental changes during processing, transportation, distribution, and storage. It finds applications in shelf-life prediction and risk assessments of foods. The objective of this research was to describe the performance of a new user-friendly comprehensive data analysis tool, the Integrated Pathogen Modeling Model (IPMP 2013), recently developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service. This tool allows users, without detailed programming knowledge, to analyze experimental kinetic data and fit the data to known mathematical models commonly used in predictive microbiology. Data curves previously published in literature were used to test the models in IPMP 2013. The accuracies of the data analysis and models derived from IPMP 2013 were compared in parallel to commercial or open-source statistical packages, such as SAS® or R. Several models were analyzed and compared, including a three-parameter logistic model for growth curves without lag phases, reduced Huang and Baranyi models for growth curves without stationary phases, growth models for complete growth curves (Huang, Baranyi, and re-parameterized Gompertz models), survival models (linear, re-parameterized Gompertz, and Weibull models), and secondary models (Ratkowsky square-root, Huang square-root, Cardinal, and Arrhenius-type models). The comparative analysis suggests that the results from IPMP 2013 were equivalent to those obtained from SAS® or R. This work suggested that the IPMP 2013 could be used as a free alternative to SAS®, R, or other more sophisticated statistical packages for model development in predictive microbiology.

  4. Infrared Identification of the Criegee Intermediate (CH3)2COO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ying; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2016-06-01

    The Criegee intermediates are carbonyl oxides that play critical roles in ozonolysis of alkenes in the atmosphere. We reported previously the mid-infrared spectra of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH_2OO and the methyl-substituted intermediate CH_3CHOO. Here we report the transient infrared spectrum of (CH_3)_2COO, produced on UV photolysis of a mixture of (CH_3)_2CI_2, N_2, and O_2 in a flow reactor, using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer. Guided by results of quantum-chemical calculations, rotational contours of the four observed bands are simulated successfully and provide definitive identification of (CH_3)_2COO. Although all observed bands of (CH_3)_2COO contain hot bands from four vibrational modes of low energy, we were able to simulate the spectra satisfactorily. Observed bands with origins near 887, 1040, 1368, and 1422 cm-1 agree satisfactorily with corresponding anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers at 903, 1061, 1364, and 1422 cm-1 predicted with the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ method. Furthermore, we could also estimate the rate coefficient of the self-reaction of (CH_3)_2COO. The direct infrared detection of (CH_3)_2COO should prove useful for future field measurements and laboratory investigations of this Criegee intermediate. Y.-T. Su, Y.-H. Huang, H. A. Witek, Y.-P. Lee, Science 340, 174 (2013) Y.-H. Huang, J. Li, H. Guo, Y.-P. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 214301 (2015) H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Huang, X. Wang, J. M. Bowman, Y. Nishimura, H. A. Witek, Y.-P. Lee, Nat. Comm. 6, 7012 (2015)

  5. Soy milk oleosome behaviour at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Waschatko, Gustav; Junghans, Ann; Vilgis, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    Soy milk is a highly stable emulsion mainly due to the presence of oleosomes, which are oil bodies and function as lipid storage organelles in plants, e.g., in seeds. Oleosomes are micelle-like structures with an outer phospholipid monolayer, an interior filled with triacylglycerides (TAGs), and oleosins anchored hairpin-like into the structure with their hydrophilic parts remaining outside the oleosomes, completely covering their surface (K. Hsieh and A. H. C. Huang, Plant Physiol., 2004, 136, 3427-3434). Oleosins are alkaline proteins of 15-26 kDa (K. Hsieh and A. H. C. Huang, Plant Physiol., 2004, 136, 3427-3434) which are expressed during seed development and maturation and play a major role in the stability of oil bodies. Additionally, the oil bodies of seeds seem to have the highest impact on coalescence, probably due to the required protection against environmental stress during dormancy and germination compared to, e.g., vertebrates' lipoproteins. Surface pressure investigations and Brewster angle microscopy of oleosomes purified from raw soy milk were executed to reveal their diffusion to the air-water interface, rupture, adsorption and structural modification over time at different subphase conditions. Destroying the surface portions of the oleosins by tryptic digestion induced coalescence of oleosomes (J. Tzen and A. Huang, J. Cell. Biol., 1992, 117, 327-335) and revealed severe changes in their adsorption kinetics. Such investigations will help to determine the effects behind oleosome stability and are necessary for a better understanding of the principal function of oleosins and their interactions with phospholipids.

  6. A theoretical model of isotopic fractionation by thermal diffusion and its implementation on silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuefang, L.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Huang et al (2010) found that Fe, Ca and Mg isotope fractionations of high-temperature silicate melts are only associated with the temperature gradients in thermal diffusion processes and are independent of compositions and mean temperatures [1]. Richter et al (2010) doubted that the existing data are sufficient to obtain such conclusion [2]. A few theoretical models have been proposed for explaining isotopic fractionations in these processes under high temperatures [3, 4]. However, molecular-level mechanisms and theoretical treatments of these processes are still under debating. Here we provide a unified theory based on the local thermodynamic equilibrium treatment (LTE) of statistical mechanics for evaluating thermal isotopic fractionations under a wide range of temperatures. Under high temperatures, our theory however can be reasonably approximated to this equation: where A and B are constants which are related to specific isotope systems and chemical compositions of silicate melts. If the thermal gradient is not very large and the mean temperature is high, the second part of the above equation can be safely neglected and obtain an extremely simple equation which is linearly depended on temperatures, agreeing with what Huang et al (2010) concluded. Based on this terse equation, we can not only easily provide isotope fractionation data for almost all kinds of isotope systems, but also can provide the mechanisms of isotope fractionation in thermal diffusion processes. [1] Huang et al (2010) Nature 464, 396-400. [2] Richter et al (2010) Nature 472, E1-E1. [3] Dominguez et al (2011) Nature 473, 70-73.

  7. An inventory model involving back-order price discount when the amount received is uncertain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfawi Kurdhi, Nughthoh; Prasetyo, Joko; Sulistijowati Handajani, Sri

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents and analyses the continuous review inventory model with order quantity, safety factor, back-order price discount, ordering cost and lead time as decision variables. Our work is based on the paper of Huang (2010). We extend the model to incorporate the situation when the amount received is uncertain. The lead time demand is assumed follows a normal distribution. A solution procedure is developed to find the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to illustrate the model. A sensitivity analysis is also included to describe the effects of changes in the model parameters on the expected annual cost.

  8. Absolute UV absorption cross sections of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Chang, Chun-Hung; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The absolute absorption cross sections of (CH3)2COO under a jet-cooled condition were measured via laser depletion to be (1.32 ± 0.10) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 308 nm and (9.6 ± 0.8) × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 at 352 nm. The peak UV cross section is estimated to be (1.75 ± 0.14) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 330 nm, according to the UV spectrum of (CH3)2COO (Huang et al., 2015) scaled to the absolute cross section at 308 nm.

  9. Repeatability observations from a time-lapse seismic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, S.L.; Miller, R.D.; Raef, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic surveys have proven extremely valuable in recent years, having numerous economical and environmental applications. To fully utilize this monitoring technique, problems associated with recording repeatability must be minimized. Much work has been done to equalize data from one survey to the next via processing techniques (Huang et al., 1998). The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential for minimized processing, allowing study of extremely small changes in subsurface characteristics. The goal is to evaluate source and receiver terrain combination to optimize signal repeatability, and to improve deconvolution with the ground force to suppress different types of noise and increase repeatability. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  10. Hydrogen in Crystailine Silicon and Gallium Arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, G. G.

    When I was a student in the department of physics, Peking University from 1952 to 1961, Prof.Kun Huang was one of the most respectivable teachers and scientists there. He has taught my classmates and me general physics, solid state physics and semiconductor physics one after another. All his lectures were so splendid as to give us very deep impression. When I became a graduated student, he was my supervisor. He has guided me to enter the gate of science and has been solicitous for my every step in the way. I wrote this review paper to offer my best congratulations to his seventieth birthday and wish him happiness and longevity.

  11. The first Mesozoic microwhip scorpion (Palpigradi): a new genus and species in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael S.; Breitkreuz, Laura C. V.; Cai, Chenyang; Alvarado, Mabel; Azar, Dany; Huang, Diying

    2016-04-01

    A fossil palpigrade is described and figured from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Electrokoenenia yaksha Engel and Huang, gen. n. et sp. n., is the first Mesozoic fossil of its order and the only one known as an inclusion in amber, the only other fossil being a series of individuals encased in Pliocene onyx marble and 94-97 million years younger than E. yaksha. The genus is distinguished from other members of the order but is remarkably consistent in observable morphological details when compared to extant relatives, likely reflecting a consistent microhabitat and biological preferences over the last 100 million years.

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  13. [Studies on all-spectrum analysis for X-ray diffraction of Chinese herbal medicine calculus bovis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Zheng, Q; Wu, N; Zhou, J; Bao, T

    1997-10-01

    Investigation on famouse Chinese herbal medicine-Niu huang (calculus bovis) was carried out by all-spectrum X-ray diffraction analysis. Diffraction spectrums, as well as the specific symboling peaks of calculus bovis, artificial bezoar, bile ductstone, human gallstone and hog gallstone, were recognized. The error distribution curves of d-delta d for specific symboling peaks was also obtained by calculation under diffrent testing conditions, by which we identified successfully three samples provided by a pharmaceutical factory. This article shows that all-spectrum X-ray diffraction analysis can be used to identify Chinese traditional crude drug, and provides for morphological and microscopical study.

  14. The first Mesozoic microwhip scorpion (Palpigradi): a new genus and species in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Breitkreuz, Laura C V; Cai, Chenyang; Alvarado, Mabel; Azar, Dany; Huang, Diying

    2016-04-01

    A fossil palpigrade is described and figured from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Electrokoenenia yaksha Engel and Huang, gen. n. et sp. n., is the first Mesozoic fossil of its order and the only one known as an inclusion in amber, the only other fossil being a series of individuals encased in Pliocene onyx marble and 94-97 million years younger than E. yaksha. The genus is distinguished from other members of the order but is remarkably consistent in observable morphological details when compared to extant relatives, likely reflecting a consistent microhabitat and biological preferences over the last 100 million years.

  15. Chemoselective Schwartz Reagent Mediated Reduction of Isocyanates to Formamides.

    PubMed

    Pace, Vittorio; de la Vega-Hernández, Karen; Urban, Ernst; Langer, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Addition of the in situ generated Schwartz reagent to widely available isocyanates constitutes a chemoselective, high-yielding, and versatile approach to the synthesis of variously functionalized formamides. Steric and electronic factors or the presence of sensitive functionalities (esters, nitro groups, nitriles, alkenes) do not compromise the potential of the method. Full preservation of the stereochemical information contained in the starting materials is observed. The use of formamides in the nucleophilic addition of organometallic reagents (Chida-Sato allylation, Charette-Huang addition to imidoyl triflate activated amides, Matteson homologation of boronic esters) is briefly investigated. PMID:27218199

  16. Yuebeipotamon calciatile, a new genus and new species of freshwater crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Si Ying

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus. PMID:27667941

  17. Intra-Asian Air Pollutions and Their Transport: Characterization From Ground Based Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanart, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Li, J.; Akimoto, H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    We present the observation and analysis of surface air pollutions at the inflow, source, and outflow regions of Asia. Data of ozone, carbon monoxide, and black carbon from several sites in Asia including China, Japan, Siberia, Kyrgyz have been collected and analyzed. It is found that the ozone from East Asian source region, three mountain sites (Mt. Tai, Mt. Hua, and Mt. Huang) in central eastern China, show the highest mixing ratios. In 2004, their annual averages are 56.0, 48.6, 50.4 ppb respectively at Mt. Tai, Mt. Hua, and Mt. Huang while the annual averages at the inflow and outflow are significantly lower. Episodes of ozone higher than 100 ppb have also been frequently observed in source regions. It is found that ozone and carbon monoxide in source regions are mainly controlled by large-scale anthropogenic emissions and East Asian monsoon. Meanwhile, black carbon variations are more subject to smaller scale emission and transport. Looking into transport components from trajectory analysis, when the continental air masses are transported from inflow region of Eurasia to source region in China, annual ozone increased of 17 ppb have been observed. The maximum buildups, 40-46 ppb, appear in June were estimated. Within source region, we found the ozone increases with the longer residence time over the polluted domain in central eastern China. The increasing rates are found highest during the ozone peak season in May-June, 31 ppb/day at Mt. Tai and 12 ppb/day at Mt. Huang. It is estimated that central eastern China sources contribute 34-42% of ozone at Mt. Tai and 8-14% at Mt. Huang during the ozone peak season. We also verify the evidences of direct pollution transport from central eastern China to an outflow site in Okinawa Island where 31 ppb increases of ozone were observed when the pollution episodes from central eastern China reached the site in May-June 2004. More investigation on carbon monoxide and black carbon are underway.

  18. Quasi-periodic solutions for an asymmetric oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peng; Li, Xiong; Liu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study the dynamical behaviour of the differential equation x‧‧+ax+-bx-=f(t), where {{x}+}=\\max ≤ft\\{x,0\\right\\} , {{x}-}=\\max ≤ft\\{-x,0\\right\\} , a and b are two different positive constants, and f (t) is a smooth quasi-periodic function. For this purpose, firstly, we have to establish some variants of the invariant curve theorem of planar smooth quasi-periodic mappings, which was proved recently by the authors (see Huang et al preprint). Then we will discuss the boundedness of all solutions and the existence of quasi-periodic solutions for the above asymmetric oscillation.

  19. Electric field driven fractal growth in polymer electrolyte composites: Experimental evidence of theoretical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawar, Anit; Chandra, Amita

    2012-11-01

    The influence of electric field on the diffusion limited aggregation has been observed experimentally. The observation provides experimental confirmation of the theoretical model proposed by Zhi-Jie Tan et al. [Phys. Lett. A 268 (2000) 112]. Most strikingly, a transition from a disordered ramified pattern to an ordered pattern (chain-like growth) has been observed. The growth is governed by diffusion, convection and migration in an electric field which give rise to the different patterns. This Letter can also be considered as an experimental evidence of computer simulated fractal growth given by Huang and Hibbert [Physica A 233 (1996) 888].

  20. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  1. Yuebeipotamon calciatile, a new genus and new species of freshwater crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Si Ying

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus.

  2. Toward optical coherence topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayegh, Samir; Jiang, Yanshui

    2012-03-01

    Commercial OCT systems provide pachymetry measurements. Full corneal topographic information of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces for use in cataract surgery and refractive procedures is a desirable goal and would add to the usefulness of anterior and posterior segment evaluation. While substantial progress has been made towards obtaining "average" central corneal power (D Huang), power in different meridians and topography are still missing. This is usually reported to be due to eye movement. We analyze the role of centration, eye movements and develop a model that allows for the formulation of criteria for obtaining reliable topographic data within ¼ diopter.

  3. Nanobumps on silicon created with polystyrene spheres and 248 or 308 nm laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Piparia, Reema; Rothe, Erhard W.; Baird, R. J.

    2006-11-27

    Huang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161911 (2005)] formed arrays of nanobumps on a silicon substrate. They applied a 248 nm laser pulse to a surface monolayer of 1-{mu}m-diameter polystyrene spheres. The authors first replicated their experiment with 248 nm light. But when 308 nm pulses were applied instead, the nanobumps had a different shape and composition. At 248 nm, much of the laser light is absorbed in the polystyrene, which serves to quickly distort, melt, and ablate the sphere. At 308 nm, very little light is absorbed. The nanobumps from 248 nm radiation are organic polymers, while those formed with 308 nm pulses are silicon based.

  4. Outstanding Student Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>

  5. Outstanding Student Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>

  6. A simple model for abrupt millennial climate change in the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg

    2015-04-01

    We first confirm that the time series of Calcium concentrations in GRIP ice-core data exhibits a significant alpha-stable noise component as previously found by Ditlevsen (GRL 1999). Building on recent theoretical results from homogenisation theory for deterministic systems, we propose a simple conceptual entirely deterministic multi-scale model of the ocean-atmosphere-ice system which exhibits alpha-stable behaviour. Unlike in most models employing homogenisation theory we employ here chaotic dynamics exhibiting intermittency. The intermittency is associated with the atmospheric dynamics interacting with sea-ice dynamics. This is joint work with Nathan Duignan, Cameron Duncan and Eric Huang.

  7. Yuebeipotamon calciatile, a new genus and new species of freshwater crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Si Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus.

  8. Comparison of Ground Scintillation Spectra with Density Irregularities Observed in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. Y.; Su, S. Y.; Liu, C. H.

    The embedded Quasi-Periodic diffraction patterns are extracted from the scintillation data taken at Ascension Island and analyzed with a newly developed time-frequency analysis method of Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). The scintillation spectra are studied for cases of strong and weak scintillations and compared with the spectra of plasma density irregularities observed by ROCSA-1/IPEI at 600 km altitude. Interesting results are obtained for the relationships between the locations of the irregularity density structure and the scintillation echoes during weak and strong scintillations.

  9. [An EMD based time-frequency distribution and its application in EEG analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobing; Chu, Meng; Qiu, Tianshuang; Bao, Haiping

    2007-10-01

    Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a new time-frequency analytic method to analyze the nonlinear and the non-stationary signals. The key step of this method is the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), with which any complicated signal can be decomposed into a finite and small number of intrinsic mode functions (IMF). In this paper, a new EMD based method for suppressing the cross-term of Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) is developed and is applied to analyze the epileptic EEG signals. The simulation data and analysis results show that the new method suppresses the cross-term of the WVD effectively with an excellent resolution.

  10. HHT-based crack identification method for start-up rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a crack identification method for start-up rotor based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). With this method, the instantaneous frequency (IF) of each intrinsic mode function is obtained through the Hilbert transform, and the spectrum of IF is calculated accordingly. The influence of acceleration and crack depth on the rotor is analyzed through experiments. HHT is employed to detect the shallower crack, and is then tested during the start-up process of the rotor. The results of the experiment show that HHT is a better tool for crack detection than fast Fourier transform.

  11. Comparison study of seizure detection using stationary and nonstationary methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Liu, Wentai

    2014-01-01

    We present an accurate seizure detection algorithm, and make a detailed comparison of two frequency analysis methods: a widely used stationary method - Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and a relatively new nonstationary method - Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). Two public databases and one our own database were tested. The results show that our algorithm has very high accuracy compared with the state-of-the-art. More interestingly, it shows that the nonstationary method HHT offers better performance than the stationary method FFT in seizure detection. Therefore we propose that we should pay attention to the nonstationarity of EEG signal, since the "stationary assumption" may introduce some inaccuracy.

  12. Multiscale Features of Large Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michelis, P.; Consolini, G.

    2011-12-01

    The present study is focused on the analysis of the multiscale features of four large geomagnetic storms that occurred from 2000 to 2003. In particular, we analyse the fluctuations of these extreme events as recorded along the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field in seven different canadian geomagnetic observatories, by decomposing the signal via the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). This empirical method, that is alternative to traditional data-analysis methods, consists in an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and in the Hilbert spectral analysis, and it is designed specifically for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data. The features of the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are studied as a function of the magnetic latitude.

  13. On narrow-band representation of ocean waves: 1. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayfun, M. Aziz

    1986-06-01

    The description of linear random waves in the form of an amplitude-modulated carrier wave is known as narrow-band representation. Herewith, the theoretical basis of such a representation is examined in terms of integral properties of surface spectra and criteria governing the statistical and kinematic characteristics of the carrier wave. These considerations are then extended systematically to derive two narrow-band type representations for nonlinear waves. The nature of these representations and their statistical properties are discussed and compared with other models such as those proposed earlier by Tayfun (1980) and Huang et al. (1983).

  14. Effect of an allophanic soil on humification reactions between catechol and glycine: Spectroscopic investigations of reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masami; Miura, Akitaka; Sasaki, Masahide; Izumo, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Adduction of amino acids to phenols is a possible humification reaction pathway [F.J. Stevenson, Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reaction, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1994, pp. 188-211; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Sci. Total Environ. 62 (1987) 435; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55 (1991) 1156; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 112 (2003) 31; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 124 (2005) 415]. To elucidate the reaction kinetics and products of abiotic humification, the effects of an allophanic soil on the adduction of amino acids to phenols were investigated using catechol (CT) and glycine (Gly) as a model phenol and amino acid, respectively. An aqueous solution containing CT and Gly (pH 7.0) in the presence of allophanic soil was incubated for 2 weeks, and the kinetics of the humification reactions were monitored by analysis of absorptivity at 600 nm ( E600). A mixture of CT and Gly in the absence of allophanic soil was used as a control. The E600 value increased markedly in the presence of allophanic soil. In addition, unreacted CT was detected in the control reaction mixture, but not in the allophane-containing reaction mixture. Under the sterilized conditions, absorbance at 600 nm for the control reaction mixture was significantly smaller than that for the allophanic soil-containing reaction mixture, which indicates there was no microbial participation during incubation. These results indicate that the allophanic soil effectively facilitated humification reactions between CT and Gly. The reaction mixtures were acidified and humic-like acid (HLA) was isolated as a precipitate. The elemental composition, acidic functional group contents, molecular weight, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS 13C NMR, and 1H NMR spectra of the purified HLAs were analyzed. The results of these analyses indicate that the nitrogen atom of Gly binds to the aromatic carbon of CT in the HLA products.

  15. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Efficient and Robust Design for Absorbing Boundary Conditions in Atomistic Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ming; Tang, Shao-Qiang

    2009-11-01

    We propose an efficient and robust way to design absorbing boundary conditions in atomistic computations. An optimal discrete boundary condition is obtained by minimizing a functional of a reflection coefficient integral over a range of wave numbers. The minimization is performed with respect to a set of wave numbers, at which transparent absorption is reached. Compared with the optimization with respect to the boundary condition coefficients suggested by E and Huang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 133501], we reduce considerably the number of independent variables and the computing cost. We further demonstrate with numerical examples that both the optimization and the wave absorption are more robust in the proposed design.

  16. Research frontiers in drought-induced tree mortality: Crossing scales and disciplines

    DOE PAGES

    Hartmann, Henrik; Adams, Henry D.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Jansen, Steven; Zeppel, Melanie J. B.

    2015-01-12

    Sudden and widespread forest die-back and die-off (e.g., Huang & Anderegg, 2012) and increased mortality rates (e.g., Peng et al., 2011) in many forest ecosystems across the globe have been linked to drought and elevated temperatures (Allen et al., 2010, Fig. 1). Furthermore, these observations have caused a focus on the physiological mechanisms of drought-induced tree mortality (e.g. McDowell et al., 2008) and many studies, both observational and manipulative, have been carried out to explain tree death during drought from a physiological perspective.

  17. A new drought tipping point for conifer mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Thomas E.

    2015-03-01

    (Huang et al 2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 024011) present a method for predicting mortality of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) in the Southwestern US during severe drought based on the relationship between the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and annual tree ring growth. Ring growth was zero when SPEI for September to July was -1.64. The threshold SPEI of -1.64 was successful in distinguishing areas with high tree mortality during recent severe drought from areas with low mortality, and is proposed to be a tipping point of drought severity leading to tree mortality. Below, I discuss this work in more detail.

  18. The first Mesozoic microwhip scorpion (Palpigradi): a new genus and species in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Breitkreuz, Laura C V; Cai, Chenyang; Alvarado, Mabel; Azar, Dany; Huang, Diying

    2016-04-01

    A fossil palpigrade is described and figured from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Electrokoenenia yaksha Engel and Huang, gen. n. et sp. n., is the first Mesozoic fossil of its order and the only one known as an inclusion in amber, the only other fossil being a series of individuals encased in Pliocene onyx marble and 94-97 million years younger than E. yaksha. The genus is distinguished from other members of the order but is remarkably consistent in observable morphological details when compared to extant relatives, likely reflecting a consistent microhabitat and biological preferences over the last 100 million years. PMID:26879963

  19. Tectonic evolution and oil and gas of Tarim basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzhu, Kang; Zhihong, Kang

    According to the new results achieved in the past ten years and more, using mobilism and the theory of polycycle by Huang Jiqing (1977, 1984), the formation of the basement of the Tarim basin and its characteristics are summarized. The prototype basins formed since Sinian times are classified into rift basin, continental marginal basin, cratonic basin, foreland basin and others. The Tarim basin is regarded as a huge oil- and gas-bearing basin superposed by prototype basins of different ages. The tectonic characteristics of these basins including tectonic movements, tectonic migrations, faults and trap types are summarized. In addition, structural control over oil and gas and oil-forming features are analysed.

  20. The minimal length uncertainty and the quantum model for the stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, Pouria

    2012-03-01

    We generalize the recently proposed quantum model for the stock market by Zhang and Huang to make it consistent with the discrete nature of the stock price. In this formalism, the price of the stock and its trend satisfy the generalized uncertainty relation and the corresponding generalized Hamiltonian contains an additional term proportional to the fourth power of the trend. We study a driven infinite quantum well where information as the external field periodically fluctuates and show that the presence of the minimal trading value of stocks results in a positive shift in the characteristic frequencies of the quantum system. The connection between the information frequency and the transition probabilities is discussed finally.

  1. Yuebeipotamon calciatile, a new genus and new species of freshwater crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Si Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus. PMID:27667941

  2. Expelling of hydrocarbon in undercompacted oil-source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Guojun ); Chen, Fajing )

    1994-08-01

    The clay of source rocks below a certain depth is generally undercompacted. Historical analysis of undercompacted EK2 mudstone in the Huang Hua depression, North China basin, has shown that the peak of the undercompacted zone decreases under a certain depth, mainly due to development of a microfracture caused by abnormally high pressure. Based on the compaction history of mudstones and the hydraulic fracturing condition in this area, the depth of the microfracture developed in the EK2 undercompacted zone is calculated at 2900 m, which is also verified by fluorescence data. Geochemical evidence has also shown that many hydrocarbons are expelled under 2900 m.

  3. A proposed neutral line signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxas, I.; Speiser, T. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    An identifying signature is proposed for the existence and location of the neutral line in the magnetotail. The signature, abrupt density, and temperature changes in the Earthtail direction, was first discovered in test particle simulations. Such temperature variations have been observed in ISEE data (Huang et. al. 1992), but their connection to the possible existence of a neutral line in the tail has not yet been established. The proposed signature develops earlier than the ion velocity space ridge of Martin and Speiser (1988), but can only be seen by spacecraft in the vicinity of the neutral line, while the latter can locate a neutral line remotely.

  4. Reclassification of Gemmobacter changlensis to a new genus as Cereibacter changlensis gen. nov., comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Suresh, G; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new genus to accommodate the phototrophic bacterium Gemmobacter changlensis [Chen W. M., Cho, N. T., Huang, W. C., Young, C. C. & Sheu, S. Y. (2013) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63, 470-478] based on multiple strain analysis. Differences in the major diagnostic properties such as ability to grow phototrophically, the presence of internal photosynthetic membranes, the light harvesting complexes, fatty acids, carotenoids, bacterial chlorophylls, polar lipid composition and some other phenotypic properties warrant the creation of a new genus, designated Cereibacter gen. nov., to accommodate the phototrophic members of the genus Gemmobacter, as represented by the type species Cereibacter changlensis comb. nov.

  5. Valid or not? Yunnan mountain snake Plagiopholis unipostocularis (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pseudoxenodontinae).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guang Hui; Chen, Wen De; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Peng, Pei Hao; Guo, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Plagiopholis unipostocularis Zhao, Jiang & Huang, 1978 is a small snake endemic to Yunnan, southern China. Its validity is still controversial and unresolved. Based on extensive sampling in Yunnan, we conducted morphological comparison and molecular phylogenetics on the unidentified specimens of Plagiopholis from Yunnan. Based on a combination of morphological comparison and molecular phylogeny, the newly collected specimens could be identified as P. blakewayi. While some specimens exhibit one or more diagnostics of P. unipostocularis, and some characteristics are intermediate between that of Plagiopholis unipostocularis and P. blakewayi. Thus morphological continuities between two species uncovered P. unipostocularis is a synonymy of P. blakewayi, and the diagnostics of this species was revised accordingly. PMID:26624106

  6. Four new species of Meligethes Stephens from China and additional data on other species of the genus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae: Meligethinae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Meike; Yang, Xingke; Huang, Min; Jelínek, Josef; Audisio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Meligethes Stephens, 1830, M. (s.str.) macrofemoratus (Shaanxi, Ningxia), M. (s.str.) yak (NW Sichuan), M. (s.str.) auropilosus (Tibet) and M. (Odontogethes) aurorugosus (Tibet) spp. nov., are described and illustrated from China. Diagnostic characters distinguishing these new species from closely related taxa are discussed. The previously unknown male of Meligethes (s.str.) aureolineatus Audisio, Sabatelli & Jelínek, 2015 from Sichuan and the previously unknown female of M. (Odontogethes) scrobescens Chen, Lin, Huang & Yang, 2015 from Sichuan are also described. Additional data are also presented on the geographic distribution and life history of other Chinese Meligethes species. PMID:27395211

  7. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  8. A comprehensive protein-centric ID mapping service for molecular data integration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongzhan; Suzek, Baris E.; Mazumder, Raja; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yongxing; Wu, Cathy H.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Identifier (ID) mapping establishes links between various biological databases and is an essential first step for molecular data integration and functional annotation. ID mapping allows diverse molecular data on genes and proteins to be combined and mapped to functional pathways and ontologies. We have developed comprehensive protein-centric ID mapping services providing mappings for 90 IDs derived from databases on genes, proteins, pathways, diseases, structures, protein families, protein interaction, literature, ontologies, etc. The services are widely used and have been regularly updated since 2006. Availability: www.uniprot.org/mappingandproteininformation-resource.org/pirwww/search/idmapping.shtml Contact: huang@dbi.udel.edu PMID:21478197

  9. On Components, Latent Variables, PLS and Simple Methods: Reactions to Rigdon's Rethinking of PLS

    PubMed Central

    Bentler, Peter M.; Huang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Rigdon (2012) suggests that partial least squares (PLS) can be improved by killing it, that is, by making it into a different methodology based on components. We provide some history on problems with component-type methods and develop some implications of Rigdon's suggestion. It seems more appropriate to maintain and improve PLS as far as possible, but also to freely utilize alternative models and methods when those are more relevant in certain data analytic situations. Huang's (2013) new consistent and efficient PLSe2 methodology is suggested as a candidate for an improved PLS. PMID:24926106

  10. Four new species of Meligethes Stephens from China and additional data on other species of the genus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae: Meligethinae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Meike; Yang, Xingke; Huang, Min; Jelínek, Josef; Audisio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Meligethes Stephens, 1830, M. (s.str.) macrofemoratus (Shaanxi, Ningxia), M. (s.str.) yak (NW Sichuan), M. (s.str.) auropilosus (Tibet) and M. (Odontogethes) aurorugosus (Tibet) spp. nov., are described and illustrated from China. Diagnostic characters distinguishing these new species from closely related taxa are discussed. The previously unknown male of Meligethes (s.str.) aureolineatus Audisio, Sabatelli & Jelínek, 2015 from Sichuan and the previously unknown female of M. (Odontogethes) scrobescens Chen, Lin, Huang & Yang, 2015 from Sichuan are also described. Additional data are also presented on the geographic distribution and life history of other Chinese Meligethes species.

  11. Valid or not? Yunnan mountain snake Plagiopholis unipostocularis (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pseudoxenodontinae).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guang Hui; Chen, Wen De; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Peng, Pei Hao; Guo, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Plagiopholis unipostocularis Zhao, Jiang & Huang, 1978 is a small snake endemic to Yunnan, southern China. Its validity is still controversial and unresolved. Based on extensive sampling in Yunnan, we conducted morphological comparison and molecular phylogenetics on the unidentified specimens of Plagiopholis from Yunnan. Based on a combination of morphological comparison and molecular phylogeny, the newly collected specimens could be identified as P. blakewayi. While some specimens exhibit one or more diagnostics of P. unipostocularis, and some characteristics are intermediate between that of Plagiopholis unipostocularis and P. blakewayi. Thus morphological continuities between two species uncovered P. unipostocularis is a synonymy of P. blakewayi, and the diagnostics of this species was revised accordingly.

  12. On vortex dust structures in magnetized dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nebbat, E.; Annou, R.

    2010-09-15

    To explain the generation of vortex patterns of dust grains in a magnetized dusty plasma [Huang et al., Plasma Sci. Technol. 9, 1 (2007)], a time dependent nonlinear model that describes vortices as a result of an instability is proposed. Grain-grain as well as grain-ion interactions, particle attachment, and grains drift and diffusion are key elements in the present model. It is found that the latter reproduces the experimental results quite well, whereas the stability analysis shows that the vortex core is grain size dependent.

  13. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  14. A generalized tool for accurate time-domain separation of excited modes in spin-torque oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Siracusano, Giulio Puliafito, Vito; Finocchio, Giovanni

    2014-05-07

    We propose and develop an advanced signal processing technique that, combined with micromagnetic simulations, is able to deeply describe the non-stationary behavior of spin-torque oscillators, both in terms of time domain and spatial distribution of the magnetization dynamics. The Hilbert-Huang Transform is used for the identification of the time traces of each oscillation in a multimode excitation and enhanced with masking signals and the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. We emphasize that the technique developed here is general and can be used for any physical non-linear system in the presence of multimode dynamical excitation or intermittence.

  15. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  16. The SNA analysis of a minimal model for bistability in the MAPK signaling cascade model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadač, O.; Schreiber, I.

    2013-12-01

    Successive phosphorylation cascades mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are known to act as switches initiating various cellular processes. In addition, models of the MAPK reaction network are displaying other nonlinear phenomena including bistability and periodic oscillations. Recently bistability has been explained as a consequence of interaction between single and double phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathways in the Stage 2 subsystem of the Huang-Ferrell model of the MAPK and a core bistable model has been proposed. Here we focus on a detailed stability analysis of the steady states of this minimal model. The analysis uses methods of convex analysis and stoichiometric network theory.

  17. A Sketch of the Taiwan Zebrafish Core Facility.

    PubMed

    You, May-Su; Jiang, Yun-Jin; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Wang, Chien-Ming; Tang, Chih-Hao; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Lin, Bo-Hung; Wu, Jen-Leih; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L

    2016-07-01

    In the past three decades, the number of zebrafish laboratories has significantly increased in Taiwan. The Taiwan Zebrafish Core Facility (TZCF), a government-funded core facility, was launched to serve this growing community. The Core Facility was built on two sites, one located at the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI, called Taiwan Zebrafish Core Facility at NHRI or TZeNH) and the other is located at the Academia Sinica (Taiwan Zebrafish Core Facility at AS a.k.a. TZCAS). The total surface area of the TZCF is about 180 m(2) encompassing 2880 fish tanks. Each site has a separate quarantine room and centralized water recirculating systems, monitoring key water parameters. To prevent diseases, three main strategies have been implemented: (1) imported fish must be quarantined; (2) only bleached embryos are introduced into the main facilities; and (3) working practices were implemented to minimize pathogen transfer between stocks and facilities. Currently, there is no health program in place; however, a fourth measure for the health program, specific regular pathogen tests, is being planned. In March 2015, the TZCF at NHRI has been AAALAC accredited. It is our goal to ensure that we provide "disease-free" fish and embryos to the Taiwanese research community. PMID:27267235

  18. Engineering the just war: examination of an approach to teaching engineering ethics.

    PubMed

    Haws, David R

    2006-04-01

    The efficiency of engineering applied to civilian projects sometimes threatens to run away with the social agenda, but in military applications, engineering often adds a devastating sleekness to the inevitable destruction of life. The relative crudeness of terrorism (e.g., 9/11) leaves a stark after-image, which belies the comparative insignificance of random (as opposed to orchestrated) belligerence. Just as engineering dwarfs the bricolage of vernacular design 'moving us past the appreciation of brush-strokes, so to speak' the scale of engineered destruction makes it difficult to focus on the charred remains of individual lives. Engineers need to guard against the inappropriate military subsumption of their effort. Fortunately, the ethics of warfare has been an ongoing topic of discussion for millennia. This paper will examine the university core class I've developed (The Moral Dimensions of Technology) to meet accreditation requirements in engineering ethics, and the discussion with engineering and non-engineering students focused by the life of electrical engineer Vannevar Bush, with selected readings in moral philosophy from the Dao de Jing, Lao Tze, Cicero, Aurelius Augustinus, Kant, Annette Baier, Peter Singer, Elizabeth Anscombe, Philippa Foot, and Judith Thomson.

  19. Effective field theory of dark energy: a dynamical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Frusciante, Noemi; Raveri, Marco; Silvestri, Alessandra E-mail: mraveri@sissa.it

    2014-02-01

    The effective field theory (EFT) of dark energy relies on three functions of time to describe the dynamics of background cosmology. The viability of these functions is investigated here by means of a thorough dynamical analysis. While the system is underdetermined, and one can always find a set of functions reproducing any expansion history, we are able to determine general compatibility conditions for these functions by requiring a viable background cosmology. In particular, we identify a set of variables that allows us to transform the non-autonomous system of equations into an infinite-dimensional one characterized by a significant recursive structure. We then analyze several autonomous sub-systems, obtained truncating the original one at increasingly higher dimension, that correspond to increasingly general models of dark energy and modified gravity. Furthermore, we exploit the recursive nature of the system to draw some general conclusions on the different cosmologies that can be recovered within the EFT formalism and the corresponding compatibility requirements for the EFT functions. The machinery that we set up serves different purposes. It offers a general scheme for performing dynamical analysis of dark energy and modified gravity models within the model independent framework of EFT; the general results, obtained with this technique, can be projected into specific models, as we show in one example. It also can be used to determine appropriate ansätze for the three EFT background functions when studying the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in the context of large scale structure tests of gravity.

  20. Fluid phase separation inside a static periodic field: an effectively two-dimensional critical phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Vink, Richard L C; Neuhaus, Tim; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-05-28

    When a fluid with a bulk liquid-vapor critical point is placed inside a static external field with spatial periodic oscillations in one direction, a new phase arises. This new phase-the so-called "zebra" phase-is characterized by an average density roughly between that of the liquid and vapor phases. The presence of the zebra phase gives rise to two new phase transitions: one from the vapor to the zebra phase, and one from the zebra to the liquid phase. At appropriate values of the temperature and chemical potential, the latter two transitions become critical. This phenomenon is called laser-induced condensation [I. O. Götze, J. M. Brader, M. Schmidt, and H. Löwen, Mol. Phys. 101, 1651 (2003)]. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the nature of the critical points, using density functional theory and computer simulation of a colloid-polymer mixture. The main finding is that critical correlations develop in two-dimensional sheets perpendicular to the field direction, but not in the direction along the field: the critical correlations are thus effectively two-dimensional. Hence, static periodic fields provide a means to confine a fluid to effectively two dimensions. Away from criticality, the vapor-zebra and liquid-zebra transitions become first-order, but the associated surface tensions are extremely small. The consequences of the extremely small surface tensions on the nature of the two-phase coexistence regions are analyzed in detail.

  1. Data based 3D modelling of the southwest African continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymark, J.; Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Götze, H.-J.; Reichert, C.

    2012-04-01

    The volcanic passive continental margin of southwest Africa was formed in consequence of rifting and continental break-up of Gondwana in the Late Mesozoic. Our study focusses on an area extending from the Walvis Ridge in the north to the Agulhas Falkland Fracture Zone in the south including some important petroliferous sedimentary basins such as the Walvis Basin, the Luderitz Basin, and the Orange Basin. Due to decades of industrial exploration and scientific research, some of these areas reveal a large pool of structural and geophysical data. Thus, much is known about the individual tectonic and depositional histories of several subdomains of the area. The goal of our study is to understand the margin in its entirety. We present a 3D model of the present-day configuration of the southwest African continental margin. This model integrates well information, seismic reflection and refraction data, a previously published 3D structural model (Maystrenko et al., 2011), as well as freely available global data sets on the crustal structure (e.g. crust2.0 of Bassin, Laske & Masters, 2000). To extrapolate local information on crustal thickness (respectively the depth of the Moho) across the whole margin, we perform 3D gravity modelling using the software IGMAS+ (Götze & Schmidt, 2010; Schmidt et al., 2011). As parts of the first results, we show margin-wide depth and thickness distributions of a Palaeozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary layer and a Paleoproterozoic to Mesozoic crystalline crustal layer.

  2. Zuverlässigkeit digitaler Schaltungen unter Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeberger, V. B.; Schlichtmann, U.

    2011-08-01

    Die kontinuierlich fortschreitende Miniaturisierung in integrierten Schaltungen führt zu einem Anstieg des intrinsischen Rauschens. Um den Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen auf die Zuverlässigkeit zukünftiger digitaler Schaltungen analysieren zu können, werden Methoden benötigt, die auf CAD-Verfahren wie Analogsimulation statt auf abschätzenden Berechnungen beruhen. Dieser Beitrag stellt eine neue Methode vor, die den Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen in digitalen Schaltungen für eine gegebene Prozesstechnologie analysieren kann. Die Amplituden von thermischen, 1/f und Schrotrauschen werden mit Hilfe eines SPICE Simulators bestimmt. Anschließend wird der Einfluss des Rauschens auf die Schaltungszuverlässigkeit durch Simulation analysiert. Zusätzlich zur Analyse werden Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt, wie die durch Rauschen hervorgerufenen Effekte im Schaltungsentwurf mit berücksichtigt werden können. Im Gegensatz zum Stand der Technik kann die vorgestellte Methode auf beliebige Logikimplementierungen und Prozesstechnologien angewendet werden. Zusätzlich wird gezeigt, dass bisherige Ansätze den Einfluss von Rauschen bis um das Vierfache überschätzen.

  3. Phänomenologische Grundlagen der Wärmelehre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Die Physik der Wärme lässt sich auf zweierlei Weise formulieren: Einmal als Mechanik eines Systems, das eine enorm große Zahl von Teilchen enthält (statistische Mechanik), und einmal mit Hilfe von ad hoc eingeführten Größen, den sogenannten Zustandsgrößen, die geeignet sind, das Verhalten eines solchen Systems zu beschreiben, ohne dass man die Teilchen selbst und ihre Bewegungen betrachten muss (Thermodynamik). Wir werden beide Ansätze in ihrer einfachsten und anschaulichsten Ausprägung in Kap. 5 (kinetische Gastheorie) bzw. in Kap. 8 (Grundbegriffe der Thermodynamik) behandeln. Obgleich sich die volle Durchführung des Programms als begrifflich und mathematisch recht schwierig erweist - die Vorlesung "Thermodynamik und Statistik" steht gewöhnlich am Ende der Kursvorlesungen über theoretische Physik - werden wir doch auf der Grundlage der Kap. 5 und 8 eine Menge über die Physik der Wärme lernen können. Den Ausgangspunkt der Wärmelehre bilden jedoch allemal die Naturerscheinungen, die wir hier in Kap. 4 behandeln wollen: Wärme, Kälte, Temperaturausgleich. Wir werden untersuchen, wie man diese Begriffe quantifizieren kann, und was bei der Erwärmung oder Abkühlung eines Körpers vor sich geht. Dabei werden wir auf den I. und II. Hauptsatz der Wärmelehre stoßen.

  4. Organisationsübergreifendes Management von Föderations-Sicherheitsmetadaten auf Basis einer Service-Bus-Architektur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Stephan; Hommel, Wolfgang

    In service-orientierten Architekturen wird die herkömmliche web-service-basierte Punkt-zu-Punkt-Kommunikation zunehmend durch den Einsatz eines Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) abgelöst, der den sicheren und zuverlässigen Nachrichtentransport realisiert. Der Einsatzbereich eines ESB endet jedoch an den Grenzen der ihn einsetzenden Institution. In diesem Artikel analysieren wir aktuelle Herausforderungen bei der organisationsübergreifenden Verwaltung von Sicherheitsmetadaten, zu denen insbesondere Serverzertifikate und Privacy Policies gehören. Als konkretes Szenario wird dabei das Federated Identity Management im Rahmen der deutschen Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI aufgegriffen. Als standardbasierte, einheitliche Lösung, die proprietäre sowie metadatentyp-spezifische Ansätze integriert und den damit verbundenen Administrationsaufwand reduziert, schlagen wir einen organisationsübergreifenden ESB vor, den wir als Federation Service Bus (FedSB) bezeichnen. Wir diskutieren seine technischen Eigenschaften, das zugrunde liegende Kommunikationsmodell und die organisatorischen Schritte zur Einführung.

  5. Checkpoint-Inhibitoren in der Immuntherapie: Ein Meilenstein in der Behandlung des malignen Melanoms.

    PubMed

    Wilden, Sophia M; Lang, Berenice M; Mohr, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Seit Jahrzehnten ist bekannt, dass Tumoren vom Immunsystem erkannt und zerstört werden können. Diese, vor allem in Tierversuchen gewonnene Erkenntnis konnte jedoch in der Vergangenheit nicht zum Nutzen unserer Patienten umgesetzt werden, da immunonkologische Therapieansätze in den letzten Jahrzehnten in der Anwendung beim Menschen stets versagt haben. Daher hat, mit Ausnahme der adjuvanten Interferontherapie, keines dieser Verfahren den Einzug in die klinische Versorgung gefunden. Langzeitüberleben unter guter Lebensqualität war dabei sehr wenigen Patienten vorbehalten. Mit den neuen immunologischen Therapieansätzen wird jedoch sowohl das Langzeitüberleben als auch die Lebensqualität onkologischer Patienten neu definiert. Auf die neuen "Immun-Checkpoint-Inhibitoren" spricht erstmals ein relevanter Teil der behandelten Patienten an und diese zeigen in der Regel langandauernde Remissionen bis hin zur Heilung. Schon jetzt ist klar, dass die Immuntherapie in Zukunft eine der wesentlichen Therapiesäulen bei der Behandlung des metastasierten Melanoms und auch vieler anderer fortgeschrittener Tumoren bilden wird. In dieser Übersicht werden die wichtigsten neuen Therapiemodalitäten besprochen und sowohl deren Wirkprinzip als auch klinische Daten zum Therapieansprechen und zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen der Therapie referiert. PMID:27373243

  6. Orchestration of the Floral Transition and Floral Development in Arabidopsis by the Bifunctional Transcription Factor APETALA2[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yant, Levi; Mathieu, Johannes; Dinh, Thanh Theresa; Ott, Felix; Lanz, Christa; Wollmann, Heike; Chen, Xuemei; Schmid, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor APETALA2 (AP2) has numerous functions, including roles in seed development, stem cell maintenance, and specification of floral organ identity. To understand the relationship between these different roles, we mapped direct targets of AP2 on a genome-wide scale in two tissue types. We find that AP2 binds to thousands of loci in the developing flower, many of which exhibit AP2-dependent transcription. Opposing, logical effects are evident in AP2 binding to two microRNA genes that influence AP2 expression, with AP2 positively regulating miR156 and negatively regulating miR172, forming a complex direct feedback loop, which also included all but one of the AP2-like miR172 target clade members. We compare the genome-wide direct target repertoire of AP2 with that of SCHLAFMÜTZE, a closely related transcription factor that also represses the transition to flowering. We detect clear similarities and important differences in the direct target repertoires that are also tissue specific. Finally, using an inducible expression system, we demonstrate that AP2 has dual molecular roles. It functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor, directly inducing the expression of the floral repressor AGAMOUS-LIKE15 and directly repressing the transcription of floral activators like SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1. PMID:20675573

  7. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  8. Two methods for restricted configuration spaces within the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, Daniel J.; McCurdy, C. William

    2015-01-01

    The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method has shown promise in calculating electronic dynamics in molecules driven by strong and high-energy lasers. It must incorporate restricted configuration spaces (meaning that a particular combination of Slater determinants is used, instead of full configuration interaction) to be applied to big systems. Two different Ansätze are used to determine the essential term in the equations. The first Ansatz is the Lagrangian variational principle. The explicit, complete MCTDHF equations of motion, satisfying that principle, for arbitrary configuration spaces, are given. The property that a restricted configuration list must satisfy in order for the Lagrangian and McLachlan variational principles to give different results is identified. The second Ansatz keeps the density matrix block diagonal among equivalent orbitals, in a generalization of the method of Worth [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8322 (2000), 10.1063/1.481438]. The methods perform well in calculating the dynamics of Be and BC2 + subject to ultrafast, ultrastrong lasers in severely truncated Hilbert spaces, although they exhibit differing degrees of numerical stability as implemented.

  9. Consistent Kaluza-Klein sphere reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, M.; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2000-09-01

    We study the circumstances under which a Kaluza-Klein reduction on an n-sphere, with a massless truncation that includes all the Yang-Mills fields of SO(n+1), can be consistent at the full non-linear level. We take as the starting point a theory comprising a p-form field strength and (possibly) a dilaton, coupled to gravity in the higher dimension D. We show that aside from the previously studied cases with (D,p)=(11,4) and (10,5) (associated with the S4 and S7 reductions of D=11 supergravity, and the S5 reduction of type IIB supergravity), the only other possibilities that allow consistent reductions are for p=2, reduced on S2, and for p=3, reduced on S3 or SD-3. We construct the fully non-linear Kaluza-Klein Ansätze in all these cases. In particular, we obtain D=3, N=8, SO(8) and D=7, N=2, SO(4) gauged supergravities from S7 and S3 reductions of N=1 supergravity in D=10.

  10. Polaron dynamics with a multitude of Davydov D{sub 2} trial states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nengji; Huang, Zhongkai; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Yang; Chernyak, Vladimir

    2015-07-07

    We propose an extension to the Davydov D{sub 2} Ansatz in the dynamics study of the Holstein molecular crystal model with diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling using the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The new trial state by the name of the “multi-D{sub 2} Ansatz” is a linear combination of Davydov D{sub 2} trial states, and its validity is carefully examined by quantifying how faithfully it follows the Schrödinger equation. Considerable improvements in accuracy have been demonstrated in comparison with the usual Davydov trial states, i.e., the single D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} Ansätze. With an increase in the number of the Davydov D{sub 2} trial states in the multi-D{sub 2} Ansatz, deviation from the exact Schrödinger dynamics is gradually diminished, leading to a numerically exact solution to the Schrödinger equation.

  11. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S.

    1999-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Sch{umlt u}tze {ital et al.}, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. {bold 26}, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O{sub 2}{sup {asterisk}}, He{sup {asterisk}}) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Methodik der Erfassung und Bewertung von Biodiversitätsschäden aus ökologischer Sicht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegleb, Gerhard; Krawczynski, René; Wagner, Hans-Georg

    Mit der Verabschiedung des Umweltschadensgesetzes (USchadG) hat der Schutz der Biodiversität in Deutschland ein neues Stadium erreicht. Zum ersten Male wird selbst die Vermeidung und Restitution der nichtintendierten Schädigung der Biodiversität in Gestalt bestimmter Arten und Lebensräume in ein umfassendes Naturschutzkonzept einbezogen. Das USchadG geht damit über die bisherigen Ansätze zum Schutz der belebten Natur hinaus, da es gleichzeitig neben der Erhaltung eines als günstig erkannten Ist-Zustandes der Biodiversität der Vermeidung vorhersehbarer Schäden sowie auch der Restitution nach einem eingetretenen Schaden verpflichtet ist. Naturschutzsystematisch gehört es wegen der Betonung der Vermeidung und Sanierung zum Bereich des reaktiven Naturschutzes (Gefahrenabwehr und Gefahrenbeseitigung), dem auch die Eingriffsregelung des Bundesnaturschutzgesetzes (BNatSchG), die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung nach Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfungsgesetz (UVPG) sowie die FFH-Verträglichkeitsprüfung nach Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie (FFH-RL) zuzurechnen sind. Stärker noch als in den genannten Regelungen tritt im USchadG das Verursacherprinzip gegenüber der allgemeinen Umweltvorsorge in den Vordergrund.

  13. Approximate solutions for the single soliton in a Skyrmion-type model with a dilaton scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponciano, J. A.; Canal, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    We consider the analytical properties of the single-soliton solution in a Skyrmion-type Lagrangian that incorporates the scaling properties of quantum chromodynamics through the coupling of the chiral field to a scalar field interpreted as a bound state of gluons. The model was proposed in previous works to describe the Goldstone pions in a dense medium, being also useful for studying the properties of nuclear matter and the in-medium properties of mesons and nucleons. Guided by an asymptotic analysis of the Euler-Lagrange equations, we propose approximate analytical representations for the single-soliton solution in terms of rational approximants exponentially localized. Following the Padé method, we construct a sequence of approximants from the exact power-series solutions near the origin. We find that the convergence of the approximate representations to the numerical solutions is considerably improved by taking the expansion coefficients as free parameters and then minimizing the mass of the Skyrmion using our ansätze for the fields. We also perform an analysis of convergence by computation of physical quantities showing that the proposed analytical representations are very useful for further phenomenological calculations.

  14. Wave packet spreading and localization in electron-nuclear scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markmann, Andreas; Grabowski*, P. E.; Morozov, I. V.; Valuev, I. A.; Fichtl, C. A.; Batista, V. S.; Graziani, F. R.; Murillo, M. S.; Cimarron Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD) method solves the time-dependent Schrödinger equation via a variational approximation. Application to high-temperature dense plasmas has yielded diverging electron width (spreading) with diminished electron-nuclear interaction. This was previously ascribed to a shortcoming of WPMD and has been counteracted by heuristic additions to the model. We employ various methods to determine if spreading continues to be predicted. Single electron scattering on a periodic array of statically screened protons is used as a model problem for comparison via the numerically exact split operator Fourier transform method, the Wigner trajectory method, and the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). Within the TDVP, we use as ansätze the standard form of WPMD, a single Gaussian wave packet (WP), as well as the split WP method, a linear combination of Gaussian WPs. Spreading is predicted by all methods, so is not the cause of unphysical diminishing interactions in WPMD. Instead, the Gaussian WP's inability to reproduce breakup of the density into fragments localized near ions is responsible for the deviation between methods. Hence, extensions of WPMD must include a mechanism for breakup. Authors contributed equally.

  15. The Kondo problem. II. Crossover from asymptotic freedom to infrared slavery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    1982-04-01

    In the preceding paper we transformed the s-d Hamiltonian onto a resonance level with a large perturbation and derived the scaling equations for the vertices, the invariant coupling, and the resonance width. The scaling equations are integrated under the assumption that the energy dependence of the resonance width can be neglected. The transcendental equation obtained in this way for the renormalized resonance width is solved in the relevant limits and allows a calculation of the static and dynamical susceptibility. At high temperatures the perturbation expansion for the relaxation rate and the susceptibility is reproduced up to third order in Jρ. At low temperatures the lifetime and χ0 remain finite and vary according to a Fermi-liquid theory. The approximation scheme interpolates in this way between the asymptotic freedom and the infrared slavery, yielding a smooth crossover. The present results are in quantitative agreement with previous ones obtained with the relaxation-kernel method by Götze and Schlottmann. The advantages and drawbacks of the method are discussed. The calculation of the dynamical susceptibility is extended to nonzero external magnetic fields. The quasielastic peak of χ''(ω)ω is suppressed at low temperatures and large magnetic fields and shoulders develop at ω=+/-B.

  16. Faster identification of optimal contraction sequences for tensor networks.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Robert N C; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The efficient evaluation of tensor expressions involving sums over multiple indices is of significant importance to many fields of research, including quantum many-body physics, loop quantum gravity, and quantum chemistry. The computational cost of evaluating an expression may depend strongly on the order in which the index sums are evaluated, and determination of the operation-minimizing contraction sequence for a single tensor network (single term, in quantum chemistry) is known to be NP-hard. The current preferred solution is an exhaustive search, using either an iterative depth-first approach with pruning or dynamic programming and memoization, but these approaches are impractical for many of the larger tensor network ansätze encountered in quantum many-body physics. We present a modified search algorithm with enhanced pruning which exhibits a performance increase of several orders of magnitude while still guaranteeing identification of an optimal operation-minimizing contraction sequence for a single tensor network. A reference implementation for matlab, compatible with the ncon() and multienv() network contractors of arXiv:1402.0939 and Evenbly and Pfeifer, Phys. Rev. B 89, 245118 (2014), respectively, is supplied.

  17. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  18. Engineering the just war: examination of an approach to teaching engineering ethics.

    PubMed

    Haws, David R

    2006-04-01

    The efficiency of engineering applied to civilian projects sometimes threatens to run away with the social agenda, but in military applications, engineering often adds a devastating sleekness to the inevitable destruction of life. The relative crudeness of terrorism (e.g., 9/11) leaves a stark after-image, which belies the comparative insignificance of random (as opposed to orchestrated) belligerence. Just as engineering dwarfs the bricolage of vernacular design 'moving us past the appreciation of brush-strokes, so to speak' the scale of engineered destruction makes it difficult to focus on the charred remains of individual lives. Engineers need to guard against the inappropriate military subsumption of their effort. Fortunately, the ethics of warfare has been an ongoing topic of discussion for millennia. This paper will examine the university core class I've developed (The Moral Dimensions of Technology) to meet accreditation requirements in engineering ethics, and the discussion with engineering and non-engineering students focused by the life of electrical engineer Vannevar Bush, with selected readings in moral philosophy from the Dao de Jing, Lao Tze, Cicero, Aurelius Augustinus, Kant, Annette Baier, Peter Singer, Elizabeth Anscombe, Philippa Foot, and Judith Thomson. PMID:16609723

  19. Faster identification of optimal contraction sequences for tensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Robert N. C.; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The efficient evaluation of tensor expressions involving sums over multiple indices is of significant importance to many fields of research, including quantum many-body physics, loop quantum gravity, and quantum chemistry. The computational cost of evaluating an expression may depend strongly on the order in which the index sums are evaluated, and determination of the operation-minimizing contraction sequence for a single tensor network (single term, in quantum chemistry) is known to be NP-hard. The current preferred solution is an exhaustive search, using either an iterative depth-first approach with pruning or dynamic programming and memoization, but these approaches are impractical for many of the larger tensor network ansätze encountered in quantum many-body physics. We present a modified search algorithm with enhanced pruning which exhibits a performance increase of several orders of magnitude while still guaranteeing identification of an optimal operation-minimizing contraction sequence for a single tensor network. A reference implementation for matlab, compatible with the ncon() and multienv() network contractors of arXiv:1402.0939 and Evenbly and Pfeifer, Phys. Rev. B 89, 245118 (2014),10.1103/PhysRevB.89.245118, respectively, is supplied.

  20. Fehler begehen - Mathematik verstehen Über die Bedeutung von Fehlern für das Verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, Udo

    Auch wenn eine historisch oder systematisch umfassende Darstellung zur Fehlerthematik bislang nicht vorliegt, ist die Idee, einer Fehleranalyse unter der Leitfrage, welche Fehler von Schülerinnen und Schülern aufgrund welcher epistemologischen Überzeugungen begangen werden, zentralen Raum für die Betrachtung von Verstehensprozessen einzuräumen, nicht neu. So ist es geradezu ein Charakteristikum einer modernen konstruktivistischen Didaktik, die eigenen Fehler von Lernenden als ihre individuellen Lerngelegenheiten zu begreifen, die einen wichtigen Motor für den subjektiven Lernfortschritt bilden. Diese Sichtweise wurzelt aus psychologischer Perspektive in Analysen in der Tradition Piagets, der in Abkehr von einer quantitativen, psychometrischen Beschreibung kognitiver Prozesse, wie sie sich zum Beispiel in Intelligenztheorien nach Binet findet, qualitativ zu beschreiben versuchte, in welcher Weise Kinder und Jugendliche denken und urteilen. Doch auch schon in der klassischen Philosophie sind entsprechende Ansätze zu finden. Prominente Beispiele hierfür sind die Idolenlehre Bacons und die Ideenlehre Platons.

  1. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-01

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  2. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-01

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  3. Low temperature absorption, fluorescence, and hole-burning spectroscopy of photosystem II reaction center complex containing 1 and 2 carotenoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dědic, R.; Lovčinský, M.; Pšenčík, J.; Vácha, M.; Vácha, F.; Hála, J.

    1999-05-01

    Well defined photosystem II reaction centers from Pisum sativum containing 5 or 6 chlorophyll a (Chl a), 2 pheophytine a (Pheo a), and 1 or 2 β-carotene ( β Car) molecules were prepared by using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Samples containing 6 Chl a and 1 or 2 β-Car and containing 5 Chl a and 1 β-Car were measured using low temperature absorption, fluorescence and hole-burning spectroscopy. Absorption bands of the β Car (462, 490, and 508 nm) can be clearly distinguished next to the Soret absorption band of Chl a at low temperature. Their relative intensities strongly depend on Chl/Car ratio. The shapes of fluorescence bands are the same for all samples. Persistent spectral holes were burnt into both absorption and fluorescence spectra. This technique provides lifetime of excited state τ1 and Huang-Rhys factor S. Values of τ1 correspond to two picoseconds energy transfer in reaction centers. Huang-Rhys factor S=0.4 appears to be the same for all studied samples.

  4. Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Conway, Joan M; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Dobre, Mirela

    2006-12-01

    The sale of nonprescription weight-loss products accounts for millions of dollars spent by Americans trying to lose weight, yet there is little evidence for effectiveness and there are multiple safety concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine what products, and ingredients within products, were available at retail outlets in a metropolitan area. A purposive sampling strategy identified 73 retail outlets. An audit form was used to collect information from product labels. The audit identified 402 products containing 4,053 separate ingredients. The mean number of ingredients per product was 9.9+/-8.96 (range = 1 to 96). A database search was conducted regarding evidence for effectiveness, safety precautions, and side effects for the 10 ingredients that appeared most often across products. Modest evidence of effectiveness exists for green tea (Camellia sinensis), chromium picolinate, and ma huang (Ephedra major). For the remaining seven (ginger root [Zingiber officinale], guarana [Paullinia cupana], hydroxycitric acid [Garcinia cambogia], white willow [Salix alba], Siberian ginseng [Eleutherococcus senticosus], cayenne [Capsicum annuum], and bitter orange/zhi shi [Citrus aurantium]), inadequate or negative evidence exists. Although precautions and contraindications were found for all 10 ingredients, the strongest concerns in the literature appear for ma huang, bitter orange, and guarana. Our audit revealed numerous weight-loss products available to consumers, yet there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of the top 10 ingredients identified and many potential adverse reactions; therefore, food and nutrition professionals should discuss dietary supplement use with their clients.

  5. Data on the identification of protein interactors with the Evening Complex and PCH1 in Arabidopsis using tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry (TAP-MS).

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Alvarez, Sophie; Nusinow, Dmitri A

    2016-09-01

    Tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) analysis is a powerful biochemical approach to identify protein-protein associations. Here we describe two datasets generated by a series of TAP-MS analyses to co-purify proteins associated with either ELF3 or ELF4 of the Evening Complex (EC) ("Identification of Evening Complex Associated Proteins in Arabidopsis by Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry" (Huang et al., 2016a) [1]) or proteins associated with PCH1, which is a newly identified output of the circadian clock to regulate photoperiodic growth in Arabidopsis thaliana ("PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis" (Huang et al. 2016b) [2]). We used either ELF3, ELF4 or PCH1 fused to a C-terminal tandem affinity tag (6xHis-3xFLAG) as baits and conducted purifications in various genetic mutant backgrounds. These data are discussed in recent publications [1,2], and are deposited at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD002606 (for EC) and PRIDE: PXD003352 (for PCH1).

  6. Nonadiabatic bounce and an inflationary phase in the quantum mixmaster universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Hervé; Czuchry, Ewa; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre; Małkiewicz, Przemysław

    2016-06-01

    Following our previous paper, Bergeron et al., Smooth quantum dynamics of the mixmaster universe, Phys. Rev. D 92, 061302(R) (2015), concerning the quantization of the vacuum Bianchi IX model and the Born-Huang-Oppenheimer framework, we present a further analysis of the dynamical properties of the model. Consistently with the deep quantum regime, we implement the harmonic approximation of the anisotropy potential. We thus obtain manageable dynamical equations. We study the quantum anisotropic oscillations during the bouncing phase of the universe. Neglecting the backreaction from transitions between quantum anisotropy states, we obtain analytical results. In particular, we identify a parameter that is associated with dynamical properties of the quantum model and describes a sort of phase transition. Once the parameter exceeds its critical value, the Born-Huang-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down. The application of the present result to a simple model of the universe indicates that the parameter indeed exceeds its critical value and that there takes place a huge production of anisotropy at the bounce. This in turn must lead to a sustained phase of accelerated expansion, an inflationary phase. The quantitative inclusion of backreaction shall be examined in a follow-up paper based on the vibronic approach.

  7. Commentary: How ethanol short-circuits the cerebellum-actions on Golgi cells in freely-moving animals.

    PubMed

    Freund, Ronald K

    2012-11-01

    This commentary discusses the important contributions of the article published in this journal by Huang and colleagues, titled, "Acute ethanol exposure increases firing and induces oscillations in cerebellar Golgi cells of freely moving rats." In this manuscript, Huang and colleagues present a number of interesting and important findings. While it has been shown previously that ethanol (EtOH) causes an increase in the firing of cerebellar Golgi cells in brain slice preparations and anesthetized animals, here the authors provide the first evidence that this action of EtOH occurs in vivo in freely moving, unanesthetized animals. These results also enhance our understanding of cerebellar functioning by describing the mechanism by which EtOH essentially de-afferentates (blocks specific inputs to) the cerebellum from the normal processing of sensory signals due to EtOH-induced Golgi neuron excitation, resulting in inhibition of granule cells. Furthermore, the authors characterize the novel observation of EtOH-induced neuronal oscillations, which was not previously observed in other preparations.

  8. Arf6 arbitrates fibrinogen endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Matthew T; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Blood, in a departure from studies of classic platelet function, Huang et al turn their attention to endocytosis and show that adenosine 5′-diphosphate-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) plays a key role in fibrinogen engulfment. Although platelets are known to bind, absorb, and load their granules with plasma proteins, this report is one of the first to explore mechanisms that control endocytosis in this anucleate cell. Huang et al demonstrate that Arf6-dependent endocytosis is restricted to fibrinogen, implying that Arf6 also modulates trafficking of αIIbβ3 integrins in platelets. Consistent with this notion, deletion of Arf6 in platelets enhances spreading on fibrinogen and accelerates clot retraction (see figure). However, activation of surface αIIbβ3 is unaffected, and Arf6 deficiency does not alter thrombosis in vivo. These incongruous results point toward the complexity of anucleate platelets and the need for more detailed studies to understand intracellular trafficking, recycling, and endocytosis in platelets and their precurs

  9. Highly Accurate Quantum-Chemical Calculations for the Interstellar Molecules C_3 and l-C_3H^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botschwina, Peter; Schröder, Benjamin; Stein, Christopher; Sebald, Peter; Oswald, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Composite potential energy surfaces with coupled-cluster contributions up to CCSDTQP were constructed for C_3 and l-C_3H^+ and used in the calculation of spectroscopic properties. The use of very large AO basis sets and the consideration of higher-order correlation beyond CCSD(T) is of utmost importance for C_3 in order to arrive at quantitative spectroscopic data. The first detection of l-C_3H^+ in the interstellar medium was reported by Pety et al., who attributed 9 radio lines observed in the horsehead photodissociation region to that species. That assignment was questioned by the recent theoretical work of Huang et al. However, our more accurate calculations are well in support of the original assignment. The calculated ground-state rotational constant is B_0 = 11248 MHz, only 0.03% off from the radio astronomical value of 11244.9512±0.0015 MHz. The ratio of centrifugal distortion constants D_0(exp.)/D_e(theor.) of 1.8 is quite large, but reasonable in comparison with C_3O and C_3. J. Pety, P. Gratier, V. Guzmán, E. Roueff, M. Gerin et al., Astron. Astrophys. 2012, A68, 1-8. X. Huang, R. C. Fortenberry, T. J. Lee, Astrophys. J. Lett. 2013, 768:L25, 1-5. P. Botschwina, R. Oswald, J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 044305

  10. Optimal Gaussian squeezed states for atom interferometry in the presence of phase diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonenkov, Igor; Moore, Michael G.; Vardi, Amichay

    2010-10-15

    We optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer with Gaussian squeezed input states in the presence interactions. For weak interactions, our results coincide with those of Huang and Moore [Y. P. Huang and M. G. Moore, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 250406 (2008)], with an optimal initial number variance {sigma}{sub o{proportional_to}}N{sup 1/3} and an optimal signal-to-noise ratio s{sub o{proportional_to}}N{sup 2/3} for the total atom number N. As the interaction strength u increases past unity, phase diffusion becomes dominant, leading to a transition in the optimal squeezing from initial number squeezing to initial phase squeezing with {sigma}{sub o{proportional_to}{radical}}(uN) and s{sub o{proportional_to}{radical}}(N/u) shot-noise scaling. The initial phase squeezing translates into hold-time number squeezing, which is less sensitive to interactions than coherent states and improves s{sub o} by a factor of {radical}(u).

  11. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  12. Impact of extended defects on recombination in CdTe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Swartz, Craig H.; Dippo, Pat; Edirisooriya, Madhavie; Ogedengbe, Olanrewaju S.; Sohal, Sandeep; Hancock, Bobby L.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth G.; Jayathilaka, Pathiraja A. R. D.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Myers, Thomas H.

    2016-08-01

    Heterostructures with CdTe and CdTe1-xSex (x ˜ 0.01) absorbers between two wider-band-gap Cd1-xMgxTe barriers (x ˜ 0.25-0.3) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to study carrier generation and recombination in bulk materials with passivated interfaces. Using a combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and low-temperature PL emission spectroscopy, two extended defect types were identified and the impact of these defects on charge-carrier recombination was analyzed. The dominant defects identified by confocal PL were dislocations in samples grown on (211)B CdTe substrates and crystallographic twinning-related defects in samples on (100)-oriented InSb substrates. Low-temperature PL shows that twin-related defects have a zero-phonon energy of 1.460 eV and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.50, while dislocation-dominated samples have a 1.473-eV zero-phonon energy and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.22. The charge carrier diffusion length near both types of defects is ˜6 μm, suggesting that recombination is limited by diffusion dynamics. For heterostructures with a low concentration of extended defects, the bulk lifetime was determined to be 2.2 μs with an interface recombination velocity of 160 cm/s and an estimated radiative lifetime of 91 μs.

  13. Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Conway, Joan M; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Dobre, Mirela

    2006-12-01

    The sale of nonprescription weight-loss products accounts for millions of dollars spent by Americans trying to lose weight, yet there is little evidence for effectiveness and there are multiple safety concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine what products, and ingredients within products, were available at retail outlets in a metropolitan area. A purposive sampling strategy identified 73 retail outlets. An audit form was used to collect information from product labels. The audit identified 402 products containing 4,053 separate ingredients. The mean number of ingredients per product was 9.9+/-8.96 (range = 1 to 96). A database search was conducted regarding evidence for effectiveness, safety precautions, and side effects for the 10 ingredients that appeared most often across products. Modest evidence of effectiveness exists for green tea (Camellia sinensis), chromium picolinate, and ma huang (Ephedra major). For the remaining seven (ginger root [Zingiber officinale], guarana [Paullinia cupana], hydroxycitric acid [Garcinia cambogia], white willow [Salix alba], Siberian ginseng [Eleutherococcus senticosus], cayenne [Capsicum annuum], and bitter orange/zhi shi [Citrus aurantium]), inadequate or negative evidence exists. Although precautions and contraindications were found for all 10 ingredients, the strongest concerns in the literature appear for ma huang, bitter orange, and guarana. Our audit revealed numerous weight-loss products available to consumers, yet there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of the top 10 ingredients identified and many potential adverse reactions; therefore, food and nutrition professionals should discuss dietary supplement use with their clients. PMID:17126636

  14. The Use of Covariates and Random Effects in Evaluating Predictive Biomarkers Under a Potential Outcome Framework

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Nie, Lei; Soon, Guoxing; Liu, Aiyi

    2016-01-01

    Predictive or treatment selection biomarkers are usually evaluated in a subgroup or regression analysis with focus on the treatment-by-marker interaction. Under a potential outcome framework (Huang, Gilbert and Janes [Biometrics 68 (2012) 687–696]), a predictive biomarker is considered a predictor for a desirable treatment benefit (defined by comparing potential outcomes for different treatments) and evaluated using familiar concepts in prediction and classification. However, the desired treatment benefit is un-observable because each patient can receive only one treatment in a typical study. Huang et al. overcome this problem by assuming monotonicity of potential outcomes, with one treatment dominating the other in all patients. Motivated by an HIV example that appears to violate the monotonicity assumption, we propose a different approach based on covariates and random effects for evaluating predictive biomarkers under the potential outcome framework. Under the proposed approach, the parameters of interest can be identified by assuming conditional independence of potential outcomes given observed covariates, and a sensitivity analysis can be performed by incorporating an unobserved random effect that accounts for any residual dependence. Application of this approach to the motivating example shows that baseline viral load and CD4 cell count are both useful as predictive biomarkers for choosing antiretroviral drugs for treatment-naive patients. PMID:26779295

  15. Synthesis of artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrochidou, E.; Alvanitopoulos, P. F.; Andreadis, I.; Elenas, A.; Mallousi, K.

    2014-08-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform is used to generate artificial seismic signals compatible with the acceleration spectra of natural seismic records. Artificial spectrum-compatible accelerograms are utilized instead of natural earthquake records for the dynamic response analysis of many critical structures such as hospitals, bridges, and power plants. The realistic estimation of the seismic response of structures involves nonlinear dynamic analysis. Moreover, it requires seismic accelerograms representative of the actual ground acceleration time histories expected at the site of interest. Unfortunately, not many actual records of different seismic intensities are available for many regions. In addition, a large number of seismic accelerograms are required to perform a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses for a reliable statistical investigation of the structural behavior under earthquake excitation. These are the main motivations for generating artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms and could be useful in earthquake engineering for dynamic analysis and design of buildings. According to the proposed method, a single natural earthquake record is deconstructed into amplitude and frequency components using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed method is illustrated by studying 20 natural seismic records with different characteristics such as different frequency content, amplitude, and duration. Experimental results reveal the efficiency of the proposed method in comparison with well-established and industrial methods in the literature.

  16. A targeted strategy to analyze untargeted mass spectral data: Rapid chemical profiling of Scutellaria baicalensis using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry and key ion filtering.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Li, Ru; Song, Wei; Miao, Wen-juan; Liu, Jia; Chen, Hu-biao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-04-01

    Structural identification of natural products by tandem mass spectrometry requires laborious spectral analysis. Herein, we report a targeted post-acquisition data processing strategy, key ion filtering (KIF), to analyze untargeted mass spectral data. This strategy includes four steps: (1) untargeted data acquisition by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/orbitrap-MS); (2) construction of a key ion database according to diagnostic MS/MS fragmentations and conservative substructures of natural compounds; (3) high-resolution key ion filtering of the acquired data to recognize substructures; and (4) structural identification of target compounds by analyzing their MS/MS spectra. The herbal medicine Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) was used to illustrate this strategy. Its extract was separated within 20 min on a C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1×150 mm) eluted with acetonitrile, methanol, and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The compounds were detected in the (-)-ESI mode, and their MS/MS spectra were recorded in the untargeted manner. Key ions were then filtered from the LC/MS data to recognize flavones, flavanones, O-/C-glycosides, and phenylethanoid glycosides. Finally, a total of 132 compounds were identified from Huang-Qin, and 59 of them were reported for the first time. This study provides an efficient data processing strategy to rapidly profile the chemical constituents of complicated herbal extracts.

  17. Non-Negative Integral Level Affine Lie Algebra Tensor Categories and Their Associativity Isomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Robert

    2016-08-01

    For a finite-dimensional simple Lie algebra {{g}}, we use the vertex tensor category theory of Huang and Lepowsky to identify the category of standard modules for the affine Lie algebra {{widehat{{g}}}} at a fixed level {ℓin{N}} with a certain tensor category of finite-dimensional {{g}}-modules. More precisely, the category of level ℓ standard {{widehat{{g}}}}-modules is the module category for the simple vertex operator algebra {L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0)}, and as is well known, this category is equivalent as an abelian category to {{D}({g},ℓ)}, the category of finite-dimensional modules for the Zhu's algebra {A{(L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0))}}, which is a quotient of {U({g})}. Our main result is a direct construction using Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations of the associativity isomorphisms in {{D}({g},ℓ)} induced from the associativity isomorphisms constructed by Huang and Lepowsky in {{L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0) - {mod}}}. This construction shows that {{D}({g},ℓ)} is closely related to the Drinfeld category of {U({g})}[[h

  18. Bulk and Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Long-Chain, n-alkanes From a 85-kyr Core From Lake Peten Itza, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, J. L.; Brenner, M.; Bush, M. B.; Correa, A.; Curtis, J. H.; Hodell, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Drill cores obtained from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, contain a ~85-kyr record of terrestrial climate from lowland Central America. Variations in sediment lithology suggest rapid changes in precipitation during the last glacial and deglacial periods. Previous work in nearby Lake Quexil demonstrated the utility of using the carbon isotopic compositions of leaf wax n-alkanes to infer changes in terrestrial vegetation (Huang et al., 2001). Here we report carbon isotopes of bulk organic and long-chain n-alkanes in 60 samples to reconstruct changes in the relative proportion of C3 and C4 biomass in the watershed under changing climate and atmospheric CO2 conditions during the past 85 kyrs. Compound-specific carbon isotope results are compared directly with pollen analysis from the same samples. Huang, Y., F.A. Street-Perrott, S.E. Metcalfe, M. Brenner, M. Moreland, and K.H. Freeman. 2001. Climate change as the dominant control on glacial-interglacial variations in C3 and C4 plant abundance. Science 293:1647-1651.

  19. Analysis of mathematical models of Pseudomonas spp. growth in pallet-package pork stored at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Niu, Huimin; Zhao, Gaiming; Tian, Lu; Huang, Xianqing; Zhang, Jianwei; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Qiuhui

    2013-04-01

    Pseudomonas of pallet-packaged raw pork grown at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25°C has been studied in this paper. The modified Gompertz, Baranyi and Huang models were used for data fitting. Statistical criteria such as residual sum of squares, mean square error, Akaike's information criterion, and pseudo-R(2) were used to evaluate model performance. Results showed that there was an apparent decline in Pseudomonas growth at initial-storage phase at low temperatures. The modified Gompertz model outperformed the others at 5, 15, and 20°C, while Baranyi model was appropriate for 0 and 25°C. The Huang model was optimal at 10°C. No single model can give a consistently preferable goodness-of-fit for all growth data. The Gompertz model, with the smallest average values of RSS, AIC, MSE and the biggest pseudo-R(2) at all temperatures, is the most appropriate model to describe the growth of Pseudomonas of raw pork under pallet packaging.

  20. S-Wave Velocity Structure of the Puli Basin, Taiwan, Using the Array Records of Microtremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Huang, H.

    2009-12-01

    The September 21, 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake induced strong shaking, resulting in severe damage in the Puli area. According to Huang and Tarng (2005), the collapse of many structures during the earthquake was very closely related to the site effects. The Shallow Shear-wave velocities have widely been used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. Thus, the S-wave velocity structures of the Puli area are investigated using the array records of microtremors at 16 sites. The dispersion curves at these sites are calculated using the F-K method (Capon, 1969); then, the S-wave velocity structures at the Puli area are estimated by employing the surface wave inversion technique (Herrmann, 1991). If the S-wave velocity of bedrock is assumed to be 2000m/sec, the depths of the alluvium at the Puli area are between 360m (ZHO) and 810m (AIL, DAH). Besides, there are 3~4 distinct interfaces in the shallow velocity structure (0~1000m). The depth of the alluvium gradually increases from east to west and the deepest one appears at stations AIL and DAH. The results in this study are similar to those using the seismic exploration method (Wang et al., 2003; Huang, 2008) in the Puli area and the well-logging method at LAC.

  1. Identifying Modes of Temperature Variability Using AIRS Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.; Yung, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We use the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data obtained on Aqua spacecraft to study mid-tropospheric temperature variability between 2002-2007. The analysis is focused on daily zonal means of the AIRS channel at 2388 1/cm in the CO2 R-branch and the AMSU channel #5 in the 57 GHz Oxygen band, both with weighting function peaking in the mid-troposphere (400 mb) and the matching sea surface temperature from NCEP (Aumann et al., 2007). Taking into account the nonlinear and non- stationary behavior of the temperature we apply the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang et al., 1998) to better separate modes of variability. All-sky (cloudy) and clear sky, day and night data are analyzed. In addition to the dominant annual variation, which is nonlinear and latitude dependent, we identified the modes with higher frequency and inter-annual modes. Some trends are visible and we apply stringent criteria to test their statistical significance. References: Aumann, H. H., D. T. Gregorich, S. E. Broberg, and D. A. Elliott, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15813, doi:10.1029/2006GL029191, 2007. Huang, N. E. Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 454, 903-995, 1998.

  2. Quasi-periodicities and Empirical Modes of the Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. J.; Zhou, X.; Ruzmaikin, A.

    2006-12-01

    Quasi-periodicities in solar phenomena including variations in the heliospheric magnetic field have attracted attention in the past. Recently, such a periodicity near 140- 150 days has been of interest. In a recent analysis of solar cycle variations in the Sun's open magnetic flux, we found a quasi-periodicity of approximately one and one-half years in the radial component and the field magnitude that persists during the last four sunspot cycles. Inspection of the data revealed that this signal was variable in both amplitude and period. Power spectra having proved marginally useful in revealing the signal properties, we apply a new technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang et al., 1998) that treats both the frequency and amplitude as time-dependent. Application of this technique revealed several quasi-periodic modes including the mode near 1 and 1/2 years and the mode near 140 days that was not evident by inspection alone. The results of this analysis will be presented and the origin of the several periodicities will be discussed. Reference: Huang, N. E. Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 454, 903-995, 1998.

  3. Computing a Stability Spectrum by Use of the HHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.

    2007-01-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is part of the mathematical basis of a method of calculating a stability spectrum. This method can be regarded as an extended and improved version of a prior HHT-based method of calculating a damping spectrum. In the prior method, information on positive damping (which leads to stability) and negative damping (which leads to instability) becomes mixed into a single squared damping loss factor. Hence, there is no way to distinguish between stability and instability by examining a damping spectrum. In contrast, in the present stabilityspectrum method, information on the mathematical sign of the damping is retained, making it possible to identify reThe Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is part of the mathematical basis of a method of calculating a stability spectrum. This method can be regarded as an extended and improved version of a prior HHT-based method of calculating a damping spectrum. In the prior method, information on positive damping (which leads to stability) and negative damping (which leads to instability) becomes mixed into a single squared damping loss factor. Hence, there is no way to distinguish between stability and instability by examining a damping spectrum. In contrast, in the present stabilityspectrum method, information on the mathematical sign of the damping is retained, making it possible to identify regions of instability in a spectrum. This method is expected to be especially useful for analyzing vibration-test data for the purpose of predicting vibrational instabilities in structures (e.g., flutter in airplane wings).

  4. Evaluating growth models of Pseudomonas spp. in seasoned prepared chicken stored at different temperatures by the principal component analysis (PCA).

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Li, Yuanhui; Huang, Xianqing; Zhao, Gaiming; Tian, Wei

    2014-06-01

    The growth of Pseudomonas of pallet-packaged seasoned prepared chicken products under selected storage temperatures (5°°C, 10°°C, 15°°C, 20°°C and 25°°C) has been studied in this paper. The modified Gompertz, Baranyi and Huang models were used for data fitting. Statistical criteria such as residual sum of squares, mean square error, Akaike's information criterion, Pseudo-R(2) were used to evaluate model performance. Results showed that RSS (Residual sum of squares) index contribution rate was more than 90% of the variability, which could be explained by the first principal components analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). The index values reported in Sichuan-style chicken skewers and chicken flesh and bones were about 94.85% and 93.345% respectively, and both the rate were better than the standard (85%). Therefore, RSS can be used as the main evaluating index to analyze and compare the difference of those three models. With the smallest average values of RSS and the biggest pseudo-R2 at most temperatures, the Baranyi model was more suitable to fit the data of Pseudomonas obtained from the two prepared chicken products than Gompertz model and Huang model. PMID:24549196

  5. Analysis of mathematical models of Pseudomonas spp. growth in pallet-package pork stored at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Niu, Huimin; Zhao, Gaiming; Tian, Lu; Huang, Xianqing; Zhang, Jianwei; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Qiuhui

    2013-04-01

    Pseudomonas of pallet-packaged raw pork grown at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25°C has been studied in this paper. The modified Gompertz, Baranyi and Huang models were used for data fitting. Statistical criteria such as residual sum of squares, mean square error, Akaike's information criterion, and pseudo-R(2) were used to evaluate model performance. Results showed that there was an apparent decline in Pseudomonas growth at initial-storage phase at low temperatures. The modified Gompertz model outperformed the others at 5, 15, and 20°C, while Baranyi model was appropriate for 0 and 25°C. The Huang model was optimal at 10°C. No single model can give a consistently preferable goodness-of-fit for all growth data. The Gompertz model, with the smallest average values of RSS, AIC, MSE and the biggest pseudo-R(2) at all temperatures, is the most appropriate model to describe the growth of Pseudomonas of raw pork under pallet packaging. PMID:23313972

  6. Relation between deep bioluminescence and oceanographic variables: A statistical analysis using time-frequency decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, S.; Nerini, D.; Tamburini, C.

    2014-09-01

    We consider the statistical analysis of a 1.7-year high-frequency sampled time series, between 2009 and 2010, recorded at the ANTARES observatory in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea (2475 m depth). The objective was to estimate relationships between bioluminescence and environmental time series (temperature, salinity and current speed). As this entire dataset is characterized by non-linearity and non-stationarity, two time-frequency decomposition methods (wavelet and Hilbert-Huang) were used. These mathematical methods are dedicated to the analysis of a signal at various time and frequencies scales. This work propose some statistical tools dedicated to the study of relationships between two time series. Our study highlights three events of high bioluminescence activity in March 2009, December 2009 and March 2010. We demonstrate that the two events occurring in March 2009 and 2010 are correlated to the arrival of newly formed deep water masses at frequencies of approximately 4.8×10-7 (period of 24.1 days). In contrast, the event in December 2009 is only correlated with current speed at frequencies of approximately 1.9×10-6 (period of 6.0 days). The use of both wavelet and Hilbert-Huang transformations has proven to be successful for the analysis of multivariate time series. These methods are well-suited in a context of the increasing number of long time series recorded in oceanography.

  7. Dissolved platinum in major rivers of East Asia: Implications for the oceanic budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Huh, Youngsook

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved platinum concentrations of eleven large pristine river systems in East Asia (˜200 samples) were determined to better constrain the oceanic platinum budget. Most samples had concentrations less than 1.4 pM; relatively high concentrations up to 5.8 pM were measured in only approximately 6% of the samples. The median Pt concentrations of the individual river systems had only a small range, from 0.18 pM (Duman) to 0.63 pM (Huang He), and the difference in Pt yield mainly resulted from the difference in runoff. The rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau - the Salween, Mekong, Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Hong (Red), and Huang He (Yellow) - had higher Pt yield than the rivers of the Russian Far East - the Amur, Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. If the discharge-weighted mean Pt concentration of our samples (0.36 pM) is extrapolated globally, the estimated riverine flux of dissolved Pt to the ocean is 13 × 103 mol y-1. Based on this riverine flux, the estimated oceanic residence time of Pt is 24 ± 10 kyrs. A 50% release and 50% uptake of Pt in estuaries would modify this to 16 kyrs and 45 kyrs, respectively.

  8. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  9. Bifurcation and control in a neural network with small and large delays.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min; Zheng, Wei Xing; Cao, Jinde

    2013-08-01

    This paper investigates a neural network modeled by a scalar delay differential equation. The focus is placed upon the Hopf bifurcation generated by varying the interaction parameter. A general expression for the periodic solutions arising from the Hopf bifurcation is obtained, and the direction of the bifurcation is also determined. Then, our results are tested in the two limits of small and large delays. For small delays, it is shown that a Hopf bifurcation to sinusoidal oscillations emerges as long as the interaction parameter is large enough (bifurcation from infinity) (Rosenblat & Davis, 1979). For large delays, it is pointed out that the oscillation progressively changes from sine to square-wave (Chow, Hale, & Huang, 1992; Hale & Huang, 1994). Moreover, a time delayed feedback control algorithm is introduced to generate the Hopf bifurcation at a desired bifurcation point for our neural network model. It is shown that the linear gain regulates the onset of the bifurcation, while the nonlinear gains govern the direction and the stability of the periodic solutions generated from the Hopf bifurcation.

  10. New expectations from the well-known medicinal properties of Arctium lappa.

    PubMed

    Miele, C; Beguinot, F

    2012-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) serves as a major regulator of energy homeostasis and is activated by different glucose-lowering agents. Indeed, AMPK has been identified as an attractive target for the development of innovative molecules to treat type 2 diabetes. In this issue of Diabetologia (doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2366-3 ), Huang and co-workers report that arctigenin activates muscle uptake of glucose and inhibits hepatocyte gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis by reducing mitochondrial respiration and inducing AMPK activity. Importantly, it is reported that arctigenin improves glucose and lipid metabolism in ob/ob mice. Based on this evidence, Huang and co-workers suggest that arctigenin may represent a valuable lead compound for developing innovative glucose-lowering molecules. While these findings are not entirely novel and mechanistic investigations are needed, the results strongly support the concept that arctigenin deserves to be further considered because of its several potentially beneficial in vivo effects. In particular, the authors conclude that further mechanistic studies on arctigenin might provide novel insight and opportunities for selective modulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass.

  11. Contributions to the knowledge of subterranean trechine beetles in southern China’s karsts: five new genera (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Huang, Sunbin; Wang, Xinhui; Tang, Mingruo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent discoveries reveal that southern China’s karsts hold the most diverse and morphologically modified subterranean trechine beetles in the world, albeit the first troglobitic blind beetle was only reported in the early 1990’s. In total, 110 species belonging to 43 genera of cavernicolous trechines have hitherto been recorded from the karsts of southern China, including the following five new genera proposed below: Shiqianaphaenops Tian, gen. n., to contain two species: Shiqianaphaenops majusculus (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops majusculus Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), the type species from Cave Feng Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou, and Shiqianaphaenops cursor (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops cursor Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), from Cave Shenxian Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou; and the monotypic Dianotrechus Tian, gen. n. (the type species: Dianotrechus gueorguievi Tian, sp. n., from Cave Dashi Dong, Kunming, Yunnan), Tianeotrechus Tian & Tang, gen. n. (the type species: Tianeotrechus trisetosus Tian & Tang, sp. n., from Cave Bahao Dong, Tian’e County, Guangxi), Huoyanodytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. (the type species: Huoyanodytes tujiaphilus Tian & Huang, sp. n., from Longshan, Hunan) and Wanhuaphaenops Tian & Wang, gen. n. (the type species: Wanhuaphaenops zhangi Tian & Wang, sp. n., from Cave Songjia Dong, Chenzhou, Hunan). PMID:27081334

  12. Data on the identification of protein interactors with the Evening Complex and PCH1 in Arabidopsis using tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry (TAP-MS).

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Alvarez, Sophie; Nusinow, Dmitri A

    2016-09-01

    Tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) analysis is a powerful biochemical approach to identify protein-protein associations. Here we describe two datasets generated by a series of TAP-MS analyses to co-purify proteins associated with either ELF3 or ELF4 of the Evening Complex (EC) ("Identification of Evening Complex Associated Proteins in Arabidopsis by Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry" (Huang et al., 2016a) [1]) or proteins associated with PCH1, which is a newly identified output of the circadian clock to regulate photoperiodic growth in Arabidopsis thaliana ("PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis" (Huang et al. 2016b) [2]). We used either ELF3, ELF4 or PCH1 fused to a C-terminal tandem affinity tag (6xHis-3xFLAG) as baits and conducted purifications in various genetic mutant backgrounds. These data are discussed in recent publications [1,2], and are deposited at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD002606 (for EC) and PRIDE: PXD003352 (for PCH1). PMID:27274533

  13. Characterization of Na+- beta-Zeolite Supported Pd and Pd Ag Bimetallic Catalysts using EXAFS, TEM and Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,W.; Lobo, R.; Chen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Flow reactor studies of the selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of ethylene have been performed on Na+ exchanged {beta}-zeolite supported Pd, Ag and PdAg catalysts, as an extension of our previous batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. Results from flow reactor studies show that the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite bimetallic catalyst has lower activity than Pd/Na+-{beta}-zeolite monometallic catalyst, while Ag/Na+-{beta}-zeolite does not show any activity for acetylene hydrogenation. However, the selectivity for the PdAg bimetallic catalyst is much higher than that for either the Pd catalyst or Ag catalyst. The selectivity to byproduct (ethane) is greatly inhibited on the PdAg bimetallic catalyst as well. The results from the current flow reactor studies confirmed the pervious results from batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. In addition, we used transmission electron microscope (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and FTIR of CO adsorption to confirm the formation of Pd-Ag bimetallic alloy in the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst.

  14. Neutron Scattering from Magnetically Frustrated Ruthenium Pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Collin

    2008-03-01

    Spin-1 ruthenium pyrochlores feature strong exchange interactions and deeply suppressed N'eel ordering. In addition a doping induced metallic phase has been demonstrated. I discuss neutron scattering experiments that explore the strongly frustrated quantum magnetism of Y2Ru2O7 [1] and Pr2-xBixRu2O7 [2]. In Y2Ru2O7 (θCW= --1100 K, TN=77 K) much of the magnetic spectral weight is concentrated in a 20 meV spectral peak above an 11 meV low temperature gap in the excitation spectrum. In Pr2-xBixRu2O7 magnetic order which occurs for THuang, S.-W. Cheong, C. Broholm, and T. G. Perring, Submitted to Phys. Rev. B Rapid Communications, cond-mat 0707.2678v1 (2007). [2] J. van Duijn, K. H. Kim, N. Hur, D. Adroja, M. A. Adams, Q. Z. Huang, M. Jaime, S.-W. Cheong, C. Broholm, and T. G. Perring, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177201 (2005).

  15. Two new species of free-living marine nematodes (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Enchelidiidae) from Maemul Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung-Ho; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-04-04

    Two new species of the family Enchelidiidae Filipjev, 1918 were collected from marine sediments near Maemul Island in South Korea: a new species of Abelbolla Huang & Zhang, 2004 and a new species of Ledovitia Filipjev, 1927. Abelbolla maemulensis sp. nov. is characterized by its small size (1,493 × 38 µm, body length × maximum body diameter); the presence of a circular amphid; the gubernacular apophysis with swollen distal tip; and the complex structure of the gubernaculum. It is close to Abelbolla huanghaiensis Huang & Zhang, 2004, but differs by the structure of gubernacular apophysis and body length (1,493 vs 2,303 µm). Ledovitia brevis sp. nov. can be separated from its congeners by its small size of body, the length of gubernacular apophysis, and the length of the spicules. It is close to Ledovitia pharetrata Wieser, 1953a, but differs by the length of the body (1,699 vs 2,640 µm) and the spicules (40 vs 100 µm).

  16. Magnetic order the iron spins in NdOFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lynn, J. W.; Li, J.; Li, G.; Chen, G. F.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Dai, Pengcheng; Dela Cruz, C.; Mook, H. A.

    2009-03-01

    Polarized and unpolarized powder neutron-diffraction measurements have been carried out to investigate the iron magnetic order in the parent compound of one of the highest Tc system, NdFeAsO. Antiferromagnetic order is observed below 141 K [1], which is in close proximity to the structural distortion observed in this material [2]. The magnetic structure consists of chains of parallel spins that are arranged antiparallel between chains, which is the same in-plane spin arrangement as observed in all the other iron oxypnictide materials. Nearest-neighbor spins along the c axis are antiparallel like LaFeAsO [3]. The ordered moment is 0.25 (7) μB, which is the smallest ordered moment found so far in these systems. [3pt] [1]Ying Chen, J. W. Lynn, J. Li, G. Li, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, Pengcheng Dai, C. dela Cruz and H. A. Mook, Phys. Rev. B 78, 064515 2008. [0pt] [2]Y. Qiu, W. Bao, Q. Huang, T. Yildirim, J. M. Simmons, M. A. Green, J.W. Lynn, Y.C. Gasparovic, J. Li, T. Wu, G. Wu, and X.H. Chen, arXiv:0806.2195 (Phys. Rev. Lett. accepted). [0pt] [3] C. dela Cruz, Q. Huang, J. W. Lynn, J. Li, W. Ratcliff II, J. L. Zarestky, H. A. Mook, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, and P. Dai, Nature 453, 899 (2008).

  17. Schistosomicidal and antioxidant flavonoids from Astragalus englerianus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chao-Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Qiu, Lin; Dong, Xiang; Jiang, Bei

    2014-12-01

    Astragalus englerianus is a close relative of the traditional Chinese medicine plant Radix Astragali (Huang-qi) and is mainly distributed in Yunnan. It has been traditionally used as a substitute of "Huang-qi" for reducing fatigue and enhancing immunity by local folks. A phytochemical study of the methanol extract of the roots led to the isolation of three new flavonoids including one aurone (1) and two chalcones (2 and 3), as well as two known flavonoids (4 and 5). Their structures were elucidated based on the analyses of extensive spectroscopic data and comparison of their physicochemical properties. This is the first report on the occurrence of β-hydroxydihydrochalcone, 2',5'-dioxygenchalcones, and 2',5'-dioxygenaurone in the genus Astragalus. All the isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their schistosomicidal and antioxidant activities. Compounds 2 and 4 showed schistosomicidal activities with worm mortality rates of 100 % within 12 h in a drug-containing (0.70 and 0.77 mM, respectively) RPMI 1640 medium. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl free radical scavenging assays, with IC50 values of 35.9 ± 1.1 and 12.2 ± 1.1 µM, respectively.

  18. Molecular Beam Optical Zeeman Spectroscopy of Vanadium Monoxide, VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung; Zhang, Ruohan; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Like almost all astronomical studies, exoplanet investigations are observational endeavors that rely primarily on remote spectroscopic sensing to infer the physical properties of planets. Most exoplanet related information is inferred from to temporal variation of luminosity of the parent star. An effective method of monitoring this variation is via Magnetic Doppler Imaging (MDI), which uses optical polarimetry of paramagnetic molecules or atoms. One promising paramagnetic stellar absorption is the near infrared spectrum of VO. With this in mind, we have begun a project to record and analyze the field-free and Zeeman spectrum of the band. A cold (approx. 20 K) beam of VO was probed with a single frequency laser and detected using laser induced fluorescence. The determined spectral parameters will be discussed and compared to those extracted from the analysis of a hot spectrum. Supported by the National Science Foundation under the Grant No. CHE-1265885. O. Kochukhov, N. Rusomarov, J. A. Valenti, H. C. Stempels, F. Snik, M. Rodenhuis, N. Piskunov, V. Makaganiuk, C. U. Keller and C. M. Johns-Krull, Astron. Astrophys. 574 (Pt. 2), A79/71-A79/12 (2015). S. V. Berdyugina, Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 437 (Solar Polarization 6), 219-235 (2011). S. V. Berdyugina, P. A. Braun, D. M. Fluri and S. K. Solanki, Astron. Astrophys. 444 (3), 947-960 (2005). A. S. C. Cheung, P. G. Hajigeorgiou, G. Huang, S. Z. Huang and A. J. Merer, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 163 (2), 443-458 (1994)

  19. Mode shape reconstruction of an impulse excited structure using continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometer and empirical mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kyong, Yongsoo; Kim, Daesung; Dayou, Jedol; Park, Kyihwan; Wang, Semyung

    2008-07-01

    For vibration testing, discrete types of scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) have been developed and have proven to be very useful. For complex structures, however, SLDV takes considerable time to scan the surface of structures and require large amounts of data storage. To overcome these problems, a continuous scan was introduced as an alternative. In this continuous method, the Chebyshev demodulation (or polynomial) technique and the Hilbert transform approach have been used for mode shape reconstruction with harmonic excitation. As an alternative, in this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform approach is applied to impact excitation cases in terms of a numerical approach, where the vibration of the tested structure is modeled using impulse response functions. In order to verify this technique, a clamped-clamped beam was chosen as the test rig in the numerical simulation and real experiment. This paper shows that with additional innovative steps of using ideal bandpass filters and nodal point determination in the postprocessing, the Hilbert-Huang transformation can be used to create a better mode shape reconstruction even in the impact excitation case.

  20. Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ya-jing; Hu, Jin; Wang, Xian-ju; Shao, Chen-xia

    2009-06-01

    Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize. The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w/v) chitosan solutions at 15 degrees C on the growth and physiological changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan had no significant effect on germination percentage under low temperature stress, it enhanced germination index, reduced the mean germination time (MGT), and increased shoot height, root length, and shoot and root dry weights in both maize lines. The decline of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative permeability of the plasma membrane and the increase of the concentrations of soluble sugars and proline, peroxidase (POD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were detected both in the chilling-sensitive and chilling-tolerant maize seedlings after priming with the three concentrations of chitosan. HuangC was less sensitive to responding to different concentrations of chitosan. Priming with 0.50% chitosan for about 60 approximately 64 h seemed to have the best effects. Thus, it suggests that seed priming with chitosan may improve the speed of germination of maize seed and benefit for seedling growth under low temperature stress.