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Sample records for uae construction workers

  1. Human rights and health disparities for migrant workers in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana

    2011-12-15

    Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. Copyright © 2011 Sonmez, Apostolopoulos, Tran, and Rentrope. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  2. Incidence of asthma among Finnish construction workers.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Antti; Martikainen, Rami; Oksa, Panu; Saarinen, Kimmo; Uitti, Jukka

    2002-08-01

    We wanted to explore the risk of asthma among male workers of the construction industry. All Finnish male construction industry workers and all those employed in administrative work were followed for asthma incidence through a register linkage in 1986 through 1998. Age-adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated for 24 construction occupations. The risk was increased in nearly all construction occupations studied, but it was highest among welders and flame cutters (RR 2.34), asphalt roofing workers (RR 2.04), plumbers (RR 1.90), and brick layers and tile setters (RR 1.83). Only 45 (2%) of the cases of asthma among construction workers had been recognized as occupational asthma. Construction industry workers have an increased risk of adult-onset persistent asthma and cases of occupational asthma caused by well-established causative agents have only a minor contribution to this overall asthma excess.

  3. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site.

  4. [Health maintenance strategy for construction industry workers].

    PubMed

    Perminova, I Iu; Logvinenko, I I

    2011-01-01

    The authors analyzed work conditions and health state of workers engaged into construction industry in Kemerovo city. Findings are that complex approach to carrying out the strategy "Health for all in XXI century" causes health preservation.

  5. Nutritional and food insecurity of construction workers.

    PubMed

    de Lima Brasil, Evi Clayton; de Araújo, Lindemberg Medeiros; de Toledo Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro

    2016-06-27

    Construction workers have intensive contact with their workplace and are possibly susceptible to Nutritional and Food Insecurity. This paper assessed the Food Security status, diet and anthropometric measures of workers in the Construction Industry living in the city of João Pessoa, PB. This cross-sectional study included 59 workers housed at construction sites. The workers were given the Brazilian Scale for Measuring Food Insecurity and Nutrition, had anthropometric measures taken and completed the Diet Quality Index, comparing their eating at the construction site and at home. Statistical analyses described the mean, standard deviation, frequency and Pearson correlations. Food Insecurity was reported by 71.2% of the workers, and 69.5% were overweight. The mean values of the Healthy Eating Index suggested that the workers' diets were in need of modification. There were statistically significant inverse associations among the Healthy Eating Index and Body Mass Index, waist circumference, percentage of total fat and cholesterol. Values obtained using the Scale showed Food Insecurity coupled with high excess weight and dietary inadequacies, revealing that these workers are at risk for health problems.

  6. Informal worker phenomenon in housing construction project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayaningtyas, Maranatha; Sipan, Ibrahim; Lukiyanto, Kukuh

    2017-11-01

    The informal workers phenomenon on housing construction projects in Indonesia is different from workers in other sectors who would always request as permanent employees. Substantively, the informal workers are disinclined to be bound as permanent employees which different from the general labor paradigm. Hence, the objective of this study is to find out how the labour selection process, the factors that affected their performance, and the suitable wage system to achieve the target completion of housing construction project. The qualitative method is used to uncover and understand the meaning behind the phenomena (numina) of informal workers action and their influence on housing construction project which called phenomenological approach. Five informal workers and two project managers were selected as informants based on predetermined criteria with in-depth interviews. The results showed that the informal worker were more satisfied with the wage based on unit price while working in the housing construction project for the flexibility in working hours. In addition, the developer was also relieved because they only control the quality and the achievement of the project completion time which supported by informal worker leader. Therefore, these findings are beneficial for both of developer and government as policy maker to succeed the housing program in Indonesia.

  7. Issues engulfed Saudi Arabia construction workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Emad, N. H.; Rahman, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study conducted in Makkah city to uncover issues faced by construction workers from the construction leaders’ perspective. Eleven construction leaders/experts were interviewed to unleash their experiences on handling the foreign workers working in Makkah construction projects. Most of the experts are senior management staffs with more than 10 years’ working experience in Saudi Arabia construction industry. The interviews were carried out in semi structured mode where all the information was captured manually and also electronically. The identified issues were sorted based on its commonality into 10 clusters. Hence in each cluster, the numbers of issue considered by the experts are reflecting the importance of that particular cluster. The result of the clusters according to the number of issues mentioned by the experts are safety issues, restricted government regulation, demotivated issues, lack of quality workers, poor living quality, communication barriers, adaption issues, poor attitudes, lack of logistical arrangements and lack of education. With these identified issues it will assist the construction players in the construction industry of Saudi Arabia in dealing with their workers.

  8. Tetanus immunity in construction workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, V; Bracci, M; Nunnari, G; Ferrante, M; Ledda, C

    2014-04-01

    Tetanus is a serious vaccine-preventable disease that remains a significant health risk in certain occupations. Since 2006, Italy has reported the highest number of cases in Europe. Some professions, such as construction workers, are more exposed to tetanus. To evaluate tetanus immunity status and associated factors in construction workers in Italy. A cross-sectional study of construction workers attending for periodic occupational health surveillance at one site in Italy between September 2011 and January 2013. Serum tetanus antitoxin levels were measured and analysed according to demographic and clinical variables. All 5275 workers attending for health surveillance between September 2011 and January 2013 agreed to participate. Protective tetanus antitoxin levels (>0.1 IU/ml) were found in 4116 workers (78%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the following risk factors were significantly associated with inadequate immunization status: older age (age >58 years, odds ratio [OR] 1.78, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.76-1.84), poor education (no formal education: OR 3.74, 95% CI: 3.69-3.78), unskilled work tasks (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 2.67-2.77) and country of origin (Egypt: OR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.67-1.77; Morocco: OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.62-1.76). In this study, a significant proportion of construction workers in Italy were not adequately immunized against tetanus, as required by Italian law. Occupational health professionals should promote and implement vaccination campaigns, especially among migrant workers, for public health and legal reasons.

  9. Occupational skin problems in construction workers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kartik R; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2010-10-01

    Construction workers handle cement which has constituents to produce both irritant contact dermatitis and corrosive effects (from alkaline ingredients, such as lime) and sensitization, leading to allergic contact dermatitis (from ingredients, such as chromium). The present study has been carried out among unorganized construction workers to find the prevalence of skin problems. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 construction workers of Ahmedabad and Vadodara. All the workers were subjected to clinical examination after collection of information regarding demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics and clinical history on a predesigned proforma. Of them, 47.8% had morbid skin conditions. Frictional callosities in palm were observed in 18 (19.6%) subjects while 4 (4.3%) subjects had contact dermatitis. Other conditions included dry, fissured and scaly skin, infectious skin lesion, tinea cruris, lesion and ulcers on hands and/or soles. The skin conditions were common in the age group of 20-25 years, males, those having ≥1 year exposure and those working for longer hours. Half of the workers not using personal protective equipment had reported skin-related symptoms.

  10. Workers' compensation costs among construction workers: a robust regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lee S; Forst, Linda S

    2009-11-01

    Workers' compensation data are an important source for evaluating costs associated with construction injuries. We describe the characteristics of injured construction workers filing claims in Illinois between 2000 and 2005 and the factors associated with compensation costs using a robust regression model. In the final multivariable model, the cumulative percent temporary and permanent disability-measures of severity of injury-explained 38.7% of the variance of cost. Attorney costs explained only 0.3% of the variance of the dependent variable. The model used in this study clearly indicated that percent disability was the most important determinant of cost, although the method and uniformity of percent impairment allocation could be better elucidated. There is a need to integrate analytical methods that are suitable for skewed data when analyzing claim costs.

  11. Nail gun injuries among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester; Li, Leiming; Epling, Carol; Desai, Tejas

    2003-05-01

    Pneumatic nail guns greatly increase worker productivity and are extensively used in wood frame building construction, with especially high use in residential construction. One surveillance report of nail gun injuries in Washington State has been published; however, other literature consists largely of case reports and case series in trauma journals. The major objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of nail gun-associated injuries among construction workers and to identify preventable work-related factors associated with these injuries. Nail gun-related injuries occurring among a cohort of 13,347 carpenters in Ohio who worked union hours during the time period January 1, 1994, until September 30, 1997, were identified by matching the cohort with workers' compensation claims made to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation. We also analyzed workers' compensation claims for North Carolina Home Builders Association members for the period July 1996-November 1999 to identify nail gun-related injuries. Analyses included stratified analyses of claims by nature and body part injured, calculation of nail gun injury rates, and analyses of free text descriptions of injuries. Overall, nail gun injuries were responsible for 3.9 percent of workers' compensation claims with 8.3 percent to 25.5 percent of claims involving paid lost work time. The overall rate of nail gun injuries (cases per 200,000 work hours) was 0.33 in North Carolina and 0.26 in Ohio, reflecting the greater concentration of wood frame construction workers in the North Carolina population studied. Higher rates of injury were observed for carpenters in North Carolina and among residential carpenters in Ohio. The predominant body part injured was the hands/fingers, with 80 to 89 percent of injuries being nail punctures. Analyses of free text information for puncture injuries found approximately 70 percent of injuries to occur during the framing/sheathing stage of construction. Our data

  12. [Occupational dermatitis in construction and public workers].

    PubMed

    Frimat, Paul

    2002-09-01

    Construction workers perform a large variety of duties concerned with building, repairing, and wrecking buildings, bridges, dams, roads, railways and so on. The work may include mixing, pouring and spreading concrete, asphalt, gravel and other materials. Despite the increasing mechanization of construction and the more frequent use of precast concrete sections, contact with wet cement still occurs, particularly in small jobs. The work is hard physical labor, often under difficult conditions, including hot, cold, and wet weather. Occupational diseases of the skin in the construction have paralleled industrial development.

  13. Hispanic construction workers and assertiveness training.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Pramen P; Menzel, Nancy N

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic (Latino) construction workers experience disparities in occupational death and injury rates in the United States. The cultural value of respect for those in authority may hinder these workers from requesting safe working conditions from supervisors. To evaluate whether Hispanic construction workers in Las Vegas, Nevada found assertiveness training more useful than non-Hispanic trainees and whether or not they practiced this behavior at work after the training. An assertiveness training simulation was part of fall prevention classes offered to area construction workers. Eight weeks after the training, participants were interviewed by telephone about class topics they found most useful and whether or not they had made any subsequent behavior changes at work. More than half of the 760 fall prevention trainees completed telephone interviews. A smaller proportion of Hispanic trainees found assertiveness training to be useful (11%) than non-Hispanics (28%) (p⩽ 0.001). Only 2% of both groups identified practicing assertiveness at work. A large proportion of Hispanic trainees valued other knowledge more highly. They may weigh job security as more important than speaking up about safety issues, which might threaten their employment. Interventions to improve safety should focus instead on improving work safety climate and engineering controls.

  14. Improve safety of workers during highway construction and maintenance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-06-01

    This study will focus on highway construction worker safety. Most all statistical data gathered will be from Kentucky construction workers, although the study is not limited by this. Studies of this nature have been completed previously, but most stu...

  15. MISR UAE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-25

    United Arab Emirates - Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE 2 ) 2004 The United Arab Emirates-Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) 2004 field campaign scheduled ... 2004 targets the coastal and desert regions of the United Arab Emirates. The main scientific goal is to evaluate and improve satellite ...

  16. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Henk F; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Hoonakker, Peter L T; Hsiao, Hongwei; Haslam, Roger; Hale, Andrew R; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Verbeek, Jos H

    2012-12-12

    Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. A number of injury prevention interventions have been proposed, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, OSH-ROM (including NIOSHTIC and HSELINE), Scopus, Web of Science and EI Compendex to September 2011. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. The reference lists of relevant papers and reviews were also searched. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed study quality. For ITS, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury-rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Thirteen studies, 12 ITS and one CBA study met the inclusion criteria. The ITS evaluated the effects of the introduction or change of regulations (N = 7), a safety campaign (N = 2), a drug-free workplace programme (N = 1), a training programme (N = 1), and safety inspections (N = 1) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance.The overall risk of bias among the included studies was high as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be regarded as the main reason of change in the outcome.The regulatory interventions at national or branch level showed a small but significant initial and sustained increase in fatal (effect sizes of 0.79; 95

  17. A case-control study of airways obstruction among construction workers: Airways Obstruction Among Construction Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, John; Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut

    Background: While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case-control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers. Methods: The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories. Results: Approximately 18% (95%CI=2–24%) of COPD risk can be attributed to construction-related exposures, which are additive to the risk contributed by smoking. Amore » measure of all VGDF exposures combined was a strong predictor of COPD risk. Conclusions: Construction workers are at increased risk of COPD as a result of broad and complex effects of many exposures acting independently or interactively. Control methods should be implemented to prevent worker exposures, and smoking cessation should be promoted« less

  18. A case-control study of airways obstruction among construction workers: Airways Obstruction Among Construction Workers

    DOE PAGES

    Dement, John; Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut; ...

    2015-06-29

    Background: While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case-control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers. Methods: The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories. Results: Approximately 18% (95%CI=2–24%) of COPD risk can be attributed to construction-related exposures, which are additive to the risk contributed by smoking. Amore » measure of all VGDF exposures combined was a strong predictor of COPD risk. Conclusions: Construction workers are at increased risk of COPD as a result of broad and complex effects of many exposures acting independently or interactively. Control methods should be implemented to prevent worker exposures, and smoking cessation should be promoted« less

  19. Childcare Practices among Construction Workers in Chira Chas, Jharkhand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Rajib

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at examining the childcare practices and issues experienced by the low-income construction workers in India. It is concerned with understanding varied aspects relating to problems that construction workers, as parents, face while bringing up their children in one of the small construction companies of eastern India, in the state of…

  20. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H

    2018-02-05

    Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be

  1. Construction Worker Motivation the Means to Improving Worker Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    address these needs by being supportive, emphasizing employee acceptance by co- workers , extracurricular activities and following group norms. 4...industry. However, the worker does not want to be designed out a job. Therefore, management must seek to train the employees and util ;"- them in other...lets employees know how well they are doing. Feedback provides workers with information so that they may properly track their progress and set new goals

  2. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  3. Systematic review: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and construction workers.

    PubMed

    Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, D J A; Brauer, C

    2017-04-01

    Between 15 and 20% of prevalent cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been attributed to occupational exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes. Dust at construction sites is still a challenge, but no overview exists of COPD among construction workers. To assess the occurrence of COPD among construction workers. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Embase between 1 January 1990 and 31 August 2016 in order to identify epidemiological studies with a risk estimate for either COPD morbidity/mortality or a spirometry-based definition of airway obstruction among workers in the construction industry. The authors independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility and performed a quality assessment of the included papers. Twelve studies were included. Nine studies found a statistically significant association between COPD and work in the construction industry, although only among never-smokers in one study and only for the period after 2000 in another study. One study found that the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was significantly higher among construction workers compared with bus drivers. This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential exposure-effect relationship could be identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  4. Systematic review: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Borup, H.; Kirkeskov, L.; Hanskov, D. J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Between 15 and 20% of prevalent cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been attributed to occupational exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes. Dust at construction sites is still a challenge, but no overview exists of COPD among construction workers. Aims To assess the occurrence of COPD among construction workers. Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Embase between 1 January 1990 and 31 August 2016 in order to identify epidemiological studies with a risk estimate for either COPD morbidity/mortality or a spirometry-based definition of airway obstruction among workers in the construction industry. The authors independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility and performed a quality assessment of the included papers. Results Twelve studies were included. Nine studies found a statistically significant association between COPD and work in the construction industry, although only among never-smokers in one study and only for the period after 2000 in another study. One study found that the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was significantly higher among construction workers compared with bus drivers. Conclusions This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential exposure–effect relationship could be identified. PMID:28204712

  5. Hearing loss among older construction workers: Updated analyses.

    PubMed

    Dement, John; Welch, Laura S; Ringen, Knut; Cranford, Kim; Quinn, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    A prior study of this construction worker population found significant noise-associated hearing loss. This follow-up study included a much larger study population and consideration of additional risk factors. Data included audiometry, clinical chemistry, personal history, and work history. Qualitative exposure metrics for noise and solvents were developed. Analyses compared construction workers to an internal reference group with lower exposures and an external worker population with low noise exposure. Among participants (n = 19 127) an overall prevalence of hearing loss of 58% was observed, with significantly increased prevalence across all construction trades. Construction workers had significantly increased risk of hearing loss compared to reference populations, with increasing risk by work duration. Noise exposure, solvent exposure, hypertension, and smoking were significant risk factors in multivariate models. Results support a causal relationship between construction trades work and hearing loss. Prevention should focus on reducing exposure to noise, solvents, and cigarette smoke. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Influence of fatigue on construction workers' physical and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Murphy, L A; Fang, D; Caban-Martinez, A J

    2015-04-01

    Despite scientific evidence linking workers' fatigue to occupational safety (due to impaired physical or cognitive function), little is known about this relationship in construction workers. To assess the association between construction workers' reported fatigue and their perceived difficulties with physical and cognitive functions. Using data from a convenience sample of US construction workers participating in the 2010-11 National Health Interview Survey two multivariate weighted logistic regression models were built to predict difficulty with physical and with cognitive functions associated with workers' reported fatigue, while controlling for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, sleep hygiene, psychological distress and arthritis status. Of 606 construction workers surveyed, 49% reported being 'tired some days' in the past 3 months and 10% reported 'tired most days or every day'. Compared with those feeling 'never tired', workers who felt 'tired some days' were significantly more likely to report difficulty with physical function (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-3.51) and cognitive function (AOR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.06-4.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Our results suggest an association between reported fatigue and experiencing difficulties with physical and cognitive functions in construction workers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Electrical fatalities among U.S. construction workers.

    PubMed

    Ore, T; Casini, V

    1996-06-01

    Over 2000 electrocution deaths were identified among U.S. construction workers from 1980 to 1991, with the highest mean annual crude mortality rate (2.5 per 100,000 people), and second highest mean age-adjusted rate (2.7 per 100,000 people) of all industries. Although the crude fatality rates showed a downward trend, construction workers are still about four times more likely to be electrocuted at work than are workers in all industries combined. Nearly 40% of the 5083 fatal electrocutions in all industries combined occurred in construction, and 80% were associated with industrial wiring, appliances, and transmission lines. Electrocutions ranked as the second leading cause of death among construction workers, accounting for an average of 15% of traumatic deaths in the industry from 1980 to 1991. The study indicates that the workers most at risk of electrical injury are male, young, nonwhite, and electricians, structural metal workers, and laborers. The most likely time of injury is 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. from June to August. Focusing prevention on these populations and characteristics through better methods of worker and supervisor electrical safety training, use of adequate protective clothing, and compliance with established procedures could minimize the average annual loss of 168 U.S. construction workers.

  8. Chronic symptoms in construction workers treated for musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Welch, L S; Hunting, K L; Nessel-Stephens, L

    1999-11-01

    Soft tissue musculoskeletal injuries make up a high proportion of all work-related injuries in construction. Data from Workers' Compensation claims indicate that strains and sprains are the leading compensable injury for construction workers. This study describes the consequences of soft tissue musculoskeletal injuries for construction workers, and assesses the persistence of symptoms after an injury and the impact of that injury on return to work. Through an Emergency Department surveillance system [Hunting et al., 1994a], we recorded 176 construction worker visits, from 5/01/93 through 2/28/95, for strains, sprains, joint injury or pain, tendinitis, dislocations, hernias, or other musculoskeletal injuries excluding fractures. Telephone interviews were conducted several months after workers had visited the emergency room for a musculoskeletal injury. Seventy individuals were interviewed about the long-term impacts of 72 incidents that had resulted in work-related musculoskeletal injuries. For 46 (62%) of the 74 diagnoses, problems continued beyond two months. The likelihood of problems continuing more than two months varied considerably by body location of injury. Hispanic workers and older workers were more likely to have continuing symptoms. Eleven of the 45 construction workers with symptoms persisting longer than two months were not employed at the time of the interview. Only 11 of the 45 workers with ongoing symptoms told us that modifications had been made to their jobs to accommodate their symptoms. About one-quarter of these 45 subjects reported substantial effects on home or work life. Acute musculoskeletal injuries in construction workers frequently result in chronic symptoms, and those with chronic symptoms report substantial effects of the injury on their quality of life. Job accommodations were made in a minority of these injuries. These findings point to the need for heightened efforts for injury prevention in this industry. Copyright 1999 Wiley

  9. Safety yoke would protect construction workers from falling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, O. H.

    1967-01-01

    Simple dismountable yoke protects construction workers on narrow steel I beams at high levels. The yoke engages the upper flat of the I beam and slides freely along it to permit freedom of movement to the worker while limiting his ability to fall by a harness attached to the yoke.

  10. 22. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WORKERS LOWERING CALCINER VESSEL INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WORKERS LOWERING CALCINER VESSEL INTO CELL THROUGH THE HATCH. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-2485. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure.

  12. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. Results: The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. Conclusion: This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure

  13. Characteristics of worker accidents on NYSDOT construction projects.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Satish; Zech, Wesley C

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing cost-effective safety measures to protect construction workers in highway work zones, based on real data. Two types of accidents that occur in work zones were: (a) construction work area accidents, and (b) traffic accidents involving construction worker(s). A detailed analysis of work zone accidents involving 36 fatalities and 3,055 severe injuries to construction workers on New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) construction projects from 1990 to 2001 established that five accident types: (a) Struck/Pinned by Large Equipment, (b) Trip or Fall (elevated), (c) Contact w/Electrical or Gas Utility, (d) Struck-by Moving/Falling Load, and (e) Crane/Lift Device Failure accounted for nearly 96% of the fatal accidents, nearly 63% of the hospital-level injury accidents, and nearly 91% of the total costs. These construction work area accidents had a total cost of $133.8 million. Traffic accidents that involve contractors' employees were also examined. Statistical analyses of the traffic accidents established that five traffic accident types: (a) Work Space Intrusion, (b) Worker Struck-by Vehicle Inside Work Space, (c) Flagger Struck-by Vehicle, (d) Worker Struck-by Vehicle Entering/Exiting Work Space, and (e) Construction Equipment Struck-by Vehicle Inside Work Space accounted for nearly 86% of the fatal, nearly 70% of the hospital-level injury and minor injury traffic accidents, and $45.4 million (79.4%) of the total traffic accident costs. The results of this paper provide real statistics on construction worker related accidents reported on construction work zones. Potential preventions based on real statistics have also been suggested. The ranking of accident types, both within the work area as well as in traffic, will guide the heavy highway contractor and owner agencies in identifying the most cost effective safety preventions.

  14. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-12-13

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, "Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers" was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers' physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong's construction industry.

  15. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  16. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2011-12-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  17. Causes of electrical deaths and injuries among construction workers.

    PubMed

    McCann, Michael; Hunting, Katherine L; Murawski, Judith; Chowdhury, Risana; Welch, Laura

    2003-04-01

    Contact with electrical current is the fourth leading cause of deaths of construction workers. This study evaluates electrical deaths and injuries to construction workers. Two sources of data were analyzed in detail: (1) 1,019 electrical deaths identified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the years 1992-1998; and (2) 61 electrical injuries identified between November 1, 1990 and December 31, 1998 from a George Washington University Emergency Department injury surveillance database. Contact with "live" electrical wiring, equipment, and light fixtures was the main cause of electrical deaths and injuries among electrical workers, followed by contact with overhead power lines. Among non-electrical workers, contact with overhead power lines was the major cause of death. Other causes included contact with energized metal objects, machinery, power tools, and portable lights. Arc flash or blast caused 31% of electrical injuries among construction workers, but less than 2% of electrical deaths. Adoption of a lockout/tagout standard for construction, and training for non-electrical workers in basic electrical safety would reduce the risk of electrical deaths and injuries in construction. Further research is needed on ways to prevent electrical deaths and injuries while working "live". Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Fatal injuries to teenage construction workers in the US.

    PubMed

    Suruda, Anthony; Philips, Peter; Lillquist, Dean; Sesek, Richard

    2003-11-01

    The construction industry is second only to agriculture in the annual number of fatal injuries in workers less than 18 years of age. We examined fatal injury reports for youth and adult workers to determine risk factors for injury and applicability of existing child labor regulations. The US Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) investigation data for fatal work injuries from 1984 through 1998 were reviewed with respect to type of event, employer characteristics, and apparent violations of existing child labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). We also examined whether the employer met exemption criteria for federal enforcement of child labor or OSHA regulations. The fatality rate for teenage construction workers age 19 and younger was 12.1 per 100,000 per year, slightly less than for adult workers. Teenage workers who were fatally injured were more likely than adults to have been employed at non-union construction firms (odds ratio (OR) = 4.96, P < 0.05), firms with fewer than 11 employees (OR = 1.72, P < 0.05), and their employers were more likely to have been cited by OSHA for safety violations (OR = 1.66, P < 0.05) than for firms which were investigated because of a fatality in an adult worker. Fatalities in teenagers were more likely to occur in special construction trades such as roofing. Among fatalities in workers less than 18 years of age, approximately one-half (49%) of the 76 fatal injuries were in apparent violation of existing child labor regulations. We estimated that in 41 of the 76 cases (54%) the employer's gross annual income exceeded the $500,000 threshold for federal enforcement of child labor laws. Only 28 of 76 cases (37%) were at construction firms with 11 or more employees, which are subject to routine OSHA inspections. Fatal injuries in teenage construction workers differed from those in adults in that they were more likely to be at small, non-union firms of which a substantial proportion were exempt from federal

  19. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Construction Industry Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  20. Surveillance of construction worker injuries through an urban emergency department.

    PubMed

    Hunting, K L; Nessel-Stephens, L; Sanford, S M; Shesser, R; Welch, L S

    1994-03-01

    To learn more about the causes of nonfatal construction worker injuries, and to identify injury cases for further work-site investigations or prevention programs, an emergency department-based surveillance program was established. Construction workers with work-related injuries or illnesses were identified by reviewing the medical records of all patients treated at the George Washington University Emergency Department between November 1, 1990 and November 31, 1992. Information regarding the worker, the injury, and the injury circumstances were abstracted from medical records. Information was obtained on 592 injured construction workers from numerous trades. Lacerations were the most commonly treated injuries among these workers, followed by strains and sprains, contusions, and eye injuries. Injuries were most commonly caused by sharp objects (n = 155, 26%), falls (n = 106, 18%), and falling objects (n = 70, 12%). Thirty-five percent of injuries were to the hands, wrists, or fingers. Among the twenty-eight injuries severe enough to require hospital admission, eighteen (64%) were caused by falls. Laborers and Hispanic workers were overrepresented among these severe cases. Emergency Department records were a useful surveillance tool for the initial identification and description of work-related injuries. Although E codes were not that useful for formulating prevention strategies, detailed review of injury circumstances from Emergency Department records was valuable and has helped to establish priorities for prevention activities.

  1. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, “Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers” was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers’ physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong’s construction industry. PMID:27983612

  2. A Study of Work Based Learning For Construction Building Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, Syafiatun

    2018-03-01

    Work-based learning (WBL) is designed to improve the competence of participants. This study aims to apply the WBL and to develop attitudes, knowledge, skills, behaviors, and habits, which in turn can improve the competence of construction workers in the field to be sampled. This research was conducted on building construction workers in Medan City with 30 research subjects. The results showed that the evaluation of learning increased in phase I obtained the difference of the average score of 20.9 (the meeting I) and 25.50 (meeting II). The final result shows that the level of activity and competence increased significantly after WBL

  3. Workers' medication as occupational risk at construction site with formworks.

    PubMed

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; López-Arquillos, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Accidents in the construction sector are a cause for concern. The influence of many different factors in construction accidents have been studied (age, company size, length of service, deviation, drugs or alcohol consumption, etc.) but the influence of medicinal substances in specific construction activities has not been evaluated until now. The aim of the research presented here is to identify the effect of different medicinal substances on the occupational risk levels of construction activities with formworks. An expert panel was selected in order to quantify the individual risk of each medication for each individual construction activity. Results showed that narcotics, antipsychotics, and hypnotics had the highest risk values, and the use of cranes and cutting materials were considered the most dangerous activities for a medicated worker. Data obtained in this research can help reduce the negative effects of the substances studied on the occupational safety of construction workers. A better knowledge of the risk levels according to the current capabilities of workers under the effects of medication is a powerful tool in planning safer construction activities.

  4. [Occupational risk related to optical radiation exposure in construction workers].

    PubMed

    Gobba, F; Modenese, A

    2012-01-01

    Optical Radiation is a relevant occupational risk in construction workers, mainly as a consequence of the exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation (SR). Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in construction workers. The role of occupational physicians in prevention is fundamental.

  5. [Results of patch tests using basic allergens in construction workers].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M

    1983-01-01

    A group of 853 construction industry workers exposed to irritants and allergens (mainly cement, lime, sand, water, lubricants and antiadhesive oils and a control group of 74 subjects (sawers) underwent patch tests after Jadassohn--Bloch with seven allergens most common in the construction industry working environment (compounds of chromium, nickel and cobalt, turpentine and three rubber allergens--mercantobenzothiazole, thiocarbamoyl and diphenylguanidine). Allergy was found in 25.5% of the construction industry workers, in this 7.7% were those with eczema and dermatitis, 17.8%--those with latent allergy (in 12.2% allergy was accompanied by dermatoses of non-allergic etiology, 5.6% construction workers no skin changes). The highest number of skin positive tests was that with chromium (22.4% of affected workers) and cobalt (12.4%). Most susceptible to allergy were: painters, bricklayers, carpenters, joiners, reinforcing concretors, terrazers, concretors, electricians, smiths and reinforcers. In addition, allergy was found to be dependent on age and length of employment.

  6. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  7. Sun safety measures among construction workers in Britain.

    PubMed

    Madgwick, P; Houdmont, J; Randall, R

    2011-09-01

    Relative to other occupational groups in Britain, construction workers have a high incidence of skin cancer attributable to sun exposure. The importance of sun safety measures to minimize the risk of skin cancer is recognized in the literature; however, little is known about the factors associated with their use by construction workers. Knowledge in this area could help inform interventions to encourage sun safety behaviour within the sector. To investigate socio-demographic and occupational characteristics associated with the use of sun safety measures among construction workers in Britain. Data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire, which was sent to 360 construction workers. Information collected included socio-demographic and occupational characteristics and the use of sun safety measures. Participants worked outdoors for an average of 6.6 h/day. Three specific sun safety measures were used by the majority of respondents. Logistic regression analyses showed that certain socio-demographic and occupational factors were associated with the use of sun safety measures. In particular, receipt of sun safety training was positively associated with the wearing of long sleeved, loose fitting tops and trousers (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.02-2.80) and sunglasses (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.10-3.13). The results highlight the importance of employer-led sun safety interventions in the British construction industry. Interventions that take account of demographic and occupational characteristics are likely to have a positive impact in terms of improving workers' use of sun safety measures.

  8. [Occupational injuries among construction workers in Hong Kong].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zihui; Chen, Weiqing

    2002-02-01

    To explore the nature and severity of occupational injuries among construction workers and its risk factors in Hong Kong. One hundred and twenty-two injured construction workers in a public hospital and an equal number of workmate controls were studied. Contents included socio -demographic characteristics, the availability and use of safety equipment, smoking and alcohol consumption, etc. Abbreviated injury scale (AIS) and injury severity score (ISS) were employed for describing the nature, pattern and severity of injuries. Single injuries were seen in 80% of cases. Of 149 injuries classified by body region, 49% were external, 26% involved either the upper or lower extremities, and 11% were spinal injuries. Working at height was associated with the injury severity score. Safety hazards were identified in the work environment in 68% of the cases. Significant odds ratios for accidents were obtained for 'no formal education', 'non safety training' and 'current smokers'. The results implicated that construction was a hazardous occupation in Hong Kong. Improving the work environment and promoting safety education among construction workers would be helpful for minimizing or eliminating occupational injuries in construction occupation in Hong Kong.

  9. MISR UAE2 Aerosol Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-21

    ... The "Beta" designation means particle microphysical property validation is in progress, uncertainty envelopes on particle size distribution, ... UAE-2 campaign activities are part of the validation process, so two versions of the MISR aerosol products are included in this ...

  10. The impact of asbestos exposure in Swedish construction workers.

    PubMed

    Järvholm, Bengt; Englund, Anders

    2014-01-01

    To study the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma as a measure of the impact on health from asbestos exposure in the construction industry. The occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in different occupations, time periods and birth cohorts was studied in a cohort of construction workers. They were prospectively followed after they had participated in health examinations between 1971 and 1993. The analysis was restricted to men and in total 367,568 men was included in the analysis. In total there were 419 cases of pleural mesotheliomas between 1972 and 2009. As expected the age adjusted incidence was high in insulation workers and plumbers (39 and 16 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively). However, only 21% of the pleural mesotheliomas occurred in those occupational groups. Occupational groups with many cases of pleural mesothelioma were concrete workers (N = 56), wood workers (N = 55), painters (N = 32), electricians (N = 48), and foremen (N = 37). The highest risk was in birth cohorts born between 1935 and 1945. Between 1995 and 2009 around one-third of all male cases in the country occurred in this birth cohort. The risk seemed to decrease considerably in men born after 1955. In Sweden a considerable proportion of pleural mesotheliomas occur among construction workers; and not only in jobs traditionally associated with asbestos exposure such as insulators and plumbers but also among electricians, for example. The results shows that asbestos exposure occurs in many occupational groups, indicating that safe handling of asbestos is a very difficult or even impossible task in the construction industry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions

  12. Heavy Physical Work: Cardiovascular Load in Male Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Koch, Markus; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Moen, Gunn-Helen; Wærsted, Morten; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate cardiovascular loads (CVL) in construction workers during work and leisure by relative heart rate (RHR) over several days. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate the level of CVL in relation to individual factors, work ability, musculoskeletal pain and subjective general health. From a group of 255 construction workers responding to the baseline questionnaire, the CVL during work and leisure time was determined by recording RHR in 42 workers over 3–4 days. Almost 60% of the workday was spent below 20% RHR. The mean RHR during work for all participants was 16% RHR, with large differences between professions. On average, the 42 workers spent 14% of the workday at a RHR above 33%, and four subjects (10%) had a mean RHR above 33% during work. Eight (19%) of the participants had a mean length of their workday exceeding calculated maximal acceptable work time. Seven persons (17%) experienced on average one or more episode(s) of 5 min or more continuously above 33% RHR. The cardiovascular load at work was significantly associated with age and V˙O2max, but not with work ability, musculoskeletal pain or subjective general health. PMID:27023574

  13. Psychological distress in remote mining and construction workers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jennifer; Lo, Johnny; Miller, Peta; Mawren, Daveena; Jones, Brooklyn

    2018-05-21

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a sample of remote mining and construction workers in Australia. Design, setting: A cross-sectional, anonymous Wellbeing and Lifestyle Survey at ten mining sites in South Australia and Western Australia, administered at meetings held during 2013-2015. 1124 employees at remote construction, and open cut and underground mining sites completed the survey. General psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, K10) and self-reported overall mental health status; work, lifestyle and family factors correlated with level of psychological distress. The final sample comprised 1124 workers; 93.5% were men, 63% were aged 25-44 years. 311 respondents (28%) had K10 scores indicating high/very high psychological distress, compared with 10.8% for Australia overall. The most frequently reported stressors were missing special events (86%), relationship problems with partners (68%), financial stress (62%), shift rosters (62%), and social isolation (60%). High psychological distress was significantly more likely in workers aged 25-34 years (v ≥ 55 years: odds ratio [OR], 3.2; P = 0.001) and workers on a 2 weeks on/1 week off roster (v 4 weeks on/1 week off: OR, 2.4; P < 0.001). Workers who were very or extremely stressed by their assigned tasks or job (OR, 6.2; P = 0.004), their current relationship (OR, 8.2; P < 0.001), or their financial situation (OR, 6.0; P < 0.001) were significantly more likely to have high/very high K10 scores than those not stressed by these factors. Workers who reported stress related to stigmatisation of mental health problems were at the greatest risk of high/very high psychological distress (v not stressed: OR, 23.5; P < 0.001). Psychological distress is significantly more prevalent in the remote mining and construction workforce than in the overall Australian population. The factors that contribute to mental ill health in these workers need to be addressed, and the

  14. Unmanned aerial vehicles in construction and worker safety.

    PubMed

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Branche, Christine M

    2018-01-01

    Applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for military, recreational, public, and commercial uses have expanded significantly in recent years. In the construction industry, UAVs are used primarily for monitoring of construction workflow and job site logistics, inspecting construction sites to assess structural integrity, and for maintenance assessments. As is the case with other emerging technologies, occupational safety assessments of UAVs lag behind technological advancements. UAVs may create new workplace hazards that need to be evaluated and managed to ensure their safe operation around human workers. At the same time, UAVs can perform dangerous tasks, thereby improving workplace safety. This paper describes the four major uses of UAVs, including their use in construction, the potential risks of their use to workers, approaches for risk mitigation, and the important role that safety and health professionals can play in ensuring safe approaches to the their use in the workplace. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Neuromuscular training in construction workers: a longitudinal controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars; Bopp, Micha; Hofmann, Sara; Erlacher, Daniel; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-08-01

    Many accidents at construction sites are due to falls. An exercise-based workplace intervention may improve intrinsic fall risk factors. In this pilot study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of neuromuscular exercise on static and functional balance performance as well as on lower limb explosive power in construction workers. Healthy middle-aged construction workers were non-randomly assigned to an intervention [N = 20, age = 40.3 (SD 8.3) years] or a control group [N = 20, age = 41.8 (9.9) years]. The intervention group performed static and dynamic balance and strength exercises (13 weeks, 15 min each day). Before and after the intervention and after an 8-week follow-up, unilateral postural sway, backward balancing (on 3- and 4.5-cm-wide beams) as well as vertical jump height were assessed. We observed a group × time interaction for postural sway (p = 0.002) with a reduction in the intervention group and no relevant change in the control group. Similarly, the number of successful steps while walking backwards on the 3-cm beam increased only in the intervention group (p = 0.047). These effects were likely to most likely practically beneficial from pretest to posttest and to follow-up test for postural sway (+12%, standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.65 and 17%, SMD = 0.92) and backward balancing on the 3-cm beam (+58%, SMD = 0.59 and 37%, SMD = 0.40). Fifteen minutes of neuromuscular training each day can improve balance performance in construction workers and, thus, may contribute to a decreased fall risk.

  16. Native Residential Construction Worker. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Construction residentielle autochtone. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for native residential construction workers are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related…

  17. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. Methods From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0–10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. Results Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. Conclusions Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and

  18. Construct validity of functional capacity tests in healthy workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional Capacity (FC) is a multidimensional construct within the activity domain of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework (ICF). Functional capacity evaluations (FCEs) are assessments of work-related FC. The extent to which these work-related FC tests are associated to bio-, psycho-, or social factors is unknown. The aims of this study were to test relationships between FC tests and other ICF factors in a sample of healthy workers, and to determine the amount of statistical variance in FC tests that can be explained by these factors. Methods A cross sectional study. The sample was comprised of 403 healthy workers who completed material handling FC tests (lifting low, overhead lifting, and carrying) and static work FC tests (overhead working and standing forward bend). The explainable variables were; six muscle strength tests; aerobic capacity test; and questionnaires regarding personal factors (age, gender, body height, body weight, and education), psychological factors (mental health, vitality, and general health perceptions), and social factors (perception of work, physical workloads, sport-, leisure time-, and work-index). A priori construct validity hypotheses were formulated and analyzed by means of correlation coefficients and regression analyses. Results Moderate correlations were detected between material handling FC tests and muscle strength, gender, body weight, and body height. As for static work FC tests; overhead working correlated fair with aerobic capacity and handgrip strength, and low with the sport-index and perception of work. For standing forward bend FC test, all hypotheses were rejected. The regression model revealed that 61% to 62% of material handling FC tests were explained by physical factors. Five to 15% of static work FC tests were explained by physical and social factors. Conclusions The current study revealed that, in a sample of healthy workers, material handling FC tests were

  19. Building a Sustainable Higher Education Sector in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Saju; Chacko, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relevant economic aspects that could affect the sustainability of the HE sector in the UAE. Design/methodology/approach: Data are collected mainly through secondary sources and based on the relevant information. Two constructs, namely, market factors and educational governance are identified…

  20. [Tuberculosis among construction workers in dormitory housing in Chiba City].

    PubMed

    Igari, Hidetoshi; Maebara, Ayano; Suzuki, Kiminori; Shimura, Akimitsu

    2009-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control in a low socio-economic society is an important program for urban area of industrialized countries. Some construction workers live in Hanba, a kind of dormitory housings that have crowded living conditions, and possibly give rise to Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. The pulmonary tuberculosis detection rate by chest X-ray screening in Hanba is higher than the general population, and therefore TB incidence among Hanba construction worker is also estimated to be as high as that of homeless. To analyze the ratio of the TB patients from Hanba in Chiba City from 1993 through 2006, and analyze the treatment outcome and speculate the factors affecting them, especially the effects of the inpatients DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course) policy introduction after 2001. TB registration records in the Public Health Center, Chiba City, Japan, were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary TB patients from Hanba were 121 (male: 121, female: 0), representing 3.8% of the total 3179 TB patients from 1993 through 2006. Restricting to male patients aged 40-59 years-old, TB patients from Hanba were 78, representing 10.7% of 729 male TB patients of the same age groups. All of TB patients from Hanba developed pulmonary TB (PTB) and treatment outcome of chemotherapy was cured or completed: 69 (57%), defaulted or failed: 43 (36%), and died 9 (7%) respectively. When compared with PTB in Chiba and Japan, defaulted or failed was higher. In the multi-variated analysis, extensive lesions more than one lung (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04-0.37, P < 0.001) and smear-positive (AOR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.65, P = 0.009) were negative factor for cured and completed. However, hospitalization during initial period of treatment was positive factor (AOR: 7.92, 95% CI: 1.73-36.2, P = 0.008). After inpatients DOTS introduction, the rate of cured or completed increased from 50% to 67%, and the rate of failed or defaulted decreased

  1. WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. FORMS WERE MADE OF STEEL. AFTER AN INCH OF CONCRETE HAD BEEN POURED IN THE FORM, A MAT OF REINFORCING STEEL WAS PLACED ON IT. THE REMAINDER OF THE FORM WAS FILLED, AND THE CONCRETE WAS VIBRATED, STRUCK, AND TROWELED. GROOVES AT CORNER WILL HAVE 1/4 INCH RODS WELDED INTO THE EYE OF THE STEEL MAT FOR GROUNDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 578. Unknown Photographer, 9/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

  3. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K; Biswas, S; Nayak, K; Chatterjee, M K; Chakraborty, D; Mukherjee, S

    2012-05-01

    Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here.

  4. Mortality among Japanese construction workers in Mie Prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Kubota, H; Hisanaga, N; Shibata, E; Kamijima, M; Nakamura, K

    2002-01-01

    Aims: A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 17 668 members of the Construction Workers' Health Insurance Society of Mie Prefecture in Japan, in order to verify the relation between occupations and mortality status. Methods: The cohort was followed from 2 April 1973 to 1 April 1998. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for all members and each job classification. Results: 98.7% of the members were traced successfully until the date when the follow up terminated. When all members were considered together, significant excess mortality was observed for "accidents and adverse effects". Significant excess mortalities were also observed for lung cancers among scaffold men and ironworkers, for cancer of the oesophagus among plumbers, and for "chronic liver disease and cirrhosis" among scaffold men and painters. Conclusion: Results suggest that more detailed investigations, which would include some minor job classifications should be undertaken. This is an updated cohort study which was partially completed in 1997. PMID:12151606

  5. Total Worker Health® Intervention for Construction Workers Alters Safety, Health, Well-being Measures.

    PubMed

    Anger, Wyndham Kent; Kyler-Yano, Jason; Vaughn, Katie; Wipfli, Bradley; Olson, Ryan; Blanco, Magali

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 14-week Total Worker Health (TWH) intervention designed for construction crews. Supervisors (n = 22) completed computer-based training and self-monitoring activities on team building, work-life balance, and reinforcing targeted behaviors. Supervisors and workers (n = 13) also completed scripted safety and health education in small groups with practice activities. The intervention led to significant (P < 0.05) improvements in family-supportive supervisory behaviors (d = 0.72). Additional significant improvements included reported frequency of exercising 30 minutes/day and muscle toning exercise (d = 0.50 and 0.59), family and coworker healthy diet support (d = 0.53 and 0.59), team cohesion (d = 0.38), reduced sugary snacks and drinks (d = 0.46 and d = 0.46), sleep duration (d = 0.38), and objectively-measured systolic blood pressure (d = 0.27). A TWH intervention tailored for construction crews can simultaneously improve safety, health, and well-being.

  6. More than training: Community-based participatory research to reduce injuries among hispanic construction workers.

    PubMed

    Forst, Linda; Ahonen, Emily; Zanoni, Joseph; Holloway-Beth, Alfreda; Oschner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Rodriguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Ringholm, Elisa; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-08-01

    Workplace mortality and severe injury are disproportionately distributed among foreign born and Hispanic construction workers. Worker Centers (WCs) provide services and advocacy for low-wage workers and a way for investigators to reach them. The goal of this project is to prevent occupational injuries by increasing awareness of hazards and self-efficacy among foreign born, Hispanic construction workers and by expanding the agenda of WCs to include occupational health and safety (H&S). Investigators partnered with eight WCs in seven cities to train worker leaders to deliver a modified OSHA 10-hr curriculum to their peers. Thirty-two worker leaders trained 446 workers over 3 years. There was a demonstrated improvement in knowledge, hazard identification, self-efficacy, and sustainable H&S activities. This study provides evidence for successful implementation of a training intervention for low wage, low literacy Hispanic construction workers using a community-based participatory research approach. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Physical Exposures, Work Tasks, and OSHA-10 Training Among Temporary and Payroll Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Santiago, Katerina M; Stillman, Jordan; Moore, Kevin J; Sierra, Danielle A; Chalmers, Juanita; Baniak, Melissa; Jordan, Melissa M

    2018-04-01

    We characterize and compare the self-reported physical exposures, work tasks, and OSHA-10 training in a non-probabilistic sample of temporary and payroll construction workers. In June 2016, a total of 250 payroll and temporary general laborers employed at Florida construction sites completed a survey at the job site as part of the falls reported among minority employees (FRAME) study. Workers employed through temp agencies (57.1%) were significantly more likely to report moving or lifting materials more than 100 pounds than payroll workers (38.5%; P < 0.01). Temporary construction workers with 10-hour OSHA training (22.2%) spent significantly less time with intense hand use/awkward hand posture than temporary workers without 10-hour OSHA training (46.9%; P = 0.048). Temp construction workers with OSHA 10-hour training reported less hazardous physical postures than workers without the same training.

  8. Cumulative exposure to dust and gases as determinants of lung function decline in tunnel construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, B; Ulvestad, B; Stewart, P; Eduard, W

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study the relation between lung function decrease and cumulative exposure to dust and gases in tunnel construction workers. Methods: A total of 651 male construction workers (drill and blast workers, tunnel concrete workers, shotcreting operators, and tunnel boring machine workers) were followed up by spirometric measurements in 1989–2002 for an average of six years. Outdoor concrete workers, foremen, and engineers served as a low exposed referent population. Results: The between worker component of variability was considerably reduced within the job groups compared to the whole population, suggesting that the workers within job groups had similar exposure levels. The annual decrease in FEV1 in low-exposed non-smoking workers was 21 ml and 24 ml in low-exposed ever smokers. The annual decrease in FEV1 in tunnel construction workers was 20–31 ml higher than the low exposed workers depending on job group for both non-smokers and ever smokers. After adjustment for age and observation time, cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide showed the strongest association with a decrease in FEV1 in both non-smokers, and ever smokers. Conclusion: Cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide appeared to be a major risk factor for lung function decreases in these tunnel construction workers, although other agents may have contributed to the observed effect. Contact with blasting fumes should be avoided, diesel exhaust emissions should be reduced, and respiratory devices should be used to protect workers against dust and nitrogen dioxide exposure. PMID:14985522

  9. Relationships among Safety Climate, Safety Behavior, and Safety Outcomes for Ethnic Minority Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Sainan; Chan, Albert P. C.; Wong, Francis K. W.

    2018-01-01

    In many countries, it is common practice to attract and employ ethnic minority (EM) or migrant workers in the construction industry. This primarily occurs in order to alleviate the labor shortage caused by an aging workforce with a lack of new entrants. Statistics show that EM construction workers are more likely to have occupational fatal and nonfatal injuries than their local counterparts; however, the mechanism underlying accidents and injuries in this vulnerable population has been rarely examined. This study aims to investigate relationships among safety climate, safety behavior, and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. To this end, a theoretical research model was developed based on a comprehensive review of the current literature. In total, 289 valid questionnaires were collected face-to-face from 223 Nepalese construction workers and 56 Pakistani construction workers working on 15 construction sites in Hong Kong. Structural equation modelling was employed to validate the constructs and test the hypothesized model. Results show that there were significant positive relationships between safety climate and safety behaviors, and significant negative relationships between safety behaviors and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. This research contributes to the literature regarding EM workers by providing empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which safety climate affects safety behaviors and outcomes. It also provides insights in order to help the key stakeholders formulate safety strategies for EM workers in many areas where numerous EM workers are employed, such as in the U.S., the UK, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, and the Middle East. PMID:29522503

  10. Relationships among Safety Climate, Safety Behavior, and Safety Outcomes for Ethnic Minority Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sainan; Hon, Carol K H; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Francis K W; Javed, Arshad Ali

    2018-03-09

    In many countries, it is common practice to attract and employ ethnic minority (EM) or migrant workers in the construction industry. This primarily occurs in order to alleviate the labor shortage caused by an aging workforce with a lack of new entrants. Statistics show that EM construction workers are more likely to have occupational fatal and nonfatal injuries than their local counterparts; however, the mechanism underlying accidents and injuries in this vulnerable population has been rarely examined. This study aims to investigate relationships among safety climate, safety behavior, and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. To this end, a theoretical research model was developed based on a comprehensive review of the current literature. In total, 289 valid questionnaires were collected face-to-face from 223 Nepalese construction workers and 56 Pakistani construction workers working on 15 construction sites in Hong Kong. Structural equation modelling was employed to validate the constructs and test the hypothesized model. Results show that there were significant positive relationships between safety climate and safety behaviors, and significant negative relationships between safety behaviors and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. This research contributes to the literature regarding EM workers by providing empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which safety climate affects safety behaviors and outcomes. It also provides insights in order to help the key stakeholders formulate safety strategies for EM workers in many areas where numerous EM workers are employed, such as in the U.S., the UK, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, and the Middle East.

  11. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18-30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems.

  12. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2013-09-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Workers' compensation experience of North Carolina residential construction workers, 1986-1994.

    PubMed

    Dement, J M; Lipscomb, H

    1999-02-01

    A total of 31,113 workers' compensation claims among 7,400 North Carolina Homebuilders Association (NCHA) members and their subcontractors for the period 1986-1994 were analyzed to calculate workers' compensation claim incidence density rates. For the 7 years studied, the average rate (cases/200,000 work hours) for all claims was 16.40 and the rate for medical or lost time cases was 10.78. Highest rates for cases involving medical costs or paid lost time by mechanism of injury were observed for being struck by an object (3.1), lifting/movement (1.97), falls from a different level (1.13), striking against an object (0.87), and falls on the same level (0.46). Rates by mechanism of injury were highest for muscle strains (2.34), wounds/punctures (2.33), bruises/contusions (1.24), fractures/dislocations (0.98), and injuries to the eyes (0.81). Among medical cost or lost work time cases, body parts with highest injury rates were back/shoulders (1.99), fingers (1.31), leg/knee (1.00), hand/wrist (1.00), foot/ankle (0.86), and eyes (0.82). Injury rates were found to vary substantially among the residential construction trades. For more serious injuries involving medical costs greater than $2,000 or any lost work time, rates were highest for welders and cutters (28.1), insulators (24.3), roofers (19.4), and carpenters (15.3). The same general trends by trade were observed for cases involving paid lost time except that roofers were highest, with a rate of 9.1, followed by insulators (8.5), welders and cutters (5.8), and carpenters (5.8). Rates of falls from a different level resulting in medical costs or lost work time were highest for roofers (5.54), insulators (3.53), carpenters (2.05), and drywall installers (1.99). Descriptive information for falls from a different level resulting in paid lost time during 1993-1994 (n = 219) were reviewed to better determine the causes and circumstances of injuries. Falls from a roof accounted for 25.4 percent of the cases followed by

  14. Work-related to musculoskeletal disorder amongst Malaysian construction trade workers: Bricklayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lop, Nor Suzila; Kamar, Izatul Farrita Mohd; Aziz, Mohd Nasiruddin Abdul; Abdullah, Lizawati; Akhir, Norizan Mt

    2017-10-01

    Construction sector is one of the highest risk industries contributing to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In general construction activities involve the composition of various construction trades, such as painting, plastering, concreting, paving and bricklaying. Different construction trades workers are exposed to risk factors depending their job and task. There are risk factors associated with the construction trade workers activities such as concrete work, brickwork, piling work excavation works and etc. Thus, the aim of this research is to document the critical activities that affect the musculoskeletal disorders amongst Malaysian construction trade workers, in particular to the bricklayers. The objective of this research is to identify the critical activities that affect to the musculoskeletal disorder among the bricklayers. The data for this research was collected via observation to the construction workers for the specific trades which are bricklayers in Perak. Finding of this research is by identifying the critical activities involved that affect the musculoskeletal disorder suffering among bricklayers.

  15. The Attitude of Construction Workers toward the Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widaningsih, L.; Susanti, I.; Chandra, T.

    2018-02-01

    Construction industry refers to one of the industries dealing with high accident rate. Besides its outdoor workplace involving many workers who usually work manually, the workers’ work culture and less awareness of occupational health and safety (OHS) are attributed to the high accident rate. This study explores some construction workers who are involved in some construction projects in big cities such as Bandung and Jakarta. The questionnaire-given to the construction workers focusing on stone construction, wood construction, and finishing session-reveals that the construction workers knowledge and understanding of nine Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) aspects reach above 50%. However, does not appear to reflect their knowledge and understanding of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS). The results of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and an in-depth interview show that the fallacious implementation of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is attributed to their traditional “work culture”.

  16. Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how

  17. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of chillness in the arms and legs between the traffic control workers (5.1%) and the construction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm

  18. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers in the United States from 1992 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuanwen; Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Choi, Sang D; Dement, John

    2017-05-01

    Examine trends and patterns of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among construction workers in the USA, with an emphasis on older workers. WMSDs were identified from the 1992-2014 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII), and employment was estimated from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Risk of WMSDs was measured by number of WMSDs per 10 000 full-time equivalent workers and stratified by major demographic and employment subgroups. Time series analysis was performed to examine the trend of WMSDs in construction. The number of WMSDs significantly dropped in the US construction industry, following the overall injury trends. However, the rate of WMSDs in construction remained higher than in all industries combined; the median days away from work increased from 8 days in 1992 to 13 days in 2014, and the proportion of WMSDs for construction workers aged 55 to 64 years almost doubled. By occupation, construction labourers had the largest number of WMSD cases, while helpers, heating and air-conditioning mechanics, cement masons and sheet metal workers had the highest rates of WMSDs. The major cause of WMSDs in construction was overexertion, and back injuries accounted for more than 40% of WMSDs among construction workers. The estimated wage loss for private wage-and-salary construction workers was $46 million in 2014. Construction workers continue to face a higher risk of WMSDs. Ergonomic solutions that reduce overexertion-the primary exposure for WMSDs-should be adopted extensively at construction sites, particularly for workers with a higher risk of WMSDs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Cyborgs and Knowledge Workers? Gendered Constructions of Workers in Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Helen

    1996-01-01

    Discussions of knowledge workers are gender blind and ignore or devalue women's work. A more useful conception of the worker as cyborg illuminates questions of ownership of skills and knowledge and the blurring of boundaries between humans and technologies. (SK)

  20. Risk factors for non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Khashaba, E; El-Helaly, M; El-Gilany, A H; Motawei, S M; Foda, S

    2018-02-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem, because it affects both workers and young people. Prevalence and consequences of cannabis abuse among construction workers in particular are not well studied in Egypt. To determine the association between non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers and their demographic and occupational factors and to assess the frequency of cannabis abuse and its relationship to injury severity and workdays lost. A case-control study was conducted at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. Cases were 100 acutely injured male workers. A control group of 90 healthy age-matched workers was selected from 8 construction sites. Workers were interviewed, and a questionnaire was completed that included socio-demographic data, full occupational history, and causes and type of injury. Injury outcome measures included lost workdays and the injury severity score (ISS). Cannabis abuse in injured workers was monitored by preliminary testing of urine and confirmatory testing of blood. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of occupational injuries were rural residence, being a carpenter or painter and past history of injuries. The most common accidents were slipping falls (62%). Confirmed cannabis test was positive in 51.1% of the injured workers. Median days away from work were greater among cannabis users than non-users. The ISS was significantly higher among users compared to non-users ( p < 0.05). Cannabis abuse can increase injury severity and prolong workdays lost. Drug testing is recommended for at-risk construction workers with inadequate safety measures.

  1. [Increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among tunnel construction workers].

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Bente; Lund, May Brit

    2003-08-28

    As tunnel workers are exposed to particles from drilling, blasting and diesel exhaust, we aimed to assess the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in underground construction workers and relate these findings to exposure. 212 tunnel workers and a reference group of 205 outdoor construction workers participated in a cross-sectional study. Respiratory symptoms and lung function were studied in relation to exposure. A subgroup of 29 non-smoking concrete workers who had been exposed to tunnel environment for one year, were examined by acoustic rhinometry, exhaled NO, spirometry and a questionnaire. Finally 122 tunnel workers were included in a prospective study in 1991 and re-examined in 1999. Among the tunnel workers the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was 14% vs. 8% in the reference subjects. Compared to the reference subjects, the tunnel workers had a significant decrease in FEV1, related to years of exposure. Concrete workers from the tunnel site had significantly increased exhaled NO levels and nasal mucosal swelling compared to subjects who had performed similar tasks outdoors. The decrease in FEV1 was associated with cumulative exposure to respirable dust and quartz. Inhalation of construction-generated dust and gases enhances the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in tunnel workers.

  2. HIV testing of construction workers in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter; Cattell, Keith

    2015-01-01

    With an infection rate estimated at 14%, the South African construction industry is one of the economic sectors most adversely affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Construction workers are considered a high-risk group. The provision and uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is critical to reducing transmission rates. This study examined the testing behaviour of site-based construction workers in terms of demographic and lifestyle risk behaviour characteristics to help inform better strategies for work-based interventions by construction firms. A total of 512 workers drawn from six firms operating on 18 construction sites in the Western Cape province participated in the study. Twenty-seven per cent of the participants reported never having been tested for HIV. Results indicate that females (aOR = 4.45, 95% CI, 1.25-15.82), older workers (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI, 1.08-1.81), permanent workers (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI, 1.11-2.50) and workers whom had previously used a condom (aOR = 1.93, 95% CI, 1.02-3.65) were significantly more likely to have been tested. Ethnicity was not significantly related to prior testing. Identification of these subgroups within the industry has implications for the development of targeted work-based intervention programmes to promote greater HIV testing among construction workers in South Africa.

  3. Workers' safety in the construction industry in the southern West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Sari, M I; Al-Khatib, I A

    2012-10-01

    There are few data about safety in the construction industry in Palestine. The main aim of the study was to assess worker's experiences and perceptions of safety at construction sites in Hebron and Bethlehem governorates of the West Bank. A structured questionnaire was completed through direct interviews with 349 construction workers. Of the respondents, 34.6% had experienced work-related accidents, 13.0% and 65.6% indicated that their workplace did not have a first-aid kit or trained first-aid specialist respectively, 35.8% reported that their work sites did not have safety tools and 83.7% had not received safety training. Workers perceived that awareness and training were the most frequent factor affecting workers' safety, with the foreman position having the greatest impact on the workers' safety. Greater enforcement of the current Palestinian safety laws is needed.

  4. Assessing Heat Stress and Health among Construction Workers in a Changing Climate: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Payel; Boggess, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Construction workers are at an elevated risk of heat stress, due to the strenuous nature of the work, high temperature work condition, and a changing climate. An increasing number of workers are at risk, as the industry’s growth has been fueled by high demand and vast numbers of immigrant workers entering into the U.S., the Middle East and Asia to meet the demand. The risk of heat-related illnesses is increased by the fact that little to no regulations are present and/or enforced to protect these workers. This review recognizes the issues by summarizing epidemiological studies both in the U.S. and internationally. These studies have assessed the severity with which construction workers are affected by heat stress, risk factors and co-morbidities associated with heat-related illnesses in the construction industry, vulnerable populations, and efforts in implementing preventive measures. PMID:29389908

  5. Risk Evaluation of Construction Workers' Exposure to Silica Dust and the Possible Lung Function Impairments.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Elahe; Azari, Mansour; Zendehdel, Rezvan; Salehpour, Sousan; Khodakrim, Soheila; Nikoo, Saeed; Saranjam, Behzad

    2017-06-01

    Aerosols generated during construction activities are an integral part of building operations. Considering the nature of materials used in construction activities, respirable dust contains crystalline silica and particulates not otherwise specified (PNOS). Due to lack of data regarding the occupational health status of Iranian construction workers, the objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to silica and to examine their respiratory health status. In this cross sectional study, 85 construction workers and 40 controls (without active exposure to construction dust) were studied. The workers' exposure to PNOS and silica aerosols was monitored by the NIOSH method No.0600 and a new Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based method, respectively. All subjects were also monitored for lung function parameters, such as forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75 ), FVC, and FEV 1 . The mean exposure of workers to respirable PNOS and silica was 9.8 (0.35) and 0.13 (0.019) mg/m 3 , respectively. The groups of construction workers showed significant differences in exposure to PNOS ( P < 0.001) and silica ( P = 0.007). The mean pulmonary function parameters, including FEV 1 % and FVC%, were significantly lower among construction workers, compared to the control group ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). The pulmonary status of 51.8% of construction workers showed moderate restriction, while 4.70% exhibited obstruction. Considering the construction workers' excessive exposure to PNOS and silica, besides depressed lung function parameters, they can be classified as a high-risk group for respiratory diseases.

  6. Results of a community-based survey of construction safety climate for Hispanic workers

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Luz S; Cifuentes, Manuel; Roelofs, Cora

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hispanic construction workers experience high rates of occupational injury, likely influenced by individual, organizational, and social factors. Objectives: To characterize the safety climate of Hispanic construction workers using worker, contractor, and supervisor perceptions of the workplace. Methods: We developed a 40-item interviewer-assisted survey with six safety climate dimensions and administered it in Spanish and English to construction workers, contractors, and supervisors. A safety climate model, comparing responses and assessing contributing factors was created based on survey responses. Results: While contractors and construction supervisors’ (n = 128) scores were higher, all respondents shared a negative perception of safety climate. Construction workers had statistically significantly lower safety climate scores compared to supervisors and contractors (30.6 vs 46.5%, P<0.05). Safety climate scores were not associated with English language ability or years lived in the United States. Conclusions: We found that Hispanic construction workers in this study experienced a poor safety climate. The Hispanic construction safety climate model we propose can serve as a framework to guide organizational safety interventions and evaluate safety climate improvements. PMID:26145454

  7. Results of a community-based survey of construction safety climate for Hispanic workers.

    PubMed

    Marin, Luz S; Cifuentes, Manuel; Roelofs, Cora

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic construction workers experience high rates of occupational injury, likely influenced by individual, organizational, and social factors. To characterize the safety climate of Hispanic construction workers using worker, contractor, and supervisor perceptions of the workplace. We developed a 40-item interviewer-assisted survey with six safety climate dimensions and administered it in Spanish and English to construction workers, contractors, and supervisors. A safety climate model, comparing responses and assessing contributing factors was created based on survey responses. While contractors and construction supervisors' (n = 128) scores were higher, all respondents shared a negative perception of safety climate. Construction workers had statistically significantly lower safety climate scores compared to supervisors and contractors (30·6 vs 46·5%, P<0·05). Safety climate scores were not associated with English language ability or years lived in the United States. We found that Hispanic construction workers in this study experienced a poor safety climate. The Hispanic construction safety climate model we propose can serve as a framework to guide organizational safety interventions and evaluate safety climate improvements.

  8. [Evaluating health state and professional adaptation of young workers and students on aircraft-construction plant].

    PubMed

    Gus'kova, T M; D'iakovich, M P; Shaiakhmetov, S F

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with materials on parameters of health and functional cardiovascular resources, some psychophysiologic functions, social and psychologic characteristics in young workers of aircraft-construction plant and in potential workers - technical school and college students. The authors evaluate efficiency of occupational adaptation of the youth.

  9. Migration and Health in the Construction Industry: Culturally Centering Voices of Bangladeshi Workers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Mohan J.

    2017-01-01

    Construction workers globally face disproportionate threats to health and wellbeing, constituted by the nature of the work they perform. The workplace fatalities and lost-time injuries experienced by construction workers are significantly greater than in other forms of work. This paper draws on the culture-centered approach (CCA) to dialogically articulate meanings of workplace risks and injuries, voiced by Bangladeshi migrant construction workers in Singapore. The narratives voiced by the participants suggest an ecological approach to workplace injuries in the construction industries, attending to food insecurity, lack of sleep, transportation, etc. as contextual features of work that shape the risks experienced at work. Moreover, participant voices point to the barriers in communication, lack of understanding, and experiences of incivility as features of work that constitute the ways in which they experience injury risks. The overarching discourses of productivity and efficiency constitute a broader climate of threats to worker safety and health. PMID:28146056

  10. 36. SAR1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, WITH WORKERS ATOP CRANE. EEC print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SAR-1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, WITH WORKERS ATOP CRANE. EEC print no. N-C-01-00031, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Migration and Health in the Construction Industry: Culturally Centering Voices of Bangladeshi Workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mohan J

    2017-01-29

    Construction workers globally face disproportionate threats to health and wellbeing, constituted by the nature of the work they perform. The workplace fatalities and lost-time injuries experienced by construction workers are significantly greater than in other forms of work. This paper draws on the culture-centered approach (CCA) to dialogically articulate meanings of workplace risks and injuries, voiced by Bangladeshi migrant construction workers in Singapore. The narratives voiced by the participants suggest an ecological approach to workplace injuries in the construction industries, attending to food insecurity, lack of sleep, transportation, etc. as contextual features of work that shape the risks experienced at work. Moreover, participant voices point to the barriers in communication, lack of understanding, and experiences of incivility as features of work that constitute the ways in which they experience injury risks. The overarching discourses of productivity and efficiency constitute a broader climate of threats to worker safety and health.

  12. Is there agreement between worker self and supervisor assessment of worker safety performance? An examination in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Nini; Griffin, Mark A; Wang, Xueqing; Liu, Xing; Wang, Dan

    2018-06-01

    Individual safety performance (behavior) critically influences safety outcomes in high-risk workplaces. Compared to the study of generic work performance on different measurements, few studies have investigated different measurements of safety performance, typically relying on employees' self-reflection of their safety behavior. This research aims to address this limitation by including worker self-reflection and other (i.e., supervisor) assessment of two worker safety performance dimensions, safety compliance and safety participation. A sample of 105 workers and 17 supervisors in 17 groups in the Chinese construction industry participated in this study. Comparisons were made between worker compliance and participation in each measurement, and between workers' and supervisors' assessment of workers' compliance and participation. Multilevel modeling was adopted to test the moderating effects on the worker self-reflection and supervisor-assessment relationship by group safety climate and the work experience of supervisors. Higher levels of safety compliance than participation were found for self-reflection and supervisor assessment. The discrepancy between the two measurements in each safety performance dimension was significant. The work experience of supervisors attenuated the discrepancy between self- and supervisor-assessment of compliance. Contrary to our expectations, the moderating effect of group safety climate was not supported. The discrepancy between worker self- and supervisor-assessment of worker safety performance, thus, suggests the importance of including alternative measurements of safety performance in addition to self-reflection. Lower levels of participation behavior in both raters suggest more research on the motivators of participatory behavior. Practical applications The discrepancy between different raters can lead to negative reactions of ratees, suggesting that managers should be aware of that difference. Assigning experienced supervisors as

  13. Health and safety implications of recruitment payments in migrant construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East construction sector is heavily reliant on a migrant workforce that predominantly originates from South Asia. It is common practice for migrant construction workers to pay a local labour recruiter the equivalent of one or more years’ prospective overseas salary to secure employment, work and travel permits and transportation. The occupational health and safety implications of these financial arrangements remain unexplored. Aims To examine associations between payment to a labour recruiter, perceived general health and worksite accidents among migrant construction workers in the Middle East. Methods A questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of predominantly Indian migrant construction workers drawn from a large construction project. The relationship between payment and risk of poor health and workplace accidents was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models (crude and adjusted for socio-demographic and occupational factors). Results There were 651 participants. The majority (58%) of migrant construction workers had paid a labour recruiter and ~40% had experienced a worksite accident. Between 3% (labourers) and 9% (foremen) perceived their health to be poor. Labourers and skilled workers who had paid a labour recruiter were significantly more likely to have experienced a worksite accident in the previous 12 months. Skilled workers, but not labourers and foremen, who had paid a labour recruiter were at increased risk of poor health. Conclusions The mechanisms linking labour recruiter payments to adverse safety and health outcomes warrant investigation with a view to developing interventions to erode these links. PMID:24668316

  14. Health and safety implications of recruitment payments in migrant construction workers.

    PubMed

    Hassan, H A; Houdmont, J

    2014-07-01

    The Middle East construction sector is heavily reliant on a migrant workforce that predominantly originates from South Asia. It is common practice for migrant construction workers to pay a local labour recruiter the equivalent of one or more years' prospective overseas salary to secure employment, work and travel permits and transportation. The occupational health and safety implications of these financial arrangements remain unexplored. To examine associations between payment to a labour recruiter, perceived general health and worksite accidents among migrant construction workers in the Middle East. A questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of predominantly Indian migrant construction workers drawn from a large construction project. The relationship between payment and risk of poor health and workplace accidents was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models (crude and adjusted for socio-demographic and occupational factors). There were 651 participants. The majority (58%) of migrant construction workers had paid a labour recruiter and ~40% had experienced a worksite accident. Between 3% (labourers) and 9% (foremen) perceived their health to be poor. Labourers and skilled workers who had paid a labour recruiter were significantly more likely to have experienced a worksite accident in the previous 12 months. Skilled workers, but not labourers and foremen, who had paid a labour recruiter were at increased risk of poor health. The mechanisms linking labour recruiter payments to adverse safety and health outcomes warrant investigation with a view to developing interventions to erode these links. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  15. Epidemiology of work-related injuries among construction workers of ilam (Western iran) during 2006 - 2009.

    PubMed

    Moradinazar, Mehdi; Kurd, Nematullah; Farhadi, Rozita; Amee, Vahid; Najafi, Farid

    2013-10-01

    Work-related injuries are the most important cause of work absence, disability, retirement, mutilation, and even mortality. In Iran a great number of work-related injuries are occurred in construction industry. However, less than 12% of total workers are active in the construction sector. This study aimed to determine the incidence rate of work-related injuries, the type of injuries, and its other determinants among the construction workers of Ilam (Iran). The participants were the workers and staffs working in the construction activities of Ilam in Western Iran. All the recorded injuries and deaths related to the construction workers of Ilam from 2006-2009 were collected from the Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs and then analyzed by the statistical package of SPSS (version 19, for Windows). During 2006 - 2009 in Ilam, 387workers encountered the building accidents. Their mean age was 34.3 years (SD = 12.4). The average annual incidence of work-related injuries among the workers was 8.2 per 1000 workers. Fracture with 275 cases (71%) was the most common outcome of injuries, and slipping and falling with 77 cases (36%) were the most important events and exposures. The most important factor related to injuries was the lack of surveillance by employers which was also related with the severity of accident-induced injuries (P < 0.004). Considering the effectiveness of the relevant preventive measures activities such as training the workers as well as using safety tools and more surveillance by employers can decrease the number of work-related injuries among constructive workers.

  16. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between perceived present working conditions and demands versus attitude to early retirement among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Jebens, Einar; Medbø, Jon I; Knutsen, Oddvar; Mamen, Asgeir; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2014-01-01

    Early retirement is an increasing problem in the construction industry. There is limited information about causes leading employees to leave working life early. We have compared construction workers present situation with their perception of future demands at work to avoid early retirement. All 87 employees in a medium-sized Norwegian construction company participated in the study. All were men and answered questionnaires on health and pain, work ability, mechanical exposure, psychosocial conditions, and demands regarding future working conditions. Most workers showed good work ability, irrespective of age. Many reported high levels of mechanical exposure at work. The level of musculoskeletal pain was higher in the middle-aged (30-50 year old) age groups and seniors aged over 50 years than among the youngest workers less than 30 years of age. All workers reported that good health was important for continued working. Most workers stated that future work must not be too physically demanding. Many workers reported relatively low job satisfaction; consequently an interesting job was rated as important for continuing work. Good social conditions were a high priority. According to the examined construction workers, good health and reduced levels of mechanical exposure at work are essential to avoid early retirement.

  18. Lung cancer risk among construction workers in California, 1988-2007.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Luckhaupt, Sara; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Cress, Rosemary; Schumacher, Pam; Shen, Rui; Tak, SangWoo; Deapen, Dennis

    2012-05-01

    Although lung cancer risks can vary by race/ethnicity and by construction occupation, these risks have not been examined extensively. This study analyzed 110,937 lung cancer cases identified from the California Cancer Registry between 1988 and 2007. Mean age at diagnosis, proportion diagnosed at an advanced stage, and proportion with 3-year survival were calculated for lung cancer cases employed in the construction industry. Case-control methodology was also used to assess the risk of lung cancer. Morbidity odds ratios (MORs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Construction workers were found to have a significantly elevated risk for all lung cancer combined (MOR = 1.57) and for each lung cancer histologic subtype examined. All construction occupations, except managers/engineers and supervisors, had a significantly elevated risk for all lung cancer combined. Roofers and welders had the highest risks for total lung cancer and for each of the histologic subtypes. Construction workers in each of the four race/ethnicity groups also had significantly increased lung cancer risks. Compared to non-construction workers, construction workers were diagnosed at an earlier age, at a more advanced stage, and had significantly lower 3-year survival, though differences were modest. These findings justify additional reductions in carcinogenic exposures in construction, and increased support for smoking cessation programs at construction sites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development and Validation of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for U.S. Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingzong; Sparer, Emily H.; Murphy, Lauren A.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Fang, Dongping; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a fatigue assessment scale and test its reliability and validity for commercial construction workers. Methods Using a two-phased approach, we first identified items for the development of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for Construction Workers (FASCW) through review of existing scales in the scientific literature, key informant interviews (n=11) and focus groups (3 groups with 6 workers each) with construction workers. The second phase included assessment for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the new scale using a repeated-measures study design with a convenience sample of construction workers (n=144). Results Phase one resulted in a 16-item preliminary scale that after factor analysis yielded a final 10-item scale with two sub-scales (“Lethargy” and “Bodily Ailment”).. During phase two, the FASCW and its subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficients were FASCW (0.91), Lethargy (0.86) and Bodily Ailment (0.84)) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Pearson Correlations Coefficients: 0.59–0.68; Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.74–0.80). Correlation analysis substantiated concurrent and convergent validity. A discriminant analysis demonstrated that the FASCW differentiated between groups with arthritis status and different work hours. Conclusions The 10-item FASCW with good reliability and validity is an effective tool for assessing the severity of fatigue among construction workers. PMID:25603944

  20. Development and validation of a fatigue assessment scale for U.S. construction workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzong; Sparer, Emily H; Murphy, Lauren A; Dennerlein, Jack T; Fang, Dongping; Katz, Jeffrey N; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2015-02-01

    To develop a fatigue assessment scale and test its reliability and validity for commercial construction workers. Using a two-phased approach, we first identified items (first phase) for the development of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for Construction Workers (FASCW) through review of existing scales in the scientific literature, key informant interviews (n = 11) and focus groups (three groups with six workers each) with construction workers. The second phase included assessment for the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the new scale using a repeated-measures study design with a convenience sample of construction workers (n = 144). Phase one resulted in a 16-item preliminary scale that after factor analysis yielded a final 10-item scale with two sub-scales ("Lethargy" and "Bodily Ailment"). During phase two, the FASCW and its subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficients were FASCW [0.91], Lethargy [0.86] and Bodily Ailment [0.84]) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Pearson Correlations Coefficients: 0.59-0.68; Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.74-0.80). Correlation analysis substantiated concurrent and convergent validity. A discriminant analysis demonstrated that the FASCW differentiated between groups with arthritis status and different work hours. The 10-item FASCW with good reliability and validity is an effective tool for assessing the severity of fatigue among construction workers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enhancing the competitiveness of skilled construction workers through collaborative education and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardiri, Ahmad; Sutrisno, Kuncoro, Tri; Ichwanto, Muhamad Aris; Suparji

    2017-09-01

    Professionalism of construction workers is one of the keys to the success of infrastructure development projects. The professionalism of the workforce is demonstrated through the possession of expertise competence certificate (SKA) and/or certificates of skills (SKT) issued formally through competency tests by the National Construction Cervices Development Agency (LPJKN). The magnitude of the national skilled manpower needs has not been able to meet the availability of professional workforce. Strategies to develop the quality of resources require sufficient information on the characteristics of the resources themselves, facilities, constraints, stakeholder support, regulations, and socioeconomic as well as cultural conditions. The problems faced by Indonesia in improving the competitiveness of skilled construction workers are (1) how the level of professionalism of skill workers in construction field, (2) what the constrains on improving the quality of skilled construction workers,and(3) how the appropriate model of education and training skillfull construction work. The study was designed with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods were used to describe the profile of sklill constructions worker. Qualitative methods were used toidentify constraintsin improving the qualityof skilled labor, as well as formulate a viable collaborative education and training model for improving the quality of skill labor. Data were collected by documentation, observation, and interview. The result of the study indicate theat (1) the professionalism knowledge of skilled constructions worker are in still low condition, (2) the constrain faced in developing the quality of skilled construction labor cover economic and structural constrains, and (3) collaborative eduction and training model can improve the quality ods skilld labor contructions.

  2. Cardiovascular Health of Construction Workers in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne Wai-Yee; Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Yan, Vincent Chun-Man; Chung, Louisa Ming-Yan; So, Henry Chi-Fuk; Chan, Albert

    2018-06-12

    Given a shortage of construction workers, it is important to develop strategies to avoid early retirement caused by cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong. (1) to describe the cardiovascular health of construction workers in Hong Kong, (2) to examine the demographic differences in cardiovascular health, and (3) to examine the association between health behaviors and cardiovascular health factors. 626 registered construction workers were included in the analysis. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, weight, and height were measured. Face-to-face questionnaire interviews for health behaviors were conducted. Approximately two-thirds of the construction workers achieved only three out of the seven “ideal” cardiovascular health metrics. The younger, more educated, and female subjects had better cardiovascular health scores than the older, less educated, and male counterparts. Fish and seafood consumption was associated with (1) ideal weight status and (2) ideal cholesterol level, whereas less soft drink consumption was associated with ideal cholesterol level. The findings highlighted the importance of promoting cardiovascular health in the construction industry. This study provided some insights for future interventions, which should include increasing fish and seafood intake, decreasing soft drink consumption, and enhancing the health literacy amongst older, less educated, and male construction workers.

  3. Ethnic Disparities of Perceived Safety Climate Among Construction Workers in Georgia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Welton, Michael; DeJoy, David; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Ebell, Mark; Shen, Ye; Robb, Sara

    2018-06-01

    Safety climate involves worker perception about the relative importance where they work and safety climate and has been shown to be a reliable predictor of safety-related outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to investigate ethnic differences in perceived safety climate among construction workers. Surveys (n = 179) that included a 10-item safety climate scale were administered in Athens, Georgia (GA), at local construction sites and home improvement stores during June-August, 2015. The majority of respondents were carpenters or roofers (39%), followed by laborers (22%), painters and dry wall workers (14%), other skilled trades (14%), and supervisors (11%); 32% were Hispanic. Hispanic ethnicity (p < 0.0001), drinking two or more alcoholic beverages per day (p < 0.0001), working for a company that does not provide health insurance (p = 0.0022), and working for a company with fewer than ten employees (p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with lower perceived safety climate scores. The lower perceived safety climate scores among Hispanic workers indicate that the perception of the importance of safety on the job site is lower among Hispanics construction workers than non-Hispanics construction workers.

  4. Occupational injuries among building construction workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Israel, Dagnachew

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries can pose direct costs, like suffering, loss of employment, disability and loss of productivity, and indirect costs on families and society. However, there is a dearth of studies clarifying the situation in most of Subsaharan African countries, like Ethiopia. The present study determined the prevalence of injury and associated factors among building construction employees in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among building construction employees in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from February to April 2015. Multi-stages sampling followed by simple random sampling techniques was used to select the study participants. The sample size of the study was 544. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable analyses were employed to see the effect of explanatory variables on injury. The prevalence of injury among building construction employees was reported to be 38.3 % [95 % CI: (33.9, 42.7)] in the past 1 year. Use of personal protective equipments, work experience, khat chewing were factors significantly associated with injury. This is among the few studies describing construction health and safety in Ethiopia. In this study a relatively higher prevalence of injury was reported among building construction employees compared to other studies. If urgent interventions are not in place, the absence from work, loss of productivity and work-related illnesses, disabilities and fatalities will continue to be a major challenge of the construction industry in the future. Therefore, programs to mitigate the burden borne by construction-related injuries should focus on areas, such as provision of safety trainings, promoting use of PPE and monitoring substance abuse in workplace.

  5. Urinary lithiasis in civil construction workers as a management indicator for health and improvement in personnel.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Aquino, Simone

    2014-12-01

    Empirical information provided by health care professionals acting in the first line of care report a constant increase in the number of civil construction workers that present painful acute conditions, in most cases associated with the existence of urinary tract calculi. Evaluating the prevalence of urinary lithiasis in civil construction workers, as a means to identify indicators for the management of health and personnel. Observational study based on directed questionnaire. From the 94 participants, 18 (19%) were lithiasic, mostly due to overweight and reduced fluid intake. The observed prevalence appeared to be two times greater than that of the general population. Thus, prevention for such condition gains relevance, in order to avoid discomfort for the worker, and also reduce costs due to absenteeism, improving productivity, benefiting the workers by performance and creating the perspective of an improved quality of life.

  6. Safety Climate Among Nontraditional Workers in Construction: Arguing for a Focus on Construed External Safety Image.

    PubMed

    Stiehl, Emily; Forst, Linda

    2018-05-01

    Safety climate, employees' perceptions of work-related safety, 1 has been promoted as a leading indicator of workplace safety in construction. 2 , 3 While research has primarily examined internal organizational sources (e.g., manager attitudes, formal organizational policies) on these perceptions, external sources of information might be more relevant to construction workers in nontraditional jobs who work for a limited time and/or have limited interaction with other employees. This paper argues for the future development of a construed external safety image scale to measure employees' perceptions about how external groups view their organization's safety. 4 The construed external safety image would capture the external sources that nontraditional workers use to assess safety climate and will allow public health researchers to identify and change dangerous workplaces while more effectively communicating information about safe workplaces to workers. The public health relevance of safety climate and construed external safety image for monitoring and communicating safety to nontraditional workers require examination.

  7. Physical activity levels at work and outside of work among Commercial Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Oscar E.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Umukoro, Peter E.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Characterize the number of minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity at work and outside of work during seven consecutive days, in a sample of 55 commercial construction workers. Methods Workers wore accelerometers during work and outside work hours for seven consecutive days, and completed brief survey at the seventh day of data collection. Results From the directly measured physical activity, the average number per participant of moderate minutes of occupational physical activity and physical activity outside of work obtained in short bouts were 243 minutes (65%) and 130 minutes (35%), respectively. Directly measured minutes of vigorous occupational physical activity were significant and positively correlated with self-reported fatigue. Conclusions Among commercial construction workers, physical activity from work contributes significantly, approximately 2/3, towards a workers total amount of weekly minutes of moderate physical activity. PMID:25563543

  8. A simple diagnostic model for ruling out pneumoconiosis among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Suarthana, Eva; Moons, Karel G M; Heederik, Dick; Meijer, Evert

    2007-09-01

    Construction workers exposed to silica-containing dust are at risk of developing silicosis even at low exposure levels. Health surveillance among these workers is commonly advised but the exact diagnostic work-up is not specified and therefore may result in unnecessary chest x ray investigations. To develop a simple diagnostic model to estimate the probability of an individual worker having pneumoconiosis from questionnaire and spirometry results, in order to accurately rule out workers without pneumoconiosis. The study was performed using cross-sectional data of 1291 Dutch natural stone and construction workers with potentially high quartz dust exposure. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed using chest x ray with ILO profusion category > or =1/1 as the reference standard. The model's calibration was evaluated with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test; the discriminative ability was determined by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC area). Internal validity of the final model was assessed by a bootstrapping procedure. For clinical application, the diagnostic model was transformed into an easy-to-use score chart. Age 40 years or older, current smoker, high-exposure job, working 15 years or longer in the construction industry, "feeling unhealthy" and FEV1 were independent predictors in the diagnostic model. The model showed good calibration (a non-significant Hosmer-Lemeshow test) and discriminative ability (ROC area 0.81, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.85). Internal validity was reasonable; the optimism corrected ROC area was 0.76. By using a cut-off point with a high negative predictive value the occupational physician can efficiently detect a large proportion of workers with a low probability of having pneumoconiosis and exclude them from unnecessary x ray investigations. This diagnostic model is an efficient and effective instrument to rule out pneumoconiosis among construction workers. Its use in health surveillance among these

  9. Surveillance of hearing loss among older construction and trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Dement, John; Ringen, Knut; Welch, Laura; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia

    2005-11-01

    Medical screening programs at three Departments of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities (Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Oak Ridge, and the Savannah River Site) have included audiometric testing since approximately 1996. This report summarizes hearing evaluations through March 31, 2003. Occupational examinations included a medical history, limited physical examination, and tests for medical effects from specific hazards, including audiometric testing. Hearing thresholds by frequency for DOE workers were compared to age-standardized thresholds among an external comparison population of industrial workers with noise exposures <80 dBA. Multivariate analyses were used to explore the risk of hearing impairment by duration of construction trade work and self-reported noise exposure, while controlling for potential confounders such as age, race, sex, smoking, elevated serum cholesterol, hypertension, solvent exposures, and recreational noise exposures. Hearing thresholds among DOE workers were much higher than observed in a comparison population of industrial workers with low noise exposures. Overall, 59.7% of workers examined were found to have material hearing impairment by NIOSH criteria. Age, duration of construction work, smoking, and self-reported noise exposure increased the risk of hearing loss. The risk of material hearing impairment was significantly elevated for construction trade workers compared to the external comparison population (odds-ratio = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.1) and increased with the duration of trade work. These medical screening programs confirm worker concerns about risks for hearing loss and the need for hearing conservation programs for construction workers, with emphasis on the prevention of noise exposures.

  10. Ergonomic analysis of construction worker's body postures using wearable mobile sensors.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nipun D; Akhavian, Reza; Behzadan, Amir H

    2017-07-01

    Construction jobs are more labor-intensive compared to other industries. As such, construction workers are often required to exceed their natural physical capability to cope with the increasing complexity and challenges in this industry. Over long periods of time, this sustained physical labor causes bodily injuries to the workers which in turn, conveys huge losses to the industry in terms of money, time, and productivity. Various safety and health organizations have established rules and regulations that limit the amount and intensity of workers' physical movements to mitigate work-related bodily injuries. A precursor to enforcing and implementing such regulations and improving the ergonomics conditions on the jobsite is to identify physical risks associated with a particular task. Manually assessing a field activity to identify the ergonomic risks is not trivial and often requires extra effort which may render it to be challenging if not impossible. In this paper, a low-cost ubiquitous approach is presented and validated which deploys built-in smartphone sensors to unobtrusively monitor workers' bodily postures and autonomously identify potential work-related ergonomic risks. Results indicates that measurements of trunk and shoulder flexions of a worker by smartphone sensory data are very close to corresponding measurements by observation. The proposed method is applicable for workers in various occupations who are exposed to WMSDs due to awkward postures. Examples include, but are not limited to industry laborers, carpenters, welders, farmers, health assistants, teachers, and office workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Health status assessment of workers during construction phase of highway rehabilitation projects around lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abrar, Amina; Cheema, Kausar Jamal; Saif, Samia; Mahmood, Asim

    2017-01-24

    The study focused on assessment of the health status of workers during construction phase of highway rehabilitation projects at six selected sites of N5 around Lahore, including Kala Shah Kaku, Muridke, Kamuki, Bhaipheru, Pattoki, and Okara. The study was based on multi-methods approach involving hazard identification through survey and checklist as well as a questionnaire for health status assessment and measurements of health parameters including peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and audiometric screening of 300 subjects. The study revealed non-congenial working conditions at the sites. Noise, vibrations, dust, asphalt fumes, poor work postures, and injuries were found to be major health hazards. PEFR of most of the workers was found to be significantly lower than the reference value. Average PEFR±SEM values were 187±5.1 l/min, 178±4.3 l/min, and 266±5.3 l/min in ground preparation workers, asphalt workers, and heavy vehicle drivers, respectively. The highest rate (29%) of hearing loss was recorded among heavy vehicle drivers. Musculoskeletal problems were found to be more common among ground preparation workers. Data revealed unsatisfactory health status of most of the workers. Direct relationship between health outcomes and the type of construction activities were observed. The current study focuses on the importance of including occupational health and safety plan in the execution phase of every developmental project that involves construction activities.

  12. Young workers in the construction industry and initial OSH-training when entering work life.

    PubMed

    Holte, Kari Anne; Kjestveit, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that young workers are at risk for injuries. The risk for accidents is high within construction, indicating that young workers may be especially vulnerable in this industry. In Norway, it is possible to enter the construction industry as a full time worker at the age of 18. The aim of this paper was to explore how young construction workers are received at their workplace with regards to OHS-training. The study was designed as a qualitative case study. Each case consisted of a young worker or apprentice (< 25 years), a colleague, the immediate superior, the OHS manager, and a safety representative in the company. The interviews were recorded and analyzed through content analysis. The results showed that there were differences between large and small companies, where large companies had more formalized routines and systems for receiving and training young workers. These routines were however more dependent on requirements set by legislators and contractors more than by company size, since the legislation has different requirements with impact on OHS.

  13. A qualitative investigation of Hispanic construction worker perspectives on factors impacting worksite safety and risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hispanic workers have higher rates of injury and death on construction worksites than workers of other ethnicities. Language barriers and cultural differences have been hypothesized as reasons behind the disparate rates. Methods We conducted two series of focus groups with union and non-union Hispanic construction workers to ask them about their perceptions of the causes for the unequal rates. Spanish transcripts were translated and coded in QSR NVivo software for common themes. Results Workers reported a difficult work environment characterized by supervisor pressure, competition for jobs and intimidation with regard to raising safety concerns. Language barriers or cultural factors were not strongly represented as causative factors behind the rates. Conclusion The results of this study have informed the development of an intervention trial that seeks to prevent falls and silica dust exposure by training contractors employing Hispanic construction workers in the elements of safety leadership, including building respect for their Hispanic workers and facilitating their participation in a safety program. PMID:21962128

  14. [Cardiovascular variables in construction workers in Santander, Colombia. Comparative profile years 2011 and 2012].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Amaya, R M

    2015-01-01

    The construction sector has an important workforce for the country; however it is believed that this group of workers have inadequate healthy lifestyles. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and para-clinical cardiovascular characteristics of these workers in 2 time periods. A retrospective study and analysis was performed using the medical records of 291 construction workers. The data collected included, sociodemographic variables, work, clinical and para-clinical details related to the cardiovascular status for the years 2011 and 2012. The mean age was 40.1 years, and mean body mass index was 26. In addition, 46% of workers were overweight and 15% obese. The annual increase in mean systolic blood pressure increased from 114.4 to 121.7mmHg (P=.000), and in diastolic pressure it increased from 72.8 to 79.5mmHg (P=.000), with the BMI increasing from 26 to 26.24 (P=.0000). The cholesterol levels ranged from 204.4 to 200.3mg/dl (P=.03) and triglycerides ranged from 175.6 to 208.2mg/dl (P=.0001). An annual increase was observed in several cardiovascular risk factors in construction workers in Colombia. An intervention is required for primary prevention focused on regular and quality education in these workers in order to mitigate cardiovascular risk and the presence of subsequent disease. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Health status assessment of workers during construction phase of highway rehabilitation projects around lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Abrar, Amina; Cheema, Kausar Jamal; Saif, Samia; Mahmood, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on assessment of the health status of workers during construction phase of highway rehabilitation projects at six selected sites of N5 around Lahore, including Kala Shah Kaku, Muridke, Kamuki, Bhaipheru, Pattoki, and Okara. Methods: The study was based on multi-methods approach involving hazard identification through survey and checklist as well as a questionnaire for health status assessment and measurements of health parameters including peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and audiometric screening of 300 subjects. Results: The study revealed non-congenial working conditions at the sites. Noise, vibrations, dust, asphalt fumes, poor work postures, and injuries were found to be major health hazards. PEFR of most of the workers was found to be significantly lower than the reference value. Average PEFR±SEM values were 187±5.1 l/min, 178±4.3 l/min, and 266±5.3 l/min in ground preparation workers, asphalt workers, and heavy vehicle drivers, respectively. The highest rate (29%) of hearing loss was recorded among heavy vehicle drivers. Musculoskeletal problems were found to be more common among ground preparation workers. Conclusion: Data revealed unsatisfactory health status of most of the workers. Direct relationship between health outcomes and the type of construction activities were observed. The current study focuses on the importance of including occupational health and safety plan in the execution phase of every developmental project that involves construction activities. PMID:27853055

  16. Intervention Mapping as a framework for developing an intervention at the worksite for older construction workers.

    PubMed

    Oude Hengel, Karen M; Joling, Catelijne I; Proper, Karin I; van der Molen, Henk F; Bongers, Paulien M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Intervention Mapping approach as a framework in the development of a worksite intervention to improve the work ability of construction workers. Development of an intervention by using the Intervention Mapping approach. Construction worksite. Construction workers aged 45 years and older. According to the principles of Intervention Mapping, evidence from the literature was combined with data collected from stakeholders (e.g., construction workers, managers, providers). The Intervention Mapping approach resulted in an intervention with the following components: (1) two individual visits of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2) a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3) two empowerment training sessions to increase the range of influence at the worksite. Application of Intervention Mapping in the development of a worksite prevention program was useful in the construction industry to obtain a positive attitude and commitment. Stakeholders could give input regarding the program components as well as provide specific leads for the practical intervention strategy. Moreover, it also gives insight in the current theoretical and empirical knowledge in the field of improving the work ability of older workers in the construction industry.

  17. Impact of Safety Training and Interventions on Training-Transfer: Targeting Migrant Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rahat; Pedro, Akeem; Lee, Do Yeop; Pham, Hai Chien; Park, Chan Sik

    2018-05-01

    Despite substantial efforts to improve construction safety training, the accident rate of migrant workers is still high. One of the primary factors contributing to the inefficacy of training includes information delivery gaps during training sessions (knowledge-transfer). In addition, there is insufficient evidence that these training programs alone are effective enough to enable migrant workers to transfer their skills to jobsite (training-transfer). This research attempts to identify and evaluate additional interventions to improve the transfer of acquired knowledge to workplace. For this purpose, this study presents the first known experimental effort to assess the effect of interventions on migrant work groups in a multinational construction project in Qatar. Data analysis reveals that the adoption of training programs with the inclusion of interventions significantly improves training-transfer. Construction safety experts can leverage the findings of this study to enhance training-transfer by increasing worker's safety performance and hazard identification ability.

  18. Injuries and their burden in insured construction workers in Iran, 2012.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Khanjani, Narges; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Ravandi, Mohammad Reza Ghotbi

    2017-03-01

    The present study used disability adjusted life years (DALY) to estimate the burden of external cause of injuries in construction workers insured in Iran in 2012. The Global Burden of Disease method (2010) was used to estimate the years of life lost due to death (YLL) and years of life lost due to disability (YLD). DALY was calculated as the sum of YLL and YLD. There were 5352 injured construction workers in Iran (11.25 individuals per 1000). Falling was the most common incidence and included 2490 individuals (46.53%). Totally, DALY was estimated 18,557 years for all age groups and both genders including 17,821 YLD (96%) and 736 YLL (4%). The DALY related to construction work is high in Iran and it has notably affected the young. Hence more preventive methods should be applied to reduce the overall burden of specific external cause of injuries especially in young and inexperienced workers.

  19. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oude Hengel, Karen M; Joling, Catelijne I; Proper, Karin I; Blatter, Birgitte M; Bongers, Paulien M

    2010-06-14

    A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program compared with usual care for construction workers. The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of one year. Employees eligible for this study are construction workers performing actual construction work. The worksite intervention will be compared with usual care. This intervention was developed by using the Intervention Mapping approach and consists of the following components: (1) two individual training sessions of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2) a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3) two empowerment training sessions to increase the influence of the construction workers at the worksite. Outcome measures are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome measures of this study are work ability and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcome measures include need for recovery, musculoskeletal complaints, work engagement and self efficacy. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the company perspective. Moreover, a process evaluation will be conducted. The feasibility of the intervention and the study has been enhanced by creating an intervention program that explicitly appeals to construction workers and will not interfere too much with the ongoing construction. The feasibility and effectiveness of this worksite prevention program will be investigated by means of an effect- and a process evaluation. If proven effective, this worksite prevention program can be implemented on a larger scale within the construction industry. NTR1278.

  20. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program compared with usual care for construction workers. Methods The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of one year. Employees eligible for this study are construction workers performing actual construction work. The worksite intervention will be compared with usual care. This intervention was developed by using the Intervention Mapping approach and consists of the following components: (1) two individual training sessions of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2) a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3) two empowerment training sessions to increase the influence of the construction workers at the worksite. Outcome measures are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome measures of this study are work ability and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcome measures include need for recovery, musculoskeletal complaints, work engagement and self efficacy. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the company perspective. Moreover, a process evaluation will be conducted. Discussion The feasibility of the intervention and the study has been enhanced by creating an intervention program that explicitly appeals to construction workers and will not interfere too much with the ongoing construction. The feasibility and effectiveness of this worksite prevention program will be investigated by means of an effect- and a process evaluation. If proven effective, this worksite prevention program can be implemented on a larger scale within the construction industry. Trial Registration NTR1278 PMID:20546568

  1. Occupational injury and work organization among immigrant Latino residential construction workers.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Quandt, Sara A; Marín, Antonio; Summers, Phillip; Lang, Wei; Mills, Thomas; Evia, Carlos; Rushing, Julia; Donadio, Katherine; Arcury, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Rates of occupational injury among immigrant workers are widely believed to be underestimated. The goal of this study was to enhance understanding of the burden of occupational injury and the work organization factors underlying injury among immigrant Latino residential construction workers. Prospective data were obtained from a community-based sample of Latino residential construction workers (N = 107) over a 3-month period. Twenty-eight participants were injured, resulting in an injury incidence rate of 55.0/100 FTE (95% CI = 41.4-71.6) during the 3-month observation period. The injury rate involving days away from work during the observation period was 3.9/100 FTE (CI = 0.2-7.2). Injuries were elevated among roofers relative to framers and general construction workers. Roofers had elevated exposure to a variety of deleterious work organization factors. Although imprecise given the small sample, our results suggest a threefold to fourfold underestimate of the injury burden to immigrant Latino construction workers. Work organization may contribute to elevated rates of non-fatal occupational injury, particularly among roofers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Asbestos-induced peritoneal mesothelioma in a construction worker.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Rodolfo; Gambettino, Salvatore; Melazzini, Mario; Scelsi, Mario; Zanon, Claudio; Candura, Stefano M

    2004-04-01

    Occupational and environmental asbestos exposure continues to represent a public health problem, despite increasingly restrictive laws adopted by most industrialized countries. Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos-related malignancy. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who developed recurrent ascites after having been exposed to asbestos in the building industry for > 40 years. Liver function and histology were normal. Abdominal computed tomography initially excluded the presence of expansive processes, and no abnormal cells were found in the ascitic fluid. Laparoscopy showed diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the peritoneum. Histopathology of bioptic samples revealed epithelioid neoplastic proliferation with a tubulopapillary pattern, falsely suggesting metastatic adenocarcinomatosis. In consideration of the occupational history, and after further diagnostic procedures had failed to identify the hypothetical primitive tumor, immunostaining of the neoplastic tissue was performed. Results were negative for carcinoembrionary antigen and the epithelial glycoprotein Ber-EP4, whereas results were positive for the mesothelial markers cytokeratins, calretinin, epithelial membrane antigen, and HBME-1, thus leading to the correct diagnosis of peritoneal epithelial mesothelioma. The Italian Workers' Compensation Authority recognized the occupational origin of the disease. Cytoreductive surgery associated with continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion (cisplatin at 42 degrees C, for 1 hr) was performed. The disease relapsed after 4 months and was later complicated by a bowel obstruction requiring palliative ileostomy. The patient died 23 months after diagnosis. This case illustrates the insidious diagnostic problems posed by peritoneal mesothelioma, a tumor which often simulates other malignancies (e.g., metastatic carcinomas) at routine histopathological examination. Occupational history and immunohistochemistry are helpful for the correct

  3. Psychosocial hearing disadvantage and associated factors among construction workers in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréia Cristina Munzlinger Dos; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido da; Luccia, Gabriela Coelho Pereira de; Botelho, Clóvis; Riva, Delma Regina Della

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and to analyze the factors associated with self-reported hearing handicap by construction workers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 866 construction and heavy construction workers. Participants responded to an epidemiological survey subdivided in: identification data, sociodemographic data; lifestyle; work environment characteristics; occupational exposure factors; hearing protection measures; and hearing handicap inventory to quantify the psychosocial consequences of work-related hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing impairment among workers in the construction sector was 14.43% (n = 125). There were 311 emotional and social complaints related to hearing problems. Hearing handicap was associated with: 60 or over age group (PR = 1.94, 95%CI 1.01 - 3.71); alcohol consumption (PR = 1.94, 95%CI 1.38 - 2.73); direct exposure to noise (PR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.03 - 2.97); exposure to dust (PR = 1.59, 95%CI 1.13 - 2.24); non-use of earplugs (PR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.00 - 1.93); and non-use of neck flap cap (PR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.09 - 2.13). We observed a high prevalence of hearing impairment among workers in the construction sector associated with: individuals aged 60 years or older; alcoholism; exposure to noise and dust; non-use of earplugs; and non-use of neck flap cap. Therefore, it is necessary to implement policies aimed at preserving the hearing health of construction and heavy construction workers.

  4. Empirical research on the influencing factors of the occupational stress for construction workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LV, Xing; WU, Xiang; CI, Huipeng; LIU, Qing; YAO, Yongzheng

    2017-04-01

    Employee’s occupational stress and safety performance are highly related, which has been generally recognized by the researchers. We did this research to understand the status of the stress for construction workers, and explore the influence factors of pressure source with characteristics of construction industry. Based on the results of previous studies, we designed questionnaire to collect the influence factors on occupational stressors. The study selected workers from certain construction units at the grass-roots level as sample source. According to the results of the questionnaire, we redesigned the interview outline, and did the semi-structured interviews on workers randomly selected. Finally, we developed a scale which combined the characteristics of construction projects in China. Using SPSS software for factor analysis, reliability analysis, and descriptive statistical analysis, the results show that there are six factors affecting the workers’ occupational stress, including The Work Itself, Family-Work, Career Development, Organization Style, Interpersonal Relationship and Role Management Style. The work itself is the main sources of occupational stress. The results can be used by the construction company to provide guidance for workers to control and manage occupational stress.

  5. Evaluating the Influence of Nutrition Determinants on Construction Workers' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Chioma Sylvia; Musonda, Innocent; Agumba, Justus

    2017-11-01

    Nutritional knowledge as well as economic, social, biological, and cultural factors have been known to determine an individual's food choices. Despite the existence of research on the factors which influence nutrition globally, there is little known about the extent to which these factors influence the food choices of construction workers, which in turn influence their health and safety during construction activities. The present article investigates the extent to which construction workers' nutrition is influenced by nutritional knowledge, as well as economic, environmental, social, psychological, and physiological factors. A field questionnaire survey was conducted on site construction workers in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that consumption of foods termed alternative foods including dairy products, eggs, nuts, fish, and cereals, was influenced by nutritional knowledge and resources. Foods termed traditional core foods were influenced by cultural background; foods termed secondary core foods comprising fruits and vegetables were influenced by economic factors, resources, and cultural background; while foods termed core foods were mostly influenced by nutritional knowledge. By providing evidence of the factors which most influence selection and consumption of certain foods by construction workers, relevant nutrition interventions will be designed and implemented, taking cognizance of these factors.

  6. Measured solar ultraviolet radiation exposures of outdoor workers in Queensland in the building and construction industry.

    PubMed

    Gies, Peter; Wright, Jill

    2003-10-01

    The risk to outdoor workers of exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been known for some time, particularly in the building and construction industry, where workers often use little in the way of protection against solar UVR. In recent years there have been attempts by authorities in Australia and in Queensland in particular, where UVR levels in spring and summer are very high to extreme, to instigate and to encourage the use of personal UVR protection by outdoor workers. To quantify UVR exposure of building and construction industry workers involved in typical outdoor work, a study was conducted using UVR-sensitive polysulphone film badges. The results indicated that the doses were significant, often well in excess of recommended exposure limits. The measured exposures varied between trades. Data on the use of personal UVR-protective equipment and the skin type of workers were also collected. Many of the workers had skin types that were sensitive to UVR and showed signs of sunburn. In summary, the study found that at-risk individuals were exposed to extreme levels of UVR, in most cases without adequate and appropriate sun protection.

  7. Dust Exposure and Coccidioidomycosis Prevention Among Solar Power Farm Construction Workers in California.

    PubMed

    Sondermeyer Cooksey, Gail L; Wilken, Jason A; McNary, Jennifer; Gilliss, Debra; Shusterman, Dennis; Materna, Barbara L; Vugia, Duc J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate if work activities, dust exposure, and protection measures were associated with a 2011 to 2014 coccidioidomycosis outbreak among workers constructing 2 solar farms in California. In 2013, we mailed self-administered questionnaires to employees who were onsite at the solar farms where the outbreak occurred to identify cases of clinical coccidioidomycosis and compare with asymptomatic workers by using multivariate logistic regression. When we compared 89 workers with clinical coccidioidomycosis to 325 asymptomatic workers, frequently being in a dust cloud or storm (odds ratio [OR] = 5.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18, 11.06) significantly increased the odds of clinical coccidioidomycosis, whereas frequently wetting soil before soil-disturbing activity (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.24, 0.75) was protective. When we controlled for being in a dust cloud or storm, frequent soil disturbance significantly increased the odds of clinical coccidioidomycosis only among those who reported wearing a respirator infrequently (OR = 2.31; 95% CI = 1.27, 4.21). Utilization of personal and employer-driven safety practices and increased coccidioidomycosis awareness among construction workers should be considered during the planning of any construction work in coccidioidomycosis-endemic regions to prevent occupational infections and outbreaks.

  8. What Makes the UAE a Knowledge Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaf, Mohammad Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with the idea that knowledge has become one of the most important factors to determine human development and explore the different requirements that need to be met by the government and the citizens of the UAE to succeed in building a knowledge society (KS). An explanation and examination of the five pillars of establishing a KS…

  9. Postural stability effects of random vibration at the feet of construction workers in simulated elevation.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, P; Hsiao, H; Powers, J; Ammons, D; Kau, T; Amendola, A

    2011-07-01

    The risk of falls from height on a construction site increases under conditions which degrade workers' postural control. At elevation, workers depend heavily on sensory information from their feet to maintain balance. The study tested two hypotheses: "sensory enhancement"--sub-sensory (undetectable) random mechanical vibrations at the plantar surface of the feet can improve worker's balance at elevation; and "sensory suppression"--supra-sensory (detectable) random mechanical vibrations can have a degrading effect on balance in the same experimental settings. Six young (age 20-35) and six aging (age 45-60) construction workers were tested while standing in standard and semi-tandem postures on instrumented gel insoles. The insoles applied sub- or supra-sensory levels of random mechanical vibrations to the feet. The tests were conducted in a surround-screen virtual reality system, which simulated a narrow plank at elevation on a construction site. Upper body kinematics was assessed with a motion-measurement system. Postural stability effects were evaluated by conventional and statistical mechanics sway measures, as well as trunk angular displacement parameters. Analysis of variance did not confirm the "sensory enhancement" hypothesis, but provided evidence for the "sensory suppression" hypothesis. The supra-sensory vibration had a destabilizing effect, which was considerably stronger in the semi-tandem posture and affected most of the sway variables. Sensory suppression associated with elevated vibration levels on a construction site may increase the danger of losing balance. Construction workers at elevation, e.g., on a beam or narrow plank might be at increased risk of fall if they can detect vibrations under their feet. To reduce the possibility of losing balance, mechanical vibration to supporting structures used as walking/working surfaces should be minimized when performing construction tasks at elevation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Musculoskeletal morbidity among construction workers: A cross-sectional community-based study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gopireddy M M; Nisha, B; Prabhushankar, Thangaraj G; Vishwambhar, V

    2016-01-01

    Construction industry is one of the stable growing industries in India. People working in construction industries are at a risk of various occupational diseases. Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is the single largest cause of work-related illness, accounting for over 33% of all newly reported occupational illnesses in the general population and approximately 77% in construction workers. In spite of the high prevalence and wide range of adverse consequences, the studies highlighting the burden and impact of musculoskeletal morbidities are very scarce in India. The current study is aimed at filling this vital gap in the current knowledge. To assess the musculoskeletal morbidities among construction workers using the modified Nordisk Scale. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted by 30 × 10 multistage cluster random sampling method in Chennai Metropolitan city. Out of the 308 participants included in the final analysis, majority were 21-40 years. Working hours ranged from 8 to 12 hours. Duration of work ranged from 2 months to 20 years. Out of 308 participants, 104 workers (33.8%) had musculoskeletal problems. Three most common disorders discovered were low backache seen in 64 (20.8%), shoulder pain seen in 36 (11.7%), and wrist pain seen in 36 (11.7%) participants. The proportion of hospitalized participants in the last 1 year was 7.8%. Total duration in the construction field, duration of work hours, and higher age had statistically significant impact on musculoskeletal morbidity. The prevalence of musculoskeletal morbidity was very high in construction workers, with resulting adverse impact on the workers. Immense attention, in the form of appropriate prevention measures, is needed to effectively address this public health problem.

  11. Supervisors and accomplices: extra-marital sex among migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Bui Thi Thanh; Kretchmar, Joshua

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study was how social relationships among workers and their employers influence extra-marital sexual activity. In the group where workers and their cai came from the same village of origin, fear of acquiring a bad reputation made these workers reluctant to seek sex services, since accounts of their behaviour were transmitted quickly home. In contrast, workers from the group who came from different villages often went out together to purchase sex. The absence of direct links to their villages of origin made it easier for these latter workers to conceal their activity. The implication of these findings for sexual safety and risk are discussed.

  12. Beryllium disease among construction trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura S; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia; Shorter, Janet; Fisher, Miles

    2013-10-01

    A medical surveillance program was developed to identify current and former construction workers at significant risk for beryllium related disease from work at the DOE nuclear weapons facilities, and to improve surveillance among beryllium exposed workers. Medical examinations included a medical history and a beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk of disease by age, race, trade, and reported work in buildings where beryllium was used. After adjusting for covariates, the risk of BeS was significantly higher among boilermakers, roofers, and sheet metal workers, as suggested in the stratified analyses. Workers identified as sensitized to beryllium were interviewed to determine whether they had been subsequently diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease. Between 1998 and December 31, 2010 13,810 workers received a BeLPT through the BTMed program; 189 (1.4%) were sensitized to beryllium, and 28 reported that they had had a compensation claim accepted for CBD. These data on former construction workers gives us additional information about the predictive value of the blood BeLPT test for detection of CBD in populations with lower total lifetime exposures and more remote exposures than that experienced by current workers in beryllium machining operations. Through this surveillance program we have identified routes of exposures to beryllium and worked with DOE site personnel to identity and mitigate those exposures which still exist, as well as helping to focus attention on the risk for beryllium exposure among current demolition workers at these facilities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Micronucleus Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells Using Liquid Based Cytology Preparations in Building Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Arul, P; Smitha, Shetty; Masilamani, Suresh; Akshatha, C

    2018-01-01

    Cytogenetic damage in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells due to environmental and occupational exposure is often monitored by micronucleus (MN) assay using liquid based cytology (LBC) preparations. This study was performed to evaluate MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of building construction workers using LBC preparations. LBC preparations of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells from 100 subjects [50 building construction workers (cases) and 50 administrative staffs (controls)] was evaluated by May-Grunwald Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin and Papanicolaou stains. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis and a P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean frequencies of MN for cases were significantly higher than controls regardless of staining methods used. There were statistically significant differences between smokers and non-smokers of the controls as well as duration of working exposure (<5 and >5 years) and smokers and non-smokers of cases (P=0.001). However, there were meaningful differences regarding mean frequencies of MN between smokers, non-smokers, those with alcohol consumption or not in cases and controls using various stains (P=0.001). There was an increased risk of cytogenetic damage in building construction workers. However, evaluation of MN of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in building construction workers serve as a minimally invasive biomarker for cytogenetic damage. LBC preparations can be applied for MN assay as it improves the quality of smears and cell morphology, decreases the confounding factors and reduces false positive results.

  14. A case-control study of airways obstruction among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dement, John; Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut; Quinn, Patricia; Chen, Anna; Haas, Scott

    2015-10-01

    While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case-control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers. The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories. Approximately 18% (95% CI = 2-24%) of COPD risk can be attributed to construction-related exposures, which are additive to the risk contributed by smoking. A measure of all VGDF exposures combined was a strong predictor of COPD risk. Construction workers are at increased risk of COPD as a result of broad and complex effects of many exposures acting independently or interactively. Control methods should be implemented to prevent worker exposures, and smoking cessation should be promoted. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surveillance of construction worker injuries: the utility of trade-specific analysis.

    PubMed

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S; Nessel-Stephens, L; Anderson, J; Mawudeku, A

    1999-07-01

    Construction is a dangerous industry, with high rates of both fatal and nonfatal injuries. To learn more about the causes of nonfatal construction worker injuries, and to identify injury cases for further work site-based investigations or prevention programs, we established an emergency department-based surveillance program in November 1990. This article describes circumstances of injury, diagnoses, and demographic characteristics of injured construction workers for 2,791 cases identified through mid-August, 1997. Lacerations and strains and sprains were the most frequent diagnoses; cutting and piercing objects were the leading causes of injury among all construction workers, followed by falls and overexertion. Because of the variety of work performed in this industry, more detailed injury descriptions, by trade, are most useful for thinking about injury prevention. To illustrate this, we profile injury patterns among workers from four specific trades: carpenters, electricians, plumbers, and ironworkers. Areas of concern highlighted by the trade-specific analyses include eye injuries among plumbers; falls from ladders among electricians and plumbers; slips, trips, and falls on the same level among ironworkers; electrical exposure among electricians; and, amputations among carpenters.

  16. Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrie, Higemengist A; Tessema, Dejene A; Ambelu, Argaw

    2014-03-19

    No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03 ± 10.41 μg/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81 ± 10.21 μg/dL), p = 0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04 ± 4.11 μg/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99 ± 3.28 μg/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 - 70.46 μg/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention.

  17. Perceived safety climate, job demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Marion; Baltz, Davis; Gassel, Margy; Kirsch, Luz; Vaccaro, Diane

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated injured construction workers' perceptions of workplace safety climate, psychological job demands, decision latitude, and coworker support, and the relationship of these variables to the injury severity sustained by the workers. Injury severity was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), which evaluates functional limitations. Worker perceptions of workplace variables were determined by two instruments: (a) the Safety Climate Measure for Construction Sites and (b) the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The overall model explained 23% of the variance in injury severity, with unique contributions provided by union status, the Safety Climate Score, and Psychological Job Demands. A positive significant correlation was found between injury severity and the Safety Climate Scores (r = .183, P = .003), and between the Safety Climate Scores and union status (r = .225, P < .001). There were statistically significant differences between union and nonunion workers' responses regarding perceived safety climate on 5 of the 10 safety climate items. Union workers were more likely than nonunion workers to: (a) perceive their supervisors as caring about their safety; (b) be made aware of dangerous work practices; (c) have received safety instructions when hired; (d) have regular job safety meetings; and (e) perceive that taking risks was not a part of their job. However, with regard to the 49-item JCQ, which includes Coworker Support, the responses between union and nonunion workers were very similar, indicating an overall high degree of job satisfaction. However, workers who experienced their workplace as more safe also perceived the level of management (r = -.55, P < .001) and coworker (r = -.31, P < .001) support as being higher. The findings of this study underscore the critical need for construction managers to alert workers to dangerous work practices and conditions more frequently, and express concern and praise workers for safe work in a

  18. Understanding working class lives: an examination of the quality of life of low income construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rajib Lochan

    2014-01-01

    The construction industry is considered to be one of the oldest trades of mankind. Even though this industry has shown phenomenal growth in the developing economies like India, hardly any research has been done to understand the living condition and status of the people who have contributed with their sweat and blood for the growth of this industry. The study aims at understanding the living condition of the low income construction workers from one of the small construction companies of eastern India, from the state of Jharkhand. In all twelve families staying at the construction site agreed to volunteer. The average age of the respondent parents (i.e. mother as well as father) was 28.5 years. Qualitative methods have been used in order to collect the data. Ethnography and photo elicitation was used as a primary method of data collection. Apart from this, in-depth interviews were also conducted with the workers of the construction company. Discussion with the participants led to the emergence of four themes. They were (1) Daily Rituals, (2) Living Condition, (3) Quality of food and (4) Health and Hygiene. The research findings indicate that the conditions at which the workers live at the construction site can be considered to be in a state of pitiful situation which is mainly due to their acute level of poverty. Based on the study findings, there is an imperative that the societal forerunners, policy makers and philanthropists continue to use research findings to understand the living condition of the low income construction workers and draft strategies accordingly, to improve their status and Quality of Life.

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder in co-workers following exposure to a fatal construction accident in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, B S; Liang, Y X; Hu, X Y; Long, Y F; Ge, L N

    2000-01-01

    To assess the mental disturbances induced by accidents at work, 41 male workers who had witnessed a fatal work accident were evaluated utilizing the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was also administered to the exposed workers, as well as to 47 non-exposed construction-worker controls. The two groups were well matched with respect to age, years of employment, and years of education. They were all of Han sect; and lifestyles, incomes, and living conditions were similar. The exposed workers had a high rate of PTSD: 11 of 41 (26.8%) at one month and five of 39 (12.9%) four months after the fatal accident. The exposed groups' scores for depressive symptoms were significantly higher than those of the controls, including: 1) depressed mood, 2) guilt, 3) initial insomnia, 4) middle insomnia, 5) delayed insomnia, 6) decreased interest in work and other activities, 7) anxiety, 8) somatization, and 9) gastrointestinal symptoms (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001). Fatal work accidents, a major hazard in the construction industry, affect not only the victims but also the mental health of other workers. PTSD and associated emotional disorders related to exposure to serious work accidents deserve more attention for clinical and research purposes.

  20. Screening for beryllium disease among construction trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut; Bingham, Eula; Dement, John; Takaro, Tim; McGowan, William; Chen, Anna; Quinn, Patricia

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether current and former construction workers are at significant risk for occupational illnesses from work at the Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities, screening programs were undertaken at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, and the Savannah River Site. Medical examination for beryllium disease used a medical history and a beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk of disease by age, race, sex, trade, duration of DOE employment, reported work in buildings where beryllium was used, and time since last DOE site employment. Of the 3,842 workers included in this study, 34% reported exposure to beryllium. Overall, 2.2% of workers had at least one abnormal BeLPT test, and 1.4% were also abnormal on a second test. Regression analyses demonstrated increased risk of having at least one abnormal BeLPT to be associated with ever working in a site building where beryllium activities had taken place. The prevalence of beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in construction workers is described and the positive predictive value of the BeLPT in a population with less intense exposure to beryllium than other populations that have been screened is discussed. The BeLPT findings and finding of cases of CBD demonstrate that some of these workers had significant exposure, most likely, during maintenance, repair, renovation, or demolition in facilities where beryllium was used.

  1. Employee engagement, boredom and frontline construction workers feeling safe in their workplace.

    PubMed

    Whiteoak, John W; Mohamed, Sherif

    2016-08-01

    Systems thinking is a philosophy currently prevalent within construction safety literature that is applied to understand and improve safety in sociotechnical systems. Among systems, the site-project organizational system is of particular interest to this paper. Using focus group and survey feedback research to learn about how safety incidents effect levels of construction workers engagement this paper reveals how a safety incident provides an opportunity to create a potential quality (productivity) upgrade within an organization. The research approach involved a qualitative study involving 27 frontline supervisors and a follow-up survey completed by 207 frontline workers in the Australian Asphalt and Pavement Industry. The focus group interviews supported the articulation of the concepts of tacit safety, explicit safety, situational awareness, foresight ability, practical intelligence and crew synergy. Our findings indicate that having regular shift changes and other job site workers being fatigued are influential on perceptions of tacit safety. An individual's foresight ability was found to be the most potent predictor of worker perceptions of work engagement. The paper explains that relatively small improvements in worker perceptions of safety can bring about significant improvements in employee engagement and productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevated blood lead levels among construction workers in the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry.

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, R; Brooks, D R; Davis, L K

    1994-01-01

    Although the construction industry until recently was exempt from the Occupational Health and Safety Administration General Industry Lead Standard, including its medical monitoring provisions, periodic blood lead tests have been required for residential "deleaders" and structural painters in Massachusetts. Sixty-three percent of the 381 registrants in the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry with blood lead levels of 1.93 mumol/L or higher are construction workers. This proportion is much higher than that reported by registries of several states selected for comparison. These data highlight the need for better protection from lead exposure and the effectiveness of mandatory medical surveillance in identifying elevated blood lead levels among construction workers. PMID:8092376

  3. A case‐control study of airways obstruction among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut; Quinn, Patricia; Chen, Anna; Haas, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case‐control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers. Methods The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories. Results Approximately 18% (95%CI = 2–24%) of COPD risk can be attributed to construction‐related exposures, which are additive to the risk contributed by smoking. A measure of all VGDF exposures combined was a strong predictor of COPD risk. Conclusions Construction workers are at increased risk of COPD as a result of broad and complex effects of many exposures acting independently or interactively. Control methods should be implemented to prevent worker exposures, and smoking cessation should be promoted. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:1083–1097, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26123003

  4. The development of anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather.

    PubMed

    Chan, Albert P C; Guo, Y P; Wong, Francis K W; Li, Y; Sun, S; Han, X

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, the design situation was explored, including clothing fabric heat/moisture transporting properties and UV protection and the aspects of clothing ergonomic design (mobility, convenience, and safety). The problem structure was derived from the results of the surveys in three local construction sites, which agreed well with the task requirements and observations. Specifications were consequently described and 30 commercially available fabrics were identified and tested. Fabric testing data and design considerations were inputted in S-smart system to predict the thermal functional performance of the clothing. A new uniform prototype was developed and evaluated. The results of all measurements suggest that the new uniform which incorporated fabrics with superior heat/moisture transporting properties and loose-fitting design could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance. Practitioner Summary: The construction workers' uniform currently used in Hong Kong during summer was unsatisfactory. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, an anti-heat stress uniform was developed by testing 30 fabrics and predicting clothing thermal functional performance using S-smart system. The new uniform could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance.

  5. Correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among construction laborers and motor freight workers

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Eve M.; Viswanath, K.; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare and contrast correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in two blue-collar populations: construction laborers and motor freight workers. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from two groups of male workers: (1) construction laborers (N=1013; response rate = 44%) randomly selected from a national sample, as part of a diet and smoking cessation study; and (2) motor freight workers (N=542; response rate = 78%) employed in eight trucking terminals, as part of a tobacco cessation and weight management study. Data were analyzed using linear regression modeling methods. Results For both groups, higher income and believing it was important to eat right because of work were positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption; conversely, being White was associated with lower intake. Construction laborers who reported eating junk food due to workplace stress and fatigue had lower fruit and vegetable intake. For motor freight workers, perceiving fast food to be the only choice at work and lack of time to eat right were associated with lower consumption. Conclusion Comparing occupational groups illustrates how work experiences may be related to fruit and vegetable consumption in different ways as well as facilitates the development of interventions that can be used across groups. PMID:22729935

  6. Correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among construction laborers and motor freight workers.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Eve M; Viswanath, K; Ebbeling, Cara B; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and contrast correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in two blue-collar populations: construction laborers and motor freight workers. Cross-sectional data were collected from two groups of male workers: (1) construction laborers (n = 1,013; response rate = 44 %) randomly selected from a national sample, as part of a diet and smoking cessation study; and (2) motor freight workers (n = 542; response rate = 78 %) employed in eight trucking terminals, as part of a tobacco cessation and weight management study. Data were analyzed using linear regression modeling methods. For both groups, higher income and believing it was important to eat right because of work were positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption; conversely, being white was associated with lower intake. Construction laborers who reported eating junk food due to workplace stress and fatigue had lower fruit and vegetable intake. For motor freight workers, perceiving fast food to be the only choice at work and lack of time to eat right were associated with lower consumption. Comparing occupational groups illustrates how work experiences may be related to fruit and vegetable consumption in different ways as well as facilitates the development of interventions that can be used across groups.

  7. Development of targeted messages to promote smoking cessation among construction trade workers

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, J. R.; Smock, N.; Casey, C.; Poor, T.; Kreuter, M. W.; Evanoff, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Blue-collar workers, particularly those in the construction trades, are more likely to smoke and have less success in quitting when compared with white-collar workers. Little is known about health communication strategies that might influence this priority population. This article describes our formative work to develop targeted messages to increase participation in an existing smoking cessation program among construction workers. Using an iterative and sequential mixed-methods approach, we explored the culture, health attitudes and smoking behaviors of unionized construction workers. We used focus group and survey data to inform message development, and applied audience segmentation methods to identify potential subgroups. Among 144 current smokers, 65% reported wanting to quit smoking in the next 6 months and only 15% had heard of a union-sponsored smoking cessation program, despite widespread advertising. We tested 12 message concepts and 26 images with the target audience to evaluate perceived relevance and effectiveness. Participants responded most favorably to messages and images that emphasized family and work, although responses varied by audience segments based on age and parental status. This study is an important step towards integrating the culture of a high-risk group into targeted messages to increase participation in smoking cessation activities. PMID:25231165

  8. Development of targeted messages to promote smoking cessation among construction trade workers.

    PubMed

    Strickland, J R; Smock, N; Casey, C; Poor, T; Kreuter, M W; Evanoff, B A

    2015-02-01

    Blue-collar workers, particularly those in the construction trades, are more likely to smoke and have less success in quitting when compared with white-collar workers. Little is known about health communication strategies that might influence this priority population. This article describes our formative work to develop targeted messages to increase participation in an existing smoking cessation program among construction workers. Using an iterative and sequential mixed-methods approach, we explored the culture, health attitudes and smoking behaviors of unionized construction workers. We used focus group and survey data to inform message development, and applied audience segmentation methods to identify potential subgroups. Among 144 current smokers, 65% reported wanting to quit smoking in the next 6 months and only 15% had heard of a union-sponsored smoking cessation program, despite widespread advertising. We tested 12 message concepts and 26 images with the target audience to evaluate perceived relevance and effectiveness. Participants responded most favorably to messages and images that emphasized family and work, although responses varied by audience segments based on age and parental status. This study is an important step towards integrating the culture of a high-risk group into targeted messages to increase participation in smoking cessation activities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Impact of social determinants on well-being of urban construction workers of Hyderabad.

    PubMed

    Bala, Sudha; Valsangkar, Sameer; Lakshman Rao, Reshaboyina Lakshmi Narayana; Surya Prabha, Manem Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Hyderabad has witnessed one of the largest labor immigration in recent years and these construction workers are highly vulnerable in terms of health. Social determinants of health (SDH) arise from conditions in which they live and these factors interact with each other to produce direct impact on health. (1) To evaluate the sociodemographic and job characteristics of the construction workers. (2) To assess the impact of social determinants on well-being. A sample size of 135 construction workers working at three sites of HITEC city were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. Health perception and the impact on well-being was measured using the Healthy Days Module and Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. SDH were measured on a 27-item questionnaire with responses on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 4. Proportions, percentages, P values, and mean scores were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 35.4 ± 11.94 years. Seventeen (12.6%) of the workers reported a high risk score on the Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant domains of social determinants independently associated with the well being of construction workers and significant among the nine domains of social determinants were addiction score domain with odds of 2.259 and a P value of 0.015 and the distress domain with odds of 1.108 and a P < 0.001. There is a significant impairment of physical and mental health due to various factors including SDH, such as addictive habits and psychological distress, which are amenable to prevention.

  10. Incidence of surgically treated osteoarthritis in the hip and knee in male construction workers.

    PubMed

    Järvholm, B; From, C; Lewold, S; Malchau, H; Vingård, E

    2008-04-01

    Occupational workload has been associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis. The objective was to further examine the association between workload and occurrence of osteoarthritis and in particular to study whether heavy workload has similar importance as a causative factor for osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. In a cohort study, the authors investigated the incidence of surgically treated osteoarthritis in the hip and knee among men employed in the Swedish construction industry (n = 204 741). Incident cases were found by linkage with the Swedish hospital discharge register between 1987 and 1998. Incidence rates adjusted for age and BMI were compared between different occupational groups. The incidence rates for osteoarthritis in hip and knee were positively correlated (r = 0.62; p = 0.01). There was a significantly increased risk of surgically treated osteoarthritis in the knee among floor layers, asphalt workers, sheet-metal workers, rock workers, plumbers, brick layers, wood workers and concrete workers. Even if there was a trend towards increased relative risks for osteoarthritis in the hip in floor layers, asphalt workers, wood workers and concrete workers they were not statistically significant. The relative risk for surgically treated osteoarthritis of the knee was 4.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 12.3) among floor layers, indicating an attributable fraction for work factors of 79%. This study shows that some work-related factors seem to be risk factors for osteoarthritis both in the knee and hip. However, the risk factors seem to be of greater importance for osteoarthritis in the knee compared with the hip. This study indicates that at least 50% of the cases of severe osteoarthritis of the knee can be prevented through decreasing occupational risk factors in some occupational groups.

  11. A system dynamics approach for modeling construction workers' safety attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mingyu; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Park, Moonseo; Moon, Myunggi; Han, Sangwon

    2014-07-01

    Construction accidents are caused by an unsafe act (i.e., a person's behavior or activity that deviates from normal accepted safe procedure) and/or an unsafe condition (i.e., a hazard or an unsafe mechanical or physical environment). While there has been dramatic improvement in creating safer construction environments, relatively little is known regarding the elimination of construction workers' unsafe acts. To address this deficiency, this paper aims to develop a system dynamics (SD)-based model of construction workers' mental processes that can help analyze the feedback mechanisms and the resultant dynamics regarding the workers' safety attitudes and safe behaviors. The developed model is applied to examine the effectiveness of three safety improvement policies: incentives for safe behaviors, and increased levels of communication and immersion in accidents. Application of the model verifies the strong potential of the developed model to provide a better understanding of how to eliminate unsafe acts, and to function as a robust test-bed to assess the effectiveness of safety programs or training sessions before their implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Access to properly fitting personal protective equipment for female construction workers.

    PubMed

    Onyebeke, Lynn C; Papazaharias, Demetrios M; Freund, Alice; Dropkin, Jonathan; McCann, Michael; Sanchez, Sadie H; Hashim, Dana; Meyer, John D; Lucchini, Roberto G; Zuckerman, Norman C

    2016-11-01

    Previous literature suggests that most personal protective equipment (PPE) for construction is designed for males and does not accommodate female anthropometry. We conducted a pilot study to identify whether female construction workers currently have adequate access to properly fitting PPE. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with union female carpenters, laborers, and ironworkers. Researchers coded focus group transcriptions and extracted major themes using thematic framework analysis. Participants (n = 23) had a mean of 15.1 years of construction experience (range 3-34.5 years). A majority reported fit problems for many types of PPE (gloves, harnesses, safety vests, work boots, outerwear), generally noting that the equipment provided by contractors was too large. Other emergent themes included female workers purchasing their own PPE, exposure to various safety hazards from poorly fitted PPE, and perceived indifferent safety culture. Female construction workers continue to have difficulty accessing properly fitting PPE. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1032-1040, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impacts of cooling intervention on the heat strain attenuation of construction workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yijie; Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P. C.; Wong, Del P.

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of a cooling intervention with a newly designed cooling vest on heat strain attenuation in the construction industry. Fourteen construction workers volunteered to participate in the field study. Each participant took part in two trials, i.e., cooling and control. Construction work included morning and afternoon sessions. Cooling intervention was implemented for 15 and 30 min during the morning and afternoon rest periods, respectively, between repeated bouts of work. Micrometeorological (wet-bulb globe temperature [WBGT]), physiological (tympanic temperature and heart rate), and perceptual (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE] and thermal sensation) measurements were taken during the test. Heat strain indices, including physiological strain index (PSIHR) and perceptual strain index (PeSI), were estimated accordingly. During the study, construction workers were exposed to a hot environment with a mean WBGT of 31.56 ± 1.87 °C. Compared with the control, physiological and perceptual strain were significantly reduced in the cooling condition during rest and subsequent work periods (p < 0.05; d = 0.24-1.07, small to large cooling effect). Cooling intervention significantly alleviates heat strain in the construction industry. The effectiveness and practicality of a proposed cooling intervention were tested in a field study. Results provide a reference for setting guidelines and promoting application on a range of construction sites.

  14. Impacts of cooling intervention on the heat strain attenuation of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yijie; Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Del P

    2018-05-25

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of a cooling intervention with a newly designed cooling vest on heat strain attenuation in the construction industry. Fourteen construction workers volunteered to participate in the field study. Each participant took part in two trials, i.e., cooling and control. Construction work included morning and afternoon sessions. Cooling intervention was implemented for 15 and 30 min during the morning and afternoon rest periods, respectively, between repeated bouts of work. Micrometeorological (wet-bulb globe temperature [WBGT]), physiological (tympanic temperature and heart rate), and perceptual (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE] and thermal sensation) measurements were taken during the test. Heat strain indices, including physiological strain index (PSI HR ) and perceptual strain index (PeSI), were estimated accordingly. During the study, construction workers were exposed to a hot environment with a mean WBGT of 31.56 ± 1.87 °C. Compared with the control, physiological and perceptual strain were significantly reduced in the cooling condition during rest and subsequent work periods (p < 0.05; d = 0.24-1.07, small to large cooling effect). Cooling intervention significantly alleviates heat strain in the construction industry. The effectiveness and practicality of a proposed cooling intervention were tested in a field study. Results provide a reference for setting guidelines and promoting application on a range of construction sites.

  15. The Work Ability of Hong Kong Construction Workers in Relation to Individual and Work-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jacky Y. K.

    2018-01-01

    The shortage in Hong Kong of construction workers is expected to worsen in future due to the aging population and increasing construction activity. Construction work is dangerous and to help reduce the premature loss of construction workers due to work-related disabilities, this study measured the work ability of 420 Hong Kong construction workers with a Work Ability Index (WAI) which can be used to predict present and future work performance. Given the importance of WAI, in this study the effects of individual and work-related factors on WAI were examined to develop and validate a WAI model to predict how individual and work-related factors affect work ability. The findings will be useful for formulating a pragmatic intervention program to improve the work ability of construction workers and keep them in the work force. PMID:29758018

  16. The Work Ability of Hong Kong Construction Workers in Relation to Individual and Work-Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jacky Y K; Chan, Alan H S

    2018-05-14

    The shortage in Hong Kong of construction workers is expected to worsen in future due to the aging population and increasing construction activity. Construction work is dangerous and to help reduce the premature loss of construction workers due to work-related disabilities, this study measured the work ability of 420 Hong Kong construction workers with a Work Ability Index (WAI) which can be used to predict present and future work performance. Given the importance of WAI, in this study the effects of individual and work-related factors on WAI were examined to develop and validate a WAI model to predict how individual and work-related factors affect work ability. The findings will be useful for formulating a pragmatic intervention program to improve the work ability of construction workers and keep them in the work force.

  17. Tropospheric Enhancement of Ozone over the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Naveed Ali; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Kaminski, Jacek; Struzewska, Joanna; Durka, Pawel; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We use the Global Environmental Multiscale - Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model to interpret the vertical profiles of ozone acquired with ozone sounding experiments at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi airport. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the chemical and dynamical structures in the atmosphere of this unique subtropical location (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). Ozone observations for years 2012 - 2013 reveal elevated ozone abundances in the range from 70 ppbv to 120 ppbv near 500-400 hPa during summer. The ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than these values. The preliminary results indicate that summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian anticyclones centered over the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water. The model also shows considerable seasonal variation in the tropospheric ozone which is transported from the stratosphere by dynamical processes. The domestic production of ozone in the middle troposphere is estimated and compared GEM-AQ model. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in the UAE is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries in the Gulf region. We will present ozone sounding data and GEM-AQ results including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  18. Coccidioidomycosis among Workers Constructing Solar Power Farms, California, USA, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Sondermeyer, Gail; Shusterman, Dennis; McNary, Jennifer; Vugia, Duc J.; McDowell, Ann; Borenstein, Penny; Gilliss, Debra; Ancock, Benedict; Prudhomme, Janice; Gold, Deborah; Windham, Gayle C.; Lee, Lauren; Materna, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is associated with soil-disruptive work in Coccidioides-endemic areas of the southwestern United States. Among 3,572 workers constructing 2 solar power–generating facilities in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA, we identified 44 patients with symptom onset during October 2011–April 2014 (attack rate 1.2 cases/100 workers). Of these 44 patients, 20 resided in California outside San Luis Obispo County and 10 resided in another state; 9 were hospitalized (median 3 days), 34 missed work (median 22 days), and 2 had disseminated disease. Of the 25 patients who frequently performed soil-disruptive work, 6 reported frequent use of respiratory protection. As solar farm construction in Coccidioides-endemic areas increases, additional workers will probably be exposed and infected unless awareness is emphasized and effective exposure reduction measures implemented, including limiting dust generation and providing respiratory protection. Medical providers, including those in non–Coccidioides-endemic areas, should suspect coccidioidomycosis in workers with compatible illness and report cases to their local health department. PMID:26484688

  19. Building healthy construction workers: Their views on health, wellbeing and better workplace design.

    PubMed

    Eaves, S; Gyi, D E; Gibb, A G F

    2016-05-01

    Construction is a heavy manual industry where working into later life can be a challenge. An interview study was conducted to explore workers' understanding of their health at work and ways of making their jobs easier, safer or more comfortable. Using purposive sampling, 80 trades' workers were selected from construction sites in the UK. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Work Ability Index were used to explore aches and pains and reducing strain on the body. A high prevalence of symptoms was reported and ratings of work ability were high. Workers were aware of the physical demands of their work and had over 250 ideas around health and wellbeing e.g. rucksacks for tools, bespoke benches, adapting PPE, and higher cost solutions e.g. mechanical lifting aids. Engagement of the workforce should be encouraged and feed into change processes in the industry to enable all workers stay fit for work for longer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Coccidioidomycosis among Workers Constructing Solar Power Farms, California, USA, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Sondermeyer, Gail; Shusterman, Dennis; McNary, Jennifer; Vugia, Duc J; McDowell, Ann; Borenstein, Penny; Gilliss, Debra; Ancock, Benedict; Prudhomme, Janice; Gold, Deborah; Windham, Gayle C; Lee, Lauren; Materna, Barbara L

    2015-11-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is associated with soil-disruptive work in Coccidioides-endemic areas of the southwestern United States. Among 3,572 workers constructing 2 solar power-generating facilities in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA, we identified 44 patients with symptom onset during October 2011-April 2014 (attack rate 1.2 cases/100 workers). Of these 44 patients, 20 resided in California outside San Luis Obispo County and 10 resided in another state; 9 were hospitalized (median 3 days), 34 missed work (median 22 days), and 2 had disseminated disease. Of the 25 patients who frequently performed soil-disruptive work, 6 reported frequent use of respiratory protection. As solar farm construction in Coccidioides-endemic areas increases, additional workers will probably be exposed and infected unless awareness is emphasized and effective exposure reduction measures implemented, including limiting dust generation and providing respiratory protection. Medical providers, including those in non-Coccidioides-endemic areas, should suspect coccidioidomycosis in workers with compatible illness and report cases to their local health department.

  1. Airway disease in highway and tunnel construction workers exposed to silica.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L Christine; Miracle-McMahill, Heidi

    2006-12-01

    Construction workers employed in a unique type of tunnel construction known as tunnel jacking were exposed over an 18-month period to respirable crystalline silica at concentrations that exceeded the OSHA permissible exposure limit. The present study examines workplace exposures and occurrence of airway disease in these workers. Medical and occupational histories and chest radiographs were obtained on 343 active construction workers who had worked on the site during the period in question. Chest radiographs were interpreted according to the ILO-1980 system of classification. Standardized questions were used to develop an algorithm to define symptoms consistent with asthma (SCA) and to determine these respiratory outcomes: chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath (SOB), and physician-diagnosed asthma (current vs. not current). Relationships with each of three work activities were examined: slurry wall breakthrough (SWB), chipping caisson overpour, and tunneling/mining. Participants included laborers, carpenters, tunnel workers, ironworkers, operating engineers, and electricians. No cases of silicosis were found on chest X-ray. Overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis, SCA, SOB, and physician-diagnosed asthma was 10.7%, 25%, 29%, and 6.6%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) for carpenters compared to laborers were significantly elevated for chronic bronchitis, SCA, and SOB. SWB was associated with chronic bronchitis and SCA (OR 4.93, 95% CI = 1.01, 24.17; OR 3.32, 95% CI = 1.25, 8.84, respectively). The interaction between SWB, SCA, and trade was significant for carpenters (OR 6.87, 95% CI = 1.66, 28.39). Inverse trends were observed for months on the site and chronic bronchitis, SCA, and SOB (P = 0.0374, 0.0006, and 0.0307, respectively). Tunnel construction workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and cement dust are at increased risk for airway disease. Extent of risk varies by trade and work activity. Our data indicate the importance of bystander exposures and

  2. Occupation and work-related ill-health in UK construction workers.

    PubMed

    Stocks, S J; Turner, S; McNamee, R; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2011-09-01

    Construction workers are at increased risk of work-related ill-health (WRI) worldwide. To compare the incidence of medically reported WRI in occupations within the UK construction industry according to job title. We calculated standardized incidence rate ratios (SRRs) using WRI cases for individual job titles returned to The Health and Occupation Reporting network by clinical specialists and UK population denominators. We counted frequencies of reported causal exposures or tasks reported by clinical specialists, occupational physicians and general practitioners. We found significantly increased incidence of WRI compared with other workers in the same major Standard Occupational Classification, i.e. workers with similar levels of qualifications, training, skills and experience, for skin neoplasia in roofers (SRR 6.3; 95% CI: 3.1-13.1), painters and decorators (2.1; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6) and labourers in building and woodworking trades (labourers, 6.6; 95% CI: 3.2-13.2); contact dermatitis in metal workers (1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and labourers (1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3); asthma in welders (3.8; 95% CI: 2.8-5.0); musculoskeletal disorders in welders (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8), road construction operatives (6.1; 95% CI: 3.8-9.6) and labourers (2.5; 95% CI: 1.7-3.7); long latency respiratory disease (mesothelioma, pneumoconiosis, lung cancer, non-malignant pleural disease) in pipe fitters (4.5; 95% CI: 3.2-6.2), electrical workers (2.7; 95% CI: 2.4-3.2), plumbing and heating engineers (2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7), carpenters and joiners (2.7; 95% CI: 2.3-3.1), scaffolders (12; 95% CI: 8-18) and labourers (3.3; 95% CI: 2.6-4.1). UK construction industry workers have significantly increased risk of WRI. These data in individual construction occupations can be used to inform appropriate targeting of occupational health resources.

  3. Changes in physical performance among construction workers during extended workweeks with 12-hour workdays.

    PubMed

    Faber, Anne; Strøyer, Jesper; Hjortskov, Nis; Schibye, Bente

    2010-01-01

    To investigate changes of physical performance during long working hours and extended workweeks among construction workers with temporary accommodation in camps. Nineteen construction workers with 12-h workdays and extended workweeks participated. Physical performance in the morning and evening of the second and eleventh workdays was tested by endurance, ability to react to a sudden load, flexibility of the back, handgrip strength and sub-maximal HR during a bicycle test. HR was registered throughout two separate workdays. HR during each of the two separate workdays corresponded to a relative workload of 25%. Sub-maximal HR was lower, reaction time faster and handgrip strength higher in the end of each test day. In the end of the work period, sub-maximal HR was lower, reaction time faster and sitting balance was better. No trends of decreased physical performance were found after a workday or a work period.

  4. Safety Challenges and Improvement Strategies of Ethnic Minority Construction Workers: A Case Study in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunlin; Luo, Xiaowei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yue; Sapkota, Bibek

    2018-04-18

    Due to cultural differences, ethnic minority construction workers are more difficult to manage and more vulnerable to accidents. This study aims to identify the major barriers faced by ethnic minority workers from their own perspectives and determine potential strategies to enhance safety climate of construction projects, thus ultimately improve their safety performance. A survey with modified Nordic safety climate questionnaire was conducted in a certain sub-contractor in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews, status quo description, major challenge investigation and safety knowledge tests were carried as well. The top three most important safety challenges identified are improper stereotypes from the whole industry, lack of opportunities for job assignment, and language barriers. To improve the safety performance, employers should allocate sufficient personal protective equipment and governments should organize unannounced site visits more frequently. Besides, the higher-level management should avoid giving contradictory instructions to foremen against to the standards of supervisors.

  5. Lung cancer risk among workers in the construction industry: results from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Lacourt, Aude; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Richardson, Lesley; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2015-09-22

    Given the large number of workers in the construction industry, it is important to derive accurate and valid estimates of cancer risk, and in particular lung cancer risk. In most previous studies, risks among construction workers were compared with general populations including blue and white collar workers. The main objectives of this study were to assess whether construction workers experience excess lung cancer risk, and whether exposure to selected construction industry exposures carries excess risks. We wished to address these objectives within the sub-population of blue collar workers. Two case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Combined, they included 1593 lung cancer cases and 1427 controls, of whom 1304 cases and 1081 controls had been blue collar workers. Detailed lifetime job histories were obtained and translated by experts into histories of exposure to chemical agents. The two key analyses were to estimate odds ratio (OR) estimates of lung cancer risk: a) for all blue-collar construction workers compared with other blue-collar workers, and b) for construction workers exposed to each of 20 exposure agents found in the construction industry compared with construction workers unexposed to those agents. All analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for socio-demographic factors and smoking history. The OR for all construction workers combined was 1.11 (95 % CI: 0.90-1.38), based on 381 blue collar construction workers. Analyses of specific exposures were hampered by small numbers and imprecise estimates. While none of 20 occupational agents examined was significantly associated with lung cancer, the following agents manifested non-significantly elevated ORs: asbestos, silica, Portland cement, soil dust, calcium oxide and calcium sulfate. Compared with other blue collar workers, there was only a slight increased risk of lung cancer for subjects who ever held an occupation in the construction industry. The analyses of

  6. Certain questions of the acclimatization of construction workers to the conditions of a subtropical climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babayev, A.

    1979-01-01

    The period of active acclimatization was determined for construction workers coming into a subtropical climate. Changes were observed in metabolic processes, oxygen needs, pulse rate, arterial pressure, body and skin temperature, body weight, water consumption and loss, and the comfort zone of heat sensitivity. It was concluded that acclimatization is facilitated if introduction to the hot climate occurs in the mild cool season, rather than the summer. This also prevents heat prostration and improves the development of adaptive mechanisms.

  7. Moving Equipment and Workers to Mine Construction Site at a Logistically Challenged Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikasz, Laszlo; Biroscak, Dennis; Pentiah, Scheale Duvah; McCulloch, Robert I.

    Social sensitivity of habitants, minimal impact on the environment, low-grade infrastructure, high altitude, frequent rock slides combined with expectations for the timely moving of equipment and workers are some of the challenges emerging from the current construction of a mine. Starting with traditional planning, and experiencing issues in the early phase of the construction, a traffic simulator was requested by the Procurement Department in order to validate daily-weekly schedules and predict likely delays or blockages on the long-term.

  8. Age in relation to worker compensation costs in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Butler, Lesley M; Rosecrance, John C

    2013-03-01

    A better understanding of how workers' compensation (WC) costs are affected by an aging US workforce is needed, especially for physically demanding industries, such as construction. The relationship between age and injury type on claim costs was evaluated using a database of 107,064 Colorado WC claims filed between 1998 and 2008 among construction workers. Mean WC costs increased with increasing age for total cost (P < 0.0001), medical costs (P < 0.0001), and indemnity costs (P < 0.0001). For each one-year increase in age, indemnity, and medical costs increased by 3.5% and 1.1%, respectively. For specific injury types, such as strains and contusions, the association between age and indemnity costs was higher among claimants aged ≥65 compared to claimants aged 18-24. Our findings suggest that specific injury types may be partially responsible for the higher indemnity costs among older construction workers, compared with their younger coworkers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Anzil Ks; Mohammed, Arshad; Thomas, Archana A; Paul, Shann; Shahul, M; Kasim, K

    2017-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India. A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. The oral health status was recorded on the World Health Organization oral health assessment form 1997, and the examination was carried out under natural light using mouth mirrors and probe. Data thus collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) statistical software package. Chi-square test was applied. Among the 2,163 workers, 1,952 were tobacco users and 211 were nonusers. Among the users, 1,021 use smokeless form, 372 use smoked form, and 559 use both. Premalignant lesions/conditions were more commonly seen with tobacco habit, with leukoplakia (14.75%) being the most common followed by oral submucous fibrosis in 201 (9.3%), candidiasis in 123 (5.7%), ulceration in 131 (6.05%), abscess in 59 (2.73%), smokers palate in 58 (2.68%), lichen planus in 21 (0.97%), and malignant tumor in 2 (0.1%). Commonness of abusive habits and oral premalig-nant lesions or conditions was considerable among the workers. Control and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major backbones for the control of oral cancer. Building workers are unprotected from various health hazards at workplace. Lack of access to health services makes the situation unsatisfactory. Poor literacy and low socioeconomic status have resulted in practice of tobacco, smoking, and chewing in the majority of them. Hence, it is our responsibility to find and guide them with a proper oral health education.

  10. Mortality of older construction and craft workers employed at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Ringen, Knut; Welch, Laura S; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established medical screening programs at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, the Savannah River Site, and the Amchitka site starting in 1996. Workers participating in these programs have been followed to determine their vital status and mortality experience through December 31, 2004. A cohort of 8,976 former construction workers from Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, and Amchitka was followed using the National Death Index through December 31, 2004, to ascertain vital status and causes of death. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on US death rates. Six hundred and seventy-four deaths occurred in this cohort and overall mortality was slightly less than expected (SMR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-1.01), indicating a "healthy worker effect." However, significantly excess mortality was observed for all cancers (SMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.45), lung cancer (SMR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.24-1.87), mesothelioma (SMR = 5.93, 95% CI = 2.56-11.68), and asbestosis (SMR = 33.89, 95% CI = 18.03-57.95). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was in excess at Oak Ridge and multiple myeloma was in excess at Hanford. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was significantly elevated among workers at the Savannah River Site (SMR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.02-3.29). DOE construction workers at these four sites were found to have significantly excess risk for combined cancer sites included in the Department of Labor' Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program (EEOCIPA). Asbestos-related cancers were significantly elevated. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Risk factors for injury among construction workers at Denver International Airport.

    PubMed

    Lowery, J T; Borgerding, J A; Zhen, B; Glazner, J E; Bondy, J; Kreiss, K

    1998-08-01

    The Denver International Airport construction project provided a rare opportunity to identify risk factors for injury on a large construction project for which 769 contractors were hired to complete 2,843 construction contracts. Workers' compensation claims and payroll data for individual contracts were recorded in an administrative database developed by the project's Owner-Controlled Insurance Program. From claims andy payroll data linked with employee demographic information, we calculated injury rates per 200,000 person-hours by contract and over contract characteristics of interest. We used Poisson regression models to examine contract-specific risk factors in relation to total injuries, lost-work-time (LWT), and non-LWT injuries. We included contract-specific expected loss rates (ELRs) in the model to control for prevailing risk of work and used logistic regression methods to determine the association between LWT and non-LWT injuries on contracts. Injury rates were highest during the first year of construction, at the beginning of contracts, and among older workers. Risk for total and non-LWT injuries was elevated for building construction contracts, contract for special trades companies (SIC 17), contracts with payrolls over $1 million, and those with overtime payrolls greater than 20%. Risk for LWT injuries only was increased for site development contracts and contract starting in the first year of construction. Contracts experiencing one or more minor injuries were four times as likely to have at least one major injury (OR = 4.0, 95% CI (2.9, 5.5)). Enhancement of DIA's safety infrastructure during the second year of construction appears to have been effective in reducing serious (LWT) injures. The absence of correlation between injury rates among contracts belonging to the same company suggest that targeting of safety resources at the level of the contract may be an effective approach to injury prevention. Interventions focused on high-risk contracts

  12. Construction Workers Struggle with a High Prevalence of Mental Distress and this is Associated with Their Pain and Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Henrik Borsting; Caban-Martinez, Alberto; Onyebeke, Lynn C.; Sorensen, Glorian; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Reme, Silje Endresen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate how mental distress was associated with pain and injuries in a convenience sample of construction workers. Methods A cross-sectional, mental health assessment was conducted in a convenience sample of construction workers (N=172). A subsample participated in a clinical interview (N=10). We used a cut-off (≥1.50) on HSCL-25 to determine substantial mental distress and determined associations with pain and injury outcomes. Results The prevalence of substantial mental distress was 16 % in the workers. This was supported by follow-up clinical interviews where nine out of ten workers fulfilled the criteria for a mental disorder. Substantial mental distress was associated with both injury rate and self-reported pain. Conclusion This pilot study strongly suggests the need for rigorous studies on construction worker mental health, and how it affects their work and wellbeing. PMID:24064778

  13. White fingers, cold environment, and vibration--exposure among Swedish construction workers.

    PubMed

    Burström, Lage; Järvholm, Bengt; Nilsson, Tohr; Wahlström, Jens

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between white fingers, cold environment, and exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV). The hypothesis was that working in cold climate increases the risk of white fingers. The occurrence of white fingers was investigated as a cross-sectional study in a cohort of Swedish male construction workers (N=134 757). Exposure to HAV was based on a job-exposure matrix. Living in the north or south of Sweden was, in a subgroup of the cohort, used as an indicator of the exposure to cold environment (ie, living in the north meant a higher exposure to cold climate). The analyses were adjusted for age and use of nicotine products (smoking and snuff). HAV-exposed workers living in a colder climate had a higher risk for white fingers than those living in a warmer climate [odds ratio (OR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.42-2.06]. As expected, we found that HAV-exposed workers had an increased risk compared to controls (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.75-2.34). The risk for white fingers increased with increased level of exposure to HAV and also age. Cold environment increases the risk for white fingers in workers occupationally exposed to HAV. The results underscore the need to keep exposure to HAV at workplaces as low as possible especially in cold climate.

  14. Disability Pensions due to Skin Diseases: A Cohort Study in Swedish Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Meding, Birgitta; Wrangsjö, Karin; Burdorf, Alex; Järvholm, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    Disability pensions due to skin diseases in Swedish male construction workers were studied by linking data from pension registers and an occupational health service. Incidence rates of disability pensions for cement workers, painters and plumbers were compared with 2 control groups. A total of 623 disability pensions were granted during 4 decades of follow-up. The main diagnoses were eczema (36%) and psoriasis (49%). Pensions were mostly granted in the age range 55-64 years. Among painters, cement workers and plumbers the incidence rates for disability pensions were 33.3, 24.5 and 20.4 cases/100,000 person-years, respectively, compared with 13.7 and 9.2 cases/100,000 person-years in control groups. Relative risks were highest for eczema, and were notable for psoriasis. Attributable fractions for eczema were 90% in cement workers and painters and 75% in plumbers compared with control groups. Attributable fractions for psoriasis in the occupational groups studied were in the range 54-67%. In conclusion, eczema and psoriasis have a high impact on loss of work ability, as reflected by disability pensions.

  15. Effectiveness of an intervention to increase construction workers' use of hearing protection.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Hong, O S; Ronis, D L; Eakin, B L; Kerr, M J; Early, M R

    1999-09-01

    In this project we tested the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention (video, pamphlets, and guided practice session) to increase the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) among Midwestern construction workers and a national group of plumber/pipefitter trainers. Posttest measures were collected 10-12 months following this intervention. Pender's Health Promotion Model (1987) provided the conceptual basis for development of the training program. A total of 837 high-noise-exposed workers were included in the analysis: 652 regional Midwestern construction workers and 185 national plumber/pipefitter trainers. Effectiveness of the intervention was determined through the sequence of analyses recommended by Braver and Braver (1988) for the Solomon Four-Group Design. Analysis of variance and covariance of postintervention use and intention to use HPDs and a meta-analytic test were done. These analyses indicated that the intervention significantly increased use of HPDs but had no effect on intention to use HPDs in the future. Pretesting had no effect on use. Actual or potential applications of this research include guidance in the development of successful theory-based interventions to increase use of HPDs.

  16. Social marketing to plan a fall prevention program for Latino construction workers.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Nancy N; Shrestha, Pramen P

    2012-08-01

    Latino construction workers experience disparities in occupational death and injury rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration funded a fall prevention training program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in response to sharp increases in fall-related accidents from 2005 to 2007. The grant's purpose was to improve fall protection for construction workers, with a focus on Latinos. This study assessed the effectiveness of social marketing for increasing fall prevention behaviors. A multi-disciplinary team used a social marketing approach to plan the program. We conducted same day class evaluations and follow-up interviews 8 weeks later. The classes met trainee needs as evidenced by class evaluations and increased safety behaviors. However, Spanish-speaking Latinos did not attend in the same proportion as their representation in the Las Vegas population. A social marketing approach to planning was helpful to customize the training to Latino worker needs. However, due to the limitations of behavior change strategies, future programs should target employers and their obligation to provide safer workplaces. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hand-arm vibration syndrome among a group of construction workers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Ting Anselm; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai; Masilamani, Retneswari; Awang Mahmud, Awang Bulgiba

    2011-01-01

    To determine the extent of hand transmitted vibration exposure problems, particularly hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), among construction workers in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a construction site in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 243 workers were recruited. Questionnaire interviews and hand examinations were administered to 194 respondents. Vibration magnitudes for concrete breakers, drills and grinders were measured using a 3-axis accelerometer. Clinical outcomes were compared and analysed according to vibration exposure status. Vibration total values for concrete breakers, impact drills and grinders were 10.02 ms(-2), 7.72 ms(-2) and 5.29ms(-2), respectively. The mean 8 h time-weighted hand transmitted vibration exposure, A(8), among subjects on current and previous construction sites was 7.52 (SD 2.68) ms(-2) and 9.21 (SD 2.48) ms(-2), respectively. Finger tingling, finger numbness, musculoskeletal problems of the neck, finger coldness, abnormal Phalen's test and abnormal light touch sensation were significantly more common in the high vibration exposure group (n=139) than the low-moderate vibration exposure group (n=54). Mean total lifetime vibration dose among exposed subjects was 15.2 (SD 3.2) m(2) h(3) s(-4) (ln scale). HAVS prevalence was 18% and the prevalence ratio of stage 1 and higher disease in the high vibration exposure group versus the low-moderate vibration exposure group was 4.86 (95% CI 1.19 to 19.80). Hand transmitted vibration is a recognisable problem in tropical countries including Malaysia. The current study has identified clinical symptoms and signs suggesting HAVS among construction workers exposed to hand transmitted vibration in a warm environment.

  18. "They think you're as stupid as your English is": constructing foreign domestic workers in Toronto.

    PubMed

    England, K; Stiell, B

    1997-02-01

    "In Canada, paid domestic work is often associated with (im)migrant women from a variety of countries of origin. We critically analyse Canada's foreign domestic worker programmes, noting the shifting definitions of which nationalities should participate. We note how gendered, racialised, and classed constructions of national identities infuse these programmes. We then turn to an empirical analysis of how foreign domestic workers are constructed in Toronto, where demand is the highest in Canada." excerpt

  19. Airways obstruction among older construction and trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    A study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among 7,579 current and former workers participating in medical screening programs at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities through September 2008 was undertaken. Participants provided a detailed work and exposure history and underwent a respiratory examination that included a respiratory history, respiratory symptoms, a posterior-anterior (P-A) chest radiograph classified by International Labour Office (ILO) criteria, and spirometry. Statistical models were developed to generate group-level exposure estimates that were used in multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore the risk of COPD in relation to exposures to asbestos, silica, cement dust, welding, paints, solvents, and dusts/fumes from paint removal. Risk for COPD in the study population was compared to risk for COPD in the general US population as determined in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). The age-standardized prevalence ratio of COPD among DOE workers compared to all NHANES III data was 1.3. Internal analyses found the odds ratio of COPD to range from 1.6 to 3.1 by trade after adjustment for age, race, sex, smoking, and duration of DOE employment. Statistically significant associations were observed for COPD and exposures to asbestos, silica, welding, cement dusts, and some tasks associated with exposures to paints, solvents, and removal of paints. Our study of construction workers employed at DOE sites demonstrated increased COPD risk due to occupational exposures and was able to identify specific exposures increasing risk. This study provides additional support for prevention of both smoking and occupational exposures to reduce the burden of COPD among construction workers. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Mortality of a cohort of road construction and maintenance workers with work disability compensation.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, A; Mamo, C; Tomaino, A; Dalmasso, M; Demaria, M; Costa, G

    2002-01-01

    Surveillance systems of occupational mortality are useful tools to identify cases of diseases suspected as occupational and to monitor their occurrence over time, in space and in population subgroups. Many surveillance systems make use of administrative data in which information about occupations and/or economic sectors of the subjects enrolled is reported, such as death certificates, hospital discharge data, census data, tax and pension records, and workers' compensation archives. In the present study we analyzed the mortality of a cohort of road construction and maintenance workers enrolled through the Italian national archive of work disability compensations, also in order to evaluate the possible use of this administrative source to monitor occupational mortality. 8,000 subjects (7,879 males) receiving a disability compensation while working in the "road construction and maintenance" sector were identified from INAIL (National Institute for Insurance of Accidents at Work) archives. Vital status of these subjects was ascertained using the information available in INAIL archives and in the national tax register. For those found to be deceased from INAIL or tax archives, or without any information on vital status, a mail follow-up was started. We considered as observation period the years from 1980 to 1993. A record linkage with the ISTAT (Italian Institute of Statistics) national mortality registry was performed and the cause of death was retrieved for 964 out of 1,259 subjects. The analysis was restricted to males, leaving altogether 863 observed deaths with ascertained cause (84.7% of 1,019 total male deaths). SMR for overall mortality and PMR for specific cause mortality were computed, using the general Italian male population as reference. Overall mortality was significantly reduced (SMR = 79.0; 95% CI = 74.2-84.0). Proportional mortality analysis revealed significant excess risks for all malignant tumours (332 deaths, PMR = 1.08) and for digestive diseases

  1. Occupation, work environment, and disability pension: a prospective study of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Stattin, Mikael; Järvholm, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of occupation and work environment for the risk of disability pension among construction workers in Sweden. The data include around 389,000 construction workers who participated in health examinations from 1971 to 1992. During that period 68,000 participants received disability pension in some form. Between 1985 and 1992 questionnaires were used to collect data regarding hazards in the work environment. Some 87,000 participants answered that questionnaire, and almost 6,000 of these were in receipt of a disability pension. To analyse the risk of disability pension in different occupations, incidence rates (SIR) were calculated according to the person-year method. Logistic regression was used to calculate age-controlled odds ratios according to physical and psychosocial work environment factors. The results show considerable variation in risk for disability pension between different occupations within the construction industry. Furthermore, analysis of work environment factors indicated associations with physical, ergonomic, and psychosocial work environment factors. A considerable variation between occupations indicates that characteristics in the work situation are important when explaining the risk of disability pension. The results from this study indicate that improvements in working conditions are an important area of intervention in order to facilitate and prolong labour market participation among elderly people.

  2. Male suicide among construction workers in Australia: a qualitative analysis of the major stressors precipitating death.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; Maheen, Humaira; Currier, Dianne; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2017-06-19

    Suicide rates among those employed in male-dominated professions such as construction are elevated compared to other occupational groups. Thus far, past research has been mainly quantitative and has been unable to identify the complex range of risk and protective factors that surround these suicides. We used a national coronial database to qualitatively study work and non-work related influences on male suicide occurring in construction workers in Australia. We randomly selected 34 cases according to specific sampling framework. Thematic analysis was used to develop a coding structure on the basis of pre-existing theories in job stress research. The following themes were established on the basis of mutual consensus: mental health issues prior to death, transient working experiences (i.e., the inability to obtain steady employment), workplace injury and chronic illness, work colleagues as a source of social support, financial and legal problems, relationship breakdown and child custody issues, and substance abuse. Work and non-work factors were often interrelated pressures prior to death. Suicide prevention for construction workers needs to take a systematic approach, addressing work-level factors as well as helping those at-risk of suicide.

  3. Age in Relation to Worker Compensation Costs in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Schwatka, Natalie V.; Butler, Lesley M.; Rosecrance, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding of how workers’ compensation (WC) costs are affected by an aging US workforce is needed, especially for physically demanding industries, such as construction. Methods The relationship between age and injury type on claim costs was evaluated using a database of 107,064 Colorado WC claims filed between 1998 and 2008 among construction workers. Results Mean WC costs increased with increasing age for total cost (P < 0.0001), medical costs (P < 0.0001), and indemnity costs (P < 0.0001). For each one-year increase in age, indemnity, and medical costs increased by 3.5% and 1.1%, respectively. For specific injury types, such as strains and contusions, the association between age and indemnity costs was higher among claimants aged ≥65 compared to claimants aged 18–24. Conclusions Our findings suggest that specific injury types may be partially responsible for the higher indemnity costs among older construction workers, compared with their younger coworkers. PMID:22782837

  4. Association between V̇O2max, handgrip strength, and musculoskeletal pain among construction and health care workers.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Lene Lehmann; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Koch, Markus; Tveter, Anne Therese; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2017-03-21

    Construction and health care workers have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, and they are assumed to have physically demanding jobs. Profession- and gender-specific associations between individual capacity and musculoskeletal pain have not been sufficiently investigated. The main aim of this study was to examine the association between individual capacity (maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max ) and handgrip strength) and musculoskeletal pain among construction and health care workers. This cross-sectional study examined 137 construction and health care workers (58 women and 79 men) with a mean age of 41.8 years (standard deviation 12). Aerobic capacity was indirectly assessed by the Åstrand cycle test, and strength was assessed by a handgrip test. Musculoskeletal pain was described by total pain, divided into neck, shoulder, and low back pain, during the last 12 months, and it was dichotomized in below or above 30 days. Logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between V̇O 2max , strength, and musculoskeletal pain in the total study sample and separately for construction and health care workers. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and selected mechanical and psychosocial factors. Every second participant (51.8%) reported pain in either neck, shoulders or low back for more than 30 days during the last 12 months. Among the health care workers, a small but significant association was found between a high V̇O 2max , high handgrip strength, and a low level of musculoskeletal pain. No association was found for the construction workers. An association between V̇O 2max, handgrip strength, and musculoskeletal pain was found for health care workers but not for construction workers. These results indicate that activities promoting individual capacity may reduce musculoskeletal pain for health care workers.

  5. Learning Orientations of IT Higher Education Students in UAE University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel; Tarhini, Ali; Rouibah, Kamel; Mohamd, Serhani; Yammahi, Aishah Rashid; Yammahi, Maraim Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This research examines the learning preferences of students in UAE University (UAEU). The uniqueness of this research emanates from the fact that no prior research examined this area from the UAE's perspective. Thus, this research embarks on the fact that student learning strategies vary from one country to another due to many factors. This…

  6. Evaluating the Physiological and Perceptual Responses of Wearing a Newly Designed Cooling Vest for Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yijie; Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Francis K W; Yam, Michael C H

    2017-08-01

    Construction workers are subjected to heat stress because of the hot environment, physically demanding tasks, and/or personal protective equipment. A tailor-made cooling vest that protects construction workers from heat-related injuries was developed. The purpose of the study is to examine a newly designed cooling vest's effectiveness in alleviating physiological and perceptual strain in a hot and humid environment. Twelve male participants performed two trials, i.e., cooling vest (VEST) and control (CON) in a climatic chamber controlled at 37°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, 0.3 m/s air velocity, and 450 W/m2 solar radiation to simulate the summer working environment of construction sites. Two bouts of treadmill exercise intermitted with 30-minute passive recovery were designed to simulate the practical work-rest schedule of the construction industry. The cooling vest was used during the passive recovery period in the VEST condition, and the results were compared with that of no cooling vest in the CON condition. The results revealed that the newly designed cooling vest can significantly alleviate heat strain and improve thermal comfort, based on the decrease in body temperature, heart rate, and subjective perceptions (including perceived exertion, thermal, wetness, and comfort sensation) of the participants. It can also prolong work duration in the subsequent exercise. The cooling countermeasures proposed in this study will be able to provide an effective solution in situations that involve repeated bouts of outdoor construction work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  7. The study of KBP of road construction workers of highway AIDS prevention project before and after intervention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Dong, Si-Ping; Gao, Guang-Ming; Fan, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Zong-Jiu; Fang, Peng-Qian

    2013-10-01

    To get scientific basis for further health education through the research of the road construction workers' KBP before and after the interventions of highway AIDS prevention project. Multi-stage random sampling method was employeed to select workers of 8 sites from 14 sites along highway to investigate their AIDS knowledge, belief and performance (KBP) before and after highway AIDS prevention project. Over 90% of the investigated workers had ever heard about AIDS, and the non-skilled workers of lower educational level improved more after intervention. The correct answer rate of the three transmitting ways of AIDS of drivers which is the focused group of highway before and after intervention had the obvious statistical significance (P<0.05), and the other group's correct answer rates also had improved after intervention. Most people's understanding of preventing AIDS through correct use of condoms when having sex had a statistically significant difference(P<0.05) after prevention. The rates of using condoms of foremen and skilled workers when having sex with commercial sex worker/casual partner increased after intervention. The health education of HIV among the road construction workers is effective and further health education of HIV prevention should be carried out among the road construction workers to improve their knowledge and awareness of avoiding the high-risk behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in safety training among smaller and larger construction firms with non-native workers: Evidence of overlapping vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Rebecca J.; Keller, Brenna M.; Flynn, Michael A.; Salgado, Cathy; Hudson, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative efforts between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) led to a report focusing on overlapping occupational vulnerabilities, specifically small construction businesses employing young, non-native workers. Following the report, an online survey was conducted by ASSE with construction business representatives focusing on training experiences of non-native workers. Results were grouped by business size (50 or fewer employees or more than 50 employees). Smaller businesses were less likely to employ a supervisor who speaks the same language as immigrant workers (p < .001). Non-native workers in small businesses received fewer hours of both initial safety training (p = .005) and monthly ongoing safety training (p = .042). Immigrant workers in smaller businesses were less likely to receive every type of safety training identified in the survey (including pre-work safety orientation [p < .001], job-specific training [p < .001], OSHA 10-hour training [p = .001], and federal/state required training [p < .001]). The results highlight some of the challenges a vulnerable worker population faces in a small business, and can be used to better focus intervention efforts. Among businesses represented in this sample, there are deflcits in the amount, frequency, and format of workplace safety and health training provided to non-native workers in smaller construction businesses compared to those in larger businesses. The types of training conducted for non-native workers in small business were less likely to take into account the language and literacy issues faced by these workers. The findings suggest the need for a targeted approach in providing occupational safety and health training to non-native workers employed by smaller construction businesses. PMID:29375194

  9. Rural Indonesian health care workers' constructs of infection prevention and control knowledge.

    PubMed

    Marjadi, Brahmaputra; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2010-06-01

    Understanding the constructs of knowledge behind clinical practices in low-resource rural health care settings with limited laboratory facilities and surveillance programs may help in designing resource-appropriate infection prevention and control education. Multiple qualitative methods of direct observations, individual and group focus discussions, and document analysis were used to examine health care workers' knowledge of infection prevention and control practices in intravenous therapy, antibiotic therapy, instrument reprocessing, and hand hygiene in 10 rural Indonesian health care facilities. Awareness of health care-associated infections was low. Protocols were in the main based on verbal instructions handed down through the ranks of health care workers. The evidence-based knowledge gained across professional training was overridden by empiricism, nonscientific modifications, and organizational and societal cultures when resources were restricted or patients demanded inappropriate therapies. This phenomenon remained undetected by accreditation systems and clinical educators. Rural Indonesian health care workers would benefit from a formal introduction to evidence-based practice that would deconstruct individual protocols that include nonscientific knowledge. To achieve levels of acceptable patient safety, protocols would have to be both evidence-based and resource-appropriate. Copyright 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Socially Constructed Hierarchies of Impairments: The Case of Australian and Irish Workers' Access to Compensation for Injuries.

    PubMed

    Harpur, Paul; Connolly, Ursula; Blanck, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Socially constructed hierarchies of impairment complicate the general disadvantage experienced by workers with disabilities. Workers with a range of abilities categorized as a "disability" are likely to experience less favourable treatment at work and have their rights to work discounted by laws and institutions, as compared to workers without disabilities. Value judgments in workplace culture and local law mean that the extent of disadvantage experienced by workers with disabilities additionally will depend upon the type of impairment they have. Rather than focusing upon the extent and severity of the impairment and how society turns an impairment into a recognized disability, this article aims to critically analyse the social hierarchy of physical versus mental impairment. Using legal doctrinal research methods, this paper analysis how Australian and Irish workers' compensation and negligence laws regard workers with mental injuries and impairments as less deserving of compensation and protection than like workers who have physical and sensory injuries or impairments. This research finds that workers who acquire and manifest mental injuries and impairments at work are less able to obtain compensation and protection than workers who have developed physical and sensory injuries of equal or lesser severity. Organizational cultures and governmental laws and policies that treat workers less favourably because they have mental injuries and impairments perpetuates unfair and artificial hierarchies of disability attributes. We conclude that these "sanist" attitudes undermine equal access to compensation for workplace injury as prohibited by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  11. Evaluating the Impacts of Health, Social Network and Capital on Craft Efficiency and Productivity: A Case Study of Construction Workers in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jingfeng; Yi, Wen; Miao, Mengyi; Zhang, Lei

    2018-02-15

    The construction industry has been recognized, for many years, as among those having a high likelihood of accidents, injuries and occupational illnesses. Such risks of construction workers can lead to low productivity and social problems. As a result, construction workers' well-being should be highly addressed to improve construction workers' efficiency and productivity. Meanwhile, the social support from a social network and capital (SNC) of construction workers has been considered as an effective approach to promote construction workers' physical and mental health (P&M health), as well as their work efficiency and productivity. Based on a comprehensive literature review, a conceptual model, which aims to improve construction workers' efficiency and productivity from the perspective of health and SNC, was proposed. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the construction workers' health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity in Nanjing, China. A structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the three hypothetical relationships among construction workers' P&M health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity. The results indicated that the direct impacts from construction workers' P&M health on work efficiency and productivity were more significant than that from the SNC. In addition, the construction workers' social capital and the network can indirectly influence the work efficiency and productivity by affecting the construction workers' P&M health. Therefore, strategies for enhancing construction workers' efficiency and productivity were proposed. Furthermore, many useable suggestions can be drawn from the research findings from the perspective of a government. The identified indicators and relationships would contribute to the construction work efficiency and productivity assessment and health management from the perspective of the construction workers.

  12. Workers' compensation loss prevention representative contact and risk of lost-time injury in construction policyholders.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Katherine E; Alexander, Bruce H; Gerberich, Susan G; MacLehose, Richard F

    2017-09-01

    Insurance loss prevention (LP) representatives have access and contact with businesses and employees to provide targeted safety and health resources. Construction firms, especially those smaller in size, are a high-risk population. This research evaluated the association between LP rep contact and risk for lost-time injuries in construction policyholders. Workers' compensation data were utilized to track LP rep contact with policyholders and incidence of lost-time injury over time. Survival analysis with repeated events modeling calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared no LP contact, one contact was associated with a 27% reduction of risk (HR=0.73, CI=0.65-0.82), two with a 41% (HR=0.59, CI=0.51-0.68), and three or more contacts with a 28% reduction of risk (HR=0.72, CI=0.65-0.81). LP reps appear to be a valuable partner in efforts to reduce injury burden. Their presence or contact with policyholders is consistent with reduction in overall incidence of lost-time injuries. Reduction in lost-time injuries, resulting in reduced workers' compensation costs for policyholders and insurance companies, builds a business-case for safety and injury prevention. LP reps are often a low or no-cost benefit for insurance policyholders and may be an important injury prevention resource for small firms and/or those with lack of safety resources and staff. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of work-related injuries among insured construction workers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Ravandi, Mohammad Reza Ghotbi; Hatami, Seyedeh Tayebeh; Khanjani, Narges

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Work-related injuries are among the most important health problems in developing countries, such as Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of work-related injuries among construction workers who had been insured by the Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO). Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The population included all construction workers who had a work- related accident during 2012 in Iran, which were recorded in the ISSO database after inspection. The effects of independent variables on injuries were estimated by logistic regression. SPSS software version 18 was used for analyzing the data. Results Overall, 5352 work-related injuries were investigated. The incidence rate of fatal and nonfatal injuries was 0.07 in 1000 and 11.18 in 1000 workers, respectively. More than half of these accidents were due to careless activities. A younger age at the time of the accident (OR=0.98, CI: 0.97–0.99, p=0.001), being married (OR=1.37, CI: 1.04–1.79, p=0.02), place of accident (OR=1.86, CI: 1.18–2.92, p=0.007), lack of information (OR=5.28, CI: 1.57–17.75, p=0.007), disrespect of safety regulations (OR=3.11, CI: 1.87–5.17, p=0.001), non-use of protective equipment (OR=2.98, CI: 1.62–5.50, p=0.001), and defective equipment (OR=2.22, CI: 1.18–4.20, p=0.01) had a significant effect on the incidence of work-related injury. Conclusions The pattern of work-related injury in Iran was almost similar in regard to age, gender, cause and type of the accident, with other parts of the world. PMID:29403628

  14. Epidemiology of work-related injuries among insured construction workers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Ravandi, Mohammad Reza Ghotbi; Hatami, Seyedeh Tayebeh; Khanjani, Narges

    2017-11-01

    Work-related injuries are among the most important health problems in developing countries, such as Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of work-related injuries among construction workers who had been insured by the Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO). This is a cross-sectional study. The population included all construction workers who had a work- related accident during 2012 in Iran, which were recorded in the ISSO database after inspection. The effects of independent variables on injuries were estimated by logistic regression. SPSS software version 18 was used for analyzing the data. Overall, 5352 work-related injuries were investigated. The incidence rate of fatal and nonfatal injuries was 0.07 in 1000 and 11.18 in 1000 workers, respectively. More than half of these accidents were due to careless activities. A younger age at the time of the accident (OR=0.98, CI: 0.97-0.99, p=0.001), being married (OR=1.37, CI: 1.04-1.79, p=0.02), place of accident (OR=1.86, CI: 1.18-2.92, p=0.007), lack of information (OR=5.28, CI: 1.57-17.75, p=0.007), disrespect of safety regulations (OR=3.11, CI: 1.87-5.17, p=0.001), non-use of protective equipment (OR=2.98, CI: 1.62-5.50, p=0.001), and defective equipment (OR=2.22, CI: 1.18-4.20, p=0.01) had a significant effect on the incidence of work-related injury. The pattern of work-related injury in Iran was almost similar in regard to age, gender, cause and type of the accident, with other parts of the world.

  15. The Development, Diffusion and Evaluation of a Fall Hazard Safety Training Program for Residential Construction Workers Utilizing Instructor Led and New Media Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of workers in the residential construction industry are on the rise. Falls have continually been the largest contributor to residential construction worker deaths and injuries. These workers are largely self-employed or working for small companies. These individuals are difficult to reach through traditional methods. This research…

  16. Protecting Construction Worker Health and Safety in Ontario, Canada: Identifying a Union Safety Effect.

    PubMed

    Amick, Benjamin C; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Latour-Villamil, Desiree; Saunders, Ron

    2015-12-01

    Do Ontario unionized construction firms have lower workers' compensation claims rates compared with nonunion firms? Building trade and construction trade association lists of union contractors were linked to Workplace Safety and Insurance Board claims data for 2006 to 2012. Data were pooled for 2006 to 2012, and negative binomial regressions conducted with adjustment to estimate a union safety effect. The sample included 5797 unionized and 38,626 nonunion construction firms. Total claims rates were 13% higher (1.13, 1.09 to 1.18) in unionized firms because of higher allowed no-lost-time claim rates (1.28, 1.23 to 1.34), whereas the lost-time claims rate was 14% lower (0.86, 0.82 to 0.91). Unionized construction firms compared with nonunion firms have higher no-lost-time and lower lost-time claims rates. Unionized firms may encourage occupational injury reporting and reduce risks through training and hazard identification and control strategies.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Mamta; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Mallik, Praveen; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Patvagekar, Bilkish; Pathak, Rambha

    2016-01-01

    Workers represent half the world's population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. (1) To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2) To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi. Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91%) were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc). 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99), smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36, CI:1.30-4.27) and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16) for illiterate). The prevalence of tobacco use (91%) among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed.

  18. Bio-monitoring for the genotoxic assessment in road construction workers as determined by the buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ayla; Yildirim, Seda; Ekinci, Seda Yaprak; Taşdelen, Bahar

    2013-06-01

    Buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay monitors genetic damage, cell proliferation and cell death in humans exposed to occupational and environmental agents. BMCyt is used as an indicator of genotoxic exposure, since it is associated with chromosomal instability. There is little research on the occupational exposure among road construction workers for genotoxicity testing. In the present study, we evaluated MN frequencies and other nuclear changes, karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis (KL), broken egg (BE), binucleate (BN), condensed chromatin cell (CCC), and picnotic cell (PC) in buccal mucosa cells of 40 road construction workers (twenty smokers and twenty non-smokers) and 40 control groups consisting of healthy persons (twenty smokers and twenty non-smokers). Microscopic observation was performed of 2000 cells per individual in both road construction workers and control group. In control and worker groups, for each person repair index (RI) was calculated via formula KR+L/BE+MN. The results showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of MN in buccal epithelial cells of exposed group compared with control group (p<0.001). There is no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers for incidence of MN or nuclear changes and value of RI in exposed group. In road construction workers, RI is lower than the control group. There is a significant difference between workers and control group (p<0.001) for RI. Our data reveal that asphalt fumes during road paving operations are absorbed by workers and that asphalt fume exposure is able to significantly induce cytogenetic damage in buccal mucosa cells of workers after controlling some possible confounding factors, such as age, sex and smoking habits. In addition to determination of nuclear changes and the micronucleus, the determination of RI value presents a new approach to genotoxic bio-monitoring assessment studies of occupationally exposed population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Robert A; Hargesheimer, John; Vaara, Leah

    2008-09-01

    During a repair and reconstruction project of an unpaved highway in a remote region of Alaska, workers discovered, after construction had commenced, that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos (variously described as tremolite or actinolite). The regional geology indicated the presence of ultramafic rock, which often contains asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers, their equipment, and living quarters was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public to asbestos already used in the roadway construction. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 f/cc by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 phase contrast microscopy (PCM) procedure. Thirty-six of the PCM samples underwent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis by the NIOSH 7402 procedure, which indicated that about 40% of the fibers were asbestos. After classifying samples by tasks performed by workers, analysis indicated that workers, such as road grader operators who ground or spread materials, had the highest exposures. Also, monitoring results indicated motorist exposure to be much less than 0.1 f/cc. The design phase of any proposed construction project in regions that contain ultramafic rock must consider the possibility of amphibole contamination of roadway materials, and budget for exploration and asbestos analysis of likely materials sites.

  20. [Differences in the prevalence of work related disorders among construction workers between the end of 90s and 2006].

    PubMed

    Riva, M M; Pavesi, G; Bartolozzi, F; Bancone, C; Mosconi, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the prevalence of occupational diseases in construction industry, comparing the results of the first years of health surveillance (1996-2000) and today's situation. We compare the prevalence of occupational diseases observed in 1348 workers during the period 1996-2000 (mean age 36,4 years, DS 11,8; mean experience in construction industry 16,9 years, DS 12,3) and the one observed in 795 different workers during 2006 (mean age 38,8 years, DS 11,1; mean experience in construction industry 18 years, DS 16,6). The prevalence of occupational diseases is respectively 12.09% and 12.83%. But analysing the single pathology it's possible to observe important differences between the two groups. In the workers observed in 2006 there is a significant reduction in prevalence of hearing loss caused by chronic exposure to noise and in prevalence of vascular disease caused by hand-arm vibrations: respectively from 94,9 to 79,2 cases/1000 workers and from 6,7 to 2.6 cases/1000 workers. Musculoskeletal diseases instead are increased from 11,1 to 37,7 cases/1000 workers, showing more attention to the problem, better diagnostics ability and more recognition by public insurance agency for occupational diseases.

  1. Characterizing the relationship between in-hospital measures and workers' compensation outcomes among severely injured construction workers using a data linkage strategy.

    PubMed

    Ruestow, Peter S; Friedman, Lee S

    2013-10-01

    To characterize the relationship between acute measures of severity and three important workers' compensation outcomes associated with a worker's ability to return to work and the cost of a work-related injury. Probabilistic data linkage of workers' compensation claims made by injured construction workers from 2000 to 2005 with two Illinois medical record registries. Multivariable robust regression models were built to assess the relationship between three in-hospital measures and three outcomes captured in the Workers' Compensation data. In the final multivariable models, a categorical increase in injury severity was associated with an extra $7,830 (95% CI: $4,729-$10,930) of monetary compensation awarded, though not with temporary total disability (TTD) or permanent partial disability (PPD). Our models also predicted that every extra day spent in the hospital results in an increase of 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-0.80) weeks of TTD and an extra $1,248 (95% CI: $810-$1,686) in monetary compensation. Discharge to an intermediate care facility following the initial hospitalization was associated with an increase of 8.15 (95% CI: 4.03-12.28) weeks of TTD and an increase of $23,440 (95% CI: $17,033-$29,847) in monetary compensation. We were able to link data from the initial hospitalization for an injured worker with the final workers' compensation claims decision or settlement. The in-hospital measures of injury severity were associated with total monetary compensation as captured in the workers' compensation process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Long-term symptomatic, functional, and work outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Evanoff, Bradley; Gardner, Bethany T; Strickland, Jaime R; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Franzblau, Alfred; Dale, Ann Marie

    2016-05-01

    The long-term outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) including symptoms, functional status, work disability, and economic impact are unknown. We conducted a retrospective study of 234 active construction workers with medical claims for CTS and 249 workers without CTS claims; non-cases were matched on age, trade, and insurance eligibility. We conducted telephone interviews with cases and non-cases and collected administrative data on work hours. Compared to non-cases, CTS cases were more likely to report recurrent hand symptoms, decreased work productivity/quality, decreased performance of physical work demands, and greater functional limitations. Surgical cases showed larger improvements on multiple outcomes than non-surgical cases. Minimal differences in paid work hours were seen between cases and non-cases in the years preceding and following CTS claims. Persistent symptoms and functional impairments were present several years after CTS diagnosis. Long-term functional limitations shown by this and other studies indicate the need for improved prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Process evaluation of a multifaceted health program aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Viester, Laura; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the process of a health promotion program, aiming to improve physical activity levels and diet among construction workers. The process evaluation was conducted after the RE-AIM framework for the evaluation of the public health impact of health promotion interventions. Effectiveness was assessed on motivational stage-of-change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance for physical activity and dietary behavior. The external validity of the trial was satisfactory with representative reach of workers and adoption of workplace units in the participating construction company. The extent to which the program was implemented as intended was modest. The intervention was effective on participants' progress through stages of behavior change. Based on the RE-AIM dimensions, it is concluded that for construction workers, the program is feasible and potentially effective, but adjustments are required before widespread implementation.

  4. Normative regulation of material incentives for workers in the sphere of high-rise construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytova, Anna; Matys, Elena; Zotkina, Natalia; Reshetnikova, Irina; Meller, Natalia; Nekrasova, Inna

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of normative and legal regulation of incentives for workers of the building companies. The company considered is engaged in high-rise construction. The part of the document "Regulations for the incentives of employees of the enterprise" is presented. This document is introduced into the practical activities of the Tyumen enterprise. The presented part of the document regulates the issues of material incentives for employees of the enterprise. The document "Regulations for the incentives of employees of the enterprise" is developed in accordance with the approach proposed by author. The document was developed, after the authors had carried out an analysis of the scheme of incentives at the enterprise.

  5. Young worker safety in construction: do family ties and workgroup size affect hazard exposures and safety practices?

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Runyan, Carol W; Schulman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how social aspects of the work environment influence exposures or safety practices affecting young construction workers. Our objective was to investigate whether working on a construction site with a small number of workers (≤10 vs. 11-50) or having a family-firm connection (working in a family-owned firm or one in which a family member also works) impacts hazard exposures and safety practices. Participants included 187 North Carolina construction workers 14 to 17 years old who were surveyed about their jobs. We conducted stratified analyses using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics to measure associations between workgroup size (i.e., the total number of workers on a jobsite) and family-firm connections (yes/no) and hazard exposures (e.g., saws) and safety practices (e.g., supervision). Having a family-firm connection was associated with fewer hazard exposures and greater safety practices. Youth who worked on jobsites with a larger workgroup (11-50 workers) reported more hazards but also more safety practices. Family-firm connections, in particular, may have a protective effect for youth in construction. Even though the statistical significance of our findings on workgroup size was limited in places, the pattern of differences found suggest that further research in this area is warranted.

  6. Contributions of non-occupational activities to total noise exposure of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Goldman, Bryan; Daniell, William

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two-hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure levels for these episodic exposures were determined from the published literature. Routine activities were assessed using activity cards filled out over 530 subject-days, along with noise dosimetry measurements made over 124 subject-days of measurement. Equivalent Leq exposure levels were then calculated for specific activities. These activity-specific Leq values were combined into estimated individual annual Leq exposure levels for the 6760 nominal annual non-occupational hours in a year (LAeq6760h), which were then transformed into equivalent levels for a 2000 h exposure period (LA2000hn) for comparison with occupational noise exposure risk criteria. The mean non-occupational LAeq6760h exposure values for the cohort ranged from 56 to 87 dBA (equivalent LA2000hn 62-93 dBA). At the mid range of the routine and episodic activity exposure level distribution, the mean LAeq6760h was 73 dBA (LA2000hn 78 dBA). Nineteen percent of the LA2000hn non-occupational exposures exceeded 85 dBA, the generally recommended occupational limit for a 2000 h workyear, at the mid-range of exposure levels. Due to a lack of available data, firearms use could not be incorporated into the total noise exposure estimates. However, firearms users reported more exposure to other noisy non-occupational activities and had statistically significantly higher estimated exposure levels even without including their firearms exposure than did non-shooters. When compared with the high levels of occupational noise found in construction, non-occupational noise exposures

  7. Factors associated with the severity of fatal accidents in construction workers.

    PubMed

    Khodabandeh, Farideh; Kabir-Mokamelkhah, Elaheh; Kahani, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Construction work (building houses, roads, workplaces, and repairing and maintaining infrastructures) is a dangerous land-based job. This includes many hazardous tasks and conditions such as working at the following conditions: Height, excavation, noise, dust, power tools and equipment. Construction work has been increased in developed and underdeveloped countries over the past few years. Occupational fatalities have increased with an increase in this type of work. Occupational fatalities refer to individuals who pass way while on the job or performing work related tasks. In the present study, to identify the factors, personal characteristics and work-related factors associated with fatal occupational mortality were assessed using data for Tehran, Iran, 2014-2016. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study, using 967 postmortem reports from fatal occupational injuries collected through postmortem investigations during 2014-2016. A sampling frame of 967 postmortem reports from fatal occupational injuries was used to draw a total sample of 714 fatal construction accidents for this cross-sectional study. Pearson χ2 test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Based on the results of this study, male gender (n=714; 100%), age range of 30-39 years (n=183; 25.6%), secondary educational level (n=273; 38.2%), being married (317; 44.4%), causal employee (n=389; 54.5%), unskilled performance (389; 54.5%), no insurance coverage (472; 66.1%), and daytime duty work (287; 40.2%) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of construction fatal injury. A significant relationship was found between the type of injury and sociodemographic and work related variables. Conclusion: Workers' characteristics such as age, gender, experience, and educational background, and work related variables such as skill training, safety measurement, and close monitoring could be used to discriminate among different severity levels of

  8. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Boschman, Julitta S.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; van der Molen, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical work demands of construction work can be reduced using ergonomic measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ergonomic measures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among construction workers. Methods A questionnaire was sent at baseline and 2 years later to 1,130 construction workers. We established (1) the proportion of workers reporting an increase in their use of ergonomic measures, (2) the proportion of workers reporting a decrease in MSDs, (3) the relative risk for an increase in the use of ergonomic measures and a decrease in MSDs, and (4) workers' knowledge and opinions about the use of ergonomic measures. Results At follow-up, response rate was 63% (713/1,130). The proportion of workers using ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased (34%, 144/419, p < 0.01); for measures regarding horizontal transport and the positioning of materials, no change was reported. The proportion of workers reporting shoulder complaints decreased (28%, 176/638, p = 0.02). A relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was not found; 83% (581/704) of the workers indicated having sufficient knowledge about ergonomic measures. Lightening the physical load was reported to be the main reason for using them. Conclusion Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures. PMID:26106507

  9. Mixture distributions of wind speed in the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.; Ouarda, T.; Lee, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Wind speed probability distribution is commonly used to estimate potential wind energy. The 2-parameter Weibull distribution has been most widely used to characterize the distribution of wind speed. However, it is unable to properly model wind speed regimes when wind speed distribution presents bimodal and kurtotic shapes. Several studies have concluded that the Weibull distribution should not be used for frequency analysis of wind speed without investigation of wind speed distribution. Due to these mixture distributional characteristics of wind speed data, the application of mixture distributions should be further investigated in the frequency analysis of wind speed. A number of studies have investigated the potential wind energy in different parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Mixture distributional characteristics of wind speed were detected from some of these studies. Nevertheless, mixture distributions have not been employed for wind speed modeling in the Arabian Peninsula. In order to improve our understanding of wind energy potential in Arabian Peninsula, mixture distributions should be tested for the frequency analysis of wind speed. The aim of the current study is to assess the suitability of mixture distributions for the frequency analysis of wind speed in the UAE. Hourly mean wind speed data at 10-m height from 7 stations were used in the current study. The Weibull and Kappa distributions were employed as representatives of the conventional non-mixture distributions. 10 mixture distributions are used and constructed by mixing four probability distributions such as Normal, Gamma, Weibull and Extreme value type-one (EV-1) distributions. Three parameter estimation methods such as Expectation Maximization algorithm, Least Squares method and Meta-Heuristic Maximum Likelihood (MHML) method were employed to estimate the parameters of the mixture distributions. In order to compare the goodness-of-fit of tested distributions and parameter estimation methods for

  10. Construction workers working in musculoskeletal pain and engaging in leisure-time physical activity: Findings from a mixed-methods pilot study.

    PubMed

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Lowe, Kincaid A; Herrick, Robert; Kenwood, Christopher; Gagne, Joshua J; Becker, Jamie F; Schneider, Scott P; Dennerlein, Jack T; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-07-01

    While exercise has been shown to be beneficial for some musculoskeletal pain conditions, construction workers who are regularly burdened with musculoskeletal pain may engage less in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) due to pain. In a small pilot study, we investigate how musculoskeletal pain may influence participation in LTPA among construction workers. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design was employed using a jobsite-based survey (n = 43) among workers at two commercial construction sites and one focus group (n = 5). Over 93% of these construction workers reported engaging in LTPA and 70% reported musculoskeletal pain. Fifty-seven percent of workers who met either moderate or vigorous LTPA guidelines reported lower extremity pain (i.e., ankle, knee) compared with 21% of those who did not engage in either LTPA (P = 0.04). Focus group analyses indicate that workers felt they already get significant physical activity out of their job because they are "moving all the time and not sitting behind a desk." Workers also felt they "have no choice but to work through pain and discomfort [as the worker] needs to do anything to get the job done." Pilot study findings suggest that construction workers not only engage in either moderate or vigorous LTPA despite musculoskeletal pain but workers in pain engage in more LTPA than construction workers without pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Application of handheld devices to field research among underserved construction worker populations: a workplace health assessment pilot study.

    PubMed

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Clarke, Tainya C; Davila, Evelyn P; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J

    2011-04-01

    Novel low-cost approaches for conducting rapid health assessments and health promotion interventions among underserved worker groups are needed. Recruitment and participation of construction workers is particularly challenging due to their often transient periods of work at any one construction site, and their limited time during work to participate in such studies. In the present methodology report, we discuss the experience, advantages and disadvantages of using touch screen handheld devices for the collection of field data from a largely underserved worker population. In March 2010, a workplace-centered pilot study to examine the feasibility of using a handheld personal device for the rapid health assessment of construction workers in two South Florida Construction sites was undertaken. A 45-item survey instrument, including health-related questions on tobacco exposure, workplace safety practices, musculoskeletal disorders and health symptoms, was programmed onto Apple iPod Touch® devices. Language sensitive (English and Spanish) recruitment scripts, verbal consent forms, and survey questions were all preloaded onto the handheld devices. The experience (time to survey administration and capital cost) of the handheld administration method was recorded and compared to approaches available in the extant literature. Construction workers were very receptive to the recruitment, interview and assessment processes conducted through the handheld devices. Some workers even welcomed the opportunity to complete the questionnaire themselves using the touch screen handheld device. A list of advantages and disadvantages emerged from this experience that may be useful in the rapid health assessment of underserved populations working in a variety of environmental and occupational health settings. Handheld devices, which are relatively inexpensive, minimize survey response error, and allow for easy storage of data. These technological research modalities are useful in the

  12. Documentation and Monitoring of Built Heritage in Abu Dhabi, Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, S.

    2013-07-01

    The ancient oasis-city of Al Ain in Abu Dhabi Emirate still retains the most important and outstanding cultural heritage of United Arab Emirates (UAE). The larger area of Abu Dhabi Emirate comprised of archaeological sites, cultural landscapes and historic buildings dating back to 3rd millennium to the recent pre-oil era. Traditional materials like stone, earth and palm wood were used in combination with local construction methods. For the last seven years the newly formed Abu Dhabi Tourism & Culture Authority (TCA Abu Dhabi)1 has been actively involved in conservation of built heritage in Abu Dhabi Emirate with the help of its Conservation Section. Documentation prior to any conservation and restoration works is considered as a basic pre-requisite for understanding an historic building or site. It is a process which continues during the conservation of any monument and is the only accurate tool for recording information in order to understand the structure, ultimately leading to the management of cultural heritage. Application and use of tools, ranging from basic manual techniques to 3D laser scanning, based on the best practices and international guidelines the exercise will help in establishing a documentation lab with standard procedures, specifications and tools for the documentation and monitoring the built heritage of Abu Dhabi Emirate. This paper will discuss a range of case studies and will demonstrate how documentation and monitoring of the built heritage has augmented the various conservation initiatives on a variety of building types.

  13. Safety climate and safety behaviors in the construction industry: The importance of co-workers commitment to safety.

    PubMed

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Rosecrance, John C

    2016-06-16

    There is growing empirical evidence that as safety climate improves work site safety practice improve. Safety climate is often measured by asking workers about their perceptions of management commitment to safety. However, it is less common to include perceptions of their co-workers commitment to safety. While the involvement of management in safety is essential, working with co-workers who value and prioritize safety may be just as important. To evaluate a concept of safety climate that focuses on top management, supervisors and co-workers commitment to safety, which is relatively new and untested in the United States construction industry. Survey data was collected from a cohort of 300 unionized construction workers in the United States. The significance of direct and indirect (mediation) effects among safety climate and safety behavior factors were evaluated via structural equation modeling. Results indicated that safety climate was associated with safety behaviors on the job. More specifically, perceptions of co-workers commitment to safety was a mediator between both management commitment to safety climate factors and safety behaviors. These results support workplace health and safety interventions that build and sustain safety climate and a commitment to safety amongst work teams.

  14. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors — the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work — the work place is not proper — the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field. PMID:21808496

  15. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K

    2011-01-01

    Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors - the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work - the work place is not proper - the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field.

  16. Accident data study of concrete construction companies' similarities and differences between qualified and non-qualified workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss findings from an analysis of accidents in concrete construction companies in Spain and to compare the accident rates of qualified and non-qualified workers. A total of 125,021 accidents between 2003 and 2008 involving both blue-collar and white-collar workers were analysed, comparing the variables of occupation, age, company staff, length of service, location of the accident, together with the severity of the accidents. Results showed that lack of experience in the first month is more significant in non-qualified workers and experienced supervisors and that head injuries are more likely to lead to fatalities. The most remarkable similarity was that fatal accidents to and from the worksite are a problem common to both groups of workers.

  17. Constructing a positive identity: A qualitative study of the driving forces of peer workers in mental health-care systems.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Joeri; Debyser, Bart; Beeckman, Dimitri; Vandecasteele, Tina; Deproost, Eddy; Van Hecke, Ann; Verhaeghe, Sofie

    2018-02-01

    There is growing recognition in mental health for the perspective of individuals with lived experience of mental health problems and mental health service use. As peer workers, these individuals can use their specific experience to benefit and support peers and professional caregivers, and to participate at all levels of mental health-care systems. The aim of the present study was to develop a conceptual framework representing the driving forces of peer workers to fullfil their position in mental health-care systems. A qualitative interview approach was employed using principles of grounded theory. Over a period of 5 months in 2014-2015, semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 peer workers in residential and community mental health-care systems. The emerged conceptual framework reveals that peer workers strive towards constructing a positive identity. This process is powered by driving forces reflecting a desire for normalization and an urge for self-preservation. Peer workers realize a meaningful employment by using their lived experience perspective as an asset, liberating themselves out of restrictive role patterns, and by breaking down stigma and taboo. As a precondition to engage in these normalization processes, peer workers perceive they need to secure their self-preservation by balancing the emergence of adverse emotional fluctuations. The conceptual framework can inform the development of work contexts in which peer workers have an authentic and meaningful contribution, while being offered sufficient support and learning opportunities to manage their well-being. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors.

    PubMed

    Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, Isabelle Yee Shan; Yu, Jingyu

    2012-09-01

    Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various organizational stressors and stress on CW safety behaviors and injury incidents. To achieve this aim, we surveyed 395 CWs. Using factor analysis, we identified five organizational stressors (unfair reward and treatment, inappropriate safety equipment, provision of training, lack of goal setting, and poor physical environment), two types of stress (emotional and physical), and safety behaviors. The results of correlation and regression analyses revealed the following: (1) injury incidents were minimized by safety behaviors but escalated by a lack of goal setting, (2) safety behaviors were maximized by moderate levels of emotional stress (i.e., an inverted U-shape relationship between these two variables) and increased in line with physical stress and inappropriate safety equipment, (3) emotional stress was positively predicted by the provision of training and inappropriate safety equipment, and (4) physical stress was predicted only by inappropriate safety equipment. Based on these results, we suggest various recommendations to construction stakeholders on how to prevent CW injury incidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the living and workplace health and safety conditions of site-resident construction workers in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Peyman Hossein; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Orak, Rouhangiz Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess living and workplace safety conditions of construction workers in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 construction sites in a municipal area of Tehran whose municipal building permits were issued in 2011. Data on ventilation, workplace safety and hygiene were collected by direct observation and interviews with site foremen. Noise levels were estimated from 10 sound-level-meter stations in the municipality area. Lack of ventilation in the workers' rooms was abundant. Bathrooms were unhygienic and minimum requirements such as lighting and ventilation did not exist in 80% of the cases. In nearly 50% of large construction sites, sewage and garbage disposal were inappropriate. Elevator safety was poor at all sites and no measures for fall prevention were present in over 88% of active construction sites. This study showed that the mean 24-h equivalent continuous sound level Leq was over 70 dB in 80% of the sites during weekdays. The results of this study revealed poor health and safety living and working conditions of construction workers in Tehran.

  20. Individual Behavior of Workers of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on Consecutive Days of Tunnel Construction

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the individual behavior of workers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shirkai, on two consecutive days of tunnel construction. In each trial, a group of 30 termite workers was observed continuously during the first 60 min of construction of a new tunnel on two consecutive days. On each day, an average of 68% of individuals did not participate in tunnel construction, 19% spent <25 min tunneling, and 13% spent ≥25 min tunneling. There were specific individuals that did most of the work in the construction of new tunnels on both days. An individual that spent at least 25 min tunneling on Day 1 was significantly more likely to spend at least 25 min tunneling on Day 2 than individuals that spent <25 min tunneling on Day 1. When individuals were ranked based on the time spent tunneling on Day 1 and Day 2, there were individuals ranked as one of the top four excavators on both days in three of the four groups. These results indicate that there is evidence of task allocation by termite workers during the construction of a new tunnel. PMID:26466529

  1. Investigation and identification of factors affecting migrating peasant workers' usage of safety footwear in the Chinese construction industry.

    PubMed

    Suo, Qinghui; Zhang, Daming

    2017-09-01

    A sample of 300 migrating peasant workers from 15 Chinese building construction sites completed a demographic questionnaire to investigate the usage of safety footwear. The survey form was constructed based on the theory of planned behaviour, and a total of 12 questions focusing on the workers' past experience, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were included in the survey. It was found that 92% of the participants did not wear safety footwear while working on construction sites, although more than 91% of them believed that safety footwear would protect the foot from injury; none of the participants had been provided free safety footwear by their employer. Regression analysis shows that employers' attitude is the most important factor affecting their usage of safety footwear, 'providing free safety footwear' and 'comfortability of the safety footwear' ranking second and third respectively.

  2. Analysis of perceived risk among construction workers: a cross-cultural study and reflection on the Hofstede model.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Fiestas, Myriam; Rodríguez-Garzón, Ignacio; Delgado-Padial, Antonio; Lucas-Ruiz, Valeriano

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a cross-cultural study on perceived risk in the construction industry. Worker samples from three different countries were studied: Spain, Peru and Nicaragua. The main goal was to explain how construction workers perceive their occupational hazard and to analyze how this is related to their national culture. The model used to measure perceived risk was the psychometric paradigm. The results show three very similar profiles, indicating that risk perception is independent of nationality. A cultural analysis was conducted using the Hofstede model. The results of this analysis and the relation to perceived risk showed that risk perception in construction is independent of national culture. Finally, a multiple lineal regression analysis was conducted to determine what qualitative attributes could predict the global quantitative size of risk perception. All of the findings have important implications regarding the management of safety in the workplace.

  3. Role of work uniform in alleviating perceptual strain among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Yang; CHAN, Albert Ping-chuen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the benefits of wearing a new construction work uniform in real-work settings. A field experiment with a randomized assignment of an intervention group to a newly designed uniform and a control group to a commercially available trade uniform was executed. A total of 568 sets of physical, physiological, perceptual, and microclimatological data were obtained. A linear mixed-effects model (LMM) was built to examine the cause-effect relationship between the Perceptual Strain Index (PeSI) and heat stressors including wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), estimated workload (relative heart rate), exposure time, trade, workplace, and clothing type. An interaction effect between clothing and trade revealed that perceptual strain of workers across four trades was significantly alleviated by 1.6–6.3 units in the intervention group. Additionally, the results of a questionnaire survey on assessing the subjective sensations on the two uniforms indicated that wearing comfort was improved by 1.6–1.8 units when wearing the intervention type. This study not only provides convincing evidences on the benefits of wearing the newly designed work uniform in reducing perceptual strain but also heightens the value of the field experiment in heat stress intervention studies. PMID:27666953

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of construction workers towards tetanus vaccine in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Veronesi, Licia; Colucci, Maria Eugenia

    2016-12-07

    Construction workers (CWs) are both more exposed to tetanus and at higher risk to be inadequately immunized. Our aim was to evaluate tetanus immunization status and knowledge/attitudes towards tetanus vaccination in CWs in Italy. In this field report, the immunization status of 554 unskilled CWs (i.e. labourers). Immunization status was assessed recalling immunization booklets/certificates. Attitudes and knowledge were collected through a standardized questionnaire. In 240/554 CWs, immunization status was inadequate/not documented: in 184 subjects (33.2%), the last vaccination shot was older than 10 years, whereas basal immunization was incomplete in 20 cases, more frequently in foreign-born people (FBP) than in Italian born (IBP) (OR=7.116). In 198 cases (35.7%), an Occupational Physician (OPh) performed last booster, usually with monovalent (T, n=173) vaccine. The main reason for inadequate immunization was having forgotten the periodic booster (148/554; 26.7%), whereas 42 subjects (7.6%) deliberately avoided tetanus vaccine because of personal/religious beliefs, more frequently in FBP than in IBP (OR=3.182). In summary, the prevalence of inadequate immunization status was relatively high (43.4%): the high prevalence of "forgotten boosters" enlightens the key role of OPh in recalling and promoting vaccination policies. Moreover, the inappropriate use of Td vaccine points out the opportunity for educational campaigns in OPh.

  5. Use of hearing protection and perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Kerr, M J; Kauffman, S A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe construction workers' use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) and determine their perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss. Operating engineers, carpenters, and plumbers/pipe fitters in the Midwest (n = 400) completed a written questionnaire regarding their use of HPDs and their perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss. Subjects were recruited through their trade union groups. Mean reported use of HPDs and mean perceived noise exposure were compared across trade groups. Bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques were used to assess relationships between use of HPDs and trade category, education, age, years of employment, noise exposure, and hearing loss. Bivariate analyses identified significant differences in mean use of HPDs by age, years of employment, and trade group. Multivariate logistic regression assessing the independent effects of these variables found significant differences only by trade group. Results indicate a need for significant improvement in all three trade groups' use of HPDs, and suggest a need to consider use and exposure levels, demographics, and trade group membership in designing hearing conservation programs.

  6. Role of work uniform in alleviating perceptual strain among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen

    2017-02-07

    This study aims to examine the benefits of wearing a new construction work uniform in real-work settings. A field experiment with a randomized assignment of an intervention group to a newly designed uniform and a control group to a commercially available trade uniform was executed. A total of 568 sets of physical, physiological, perceptual, and microclimatological data were obtained. A linear mixed-effects model (LMM) was built to examine the cause-effect relationship between the Perceptual Strain Index (PeSI) and heat stressors including wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), estimated workload (relative heart rate), exposure time, trade, workplace, and clothing type. An interaction effect between clothing and trade revealed that perceptual strain of workers across four trades was significantly alleviated by 1.6-6.3 units in the intervention group. Additionally, the results of a questionnaire survey on assessing the subjective sensations on the two uniforms indicated that wearing comfort was improved by 1.6-1.8 units when wearing the intervention type. This study not only provides convincing evidences on the benefits of wearing the newly designed work uniform in reducing perceptual strain but also heightens the value of the field experiment in heat stress intervention studies.

  7. Musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers: a one-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important cause of functional impairments and disability among construction workers. An improved understanding of MSDs in different construction occupations is likely to be of value for selecting preventive measures. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of symptoms of MSDs, the work-relatedness of the symptoms and the problems experienced during work among two construction occupations: bricklayers and supervisors. Methods We randomly selected 750 bricklayers and 750 supervisors resident in the Netherlands in December 2009. This sample was surveyed by means of a baseline questionnaire and a follow-up questionnaire one year later. The participants were asked about complaints of the musculoskeletal system during the last six months, the perceived work-relatedness of the symptoms, the problems that occurred during work and the occupational tasks that were perceived as causes or aggravating factors of the MSD. Results Baseline response rate was 37%, follow-up response was 80%. The prevalence of MSDs among 267 bricklayers and 232 supervisors was 67% and 57%, respectively. Complaints of the back, knee and shoulder/upper arm were the most prevalent among both occupations. Irrespective of the body region, most of the bricklayers and supervisors reported that their complaints were work-related. Complaints of the back and elbow were the most often reported among the bricklayers during work, whereas lower arm/wrist and upper leg complaints were the most often reported among the supervisors. In both occupations, a majority of the participants perceived several occupational physical tasks and activities as causes or aggravating factors for their MSD. Recurrent complaints at follow-up were reported by both bricklayers (47% of the complaints) and supervisors (31% of the complaints). Participants in both occupations report that mainly back and knee complaints result in additional problems during work, at the time

  8. [Ageing rate in workers of mechanic workshops of machinery construction industry in Armenia].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, G T; Barkhudarov, M S; Kogan, V Iu

    2004-01-01

    Studies of biologic age formation and ageing rate in workers of mechanic workshops revealed that able-bodied population grew old demographically. That is proved by absent age group of 20-29 years and increased share of able-bodied workers older than 50. Young workers aged 30-39 appeared the most vulnerable for occupational hazards--they demonstrated increased ageing rate and maximal excess of biologic age over chronological age and due biologic age.

  9. Safety in construction--a comprehensive description of the characteristics of high safety standards in construction work, from the combined perspective of supervisors and experienced workers.

    PubMed

    Törner, Marianne; Pousette, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The often applied engineering approach to safety management in the construction industry needs to be supplemented by organizational measures and measures based on how people conceive and react to their social environment. This requires in-depth knowledge of the broad preconditions for high safety standards in construction. The aim of the study was to comprehensively describe the preconditions and components of high safety standards in the construction industry from the perspective of both experienced construction workers and first-line managers. Five worker safety representatives and 19 first-line managers were interviewed, all strategically selected from within a large Swedish construction project. Phenomenographic methodology was used for data acquisition and analysis and to categorize the information. Nine informants verified the results. The study identified four main categories of work safety preconditions and components: (1) Project characteristics and nature of the work, which set the limits of safety management; (2) Organization and structures, with the subcategories planning, work roles, procedures, and resources; (3) Collective values, norms, and behaviors, with the subcategories climate and culture, and interaction and cooperation; and (4) Individual competence and attitudes, with the subcategories knowledge, ability and experience, and individual attitudes. The results comprehensively describe high safety standards in construction, incorporating organizational, group, individual, and technical aspects. High-quality interaction between different organizational functions and hierarchical levels stood out as important aspects of safety. The results are discussed in relation to previous research into safety and into the social-psychological preconditions for other desired outcomes in occupational settings. The results can guide construction companies in planning and executing construction projects to a high safety standard.

  10. Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuting; McCabe, Brenda; Hyatt, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry. Previous research proposed that individual resilience may be associated with a better safety performance and may help employees manage stress. Unfortunately, few empirical research studies have examined this hypothesis. This paper aims to examine the role of safety climate and individual resilience in safety performance and job stress in the Canadian construction industry. The research was based on 837 surveys collected in Ontario between June 2015 and June 2016. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to explore the impact of individual resilience and safety climate on physical safety outcomes and on psychological stress among construction workers. The results show that safety climate not only affected construction workers' safety performance but also indirectly affected their psychological stress. In addition, it was found that individual resilience had a direct negative impact on psychological stress but had no impact on physical safety outcomes. These findings highlight the roles of both organizational and individual factors in individual safety performance and in psychological well-being. Construction organizations need to not only monitor employees' safety performance, but also to assess their employees' psychological well-being. Promoting a positive safety climate together with developing training programs focusing on improving employees' psychological health - especially post-trauma psychological

  11. Construction site workers' malaria knowledge and treatment-seeking pattern in a highly endemic urban area of India.

    PubMed

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Pai, Sudarshan; Akshaya, Kibballi Madhukeshwar; D'Souza, Neevan

    2016-03-16

    Construction sites are potential breeding places for some species of mosquitoes. Construction workers usually stay at the construction sites, thus being extremely susceptible to malaria. For malaria control, a special focus on them is warranted as they often seek treatment from unregulated, private vendors, increasing their risk of exposure to substandard drugs. To elicit the socio-demographic factors associated with comprehensive malaria knowledge (symptoms, mode of spread, and preventive measures) and treatment-seeking pattern (preferred source and type of treatment) among the construction workers in Mangaluru, India; and, to study the association among their comprehensive malaria knowledge, past suffering from malaria (within 1 year) and treatment-seeking pattern. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in nine randomly selected construction sites of Mangaluru, a high-risk city for malaria with an annual parasite incidence of >2/1000/year, from June-September 2012. A sample size of 132 was estimated assuming at least 30% of them have satisfactory malaria knowledge, 10% absolute precision, 95% confidence level, design effect of 1.5 and 10% non-responses. A semi-structured interview schedule was used, and knowledge scores were computed. Multivariate linear (for knowledge score) and logistic regressions (for preferred source and type of treatment) were applied. One hundred and nineteen workers participated in the study (total approached-138). 85% (n = 101) of them were males. Mean knowledge score was 9.95 ± 3.19 (maximum possible score-16). The majority of them were aware of the symptoms and the mode of malaria transmission. However, <12% could explain the malaria preventive measures. Females workers (β = -0.281, p = 0.001), self stated malaria within 1 year (β = 0.276, p < 0.001) and who preferred allopathic treatment (β = 0.283, P = 0.001) displayed better knowledge scores. Male workers (AdjOR 7.21, 95% CI 2.3-22.9) and those with self stated

  12. Effects of Heat Stress on Construction Labor Productivity in Hong Kong: A Case Study of Rebar Workers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C

    2017-09-12

    Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong. Onsite wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), workers' heart rate (HR), and labor productivity were measured and monitored. Based on the 378 data sets of synchronized environmental, physiological, construction labor productivity (CLP), and personal variables, a CLP-heat stress model was established. It was found that WBGT, percentage of maximum HR, age, work duration, and alcohol drinking habits were determining factors for predicting the CLP (adjusted R ² = 0.68, p < 0.05). The model revealed that heat stress reduces CLP, with the percentage of direct work time decreasing by 0.33% when the WBGT increased by 1 °C. The findings in this study extend the existing practice notes by providing scientific data that may be of benefit to the industry in producing solid guidelines for working in hot weather.

  13. Application of liquid-based cytology preparation in micronucleus assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers.

    PubMed

    Arul, P

    2017-01-01

    Asphalts are bitumens that consist of complex of hydrocarbon mixtures and it is used mainly in road construction and maintenance. This study was undertaken to evaluate the micronucleus (MN) assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers using liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation. Three different stains (May-Grunwald Giemsa, hematoxylin and eosin, and Papanicolaou) were used to evaluate the frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial of 100 participants (fifty road construction workers and fifty administrative staff) using LBC preparation. Statistical analysis was performed with Student's t-test, and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean frequency of MN for cases was significantly higher than that of controls (P = 0.001) regardless of staining method used and also cases with exposure period of more than 5 years had statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) than cases with Conclusion: The present study concluded that workers exposed to asphalts during road construction exhibit a higher frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and they are under the significant risk of cytogenetic damage. LBC preparation has potential application for the evaluation of frequency of MN. This technique may be advocated in those who are occupationally exposed to potentially carcinogenic agents in view of improvement in the smear quality and visualization of cell morphology.

  14. Effectiveness of the HomeSafe Pilot Program in reducing injury rates among residential construction workers, 1994-1998.

    PubMed

    Darragh, Amy Rowntree; Stallones, Lorann; Bigelow, Phillip L; Keefe, Thomas J

    2004-02-01

    The construction industry typically has one of the highest fatal and non-fatal injury rates compared with other industries. Residential construction workers are at particular risk of injury (work is in remote sites with small crews, there are often many subcontractors, and they have limited access to safety programs). Difficulty accessing information specific to this group has made research more challenging, therefore, there are few studies. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the HomeSafe Pilot Program, a safety education and training program designed to reduce injuries among residential construction workers. Researchers evaluated whether overall and severe injury incidence rates declined during the intervention period. Data were analyzed using incidence rates and Poisson regression to control for the effect of antecedent secular trend. Injury incidence rates declined significantly following HomeSafe; however, this effect was not statistically significant once temporal variation was controlled. The decline in injury rates following HomeSafe cannot be attributed solely to HomeSafe, however, programmatic and methodologic limitations contributed to the inconclusive results. Further research into the hazards faced by residential construction workers is needed. Am. J. Ind. Med. 45:210-217, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  16. Development of a Vitality Scan related to workers' sustainable employability: a study assessing its internal consistency and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Brouwers, Livia A M; Engels, Josephine A; Heerkens, Yvonne F; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-06-16

    Most validated sustainable employability questionnaires are extensive and difficult to obtain. Our objective was to develop a usable and valid tool, a Vitality Scan, to determine possible signs of stagnation in one's functioning related to sustainable employability and to establish the instrument's internal consistency and construct validity. A literature review was performed and expert input was obtained to develop an online survey of 31 items. A sample of 1722 Dutch employees was recruited. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. The underlying theoretical concepts were extracted by factor analysis using a principal component method. For construct validity, a priori hypotheses were defined for expected differences between known subgroups: 1) older workers would report more stagnation than younger workers, and 2) less educated workers would report more problems than the highly educated ones. Both hypotheses were statistically tested using ANOVA. Internal consistency measures and factor analysis resulted in five subscales with acceptable to good reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.72-0.87). These subscales included: balance and competence, motivation and involvement, resilience, mental and physical health, and social support at work. Three items were removed following these analyses. In accordance with our a priori hypothesis 1, the ANOVA showed that older workers reported the most problems, while younger workers reported the least problems. However, hypothesis 2 was not confirmed: no significant differences were found for education level. The developed Vitality Scan - with the 28 remaining items - showed good measurement properties. It is applicable as a user-friendly, evaluative instrument for worker's sustainable employability. The scan's value for determining whether or not the employee is at risk for a decrease in functioning during present and future work, should be further tested.

  17. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and disability pension: a cohort study of construction workers in Germany.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Heiner; Brenner, Hermann; Drath, Christoph; Arndt, Volker

    2010-02-01

    Given the accumulating evidence that gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) is not merely a sensitive marker for liver and bile disorders but also a risk marker for a multiplicity of other chronic diseases, gamma-GT may represent a promising risk indicator for occupational disability, which has emerged as an important public health problem. The association between gamma-GT and disability pension was examined in a cohort of 16,520 male construction workers in Württemberg, Germany, who participated in routine occupational health examinations from 1986 to 1992 and who were followed until 2005. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, hazard ratios were calculated with gamma-GT concentrations in the lowest quartile (1 to 24 U/L) as reference category after adjustment for age and further adjustment for potential confounding factors such as nationality, type of occupation, smoking, alcohol consumption, cholesterol, and body mass index (BMI). Overall, a monotonically increasing association of gamma-GT with all-cause disability pension (total number: n = 2,998 cases) was observed, with the steepest increase at lower levels of gamma-GT. Particularly strong associations were observed for participants in the highest quartile (>67 U/L) and disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders, diseases of the digestive system, and cardiovascular as well as mental diseases (age-adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals: 1.53, 1.27-1.85; 9.68, 3.10-30.21; 1.76, 1.28-2.42; and 1.83, 1.23-2.72, respectively). gamma-GT is a strong risk indicator of all-cause occupational disability even at levels of gamma-GT in the "normal range" and is in particular associated with disability pension due to diseases of the digestive system, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular, and mental diseases.

  18. Impact of exposure to insulation wool on lung function and cough in Swedish construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M.; Engholm, G.; Hallin, N.; Hagmar, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether application of insulation wool adversely affects lung volumes and increases the occurrence of symptoms of airway irritation. METHODS: Data from nationwide health check ups in 1981-93 of male construction workers born in 1955 or later were used to investigate cross sectional (n = 96,004) and longitudinal (n = 26,298) associations between lung volumes, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure to insulation wool by combining a job exposure matrix (JEM) and self reported exposure. Data on 12 month prevalence of persistent cough not associated with the common cold was available for the period 1989-92. Potential confounding from smoking, exposure to asbestos, silica, and isocyanates, was considered in the analyses. RESULTS: For those in the highest exposure category (self reported duration of exposure of > or = 11 years, and high exposure according to the JEM) VC was on average 2.5 cl lower (95% CI -6.5 to 1.5) than in those with no exposure. The corresponding figures for FEV1 was -2.4 cl (95% CI -6.1 to 1.3). In the longitudinal analyses, the yearly change in VC between the first and last spirometry for those in the highest exposure category was 0.50 cl (95% CI -0.97 to 1.98) less than in the unexposed category. The corresponding figure for FEV1 was 0.89 cl (95% CI - 0.70 to 2.06). High exposure to insulation wool, asbestos, or silica, during the 12 months preceding the check up was associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for persistent cough of the same magnitude as current smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate no effects on VC or FEV1 from exposure to insulation wool. Recent exposure to insulation wool, asbestos, and silica was associated with an increased prevalence of persistent cough.   PMID:9930086

  19. A study of using smartphone to detect and identify construction workers' near-miss falls based on ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingyuan; Cao, Tianzhuo; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    As an effective fall accident preventive method, insight into near-miss falls provides an efficient solution to find out the causes of fall accidents, classify the type of near-miss falls and control the potential hazards. In this context, the paper proposes a method to detect and identify near-miss falls that occur when a worker walks in a workplace based on artificial neural network (ANN). The energy variation generated by workers who meet with near-miss falls is measured by sensors embedded in smart phone. Two experiments were designed to train the algorithm to identify various types of near-miss falls and test the recognition accuracy, respectively. At last, a test was conducted by workers wearing smart phones as they walked around a simulated construction workplace. The motion data was collected, processed and inputted to the trained ANN to detect and identify near-miss falls. Thresholds were obtained to measure the relationship between near-miss falls and fall accidents in a quantitate way. This approach, which integrates smart phone and ANN, will help detect near-miss fall events, identify hazardous elements and vulnerable workers, providing opportunities to eliminate dangerous conditions in a construction site or to alert possible victims that need to change their behavior before the occurrence of a fall accident.

  20. Characteristics of construction firms at risk for future workers' compensation claims using administrative data systems, Washington State.

    PubMed

    Marcum, Jennifer L; Foley, Michael; Adams, Darrin; Bonauto, Dave

    2018-06-01

    Construction is high-hazard industry, and continually ranks among those with the highest workers' compensation (WC) claim rates in Washington State (WA). However, not all construction firms are at equal risk. We tested the ability to identify those construction firms most at risk for future claims using only administrative WC and unemployment insurance data. We collected information on construction firms with 10-50 average full time equivalent (FTE) employees from the WA unemployment insurance and WC data systems (n=1228). Negative binomial regression was used to test the ability of firm characteristics measured during 2011-2013 to predict time-loss claim rates in the following year, 2014. Claim rates in 2014 varied by construction industry groups, ranging from 0.7 (Land Subdivision) to 4.6 (Foundation, Structure, and Building Construction) claims per 100 FTE. Construction firms with higher average WC premium rates, a history of WC claims, increasing number of quarterly FTE, and lower average wage rates during 2011-2013 were predicted to have higher WC claim rates in 2014. We demonstrate the ability to leverage administrative data to identify construction firms predicted to have future WC claims. This study should be repeated to determine if these results are applicable to other high-hazard industries. Practical Applications: This study identified characteristics that may be used to further refine targeted outreach and prevention to construction firms at risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Effect of health education on prevention from schistosome infection in engineering construction workers in Poyang Lake area].

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Sheng; Hong, Xian-Lin; Hu, Zhuo-Hui; Xu, Sheng-Wen; Fu, Guo-Lan; Hu, Shen-Zhu; Hu, Ming-Wen; Fan, Yun-Long; Li, Xiao-Gang

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of health education on prevention from schistosome infection in engineering construction workers in Poyang Lake area. The workers for constructing "De Chang" highway in Poyang Lake area were divided randomly into an experiment group and a control group, "health education + protective skill training" was carried out in the experiment group, whereas, no intervention was implemented in the control group. In the experiment group, the awareness rates of schistosomiasis control knowledge were 7.96% and 96.39% before and after the intervention, respectively; the rates of contacting infested water were 100% and 1.77% pre- and post-intervention, respectively; the work protective rates increased from zero before the intervention to 100% after the intervention; there was no person infected with schistosome after the intervention. However, in the control group, all the indexes above-mentioned had no significant changes. The intervention model "health education + protective skill training", can effectively prevent from schistosome infection in engineering construction workers in Poyang Lake area.

  2. Occupational and leisure-time physical activity and workload among construction workers – a randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Karstad, K.; Søgaard, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of quantification of occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among construction workers. Objectives To describe physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), physical workload, and the effect of a PA-intervention among construction workers. Methods Sixty-seven Construction workers self-reported their physical activity (PA), had PA assessed directly (PAEE), and observed OPA using the tool “Posture, Activity, Tools and Handling.” The PA-intervention (Intervention; n = 29, Controls; n = 24) included 3x20-min training/week for 12 weeks. Results Baseline median OPA was 5036 MET-min/week and LTPA 2842 MET-min/week, p < 0.01. OPA directly recorded was (mean ± SE): 56.6 ± 3.2 J/kg/min and LTPA was: 35.7 ± 2.2 J/kg/min (p < 0.001). Manual material handling was performed for ≥ 25% of working time by more than 50% of the participants. Post-intervention, the training group reduced overall PAEE compared to the control group but not specifically during work. Conclusions OPA was within the maximum recommended level of 1/3 proposed in consensus guidelines but did not decrease with PA-intervention. PMID:27097799

  3. Localising Content for an XMOOC in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppard, Jenny; Reddy, Preeya

    2017-01-01

    Universities in the UAE are entering the age of virtual and open access education. This paper describes the evolution of a MOOC at a state-funded university in Dubai. We will describe the challenges as well as a reflection of our experiences as creating virtual learning spaces in this culture differs somewhat from Western models. [For the complete…

  4. The Path to Development: Expatriate Faculty Retention in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoepp, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the rapid development and large expatriate majority within the United Arab Emirates, the country is extremely reliant upon expatriate faculty to educate its people. Through the lens provided by Social Exchange Theory, this study examined the motivations of expatriate faculty to remain or leave their positions at institutions within the UAE.…

  5. Understanding Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in the UAE HE Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Cedwyn; Ross, Kieran; Meraj, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to verify and estimate the impact of the antecedents of Programme satisfaction and to explore its link with student loyalty in the higher education (HE) sector in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach: A Programme Experience Questionnaire (PEQ) was developed, based on the National Student…

  6. Water Budget in the UAE for Applications in Food Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, R.; Ouarda, T.; Marpu, P. R.; Pearson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of population growth combined with climate change, have increased the impact on natural resources globally, especially water, land and energy, and therefore the food availability. Arid and semi-arid countries are highly vulnerable to these threats being already aware of the scarcity of resources depending mainly on imports. This study focuses on the UAE, with a very low rainfall, high temperatures and a very high rate of growth. It represents the perfect scenario to study the adaptive strategies that would allow to alleviate the effects of changing climate conditions and increase of population. Water is a key factor to food security especially in dry regions like the UAE, therefore, the first step of this approach is to analyze the water budget, first at a global scale (UAE), and after at smaller scales where particular and in-depth studies can be performed. The water budget is represented by the following equation: total precipitation and desalinated water minus the evapotranspiration equals the change in the terrestrial water storage. The UAE is highly dependent on desalinated water, therefore, this factor is included as a water input in the water budget. The procedure adopted in this study is applicable to other Gulf countries where desalination represents a large component of the water budget. Remotely sensed data will be used to obtain the components of the water budget equation performing a preliminary study of the suitability of TRMM data to estimate the precipitation in the UAE by comparison with six ground stations in the country. GRACE and TRMM data will then be used to obtain the terrestrial water storage and the precipitation respectively. The evapotranspiration will be estimated from the water budget equation and maps of these three variables will be obtained. This spatial analysis of the water resources will help to determine the best areas for cultivation and whether it can be planned in a way that increases the agricultural

  7. Effects of Heat Stress on Construction Labor Productivity in Hong Kong: A Case Study of Rebar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Albert P. C.

    2017-01-01

    Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong. Onsite wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), workers’ heart rate (HR), and labor productivity were measured and monitored. Based on the 378 data sets of synchronized environmental, physiological, construction labor productivity (CLP), and personal variables, a CLP-heat stress model was established. It was found that WBGT, percentage of maximum HR, age, work duration, and alcohol drinking habits were determining factors for predicting the CLP (adjusted R2 = 0.68, p < 0.05). The model revealed that heat stress reduces CLP, with the percentage of direct work time decreasing by 0.33% when the WBGT increased by 1 °C. The findings in this study extend the existing practice notes by providing scientific data that may be of benefit to the industry in producing solid guidelines for working in hot weather. PMID:28895899

  8. An application of the Pareto method in surveys to diagnose managers' and workers' perception of occupational safety and health on selected Polish construction sites.

    PubMed

    Obolewicz, Jerzy; Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2017-11-16

    The construction industry is an important sector of the economy in Poland. According to the National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) data of 2014, the number of victims of fatal accidents in the construction sector amounted to 80 as compared with 187 injured in all other sectors of economy in Poland. This article presents the results of surveys on the impact of construction worker behaviour on the occupational safety and health outcomes. The surveys took into account the point of view of both construction site management (tactical level) and construction workers (operational level). For the analysis of results, the method of numerical taxonomy and Pareto charts was employed, which allowed the authors to identify the areas of occupational safety and health at both an operational and a tactical level, in which improvement actions needed to be proposed for workers employed in micro, small, medium and large construction enterprises.

  9. Skin disorders among construction workers following Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita: an outbreak investigation in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Noe, Rebecca; Cohen, Adam L; Lederman, Edith; Gould, L Hannah; Alsdurf, Hannah; Vranken, Peter; Ratard, Rauol; Morgan, Juliette; Norton, Scott A; Mott, Joshua

    2007-11-01

    To determine the extent and scope of the outbreak of skin eruptions, to identify the causes of the acute skin diseases, to identify risk factors for the conditions, and to reduce the dermatologic morbidity among workers repairing buildings damaged by Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. Retrospective cohort study. Military base in New Orleans, Louisiana. Civilian construction workers living and working at a New Orleans military base between August 30, 2005, and October 3, 2005. Living conditions were mainly wooden huts and tents with limited sanitation facilities. Survey of risk factors, physical examination, skin biopsy specimens, and environmental investigation of the occupational and domiciliary exposures. Of 136 workers, 58 reported rash, yielding an attack rate of 42.6%. The following 4 clinical entities were diagnosed among 41 workers who had a physical examination (some had >1 diagnosis): 27 (65.9%) having papular urticaria, 8 (19.5%) having bacterial folliculitis, 6 (14.6%) having fiberglass dermatitis, and 2 (4.9%) having brachioradial photodermatitis. All diagnoses except brachioradial photodermatitis were confirmed by histopathologic examination. After adjusting for race/ethnicity and occupation, sleeping in previously flooded huts was statistically significantly (adjusted odds ratio, 20.4; 95% confidence interval, 5.9-70.2) associated with developing papular urticaria, the most common cause of rash in this cluster. We identified 4 distinct clinical entities, although most workers were diagnosed as having papular urticaria. Huts previously flooded as a result of the hurricanes and used for sleeping may have harbored mites, a likely source of papular urticaria. To reduce the morbidity of hurricane-related skin diseases, we suggest avoiding flooded areas, fumigating with an acaricide, and wearing protective clothing.

  10. The role of occupational medicine in assessing work limitation: A cross-sectional study on construction workers over a five-year period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Božić, Tajana; Meštrović, Tomislav; Profozić, Zora; Profozić, Velimir

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining adequate working ability of construction workers is of considerable importance for society, as the construction sector is burdened with high prevalence of work-related diseases and health-issues. To determine the number and age of construction workers in Croatia with temporary or permanent work limitation status, as well as to identify the most common health causes of such work limitation. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using the data from 2534 construction workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, who underwent standardized routine occupational health examinations between 2011 and 2015. Thorough medical history and medical record reviews, blood and urine analyses, vision parameters and hearing range evaluation, as well as mental health assessment were conducted on every study participant. A total of 210 construction workers (8.29%) received occupational/work limitation status (either temporary or permanent). Four main categories of work limitation were high blood pressure, disorders of the liver and digestive system, hearing loss and amblyopia, comprising 61.69% of all diagnoses. A total of 37.62% of workers with work limitation status had two or more different diagnoses (i.e. co-morbid conditions). Those with work limitation (either temporary or long-term) were significantly older than those fit enough to work (p-value <0.00001). This type of organized screening represents a significant preventative effort in the construction industry, as workers may become more cognizant of the conditions that may affect their work ability.

  11. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Factors influencing use of analgesics among construction workers in the Ga-Eastmunicipality of the Greater Accra region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Badzi, Caroline D; Ackumey, Mercy M

    2017-12-01

    Analgesics also known as painkillers are widely used for pain relief. There are severe health implications associated with excessive use of analgesics. This paper examines factors influencing the use of analgesics among construction workers in the Ga-East Municipality (GEM) of the Greater Accra region of Ghana. This is a cross-sectional study involving 206 construction workers randomly sampled from 7 construction sites in the GEM. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit responses on knowledge of analgesics, types of analgesics used and factors influencing the use of analgesics. Chi-square test analysis was used to examine factors influencing analgesic use. The majority of workers were aged between 15 to 44 years (89.8%) and 51.9 percent of respondents had completed Junior high school. Many respondents (68.0%) used Brand 1 a locally manufactured analgesic with paracetamol, aspirin and caffeine as the active ingredients and 31.6 percent of respondents had no knowledge of possible side effects of continuous use of analgesics. Chi square analysis showed that age was significantly associated with use of analgesics (p<0.01). Knowledge of the types of analgesics, dosage and side effects did not influence use (p>0.05). Television and radio advertisements influenced use of analgesics (p<0.01). Knowledge on analgesic use and knowledge of probable serious side effects was inadequate. Pharmacists and chemists involvement in education of clients of the side effects of analgesics is highly recommended to minimise misuse. The Food and Drugs Authority should regulate the proliferation of advertisements for analgesics in the media. None declared.

  13. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost-) effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Iris F; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; van Duivenbooden, Cor; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost-) effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA) and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS), and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI). Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588 PMID:18173844

  14. Analysis and characterization of the vertical wind profile in UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Ghedira, H.; Ouarda, T.; Gherboudj, I.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, temporal and spatial analysis of the vertical wind profiles in the UAE has been performed to estimate wind resource potential. Due to the very limited number of wind masts (only two wind masts in the UAE, operational for less than three years), the wind potential analysis will be mainly derived from numerical-based models. Additional wind data will be derived from the UAE met stations network (at 10 m elevation) managed by the UAE National Center of Meteorology and Seismology. However, since wind turbines are generally installed at elevations higher than 80 m, it is vital to extrapolate wind speed correctly from low heights to wind turbine hub heights to predict potential wind energy properly. To do so, firstly two boundary layer based models, power law and logarithmic law, were tested to find the best fitting model. Power law is expressed as v/v0 =(H/H0)^α and logarithmic law is represented as v/v0 =[ln(H/Z0))/(ln(H0/Z0)], where V is the wind speed [m/s] at height H [m] and V0 is the known wind speed at a reference height H0. The exponent (α) coefficient is an empirically derived value depending on the atmospheric stability and z0 is the roughness coefficient length [m] that depends on topography, land roughness and spacing. After testing the two models, spatial and temporal analysis for wind profile was performed. Many studies about wind in different regions have shown that wind profile parameters have hourly, monthly and seasonal variations. Therefore, it can be examined whether UAE wind characteristics follow general wind characteristics observed in other regions or have specific wind features due to its regional condition. About 3 years data from August 2008 to February 2011 with 10-minutes resolution were used to derive monthly variation. The preliminary results(Fig.1) show that during that period, wind profile parameters like alpha from power law and roughness length from logarithmic law have monthly variation. Both alpha and roughness have

  15. Remote sensing of mineral dust aerosol using AERI during the UAE2: A modeling and sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansell, R. A.; Liou, K. N.; Ou, S. C.; Tsay, S. C.; Ji, Q.; Reid, J. S.

    2008-09-01

    Numerical simulations and sensitivity studies have been performed to assess the potential for using brightness temperature spectra from a ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) during the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) for detecting/retrieving mineral dust aerosol. A methodology for separating dust from clouds and retrieving the dust IR optical depths was developed by exploiting differences between their spectral absorptive powers in prescribed thermal IR window subbands. Dust microphysical models were constructed using in situ data from the UAE2 and prior field studies while composition was modeled using refractive index data sets for minerals commonly observed around the UAE region including quartz, kaolinite, and calcium carbonate. The T-matrix, finite difference time domain (FDTD), and Lorenz-Mie light scattering programs were employed to calculate the single scattering properties for three dust shapes: oblate spheroids, hexagonal plates, and spheres. We used the Code for High-resolution Accelerated Radiative Transfer with Scattering (CHARTS) radiative transfer program to investigate sensitivity of the modeled AERI spectra to key dust and atmospheric parameters. Sensitivity studies show that characterization of the thermodynamic boundary layer is crucial for accurate AERI dust detection/retrieval. Furthermore, AERI sensitivity to dust optical depth is manifested in the strong subband slope dependence of the window region. Two daytime UAE2 cases were examined to demonstrate the present detection/retrieval technique, and we show that the results compare reasonably well to collocated AERONET Sun photometer/MPLNET micropulse lidar measurements. Finally, sensitivity of the developed methodology to the AERI's estimated MgCdTe detector nonlinearity was evaluated.

  16. Anakuran: A Proposed Path to Education for Children of Migrant Construction Workers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pal, Satarupa Dutta

    2014-01-01

    "If you cannot go to school, the school comes to you." Project Anakuran (the Hindi word for germination) is an innovative design which seeks to provide formal education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the children of migrant construction labourers based at medium and large construction sites in urban locales.…

  17. The Impact of Coworkers’ Safety Violations on an Individual Worker: A Social Contagion Effect within the Construction Crew

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shoujian; Su, Yikun

    2018-01-01

    This research developed and tested a model of the social contagion effect of coworkers’ safety violations on individual workers within construction crews. Both situational and routine safety violations were considered in this model. Empirical data were collected from 345 construction workers in China using a detailed questionnaire. The results showed that both types of safety violations made by coworkers were significantly related to individuals’ perceived social support and production pressure. Individuals’ attitudinal ambivalence toward safety compliance mediated the relationships between perceived social support and production pressure and both types of individuals’ safety violations. However, safety motivation only mediated the effects of perceived social support and production pressure on individuals’ situational safety violations. Further, this research supported the differences between situational and routine safety violations. Specifically, we found that individuals were more likely to imitate coworkers’ routine safety violations than their situational safety violations. Coworkers’ situational safety violations had an indirect effect on individuals’ situational safety violations mainly through perceived social support and safety motivation. By contrast, coworkers’ routine safety violations had an indirect effect on individuals’ routine safety violations mainly through perceived production pressure and attitudinal ambivalence. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications, research limitations, and future directions were discussed. PMID:29673149

  18. The Impact of Coworkers' Safety Violations on an Individual Worker: A Social Contagion Effect within the Construction Crew.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huakang; Lin, Ken-Yu; Zhang, Shoujian; Su, Yikun

    2018-04-17

    This research developed and tested a model of the social contagion effect of coworkers’ safety violations on individual workers within construction crews. Both situational and routine safety violations were considered in this model. Empirical data were collected from 345 construction workers in China using a detailed questionnaire. The results showed that both types of safety violations made by coworkers were significantly related to individuals’ perceived social support and production pressure. Individuals’ attitudinal ambivalence toward safety compliance mediated the relationships between perceived social support and production pressure and both types of individuals’ safety violations. However, safety motivation only mediated the effects of perceived social support and production pressure on individuals’ situational safety violations. Further, this research supported the differences between situational and routine safety violations. Specifically, we found that individuals were more likely to imitate coworkers’ routine safety violations than their situational safety violations. Coworkers’ situational safety violations had an indirect effect on individuals’ situational safety violations mainly through perceived social support and safety motivation. By contrast, coworkers’ routine safety violations had an indirect effect on individuals’ routine safety violations mainly through perceived production pressure and attitudinal ambivalence. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications, research limitations, and future directions were discussed.

  19. Occupational and non-occupational factors associated with work-related injuries among construction workers in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Wang, Xuanwen; Largay, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many factors contribute to occupational injuries. However, these factors have been compartmentalized and isolated in most studies. Objective: To examine the relationship between work-related injuries and multiple occupational and non-occupational factors among construction workers in the USA. Methods: Data from the 1988–2000 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (N = 12,686) were analyzed. Job exposures and health behaviors were examined and used as independent variables in four multivariate logistic regression models to identify associations with occupational injuries. Results: After controlling for demographic variables, occupational injuries were 18% (95% CI: 1.04–1.34) more likely in construction than in non-construction. Blue-collar occupations, job physical efforts, multiple jobs, and long working hours accounted for the escalated risk in construction. Smoking, obesity/overweight, and cocaine use significantly increased the risk of work-related injury when demographics and occupational factors were held constant. Conclusions: Workplace injuries are better explained by simultaneously examining occupational and non-occupational characteristics. PMID:25816923

  20. Design for Occupational Safety and Health of Workers in Construction in Developing Countries: A Study of Architects in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Manu, Patrick; Poghosyan, Anush; Mshelia, Ibrahim Mark; Iwo, Samuel Tekena; Mahamadu, Abdul-Majeed; Dziekonski, Krzysztof

    2018-06-14

    Design for safety (DfS) of workers is amongst the prominent ways of tackling poor occupational safety and health (OSH) performance in construction. However, in developing countries there is an extremely limited research on DfS. This study thus makes an important contribution to the subject of DfS in developing countries by specifically examining the awareness and practice of DfS amongst architects within the construction sector of Nigeria. A survey of architects, yielding 161 valid responses, was conducted. While there is a high awareness of the concept of DfS, the actual practice is low. Additionally, although there is high interest in DfS training, the engagement in DfS training is low. Significantly, awareness of DfS, training and education related to DfS, and membership of a design professional body have very limited bearing on the practice of DfS by architects. The findings are thus symptomatic of the prevalence of influential DfS implementation barriers within the construction sector. Industry stakeholders should seek to raise the profile of DfS practice within the sector. Furthermore, similar empirical studies in the construction sector of other developing countries would be useful in shedding light on the status of DfS in these countries.

  1. [Mesothelioma in construction workers: risk estimate, lung content of asbestos fibres, claims for compensation for occupational disease in the Veneto Region mesothelioma register].

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Bressan, Vittoria; Somigliana, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Work in the construction industry is causing the highest number of mesotheliomas among the residents of the Veneto Region (north-east Italy, 4,5 million inhabitants). To sum up the results on occurrence, asbestos exposure, lung fibre content analyses, and compensation for occupational disease. Case identification and asbestos exposure classification: active search of mesotheliomas that were diagnosed via histological or cytological examinations occurring between 1987 and 2006; a probability of asbestos exposure was attributed to each case, following interviews with the subjects or their relatives and collection of data on the jobs held over their lifetime. Risk estimate among construction workers: the ratio between cases and person-years, the latter derived from the number of construction workers reported by censuses. Lung content of asbestos fibres: examination of lung specimens by Scanning Electron Microscope to determine number and type of fibres. Claims for compensation and compensation awarded: data obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Occupational Diseases available for the period 1999-2006. of 952 mesothelioma cases classified as due to asbestos exposure, 251 were assigned to work in the construction industry (21 of which due to domestic of environmental exposures), which gives a rate of 4.1 (95% CI 3.6-4.8) x 10(5) x year among construction workers. The asbestos fibre content detected in the lungs of 11 construction workers showed a mean of 1.7 x 10(6) fibres/g dry tissue (range 350,000-3 million) for fibres > 1 micro, almost exclusively due to amphibole fibres. 62% of the claims for compensation were granted but the percentage fell to less than 40% when claims were submitted by a relative, after the death of the subject. The prevalence of mesothelioma occurring among construction workers is high and is associated with asbestos exposure; the risk is underestimated by the subjects and their relatives. All mesotheliomas occurring among

  2. The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-25

    political participation, entrepreneurship , legal reform, civil society, independent media, and international trade law compliance—funded largely by State...divorce cases and other family law issues. As of December 2011, UAE women are allowed to pass on their citizenship to their children —the first GCC state to...used to rebuild hospitals and provide medical treatment to Iraqi children in the UAE. Bilateral trade was estimated at about $5 billion, and UAE

  3. Protection of Workers and Third Parties during the Construction of Linear Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlčková, Jitka; Venkrbec, Václav; Henková, Svatava; Chromý, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The minimization of risk in the workplace through a focus on occupational health and safety (OHS) is one of the primary objectives for every construction project. The most serious accidents in the construction industry occur during work on earthworks and linear structures. The character of such structures places them among those posing the greatest threat to the public (referred to as “third parties”). They can be characterized as large structures whose construction may involve the building site extending in a narrow lane alongside previously constructed objects currently in use by the public. Linear structures are often directly connected to existing objects or buildings, making it impossible to guard the whole construction site. However, many OHS problems related to linear structures can be prevented during the design stage. The aim of this article is to introduce a new methodology which has been implemented into a computer program that deals with safety measures at construction sites where work is performed on linear structures. Based on existing experience with the design of such structures and their execution and supervision by safety coordinators, the basic types of linear structures, their location in the terrain, the conditions present during their execution and other marginal conditions and influences were modelled. Basic safety information has been assigned to this elementary information, which is strictly necessary for the construction process. The safety provisions can be grouped according to type, e.g. technical, organizational and other necessary documentation, or into sets of provisions concerning areas such as construction site safety, transport safety, earthworks safety, etc. The selection of the given provisions takes place using multiple criteria. The aim of creating this program is to provide a practical tool for designers, contractors and construction companies. The model can contribute to the sufficient awareness of these participants

  4. A national safety stand-down to reduce construction worker falls.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Jessica; Branche, Christine; Trahan, Chris; Goldenhar, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Falls are the leading cause of death and third leading cause of non-fatal injuries in construction. In an effort to combat these numbers, The National Campaign to Prevent Falls in Construction began in April 2012. As the campaign gained momentum, a week called the National Safety Stand-Down to Prevent Falls was launched to draw attention to the campaign and its goals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reach of the Stand-Down and lessons learned from its implementation. The Occupational Safety & Health Administration offered a certificate of participation during the Stand-Down. To print the certificate, respondents provided information about their company and stand-down event. CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training conducted analyses on the data collected to assess reach and extent of participation. In 2014, 4,882 stand-downs were reported. The total number reported in 2015 was 3,759. The number of participants, however, increased from 770,193 in 2014 to 1,041,307 in 2015. The Stand-Down successfully reached the construction industry and beyond. Respondents were enthusiastic and participated nationally and internationally in variety of activities. They also provided significant feedback that will be influential in future campaign planning. Numbers of Stand-Downs and participants for both years are estimated to be substantially higher than the data recorded from the certificate database. While we cannot determine impact, the reach of the Stand-Down has surpassed expectations. The data gathered provide support for the continuation of the Stand-Down. Campaign planners incorporated findings into future Stand-Down planning, materials creation, and promotion. This analysis also provides insight on how organizations can partner to create targeted national campaigns that include activities stakeholders in the construction industry respond to, and can be used to replicate our efforts for other safety and health initiatives in construction and

  5. Race, space, place: notes on the racialisation and spatialisation of commercial sex work in Dubai, UAE.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Pardis

    2010-11-01

    This paper focuses on the perceived racialisation and resultant spatialisation of commercial sex in Dubai. In recent years, the sex industry in Dubai has grown to include women from the Middle East, Eastern Europe, East Asia and Africa. With the increase in sex workers of different nationalities has come a form of localised racism that is embedded in structures and desires seen within specific locations. The physical spatialisation of sex work hinges on perceived race and produces distinct income generating potential for women engaged in the sex industry in Dubai. The social and physical topography of Dubai is important in marginalising or privileging these various groups of sex workers, which correlates race, space and place with rights and assistance. I begin with a description of the multidirectional flows of causality between race, space, place and demand. I then discuss how these various groups are inversely spatialised within the discourse on assistance, protection and rights. The findings presented here are based on ethnographic research conducted with transnational migrants in the UAE in 2004, 2008 and 2009.

  6. Evaluating the Impacts of Health, Social Network and Capital on Craft Efficiency and Productivity: A Case Study of Construction Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wen; Miao, Mengyi; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    The construction industry has been recognized, for many years, as among those having a high likelihood of accidents, injuries and occupational illnesses. Such risks of construction workers can lead to low productivity and social problems. As a result, construction workers’ well-being should be highly addressed to improve construction workers’ efficiency and productivity. Meanwhile, the social support from a social network and capital (SNC) of construction workers has been considered as an effective approach to promote construction workers’ physical and mental health (P&M health), as well as their work efficiency and productivity. Based on a comprehensive literature review, a conceptual model, which aims to improve construction workers’ efficiency and productivity from the perspective of health and SNC, was proposed. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the construction workers’ health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity in Nanjing, China. A structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the three hypothetical relationships among construction workers’ P&M health, SNC and work efficiency and productivity. The results indicated that the direct impacts from construction workers’ P&M health on work efficiency and productivity were more significant than that from the SNC. In addition, the construction workers’ social capital and the network can indirectly influence the work efficiency and productivity by affecting the construction workers’ P&M health. Therefore, strategies for enhancing construction workers’ efficiency and productivity were proposed. Furthermore, many useable suggestions can be drawn from the research findings from the perspective of a government. The identified indicators and relationships would contribute to the construction work efficiency and productivity assessment and health management from the perspective of the construction workers. PMID:29462861

  7. Influence of obesity and physical workload on disability benefits among construction workers followed up for 37 years.

    PubMed

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Järvholm, Bengt; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I; Wahlström, Jens; Burdorf, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relation between obesity and labour force exit via diagnosis-specific disability benefits, and whether physical workload modifies this association. A longitudinal analysis was performed among 3 28 743 Swedish construction workers in the age of 15-65 years. Body weight and height were measured at a health examination and enriched with register information on disability benefits up to 37 years later. Diagnoses of disability benefits were categorised into cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs), mental disorders and others. A job exposure matrix, based on self-reported lifting of heavy loads and working in bent forward or twisted position, was applied as a measure of physical workload. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) between obesity and physical workload was calculated. Obese construction workers were at increased risk of receiving disability benefits (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.76), mainly through CVD (HR 2.30) and MSD (HR 1.71). Construction workers with a high physical workload were also more likely to receive a disability benefit (HR 2.28, 95% CI 2.21 to 2.34), particularly via MSD (HR 3.02). Obesity in combination with a higher physical workload increased the risk of disability benefits (RERI 0.28) more than the sum of the risks of obesity and higher physical workload, particularly for MSD (RERI 0.44). Obesity and a high physical workload are risk factors for disability benefit. Furthermore, these factors are synergistic risk factors for labour force exit via disability benefit through MSD. Comprehensive programmes that target health promotion to prevent obesity and ergonomic interventions to reduce physical workload are important to facilitate sustained employment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  8. Validating survey measurement scales for AIDS-related knowledge and stigma among construction workers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter

    2016-01-23

    Construction workers in South Africa are regarded as a high-risk group in the context of HIV/AIDS. HIV testing is pivotal to controlling HIV transmission and providing palliative care and AIDS-related knowledge and stigma are key issues in addressing the likelihood of testing behaviour. In exploring these issues, various studies have employed an 11-item AIDS-related knowledge scale (Kalichman and Simbayi, AIDS Care 16:572-580, 2004) and a 9-item stigma scale (Kalichman et al., AIDS Behav 9:135-143, 2005), but little evidence exists confirming the psychometric properties of these scales. Using survey data from 512 construction workers in the Western Cape, South Africa, this research examines the validity and reliability of the two scales through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency tests. From confirmatory factor analysis, a revised 10-item knowledge scale was developed (χ2 /df ratio = 1.675, CFI = 0.982, RMSEA = 0.038, and Hoelter (95 %) = 393). A revised 8-item stigma scale was also developed (χ2 /df ratio = 1.929, CFI = 0.974, RMSEA = 0.045, and Hoelter (95 %) = 380). Both revised scales demonstrated good model fit and all factor loadings were significant (p < 0.01). Reliability analysis demonstrated excellent to good internal consistency, with alpha values of 0.80 and 0.74, respectively. Both revised scales also demonstrated satisfactory convergent and divergent validity. Limitations of the original survey from which the data was obtained include the failure to properly account for respondent selection of language for completion of the survey, use of ethnicity as a proxy for identifying the native language of participants, the limited geographical area from which the survey data was collected, and the limitations associated with the convenience sample. A limitation of the validation study was the lack of available data for a more robust examination of reliability beyond internal consistency, such as test-retest reliability. The

  9. Association of objectively measured arm inclination with shoulder pain: A 6-month follow-up prospective study of construction and health care workers.

    PubMed

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Knardahl, Stein

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to determine the association of occupational arm inclination with shoulder pain in construction and health care workers. Arm inclination relative to the vertical was measured with an accelerometer placed on the dominant upper arm for up to four full days at baseline in 62 construction workers and 63 health care workers. The pain intensity in the shoulder and mechanical and psychosocial work factors were measured by self-reports at baseline and prospectively after 6 months. The associations between exposures and shoulder pain were analyzed with multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions. For the total study population working with the dominant arm at inclinations > 30° and >120° was associated with lower levels of shoulder pain both cross-sectionally and after 6 months. Associations were attenuated when adjusting for individual and social factors, psychological state, and exposure during leisure time, especially for the high inclination levels. Analyses, only including subjects with no pain at baseline revealed no significant associations. While stratified analysis showed negative associations in the construction worker group, there were no significant association in health care workers. Compared to the number of hypotheses tested, the number of significant findings was low. Adjustment by Bonferroni-correction made almost all findings insignificant. All analyses reflected a negative association between arm inclination and shoulder pain, but few analyses showed these associations to be statistically significant. If there is a relationship between arm inclination and shoulder pain, these findings could indicate that pain-avoidance may modify how workers perform their tasks.

  10. Design of a new concentrated photovoltaic system under UAE conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachicha, Ahmed Amine; Tawalbeh, Muahammad

    2017-06-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaic Systems (CPVs) are considered one of the innovative designs for concentrated solar power applications. By concentrating the incident radiation, the solar cells will be able to produce much more electricity compared to conventional PV systems. However, the temperature of the solar cells increases significantly with concentration. Therefore, cooling of the solar cells will be needed to maintain high conversion efficiency. In this work, a novel design of CPV system is proposed and implemented under UAE conditions for electricity generation and hot water production. The proposed design integrates a water cooling system and PV system to optimize both the electrical and thermal performances of the CPV system.

  11. Occupational exposure to silica in construction workers: a literature-based exposure database.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Charles; Lavoué, Jérôme; Sauvé, Jean-François; Bégin, Denis; Senhaji Rhazi, Mounia; Perrault, Guy; Dion, Chantal; Gérin, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We created an exposure database of respirable crystalline silica levels in the construction industry from the literature. We extracted silica and dust exposure levels in publications reporting silica exposure levels or quantitative evaluations of control effectiveness published in or after 1990. The database contains 6118 records (2858 of respirable crystalline silica) extracted from 115 sources, summarizing 11,845 measurements. Four hundred and eighty-eight records represent summarized exposure levels instead of individual values. For these records, the reported summary parameters were standardized into a geometric mean and a geometric standard deviation. Each record is associated with 80 characteristics, including information on trade, task, materials, tools, sampling strategy, analytical methods, and control measures. Although the database was constructed in French, 38 essential variables were standardized and translated into English. The data span the period 1974-2009, with 92% of the records corresponding to personal measurements. Thirteen standardized trades and 25 different standardized tasks are associated with at least five individual silica measurements. Trade-specific respirable crystalline silica geometric means vary from 0.01 (plumber) to 0.30 mg/m³ (tunnel construction skilled labor), while tasks vary from 0.01 (six categories, including sanding and electrical maintenance) to 1.59 mg/m³ (abrasive blasting). Despite limitations associated with the use of literature data, this database can be analyzed using meta-analytical and multivariate techniques and currently represents the most important source of exposure information about silica exposure in the construction industry. It is available on request to the research community.

  12. Factors associated with the severity of fatal accidents in construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandeh, Farideh; Kabir-Mokamelkhah, Elaheh; Kahani, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Construction work (building houses, roads, workplaces, and repairing and maintaining infrastructures) is a dangerous land-based job. This includes many hazardous tasks and conditions such as working at the following conditions: Height, excavation, noise, dust, power tools and equipment. Construction work has been increased in developed and underdeveloped countries over the past few years. Occupational fatalities have increased with an increase in this type of work. Occupational fatalities refer to individuals who pass way while on the job or performing work related tasks. In the present study, to identify the factors, personal characteristics and work-related factors associated with fatal occupational mortality were assessed using data for Tehran, Iran, 2014-2016. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study, using 967 postmortem reports from fatal occupational injuries collected through postmortem investigations during 2014-2016. A sampling frame of 967 postmortem reports from fatal occupational injuries was used to draw a total sample of 714 fatal construction accidents for this cross-sectional study. Pearson χ2 test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Based on the results of this study, male gender (n=714; 100%), age range of 30-39 years (n=183; 25.6%), secondary educational level (n=273; 38.2%), being married (317; 44.4%), causal employee (n=389; 54.5%), unskilled performance (389; 54.5%), no insurance coverage (472; 66.1%), and daytime duty work (287; 40.2%) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of construction fatal injury. A significant relationship was found between the type of injury and sociodemographic and work related variables. Conclusion: Workers’ characteristics such as age, gender, experience, and educational background, and work related variables such as skill training, safety measurement, and close monitoring could be used to discriminate among different severity levels of

  13. Characteristic of Noise-induced Hearing Loss among Workers in Construction Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naadia Mazlan, Ain; Yahya, Khairulzan; Haron, Zaiton; Amsharija Mohamed, Nik; Rasib, Edrin Nazri Abdul; Jamaludin, Nizam; Darus, Nadirah

    2018-03-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is among the most common occupational disease in industries. This paper investigates NIHL in construction related industries in Malaysia with particular emphasis on its relation with risk factors. The objectives of this research were to (1) quantify the prevalence of NIHL in construction related industries, and (2) assess the relationship between hearing loss and risk factors and it's characteristic. The study was conducted using 110 NIHL compensation record collected from Social Security Organisation (SOCSO), Malaysia. Risk factors namely area noise, age, temperature, smoking habit, hobby, diabetic and cardiovascular disease were identified and analysed. Results showed that there was no direct relationship between area noise with hearing impairment while there was only low relationship between age and hearing impairment. The range for area noise and age were between 70 to 140 dB(A) and 20 to 70 years, respectively. The other risk factors classified as categorical data and analysed using frequency method. Grade of impairment does not depend solely on area noise but also in combination with age and other risk factors. Characteristic of NIHL prevailed in construction related industries were presented using scatterplots and can serve as a references for future hazard control on site.

  14. Enterprise size and risk of hospital treated injuries among manual construction workers in Denmark: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Betina H; Hannerz, Harald; Christensen, Ulla; Tüchsen, Finn

    2011-04-21

    In most countries throughout the world the construction industry continues to account for a disturbingly high proportion of fatal and nonfatal injuries. Research has shown that large enterprises seem to be most actively working for a safe working environment when compared to small and medium-sized enterprises. Also, statistics from Canada, Italy and South Korea suggest that the risk of injury among construction workers decreases with enterprise size, that is the smaller the enterprise the greater the risk of injury. This trend, however, is neither confirmed by the official statistics from Eurostat valid for EU-15 + Norway nor by a separate Danish study - although these findings might have missed a trend due to severe underreporting. In addition, none of the above mentioned studies controlled for the occupational distribution within the enterprises. A part of the declining injury rates observed in Canada, Italy and South Korea therefore might be explained by an increasing proportion of white-collar employees in large enterprises. To investigate the relation between enterprise size and injury rates in the Danish construction industry. All male construction workers in Denmark aged 20-59 years will be followed yearly through national registers from 1999 to 2006 for first hospital treated injury (ICD-10: S00-T98) and linked to data about employment status, occupation and enterprise size. Enterprise size-classes are based on the Danish business pattern where micro (less than 5 employees), small (5-9 employees) and medium-sized (10-19 employees) enterprises will be compared to large enterprises (at least 20 employees). The analyses will be controlled for age (five-year age groups), calendar year (as categorical variable) and occupation. A multi-level Poisson regression will be used where the enterprises will be treated as the subjects while observations within the enterprises will be treated as correlated repeated measurements. This follow-up study uses register data that

  15. Enterprise size and risk of hospital treated injuries among manual construction workers in Denmark: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In most countries throughout the world the construction industry continues to account for a disturbingly high proportion of fatal and nonfatal injuries. Research has shown that large enterprises seem to be most actively working for a safe working environment when compared to small and medium-sized enterprises. Also, statistics from Canada, Italy and South Korea suggest that the risk of injury among construction workers decreases with enterprise size, that is the smaller the enterprise the greater the risk of injury. This trend, however, is neither confirmed by the official statistics from Eurostat valid for EU-15 + Norway nor by a separate Danish study - although these findings might have missed a trend due to severe underreporting. In addition, none of the above mentioned studies controlled for the occupational distribution within the enterprises. A part of the declining injury rates observed in Canada, Italy and South Korea therefore might be explained by an increasing proportion of white-collar employees in large enterprises. Objective To investigate the relation between enterprise size and injury rates in the Danish construction industry. Methods/Design All male construction workers in Denmark aged 20-59 years will be followed yearly through national registers from 1999 to 2006 for first hospital treated injury (ICD-10: S00-T98) and linked to data about employment status, occupation and enterprise size. Enterprise size-classes are based on the Danish business pattern where micro (less than 5 employees), small (5-9 employees) and medium-sized (10-19 employees) enterprises will be compared to large enterprises (at least 20 employees). The analyses will be controlled for age (five-year age groups), calendar year (as categorical variable) and occupation. A multi-level Poisson regression will be used where the enterprises will be treated as the subjects while observations within the enterprises will be treated as correlated repeated measurements

  16. The risk of lung cancer after cessation of asbestos exposure in construction workers using pleural malignant mesothelioma as a marker of exposure.

    PubMed

    Järvholm, Bengt; Aström, Evelina

    2014-12-01

    To study the risk of lung cancer in heavily asbestos-exposed workers after the exposure to asbestos has ended. Lung cancer was studied in a cohort of 189,896 Swedish construction workers through a linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Asbestos exposure was estimated by the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in the occupational group. There were in total 2835 cases of lung cancer. Workers with heavy exposure to asbestos had an increased risk of lung cancer (relative risks = 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 2.41) before exposure ended and a similar risk to those with low exposure 20 years after the exposure had ceased (relative risks = 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.15). Workers with heavy exposure to asbestos have a similar risk of lung cancer as persons with low or no exposure 20 years after the exposure has ended.

  17. Lung asbestos burden in shipyard and construction workers with mesothelioma: Comparison with burdens in subjects with asbestosis of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, M.L.

    1989-10-01

    Although mesothelioma is generally considered to be caused by asbestos, epidemiologic studies indicate that some cases have another cause. In order to determine whether pulmonary asbestos burden can be used to define asbestos-related mesotheliomas, asbestos burden was quantified in 27 shipyard or construction workers with diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum and a history of asbestos exposure. Their burden was significantly greater than the burden found in 19 unexposed men. The burdens were also compared to those of previously reported subjects with asbestosis or lung cancer. The median concentration for total amphibole fibers (2.7 million/g dry lung) inmore » subjects with mesothelioma did not differ significantly from our previously reported median values for 14 subjects with asbestosis (1.3 million/g dry lung) or for 60 asbestos workers with lung cancer (1.3 million/g dry lung). Fiber size distribution for amosite, the most prevalent fiber type, was similar in all three subject groups. Fifteen of 25 (60%) subjects with mesothelioma had mild asbestosis. Asbestos body (AB) concentrations were {ge} 1900/g dry lung, and total amphibole fiber concentrations were {ge}390,000/g dry lung. Counts of ABs{ge}0.5/cm{sup 2} in histologic sections always signified both of these concentrations in extracts. Thus, histologic sections showing {ge}0.5 ABs/cm{sup 2} or extracts containing asbestos body or amphibole fiber concentrations of at least 1900 or 390,000/g dry lung, respectively, will confirm an asbestos related mesothelioma.« less

  18. Class in construction: London building workers, dirty work and physical cultures.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Darren

    2007-06-01

    Descriptions of manual employment tend to ignore its diversity and overstate the homogenizing effects of technology and industrialization. Based on ethnographic research on a London construction site, building work was found to be shaped by the forms of a pre-industrial work pattern characterized by task autonomy and freedom from managerial control. The builders' identities were largely free from personal identification as working class, and collective identification was fractured by trade status, and ethnic and gender divisions. Yet the shadow of a class-based discursive symbolism, which centered partly on the division of minds/bodies, mental/manual, and clean/dirty work, framed their accounts, identities and cultures. The builders displayed what is frequently termed working-class culture, and it was highly masculine. This physical and bodily-centered culture shielded them from the possible stigmatization of class and provided them with a source of localized capital. 'Physical capital' in conjunction with social capital (the builders' networks of friends and family) had largely guided their position in the stratification system, and values associated with these forms of capital were paramount to their public cultures. This cultural emphasis offered a continuing functionality in the builders' lives, not having broken free from tradition or becoming an object of reflexive choice.

  19. Prevalence, source and severity of work-related injuries among "foreign" construction workers in a large Malaysian organisation: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zerguine, Haroun; Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2018-06-01

    Malaysian construction sector is regarded as critical in the field of health because of the high rates of accidents and fatalities. This research aimed to determine the prevalence, sources and severity of injuries and its association with commitment to safety among foreign construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 foreign construction workers from six construction projects of a large organization in Malaysia, using a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire to assess work-related injuries and safety commitment. The collected data was analysed by SPSS 22.0 using descriptive statistics and χ 2 test. The prevalence of work-related injuries in a one year period was 22.6%, where most of the injuries were of moderate severity (39.7%) and falls from heights represented the main source (31.5%). The majority of the foreign construction workers had perceived between moderate and high safety commitment, which was significantly associated with work-related injuries. The results also showed a significant association of work-related injuries with the company's interest in Safety and Health, Safety and Health training, and safety equipment. Thus, the implementation of new procedures and providing relevant trainings and safety equipment; will lead to a decrease in injury rates in construction sites.

  20. Respiratory Cancer and Non-Malignant Respiratory Disease-Related Mortality among Older Construction Workers-Findings from the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuanwen; Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Welch, Laura; Largay, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored the risk of respiratory cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD)-related mortality among older construction workers. Methods Analyzed data from the 1992–2010 RAND Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the HRS National Death Index – Cause of Death file. About 25,183 workers aged 50 years and older were examined, including 5,447 decedents and 19,736 survivors, of which 1,460 reported their longest job was in construction. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the differences in mortality between workers’ longest occupations, controlling for confounders. Results After adjusting for smoking and demographics, construction workers were almost twice as likely to die from respiratory cancer (OR = 1.65; CI: 1.10–2.47) or NMRD (OR = 1.73; CI: 1.16–2.58) compared to white-collar workers. Conclusions This study adds to the growing evidence that respiratory cancer and NMRD are frequently associated with construction exposure. PMID:27500180

  1. Long-term health outcomes of work-related injuries among construction workers--findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Wang, Xuanwen; Largay, Julie A; Sokas, Rosemary

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between work-related injuries and health outcomes among a cohort of blue-collar construction workers. Data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (NLSY79; n = 12,686). A range of health outcomes among blue-collar construction workers (n = 1,435) were measured when they turned age 40 (1998-2006) and stratified by these workers' prior work-related injury status between 1988 and 2000. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to measure differences among subgroups. About 38% of the construction cohort reported injuries resulting in days away from work (DAFW); another 15% were injured but reported no DAFW (NDAFW). At age 40, an average of 10 years after injury, those with DAFW injury had worse self-reported general health and mental health, and more diagnosed conditions and functional limitations than those without injury. This difference was statistically significant after controlling for major demographics. Adverse health effects from occupational injury among construction workers persist longer than previously documented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prospective risk of rheumatologic disease associated with occupational exposure in a cohort of male construction workers.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Paul D; Järvholm, Bengt; Torén, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    The association between occupational exposure and autoimmune disease is well recognized for silica, and suspected for other inhalants. We used a large cohort to estimate the risks of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis associated with silica and other occupational exposures. We analyzed data for male Swedish construction industry employees. Exposure was defined by a job-exposure matrix for silica and for other inorganic dusts; those with other job-exposure matrix exposures but not to either of the 2 inorganic dust categories were excluded. National hospital treatment data were linked for International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) Revision-coded diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis (seronegative and positive), systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis. The 2 occupational exposures were tested as independent predictors of prospective hospital-based treatment for these diagnoses using age-adjusted Poisson multivariable regression analyses to calculate relative risk (RR). We analyzed hospital-based treatment data (1997 through 2010) for 240,983 men aged 30 to 84 years. There were 713 incident cases of rheumatoid arthritis (467 seropositive, 195 seronegative, 51 not classified) and 128 cases combined for systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis. Adjusted for smoking and age, the 2 occupational exposures (silica and other inorganic dusts) were each associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis combined: RR 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.64) and RR 1.31 (95% CI, 1.11-1.53), respectively. Among ever smokers, both silica and other inorganic dust exposure were associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RRs 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.68 and 1.42; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73, respectively), while among never smokers, neither exposure was associated with statistically

  3. A cluster randomized pilot trial of a tailored worksite smoking cessation intervention targeting Hispanic/Latino construction workers: Intervention development and research design.

    PubMed

    Asfar, Taghrid; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; McClure, Laura A; Ruano-Herreria, Estefania C; Sierra, Danielle; Gilford Clark, G; Samano, Daniel; Dietz, Noella A; Ward, Kenneth D; Arheart, Kristopher L; Lee, David J

    2018-04-01

    Construction workers have the highest smoking rate among all occupations (39%). Hispanic/Latino workers constitute a large and increasing group in the US construction industry (over 2.6 million; 23% of all workers). These minority workers have lower cessation rates compared to other groups due to their limited access to cessation services, and lack of smoking cessation interventions adapted to their culture and work/life circumstances. Formative research was conducted to create an intervention targeting Hispanic/Latino construction workers. This paper describes the intervention development and the design, methods, and data analysis plans for an ongoing cluster pilot two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing an Enhanced Care worksite cessation program to Standard Care. Fourteen construction sites will be randomized to either Enhanced Care or Standard Care and 126 participants (63/arm) will be recruited. In both arms, recruitment and intervention delivery occur around "food trucks" that regularly visit the construction sites. Participants at Enhanced Care sites will receive the developed intervention consisting of a single face-to-face group counseling session, 2 phone calls, and a fax referral to Florida tobacco quitline (QL). Participants at Standard Care sites will receive a fax referral to the QL. Both groups will receive eight weeks of nicotine replacement treatment and two follow-up assessments at three and six months. Feasibility outcomes are estimated recruitment yield, barriers to delivering the intervention onsite, and rates of adherence/compliance to the intervention, follow-ups, and QL enrollment. Efficacy outcomes are point-prevalence and prolonged abstinence rates at six month follow-up confirmed by saliva cotinine <15 ng/ml. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Comparing the physiological and perceptual responses of construction workers (bar benders and bar fixers) in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del Pui-Lam; Chung, Joanne Wai-Yee; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen; Wong, Francis Kwan-Wah; Yi, Wen

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to (1) quantify the respective physical workloads of bar bending and fixing; and (2) compare the physiological and perceptual responses between bar benders and bar fixers. Field studies were conducted during the summer in Hong Kong from July 2011 to August 2011 over six construction sites. Synchronized physiological, perceptual, and environmental parameters were measured from construction rebar workers. The average duration of the 39 field measurements was 151.1 ± 22.4 min under hot environment (WBGT = 31.4 ± 2.2 °C), during which physiological, perceptual and environmental parameters were synchronized. Energy expenditure of overall rebar work, bar bending, and bar fixing were 2.57, 2.26 and 2.67 Kcal/min (179, 158 and 186 W), respectively. Bar fixing induced significantly higher physiological responses in heart rate (113.6 vs. 102.3 beat/min, p < 0.05), oxygen consumption (9.53 vs. 7.14 ml/min/kg, p < 0.05), and energy expenditure (2.67 vs. 2.26 Kcal/min, p < 0.05) (186 vs. 158 W, p < 0.05) as compared to bar bending. Perceptual response was higher in bar fixing but such difference was not statistically significant. Findings of this study enable the calculation of daily energy expenditure of rebar work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators and work-related injuries among Danish construction workers.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Lander, F; Lauritsen, J M

    2015-04-01

    The current study examines and compares the relationship between both macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators, and work-related injuries among construction workers in Denmark using emergency department (ED) injury data and also officially reported injuries to the Danish Working Environment Authority (WEA). The correlations between ED and WEA injury data from the catchment area of Odense University Hospital during the period 1984-2010 were tested separately for variability and trend with two general macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product and the Danish unemployment rate) and two construction industry-specific indicators (gross value added and the number of employees). The results show that injury rates increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions. However, the regression coefficients were generally weak for both the ED (range 0.14-0.20) and WEA injuries (range 0.13-0.36). Furthermore, although there is some variability in the strength of the relationship of the different business cycle indicators, the relationships are generally not stronger for the WEA injuries than for the ED injuries, except for general unemployment. Similarly, no substantial differences in strength of relation between industry-specific and macroeconomic indicators were identified. The study shows that there was no difference in the relationship between business cycle indicators, and WEA and ED injury data. This indicates that changes in reporting behaviour do not seem to play a major role in the relation between the business cycle and workplace injuries in a Danish context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    PubMed

    Mojerlou, Zohreh; Elhamirad, Amirhhossein

    2018-03-01

    The use of ultrasound in ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is one of the main applications of this technology in food industry. This study aimed to optimize UAE conditions for olive cake extract (OCE) through response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal UAE conditions were obtained with extraction temperature of 56 °C, extraction time of 3 min, duty cycle of 0.6 s, and solid to solvent ratio of 3.6%. At the optimum conditions, the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and antioxidant activity (AA) were measured 4.04 mg/g and 68.9%, respectively. The linear term of temperature had the most effect on TPC content and AA of OCE prepared by UAE. Protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid were characterized as the highest (19.5%) and lowest (1.6%) phenolic compound measured in OCE extracted by UAE. This research revealed that UAE is an effective method to extract phenolic compounds from olive cake. RSM successfully optimized UAE conditions for OCE.

  7. Promoting health, promoting women: the construction of female and professional identities in the discourse of community health workers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, J

    1998-12-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programs are implemented in the third world and among racial minorities in the U.S. by public health professionals with the goal of improving people's access to basic health services. There is a shared view that women's roles as mothers make them effective CHWs because most health practices are located within the realm of the family. The objective of this paper is to inquire how and what concepts of woman are constructed and promoted in CHW programs. Viewing CHW as a discourse, I examine literature on CHWs using a critical feminist perspective and insights from narrative and rhetorical analyses. I argue that CHW positions women living in the third world and non-white Hispanic women in the U.S. as the "other" woman. The natural attributes of this other woman include mother, care giver, oppressed, child-like, and victim of patriarchy, religion, poverty, and diseases. These attributes are used to define categories of the female such as "the third world woman" and "Hispanic woman". These categories, in turn, define two unnamed opposite categories: "the first world woman" and "the public health professional". I conclude that CHW is a colonizing discourse and that public health professionals and feminists need to practice reflexivity.

  8. Association of objectively measured arm inclination with shoulder pain: A 6-month follow-up prospective study of construction and health care workers

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Knardahl, Stein

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to determine the association of occupational arm inclination with shoulder pain in construction and health care workers. Methods Arm inclination relative to the vertical was measured with an accelerometer placed on the dominant upper arm for up to four full days at baseline in 62 construction workers and 63 health care workers. The pain intensity in the shoulder and mechanical and psychosocial work factors were measured by self-reports at baseline and prospectively after 6 months. The associations between exposures and shoulder pain were analyzed with multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions. Results For the total study population working with the dominant arm at inclinations > 30° and >120° was associated with lower levels of shoulder pain both cross-sectionally and after 6 months. Associations were attenuated when adjusting for individual and social factors, psychological state, and exposure during leisure time, especially for the high inclination levels. Analyses, only including subjects with no pain at baseline revealed no significant associations. While stratified analysis showed negative associations in the construction worker group, there were no significant association in health care workers. Compared to the number of hypotheses tested, the number of significant findings was low. Adjustment by Bonferroni-correction made almost all findings insignificant. Conclusions All analyses reflected a negative association between arm inclination and shoulder pain, but few analyses showed these associations to be statistically significant. If there is a relationship between arm inclination and shoulder pain, these findings could indicate that pain-avoidance may modify how workers perform their tasks. PMID:29176761

  9. The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-23

    operations and is expanding service. Burj al Arab hotel in Dubai bills itself as “world’s only 7-star hotel.” UAE participating in Gulf country-wide...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy Kenneth...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  10. The effect of the OSHA lead exposure in construction standard on blood lead levels among iron workers employed in bridge rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Levin, S M; Goldberg, M; Doucette, J T

    1997-03-01

    Over 50,000 workers are at risk of occupational exposure to lead in the course of renovating the nation's deteriorating infrastructure. In mid-1993, to control exposure to lead in the construction setting OSHA promulgated a Lead in Construction Standard. In this study, we assessed the effect of the mandated changes in exposure conditions which followed the introduction of this new standard. We analyzed changes in baseline and maximum blood lead concentrations and in maximum increments in blood lead levels before and after introduction of the standard among iron workers employed in the renovation of a large, lead-painted, steel bridge in New York City. Results indicated that baseline and maximum blood lead levels fell significantly after the implementation of the provisions of the standard, as did maximum increments in blood lead concentrations. Seventy-six percent of the workers maintained blood lead concentrations below 20 micrograms/dl after the OSHA standard, as compared with 66% prior to its implementation. Increments of 20 micrograms/dl or more occurred considerably more frequently before introduction of the standard (13% before vs. 4% after; p = 0.01). Evidence of decreased exposure to lead was observed among iron workers who were present both before and after the introduction of the OSHA standard, as well as among iron workers newly hired after the OSHA provisions were put in place. These findings document the effectiveness of the OSHA construction lead standard in controlling exposure to lead in this complex and variable environment. The data indicate the utility of blood lead determinations in assessing the outcome of industrial hygiene interventions to reduce exposures to lead in the construction setting.

  11. A possible general mechanism for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) suggested from the results of UAE of chlorogenic acid from Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) leaves.

    PubMed

    Saleh, I A; Vinatoru, M; Mason, T J; Abdel-Azim, N S; Aboutabl, E A; Hammouda, F M

    2016-07-01

    The use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the extraction of chlorogenic acid (CA) from Cynara scolymus L., (artichoke) leaves using 80% methanol at room temperature over 15 min gave a significant increase in yield (up to a 50%) compared with maceration at room temperature and close to that obtained by boiling over the same time period. A note of caution is introduced when comparing UAE with Soxhlet extraction because, in the latter case, the liquid entering the Soxhlet extractor is more concentrated in methanol (nearly 100%) that the solvent in the reservoir (80% methanol) due to fractionation during distillation. The mechanism of UAE is discussed in terms of the effects of cavitation on the swelling index, solvent diffusion and the removal of a stagnant layer of solvent surrounding the plant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    entrepreneurship , legal reform, civil society, independent media, and international trade law compliance—funded largely by the State Department’s Middle East...their citizenship to their children —the first GCC state to allow this. Many domestic service jobs are performed by migrant women, and they are denied...Iraq and to provide medical treatment to Iraqi children in the UAE. Bilateral trade is estimated at about $5 billion, and UAE companies reportedly are

  13. The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-07

    tallest building, on January 4, 2010. Dubai metro has begun operations and is expanding service. Burj al Arab hotel in Dubai bills itself as “world’s...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy Kenneth...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  14. The effects of safety handrails and the heights of scaffolds on the subjective and objective evaluation of postural stability and cardiovascular stress in novice and expert construction workers.

    PubMed

    Min, Seung-Nam; Kim, Jung-Yong; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2012-05-01

    Work performed on scaffolds carries the risk of falling that disproportionately threatens the safety and health of novice construction workers. Hence, objective measures of the postural stability, cardiovascular stress, and subjective difficulty in maintaining postural balance were evaluated for four expert and four novice construction workers performing a manual task in a standing posture on a scaffold with and without safety handrails at two different elevation heights. Based on a multivariate analysis of variance, the experience, scaffold height, and presence of a handrail were found to significantly affect measures of the postural stability and cardiovascular stress. At a lower level of worker experience, a higher scaffold height, and in the absence of a handrail (which may correspond to higher risk of a fall), postural stability was significantly reduced, while cardiovascular stress and subjective difficulties in maintaining postural balance increased. We emphasize the importance of training and handrails for fall prevention at construction sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of primary DNA damage, cytogenetic biomarkers and genetic polymorphisms for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 in road tunnel construction workers.

    PubMed

    Villarini, M; Moretti, M; Fatigoni, C; Agea, E; Dominici, L; Mattioli, A; Volpi, R; Pasquini, R

    2008-01-01

    In tunnel construction workers, occupational exposure to dust (alpha-quartz and other particles from blasting), gases (nitrogen dioxide, NO(2)), diesel exhausts, and oil mist has been associated with lung function decline, induction of inflammatory reactions in the lungs with release of mediators that may influence blood coagulation, and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present molecular epidemiology study was designed to evaluate whether occupational exposure to indoor pollutants during road tunnel construction might result in genotoxic effects. A study group of 39 underground workers and a reference group of 34 unexposed subjects were examined. Primary and oxidative DNA damage, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and micronuclei (MN) were measured in peripheral blood cells. The possible influences of polymorphisms in gene encoding for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes were also investigated. Exposure assessment was performed with detailed interviews and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in the level of primary and oxidative DNA damage and frequency of SCE between the tunnel workers and controls, whereas the frequency of MN showed a significant increase in exposed subjects compared to controls. No effects of CYP1A1 or GSTM1 variants were observed for the analyzed biomarkers. Since MN in peripheral blood lymphocytes are recognized as a predictive biomarker of cancer risk within a population of healthy subjects, the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to various indoor environmental pollutants during road tunnel construction cannot be excluded by this biomonitoring study.

  16. United Arab Emirates (UAE): regional and global dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nabeh, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The study traces the background and development of the United Arab Emirates as a federal entity in an essentially tribal culture. It also identifies and discusses the political dynamics that form the vital region in which the Union has emerged, the function played by major regional individuals in this emergence, and the importance of this part of the Middle East in the conception of foreign policy makers of the super powers. The issues of the regional economic policies resulted in formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981 among six Arab Gulf countries: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,more » and the United Arab Emirates. Formation of the GCC was an essential step toward the comprehensive economic development of the region. One of the conclusions is that the attainment of socio-economic and political development is not a necessary condition for the emergence of a federal structure among highly authoritarian and formalistic political systems. The emergence of the UAE took place mainly as a consequence of the conception by pertinent political elites of the inability of the emirates to individually assume the responsibilities of statehood in a highly complicated world, and in light of the poor material and human resources each commanded after over a century of dependence on a foreign power.« less

  17. [Skin diseases and sensitization to metals in construction workers engaged in the production of pre-cast cellular concrete slabs].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M; Woźniak, H; Wojtczak, J

    1989-01-01

    The study involved 461 building workers exposed to ashes, cement and ash-cement mixtures in direct production and at auxiliary posts (fitters, welders, mechanics, electricians etc.). In addition, all those workers were exposed to lubricants ans machine oils, as well as anti-adhesive oils used to lubricate moulds. All the subjects underwent patch tests. Dermatitis was found in 18.9%, whereas oil acne in 7.4% of subjects, 23.0% exhibited chromium allergy, 15.2% - cobalt allergy and 5.0% - nickel allergy. Two workers were ++hypersensitive to zinc. No differences were found in the rates of dermatitis, oil acne and metal allergy between production workers and auxiliary ones. Airborne dust concentrations at those workplaces were similar. Cement and ashes contained compounds of chromium, cobalt and nickel.

  18. Associations of objectively measured sitting and standing with low-back pain intensity: a 6-month follow-up of construction and healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Koch, Markus; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2017-05-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the associations between objectively measured sitting and standing duration and intensity of low-back pain (LBP) among Norwegian construction and healthcare workers. Methods One-hundred and twenty-four workers wore two accelerometers for 3-4 consecutive days, during work and leisure. Minutes of sitting and standing was calculated from accelerometer data. We obtained self-reported LBP intensity (0-3) at the time of objective measurement and after six months. We examined associations with linear mixed models and presented results per 100 minutes. Results For healthcare workers, the duration of sitting during work [β= -0.33, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.55- -0.10] and during full-day (work + leisure) (β= -0.21, 95% CI -0.38- -0.04) was associated with baseline LBP intensity. Furthermore, minutes of sitting at work (β=-0.35, 95% CI -0.57- -0.13) and during the full day (β=-0.20, 95% CI -0.37- -0.04) were significantly associated with LBP intensity at six months. Associations were attenuated when adjusting for work-related mechanical and psychosocial covariates and objectively measured exposure during leisure time. No significant associations between sitting and LBP intensity were found for construction workers. Standing at work was not consistently associated with LBP intensity at baseline or after six months for any work sector. Conclusions This study suggests that a long duration of sitting at work is associated with lower levels of LBP intensity among healthcare workers. Standing duration had no consistent associations with LBP intensity.

  19. Alcohol drinking behaviors and alcohol management policies under outsourcing work conditions: A qualitative study of construction workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen

    2016-02-01

    Workplace alcohol policies are crucial for workers' health and safety. The practice of outsourcing is gaining popularity around the world and was found to be associated with poorer health in the working population. This study aimed to examine how outsourcing complicates the implementation of workplace alcohol policies and affects workers' drinking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 outsource workers, 3 subcontractors and 3 worksite supervisors. Information regarding workers' drinking behaviors, their knowledge, and attitudes toward workplace alcohol policy were analyzed using a qualitative thematic analysis. Factors associated with poor workplace alcohol management included smaller size and private ownership of outsourcers, subcontractors' own drinking behavior and positive attitude to alcohol, and precarious employment conditions of outsourcing workers. The multilateral relationship between outsourcers, subcontractors, and workers complicated and impaired the implementation of workplace alcohol policies. The implementation of workplace alcohol management policies was hampered in outsourcing work conditions due to poor coordination of supervisors in the subcontract chain. The enforcement of alcohol policies in the workplace should be strengthened by consolidating management responsibilities of outsourcers and subcontractors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes on COPD mortality risk among Swedish construction workers: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Torén, Kjell; Järvholm, Bengt

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes increases the mortality risk of COPD, especially among never smokers. The study population was a cohort of 354,718 male construction workers; of these, 196,329 were exposed to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes, and 117,964 were unexposed. Exposure to inorganic dust, wood dust, vapors, fumes, gases, and irritants was based on a job-exposure matrix with a focus on exposure in the mid-1970s. The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2011. Relative risks (RRs) were obtained using Poisson regression models adjusting for age, BMI, and smoking habits. There were 1,085 deaths from COPD among the exposed workers, including 49 never smokers. Workers with any occupational exposure to vapors, gases, fumes, and dust showed an increased mortality due to COPD (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18-1.47). When comparing different exposure groups, there was a significantly increased mortality due to COPD among those exposed to fumes (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.36) and inorganic dust (RR, 1.19; 95% CI ,1.07-1.33). Among never smokers, there was high mortality due to COPD among workers with any occupational airborne exposure (RR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.17-3.83). The fraction of COPD attributable to occupational exposure was 0.24 among all workers and 0.53 among never-smoking workers. Occupational exposure to airborne pollution increases the mortality risk for COPD, especially among never smokers.

  1. [Results of an alcohol breath-test campaign in a sample of construction site workers in the Umbria region].

    PubMed

    Miscetti, Giorgio; Abbritti, Emilio Paolo; Bodo, Patrizia; Lumare, Alessandro; Romano Gargarella, Lea

    2015-01-09

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate the respect of the regulation on the prohibition of alcohol consumption in the building sector through an alcohol breath test campaign, and to acquire information on the alcohol consumption by the contractors. In the course of the investigation which covered the period 2011-2013, in a sample of construction, it was decided to access with verification of the presence of alcoholic beverages, administration workers to an anonymous questionnaire on alcohol consumption, execution of alcohol breath test. The reached population consisted in 1635 subjects, 1040 of which Italians and 595 foreigners; the consumers of at least 0,5 AU/die resulted being 354 among Italians and 250 among foreigners (p<0,05), the main occasion of consumption was observed being the meal for 39,8% of subjects; wine, followed by beer, were recorded as the most consumed beverages. The great majority of subjects, 1340, declared being aware of the regulation on the prohibition of alcohol consumption and only a minimum part of it, 42 subjects, declared having occasionally consumed alcoholic beverages for more than 6 AU, or having driven a car, 3 subjects, after having consumed at least 2 AU, or having had interviews, 115 subjects, about alcohol consumption with healthcare operators. The alcohol test results only marked 91 cases (5,6%) of positiveness with values mostly confined to 0,2 g/l, and the distribution of positive tests resulted substantially overlapping (p>0,05) between foreigners and Italians. Notwithstanding, among the negative subjects, 9% declared having consumed alcoholics during the meal immediately preceding the work shift; all this underlining a sound dangerous behaviour. A behaviour which may easily escape to an alcohol metric test, considering the relationship between the timing of the last alcohol consumption, the quantity assumed, the test timing and its result. The authors conclude pointing out how, in the studied sector, there

  2. 46 CFR 127.280 - Construction and arrangement of quarters for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... feet) of deck and at least 6 cubic meters (210 cubic feet) of space for each member accommodated. The... room. (3) There must be at least one toilet, one washbasin, and one shower or bathtub for every eight... meters (140 cubic feet) of space for each worker accommodated. The presence in a stateroom of equipment...

  3. 46 CFR 127.280 - Construction and arrangement of quarters for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... feet) of deck and at least 6 cubic meters (210 cubic feet) of space for each member accommodated. The... room. (3) There must be at least one toilet, one washbasin, and one shower or bathtub for every eight... meters (140 cubic feet) of space for each worker accommodated. The presence in a stateroom of equipment...

  4. 46 CFR 127.280 - Construction and arrangement of quarters for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... feet) of deck and at least 6 cubic meters (210 cubic feet) of space for each member accommodated. The... room. (3) There must be at least one toilet, one washbasin, and one shower or bathtub for every eight... meters (140 cubic feet) of space for each worker accommodated. The presence in a stateroom of equipment...

  5. 46 CFR 127.280 - Construction and arrangement of quarters for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... feet) of deck and at least 6 cubic meters (210 cubic feet) of space for each member accommodated. The... room. (3) There must be at least one toilet, one washbasin, and one shower or bathtub for every eight... meters (140 cubic feet) of space for each worker accommodated. The presence in a stateroom of equipment...

  6. 46 CFR 127.280 - Construction and arrangement of quarters for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feet) of deck and at least 6 cubic meters (210 cubic feet) of space for each member accommodated. The... room. (3) There must be at least one toilet, one washbasin, and one shower or bathtub for every eight... meters (140 cubic feet) of space for each worker accommodated. The presence in a stateroom of equipment...

  7. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. Methods/Design The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance

  8. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-04-17

    More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance strategies. When these strategies are

  9. Seismic wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in UAE carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunsami, Abdulwaheed Remi

    Interpreting the seismic property of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs at low frequency scale has been a cherished goal of petroleum geophysics research for decades. Lately, there has been tremendous interest in understanding attenuation as a result of fluid flow in porous media. Although interesting, the emerging experimental and theoretical information still remain ambiguous and are practically not utilized for reasons not too obscure. Attenuation is frequency dependent and hard to measure in the laboratory at low frequency. This thesis describes and reports the results of an experimental study of low frequency attenuation and velocity dispersion on a selected carbonate reservoir samples in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the low frequency measurements, stress-strain method was used to measure the moduli from which the velocity is derived. Attenuation was measured as the phase difference between the applied stress and the strain. For the ultrasonic component, the pulse propagation method was employed. To study the fluid effect especially at reservoir in situ conditions, the measurements were made dry and saturated with liquid butane and brine at differential pressures of up to 5000 psi with pore pressure held constant at 500 psi. Similarly to what has been documented in the literatures for sandstone, attenuation of the bulk compressibility mode dominates the losses in these dry and somewhat partially saturated carbonate samples with butane and brine. Overall, the observed attenuation cannot be simply said to be frequency dependent within this low seismic band. While attenuation seems to be practically constant in the low frequency band for sample 3H, such conclusion cannot be made for sample 7H. For the velocities, significant dispersion is observed and Gassmann generally fails to match the measured velocities. Only the squirt model fairly fits the velocities, but not at all pressures. Although the observed dispersion is larger than Biot's prediction, the fact

  10. Reanalysis of the occurrence of back pain among construction workers: modelling for the interdependent effects of heavy physical work, earlier back accidents, and aging.

    PubMed

    Nurminen, M

    1997-11-01

    To re-examine the relation between heavy physical work and the occurrence of sciatic pain among construction workers reported previously to be absent in an epidemiological study. METHODS-Poisson log linear regression was used to model for the frequency of sciatic pain among concrete reinforcement workers and maintenance house painters with adjustment for the interactive effects of earlier back accidents and aging that modified the relation. Concrete reinforcement work not only had a direct effect on the frequency of sciatic pain, but it also contributed significantly to the risk indirectly through earlier back accidents. The risk of sciatic pain increased from age 25 to 54 in a different manner for a worker depending on his occupational group and record of back accidents. Epidemiological studies on low back pain need to be analysed with sound methodology. This is important in view of future meta-analyses that will be performed for the purpose of providing guidelines on the prevention of back disorders in heavy physical work.

  11. Lead induces DNA damage and alteration of ALAD and antioxidant genes mRNA expression in construction site workers.

    PubMed

    Akram, Zertashia; Riaz, Sadaf; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar; Jahan, Sarwat; Ahmad, Malik Waqar; Ullah, Muhammad Abaid; Wazir, Hizbullah; Mahjabeen, Ishrat

    2018-01-16

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are considered as possible mechanisms involved in lead toxicity. To test this hypothesis, DNA damage and expression variations of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 2a (OGG1-2a) genes was studied in a cohort of 100 exposed workers and 100 controls with comet assay and real-time polymerse chain reaction (PCR). Results indicated that increased number of comets was observed in exposed workers versus controls (p < 0.001). After qPCR analysis, significant down-regulation in ALAD (p < 0.0001), SOD2 (p < 0.0001), and OGG1-2a (p < 0.0001) level was observed in exposed workers versus controls. Additionally, a positive spearmen correlation was observed between ALAD versus SOD2 (r = 0.402**, p < 0.001), ALAD versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.235*, p < 0.05), and SOD2 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.292*, p < 0.05). This study showed that lead exposure induces DNA damage, which is accompanied by an elevated intensity of oxidative stress and expression variation of lead-related gene.

  12. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers.

    PubMed

    van Vegchel, N; de Jonge, J; Meijer, T; Hamers, J P

    2001-04-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). The ERI model had been used as a theoretical framework, indicating that work stress is related to high efforts (i.e. job demands) and low occupational rewards (e.g. money, esteem and security/career opportunities). The ERI model also predicts that, in overcommitted workers, effects of ERI on employee well-being are stronger compared with their less committed counterparts. A cross-sectional survey among 167 ancillary health care workers of two nursing homes was conducted. Multiple univariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the relationship between ERI and employee well-being. Results of the logistic regression analyses showed that employees with both high (psychological, physical and emotional) efforts and low rewards had higher risks of psychosomatic health complaints, physical health symptoms and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 5.09 to 18.55). Moreover, employees who reported both high efforts and high rewards had elevated risks of physical symptoms and exhaustion (ORs ranged from 6.17 to 9.39). No support was found for the hypothesis on the moderating effect of overcommitment. Results show some support for the ERI model; ancillary health care workers with high effort/low reward imbalance had elevated risks of poor employee well-being. In addition, results show that the combination of high efforts and high rewards is important for employee well-being. Finally, some practical implications are discussed to combat work stress in health care work.

  13. UAE University Male Students' Interests Impact on Reading and Writing Performance and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Murshidi, Ghadah

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the impact of the conjunction of structured journal writing and reading for pleasure on students' reading and writing skills. Forty male students from UAE University participated in the study. The participants are of different academic abilities, majors and nationalities. Many of them have little experience with reading for…

  14. Specialty preferences and motivating factors: A national survey on medical students from five uae medical schools.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Makki, Maryam; Shaaban, Sami; Al Shamsi, Maryam; Venkatramana, Manda; Sulaiman, Nabil; Sami, Manal M; Abdelmannan, Dima K; Salih, AbdulJabbar M A; AlShaer, Laila

    2016-01-01

    Workforce planning is critical for being able to deliver appropriate health service and thus is relevant to medical education. It is, therefore, important to understand medical students' future specialty choices and the factors that influence them. This study was conducted to identify, explore, and analyze the factors influencing specialty preferences among medical students of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multiyear, multicenter survey of medical student career choice was conducted with all five UAE medical schools. The questionnaire consisted of five sections. Chi-squared tests, regression analysis, and stepwise logistic regression were performed. The overall response rate was 46% (956/2079). Factors that students reported to be extremely important when considering their future career preferences were intellectual satisfaction (87%), work-life balance (71%), having the required talent (70%), and having a stable and secure future (69%). The majority of students (60%) preferred internal medicine, surgery, emergency medicine, or family Medicine. The most common reason given for choosing a particular specialty was personal interest (21%), followed by flexibility of working hours (17%). The data show that a variety of factors inspires medical students in the UAE in their choice of a future medical specialty. These factors can be used by health policymakers, university mentors, and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are scarce in the UAE and therefore better serve the health-care system and the national community.

  15. The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-17

    foot section of the Zayid Port for use by the French navy ; (2) an installation at Dhafra Air Base to be used by France’s air force; and (3) a barracks...York Times report that the UAE had hired the firm, which is run by Eric Prince, who founded the Blackwater security contractor, to a $529 million

  16. US-UAE Relations: A Partnership Threatened by Differences Regarding Human Rights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Furthermore, UAE‟s approach to opening its markets to foreign companies continues to attract US investors and businesses alike. Over 750 US...companies to include Microsoft, Exxon Mobil, Lockeed Martin, United Airlines, and Starbucks currently maintain a presence in the UAE. 19 An additional

  17. Digital Gender Divides and E-Empowerment in the UAE: A Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Moussa, Mohamed; Seraphim, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenal diffusion and adoption of ICTs in the UAE is widely viewed as a game changer in the country's struggle to address continuous significant gender gaps in the country. The small body of research on this topic has been, however, inconclusive, overtly optimistic, and insufficiently theorized. Addressing these lacuna, the article uses a…

  18. Using Mobile Technology in the Classroom: A Reflection Based on Teaching Experience in UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaweh, Mohanad

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are developing rapidly and continually with new features that make them widely used in many contexts. This paper is to reflect on students' behaviours of using smartphones spontaneously (unplanned use) in the classroom, in a university in Dubai city in UAE. This reflection shall address the following questions: How can the instructors…

  19. Smart Board Technology Success in Tertiary Institutions: The Case of the UAE University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel

    2016-01-01

    This research explores teaching-faculty's adoption and usage of the Interactive White Board Technology (IWBT) in UAE University (UAEU). The research findings suggested two perspectives concerning IWBT usage by teaching-faculty in UAEU. The first theme is concerned with IWBT's basic features where the IWBT proved its superiority when compared to…

  20. Higher Education and Development in Arab Oil Exporters: The UAE [United Arab Emirates] in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Diederik

    As exporters of oil in the Middle East and throughout the world, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) must address the following challenges in the area of development and economic growth: (1) an increasingly integrated world economy in which technology and knowledge will be paramount; (2) the need to diversify its economy from a natural resource-based…

  1. Predictors of Academic Performance for Finance Students: Women at Higher Education in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Massah, Suzanna Sobhy; Fadly, Dalia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study uses data drawn from a senior finance major cohort of 78 female undergraduates at Zayed University (ZU)-UAE to investigate factors, which increase the likelihood of achieving better academic performance in an Islamic finance course based on information about socioeconomic background of female students. The paper aims to discuss…

  2. Towards a Personality Understanding of Information Technology Students and Their IT Learning in UAE University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel; Rouibah, Kamel; Tarhini, Ali; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Yammahi, Aishah Rashid; Yammahi, Maraim Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This research investigates the personality characteristics of Information Technology students (CIT) in UAE University (UAEU) and how such features impact their IT learning. To achieve this objective, this research attempts to explain the impact of the Big-5 factors on learning using survey research. Results from 179 respondents suggested that…

  3. An Empirical Investigation of Smart Board Innovations in Teaching in UAE University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates Teaching Faculty's (TF) adoption and usage of the Interactive or Smart White Board Technology (SB) in UAE University (UAEU). The developed theoretical framework is based on the technological innovation theories and is made of different socio-technical factors. Using survey research targeting UAEU's TF, the research…

  4. Nonfatal tool- or equipment-related injuries treated in US emergency departments among workers in the construction industry, 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Shishlov, Kirill S; Myers, Douglas J

    2010-06-01

    Individuals in the construction industry are exposed to a variety of tools and pieces of equipment as they work. Data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) occupational supplement to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS-Work) were used to characterize tool- and equipment-related injuries among workers in the construction industry that were treated in US emergency departments between 1998 and 2005. Based on a national stratified probability sample of US hospitals with 24 hr emergency services, NEISS-Work allows calculation of national injury estimates. Over the 8-year period between 1998 and 2005, we estimated 786,900 (95% CI 546,600-1,027,200) ED-treated tool- or equipment-related injuries identified by the primary or secondary source of injury code. These injuries accounted for a quarter of all ED-treated construction industry injuries. Although over 100 different tools or pieces of equipment were responsible for these injuries, seven were responsible for over 65% of the injury burden: ladders, nail guns, power saws, hammers, knives, power drills, and welding tools in decreasing order. Current injury estimates and their severity, marked by the proportion of cases that were not released after ED treatment, indicate interventions are particularly needed to prevent injuries associated with use of ladders as well as nail guns and power saws. Attention should focus on design and guarding to more efficiently prevent these injuries rather than simply calling for the training of workers in how to safely use a dangerous tool or piece of equipment. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  6. [Accidents at work in construction workers: a peculiar utilization of the information flow INAIL-ISPESL-Regions].

    PubMed

    Madeo, G; Giaimo, M

    2007-01-01

    Indicators generally used to describe the work accident risk, i.e. frequency and injuries severity, are not suitable for comparison among single companies in order to point out those with major risk. We propose a method to draw out construction companies with higher risk of occupational injuries in the period 2003-2005 from INAIL-ISPESL-Regioni database. These companies will be object of specific interventions for the prevention, training and supervision from Prevention and Safety in Working Environments Services, from Provincial Labor Directions and Provincial Territorial Construction Committees.

  7. Estimation of fluoride concentration in drinking water and common beverages in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Walia, Tarun; Abu Fanas, Salem; Akbar, Madiha; Eddin, Jamal; Adnan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess fluoride concentration in drinking water which include tap water of 4 emirates - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ajman plus bottled water, commonly available soft drinks & juices in United Arab Emirates. Five different samples of tap water collected from each of the four emirates of UAE: Ajman, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi and Dubai; twenty-two brands of bottled water and fifteen brands of popular cold beverages, purchased from different supermarkets in U.A.E were tested using ion selective electrode method and the fluoride concentration was determined. The mean fluoride content of tap water samples was 0.14 mg F/L with a range of 0.04-0.3 mg F/L; with Ajman tap water samples showing the highest mean fluoride content of 0.3 mg F/L. The mean fluoride content for both bottled drinking water and beverages was 0.07 mg F/L with a range of 0.02-0.50 mg F/L and 0.04-0.1 mg F/L respectively. Majority (68.2%) of the bottled water are produced locally within U.A.E while a few (31.8%) are imported. The tap water, bottled water and beverages available in U.A.E show varying concentrations of fluoride, however none showed the optimal level necessary to prevent dental caries. Dental professionals in U.A.E should be aware of the fluoride concentrations before prescribing fluoride supplements to children.

  8. Musculoskeletal health and work ability in physically demanding occupations: study protocol for a prospective field study on construction and health care workers.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Koch, Markus; Knardahl, Stein; Wærsted, Morten; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Forsman, Mikael; Holtermann, Andreas; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2014-10-16

    Musculoskeletal disorders have a profound impact on individual health, sickness absence and early retirement, particularly in physically demanding occupations. Demographics are changing in the developed countries, towards increasing proportions of senior workers. These senior workers may have particular difficulties coping with physically demanding occupations while maintaining good health. Previous studies investigating the relationship between physical work demands and musculoskeletal disorders are mainly based on self-reported exposures and lack a prospective design. The aim of this paper is to describe the background and methods and discuss challenges for a field study examining physical demands in construction and health care work and their prospective associations with musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence. This protocol describes a prospective cohort study on 1200 construction and health care workers. Participants will answer a baseline questionnaire concerning musculoskeletal complaints, general health, psychosocial and organizational factors at work, work demands, work ability and physical activity during leisure. A shorter questionnaire will be answered every 6th months for a total of two years, together with continuous sickness absence monitoring during this period. Analysis will prospectively consider associations between self-reported physical demands and musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence. To obtain objective data on physical exposures, technical measurements will be collected from two subgroups of N = 300 (Group A) and N = 160 (Group B) during work and leisure. Both group A and B will be given a physical health examination, be tested for physical capacity and physical activity will be measured for four days. Additionally, muscle activity, ground reaction force, body positions and physical activity will be examined during one workday for Group B. Analysis of associations between objectively measured

  9. Contact & connect--an intervention to reduce depression stigma and symptoms in construction workers: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Burnside, Lewis; Wilson, Caitlyn; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-10-16

    Males employed in the construction industry have high rates of suicide. Although reasons underpinning this risk are multifaceted, poor help-seeking and stigma are represent major contributors. Males in the construction industry are also exposed to other risk factors for mental ill health and suicide, including unemployment. Sigma-reducing interventions that are accessible and attractive to recently unemployed males in the construction industry could therefore improve help-seeking, and address depression and suicidal behaviour in this population. Contact&Connect will use a parallel individual randomized design to evaluate the effectiveness of a multimedia-based intervention aimed at reducing stigma. The intervention consists of a package of 12 brief contact interventions (BCIs) delivered over a six month period. BCIs will direct participants to informational programs and microsites. Content will address three major themes: debunking depression myths and stereotypes, normalisation, and empowerment. Target enrollment is 630 (315 in each arm), each to be followed for 12 months. Eligible participants will be males, between 30 and 64 years, unemployed at the time of recruitment, registered with Incolink (a social welfare trustee company for unemployed members of the construction industry), and own a smart phone with enabled internet connectivity. At present, there are no programs that have been shown to be effective in reducing stigma in the blue-collar male population. Contact&Connect promises to provide a tailored, efficient, and scalable approach to reducing stigma, depressive symptoms and suicidality among unemployed males. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12615000792527 (date of registration: 30 July, 2015).

  10. The blue man: burn from muriatic acid combined with chlorinated paint in an adult pool construction worker.

    PubMed

    O'Cleireachain, Marc R; Macias, Luis H; Richey, Karen J; Pressman, Melissa A; Shirah, Gina R; Caruso, Daniel M; Foster, Kevin N; Matthews, Marc R

    2014-01-01

    Muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid), a common cleaning and resurfacing agent for concrete pools, can cause significant burn injuries. When coating a pool with chlorinated rubber-based paint, the pool surface is initially cleansed using 31.45% muriatic acid. Here we report a 50-year-old Hispanic male pool worker who, during the process of a pool resurfacing, experienced significant contact exposure to a combination of muriatic acid and blue chlorinated rubber-based paint. Confounding the clinical situation was the inability to efficiently remove the chemical secondary to the rubber-based nature of the paint. Additionally, vigorous attempts were made to remove the rubber paint using a variety of agents, including bacitracin, chlorhexidine soap, GOOP adhesive, and Johnson's baby oil. Resultant injuries were devastating fourth-degree burns requiring an immediate operative excision and amputation. Despite aggressive operative intervention and resuscitation, he continued to have severe metabolic derangements and ultimately succumbed to his injuries. We present our attempts at debridement and the system in place to manage patients with complex chemical burns.

  11. Aerosol Retrievals Over Land and Water using Deep Blue Algorithm from SeaWiFS and MODIS during UAE2 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, N.

    2005-12-01

    The environment in Southwest Asia exhibits one of the most complex situations for aerosol remote sensing from space. Several air masses with different aerosol characteristics commonly converge in this region. In particular, there are often fine mode pollution particles generated from oil industry activities in the Persian Gulf colliding with coarse mode dust particles lifted from desert sources in the surrounding areas. During the course of the UAE field campaign (August-October, 2004), we provided near-real time information, calculated using the Deep Blue algorithm, of satellite aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent over the Southwest Asia region, including the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and part of north Africa. In this paper, we will present results of aerosol characteristics retrieved from SeaWiFS and MODIS over the Arabian Peninsula, Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea during the UAE experiment. The spectral surface reflectance data base constructed using satellite reflectance from MODIS and SeaWiFS employed in our algorithm will be discussed. We will also compare the resulting satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent with those obtained from the ground based sun photometers from AERONET in the region. Finally, we will discuss the changes in shortwave and longwave fluxes at the top of atmosphere in response to changes in aerosol optical thickness (i.e. aerosol forcing).

  12. Constructions and experiences of motherhood in the context of an early intervention for Aboriginal mothers and their children: mother and healthcare worker perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ussher, Jane M; Charter, Rosie; Parton, Chloe; Perz, Janette

    2016-07-22

    The colonisation of Australia has been associated with traumatic consequences for Aboriginal health and wellbeing, including the breakdown of the traditional family unit and negative consequences for the mother/child relationship. Early-intervention programs have been developed to assist families to overcome disadvantage and strengthen mother/child attachment. However, there is no research examining Aboriginal women's subjective experiences and constructions of motherhood in the context of such programs, and no research on the perceived impact of such programs, from the perspective of Aboriginal mothers and healthcare workers (HCWs), with previous research focusing on child outcomes. Researchers conducted participant observation of an early intervention program for Aboriginal mothers and young children over a 6 month period, one-to-one interviews and a focus group with 10 mothers, and interviews with nine HCWs, in order to examine their perspectives on motherhood and the intervention program. Thematic analysis identified 2 major themes under which subthemes were clustered. Constructions of motherhood: 'The resilient mother: Coping with life trauma and social stress' and 'The good mother: Transformation of self through motherhood'; Perspectives on the intervention: '"Mothers come to life": Transformation through therapy'; and '"I know I'm a good mum": The need for connections, skills and time for self'. The mothers constructed themselves as being resilient 'good mothers', whilst also acknowledging their own traumatic life experiences, predominantly valuing the peer support and time-out aspects of the program. HCWs positioned the mothers as 'traumatised', yet also strong, and expressed the view that in order to improve mother/child attachment a therapeutic transformation is required. These results suggest that early interventions for Aboriginal mothers should acknowledge and strengthen constructions of the good and resilient mother. The differing perspectives of

  13. Recent benthic foraminifera assemblages from mangrove swamp and channels of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and

  14. [Has application of the decree banning the use of cement with a high chromium VI content led to a reduction in occupational cement dermatitis in salaried workers in the construction industries?].

    PubMed

    Halioua, Bruno; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Crepy, Marie-Noëlle; Bouquiaux, Barbara; Assier, Haudrey; Billon, Stéphane; Chosidow, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Active employees in the construction industry are particularly exposed to occupational cement eczema (OCE) which affects the hands in 80 to 90% of cases. The importance of OCE in France and the impact of the application of decree n(o). 2005-577 on 26 May 2005 were estimated from data collected by the Occupational risks division of the French national health insurance fund for salaried workers (CNAMTS). This decree prohibits the placing on the market and use of cement (and preparations containing it) with a chromium VI content above 0.0002% in order to reduce its hazardousness. All cases of OCE reported to and recognized by the CNAMTS between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008 among construction workers were selected. The following parameters were noted in each case: age, gender, industrial sector concerned, local French National health insurance agency, causal agent and the number of working days lost. The incidence per 100,000 salaried workers could be determined from the total number of salaried workers followed up by occupational medicine as well as those working in the construction industry. For the five years studied, 3698 cases of occupational eczema (OE) were reported in construction workers and this was 17.1% of the total number of cases of OE for all salaried employees (n=12.689). Cement was the causal agent most frequently involved in the construction sector (57.8%, 2139/3698). The annual incidence of OCE decreased from 37.8 to 21.1 new cases per 100,000 employees in the construction industry per year between 2004 and 2008. The total number of days lost from work due to OCE decreased by 39% during the study period. This descriptive study highlights the importance and socio-economic impact of OCE in the construction industry. Application of decree n(o). 2005-577 on 26 May 2005 may explain a reduction in OCE. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Ranking of priorities in employees' reward and recognition schemes: from the perspective of UAE health care employees.

    PubMed

    Younies, Hassan; Barhem, Belal; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2008-01-01

    A reward and recognition (RR) system is a tool widely applied by organizations to motivate their employees. Outstanding employees expect their effort to be acknowledged by the organization. However, the variety of rewards and recognitions systems used by organizations may be perceived differently by different employees. The diverse workforce structure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) poses various challenges for organization managers. Managers need to implement the shrewd RR system which best fits their diverse workforce. This research studied how medical sector employees in the private and public health sector view the RR systems in the UAE. Two lists, comprising 26 major approaches to RR, were prepared and its items prioritized by taking inputs from 250 employees working in more than 30 varied public and private health care organizations in the UAE. The findings of the research are expected to provide guidelines for developing appropriate RR systems for organizations in general, and UAE health care organizations in particular.

  16. A randomised control crossover trial of a theory based intervention to improve sun-safe and healthy behaviours in construction workers: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Nioi, Amanda; Wendelboe-Nelson, Charlotte; Cowan, Sue; Cowie, Hilary; Rashid, Shahzad; Ritchie, Peter; Cherrie, Mark; Lansdown, Terry C; Cherrie, John W

    2018-02-15

    Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. There is limited research on understanding the barriers to adopting sun-safe behaviours and the association this may have with Vitamin D production. This paper reports a protocol for an intervention study, using text messaging in combination with a supportive smartphone App. The intervention aims to both reduce UV exposure during months with higher UV levels and promote appropriate dietary changes to boost Vitamin D levels during months with low UV levels. Approximately 60 construction workers will be recruited across the United Kingdom. A randomised control crossover trial (RCCT) will be used to test the intervention, with randomisation at site level - i.e. participants will receive both the control (no text messages or supportive App support) and intervention (daily text messages and supportive App). Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) the intervention focuses on supporting sun-safety and healthy dietary decisions in relation to Vitamin D intake. The intervention emphasises cultivating the perception of normative support in the workplace, increasing awareness of control and self-efficacy in taking sun-protective behaviours, making healthier eating choices to boost Vitamin D, and tackling stigmas attached to image and group norms. Each study epoch will last 21 days with intervention text messages delivered on workdays only. The supportive App will provide supplementary information about sun protective behaviours and healthy dietary choices. The primary outcome measure is 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] level (obtained using blood spot sampling), which will be taken pre and post control and

  17. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2013-10-02

    Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning).Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor.Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 μg/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE = 3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE = 6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE = 10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE = 0.14) k/μl. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Our study suggest that short-term SHS exposure is associated

  18. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  19. One Corner at a Time: Collaborating for Educational Change in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Patience A.; De La Vega, Esperanza

    2008-01-01

    Education has been one of the highest priorities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) since it became a country in 1971 under the leadership of the late Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan. In 1962, when oil production started in Abu Dhabi, the country had just 20 schools for less than 4,000 students, most of them boys. The discovery of oil became the…

  20. Incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus among the native Arab population in UAE.

    PubMed

    Al Dhanhani, A M; Agarwal, M; Othman, Y S; Bakoush, O

    2017-05-01

    Background and objectives There is a paucity of information about the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) amongst Arabs. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of SLE among the native Arab population of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods Patients with SLE were identified from three sources: medical records of two local tertiary hospitals (four years; 2009 to 2012), laboratory requests for serum double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and serum anti-nuclear antibody and confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of SLE (skin and kidney biopsy specimens). All the patients identified with SLE met the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Incidence and prevalence were calculated using the state records of the UAE native population as the denominator. The age-adjusted incidence was calculated by direct standardization using the World Health Organization world standard population 2000-2025. Results Sixteen new cases (13 females and three males) fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology SLE criteria. The mean (±SD) age at time of diagnosis was 28.6 ± 12.4 years. The crude incidence ratio (per 100,000 population) was 3.5, 1.1, 2.1 and 2.1 in years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, respectively. The age-standardized incidence per 100,000 population for the four years was 8.6 (95% confidence interval 4.2-15.9). The age-standardized prevalence of SLE among the native population according to the 2012 population consensus was 103/100,000 population (95% confidence interval 84.5-124.4). Conclusion The age-adjusted incidence and prevalence among UAE Arabs is higher than has been reported among most other Caucasian populations. Furthermore, the prevalence of SLE in UAE seems much higher than other similar Arab countries in the Gulf region.

  1. Reporting child abuse cases by dentists working in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Al-Amad, Suhail H; Awad, Manal A; Al-Farsi, Laila H; Elkhaled, Rawan H

    2016-05-01

    Reporting of suspicious cases of child abuse is a sensitive issue that is often hindered by uncertainty of diagnosis. This cross sectional study aimed to assess the UAE dentists' experiences in child abuse recognition, the factors that prevent them from reporting suspicious cases to authorities and their perceived training needs. A closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 dentists working in the UAE. Chi Square test was used to determine association between training needs on child abuse and its reporting rate. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between perceived training needs and other covariates. One hundred and ninety three respondents satisfied the inclusion criteria. Forty seven (25%) dentists reported encountering a suspicious child abuse case at least once in their career, but only 15 (32%) of those reported their suspicion. Fear of making the wrong diagnosis was the most frequent challenge hindering reporting and dentists who demonstrated a need for specialized training were more likely to express this fear (OR = 5.88, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.45; P = 0.00). The majority of UAE dentists do not report their suspicion to authorities and specialized training should be offered to build dentists' capacity in diagnosing and appropriately reporting suspicious child abuse cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute coronary syndrome registry from four large centres in United Arab Emirates (UAE-ACS Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Yusufali, Afzalhussein M; AlMahmeed, Wael; Tabatabai, Sadeq; Rao, Kabad; Binbrek, Azan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify the characteristics, treatments and hospital outcomes of patients diagnosed as having acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design A 3-year prospective registry. Setting Four tertiary care hospitals in three major cities of UAE from December 2003 to December 2006. Patients 1842 eligible consecutive patients with suspected ACS. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Characteristics, treatments and in-hospital outcomes were recorded. Results The mean age was 50.8±10.0 years, and 93.1% were male. More than half (51%) had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The smoking rate was 46.4%, and diabetes was present in 38.9%. Only a minority (17.3%) used the ambulance services. For patients with STEMI, the median symptom to hospital time was 127 (IQR 60–256) min, and the median diagnostic ECG to thrombolysis time was 28 (IQR 16–50) min. Reperfusion in STEMI was in 81.4% (64.8% thrombolysis and 16.6% primary percutaneous coronary intervention). During hospitalisation, only a minority of the patients did not receive antiplatelets, anticoagulants, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and statin therapy. In-hospital complications were not common in our registry cohort. In-hospital mortality was 1.68%. Conclusions ACS patients in UAE are young but have higher risk factors such as smoking and diabetes. Almost half present as STEMI. Only a minority use ambulance services. PMID:27325958

  3. Public Perception on Disaster Management Using Volunteered Geographic Information (vgi): Case of Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoub, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    The number of smart phones that are supported by location facility like Global Positioning System (GPS), Camera and connected to the internet has increased sharply in UAE during the last five years. This increase offers a chance to capitalize on using these devices as resources for data collection, therefore reducing cost. In many cases specific events may happen in areas or at time where there may be no governmental departments to collect such unrepeated events. The current research will showcase various studies that had been conducted on Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) debating various aspects such as accuracy, legal issues, and privacy. This research will also integrate Geographic Information System (GIS), VGI, social media tools, data mining, and mobile technology to design a conceptual framework for promoting public participation in UAE. The data gathered through survey will be helpful in correlating various aspects of VGI. Since there are diverse views about these aspects, policy makers are left undecided in many countries about how to deal with VGI. The assessment of the UAE case will contribute to the age-long debate by examining the willingness of the public to participate. The result will show the public perception to be as sensors for data collection. Additionally, the potential of citizen involvement in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected for VGI applications will also be explored in the paper.

  4. Constructing an Employee Benefit Package for Part-Time Workers. A Rationale for Arriving at an Equitable Benefit Package at No Extra Cost to the Employer. A Catalyst Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalyst, New York, NY.

    Guidelines are presented for constructing an employee benefit package for part-time workers in which benefits are calculated on a pro-rated (and sometimes selective) basis, such that part-time employees receive a fair proportion of the total benefit package, based on the number of hours they actually work. Pro-rating is recommended as feasible for…

  5. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: Victorian Aged Care Workers Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  6. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  7. The effect of a health promotion intervention for construction workers on work-related outcomes: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Viester, Laura; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of a worksite health promotion intervention on musculoskeletal symptoms, physical functioning, work ability, work-related vitality, work performance, and sickness absence. In a randomized controlled design, 314 construction workers were randomized into an intervention group (n = 162) receiving personal coaching, tailored information, and materials, and a control group (n = 152) receiving usual care. Sickness absence was recorded continuously in company records, and questionnaires were completed before, directly after the 6-month intervention period, and 12 months after baseline measurements. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine intervention effects. No significant changes at 6 or 12 months of follow-up were observed in musculoskeletal symptoms, physical functioning, work ability, work-related vitality, work performance, and sickness absence as a result of the intervention. This study shows that the intervention was not statistically significantly effective on secondary outcomes. Although the intervention improved physical activity, dietary, and weight-related outcomes, it was not successful in decreasing musculoskeletal symptoms and improving other work-related measures. Presumably, more multifaceted interventions are required to establish significant change in these outcomes.

  8. Contradictory individualized self-blaming: a cross-sectional study of associations between expectations to managers, coworkers, one-self and risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Persson, Roger; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2017-01-10

    Within work sociology, several studies have addressed construction workers' practices of masculinity, class, economy, safety risks and production. However, few studies have investigated room for agency in relation to bodily pain or musculoskeletal disorders and even fewer have made a quantitative approach. Accordingly, by means of a questionnaire, we examined the association between construction workers' room for agency and physical exertion, bodily and mental fatigue, and lower back pain. A total of 481 Danish construction workers who responded to a multifaceted questionnaire were included. Drawing on previous studies and a Foucauldian inspired concept of agency, agency was quantified through specially crafted questions and examined in relation to established measures on physical exertion, physical and mental fatigue and pain in the lower back. Associations were tested using analyses of variance (general linear models) and controlled for age, gender, job group, lifestyle and depression. When asked about options for agency reducing the burden of work, few workers believed themselves to be prime agents of such practices. When asking about their view on performing alternative agency implying caring for the body, 39-49% expected negative reactions from management, and 20-33% expected negative reactions from colleagues. In contrast, only 13-18% of the participants stated that they would give a negative reception to such alternative practices. Using the expected reception outcomes (positive, neutral, negative) to alternative practices as predictors, the statistical regression analyses showed that negative expectations to management were associated with higher levels of physical exertion 0.62 (95% CI = 0.14-1.09) (scale 0-11), bodily fatigue 0.63 (95% CI = 0.22-1.04), mental fatigue 0.60 (95% CI = 0.07-1.12), and low back pain 0.79 (95% CI = 0.13-1.46) (scales 0-10). In our study, construction workers answered questions about work and MSD. The answers

  9. Perspectives on cervical cancer screening among educated Muslim women in Dubai (the UAE): a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah; Woolhead, Gillian

    2015-10-24

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the seventh leading cause of death among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with most deaths attributed to late detection of this cancer. The UAE lacks a national CC screening programme. Thus, cervical screening is only performed opportunistically during women's visits to health facilities. CC screening rates in the UAE are as low as 16.9 %, and little is known about the perspectives of the nation's educated Muslim women regarding screening. Consequently, the aim of this study is to explore Muslim women's perspectives towards cervical screening in Dubai to promote strategies for increasing its uptake, thereby leading to a decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with CC. Interpretivist and social constructivist epistemological approaches were applied for this qualitative study. Data were obtained through 13 in-depth interviews. Purposive and snowballing methods were used to recruit six South Asian women and seven Emirati women living in Dubai. Thematic content analysis was concurrently applied with comparative analysis to the data. Four themes regarding women's perceptions of CC emerged from the data. First, CC was considered a 'silent disease' that could be detected with early screening. However, it was also associated with extramarital sexual relations, which negatively influenced screening uptake. Second, women's fear, pain and embarrassment, along with cultural influences, deterred them from undergoing screening. Third, a growing mistrust of allopathic medicine and impersonal healthcare promoted a negative view of screening. Last, women became aware of screening mainly when they were pregnant or receiving fertility treatment. The study highlighted a number of important factors relating to cultural, religious and sexual behaviour that shaped educated Muslim women's perspectives on CC screening. Evidently, the current opportunistic approach to screening is flawed. A national awareness programme on CC screening should be

  10. Electromagnetic mapping of buried paleochannels in eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.; Menges, C.M.; Al Kamali, A.M.; Essa, Jama F.

    1991-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic soundings and terrain conductivity meter measurements were used to map paleochannel geometry in the Al Jaww Plain of eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E. as part of an integrated hydrogeologic study of the Quaternary alluvial aquifer system. Initial interpretation of the data without benefit of well log information was able to map the depth to a conductive clay layer of Tertiary age that forms the base of the aquifer. Comparison of the results with induction logs reveals that a resistive zone exists that was incorporated into the interpretation and its lateral extent mapped with the transient electromagnetic sounding data. ?? 1991.

  11. Influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and confounding factors on the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus among road construction workers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Yadav, Anita; Giri, Shiv Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Gautam, Sanjeev Kumar; Gupta, Ranjan; Aggarwal, Neeraj

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the influence of polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and confounding factors such as age, sex, exposure duration and consumption habits on cytogenetic biomarkers. Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), high frequency cell (HFC) and cytokinesis blocked micronuclei (CBMN) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 115 occupationally exposed road construction workers and 105 unexposed individuals. The distribution of null and positive genotypes of glutathione-S transferase gene was evaluated by multiplex PCR among control and exposed subjects. An increased frequency of CBMN (7.03±2.08); SCE (6.95±1.76) and HFC (6.28±1.69) were found in exposed subjects when compared to referent (CBMN - 3.35±1.10; SCE - 4.13±1.30 and HFC - 3.98±1.56). These results were found statistically significant at p<0.05. When the effect of confounding factors on the frequency of studied biomarkers was evaluated, a strong positive interaction was found. The individuals having GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes had higher frequency of CBMN, SCE and HFC. The association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and studied biomarkers was found statistically significant at p<0.05. Our findings suggest that individuals having null type of GST are more susceptible to cytogenetic damage by occupational exposure regardless of confounding factors. There is a significant effect of polymorphism of these genes on cytogenetic biomarkers which are considered as early effects of genotoxic carcinogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychosocial work environment and risk of ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease: a prospective longitudinal study of 75 236 construction workers.

    PubMed

    Schiöler, Linus; Söderberg, Mia; Rosengren, Annika; Järvholm, Bengt; Torén, Kjell

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether different dimensions of psychosocial stress, as measured by the job demand-control model (JDC), were associated with increased risks of ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). A cohort of 75 236 male construction workers was followed from 1989-2004. Exposure to psychosocial stress was determined by a questionnaire answered in 1989-1993. Events of ischemic stroke and CHD were found by linkage to the Swedish Causes of Death and National Patient registers. Hazard ratios (HR) were obtained from Cox regression models, adjusted for age, smoking habits, body mass index and systolic blood pressure. There were 1884 cases of CHD and 739 cases of ischemic stroke. Regarding ischemic stroke, no association was found between job demands [HR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89-1.40, highest versus lowest quintile] or job control (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.82-1.32, lowest versus highest quintile). Regarding CHD, job demands were associated to CHD (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37, highest vs. lowest quintile), but no consistent trend was seen among quintiles. The results were inconsistent in relation to job control. The division of JDC into four categories showed no significant associations with either ischemic stroke or CHD. This exploratory study showed no significant associations between psychosocial work environment and ischemic stroke, and the associations between job demands and control and CHD were inconsistent and weak. The combination of job control and job demand showed no significant associations with either ischemic stroke or CHD.

  13. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: National Finance Sector Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zaniah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  14. Gis-Based Wind Farm Site Selection Model Offshore Abu Dhabi Emirate, Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleous, N.; Issa, S.; Mazrouei, J. Al

    2016-06-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government has declared the increased use of alternative energy a strategic goal and has invested in identifying and developing various sources of such energy. This study aimed at assessing the viability of establishing wind farms offshore the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE and to identify favourable sites for such farms using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) procedures and algorithms. Based on previous studies and on local requirements, a set of suitability criteria was developed including ocean currents, reserved areas, seabed topography, and wind speed. GIS layers were created and a weighted overlay GIS model based on the above mentioned criteria was built to identify suitable sites for hosting a new offshore wind energy farm. Results showed that most of Abu Dhabi offshore areas were unsuitable, largely due to the presence of restricted zones (marine protected areas, oil extraction platforms and oil pipelines in particular). However, some suitable sites could be identified, especially around Delma Island and North of Jabal Barakah in the Western Region. The environmental impact of potential wind farm locations and associated cables on the marine ecology was examined to ensure minimal disturbance to marine life. Further research is needed to specify wind mills characteristics that suit the study area especially with the presence of heavy traffic due to many oil production and shipping activities in the Arabian Gulf most of the year.

  15. Modeling of the UAE Wind Turbine for Refinement of FAST{_}AD

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J. M.

    The Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) research wind turbine was modeled both aerodynamically and structurally in the FAST{_}AD wind turbine design code, and its response to wind inflows was simulated for a sample of test cases. A study was conducted to determine why wind turbine load magnitude discrepancies-inconsistencies in aerodynamic force coefficients, rotor shaft torque, and out-of-plane bending moments at the blade root across a range of operating conditions-exist between load predictions made by FAST{_}AD and other modeling tools and measured loads taken from the actual UAE wind turbine during the NASA-Ames wind tunnel tests. The acquired experimental test data representmore » the finest, most accurate set of wind turbine aerodynamic and induced flow field data available today. A sample of the FAST{_}AD model input parameters most critical to the aerodynamics computations was also systematically perturbed to determine their effect on load and performance predictions. Attention was focused on the simpler upwind rotor configuration, zero yaw error test cases. Inconsistencies in input file parameters, such as aerodynamic performance characteristics, explain a noteworthy fraction of the load prediction discrepancies of the various modeling tools.« less

  16. Obesity and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Middle East and UAE.

    PubMed

    Vats, Mayank G; Mahboub, Bassam H; Al Hariri, Hassan; Al Zaabi, Ashraf; Vats, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A pandemic of obesity is sweeping all across the globe and the Middle East region also does not remain untouched by this prevailing pandemic. In fact, as per WHO report, Kuwait has the second highest obesity prevalence followed closely by other Middle East (ME) countries, namely, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from direct medical, psychological, and quality of life related adverse effects of obesity, many indirect medical comorbidities, namely, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and metabolic syndrome, imposes a significant health burden on the individual and community with consequent morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the very high prevalence of obesity, undiagnosed sleep apnea, and other obesity related disorders with discussion of the contributing factors specific to the region including the fair insight into the current status of sleep medicine services in Middle East and UAE despite huge number of patients having undiagnosed sleep disorders. We will also suggest to control this epidemic of obesity and OSA so that the corrective measure could be taken at health ministry level to help people of this region to fight against obesity and related disorders, primarily OSA.

  17. Obesity and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Middle East and UAE

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub, Bassam H.; Al Hariri, Hassan; Al Zaabi, Ashraf; Vats, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A pandemic of obesity is sweeping all across the globe and the Middle East region also does not remain untouched by this prevailing pandemic. In fact, as per WHO report, Kuwait has the second highest obesity prevalence followed closely by other Middle East (ME) countries, namely, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from direct medical, psychological, and quality of life related adverse effects of obesity, many indirect medical comorbidities, namely, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and metabolic syndrome, imposes a significant health burden on the individual and community with consequent morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the very high prevalence of obesity, undiagnosed sleep apnea, and other obesity related disorders with discussion of the contributing factors specific to the region including the fair insight into the current status of sleep medicine services in Middle East and UAE despite huge number of patients having undiagnosed sleep disorders. We will also suggest to control this epidemic of obesity and OSA so that the corrective measure could be taken at health ministry level to help people of this region to fight against obesity and related disorders, primarily OSA. PMID:28070158

  18. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  19. Deep crustal structure of the UAE-Oman mountain belt from seismic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilia, S.; Tanveer, M.; Ali, M.; Watts, A. B.; Searle, M. P.; Keats, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    The UAE-Oman mountains constitute a 700 km long, 50 km wide compressional orogenic belt that developed during the Cenozoic on an underlying extensional Tethyan rifted margin. It contains the world's largest and best-exposed thrust sheet of oceanic crust and upper mantle (Semail Ophiolite), which was obducted onto the Arabian rifted continental margin during the Late Cretaceous. Although the shallow structure of the UAE-Oman mountain belt is reasonably well known through the exploitation of a diverse range of techniques, information on deeper structure remains little. Moreover, the mechanisms by which dense oceanic crustal and mantle rocks are emplaced onto less dense and more buoyant continental crust are still controversial and remain poorly understood. The focus here is on an active-source seismic and gravity E-W transect extending from the UAE-mountain belt to the offshore. Seismic refraction data were acquired using the survey ship M/V Hawk Explorer, which was equipped with a large-volume airgun array (116 liters). About 400 air gun shots at 50-second time interval were recorded on land by eight broadband seismometers. In addition, reflection data were acquired at 20 seconds interval and recorded by a 5-km-long multichannel streamer. Results presented here include an approximately 85 km long (stretching about 35 km onshore and 50 km offshore) P-wave velocity crustal profile derived by a combination of forward modelling and inversion of both diving and reflected wave traveltimes using RAYINVR software. We employ a new robust algorithm based on a Monte Carlo approach (VMONTECARLO) to address the velocity model uncertainties. We find ophiolite seismic velocities of about 5.5 km/s, underlain by a thin layer of slower material (about 4.5 km/s). Furthermore, the velocity model reveals a Moho depth that rises from ca 30 km in the west to ca 20 km in the east. A poststack depth-migrated profile (about 50 km long) coincident with the offshore part of the refraction

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in United Arab Emirates Expatriates: the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Elbadawi, Salah; Hussein, Amal; Abusnana, Salah; Madani, Abdulrazzag; Mairghani, Maisoon; Alawadi, Fatheya; Sulaiman, Ahmad; Zimmet, Paul; Huse, Oliver; Shaw, Jonathan; Peeters, Anna

    2017-01-01

    To describe current prevalence of obesity and related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in expatriates living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We used data from the cross-sectional UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study (UAEDIAB), which surveyed adult expatriates living in the UAE for at least 4 years. We report crude prevalence of overweight and obesity, indicated by gender and ethnicity-specific body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) cut-offs, by lifestyle and biomedical characteristics, as well as age and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Out of a total of 3064 recruited expatriates (response rate 68%), 2724 had completed all stages of the UAEDIAB study. Expatriates were; 81% men, mean age 38 years (range 18-80), 71% South East Asians, and 36% university graduates. In this sample, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, by BMI, were 43.0 and 32.3%, respectively. 52.4 and 56.5% of participants were at a substantially increased risk according to WC and WHR, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were 15.5, 31.8, and 51.7%, respectively, with the prevalence of each being higher in those with obesity. Prevalence of obesity and associated NCDs are extremely high in UAE expatriates. Without comprehensive prevention and management, levels of disease will continue to increase and productivity will fall.

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  2. Reflections on the Reggio Emilia Approach as Inspiration for Early Childhood Teacher Education in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a teacher educator's reflections on her participation in an international study group and visits to the infant-toddler and pre-schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, as inspiration for early childhood teacher education in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The following five themes are reflected on, for teacher education in the context of Abu Dhabi:…

  3. Economic risk and efficiency assessment of fisheries in Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE): A stochastic approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fishing industry in Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) plays an important role in diversifying food sources in order to enhance national food security. The fishing industry is facing increasing risk that may impact the sustainability (i.e., quantity and quality) of the fish caught and consume...

  4. The Effect of Student Teaching Experience on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs for Technology Integration in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Awidi, Hamed Mubarak; Alghazo, Iman Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the student teaching experience on preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and the sources of their beliefs about technology integration in teaching in the UAE. The participants were 62 pre-service elementary teachers at the United Arab Emirates University. Pre- and post-survey was administered to…

  5. Attitude towards, and Awareness of Using ICT in Classrooms: A Case of Expatriate Indian Teachers in UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindu, C. N.

    2017-01-01

    It is a widely accepted fact that ICT integration in education offers a wider opportunity for both teachers and students to fulfill the increasing demand of the contemporary world. The current paper explores the awareness of, and attitude towards, using ICT in teaching by the Indian teachers in UAE based on their gender and age. The data were…

  6. The UAE healthy future study: a pilot for a prospective cohort study of 20,000 United Arab Emirates nationals.

    PubMed

    Abdulle, Abdishakur; Alnaeemi, Abdullah; Aljunaibi, Abdullah; Al Ali, Abdulrahman; Al Saedi, Khaled; Al Zaabi, Eiman; Oumeziane, Naima; Al Bastaki, Marina; Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Al Maskari, Fatma; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha; Shah, Syed M; Loney, Tom; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Wareth, Leila Abdel; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Alsafar, Habiba; Hirsch, Benjamin; Al Anouti, Fatme; Yaaqoub, Jamila; Inman, Claire K; Al Hamiz, Aisha; Al Hosani, Ayesha; Haji, Muna; Alsharid, Teeb; Al Zaabi, Thekra; Al Maisary, Fatima; Galani, Divya; Sprosen, Tim; El Shahawy, Omar; Ahn, Jiyoung; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Hayes, Richard; Sherman, Scott; Ali, Raghib

    2018-01-05

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is faced with a rapidly increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The UAE Healthy Future study is a prospective cohort designed to identify associations between risk factors and these diseases amongst Emiratis. The study will enroll 20,000 UAE nationals aged ≥18 years. Environmental and genetic risk factors will be characterized and participants will be followed for future disease events. As this was the first time a prospective cohort study was being planned in the UAE, a pilot study was conducted in 2015 with the primary aim of establishing the feasibility of conducting the study. Other objectives were to evaluate the implementation of the main study protocols, and to build adequate capacity to conduct advanced clinical laboratory analyses. Seven hundred sixty nine UAE nationals aged ≥18 years were invited to participate voluntarily in the pilot study. Participants signed an informed consent, completed a detailed questionnaire, provided random blood, urine, and mouthwash samples and were assessed for a series of clinical measures. All specimens were transported to the New York University Abu Dhabi laboratories where samples were processed and analyzed for routine chemistry and hematology. Plasma, serum, and a small whole blood sample for DNA extraction were aliquoted and stored at -80 °C for future analyses. Overall, 517 Emirati men and women agreed to participate (68% response rate). Of the total participants, 495 (95.0%), 430 (82.2%), and 492 (94.4%), completed the questionnaire, physical measurements, and provided biological samples, respectively. The pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of recruitment and completion of the study protocols for the first large-scale cohort study designed to identify emerging risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases in the region.

  7. Satellite-based retrieval of particulate matter concentrations over the United Arab Emirates (UAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Hareb, Fahad; Eibedingil, Iyasu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an empirical algorithm was established to retrieve particulate matter (PM) concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Validation of the proposed algorithm using ground truth data demonstrates its good accuracy. Time series of in situ measured PM concentrations between 2014 and 2015 showed high values in summer and low values in winter. Estimated and in situ measured PM concentrations were higher in 2015 than 2014. Remote sensing is an essential tool to reveal and back track the seasonality and inter-annual variations of PM concentrations and provide valuable information on the protection of human health and the response of air quality to anthropogenic activities and climate change.

  8. Research Priorities for School Nursing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel; Docherty, Charles; Brenner, Maria; Alhosany, Jameela; Altawil, Hanan; Al-Tamimi, Muna

    2017-10-01

    School nurses are challenged with more children having complex conditions, who are now surviving into school age. This is paralleled by a shift in focus of health systems toward primary care, and national efforts to develop the health-care services, especially those offered to vulnerable populations. Being at the forefront of this change, school nurses in United Arab Emirates (UAE) are finding themselves under pressure to adapt to and facilitate these changes both by improving their practice and by contributing to its underpinning evidence. A cross-sectional design was used in this study in which 370 school nurses participated, identifying 11 research priorities. The three most important, as ranked by participants, were management of children with complex health-care needs; nutrition, obesity, and lifestyle issues of schoolchildren; and managing illnesses, injuries, and emergencies in schools and provision of medical support. These priorities should direct future research activities in the field.

  9. Measurement of greenhouse gases in UAE by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Odeh, Mohamed; Abdelrhman, Mohammed; Balkis, Ahmed; Amira, Abdelraouf

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, a reliable and low cost system has been designed and implemented to measure greenhouse gases (GHG) in United Arab Emirates (UAE) by using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A set of accurate gas, temperature, pressure, humidity sensors are integrated together with a wireless communication system on a microcontroller based platform to continuously measure the required data. The system instantaneously sends the measured data to a center monitoring unit via the wireless communication system. In addition, the proposed system has the features that all measurements are recorded directly in a storage device to allow effective monitoring in regions with weak or no wireless coverage. The obtained data will be used in all further sophisticated calculations for environmental research and monitoring purposes.

  10. Summer aerosol particle mixing in different climate and source regions of the United Arab Emirates (UAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D. W.; Jensen, T. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    The high aerosol loadings over the UAE reflect local to regional natural and anthropogenic pollution sources. To understand the impact of the high levels of pollution on both local and global climate systems, aerosol characterization flights in summer 2002 were used to sample major source areas, and to provide information on the interaction of aerosol particles within different geographic regions of the UAE. Atmospheric information and aerosol samples were collected from the marine/oil-industry region, NW coastal industries and cities, Oman Mountain Range, and NE coastal region. Aerosol samples were collected with multi-stage impactors and were analysed later using transmission electron microscopy. All samples are dominated by mineral grains or mineral aggregates in the coarse-mode fraction, and ammonium sulfate droplets in the fine-mode fraction. Differences in the types of mineral grains (different regional desert sources), inorganic salt and soot fractions, and types of internally mixed particles occur between regions. Oil-related industry sites have an abundance of coated and internally mixed particles, including sulfate-coated mineral grains, and mineral aggregates with chloride and sulfate. Cities have slightly elevated soot fractions, and typically have metal oxides. The NE coastal area is characterized by high soot fractions (local shipping) and mixed volatile droplets (regional Asian pollution). Particle populations within the convection zone over the Oman Mountain Range comprise an external mixture of particles from NW and NE sources, with many deliquesced particles. Both land-sea breezes in the NW regions and convection systems in the mountains mix aerosol particles from different local and regional sources, resulting in the formation of abundant internally mixed particles. The interaction between desert dust and anthropogenic pollution, and in particular the formation of mineral aggregates with chloride and sulfate, enhances the coarse-mode fraction and

  11. Supportive supervision and constructive relationships with healthcare workers support CHW performance: Use of a qualitative framework to evaluate CHW programming in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ludwick, Teralynn; Turyakira, Eleanor; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Manalili, Kimberly; Robinson, Sheila; Brenner, Jennifer L

    2018-02-13

    While evidence supports community health worker (CHW) capacity to improve maternal and newborn health in less-resourced countries, key implementation gaps remain. Tools for assessing CHW performance and evidence on what programmatic components affect performance are lacking. This study developed and tested a qualitative evaluative framework and tool to assess CHW team performance in a district program in rural Uganda. A new assessment framework was developed to collect and analyze qualitative evidence based on CHW perspectives on seven program components associated with effectiveness (selection; training; community embeddedness; peer support; supportive supervision; relationship with other healthcare workers; retention and incentive structures). Focus groups were conducted with four high/medium-performing CHW teams and four low-performing CHW teams selected through random, stratified sampling. Content analysis involved organizing focus group transcripts according to the seven program effectiveness components, and assigning scores to each component per focus group. Four components, 'supportive supervision', 'good relationships with other healthcare workers', 'peer support', and 'retention and incentive structures' received the lowest overall scores. Variances in scores between 'high'/'medium'- and 'low'-performing CHW teams were largest for 'supportive supervision' and 'good relationships with other healthcare workers.' Our analysis suggests that in the Bushenyi intervention context, CHW team performance is highly correlated with the quality of supervision and relationships with other healthcare workers. CHWs identified key performance-related issues of absentee supervisors, referral system challenges, and lack of engagement/respect by health workers. Other less-correlated program components warrant further study and may have been impacted by relatively consistent program implementation within our limited study area. Applying process-oriented measurement tools are

  12. It Cuts Both Ways: Workers, Management and the Construction of a "Community of Fate" on the Shop Floor in a Mexican Garment Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Videla, Nancy Plankey

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of lean production are based on surveys of managers. This article examines the labor process under lean production at a high-end garment factory in Central Mexico through ethnographic research, consisting of nine months of work at the factory, and in-depth interviews with 25 managers and 26 workers. The author found that…

  13. The fujairah united arab emirates (uae) (ml = 5.1) earthquake of march 11, 2002 a reminder for the immediate need to develop and implement a national hazard mitigation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    On March 11, 2002, at mid nigh, the Fujairah Masafi region in the UAE was shaken by an earthquake of shallow depth and local magnitude m = 5.1 on Richter Scale. The earthquake occurred on Dibba fault in the UAE with epicenter of the earthquake at 20 km NW of Fujairha city. The focal depth was just 10 km. The earthquake was felt in most parts of the northern emirates: Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al-Khaima, and Um-Qwain. The "main shock" was followed in the following weeks by more than twenty five earthquakes with local magnitude ranging from m = 4 to m = 4.8. The location of those earthquakes was along Zagros Reverse Faulting System in the Iranian side the Arabian Gulf, opposite to the Shores of the UAE. Most of these earthquakes were shallow too and were actually felt by the people. However, there was another strong earthquake in early April 2002 in the same Masafi region with local magnitude m = 5.1 and focal depth 30 km, therefore it was not felt by the northern emirates residents. No major structural damages to buildings and lifeline systems were reported in the several cities located in the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter. The very small values of ground accelerations were not enough to test the structural integrity of tall building and major infrastructures. Future major earthquakes anticipated in the region in close vicinity of northern emirates, once they occur, and considering the noticeable local site effect of the emirates sandy soils of high water table levels, will surely put these newly constructed building into the real test. Even though there were no casualties in the March 11th event, but there was major fear as a result of the loud sound of rock rupture heard in the mountains close to Maafi, the noticeable disturbance of animals and birds minutes before the earthquake incident and during the incident, cracks in the a good number of Masafi buildings and major damages that occurred in "old" buildings of Fujairah Masafi area, the closest city to

  14. Exploratory study into awareness of heart disease and health care seeking behavior among Emirati women (UAE) - Cross sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah; Ali, Syed Adnan

    2017-09-26

    Cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of death among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2010. Heart attacks usually happen in older women thus symptoms of heart disease may be masked by symptoms of chronic diseases, which could explain the delay in seeking health care and higher mortality following an ischaemic episode among women. This study seeks to a) highlight the awareness of heart diseases among Emirati women and b) to understand Emirati women's health care seeking behaviour in UAE. A cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted using a survey instrument adapted from the American Heart Association National survey. A convenience sample of 676 Emirati women between the ages of 18-55 years completed the questionnaire. The study showed low levels of awareness of heart disease and associated risk factors in Emirati women; only 19.4% participants were found to be aware of heart diseases. Awareness levels were highest in Dubai (OR 2.18, p < 0.05) among all the other emirates and in the 18-45 years age group (OR 2.74, p < 0.05). Despite low awareness levels, women paradoxically perceived themselves to be self-efficacious in seeking health care. Interestingly, just 49.1% Emirati women believed that good quality and affordable health care was available in the UAE. Only 28.8% of the participants believed there were sufficient female doctors to respond to health needs of women in UAE. Furthermore, only 36.7% Emirati women chose to be treated in the UAE over treatment in other countries. Emirati women clearly lack the knowledge on severity and vulnerability to heart disease in the region that is essential to improve cardiovascular related health outcomes. This study has identified the need for wider outreach that focuses on gender and age specific awareness on heart disease risks and symptoms. The study has also highlighted potential modifiable barriers in seeking health care that should be overcome to reduce morbidity and mortality due to heart

  15. Construct Validity and Scoring Methods of the World Health Organization: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire Among Workers With Arthritis and Rheumatological Conditions.

    PubMed

    AlHeresh, Rawan; LaValley, Michael P; Coster, Wendy; Keysor, Julie J

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate construct validity and scoring methods of the world health organization-health and work performance questionnaire (HPQ) for people with arthritis. Construct validity was examined through hypothesis testing using the recommended guidelines of the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments (COSMIN). The HPQ using the absolute scoring method showed moderate construct validity as four of the seven hypotheses were met. The HPQ using the relative scoring method had weak construct validity as only one of the seven hypotheses were met. The absolute scoring method for the HPQ is superior in construct validity to the relative scoring method in assessing work performance among people with arthritis and related rheumatic conditions; however, more research is needed to further explore other psychometric properties of the HPQ.

  16. Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  17. Exploratory study into the awareness of heart diseases among Emirati women (UAE) and their health seeking behaviour- a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah; Khoory, Ayesha; Al Zaffin, Dhabia; Al Suwaidi, Meera

    2016-11-07

    Cardiovascular diseases were the leading cause of death in women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2010. The UAE is expected to experience a tripling of heart diseases in the next two decades as risk factors for heart diseases increase. Research shows that first year survival rates of younger women suffering from a heart attack are lower than in men. Women present with a wider range of symptoms for heart diseases than men; non-recognition of atypical symptoms may explain the delay in seeking treatment and poor prognosis following heart diseases in women. No known study on awareness of heart diseases among women has been carried out in the Middle Eastern region. Social constructionist and interpretivist epistemological approaches have been considered in this qualitative study to explore the awareness of heart diseases and the health seeking behavior of Emirati women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 41 Emirati women. Three focus groups and six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain data. Thematic content analysis was applied to the data following transcription and translation of recordings. Emirati women had limited knowledge on heart diseases. Women were generally unaware of the atypical symptoms, commonly experienced by women however they identified most risk factors associated with heart diseases. Lack of awareness of disease severity and symptoms, sociocultural influences and distrust in the healthcare system were considered the main barriers to seeking prompt treatment. This study clearly identified gaps and inaccuracies in knowledge of heart diseases, which could contribute to delayed health seeking action and possibly poorer prognosis among Emirati women. Absence of initiatives to educate women on cardiovascular diseases in UAE has erroneously deemed it a less serious concern among Emirati women. The findings from this study provide clear indications of the need to increase accountability of the healthcare system and to

  18. A Profile of Contingent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Based on data from the supplement to the February 1995 Current Population Survey, contingent workers were more likely to be female, black, young, enrolled in school, and employed in services and construction industries than were noncontingent workers. More than 10% were teachers. (Author)

  19. The Ecology of Al-Samaliah Island, U.A.E.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, M. A.; Al-Ansari, F. M.

    1999-08-01

    Al-Samaliah Island is one of the inshore islands of U.A.E. located at about 12 km north-east of Abu Dhabi in the Arabian Gulf. It has a flat undulating surface with neither sand dunes nor rocky hills. Its sandy soil is generally salt-affected with variable percentages of salts. The vegetation of Al-Samaliah Island is essentially halophytic and may be categorized as: seagrasses, mangal and littoral saltmarsh types. The main species include: Cymodocea ciliata, Halophila spp. and Halodula univervis (seagrasses), some algae, Avicennia marina (mangrove), Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, and Suaeda vermiculata (salt marsh). Other halophytes commonly present are: Anabasis setifera, Halocnemum strobilaeum, Halopeplis perfoliata, Salsola imbricata and Zygophyllum gatarense in addition to two annuals: Schangenia aegyptiaca and Zygophyllum simplex. Phoenix dactylifera is cultivated in local areas covered with sandy sheets. Between the date palm trees there is a thin growth of Cyperus conglomeratus. Some plant species have been analysed chemically to determine their main constituents. The relationships between the environmental factors and the plant life of the islands are discussed.

  20. Protest and survive, the U.K. Construction Safety Campaign: a case study of workers' and victims' family action and legal and regulatory inaction on construction health and safety.

    PubMed

    Holder, Mick; O'Brien, Tony

    2007-01-01

    The U.K. Construction Safety Campaign, based on grass-roots rank-and-file trade union activity, has both a domestic agenda and a wider sphere with regard to international developments. Using organized protests and media exposure to achieve its ends, the Campaign has contributed substantially to reducing injuries and fatalities in the U.K. construction industry, as well as achieving some justice for victims of the industry's neglect of safe management practices.

  1. NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

  2. The Worker's Cooperative = Cooperativas de Trabajadores Duenos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Mayra Lee

    Written in Spanish and English (on facing pages), this manual is a practical guide for those interested in forming a worker-owned cooperative. It includes examples based on the personal experience of teaching about cooperativism and worker-owned cooperatives to a group of construction workers with diverse levels of education; vocabulary and…

  3. Dental laboratory communication regarding removable dental prosthesis design in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Haj-Ali, Reem; Al Quran, Firas; Adel, Omar

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the methods dental practitioners in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) use to communicate cast removable dental prosthesis (RDP) design to dental laboratories; identify common practices taken by dentists/dental technicians prior to fabrication of RDP framework; and seek out dental technicians' attitudes toward their role in RDP design decisions. All dental laboratories (n = 28) listed in a local telephone directory were invited to complete a questionnaire through a face-to-face interview. They were also requested to examine RDP cases fabricated in the past 2 months and identify steps taken by dentists/dental technicians prior to fabrication of the framework. Descriptive statistics were used to report frequencies and percentages. Twenty-one (75%) dental laboratories agreed to participate, out of which 19 had the facilities to fabricate chrome-cobalt RDPs. Cast RDPs comprised approximately 4.04% (±2.67) of services provided. A reported 84.2% of dentists frequently communicate through generic lab script, with 89.5% rarely/never giving details regarding RDP design. While 52.6% of labs agree/strongly agree that it is the dentist's responsibility to decide the final RDP design, 94.7% agree/strongly agree that dentists should depend on dental technicians for design-making decisions. A total of 19 RDP cases were reviewed. All 19 were surveyed and designed by dental technicians but received dentist approval of design prior to fabrication. Thirteen (68.4%) had rest-seat preparations done by dentists after approval, and new impressions sent to the lab. No other tooth modifications were noted. The responsibility of RDP design appeared to be largely delegated to dental technicians. Importance of tooth modifications seemed to be undervalued and not completed prior to framework fabrication. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Negotiating weight and body image in the UAE: strategies among young Emirati women.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate weight, nutritional status, and attitudes toward weight and health among a cohort of young women drawn from local populations in the United Arab Emirates. This sample was composed of 103 female Emiratis, aged 18-30. Eighty of the women were students at Zayed University (ZU) in Dubai and 23 were students at UAE University (UAEU) in Al Ain. Research was divided into two phases. Methods included the collection of weight and height measurements (to analyze BMIs) and body fat percentages; 24-h food and activity recalls; semistructured, structured, and unstructured interviews; and participant observation. The distribution of BMIs in this sample was skewed toward underweight and normal weight in the ZU sample and split evenly between underweight-to-normal and overweight-to-obese in the UAEU sample, a finding that stands in contrast to the high rates of overweight and obesity reported in other age cohorts in local populations. This lower distribution of BMIs was correlated with widely expressed concern over body image, whereas reported interest in nutrition was much lower. Dietary patterns reflected attempts to manage weight. There was a marked trend toward nutritionally poor diets and sedentary living. Obesity and overweight among young women in the Emirati population do not appear to be as significant a problem as they are in older populations. However, several other health-related causes for concern emerged in this study, including extreme dieting strategies, insufficient micronutrient and protein intake, and widespread inactivity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dolomite Formation within Microbial Mats in the Sabkha of Abu Dhabi (UAE) and Associated Microsedimentary Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, T. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The link between microbial activity and dolomite formation has been evaluated in the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi (UAE). This modern dolomite-forming environment is frequently cited as the type analogue for the interpretation of many ancient evaporitic sequences. The investigation of sabkha sediments along a transect from intertidal to supratidal zones revealed a close association between microbial mats and dolomite. Authigenic dolomite occurs within surface and buried microbial mats, which are comprised of exopolymeric substances (EPS). Dolomite forms as a direct consequence of mineral nucleation and growth within microbially produced EPS. The cation-binding effect of the EPS molecules influences the composition of the precipitate. The early stage of this process is characterized by the complexation of an amorphous Mg-Si precipitate, which promotes dolomite development. Mineral formation within EPS appears to be enhanced by evaporation with consequent supersaturation of the pore waters with respect to dolomite. Partial EPS degradation during diagenesis may also provide an additional source of cations. However, the specific mineral-template property of EPS, rather than an increase in cation concentrations, is the key factor for dolomite formation in the studied area of the sabkha. Indeed, within the modern microbial mat located at the surface, dolomite precipitates from pore waters whose composition is very close to seawater. In the supratidal zone, pore water analysis and stable isotope values did not reveal any linkage between dolomite formation and microbial excretion and/or consumption of metabolites along the sediment profiles. This is in contrast with current models, in which dolomite formation is mainly linked to microbial increase of pH and alkalinity or consumption of dissolved SO4 in pore-waters. The EPS of the microbial mats is characterized by an alveolar microfabric, which can be mineralized during early diagenesis, preserving fossil imprints of the

  6. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with chromotropic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a colored solution. The absorbance of the colored solution is read in spectrophotometer at wavelength 580 nm and is proportional to the quantity of the formaldehyde in the solution. Results: For the anatomy laboratory and in the presence of the covered cadaver, the mean concentration of formaldehyde was found to be 0.100 ppm with a range of 0.095–0.105 ppm. Whereas for the other laboratories, the highest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.024 ppm in the general microbiology laboratory and the lowest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.001 ppm in the environmental health laboratory. The 8-hour (time-weighted average) concentration of formaldehyde was found to be ranging between 0.0003 ppm in environmental health laboratory and 0.026 ppm in the anatomy laboratory. Conclusions: The highest level of concentration of formaldehyde in the presence of the covered cadaver in anatomy laboratory exceeded the recommended ceiling standard established by USA-NIOSH which is 0.1 ppm, but below the ceiling standard established by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists which is 0.3 ppm. Thus, it is recommended that formaldehyde levels should be measured periodically specially during the dissection in the anatomy laboratory, and local exhaust ventilation system should be installed and personal protective equipment such as safety glass and gloves should be available and be used to prevent direct skin or eye

  7. Visual warning system for worker safety on roadside work-zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    Growing traffic on US roadways and heavy construction machinery on road construction sites pose a critical safety : threat to construction workers. This report summarizes the design and development of a worker safety system using : Dedicated Short Ra...

  8. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one's interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n = 3,114, mean age = 58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach's alpha (0.78-0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI < 0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42-0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants' job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants' expectations for job control explored.

  9. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one’s interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n=3114, mean age=58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach’s alpha (0.78–0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI<0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42–0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants’ job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants’ expectations for job control explored. (149/150 limit) PMID:20582720

  10. Worker Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiziang, Zeng; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes worker education in China as an important part of the national educational plan and an indispensible foundation for the work of developing enterprisers. Basic tasks are the development of the mind, preparation of specialists, improving workers, and modernization of socialist enterprises. (JOW)

  11. Influenza Vaccination: Healthcare Workers Attitude in Three Middle East Countries

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Gharbieh, Eman; Fahmy, Sahar; Rasool, Bazigha Abdul; Khan, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) pose a potential risk of transmitting communicable diseases in the hospital settings where they usually work. This study aims to determine the current influenza vaccination rates among HCWs in three Middle East countries namely United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait and Oman, and also to identify the different variables associated with the noncompliance of HCWs to the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) set in those countries. Methods: 1500 questionnaires were distributed to health care workers in the three countries during the period of July-October 2009. Results: Among 993 respondents, the vaccination rate was 24.7%, 67.2% and 46.4% in UAE, Kuwait and Oman, respectively. The different motivating factors that influenced the health care workers to take the vaccine was assessed and found that the most common factor that influenced their decision to take the vaccine was for their self protection (59%). On the other hand, the most common reason that discouraged HCWs to take the vaccine was “lack of time” as reported by 31.8% of the respondents. Other reasons for not taking the vaccine were unawareness of vaccine availability (29.4%), unavailability of vaccine (25.4%), doubts about vaccine efficacy (24.9%), lack of information about importance (20.1%) and concerns about its side effects (17.3%). Conclusions: influenza immunization by healthcare workers in the studied countries was suboptimal which could be improved by setting different interventions and educational programs to increase vaccination acceptance among HCWs. PMID:20922053

  12. Streptomyces globosus UAE1, a Potential Effective Biocontrol Agent for Black Scorch Disease in Date Palm Plantations.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Esam E; Sham, Arjun; Salmin, Zeinab; Abdelmowla, Yasmeen; Iratni, Rabah; El-Tarabily, Khaled; AbuQamar, Synan

    2017-01-01

    Many fungal diseases affect date palm causing considerable losses in date production worldwide. We found that the fungicide Cidely ® Top inhibited the mycelial growth of the soil-borne pathogenic fungus Thielaviopsis punctulata , the causal agent of black scorch disease of date palm, both in vitro and in vivo . Because the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) can minimize the impact of pathogen control on economic and environmental concerns related to chemical control, we aimed at testing local actinomycete strains isolated from the rhizosphere soil of healthy date palm cultivated in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) against T. punctulata . The selected isolate can thus be used as a potential agent for integrated disease management programs. In general, the BCA showed antagonism in vitro and in greenhouse experiments against this pathogen. The most promising actinomycete isolate screened showed the highest efficacy against the black scorch disease when applied before or at the same time of inoculation with T. punctulata , compared with BCA or fungicide application after inoculation. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analyses using the 16 S ribosomal RNA gene with other Streptomyces spp. in addition to morphological and cultural characteristics revealed that the isolated UAE strain belongs to Streptomyces globosus UAE1. The antagonistic activity of S. globosus against T. punctulata , was associated with the production by this strain of diffusible antifungal metabolites i.e., metabolites that can inhibit mycelial growth of the pathogen. This was evident in the responses of the vegetative growth of pure cultures of the pathogen when exposed to the culture filtrates of the BCA. Altogether, the pathogenicity tests, disease severity indices and mode of action tests confirmed that the BCA was not only capable of suppressing black scorch disease symptoms, but also could prevent the spread of the pathogen, as a potential practical method to improve disease management in the

  13. A job safety program for construction workers designed to reduce the potential for occupational injury using tool box training sessions and computer-assisted biofeedback stress management techniques.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth A; Ruppe, Joan

    2002-01-01

    This project was conducted with a multicultural construction company in Hawaii, USA. The job duties performed included drywall and carpentry work. The following objectives were selected for this project: (a) fire prevention training and inspection of first aid equipment; (b) blood-borne pathogen training and risk evaluation; (c) ergonomic and risk evaluation intervention program; (d) electrical safety training and inspection program; (e) slips, trips, and falls safety training; (f) stress assessment and Personal Profile System; (g) safety and health program survey; (h) improving employee relations and morale by emphasizing spirituality; and (i) computer-assisted biofeedback stress management training. Results of the project indicated that observed safety hazards, reported injuries, and levels of perceived stress. were reduced for the majority of the population.

  14. Educating Worker-Citizens: Visions and Divisions in Curriculum Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka; Lappalainen, Sirpa; Lahelma, Elina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are interested in how employment--or employability--is connected to citizenship, and how the ideal subjectivity of worker-citizens is discursively constructed in curriculum texts. The "worker-citizen" is a social construction that connects closely the notion of worker and the notion of citizen. Our analysis is based…

  15. Cross-national study of attitudes towards seeking professional help: Jordan, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Arabs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Dean, Yasmin Z; Eltaiba, Nada

    2004-06-01

    Help-seeking processes provide critical links between the onset of mental health problems and the provision of professional care. But little is known about these processes in the Arab world, and still less in transnational, comparative terms. This is the first study to compare help-seeking processes among Muslim Arab female students in Jordan, the United Arab Emirates and Israel. The present study compares the attitudes of Arab Muslim female students from Israel, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) towards mental health treatment. A convenience sample of 262 female Muslim-Arab undergraduate university students from Jordan, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Arab students in Israel completed a modified Orientation for Seeking Professional Help (OSPH) Questionnaire. Data revealed that nationality was not statistically significant as a variable in a positive attitude towards seeking professional help; year of study, marital status and age were found to be significant predictors of a positive attitude towards seeking help. High proportions of respondents among the nationalities referred to God through prayer during times of psychological distress. The discussion considers implications for professional service delivery and programme development. Future research could extrapolate findings to other Arab countries and to Arab peoples living in the non-Arab world.

  16. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16–80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15–30 (group I), 31–40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary. PMID:24982675

  17. Screening and correlates of depression and HbA1 C in United Arab Emirates (UAE) women with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hawamdeh, Sana; Almakhzoomy, Ibtihal; Hayajneh, Yaseen

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to identify the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics of United Arab Emirates (UAE) women with diabetes and depression and to explore any differences between depressed and nondepressed patients in relation to glycemic control. One hundred eighty-two subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and a socio-demographic questionnaire (i.e., age, national status, economic status, level of education, and employment status). Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C ). Ninety-two subjects were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A statistically significant higher incidence of depression was found in the subject group with diagnosed diabetes mellitus than in the nondiabetic subject group. A statistically significant relationship was found between depression status and type of diabetes (Type 1). A positive relationship between poor glycemic control and higher levels of depression was identified. A positively significant relationship was found between national status and level of depression among the diabetic sample, among whom at least half showed poor glycemic control (HbA1C levels > 7.5). Early detection of depression among women with diabetes is crucial to enhance treatment regimen adherence and glycemic control. As the UAE diabetic women are at even greater risk than other diabetic women, they need to be very carefully screened and evaluated for depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zaniah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. (Contains 30 tables.) [This work has been produced…

  19. Hispanic logging worker safety in the south

    Treesearch

    Brandon O' Neal; Bob Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Hispanic (Spanish-speaking) workers have entered the logging workforce in the South in significant numbers during the past ten years. According to the U.S. Labor Department, Hispanic workers in the construction and agriculture industries have significantly higher injury rates than non–Hispanics do. In view of that trend, of logging workers’ generally high exposure to...

  20. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  1. Assessor Judgements and Everyday Worker Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timma, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    The subjective nature of assessment focuses attention on the prior perceptions that workplace assessors can bring to formal assessment activities, regarding the competence of workers. This paper draws on a study into workplace learning and assessment practices and the construction of worker identities, which was conducted at three food production…

  2. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; Van der Molen, H F; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the workers were asked about the preventive actions they had undertaken. A generalized linear mixed model was used to compare proportions of workers. At follow-up, the proportion of workers who reported taking preventive actions was significantly higher in the intervention group (80%, 44/55) than in the control group (67%, 80 of 121), (P = 0.04). In the intervention group, the OPs provided a higher proportion of workers with written recommendations (82%, 63 of 77, vs 57%, 69 of 121; P = 0.03). The job-specific WHS aided OPs in providing workers with recommendations and workers in undertaking (job-specific) preventive actions.

  3. The advisability of high-rise construction in the city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergievskaya, Natalia; Pokrovskaya, Tatyana; Vorontsova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    In this article there discusses the question of advisability high-rise construction, the reasons for its use, both positive and negative sides of it. On the one hand, a number of authors believe that it is difficult to avoid high-rise construction due to the limited areas in very large cities. On the other hand, a number of other authors draw attention to the problems associated with high-rise construction. The author of the article analyses examples of high-rise construction in several countries (UAE, Dubai "Burj Khalifa"; Japan "Tokyo Sky Tree"; United States of America, "Willis Tower"; Russia "Federation Tower") and proves the advisability of high-rise construction in the city.

  4. The UAE Rainfall Enhancement Assessment Program: Implications of Thermodynamic Profiles on the Development of Precipitation in Convective Clouds over the Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breed, D.; Bruintjes, R.; Jensen, T.; Salazar, V.; Fowler, T.

    2005-12-01

    During the winter and summer seasons of 2001 and 2002, data were collected to assess the efficacy of cloud seeding to enhance precipitation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results of the feasibility study concluded: 1) that winter clouds in the UAE rarely produced conditions amenable to hygroscopic cloud seeding; 2) that summer convective clouds developed often enough, particularly over the Oman Mountains (e.g., the Hajar Mountains along the eastern UAE border and into Oman) to justify a randomized seeding experiment; 3) that collecting quantitative radar observations continues to be a complex but essential part of evaluating a cloud seeding experiment; 4) that successful flight operations would require solving several logistical issues; and 5) that several scientific questions would need to be studied in order to fully evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of hygroscopic cloud seeding, including cloud physical responses, radar-derived rainfall estimates as related to rainfall at the ground, and hydrological impacts. Based on these results, the UAE program proceeded through the design and implemention of a randomized hygroscopic cloud seeding experiment during the summer seasons to statistically quantify the potential for cloud seeding to enhance rainfall, specifically over the UAE and Oman Mountains, while collecting concurrent and separate physical measurements to support the statistical results and provide substantiation for the physical hypothesis. The randomized seeding experiment was carried out over the summers of 2003 and 2004, and a total of 134 cases were treated over the two summer seasons, of which 96 met the analysis criteria established in the experimental design of the program. The statistical evaluation of these cases yielded largely inconclusive results. Evidence will show that the thermodynamic profile had a large influence on storm characteristics and on precipitation development. This in turn provided a confounding factor in the conduct

  5. Under construction: building a safer industry.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, John

    2002-01-01

    A revolution in the building industry over the past decade has spawned a new generation of safer materials and practices, decreasing some health risks for construction workers. Concerned consumers, builders, materials manufacturers, and government regulatory agencies have all contributed to a turn toward "green" building materials and practices, meaning that homeowners and office workers now are better able to live and work in healthier environments, and many construction workers are handling and installing less-toxic materials. PMID:11882489

  6. Workers Welding on ML

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-24

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Modifications continue on the Mobile Launcher, or ML, at the Mobile Launcher Park Site at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. A construction worker prepares a metal beam that will be attached to the ML. In 2013, the agency awarded a contract to J.P. Donovan Construction Inc. of Rockledge, Fla., to modify the ML, which is one of the key elements of ground support equipment that is being upgraded by the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program office at Kennedy. The ML will carry the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft to Launch Pad 39B for its first mission, Exploration Mission 1, in 2017. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  7. Occupational injury costs and alternative employment in construction trades.

    PubMed

    Waehrer, Geetha M; Dong, Xiuwen S; Miller, Ted; Men, Yurong; Haile, Elizabeth

    2007-11-01

    To present the costs of fatal and non-fatal days-away-from-work injuries in 50 construction occupations. Our results also provide indirect evidence on the cost exposure of alternative construction workers such as independent contractors, on-call or day labor, contract workers, and temporary workers. We combine data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics on average annual incidence from 2000 to 2002 with updated per-case costs from an existing cost model for occupational injuries. The Current Population Survey provides data on the percentage of alternative construction workers. Construction laborers and carpenters were the two costliest occupations, with 40% of the industry's injury costs. The 10 costliest construction occupations also have a high percentage of alternative workers. The construction industry has both a high rate of alternative employment and high costs of work injury. Alternative workers, often lacking workers' compensation, are especially exposed to injury costs.

  8. Discriminatory power of rbcL barcode locus for authentication of some of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants.

    PubMed

    Maloukh, Lina; Kumarappan, Alagappan; Jarrar, Mohammad; Salehi, Jawad; El-Wakil, Houssam; Rajya Lakshmi, T V

    2017-06-01

    DNA barcoding of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants is of high practical and scientific value as the plants adapt to very harsh environmental conditions that challenge their identification. Fifty-one plant species belonged to 22 families, 2 monocots, and 20 eudicots; a maximum number of species being legumes and grasses were collected. To authenticate the morphological identification of the wild plant taxa, rbcL and matK regions were used in the study. The primer universality and discriminatory power of rbcL is 100%, while it is 35% for matK locus for these plant species. The sequences were submitted to GenBank; accession numbers were obtained for all the rbcL sequences and for 6 of matK sequences. We suggest rbcL as a promising barcode locus for the tested group of 51 plants. In the present study, an inexpensive, simple method of identification of rare desert plant taxa through rbcL barcode is being reported.

  9. CO2 enrichment affects eco-physiological growth of maize and alfalfa under different water stress regimes in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Ksiksi, Taoufik Saleh; Ppoyil, Shaijal Babu Thru; Palakkott, Abdul Rasheed

    2018-03-01

    Water stress has been reported to alter morphology and physiology of plants affecting chlorophyll content, stomatal size and density. In this study, drought stress mitigating effects of CO 2 enrichment was assessed in greenhouse conditions in the hot climate of UAE. Commercially purchased maize ( Zea mays L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were seeded in three different custom-built cage structures, inside a greenhouse. One cage was kept at 1000 ppm CO 2 , the second at 700 ppm CO 2 , and the third at ambient greenhouse CO 2 environment (i.e. 435 ppm). Three water stress treatments HWS (200 ml per week), MWS (400 ml per week), and CWS (600 ml per week) were given to each cage so that five maize pots and five alfalfa pots in each cage received same water stress treatments. In maize, total chlorophyll content was similar or higher in water stress treatments compared to control for all CO 2 concentrations. Stomatal lengths were higher in enriched CO 2 environments under water stress. At 700 ppm CO 2 , stomatal widths decreased as water stress increased from MWS to HWS. At both enriched CO 2 environments, stomatal densities decreased compared to ambient CO 2 environment. In alfalfa, there was no significant increase in total chlorophyll content under enriched CO 2 environments, even though a slight increase was noticed.

  10. Drywall construction and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Fischbein, A; Rohl, A N; Langer, A M; Selikoff, I J

    1979-05-01

    The rapid development of the drywall construction trade in the United States is described. It is estimated that some 75,000 U.S. construction workers are currently employed in this trade. The use of a variety of spackle and taping compounds is shown to be associated with significant asbestos exposure; air samples taken in the breathing zone by drywall tapers during sanding of taping compounds show fiber concentrations exceeding, by several times, the maximum level permitted by United States Government regulations. These findings are given together with the result of a clinical field survey of drywall construction workers demonstrating that asbestos disease may be an important health hazard in this trade.

  11. Evaluation of land capability and suitability for irrigated agriculture in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE, using an integrated AHP-GIS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldababseh, A.; Temimi, M.; Maghelal, P.; Branch, O.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid economic development and high population growth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have impacted utilization and management of agricultural land. The development of large-scale agriculture in unsuitable areas can severely impact groundwater resources in the UAE. More than 60% of UAE's water resources are being utilized by the agriculture, forestry, and urban greenery sectors. However, the contribution of the agricultural sector to the national GDP is negligible. Several programs have been introduced by the government aimed at achieving sustainable agriculture whilst preserving valuable water resources. Local subsistence farming has declined considerably during the past few years, due to low soil moisture content, sandy soil texture, lack of arable land, natural climatic disruptions, water shortages, and declined rainfall. The limited production of food and the continuing rise in the food prices on a global and local level are expected to increase low-income households' vulnerability to food insecurity. This research aims at developing a suitability index for the evaluation and prioritization of areas in the UAE for large-scale agriculture. The AHP-GIS integrated model developed in this study facilitates a step by step aggregation of a large number of datasets representing the most important criteria, and the generation of agricultural suitability and land capability maps. To provide the necessary criteria to run the model, a comprehensive geospatial database was built, including climate conditions, water potential, soil capabilities, topography, and land management. A hieratical structure is built as a decomposition structure that includes all criteria and sub-criteria used to define land suitability based on literature review and experts' opinions. Pairwise comparisons matrix are used to calculate criteria' weights. The GIS Model Builder function is used to integrate all spatial processes to model land suitability. In order to preserve some flexibility

  12. Evaluation of land capability and suitability for irrigated agriculture in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE, using an integrated AHP-GIS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldababseh, Amal; Temimi, Marouane; Maghelal, Praveen; Branch, Oliver; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2017-12-01

    The rapid economic development and high population growth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have impacted utilization and management of agricultural land. The development of large-scale agriculture in unsuitable areas can severely impact groundwater resources in the UAE. More than 60% of UAE's water resources are being utilized by the agriculture, forestry, and urban greenery sectors. However, the contribution of the agricultural sector to the national GDP is negligible. Several programs have been introduced by the government aimed at achieving sustainable agriculture whilst preserving valuable water resources. Local subsistence farming has declined considerably during the past few years, due to low soil moisture content, sandy soil texture, lack of arable land, natural climatic disruptions, water shortages, and declined rainfall. The limited production of food and the continuing rise in the food prices on a global and local level are expected to increase low-income households' vulnerability to food insecurity. This research aims at developing a suitability index for the evaluation and prioritization of areas in the UAE for large-scale agriculture. The AHP-GIS integrated model developed in this study facilitates a step by step aggregation of a large number of datasets representing the most important criteria, and the generation of agricultural suitability and land capability maps. To provide the necessary criteria to run the model, a comprehensive geospatial database was built, including climate conditions, water potential, soil capabilities, topography, and land management. A hierarchical structure is built as a decomposition structure that includes all criteria and sub-criteria used to define land suitability based on literature review and experts' opinions. Pairwise comparisons matrix are used to calculate criteria' weights. The GIS Model Builder function is used to integrate all spatial processes to model land suitability. In order to preserve some flexibility

  13. Eating disorders and body image concerns as influenced by family and media among university students in Sharjah, UAE.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Hadia; Hasan, Hayder A; Najm, Lina; Zaurub, Sara; Jami, Faridah; Javadi, Fahimeh; Deeb, Lina Adeeb; Iskandarani, Amani

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) can be influenced by psychological and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental and media influences and body image concerns as factors in the onset of ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 662 students (407 women and 255 men) attending one of three universities in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study employed an online self-administered questionnaire with validated scales: Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Media Influences Scale, and Family Influences Scale (FIS). About 33% of the sample had EAT- 26 scores >=20 and 45% showed mild to marked concerns about their body shape. Women students were significantly more concerned about their shape, and more influenced by media than men. There were significant differences in the means of all scores, except for media influence, among the four BMI groups. The EAT-26 score showed strongest correlation with BSQ (r=0.48), followed by FIS, Media and BMI (r=0.419, r=0.276 and r=0.18 respectively). The BSQ was the best predictor of ED and was inversely associated with the EAT-26 score (B=-1.51, OR=0.219, 95% CI: 0.152-0.316, p<0.001). The findings of this study indicate that ED and body shape concerns are highly prevalent among the university student sample, and highlight the strong influence that both the media and families exert on the development of ED among young adults. These findings provide baseline data for future longitudinal studies to investigate factors influencing ED.

  14. Assessment of Nature, Reasons, and Consequences of Self-medication Practice among General Population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Sathvik B; Shariff, Atiqulla; Dallah, Lana; Anas, Doaa; Ayman, Maryam; Rao, Padma Gm

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the nature, reasons, and consequences of self-medication practice among the general population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, survey-based study. Data with respect to knowledge, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication were collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire answered by the study participants. Thus, collected data from 413 survey respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0. The prevalence of self-medication practices among our study respondents was 52.1%. A headache (155 [37.5%]) was the most common clinical condition treated through self-medication practice. Familiarity with the treatment/medication (198 [48%]) was the most common cited reasons, whereas the advertisement and friend's advice were the most (182 [44%]) cited sources of information for self-medication usage. The majority (265 [64.1%]) of the respondents were considered self-medication practice as safe. However, 19 respondents reported side-effects or complications during the due course of self-medication. It was observed that there is a statistically significant association ( P < 0.05) between age and employment status of this study participants with self-medication practices. The data from this study show that the self-medication practice is very common among the study population. Variables such as younger age group and occupation status were significantly associated with self-medication practice. We emphasize the role of pharmacist in educating the community regarding safe medication practices such as harmful effects of self-medicating and inappropriate practices such as sharing the medications among family members and friends.

  15. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Forcing Efficiencies at Surface from the shortwave Irradiance Measurements in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum S, N.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to affect the radiation balance of the Earth-Atmospheric system directly by scattering and absorbing the solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly by affecting the lifetime and albedo of the clouds. Continuous and simultaneous measurements of short wave global irradiance in combination with synchronous spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements (from 340 nm to 1640 nm in 8 channels), for a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013, were used for the determination of the surface direct aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies under cloud free conditions in Abu Dhabi (24.42°N, 54.61o E, 7m MSL), a coastal location in United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the Arabian Peninsula. The Rotating Shadow band Pyranometer (RSP, LI-COR) was used for the irradiance measurements (in the spectral region 400-1100 nm), whereas the AOD measurements were carried out using CIMEL Sunphotometer (CE 318-2, under AERONET program). The differential method, which is neither sensitive to calibration uncertainties nor model assumptions, has been employed for estimating forcing efficiencies from the changes in the measured fluxes. The forcing efficiency, which quantifies the net change in irradiance per unit change in AOD, is an appropriate parameter for the characterization of the aerosol radiative effects even if the microphysical and optical properties of the aerosols are not completely understood. The corresponding forcing values were estimated from the forcing efficiencies. The estimated radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies exhibited strong monthly variations. The forcing efficiencies (absolute magnitudes) were highest during March, and showed continuous decrease thereafter to reach the lowest value during September. In contrast, the forcing followed a slightly different pattern of variability, with the highest solar dimming during April ( -60 W m-2) and the minimum during February ( -20 W m-2). The results indicate that the aerosol

  16. Assessment of Nature, Reasons, and Consequences of Self-medication Practice among General Population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sathvik B; Shariff, Atiqulla; Dallah, Lana; Anas, Doaa; Ayman, Maryam; Rao, Padma GM

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature, reasons, and consequences of self-medication practice among the general population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, survey-based study. Data with respect to knowledge, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication were collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire answered by the study participants. Thus, collected data from 413 survey respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0. Results: The prevalence of self-medication practices among our study respondents was 52.1%. A headache (155 [37.5%]) was the most common clinical condition treated through self-medication practice. Familiarity with the treatment/medication (198 [48%]) was the most common cited reasons, whereas the advertisement and friend's advice were the most (182 [44%]) cited sources of information for self-medication usage. The majority (265 [64.1%]) of the respondents were considered self-medication practice as safe. However, 19 respondents reported side-effects or complications during the due course of self-medication. It was observed that there is a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between age and employment status of this study participants with self-medication practices. Conclusion: The data from this study show that the self-medication practice is very common among the study population. Variables such as younger age group and occupation status were significantly associated with self-medication practice. We emphasize the role of pharmacist in educating the community regarding safe medication practices such as harmful effects of self-medicating and inappropriate practices such as sharing the medications among family members and friends. PMID:29552527

  17. Field-scale forward modelling of a shallow marine carbonate ramp: the Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (onshore Abu Dhabi - UAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchionda, Elisabetta; Deschamps, Rémy; Nader, Fadi H.; Ceriani, Andrea; Di Giulio, Andrea; Lawrence, David; Morad, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The stratigraphic record of a carbonate system is the result of the interplay of several local and global factors that control the physical and the biological responses within a basin. Conceptual models cannot be detailed enough to take into account all the processes that control the deposition of sediments. The evaluation of the key controlling parameters on the sedimentation can be investigated with the use of stratigraphic forward models, that permit dynamic and quantitative simulations of the sedimentary basin infill. This work focuses on an onshore Abu Dhabi field (UAE) and it aims to provide a complete picture of the stratigraphic evolution of Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (Fm.). In this study, we started with the definition of the field-scale conceptual depositional model of the Formation, resulting from facies and well log analysis based on five wells. The Arab Fm. could be defined as a shallow marine carbonate ramp, that ranges from outer ramp deposits to supratidal/evaporitic facies association (from bottom to top). With the reconstruction of the sequence stratigraphic pattern and several paleofacies maps, it was possible to suggest multiple directions of progradations at local scale. Then, a 3D forward modelling tool has been used to i) identify and quantify the controlling parameters on geometries and facies distribution of the Arab Fm.; ii) predict the stratigraphic architecture of the Arab Fm.; and iii) integrate and validate the conceptual model. Numerous constraints were set during the different simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed testing the carbonate production, eustatic oscillations and transport parameters. To verify the geological consistency the 3D forward modelling has been calibrated with the available control points (five wells) in terms of thickness and facies distribution.

  18. Fatal falls in the U.S. residential construction industry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Wang, Xuanwen; Largay, Julie A; Platner, James W; Stafford, Erich; Cain, Chris Trahan; Choi, Sang D

    2014-09-01

    Falls from heights remain the most common cause of workplace fatalities among residential construction workers in the United States. This paper examines patterns and trends of fall fatalities in U.S. residential construction between 2003 and 2010 by analyzing two large national datasets. Almost half of the fatalities in residential construction were from falls. In the residential roofing industry, 80% of fatalities were from falls. In addition, about one-third of fatal falls in residential construction were among self-employed workers. Workers who were older than 55 years, were Hispanic foreign-born, or employed in small establishments (1-10 employees) also had higher proportions of fatal falls in residential construction compared to those in nonresidential construction. The findings suggest that fall safety within the residential construction industry lags behind commercial construction and industrial settings. Fall prevention in residential construction should be enhanced to better protect construction workers in this sector. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation in asphalt workers

    PubMed Central

    Randem, B; Ulvestad, B; Burstyn, I; Kongerud, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and signs of airflow limitations in a group of asphalt workers. Methods: All 64 asphalt workers and a reference group of 195 outdoor construction workers from the same company participated in a cross-sectional study. Spirometric tests and a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits were administered. Respiratory symptoms and lung function were adjusted for age and smoking. Results: The FEV1/FVC% ratio was significantly lower in the asphalt workers than in the referents. Symptoms of eye irritation, chest tightness, shortness of breath on exertion, chest wheezing, physician diagnosed asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were all significantly more prevalent among the asphalt workers. Conclusion: In asphalt workers there is an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, lung function decline, and COPD compared to other construction workers. PMID:15031397

  20. Traps and Treasures: How To Stay Safe and Avoid the Perils of School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Colin A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides steps school administrators can take to ensure safe construction: stay visible, update students, separate students and construction workers, engage workers in the educational process, monitor student movement, observe construction workers, barricade work areas, watch for stored materials, check emergency exits daily, conduct fire drills,…

  1. [Older workers and employment].

    PubMed

    Stössel, U

    2008-03-01

    Demographic change with its impact on the employment system and the length of work challenges most of the highly industrialized countries. From the point of health sciences the article will discuss findings about whether a prolongation of employment time seems to make sense and which limitations must be reflected. Therefore labour force participation of older workers will be demonstrated before employability as a construct of physical, psychological and social capacity is discussed. With these reflections in mind, the role of an integrated occupational health care approach will be stressed to discuss in which way this can contribute to healthier working conditions for older workers. The complex nature of the problem makes complex solutions necessary, which are not restricted to simple workplace health promotion campaigns. They have to be part of a sophisticated occupational health management system. The rising number of projects and initiatives in this field suggest that the challenges have been recognized and accepted; however we are not able to speak about the implementation of these models already throughout the country.

  2. Controls on rheology of peridotite at a palaeosubduction interface: a transect across the base of the Oman-UAE ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, T. K.; Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of experimentally deformed rocks and small-scale natural shear zones have demonstrated that volumetrically minor phases can control strain localisation by limiting grain growth and promoting grain-size sensitive deformation mechanisms. Such studies are often used to infer a critical role for minor phases in the development of plate boundaries. However, the role of of minor phases in strain localisation at plate boundaries remains to be tested by direct observation. To test the hypothesis that minor phases control strain localisation at plate boundaries, we conducted microstructural analyses of peridotite samples collected across the base of the Oman-UAE ophiolite. The base of the ophiolite is marked by the Semail thrust, which represents the now exhumed contact between subducted oceanic crust and the overlying mantle wedge. As such, the base of the ophiolite provides the opportunity to directly examine a former plate boundary. Our results demonstrate that the mean olivine grain size is inversely proportional to the abundance of minor phases (primarily pyroxene), consistent with suppression of grain growth by grain-boundary pinning. Our results also reveal that mean olivine grain size is proportional to CPO strength, suggesting that the fraction of strain accommodated by different deformation mechanisms varied spatially. Experimentally-derived flow laws indicate that under the inferred deformation conditions the viscosity of olivine was grain-size sensitive. As such, grain size, and thereby the abundance of minor phases, influenced viscosity during subduction-related deformation along the base of the mantle wedge. We calculate that viscosity and strain rate respectively decrease and increase by approximately an order of magnitude towards the base of the ophiolite. Our data indicate that this rheological weakening was primarily the result of more abundant secondary phases near the base of the ophiolite. Our interpretations are consistent with those of

  3. Increased risk of obstructive pulmonary disease in tunnel workers.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, B; Bakke, B; Melbostad, E; Fuglerud, P; Kongerud, J; Lund, M B

    2000-04-01

    Tunnel workers are exposed to gases and particles from blasting and diesel exhausts. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation in tunnel workers and to relate these findings to years of exposure. Two hundred and twelve tunnel workers and a reference group of 205 other heavy construction workers participated in a cross sectional investigation. Exposure measurements were carried out to demonstrate the difference in exposure between the two occupational groups. Spirometric tests and a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits were applied. Atopy was determined by a multiple radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Radiological signs of silicosis were evaluated. Respiratory symptoms and lung function were studied in relation to years of exposure and adjusted for smoking habits and atopy. Compared with the reference subjects the tunnel workers had a significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) % predicted when related to years of exposure. Adjusted FEV(1) decreased by 17 ml for each year of tunnel work exposure compared with 0.5 ml in outdoor heavy construction workers. The tunnel workers also reported significantly higher occurrence of respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was 14% in the tunnel workers compared with 8% in the reference subjects. Exposure to dust and gases from diesel exhaust, blasting, drilling and rock transport in tunnel work enhances the risk for accelerated decline in FEV(1), respiratory symptoms, and COPD in tunnel workers compared with other heavy construction workers.

  4. Injury surveillance in construction: eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Welch, L S; Hunting, K L; Mawudeku, A

    2001-07-01

    Occupational eye injuries are both common and preventable. About 20% of occupational eye injuries occur in construction. To investigate the nature of eye injuries among construction workers, we analyzed a large data set of construction worker injuries. In addition, we interviewed 62 workers with eye injuries to further explore circumstances of eye injury and workers' attitudes and behavior toward the use of eye protection. Eleven percent (363 cases) of the 3,390 construction workers in our data set were treated for eye injuries. Welders, plumbers, insulators, painters/glaziers, supervisors, and electricians had a higher proportion of all injuries due to eye injuries than other trades. Nearly half of the diagnoses were abrasions (46%) followed by foreign objects or splash in the eye (29%), conjunctivitis (10%), and burns (5%). In the interviews with 62 workers, we found that employers very frequently required eye protection for all tasks or for high-risk tasks, and workers report wearing eye protection regularly. However, most did not wear eye protection with top and side shields; if we believe the injuries occurred because a particle or liquid passed between the glasses and the workers' faces, increased use of goggles or full shields would have prevented two-thirds of this group of injuries.

  5. Why do workers behave unsafely at work? Determinants of safe work practices in industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, A M; Boix, P; Canosa, C

    2004-03-01

    To explore the relation between safety climate (workers' perceptions regarding management's attitudes towards occupational safety and health) and workers' behaviour at work. Cross sectional survey of workers at the pottery industry in Castellon, Spain. Sampling was stratified by plant size and workers' gender, according to data on the working population at this setting. A total of 734 production workers were interviewed. Information was collected on safety climate and workers' behaviour towards occupational risks with a specific questionnaire. A safety climate index (SCI, scale 0-100) was constructed adding scores for each item measuring safety climate in the questionnaire. Workers' unsafe behaviour was analysed for the different safety climate index levels. Mean score for SCI was 71.90 (SD 19.19). There were no differences in SCI scores according to age, gender, education, children at charge, seniority at work, or type of employment. Small workplaces (<50 workers) showed significantly worse SCI (mean 67.23, SD 19.73) than the largest factories (>200 workers). Lower levels of SCI (SCI <50) were related to workers' unsafe behaviours (full/high accord with the statement "I excessively expose myself to hazards in my work", adjusted odds ratio ORa 2.79, 95% CI 1.60 to 4.88), and to lack of compliance with safety rules (ORa 12.83, 95% CI 5.92 to 27.80). Safety climate measures workers' perception of organisational factors related to occupational health and safety (for example, management commitment to risk prevention or priorities of safety versus production). In this study these factors are strongly associated with workers' attitudes towards safety at work. Longitudinal studies can further clarify the relation between safety climate and workers' behaviour regarding occupational safety and health.

  6. Constructed Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  7. International Nursing: Constructing an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Practice Model in the UAE: Using Innovation to Address Cultural Implications and Challenges in an International Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Sue A

    Despite utilization of the advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) in the United States health care system, there is little information about the introduction, utilization, and challenges of the APRN role globally, especially in the Middle East. This article will look at how one hospital in the United Arab Emirates introduced the APRN role to a health care environment of a country where it has not been recognized historically. Cultural challenges and barriers for the implementation of the role include regulatory, societal, and institutional. Innovation and collaboration are necessary to address these challenges and barriers and to pave the way for a successful advanced practice model pilot, as well as for the future use of the role. Innovation is also one of the key performance indicators for the country's health care. However, the idea of advanced practice is a new concept that has been outside the mainstream health care practice for the United Arab Emirates. To help with the implementation, a road map was developed to outline the steps necessary to provide a safe practice environment. The plan included aligning with the ministry of health nursing and midwifery council, as well as the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi, to help them learn more about the US model of advanced practice, along with benefits, and outcomes of the role. Developing the role of the APRN will benefit the future state of the health care infrastructure for not only the United Arab Emirates but throughout the Middle East.

  8. Palm Islands, Dubai, UAE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-02

    The Palm Islands are artificial islands in Dubai, United Arab emirates on which major commercial and residential structures are being built. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image on November 17 and December 10, 2008.

  9. 75 FR 879 - National Semiconductor Corporation Arlington Manufacturing Site Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Foods, Allied Barton Security, ASIL, ASML and Construction Mechanical Systems Arlington, TX; Amended... leased workers from ASML and Construction Mechanical Systems were employed on-site at the Arlington... Department is amending the certification to include workers leased from ASML and Construction Mechanical...

  10. HIV infection in the South African construction industry.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter; Lake, Antony

    2018-06-01

    South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world, and compared with other sectors of the national economy, the construction industry is disproportionately adversely affected. Using data collected nationally from more than 57,000 construction workers, HIV infection among South African construction workers was estimated, together with an assessment of the association between worker HIV serostatus and worker characteristics of gender, age, nature of employment, occupation, and HIV testing history. The HIV infection of construction workers was estimated to be lower than that found in a smaller 2008 sample. All worker characteristics are significantly associated with HIV serostatus. In terms of most at-risk categories: females are more at risk of HIV infection than males; workers in the 30-49 year old age group are more at risk than other age groups; workers employed on a less permanent basis are more at risk; as are workers not having recently tested for HIV. Among occupations in the construction industry, general workers, artisans, and operator/drivers are those most at risk. Besides yielding more up-to-date estimated infection statistics, this research also identifies vulnerable sub-groups as valuable pointers for more targeted workplace interventions by construction firms.

  11. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  12. EOC construction update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Work on Stennis Space Center's new Emergency Operations Center is progressing on schedule, according to Robert Perkins, construction manager with Jacobs Technology. At the turn of the New Year, construction contractors had completed the pervious paving for the north and west parking lots. Part of the facility's `green' design, pervious paving allows water to pass through and be absorbed directly into the ground below, preventing erosion from runoff. Through January, workers concentrated on installing the roof, sprinkler piping and overhead cable trays for electrical and communication lines. The next step will be interior work, erecting wallboard and installing electrical equipment. Perkins said NASA seeks to earn a Silver LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Rating for the project's environmentally-friendly and sustainable design, construction and operation. The facility has a projected completion date of February 2009.

  13. EOC construction update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-30

    Work on Stennis Space Center's new Emergency Operations Center is progressing on schedule, according to Robert Perkins, construction manager with Jacobs Technology. At the turn of the New Year, construction contractors had completed the pervious paving for the north and west parking lots. Part of the facility's `green' design, pervious paving allows water to pass through and be absorbed directly into the ground below, preventing erosion from runoff. Through January, workers concentrated on installing the roof, sprinkler piping and overhead cable trays for electrical and communication lines. The next step will be interior work, erecting wallboard and installing electrical equipment. Perkins said NASA seeks to earn a Silver LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Rating for the project's environmentally-friendly and sustainable design, construction and operation. The facility has a projected completion date of February 2009.

  14. Construction Cluster Volume 5 [Electrical].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the fifth of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on electrical work and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study: (1) safety precautions and first aid for electrical workers; (2) planning a simple installation;…

  15. The Psychology of Life Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2009-01-01

    The present article analyzes, from a historical perspective, the object of the study in the fields of vocational guidance and career management. It then considers the contemporary need to view workers as collaborators within organizations. Finally, in the third part, it presents tentative principles for the construction of a new paradigm called…

  16. "Wrapping Up" Your Construction Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Mark

    1998-01-01

    School facility managers are beginning to use a special insurance-management technique called wrap-up. The project owner purchases a bulk construction insurance policy consisting of general liability, excess liability, workers' compensation, and builders' risk insurance. Wrap-ups ensure competitive pricing, safety incentives, lower claims costs,…

  17. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  18. Safety Concepts for Workers from an OSHA Perspective

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-10-01

    Highway construction and maintenance workers face numerous hazards on job sites, many of which are unique by industry standards. Despite the exposure of state transportation agency employees and contractors to these hazards, there are few safety stan...

  19. Special tool kit aids heavily garmented workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A. E.

    1966-01-01

    Triangular aluminum tool kit, filled with polyurethane is constructed to receive various tools and hold them in a snug but quick-release fit as an aid to heavily gloved workers. The kit is designed to allow mounting within easily accessable reach and to provide protection of the tools during storage.

  20. Job Attitudes of Workers with Two Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickar, Michael J.; Gibby, Robert E.; Jenny, Tim

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the job attitudes of people who hold more than one job. Satisfaction, stress, and organizational (continuance and affective) commitment were assessed for both primary and secondary jobs for 83 full-time workers who held two jobs concurrently. Consistency between job constructs across jobs was negligible, except for…

  1. Carcinogens in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Järvholm, Bengt

    2006-09-01

    The construction industry is a complex work environment. The work sites are temporary and rapidly changing. Asbestos has been widely used in construction industry, but the risks were primarily detected in specialized trades, such as insulation workers and plumbers. Today, the majority of cases related to asbestos exposure will occur in other occupational groups in the construction industry. In a large cohort of Swedish construction workers, insulators and plumbers constituted 37% of all cases of pleural mesothelioma between 1975 and 1984 while they constituted 21% of the cases between 1998 and 2002. It is estimated that 25-40% of all male cases of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden are caused by asbestos exposure in the construction trades. There are many other known carcinogens occurring in the construction industry, including PAHs, diesel exhausts, silica, asphalt fumes, solvents, etc., but it is difficult to estimate exposures and thus the size of the risk. The risk of cancer is less easy to detect with traditional epidemiological methods in the construction industry than in other industrial sectors. It is not sufficient to rely upon broad epidemiological data to estimate the risk of cancer due chemicals in the construction industry. Thus, a strategy to decrease exposure, e.g., to dust, seems a feasible way to reduce the risk.

  2. Accelerated construction

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer (ACTT) is a strategic process that uses various innovative techniques, strategies, and technologies to minimize actual construction time, while enhancing quality and safety on today's large, complex multip...

  3. Electrochemical construction

    DOEpatents

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  4. Prevalence of TMJ Disorders among the Patients Attending the Dental Clinic of Ajman University of Science and Technology-Fujairah Campus, UAE.

    PubMed

    AlShaban, Kashef K; Gul Abdul Waheed, Zainab

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (if any) among the patients attending the dental clinic (for routine dental treatment) of Ajman University of Science and Technology (AUST)-Fujairah campus, UAE, and its possible causes. A sample of 100 adult patients attending the dental clinic of AUST for different types of dental treatment were collected; the routine examination of the TMJ and possible disorders such as clicking, crepitation, limitation or deviation during mouth opening, or tenderness reveals that 41% of the sample experience varying degrees of disorders in the TMJ. Radiographs were taken if needed (panoramic radiograph). The information was collected and recorded for each patient through questionnaires.

  5. Knowledge of warning signs, presenting symptoms and risk factors of coronary heart disease among the population of Dubai and Northern Emirates in UAE: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Guruswami, Gomathi Kadayam; Ibrahim, Salwa Abdelzaher Mabrouk; Mustafa, Sana Abdul Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the level of knowledge regarding warning signs, presenting symptoms and risk factors associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) among population of Dubai and Northern Emirates in UAE. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey of 1367 residents of Dubai and Northern Emirates was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Respondents were classified into two groups: Young Adult Population (YAP; 18-24 years of age) and General Population (GP; 25 years and older). Majority of participants were males (56.7%) and of South Asian (57.5%) or Middle-Eastern (30.8%) ethnicity. Regarding presenting symptoms of CHD, chest pain was identified by around 80% of population, whereas pain in the left shoulder was recognized by 61% of GP and 44% of YAP. Atypical symptoms were poorly identified. Regarding risk factors, only one-fourth population knew that males were at higher risk compared to premenopausal females. Few knew that the risk increases in females after menopause and that the risk is higher for females who smoke and use oral contraceptives. 62% knew that the survivors of a heart attack are at high risk of recurrences. Except for tobacco smoke, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, knowledge of other risk factors was not satisfactory. Older adults and females had comparatively higher level of knowledge. Conclusion: Knowledge level of many of the symptoms and risk factors of CHD is unsatisfactory. There is, therefore, a need to increase the awareness in the population of UAE. The knowledge gaps identified through this study can be addressed through health campaigns to increase the awareness about warning signs, symptoms and modifiable risk factors. . PMID:29181228

  6. Building safer highway work zones : measures to prevent worker injuries from vehicles and equipment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-04-01

    Highway and street construction workers are at risk of fatal and serious nonfatal injury when working in the vicinity of passing motorists, construction vehicles, and equipment. To better understand these injury risks, NIOSH reviewed the current lite...

  7. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core booster aboard the barge Pegasus. Construction workers with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. work to shore up the turn basin area. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the 300,000-pound core booster aboard the modified Pegasus barge. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  8. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Tammy Kelly, in the center, site manager, with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. talks with construction workers. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  9. High cardiovascular risk in Spanish workers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Chaparro, M A; Calvo Bonacho, E; González Quintela, A; Cabrera, M; Sáinz, J C; Fernández-Labander, C; Quevedo-Aguado, L; Gelpi, J A; Fernández Meseguer, A; Brotons, C; de Teresa, E; González Santos, P; Román García, J

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of high cardiovascular risk in the Spanish working population, and its distribution among different occupations and gender. Cross-sectional study of 309,955 workers (72.6% males, mean age 36.5 years, range 16-74 years), who underwent a routine medical check-up. Workers were classified as high, intermediate or low cardiovascular risk, according to the SCORE system. Workers with a relative risk greater than 4 were also considered as high-risk. The prevalence of high cardiovascular risk was 7.6% (95% CI 7.5-7.7) in males and 1.7% (95% CI 1.6-1.8) in females. After adjusting for age and gender, the prevalence of high cardiovascular risk was greater in workers from the Agriculture and Construction sectors than in those from Industry and Service sectors. The prevalence of high cardiovascular risk was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar occupations. A sizeable proportion of workers, especially blue-collar males, are at high cardiovascular risk. Knowledge of this risk for certain workers may serve as a basis for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Knee degeneration in concrete reinforcement workers.

    PubMed Central

    Wickström, G; Hänninen, K; Mattsson, T; Niskanen, T; Riihimäki, H; Waris, P; Zitting, A

    1983-01-01

    The loads on the knees in concrete reinforcement work and maintenance painting were analysed on eight construction work sites. A total of 352 reinforcement workers and 231 painters. Finnish men aged 20-64, were clinically and radiologically examined to determine the condition of the knee joints in active workers. The loads on the knees and the occurrence of minor injuries and accidents were higher in reinforcement work than in painting, but the occurrence of symptoms, clinical signs, and radiological findings was equally common in both groups. Reinforcement work seemed to provoke more symptoms from degenerated knees than painting. PMID:6830721

  11. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori, H

    1994-01-01

    The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers.

  12. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to

  13. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  14. Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

  15. Workers' Education in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  16. Construction Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  17. Occupational fatalities due to electrocutions in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Janicak, Christopher A

    2008-01-01

    Occupational fatalities due to contact with electricity account for approximately 9% of all deaths in the construction industry and is the fourth leading cause of death in this industry. Differences in the proportions of electrocutions in the construction industry are significantly different from other industries based upon the age of the worker and the source of the electricity. This study found that, in the construction industry, the proportion of occupational fatalities due to contact with electric current is significantly higher for workers in the 16 to 19 years old age group. Contact with overhead power lines occurred more frequently with younger workers, while contact with electric wiring, transformers, and related equipment was found to occur more frequently with older workers. The proportion of fatalities due to this event was also found to account for a significantly greater proportion of fatalities in the construction industry overall. The proportions of electrocution fatalities in the construction industry were found to be significantly higher for younger workers when compared to all other industries. Focusing prevention measures toward younger workers who work near overhead power lines could have a significant impact upon death rates. For older workers, the focus should be on those who work on or near transformers, electrical wiring, and components. Across the construction industry, implementation of effective lockout-tagout programs, and verification of energy isolation, can prevent approximately 125 fatalities per year in the construction industry.

  18. Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is aimed at reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning and injury among agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. It places specific requirements on employers of such workers.

  19. Increased risk of obstructive pulmonary disease in tunnel workers

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, B.; Bakke, B.; Melbostad, E.; Fuglerud, P.; Kongerud, J.; Lund, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tunnel workers are exposed to gases and particles from blasting and diesel exhausts. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation in tunnel workers and to relate these findings to years of exposure.
METHODS—Two hundred and twelve tunnel workers and a reference group of 205 other heavy construction workers participated in a cross sectional investigation. Exposure measurements were carried out to demonstrate the difference in exposure between the two occupational groups. Spirometric tests and a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits were applied. Atopy was determined by a multiple radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Radiological signs of silicosis were evaluated. Respiratory symptoms and lung function were studied in relation to years of exposure and adjusted for smoking habits and atopy.
RESULTS—Compared with the reference subjects the tunnel workers had a significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted when related to years of exposure. Adjusted FEV1 decreased by 17 ml for each year of tunnel work exposure compared with 0.5 ml in outdoor heavy construction workers. The tunnel workers also reported significantly higher occurrence of respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was 14% in the tunnel workers compared with 8% in the reference subjects.
CONCLUSION—Exposure to dust and gases from diesel exhaust, blasting, drilling and rock transport in tunnel work enhances the risk for accelerated decline in FEV1, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in tunnel workers compared with other heavy construction workers.

 PMID:10722766

  20. [Work reality and the construction process of the nurse's identity].

    PubMed

    Netto, Laura Filomena Santos de Araújo; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2002-01-01

    This study tries to understand the relation between the reality of the nurse's everyday work and the construction process of this identity, using Agnes Heller's sociological theory of everyday life as the main reference. The possibilities of the worker's expression and fulfillment occur through objective and subjective elements of job reality which comes upon the worker as people who put order and tension in their everyday job; these job determinants imprint and produce impacts, giving sense to the work quality and constructing concrete possibilities to the worker to manifest him/herself as Whole being, guiding the construction of his/her identity.

  1. Constructing Phylogenies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilardello, Nicholas; Valdes, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a method for constructing phylogenies using molecular traits and elementary graph theory. Discusses analyzing molecular data and using weighted graphs, minimum-weight spanning trees, and rooted cube phylogenies to display the data. (DDR)

  2. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  3. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  4. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  5. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, S; Sivaprakash, P; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.

  6. UAE population reference standard charts for body mass index and skinfold thickness, at ages 0-18 years.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M; Nagelkerke, Nico; Moussa, Mohamed A

    2011-11-01

    To determine a range of anthropometric measurements including skinfold thickness measurements in four different areas of the body, to construct population growth charts for body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, and to compare these with growth charts from other countries. One aim was also to validate body fat charts derived from skinfold thickness. A national cross-sectional growth survey of children, 0-18 years old, was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling. The sample size included at least 200 children in each age-sex group. Height, weight, biceps skinfold, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, suprailiac skinfold, and mid-upper-arm circumference were measured in each child. We describe correlation, standard deviation scores relative to the other standards, and calculation of body density in the United Arab Emirates population. We determined whether any of the above is a good indicator of fatness in children. BMI, upper-arm circumference, sum of four skinfolds, and percentage body fat charts were constructed using the LMS method of smoothing. BMI was very significantly correlated with sum of skinfold thicknesses, and mid-upper-arm circumference. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in ages 13-17 years was respectively 9.94% and 15.16% in females and 6.08% and 14.16% in males. Derived body fat charts were found not to be accurate. A national BMI, upper-arm circumference, and sum of four skinfolds chart has been constructed that can be used as a reference standard for the United Arab Emirates. Sum of four skinfold thickness charts can be used as crude determinants of adiposity in children, but derived body fat charts were shown to be inaccurate.

  7. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  8. Older Worker Employment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctors, Samuel I.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The records of a public employment agency for senior citizens are analyzed. Client characteristics reveal that older people want to work and retain jobs in which they are placed. The underutilization of older workers is discussed. (SK)

  9. Analysis of ethnic disparities in workers' compensation claims using data linkage.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lee S; Ruestow, Peter; Forst, Linda

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this research project was to assess ethnic disparities in monetary compensation among construction workers injured on the job through the linkage of medical records and workers' compensation data. Probabilistic linkage of medical records with workers' compensation claim data. In the final multivariable robust regression model, compensation was $5824 higher (P = 0.030; 95% confidence interval: 551 to 11,097) for white non-Hispanic workers than for other ethnic groups when controlling for injury severity, affected body region, type of injury, average weekly wage, weeks of temporary total disability, percent permanent partial disability, death, or attorney use. The analysis indicates that white non-Hispanic construction workers are awarded higher monetary settlements despite the observation that for specific injuries the mean temporary total disability and permanent partial disability were equivalent to or lower than those in Hispanic and black construction workers.

  10. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Barakat-Haddad, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female) and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities. PMID:23606864

  11. Evaluation of handling and reuse approaches for the waste generated from MEA-based CO2 capture with the consideration of regulations in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Nurrokhmah, Laila; Mezher, Toufic; Abu-Zahra, Mohammad R M

    2013-01-01

    A waste slip-stream is generated from the reclaiming process of monoethanolamine (MEA) based Post-Combustion Capture (PCC). It mainly consists of MEA itself, ammonium, heat-stable salts (HSS), carbamate polymers, and water. In this study, the waste quantity and nature are characterized for Fluor's Econamine FGSM coal-fired CO2 capture base case. Waste management options, including reuse, recycling, treatment, and disposal, are investigated due to the need for a more environmentally sound handling. Regulations, economic potential, and associated costs are also evaluated. The technical, economic, and regulation assessment suggests waste reuse for NOx scrubbing. Moreover, a high thermal condition is deemed as an effective technique for waste destruction, leading to considerations of waste recycling into a coal burner or incineration. As a means of treatment, three secondary-biological processes covering Complete-Mix Activated Sludge (CMAS), oxidation ditch, and trickling filter are designed to meet the wastewater standards in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). From the economic point of view, the value of waste as a NOx scrubbing agent is 6,561,600-7,348,992 USD/year. The secondary-biological treatment cost is 0.017-0.02 USD/ton of CO2, while the cost of an on-site incinerator is 0.031 USD/ton of CO2 captured. In conclusion, secondary biological treatment is found to be the most economical option.

  12. The mediating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between secondary traumatic stress and burnout in professional caregivers in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Musa, Saif A

    2017-02-01

    Professional caregivers dealing with traumatized victims or mental health clients are at increased risk for developing the same symptoms as persons who are exposed directly to the trauma. This research was aimed at examining the relationship between secondary traumatic stress, burnout and coping strategies in 502 professional caregivers who work in schools, hospitals, charity institutes and welfare centers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A further aim was to test the mediating effect of coping on the relationship between burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Measures used in this study were the Professional Quality of Life Questionnaire (ProQOL), The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and Endler and Parker's Coping Inventory. Task-focused coping, personal accomplishment and compassion satisfaction were negatively associated with secondary traumatic stress. Burnout, emotion-focused and distraction coping were positively related to secondary traumatic stress. Coping partially mediated the relationship between burnout and secondary traumatic stress. There were also significant gender differences in depersonalization and distraction coping. Efforts need to focus on improvement of caregivers' work environments, enhancing their coping skills and professional development.

  13. Occupational skin disease in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Bock, M; Schmidt, A; Bruckner, T; Diepgen, T L

    2003-12-01

    Construction workers have a substantial risk of developing irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis. Unfortunately, however, there is little population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational skin diseases (OSD) in the European construction industry that allow assessment of preventive measures. In this investigation, the yearly incidence rates and causes of OSD in the construction industry were analysed on the basis of our register in Northern Bavaria. From 1990 until 1999, all incidences of OSD in the construction industry were recorded prospectively. This enables the calculation of incidence rates of OSD in relation to the employed population in Northern Bavaria as recorded by the German Federal Employment Office. In the construction industry, a total of 335 OSD were registered. These comprise 9.0% of all OSD in the register. We classified them into four relevant groups: (A) tile setters and terrazzo workers (incidence per 10 000 employees = 19.9); (B) painters (7.8); (C) construction and cement workers (5.2); and (D) wood processors (2.6). The overall incidence was 5.1 per 10 000 employees over 10 years, which is a little below average for the entire register (6.7). Of these, 43.6% were at least 40 years old. Allergic contact dermatitis (61.5%) occurred more often than irritant contact dermatitis (44.5%). Potassium dichromate caused roughly half of all cases of sensitization found to be occupationally relevant in the construction industry (152 cases) followed by epoxy resin (40) and cobalt chloride (32). The results indicate that potassium dichromate is still the most important allergen in the construction industry of Northern Bavaria; there has been no significant decline during the 1990s. This contrasts with the Scandinavian countries, where the prevalence of potassium dichromate sensitization declined following the reduction of chromium VI levels resulting from the addition of ferrous sulphate to cement. Within the construction industry, tile

  14. Metal Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verduzio, Rodolfo

    1922-01-01

    The future development of aerial navigation is closely connected with the condition of obtaining airplanes of great stability and sufficient strength. Different construction materials such as wood, aluminum, iron, and alloys are examined to determine which materials or combination of materials provides a greater coefficient of safety.

  15. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  16. Constructive Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberfeld, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    Many crucial questions need to be answered before a college embarks on a construction project and makes a substantial financial commitment. Computer modeling techniques can be used to make even complex project feasibility analyses. Available from Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co., 345 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10154. (MSE)

  17. Constructive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyake, Naomi

    To identify conditions that make a conversational interaction constructive--in the sense that the participants can find the way toward the success of what they wanted to accomplish--two situations were examined. In one, a professional researcher explained her data to a statistician. In the other, three groups of two people cooperated with each…

  18. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors.