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Sample records for uitgawe van die

  1. Quality of Expert Systems: Methods and Techniques (Kwaliteit van Expertsystemen: Methoden en Technieken)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    8217 van R op Q betekent in concreto dat verhoging van R verboging van Q tot gevolg kan hebben en verlaging van R verlaging van Q. ’Remmende invloed’ is...domeinen die (nog) niet op enigszins overzicbtelijke wijze van een expliciete theorie zijn voorzien. In concreto kan men hierbij denken aan sociaal

  2. James A. Van Allen (1914-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    James A. Van Allen, who served as presidentof AGU from 1982 to 1984, died on 9August. Van Allen was president of the PlanetarySciences Section from 1964 to 1968 andpresident of the Solar-Planetary RelationshipsSection (now the Space Physics andAeronomy Section) from 1976 to 1978. Hewas awarded the John Adam Fleming Medalin 1963 and the William Bowie Medal in1977. Van Allen joined AGU in 1948.

  3. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  4. Adaptation of the Army Standard KN 01020 (aanpassing van de krijgsmachtnorm kn 01020)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    van de kleur . Voor RAL kleuren is bet kleurverschil op, basis van DIN 6175 bepaald door uit te gaan van de kleurspecificaties zoals die door RAL zijn...bepalingsmethoden voor kleur , glans en spectrale reflecties van verfiagen. SPECIFICEREN VAN KLEUREN EN KLEURVERSCHILLEN 2. Kleuren kunnen worden...moet ook bet toegestane kleurverschil tussen de gespecificeerde kleur en de geleverde kleur worden vermeld. In de versebillende overzicbtstabellen van

  5. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  6. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  7. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  8. Kwaliteit van Expertsystemen: Algoritmen voor Integriteits-Controle (Quality of Expert Systems: Algorithms for Integrity Control)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    gelegd kan worden tussen de gebanteerde ontwikkelmetbode en algoritmen voor integriteitscontrole. In concreto komt dit neer op: * Evaluatie van...feiten) te bepalen am de beperkingsregels te kunnen lacaliseren die getvalueeiti moeten warden. In concreto moeten twee feitenverzamelingen warden...gebanteerd worden. Consistentie bij Suwa komt in concreto neer op bet detecteren van drie soorten ’potentible fouten’ in de kennisbank: tegenstrijdigbeid

  9. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  10. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  11. Sleep and Alertness Management I: Pharmacokinetics of Hypnotics and Alertness Enhancers in Marmoset Monkeys (slaap- en alertheidsmanagement I: farmacokinetiek van slaap- en alertheidsverhogendemiddelen in marmosetapen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    maken van snelle en kortwerkende slaapmiddelen en sneiwerkende alertheidsverhogende middelen. De farmaco -kinetiek van reeds geregistreerde middelen...zijn bij mensen over het algemneen goed bekend. Maar deze middelen kunnen mogelijik in een diermodel (marmosetaap) een andere farmaco -kinetiek hebben...Omn die reden zal de kinetiek in de marmosetaap vergeleken moeten worden met die in de mens. Daaromn is in deze studie de farmaco -kinetiek van

  12. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  13. Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafen, Brent Q.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses death and the dying process, the psychological needs of a person who is faced with his or her imminent death, and the five stages of emotional response through which a dying person goes in coping with the fact of death. (MJB)

  14. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  15. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  16. ATHENA: De Combinatie van een Helderheidsversterker en Thermische Kijker met Kleurweergave (ATHENA: The Combination of a Brightness Amplifier and Thermal Viewer With Color)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    krijgen, en kan aanleiding geven tot het optreden van visuele illusies en een verlies van situationeel bewustzijn. Er komen echter steeds meer...overeenstemt met de werkelijkheid, Toet et al., 1997; Toet, 2006; Toet & Franken, 2003). Waarnemers die visuele zoek- en detectietaken uitvoeren...men visuele verificatie mogelijkheden heeft); • een verbetering van de robuustheid van het systeem in operationele situaties (als een sensor uitvalt

  17. Die Kometenmission Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Die Rosetta-Mission ist ein Meilenstein in der Erforschung der Kometen und ihrer Entstehung. Eine der größten üerraschungen war die unregelmäßge hantelförmige Gestalt des Zielkometen 67P/Tschurjumow-Gerassimenko. Er besteht wahrscheinlich aus zwei Einzelkörpern, die durch ihre Schwerkraft aneinander gehalten werden. Seine Oberfläche ist sehr rau und zeigt eine sehr vielfältige Morphologie, die auf eine Vielzahl von ablaufenden Prozessen hindeutet. Der Kometenkern ist vermutlich auf Größnskalen von mehr als etwa 10 bis 100 Metern homogen, Inhomogenitäten auf kleineren Skalen könnten für seine Aktivät verantwortlich sein. Diese ist auf kleine Gebiete konzentriert, und auch Oberflächenveränderungen, die sich innerhalb von einigen Tagen bis wenigen Wochen abspielen, sind lokal. Im Kometenmaterial wurde eine Vielzahl an organischen Substanzen gemessen, die zum Teil als Schlüsselmoleküle für die Synthese der Grundbausteine des Lebens gelten, wie wir es kennen.

  18. The Space Van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Len

    1989-07-01

    The Space Van, a small, reusable, two-stage rocket-powered space transportation system, has been developed. The configuration, performance, operational characteristics, launch-service prices, and potential applications of the Space Van system are discussed. The booster, cargo stage, orbiter stage, delayed recovery stage, and external LOX tanks for service to LEO are described. For service beyond LEO, a small expendable transfer stage, an expendible orbital transfer vehicle, and an RL10 rocket engine are used. Applications of the Space Van include the Space Station, defense, launching space probes, commercial space transportation, manufacturing, telecommunications, solar power, on-orbit servicing and repair, and debris clearance.

  19. Die singulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Thomas P; Garcia, Ernest J; Francis, Kathryn M

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etchedmore » using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.« less

  20. Die singulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etchedmore » using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.« less

  1. Van Gogh in Arles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1985-01-01

    Recently an outstanding cross-section of works from Van Gogh's Arlesian period was on exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. His works are discussed; some samples are included. (RM)

  2. Inventory of Simulation and Modeling for the Analysis of Ground Manoeuvre Performance (inventarisatie van vragen en modellen voor de analyse van het grondgebonden optreden)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    61 TNO- D1 200 A059nfo-DenV@tno.nl Inventarisatie van vragen en modellen voor de analyse van het grondgebonden optreden Datum april 2006 Auteur(s) ir...FELPATH (Helikoptertransport) FELPATH ( FEL planning Aid for Transport Helicopters) is een beslissingsondersteunende planningstool die de getntegreerde...Scheepstal, FEL -99-S175, TNO Den Haag, 1999. [13] Gebruikershandleiding Brigade/Divisie GevechtsEvaluator, Ondersteuning werkgroep Doctrine ontwikkeling

  3. Poetry and the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates roles poetry can play as people confront the death of loved ones and their own dying. Gives examples of Heinrich Heine transforming his agony into art and, from the poetry of two college students, both in advanced stages of neurological disease, which was read aloud in class, teaching all present something about how to approach their…

  4. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  5. Tool & Die Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 23 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of tool and die technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and…

  6. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... though, over the course of many years, the human body wears out, just like the tires on an ... part of a person that's left after the body dies is often called the "soul" or "spirit." Some people believe the soul is the part of a human that loves, feels, and creates; it's the part ...

  7. Lighting Van Leeuwenhoek's samples.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2017-12-29

    Possible techniques for lighting opaque samples while using Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes have been tested, and the results are presented in relation to published material. The design of the microscope causes the sample to be in shadow with any form of top lighting. It is therefore suggested that Van Leeuwenhoek's hinted 'particular method of observing' might refer to a different style of microscope as shown in the frontispiece of the sale catalogue for his microscopes, and available at that time for purchase from sellers of optical equipment. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  9. Heath Van Essen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Heath Van Essen, Respondent, an individual who owns or operates an animal feeding operation (“Facility”) that is located in Section 27 of Township 98 North, Range 47 West,

  10. Pythagoras Meets Van Hiele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfinio

    1993-01-01

    Develops the Pythagorean Theorem in the context of the Van Hiele levels by presenting activities appropriate for each level. Activities point to preparatory development (level 0), give 3 different versions of Euclid's proof (levels 1, 2, and 3), give some generalizations of the theorem (level 3), and explore the Pythagorean relationship in other…

  11. Segments of van Gogh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that was used with first grade students in which they learn about Vincent van Gogh's style of painting. Explains that the children learn to create circles and straight lines and how to fill in with color. (CMK)

  12. Remembering Van Gogh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity in which fourth grade students created a three-dimensional representation of Vincent Van Gogh's room in Arles (France). Expounds that the students had to invent their own strategies for three-dimensional construction and two-dimensional embellishment. Provides directions for creating the room and bed. (CMK)

  13. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  14. Should assisted dying be lawful?

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Calls for a change in the law to allow strictly controlled forms of assisted dying in the UK have resurfaced following a much-publicised storyline on the subject on the TV soap opera Coronation Street and the impending debate on Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying Bill in the House of Lords. This article reviews the current stance of the law on euthanasia and assisted dying and considers Lord Falconer's attempts to reform the law through the Assisted Dying Bill.

  15. Dying with dignity.

    PubMed

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Van Gogh from Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Van Gogh from Space - July 13th, 2005 Description: In the style of Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night," massive congregations of greenish phytoplankton swirl in the dark water around Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea. Phytoplankton are microscopic marine plants that form the first link in nearly all ocean food chains. Population explosions, or blooms, of phytoplankton, like the one shown here, occur when deep currents bring nutrients up to sunlit surface waters, fueling the growth and reproduction of these tiny plants. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  17. Electromagnetic van Kampen waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatov, A. M., E-mail: aign@fpl.gpi.ru

    2017-01-15

    The theory of van Kampen waves in plasma with an arbitrary anisotropic distribution function is developed. The obtained solutions are explicitly expressed in terms of the permittivity tensor. There are three types of perturbations, one of which is characterized by the frequency dependence on the wave vector, while for the other two, the dispersion relation is lacking. Solutions to the conjugate equations allowing one to solve the initial value problem are analyzed.

  18. [Van Helmont and gas].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Johan Baptista van Helmont (1579-1644) was born in Brussels, around the time the Southern Netherlands ceased their resistance against the Spanish rule. He studied a variety of disciplines in Louvain and made a 'grand tour' in Europe, but remained dissatisfied with traditional knowledge, which he regarded as empty phrases and sophistry. His spouse being wealthy, he devoted himself to studying nature anew, unencumbered by prejudice, as Paracelsus (1493-1541) had done before him. Yet in his attempts to explain living and inanimate matter he could not avoid making basic assumptions. Among these was his view that there were only two elements: water and air. Water might carry elementary seeds from which a variety of substances could develop. When a substance was consumed by fire, an ethereal essence would remain, which he called 'Gas' (a term perhaps derived from Paracelsian 'chaos', perhaps from 'Geist'). Today 'gas' is defined as the volatile state of a given substance, but in Van Helmont's view it was mainly a metaphysical characteristic. Most of Van Helmont's work was published only after his death, through a verdict of the Spanish Inquisition.

  19. Development of osmoregulatory tissues in the Lake van fish (Alburnus tarichi) during larval development.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R

    2018-02-01

    Lake Van is one of the largest alkaline lakes worldwide and Lake Van Fish (Alburnus tarichi Güldenstädt, 1814) is the only vertebrate species inhabiting it. Lake Van Fish is an anadromous species that migrates to the streams (salinity 0.02%, pH 8.42) flowing into Lake Van (salinity 0.22%, pH 9.8) during the spawning period (April-July). Following spawning, fish return to Lake Van while larvae remain in fresh water. This study examined the development of osmoregulatory organs and the distribution of ionocytes in Lake Van Fish larvae adapting to the highly alkaline water characterizing the lake. Ionocytes were marked immunohistochemically and observed in whole mounts with immunofluorescence staining using the Na + /K + ATPase antibody. Ionocytes were first identified in the yolk sac membrane and skin, and then in the gills, digestive tract, and kidneys of larvae. The number of ionocytes on yolk sac membrane and skin decreased during larval development, indicating ionocytes on these tissues have a role in larvae osmoregulation. Larvae hatched from eggs in stream waters die when transferred to Lake Van water but survived in lake water diluted with deionized water. Thus, larvae need to go through certain alterations at the cellular and organ levels in order to adapt to the conditions of Lake Van water, indicating they do not enter this lake immediately after hatching.

  20. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  1. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Thomas Charles Van Flandern, an expert in celestial mechanics and cosmology, died January 9, 2009 in Seattle, Washington, of colon cancer. He was 68. Van Flandern was an astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory from 1963 to 1983. He developed software to predict and analyze lunar occultations to improve lunar orbital and fundamental star catalog data. In later years he championed increasingly controversial theories. But his 1978 prediction that some asteroids have natural satellites, which was almost universally rejected, was verified when the Galileo spacecraft photographed Dactyl, a satellite of (243) Ida, during its flyby in 1993. Besides astronomy and computers, he had strong interests in biochemistry and nutrition, and he ran a business selling personal computers in the 1980s. Tom Van Flandern was born June 26, 1940 in Cleveland, Ohio, the first child of Robert F. Van Flandern and Anna Mary Haley. His father, a police officer, left the family when Tom Van Flandern was 5. His mother died when he was 16; he and his siblings then lived with their grandmother, Margery Jobe, until he went to college. Tom Van Flandern became interested in astronomy as a child. He used his first telescope, purchased with newspaper delivery earnings, to observe lunar occultations, and then learned how to predict them, sparking a life-long passion for dynamical astronomy. While attending St. Ignatius High School, Van Flandern and fellow student Thomas Petrie organized the Cleveland Moonwatch team to observe the first artificial satellites, the only team without an adult organizer. In 1958, Tom Van Flandern entered Xavier University where he led the Cincinnati Moonwatch team. He learned computer programming at a summer job with General Electric and wrote software to calculate "look angles" from orbital elements. The Cincinnati team became a top producer of observations using these predictions. Tom obtained a B.S. in mathematics from Xavier in 1962. He spent the next year at

  2. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  3. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tiltmore » was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.« less

  4. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Creveld syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects bone growth. Causes Ellis-van Creveld is passed down through families (inherited). It is caused by defects in 1 of 2 Ellis-van ... Order Amish population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. It is fairly rare ...

  5. A clinical perspective on dying

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Robert G.

    1972-01-01

    There is continuing need for dissemination of already available, clinically useful knowledge concerning the psychological needs of the seriously ill and dying. Against the changing social context of dying, some of our erroneous assumptions about these patients are explored and the genuine fears and personal needs are discussed. The implications of this knowledge for medical education are recognized. PMID:5074753

  6. Imaging van der Waals Interactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhumin; Wei, Xinyuan; Xu, Chen; Chiang, Chi-Lun; Zhang, Yanxing; Wu, Ruqian; Ho, W

    2016-12-15

    The van der Waals interactions are responsible for a large diversity of structures and functions in chemistry, biology, and materials. Discussion of van der Waals interactions has focused on the attractive potential energy that varies as the inverse power of the distance between the two interacting partners. The origin of the attractive force is widely discussed as being due to the correlated fluctuations of electron charges that lead to instantaneous dipole-induced dipole attractions. Here, we use the inelastic tunneling probe to image the potential energy surface associated with the van der Waals interactions of xenon atoms.

  7. Stirling Powered Van Progam overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The Stirling Powered Van Program (SPVP) is a multiyear, multiphase program to evaluate the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) in Air Force vans under realistic conditions. The objective of the SPVP is to transfer to manufacturer and end user(s) (i.e., on the path to commercialization) the second-generation Mod 2 ASE upon completion of the Automotive Stirling Engine Program in 1987. In order to meet this objective, the SPVP must establish Stirling performance, integrity, reliability, durability and maintainability. The ASE program background leading to the van program is reviewed and plans for evaluating the kinematic Stirling engine in Air Force vans examined. Also discussed are the NASA technology transfers to industry that have been accomplished and those which are currently being developed.

  8. Huntsville, Alabama, Volunteer Van Demonstration

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-04-01

    The Huntsville Volunteer Van Demonstration, operational since November of 1980, provides transportation service to the traditional transit-dependent community in an unconventional way. The city of Huntsville is not served by a conventional public tra...

  9. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  10. VanB Phenotype-vanA Genotype Enterococcus faecium with Heterogeneous Expression of Teicoplanin Resistance▿

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Joong; Lee, Wee Gyo; Shin, Jong Hee; Lee, Kyung Won; Woo, Gun Jo

    2008-01-01

    Six VanB phenotype-vanA genotype isolates of Enterococcus faecium with heterogeneous expression of teicoplanin resistance which gave rise to an outbreak at a Korean tertiary care teaching hospital have IS1216V in the coding region of vanS. This could be the underlying cause of the VanB phenotype-vanA genotype with heterogeneous expression of teicoplanin resistance. PMID:18596139

  11. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  12. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  13. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  14. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  15. Twisted Van der Waals Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, Satrio; Rossi, Enrico

    Van der Waals systems formed by two-dimensional (2D) crystals and nanostructures possess electronic properties that make them extremely interesting for basic science and for possible technological applications. By tuning the relative angle (the twist angle) between the layers, or nanostructures, forming the Van der Waals systems experimentalists have been able to control the stacking configuration of such systems. We study the dependence on the twist angle of the electronic properties of two classes of Van der Waals systems: double layers formed by two, one-atom thick, layers of a metal dichalcogenide such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and graphene nanoribbons on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate. We present results that show how, for both classes of systems, the electronic properties can be strongly tuned via the twist angle. Work supported by ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5 and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  16. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  17. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  18. Five-body van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing

    2017-06-01

    We report on the five-body repulsive and attractive van der Waals interactions between the strongly dipole-dipole coupled Rydberg states. Compared to four-body van der Waals interactions, five-body van der Waals interactions show more energy levels and more potential wells caused by avoided crossings. This research bridges the few-body physics and many-body physics. Other disciplines, such as chemistry, biology, and medical fields, will also benefit from better understanding van der Waals interactions.

  19. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  20. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  1. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Husak, D N

    1979-01-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  2. The association of light trucks and vans with paediatric pedestrian deaths.

    PubMed

    DiMaggio, Charles; Durkin, Maureen; Richardson, Lynne D

    2006-06-01

    The hypothesis that relative to cars, light trucks and vans (including sports utility vehicles) are more likely to result in fatal paediatric pedestrian injury was investigated. It was further hypothesized that this increased risk is a result of head injuries. The study sample consisted of 18 117 police records of motor vehicles involved in crashes in which one or more pedestrians aged 5 to 19 years old was injured or killed. Frequencies and case fatality ratios for each vehicle body type were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was conducted, with light truck or van vs. car as the exposure variable and fatal/non-fatal pedestrian injury as the outcome variable. After controlling for driver age, driver gender, vehicle weight, road surface condition and presence of head injury, 5 to 19 year-olds struck by light trucks or vans were more than twice as likely to die than those struck by cars (odds ratio (OR) 2.3; 95% CI 1.4, 3.9). For the 5 to 9 year-old age group, light trucks and vans were four times as likely to be associated with fatal injury (OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.9, 9.5). There was an association between head injury and light trucks and vans (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1, 1.3). It was concluded that vehicle body type characteristics play an important role in paediatric pedestrian injury severity and may offer engineering-based opportunities for injury control.

  3. The Lived Experiences of Nurses Caring For Dying Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Danna L

    2017-01-01

    Nurses and healthcare professionals may have difficulty adjusting to and comprehending their experiences when a patient’s life ends. This has the potential to interfere with patient care. Reflection on past events and actions enables critical discovery of strategies to benefit both nurses and patients. This qualitative phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of nurses caring for dying pediatric patients. The philosophical underpinning of Merleau-Ponty (2008), in combination with the research method of van Manen (1990), was used for this study. The Roy Adaptation Model (RAM) (Roy, 2009; Roy & Andrews, 1991) was the nursing model that guided the study to help understand that nurses are an adaptive system, using censoring as a compensatory adaptive process to help function for a purposeful cause. Nine female nurse participants with one to four years of experience were interviewed. The context of the experiences told by nurses caring for dying pediatric patents uncovered seven essential themes of empathy, feelings of ambivalence, inevitability, inspiration, relationship, self-preservation, and sorrow, and these themes demonstrated a connection formed between the nurse and the patient.

  4. Van der Waals oxide heteroepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-12-01

    The research field of oxide heteroepitaxy suffers from the characteristics of misfit strain and substrate clamping, hampering the optimization of performance and the gain of fundamental understanding of oxide systems. Recently, there are demonstrations on functional oxides epitaxially fabricated on layered muscovite substrate. In these heterostructures, due to the weak interaction between substrate and film, they show the lattice of films close to bulk with excellent strictive properties, suggesting that these critical problems can be potentially solved by van der Waals oxide heteroepitaxy. In addition, by exploiting the transparent and flexible features of muscovite, such a heteroepitaxy can deliver new material solutions to transparent soft technology. In this paper, the history, development, and current status of van der Waals oxide heteroepitaxy are addressed and discussed. In the end, new research directions in terms of fundamental study and practical application are proposed to highlight the importance of this research field.

  5. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  6. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  7. Psychiatry and the dying prisoner.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Due to the growing number of ageing prisoners in the American correctional system, penal institutions are increasingly caring for patients with chronic and potentially terminal medical conditions. To address this problem states have attempted sentencing reform initiatives and adopted compassionate release programmes; however, these efforts have failed to significantly reduce the number of elderly or seriously ill inmates. Correctional mental health services are now called upon to aid in the care of prisoners at the end of life. This article presents the common elements of prison hospice programmes and the role psychiatry plays in this multidisciplinary effort. The right-to-die movement holds future implications for correctional mental health professionals. The historical and legal background of this international movement is presented with particular attention given to landmark cases and statutes protecting institutionalized patients.

  8. Bacteria Interactions with Dying Diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smriga, S.; Juarez, G.; Fernandez, V.; Stocker, R.

    2016-02-01

    Dying phytoplankton are surrounded by microscale gradients of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can attract bacteria. These 'phycospheres' may impact the trophic transfer of DOM in the marine microbial food web and enable the growth of bacterial populations, yet these effects remain poorly quantified particularly in relation to the physiological state of the phytoplankton. We dissected phycosphere interactions at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution using the model diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the bacterium Marinobacter adhaerans. Diatom stress was stimulated by addition of polyunsaturated aldehyde (PUA) and both diatom and bacterial responses were captured via time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. We found that stressed diatoms underwent lysis 10-15 h after PUA treatment. Coordinated with the timing of this transition into phytodetritus, wild-type Marinobacter accumulated via chemotaxis near the diatoms immediately following lysis. In contrast, at lysis there was no accumulation of either a non-chemotactic or a non-motile mutant of Marinobacter, pointing to behavioral rather than demographic responses as drivers for the accumulation. Despite the lack of response, non-chemotactic as well as non-swimming bacterial cells that by chance attached to or were located near (<30 µm) stressed diatoms experienced more growth than cells further afield. Growth within the phycosphere was even greater after diatom lysis. Through quantification at the microscale, these results reveal that chemotaxis may precede rapid bacterial attachment to stressed and dying diatoms and may be integral to the microbial colonization of new phytodetritus during phytoplankton blooms and bloom collapses in coastal ecosystems. Even while chemotactic cells retain a growth advantage given their ability to sense and respond to lysis events, phycosphere DOM provides growth benefits to both motile and non-motile taxa that become attached to or happen to be co-located with new

  9. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  10. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  11. Film thickness of die coating agents.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D W; Fletcher, V A; Gardner, L K; Allen, J D

    1991-10-01

    Die coating agents are often used during the fabrication of porcelain margins for crowns and fixed partial dentures. These agents seal microscopic irregularities within the stone die and resist abrasion. This investigation measured the film thickness of several die coating agents. A specific reference point was used during the measurement process. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between the die coating agents examined under the conditions of the study. The film thickness measurements ranged between 0.367 microns for Duro Super Glue Material and 2.3 microns for Zap CA material.

  12. Van Go: A Labor of Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Like a tapestry woven with one outstanding thread from beginning to end, the author's forty-year tenure as an art educator has its golden thread in her Van Go art outreach project. Quite literally, she takes students in a "van" and they "go," mostly on dirt roads, taking art to rural schools in Idaho, some of which have no more…

  13. Five residents speak: the meaning of living with dying in a long-term care home.

    PubMed

    Djivre, Sandra E; Levin, Elizabeth; Schinke, Robert J; Porter, Elaine

    2012-07-01

    Personal meanings given to the experience of living with nursing home death were shared by 5 nursing home residents. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Using M. van Manen's (1990) hermeneutic phenomenology, the lived experience of residents emerged as a compilation of 5 dynamically occurring themes, including (a) mapping relations, (b) pacing oneself (c) maintaining belongingness, (d) reconciling death as part of life, and (e) engaging in preparatory review. The overarching essence of the lived experienced was defined as reflection toward resolution of dying as a "resident" in a sea of life gains and losses. Residents' expressions revealed that living with peers' dying in a nursing home is closely entwined with how life is experienced during one's final days.

  14. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  15. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  16. Death and Dying: Issues for Educational Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore, Myers, Jane E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on death orientations, the dying process, and bereavement, with a major focus on the elderly. Suggests that relevant knowledge about death and dying are important for gerontological practitioners and proposes that death-related content be systematically integrated into academic curricula at the preservice and inservice levels.…

  17. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  18. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  19. Temperature-Dependent van der Waals Forces

    PubMed Central

    Parsegian, V. A.; Ninham, B. W.

    1970-01-01

    Biological systems can experience a strong van der Waals interaction involving electromagnetic fluctuations at the low frequency limit. In lipid-water mixtures the free energy of this interaction is proportional to temperature, primarily involves an entropy change, and has qualitative features of a “hydrophobic bond.” Protein-protein attraction in dilute solution is due as much to low frequency proton fluctuation (Kirkwood-Shumaker forces) and permanent dipole forces as to high frequency (infrared and UV) van der Waals intreactions. These conclusions are described in terms of numerical calculations via the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces. PMID:5449916

  20. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. 10.41a Section 10.41a... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  1. Euklid als Physiker: Die Realgeltung der Geometrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genz, Henning

    Es lässt sich beweisen, dass die Winkelsumme in einem ebenen, euklidischen Dreieck 180 Grad beträgt. Ebenso ergibt sich, dass die Winkelsumme in einem Dreieck auf einer Kugeloberfläche größer als 180 Grad ist. Auch der Satz des Pythagoras ist beweisbar. In allen Fällen beruhen die Beweise auf Euklids Parallelenaxiom. Das aber lässt sich nicht beweisen. Beweisbar aber ist, dass es in nicht-euklidischen Geomerien nicht gilt.

  2. Crater Wall in Van de Graaff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-11

    This image taken NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the wall of crater Van de Graaff C, where brighter material is exposed by more active processes associated with steeper slopes, recent small craters, and even individual rolling boulders.

  3. Analysis of crashes involving 15-passenger vans

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between vehicle occupancy and several other variables in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database and a 15-passenger van's risk of rollover....

  4. Dispersion (van der Waals) Forces and TDDFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, John F.

    A semi-pedagogic discussion is given of the use of response theory and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory to describe van der Waals (dispersion) energies, within the context of Adiabatic Connection and the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem.

  5. Die histologischen Typen der lymphomatoiden Papulose - Ein Vorschlag für die Vereinfachung des Buchstabenchaos.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mitteldorf, Christina; Karai, Laszlo J; Robson, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Die lymphomatoide Papulose (LYP) ist klinisch durch rezidivierende papulonoduläre Läsionen charakterisiert. Im Gegensatz zu dieser stereotypen klinischen Präsentation zeigt die Erkrankung ein breites histologisches Spektrum mit verschiedenen Infiltratmustern, unterschiedlichen Tumorzellgrößen und variablen Phänotypen. Die revidierte WHO-Klassifikation 2016 umfasst die histologischen LYP-Typen A bis E und einen sechsten Typ, dem eine spezielle Mutation zugrunde liegt. Darüber hinaus werden jedoch immer wieder neue Typen vorgeschlagen, wobei sich die Ausweitung nicht ausschließlich auf histologische Muster bezieht, sondern sich auch auf klinische und genetische Aspekte ausdehnt. Dies führt zu einer Ausweitung der alphabetischen Liste mit zunehmender Komplexität der Terminologie und kann anstelle eines vereinfachten diagnostischen Zugangs zur Verwirrung führen. Zudem kann es zu Überschneidungen unterschiedlicher Typen kommen. Diese Entwicklung wirft die Frage auf, wie die Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose vereinfacht werden kann, ohne dabei auf die histologischen Besonderheiten zu verzichten. Wir schlagen daher einen praktischen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoide Papulosen vor, welcher sich ausschließlich auf deskriptive Begriffe beschränkt und nicht auf einer alphabetischen Bezeichnung der LYP-Typen beruht. Unser Vorschlag soll einen praktikablen und benutzerfreundlichen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose ermöglichen und damit den diagnostischen Prozess sowie die Kommunikation zwischen Klinikern und Pathologen vereinfachen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. House of Lords debates assisted dying (again).

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Lord Joffe's Patient (Assisted Dying) Bill (see Bulletin 187) had its Second Reading on 6 June. The debate was lively, informed and inevitably somewhat polarised. However, some common themes emerged and are outlined below.

  7. Hubble View of a Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-21

    This image of a dying star, protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306, containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. Taken by NASA Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

  8. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  9. Van Allen Discovery Most Important

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrow, R.

    1959-01-01

    The first step toward the exploration of space occurred approximately 22 months ago as a part of the International Geophysical Year. In the short interval since October, 1957, the new tools of research, the satellite and the space rocket, have produced two unexpected results of fundamental scientific importance. First, instruments placed in the Explorer satellites by James A. Van Allen have revealed the existence of layers of energetic particles in the outer atmosphere. This discovery constitutes the most significant research achievement of the IGY satellite program. The layers may provide the explanation for the aurora and other geophysical phenomena, and they will also influence the design of vehicles for manned space flight, whose occupants must be shielded against their harmful biological effects. Second, the shape of the earth has been determined very accurately with the aid of data from the first Vanguard. As a result of this investigation, we have found that our planet tends toward the shape of a pear, with its stem at the North Pole. This discovery may produce major changes in our ideas on the interior structure of the earth.

  10. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  11. 77 FR 64580 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Van Nuys Airport, Van Nuys, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Van Nuys Airport, Van Nuys, California... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Los Angeles World...: The effective date of the FAA's determination on the noise exposure maps is October 3, 2012. FOR...

  12. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  13. Ethical challenges when caring for dying children.

    PubMed

    Furingsten, Lovisa; Sjögren, Reet; Forsner, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Caring for dying children presents special challenges, according to the children themselves, their relatives and healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to describe caring as represented in healthcare workers' experiences of caring for dying children. A phenomenological approach was chosen, in-depth interviews were carried out and data were analysed in four steps focusing on (a) open reading, (b) meaning units, (c) constituents and (d) essence. Four nurses in a general acute paediatric care setting in Sweden participated after providing written informed consent. Voluntary participation and confidentiality were ensured, and the study was ethically approved. The essence of caring for dying children was likened to a musically attuned composition, comprising five constituents: presence, self-knowledge, injustice in dying, own suffering and in need of others. Presence was found to be a prerequisite for caring when a child is dying. Self-knowledge and support from others can be of help when struggling with emotional pain and injustice. Caring for dying children has been found to be a delicate task for healthcare workers all over the world, and the ethical dimension is emphasized in international research. In this study, emotional pain and suffering accompanied caring, but an atmosphere in which it is possible to give and get support from colleagues and to have time to grieve and time to focus on the patient's needs may ease the burden, as can having time to process thoughts about life and death, and a possibility to grow in self-knowledge. Caring in ethically demanding situations may be facilitated through presence, atmosphere, self-knowledge and time. The challenge does not demand highly technological solutions; these assets are readily available, no matter where on earth. However, there is a need to further investigate these prerequisites for caring, particularly when a child is dying. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Integrable extended van der Waals model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Francesco; Landolfi, Giulio; Moro, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the recent developments in the study of the thermodynamics of van der Waals fluids via the theory of nonlinear conservation laws and the description of phase transitions in terms of classical (dissipative) shock waves, we propose a novel approach to the construction of multi-parameter generalisations of the van der Waals model. The theory of integrable nonlinear conservation laws still represents the inspiring framework. Starting from a macroscopic approach, a four parameter family of integrable extended van der Waals models is indeed constructed in such a way that the equation of state is a solution to an integrable nonlinear conservation law linearisable by a Cole-Hopf transformation. This family is further specified by the request that, in regime of high temperature, far from the critical region, the extended model reproduces asymptotically the standard van der Waals equation of state. We provide a detailed comparison of our extended model with two notable empirical models such as Peng-Robinson and Soave's modification of the Redlich-Kwong equations of state. We show that our extended van der Waals equation of state is compatible with both empirical models for a suitable choice of the free parameters and can be viewed as a master interpolating equation. The present approach also suggests that further generalisations can be obtained by including the class of dispersive and viscous-dispersive nonlinear conservation laws and could lead to a new type of thermodynamic phase transitions associated to nonclassical and dispersive shock waves.

  15. Pieter van Musschenbroek on laws of nature.

    PubMed

    Ducheyne, Steffen; Present, Pieter

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the development of the concept of a 'law' (of nature) in the work of the Dutch natural philosopher and experimenter Petrus van Musschenbroek (1692-1761). Since Van Musschenbroek is commonly described as one of the first 'Newtonians' on the Continent in the secondary literature, we focus more specifically on its relation to Newton's views on this issue. Although he was certainly indebted to Newton for his thinking on laws (of nature), Van Musschenbroek's views can be seen to diverge from Newton's on crucial points. We show, moreover, how his thinking on laws of nature was shaped by both international and local factors. We start with a brief discussion of Newton's concept of 'laws of nature' in order to set the stage for Van Musschenbroek's. We then document the development of Van Musschenbroek's views on laws of nature in chronological order. We demonstrate how his thinking on laws of nature was tied to institutional, theological and scientific factors. We conclude by pointing to the broader significance of this case study for our understanding of the development of the concept 'law of nature' during the eighteenth century.

  16. Salient signature of van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Via-Nadal, Mireia; Rodríguez-Mayorga, Mauricio; Matito, Eduard

    2017-11-01

    van der Waals interactions govern the physics of a plethora of molecular structures. It is well known that the leading term in the distance-based London expansion of the van der Waals energy for atomic and molecular dimers decays as 1 /R6 , where R is the dimer distance. Using perturbation theory, we find the leading term in the distance-based expansion of the intracule pair density at the interatomic distance. Our results unveil a universal 1 /R3 decay, which is less prone to numerical errors than the 1 /R6 dependency, and it is confirmed numerically in H2 and He2 molecules. This signature of van der Waals interactions can be directly used in the construction of approximate pair density and energy functionals including vdW corrections.

  17. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  18. Silence and truth in death and dying.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D

    1987-01-01

    Since about 1960 a socio-medical literature has emerged which asserts the importance of truth in the dialogue between dying patient and medical attendant; at the same time the former regime of silence is condemned. This paper argues against the implication that truth and silence are in opposition, and moreover that it is only since 1960 that it has been possible to speak the truth about death. Rather what has changed is the nature of truth itself which is manifested in the shift from the interrogation of the corpse to that of the dying patient.

  19. Ambiguities in 'killing' and 'letting die'.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G M

    1983-05-01

    In a recent article Carla Kary (1980) attempts to show that there can be a significant moral difference between instances of killing and letting die. I shall maintain in Section I that Kary's argument is somewhat weakened by her failure to note an important ambiguity in the notion of killing a person. I shall also argue in Section II that a similar ambiguity affects the notion of letting someone die, and that failure to note this latter ambiguity also weakens the position developed by Robert Coburn (1980) with regard to defective newborns.

  20. A perspective on physician-assisted dying.

    PubMed

    McKhann, C F

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses legalization of physician-assisted dying. Already much of the public is in favor of it, as are many physicians. Recent court decisions have so highlighted the diversity of thought on this issue that many people question whether there needs to be an absolute right or wrong. Patients who are dying slowly and painfully know that unnecessary suffering is being forced on them by conservative elements in our society. They feel that their desire for relief and for greater dignity and autonomy should receive more respect.

  1. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site transportation analysis report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    The Volpe Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) is providing transportation support to Martin Van Buren National Historic Site's (NHS) first General Management Plan (GMP), which will be complete in 2010 or 2011. Currently, Martin Van Buren NHS...

  2. 76 FR 13192 - Mark E. Van Wormer: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... as follows: Dr. Van Wormer is a physician licensed by the New Mexico State Board of Medicine, and he... 13, 2007, the U.S. District Court, District of New Mexico, entered judgment against Dr. Van Wormer...

  3. Electrons in the Inner Van Allen Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoff

    2017-03-22

    A recent study shows that the inner Van Allen belt has less radiation than previously believed. Observations from NASA’s Van Allen probes show the fastest, most energetic electrons in the inner radiation belt are actually much rarer and harder to find than scientists expected. This is good news for spacecraft that are orbiting in the region and can be damaged by high levels of radiation. The results will also help scientists better understand—and detect—effects from high-altitude nuclear explosions.

  4. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  5. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Van Hook Crude Terminal, LLC - Van Hook Crude Terminal/Rail Loading Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the current effective synthetic minor NSR permit for the Van Hook Crude Terminal, LLC, Van Hook Crude Terminal/Rail Loading Facility, located on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in Mountrail County, ND.

  6. 77 FR 14583 - Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans. SUMMARY: Projects... manufacturers of alternative fuel vans. This notice requests information from manufacturers of alternative fuel...

  7. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Ahuett-Garza, H.; Choudhury, A.K.; Dedhia, S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes two years of research intended to develop methods to model and predict the deflection patterns in die casting dies. No comprehensive analysis of this type had previously been completed. The die casting process is complex and involves numerous mechanical and thermal phenomena that effect the mechanical behavior of the die. A critical activity in this work was sorting out and evaluating the relative contributions of the various mechanisms to die deflections. This evaluation was accomplished through a series of simple engineering analyses based primarily on the order of magnitude of the influence of each load considered on die deflections. A modeling approach incorporating commercially available finite element analysis software was developed and tested. The model evolved by testing simple models against more comprehensive models and against the limited experimental data that is available. The development of the modeling approach lead to consideration of the die casting machine in more detail than was originally anticipated. The machine is critical and cannot be ignored. A simplified model described as a spring/platen model was developed to account for the machine platens, tie bars, and toggles. The characteristics of this model are described and predictions based on this model are compared against full machine models and measured deflections of machine platens. Details of the modeling approach and the various case studies are provided in the report and in several publications that have resulted from the work.

  8. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  9. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  10. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  11. A Dying Star in a Different Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-17

    This image composite shows two views of a puffy, dying star, or planetary nebula, known as NGC 1514. At left is a view from a ground-based, visible-light telescope; the view on the right shows the object in infrared light from NASA WISE telescope.

  12. The Patient Chose to Die: Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montalvo, Braulio

    1991-01-01

    The elderly patient's choice to die may only appear to be independent of the family's choices. Behind patient's choice often lie implicit interpersonal and overt personal reasons. These must be understood to provide optimal care for patient and family. Case examples of undeliberate and deliberate clarification are offered. (Author)

  13. Continuing Education on Dying and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodil, Judith J.; Dulaney, Peggy E.

    1984-01-01

    "Dying and Death in Critical Care Practice" was a one-day continuing education offering designed for registered nurses who practiced in settings such as emergency rooms, intensive care units, coronary care units, and operating rooms. The workshop was part of a continuing education curriculum in critical care nursing. (SSH)

  14. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  15. Teaching Humane Care for Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Elise L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an elective, upper-level course on caring for terminally ill patients, designed for baccalaureate nursing students. Discusses the hospice concept and its background, course design, communication with dying patients and their families, and outcomes of the course as measured by a pretest and two posttests. (CH)

  16. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  17. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  18. March of Asteroids Across Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-12

    A dying star, called the Helix nebula, is shown surrounded by the tracks of asteroids in an image captured by NASA WISE. Skirting around the edges of the Helix nebula are the footprints of asteroids marching across the field of view.

  19. Eindrapportage van het Onderzoek naar de Meerwaarde van BMS (Final Report of the Investigation into the Value of BMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    incidenten en calamiteiten. gedvalueerd tijdens de uitzending SFOR14 Freedom. 3/42 Eindrapportage van hot onderzoek naar do meorwaarde ONGERUBRICEERD van...troepen en in rode en groene sterren de incidenten met respectievelijk een hoog en laag dreigingsniveau. 4.1.2 Organiserend niveau I BMS biedt de OPS...geval van spraaknetten. 5 BMS biedt meerwaarde biJ bet snel melden van NViet tojdens SFOR14. we ihjdens~ incidenten zonder fouten aan de OPS-en, waardoor

  20. Q & A with Carmella Van Vleet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Carmella Van Vleet, a former teacher and educational speaker. She has written family humor and parenting articles, and is also the author of "How to Handle School Snafus," "Great Ancient Egypt Projects You Can Build Yourself" and "Amazing Ben Franklin Inventions You Can Build Yourself." In this interview,…

  1. The Forced van der Pol Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the forced van der Pol equation x + [epsilon](x[superscript 2] - 1)x + x = F cos[omega]t, by solving numerically the differential equation for a variety of values of the parameters [epsilon], F and [omega]. In doing so, many striking and interesting trajectories can be discovered and phenomena such as frequency entrainment,…

  2. Note on a van der Waals Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Harrison, Joseph G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties with the standard model for introduction of attractive forces into the van der Waals equation. Presents an analysis in terms of force and time delays and an alternative analysis for more advanced students in terms of energy. (JRH)

  3. Schirra and Cooper step from Transfer van

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-10-03

    S62-06008 (3 Oct. 1962) --- Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) Earth-orbital spaceflight, steps from a transport van as he arrives at Cape Canaveral's Pad 14 during the MA-8 prelaunch countdown. Schirra is accompanied by astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (in white coveralls), MA-8 backup pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Vincent van Gogh: The Postman Roulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stacy

    1989-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan for teaching K-three students to analyze and empathize with a portrait by post-impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh. Describes background of the artist and the painting "The Postman Roulin." Suggests instructional strategies, activities, and evaluation methods. Lists bibliographical material relative to van…

  5. Painting with Clay Van Gogh Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" and describes a lesson where fifth- and sixth-grade students created their own version of the artwork. Explains that the students utilized four colors of Permoplast clay, using their hands and fingers as brushes and blending tools and the clay as paint. (CMK)

  6. The van Gogh of the Infrared Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-25

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is a little like the Vincent van Gogh of the infrared sky, providing the world with picturesque images of the cosmos by representing infrared light through color. This image is the nebula NGC 2174.

  7. Computer aided system for parametric design of combination die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranje, Vishal G.; Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a computer aided system for parametric design of combination dies is presented. The system is developed using knowledge based system technique of artificial intelligence. The system is capable to design combination dies for production of sheet metal parts having punching and cupping operations. The system is coded in Visual Basic and interfaced with AutoCAD software. The low cost of the proposed system will help die designers of small and medium scale sheet metal industries for design of combination dies for similar type of products. The proposed system is capable to reduce design time and efforts of die designers for design of combination dies.

  8. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed Central

    Mermann, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377

  9. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  10. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a pluralitymore » of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.« less

  11. [Sudden die-off of honeybee colonies].

    PubMed

    Muz, Mustafa N

    2008-01-01

    Apis mellifera is used for honeybee keeping all over Turkey. Recently, honeybees have been suddenly disappearing for no apparent reason. It is presumed that some viral and parasitic honeybee pathogens are responsible for this. No medical research has been conducted to determine the pathologic causes of the sudden die-off of the honeybee colonies in Turkey as yet. This is of urgent importance for future of the honeybee industry.

  12. Die Usability von Rich Internet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Jörg

    Interaktiven Services, die dem Themenkreis Web 2.0 zugeordnet werden, haftet unter anderem das Attribut an, besonders leicht bedienbar zu sein. Flickr, Youtube und Wikipedia gelten als Erfolgsprojekte dieser neuen Art von interaktiven Websites. Wodurch zeichnet sich nun eine Usability 2.0 (so es sie überhaupt geben sollte) aus? Was ist zu beachten, wenn so genannte Rich Internet Applications gestaltet werden?

  13. Died of wounds: a mortality review.

    PubMed

    Keene, Damian Douglas; Penn-Barwell, J G; Wood, P R; Hunt, N; Delaney, R; Clasper, J; Russell, R J; Mahoney, P F

    2016-10-01

    Combat casualty care is a complex system involving multiple clinicians, medical interventions and casualty transfers. Improving the performance of this system requires examination of potential weaknesses. This study reviewed the cause and timing of death of casualties deemed to have died from their injuries after arriving at a medical treatment facility during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, in order to identify potential areas for improving outcomes. This was a retrospective review of all casualties who reached medical treatment facilities alive, but subsequently died from injuries sustained during combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. It included all deaths from start to completion of combat operations. The UK military joint theatre trauma registry was used to identify cases, and further data were collected from clinical notes, postmortem records and coroner's reports. There were 71 combat-related fatalities who survived to a medical treatment facility; 17 (24%) in Iraq and 54 (76%) in Afghanistan. Thirty eight (54%) died within the first 24 h. Thirty-three (47%) casualties died from isolated head injuries, a further 13 (18%) had unsurvivable head injuries but not in isolation. Haemorrhage following severe lower limb trauma, often in conjunction with abdominal and pelvic injuries, was the cause of a further 15 (21%) deaths. Severe head injury was the most common cause of death. Irrespective of available medical treatment, none of this group had salvageable injuries. Future emphasis should be placed in preventative strategies to protect the head against battlefield trauma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    this is radiation from a SiO maser in the atmosphere of the star. If it would not have been a maser, it would have been far too weak to have been detected. Although we know several hundred masers of this type in the Milky Way, this is the first discovery of a SiO maser in another galaxy than our own . Since then, the observations have been continued in collaboration with Australian astronomers, using radio telescopes at Parkes and Mopra on that continent. A most unusual star When Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund and his colleagues first observed this LMC maser star in 1981 with optical telescopes, they thought that it was a rather normal, cool and not particularly bright star. However, a few years later, the Dutch-British-USA InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revealed its true nature. The IRAS measurements showed that the star radiates most of its light in the form of infrared radiation [4], making it one of the most powerful stars in the LMC; in fact, it emits about half a million times more energy than the Sun. On this occasion, it was given the designation IRAS 04553-6825 , the number indicating its position in the sky. IRAS 04553-6825 is unusual in other ways. It is some fifty times as heavy as our Sun, and it is the biggest known star in the LMC: if it were to take the place of our Sun, it would fill the solar system out to the planet Neptune, thirty times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is rather cool when compared to other stars - although it still has a temperature of about 2,000 C - and it therefore has a very red colour [5]. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 15/96 which demonstrates that while the star is hardly visible in blue light, it shines brightly in red and infrared light. Stars like IRAS 04553-6825 are known as red supergiants. It has been unofficially dubbed `The Monster', and having reached the end of a short and hectic life, it is now dying. The nuclear reactions deep inside are undergoing important changes at

  15. A recent example of continent-continent collision : October 23, 2011 Van Earthquake (Mw=7.2) : Southeastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Suvarikli, M.; Ogutcu, Z.; Kekovali, K.; Yilmazer, M.; Ocal, M. F.; Gunes, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Anatolia region is one of the best examples of a continental collision zone in the world. The tectonics of the Lake Van region is dominated by the active convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.The southeast border of the Anatolian plate with the Arabian plate is Bitlis Suture Zone. This zone is formed by collision of Arabian-and in large scale Eurasian plates at mid-Miocen age. This type of thrust generation as a result of compressional regime extends east-west. On 23 October 2011 at 13:41(local time) a strong earthquake (Mw=7.2) occurred in east of Lake Van. The earthquake destroyed the regions especially between the cities of Van and Ercis, and East of Lake Van-Lake Ercek region. It caused deaths of 600 people and more than 4150 people were injured with tens of thousands rendered homeless. In addition, 40 people died in the earthquake of September 9, 2011 Edremit-Van (Mw=5.7). The initial rapid fault solution shows that the rupture started at 43.41(deg.) North -38.72 (deg.) East coordinates. The fault that caused the Van earthquake is a reverse fault with a northward dipping fault plane. After the main shock 11 important earthquakes (5.0≤M≤6.0) were occurred in the region which have hypocentral distances of 8-38 km. from the main shock location. These earthquakes have shallow epicenters and they have less than 16 km depth. In general, the distribution of the aftershocks show high activity along the east-northeast of Lake Van and the northern part of the Van city. The distribution of the important earthquakes and the aftershock distribution shows that the E-W and NE-SW oriented fault segments cause the earthquake activities. Stress increase and related triggered seismic activity were observed at NE-SW and NW-SE oriented directions of the east-west trending fault that was broken during Van Earthquake. Indeed, November 9, 2011 Edremit-Van Earthquake (Mw=5.7) is considered to be triggered by the mainshock. Stress change and breakage of the

  16. The final challenge: ageing, dying, individuation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Richard

    2008-02-01

    This paper is about the psychotherapy of a woman who passed from what Waddell (1998) would term 'older age' to 'later life', by which latter I mean the inevitable decline into dying and death. However unwelcome these developments may be to the individual, they are none the less activities of the soma, and therefore activities of the self-deintegrates. Much of the work of the psychotherapy centred around the task of enabling the patient to relate to and accept the bodily and emotional correlates of this process, which she tended to want to disown and deny by means of a split between mind and body along the lines of a long-standing internal depressive relationship. Permitting her contact with herself allowed her a much greater sense of internal company and peace, and arguably facilitated an easier process of dying, involving a self reconciled with itself rather than one at odds. Technically, the approach involved a greater concentration on the intrapsychic relationship rather than on the relationship between patient and analyst, and this is briefly discussed in terms of the work of Armando Ferrari who had himself died, shortly before the paper was first presented, and to whom therefore it is in part a homage.

  17. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  18. Superlubricity using repulsive van der Waals forces.

    PubMed

    Feiler, Adam A; Bergström, Lennart; Rutland, Mark W

    2008-03-18

    Using colloid probe atomic force microscopy, we show that if repulsive van der Waals forces exist between two surfaces prior to their contact then friction is essentially precluded and supersliding is achieved. The friction measurements presented here are of the same order as the lowest ever recorded friction coefficients in liquid, though they are achieved by a completely different approach. A gold sphere attached to an AFM cantilever is forced to interact with a smooth Teflon surface (templated on mica). In cyclohexane, a repulsive van der Waals force is observed that diverges at short separations. The friction coefficient associated with this system is on the order of 0.0003. When the refractive index of the liquid is changed, the force can be tuned from repulsive to attractive and adhesive. The friction coefficient increases as the Hamaker constant becomes more positive and the divergent repulsive force, which prevents solid-solid contact, gets switched off.

  19. A note on evaluating VAN earthquake predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselentis, G.-Akis; Melis, Nicos S.

    The evaluation of the success level of an earthquake prediction method should not be based on approaches that apply generalized strict statistical laws and avoid the specific nature of the earthquake phenomenon. Fault rupture processes cannot be compared to gambling processes. The outcome of the present note is that even an ideal earthquake prediction method is still shown to be a matter of a “chancy” association between precursors and earthquakes if we apply the same procedure proposed by Mulargia and Gasperini [1992] in evaluating VAN earthquake predictions. Each individual VAN prediction has to be evaluated separately, taking always into account the specific circumstances and information available. The success level of epicenter prediction should depend on the earthquake magnitude, and magnitude and time predictions may depend on earthquake clustering and the tectonic regime respectively.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of the Cepheid GeneXpert vanA/vanB assay ver. 1.0 to detect the vanA and vanB vancomycin resistance genes in Enterococcus from perianal specimens.

    PubMed

    Marner, Erin S; Wolk, Donna M; Carr, Jeanne; Hewitt, Carolyn; Dominguez, Lorraine L; Kovacs, Thomas; Johnson, Desiree R; Hayden, Randall T

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriers could be useful to health care facilities to minimize transmission. To that end, we compared the performance of the Cepheid GeneXpert vanA/vanB assay with that of direct and broth-enriched culture methods for detection of VRE from perianal swabs. Enterococci were cultivated on Enterococcosel™ agar with 8 μg/mL vancomycin, Bile Esculin Azide Agar with 6 μg/mL vancomycin, and Bile Esculin Azide Enterococcosel Broth. Compared to the reference standard (combination of direct agar plating, broth-enriched culture, and clinical chart review), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the vanA/vanB assay were 96.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, and 96.9%, respectively (n=184). The 95% limit of detection was 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL for vanA and 114 CFU/mL for vanB. In summary, the GeneXpert vanA/vanB assay is a rapid and accurate method to identify vanA/vanB-colonized patients for VRE screening programs that use perianal swab specimens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Van de Graaff Irradiation of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, Kevin; Chemerisov, Sergey; Tkac, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Through irradiations using our 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator, Argonne is testing the radiation stability of components of equipment that are being used to dispense molybdenum solutions for use as feeds to 99mTc generators and in the 99mTc generators themselves. Components have been irradiated by both a direct electron beam and photons generated from a tungsten convertor.

  2. Van Nes rotationplasty with segmental limb resection.

    PubMed

    Krajbich, J I; Carroll, N C

    1990-07-01

    Segmental limb resection is becoming a practical alternative to limb ablation in tumor surgery. The addition of Van Nes rotationplasty to provide a pseudo knee joint has been found to be a practical, functional addition facilitating prosthesis use. This procedure has now been used successfully in 21 children with malignant neoplasms, with few complications. The surgical technique, as outlined, produces significantly improved functional results over an above-knee amputation or hip disarticulation.

  3. Van de Graaff Irradiation of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, Kevin; Chemerisov, Sergey; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-10-01

    Through irradiations using our 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator, Argonne is testing the radiation stability of components of equipment that are being used to dispense molybdenum solutions for use as feeds to 99mTc generators and in the 99mTc generators themselves. Components have been irradiated by both a direct electron beam and photons generated from a tungsten convertor.

  4. [The meaning of dying with dignity from caregivers perspective: a phenomenological study].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Masero, Olivia; Ortega-Galán, Ángela M; Carmona-Rega, M Inés; Ruiz-Fernández, M Dolores; Cabrera-Troya, José; García-Cisneros, Rogelio; Medina, Fernando Relinque

    To explore the meaning of dying with dignity from the perspective of the direct witnesses who have accompanied this process in dying people from Andalusia. Phenomenological study conducted in different centres, which including analysing the transcriptions of the dialogues from discussion groups with 40 participants in five provinces in Southern Spain. The data was analysed using the Van Manen proposal and Atlas Ti 7.0 program was applied as a software tool. Being in the company of loved ones is noted as a key element in the perception of a dignified death. The following elements, according to a priority order, were also pointed out: relief of suffering, a good professional care, decision making ability, and the opportunity to consider their spiritual dimension. Achievement of their Living Wills is hardly mentioned. The essential elements defined in the Death with Dignity Law, 2/2010 are confirmed as being true (without suffering, with company, respecting living wills, having possibilities of the farewell, and the transcendental meaning of the death process). Caregivers, at the end of life, give priority to psychological aspects, underlying the need of company, a farewell of the loved ones, and a good professional care on the physical aspects. The promotion of the dignified Death Law and Living Wills are still being developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  6. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and...

  7. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools...

  8. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be...

  9. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of...

  10. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be...

  11. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of...

  12. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and...

  13. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools...

  14. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of...

  15. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be...

  16. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and...

  17. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools...

  18. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be...

  19. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools...

  20. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be...

  1. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of...

  2. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and...

  3. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools...

  4. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and...

  5. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of...

  6. Automation of Die and Mold Polishing: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-02

    steel sheet metal stamping die for an automobile bumper, a discussion of other methods and tools utilized in manufacturing dies and molds, and...than a sheet metal stamping die. This is due to the plastics ability to reproduce nearly every aspect of a mold, including imperfections, while the

  7. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  8. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter.

    PubMed

    Kulić, Igor M; Kulić, Miodrag L

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R(-6)), in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R(-9)). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  9. Differentiating suicide decedents who died using firearms from those who died using other methods.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Joye C

    2017-06-01

    Studies have documented a link between gun ownership and suicide, but little is known about characteristics of those most likely to use a gun in a suicide attempt rather than alternative methods. We examined which factors differentiate suicide decedents who died using a gun from those who died by other methods. We further examined whether such findings are consistent within the subcomponent of our larger sample comprised entirely of gun owning suicide decedents. Data reflect 267 suicide decedents, with data provided by individuals who identified as having lost someone to suicide (loss survivors). Within the full sample, a higher proportion of gun-owning and male suicide decedents died by firearm. Further, individuals who had previously discussed suicide or engaged in one or more non-lethal suicide attempts were less likely to die by suicide using a gun. Within the subsample of gun owning suicide decedents, a greater proportion of decedents who stored guns at home and in unsecure locations died from self-inflected gunshot wounds. These findings add clarity to the relationship between firearm ownership and death by suicide at the individual level. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the notion that means safety implementation may represent a vital suicide prevention tool. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain themore » largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).« less

  12. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  13. A unique Austin Chalk reservoir, Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T.

    1990-09-01

    Significant shallow oil production from the Austin Chalk was established in the Van field, Van Zandt County, in East Texas in the late 1980s. The Van field structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion. The Woodbine sands, which underlie the Austin Chalk, have been and continue to be the predominant reservoir rocks in the field. Evidence indicates that faults provided vertical conduits for migration of Woodbine oil into the Austin Chalk where it was trapped along the structural crest. The most prolific Austin Chalk production is on the upthrown side of the main field fault, asmore » is the Woodbine. The Austin Chalk is a soft, white to light gray limestone composed mostly of coccoliths with some pelecypods. Unlike the Austin Chalk in the Giddings and Pearsall fields, the chalk at Van was not as deeply buried and therefore did not become brittle and susceptible to tensional or cryptic fracturing. The shallow burial in the Van field was also important in that it allowed the chalk to retain primary microporosity. The production comes entirely from this primary porosity. In addition to the structural position and underlying oil source from the Woodbine, the depositional environment and associated lithofacies are also keys to the reservoir quality in the Van field as demonstrated by cores from the upthrown and downthrown (less productive) sides of the main field fault. It appears that at the time of Austin Chalk deposition, the main field fault was active and caused the upthrown side to be a structural high and a more agreeable environment for benthonic organisms such as pelecypods and worms. The resulting bioturbation enhanced the reservoir's permeability enough to allow migration and entrapment of the oil. Future success in exploration for analogous Austin Chalk reservoirs will require the combination of a favorable environment of deposition, a nearby Woodbine oil source, and a faulted trap that will provide the conduit for migration.« less

  14. 'Those, that die by reason of their madness': dying insane in London, 1629-1830.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Jeremy; Black, John

    2012-03-01

    Dying insane provoked 'great fear, and apprehension' in the minds of men and women. Death as a lunatic disrupted deathbed performance and rendered the victim incapable at law. This article examines lunacy as a cause of death in the metropolis between 1629 and 1830. It draws on new material from the admission registers of St Luke's Hospital, existing data from Bethlem and the London Bills of Mortality and unique biographical data on pauper lunatics dying in the parish of St Martin in the Fields. The article argues that lunacy being ascribed as a cause of death had a distinctive chronology in this period. Those most vulnerable to the stigma of lunacy at death were those dying as parish paupers and those who inhabited metropolitan institutions.

  15. 49 CFR 523.7 - Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. 523.7 Section... trucks and vans. Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans are pickup trucks and vans with a gross vehicle weight... manufacturer. A manufacturer may also optionally designate as a heavy-duty pickup truck or van any cab-complete...

  16. 49 CFR 523.7 - Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. 523.7 Section... trucks and vans. Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans are pickup trucks and vans with a gross vehicle weight... manufacturer. A manufacturer may also optionally designate as a heavy-duty pickup truck or van any cab-complete...

  17. 49 CFR 523.7 - Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. 523.7 Section... trucks and vans. Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans are pickup trucks and vans with a gross vehicle weight... heavy-duty pickup trucks or vans or spark-ignition (or gasoline) engines certified and sold as loose...

  18. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  19. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  20. Framework for simulation-driven design of stamping dies considering elastic die and press deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Wall, Johan; Sigvant, Mats

    2017-10-01

    Sheet metal forming (SMF) simulations are used extensively throughout the development phase of industrial stamping dies. In these SMF simulations, the die and press are normally considered as rigid. Previous research has however shown that elastic deformation in these parts has a significant negative impact on process performance. This paper demonstrates methods for counteracting these negative effects, with a high potential for improved production support and a reduced lead time through a shorter try-out process. A structural finite element model (FE-model) of a simplified die is studied. To account for elastic deformation, the blankholder surfaces are first virtually reworked by adjusting the nodal positions on the die surfaces attaining a pressure distribution in accordance to the design phase SMF simulations with rigid surfaces. The elastic FE-model with reworked surfaces then represents a stamping die in running production. The die is now assumed to be exposed to changed process conditions giving an undesired blankholder pressure distribution. The changed process conditions could for example be due to a change of press line. An optimization routine is applied to compensate the negative effects of the new process conditions. The optimization routine uses the contact forces acting on the shims of the spacer blocks and cushion pins as optimization variables. A flexible simulation environment using MATLAB and ABAQUS is used. ABAQUS is executed from MATLAB and the results are automatically read back into MATLAB. The suggested optimization procedure reaches a pressure distribution very similar to the initial distribution assumed to be the optimum, and thereby verifying the method. Further research is needed for a method to transform the calculated forces in the optimization routine back to shims thicknesses. Furthermore, the optimization time is relatively long and needs to be reduced in the future for the method to reach its full potential.

  1. Dying cancer patients talk about euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N

    2008-08-01

    Within developed nations, there is increasing public debate about and apparent endorsement of the appropriateness of euthanasia as an autonomous choice to die in the face of intolerable suffering. Surveys report socio-demographic differences in rates of acceptance of euthanasia, but there is little in-depth analysis of how euthanasia is understood and positioned within the social and moral lives of individuals, particularly those who might be considered suitable candidates-for example, terminally-ill cancer patients. During discussions with 28 such patients in Australia regarding medical decisions at the end of life, euthanasia was raised by 13 patients, with the others specifically asked about it. Twenty-four patients spoke positively of euthanasia, 19 of these voicing some concerns. None identified euthanasia as a currently favoured option. Four were completely against it. Endorsement for euthanasia was in the context of a hypothetical future or for a hypothetical other person, or temporally associated with acute pain. Arguments supporting euthanasia framed the issue as a matter of freedom of choice, as preserving dignity in death, and as curbing intolerable pain and suffering, both of the patient and of those around them. A common analogy featured was that of euthanising a dog. These arguments were typically presented as self-evident justification for euthanasia, construed as an appropriate choice to die, with opposers positioned as morally inferior or ignorant. The difficulties of ensuring 'choice' and the moral connotations of 'choosing to die,' however, worked to problematise the appropriateness of euthanising specific individuals. We recommend further empirical investigation of the moral and social meanings associated with euthanasia.

  2. Dying with dignity: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemati, Zeinab; Ashouri, Elaheh; AllahBakhshian, Maryam; Pourfarzad, Zahra; Shirani, Farimah; Safazadeh, Shima; Ziyaei, Marziyeh; Varzeshnejad, Maryam; Hashemi, Maryam; Taleghani, Fariba

    2016-05-01

    This article is a report of an analysis of the concept of dying with dignity. Dignity is an important component of providing care for dying patients and their families. Nevertheless, given that this concept is poorly defined, concept analysis is one of the best ways to define and clarify the concept of death with dignity with the aim to enhance its application in clinical practice, research and education. A search of multiple nursing and social sciences databases was undertaken, including Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, ProQuest, Scopus, Medline, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Noormage, Cinahl, Magiran, PsycINFO and SID. After an extensive review of the literature from 1998-2014, about 14 related articles were included in the study. Based on these articles, the applications, attributes and experimental results of and references to death with dignity were recorded. Based on this analysis, the most important attributes of this concept included respect for privacy, respect, spiritual peace and hope. The antecedents of this concept included consideration of moral values during caregiving, preservation of human dignity as a patient right and professional ethics, and belief in the dignity of self and others, consideration of culture in providing end-of-life care. The consequences of this concept included a sense of peace in the patient and their family, peaceful death and provision of patient privacy and comfort. The concept of patient dignity has been referred to in many contexts. However, considering the dignity of dying patients commensurate with their culture is the most important component of care provided by nurses to facilitate a peaceful death. Respecting the dignity of the patient results in the reduction of her/his suffering and prepares her/him for a comfortable death. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Do imaginary companions die? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kastenbaum, Robert; Fox, Lynn

    Adults in this exploratory study usually recalled that their childhood imaginary companions faded away or were dismissed as other options for social interaction became more appealing. However, eight participants reported that their IC had died. Analysis of these deaths offers a glimpse of the child's talent for transitional thought processes that navigate between the emerging constraints of logic and the continuing appeal of fantasy. It is suggested that young children are testing the limits and possibilities of what it means to be "real" at the same time they are trying to puzzle out "alive" and "dead."

  4. Visual Interpretation of SAR Images. (Visuele Interpretatie van SAR Beelden)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    dat SAR en optische beeiden wezenlijk andere informatie bevatten. Hierdoor is er geen een op een relatie tussen de kleur van een object in een SAR...beeld en de kleur van het object in een optisch beeld. Terreinanalvse De vijf terreinsoorten worden gemakkelijk herkend in het tweekanaals en het...polarisatiekanalen op respectievelijk de R, G en B kleurkanalen weer te geven. De kleur van een object in een SAR beeld zal dus slechts in

  5. Militaire Toepassingen Van Adaptieve Optiek (Military Applications of Adaptive Optics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Aantal pagina’s 3 5 ( excl. RDP & distribntieIijst) Alle rectiten voorbctionden. Niets tit dit rapport map worden verimenigvuldigd en /of openbaar...rapport in opdractmt van bet ministerie van Defensie werd uitgebracht, wordt voor de rechien en verptmctmtingen v’an de opdrachtsgever en ...opdrachtnemner verwezen ntaar de ’Modelvoorwaarden voor Onderzoeks- en Ontwikkelingsopdr-achten’ (MVDT 1997) tussen de minister van Defensie, en TNO indien deze

  6. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  7. [The debate about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Armando; Solar, Sebastián

    2005-05-01

    The Right to Die is a debatable issue and some basic notions need to be clarified to discuss it. Death needs to be recognized as part of human life. The goal of medicine is to avoid pain and alleviate suffering, to prevent premature death and when this is not possible, to let it occur peacefully. The concept of euthanasia is unclear, which increases the confusion on end-of-life topics. The term euthanasia should be used only when referring to medical acts performed to produce the patient's death, with the intention of terminating his/her suffering. It is what is usually called "active" euthanasia, which can be voluntary or involuntary. It is essential to understand the difference between producing and allowing death. This will permit timely decisions about limiting or withdrawing treatments, that can be disproportionate or that are only prolonging suffering. Limiting treatments does not mean to abandon the patient but rather to redefine his needs, such as pain treatment, prevention of complications, and relief of suffering. The ethic rationale for these decisions is the respect to the dignity of human life, and the estimation of proportionality or futility of each treatment. The physician's duty with the patient at the end of his life is to assist him in dying according to his values and to minimize his distress.

  8. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  9. Additional Value from Road Mapping in Defense Policy Making (meerwaarde van roadmapping bij beleidsontwikkeling van de koninklijke landmacht)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Kleur : met de kleur van elk element kan specifieke informatie (informatiecategorie) worden weergegeven (legenda). b Lengte: met de lengte en de plaats...nadruk ligt op een te bereiken effect dat behaald kan worden door het synergetische effect van alle ter beschikking staande instrumenten op hetzelfde...een hoger tempo het Precisie wapens op gewenste effect te kunnen creeren en bet zwaartepunt van een grote afstand met hoger operatie te kunnen

  10. Analysis of Adaptive Team Concept through Simulation Models: A Survey (toetsing van adaptieve teamconcepten door middel van simulatiemodellen: een verkenning)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    functie-integratie van de brug, de commandocentrale (CC), en de technische centrale (TC). Het uiteindelijk beoogde doel is een teamconcept dat in... en ondersteuning tussen enerzijds mens en machine en anderzijds teams van mensen aan boord van toekomstige schepen. Voor dit doel zijn binnen het...Nederlandse Organisatie Yoor tegepast-natwureteiischappelijk TNO Defensie en Veiligheid fo ple cetfcRsac Kampweg 5 Postbus 23 3769 ZG Soesterberg TNO

  11. Rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from rectal swabs by the Cepheid Xpert vanA/vanB assay.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Nancy; Bérenger, Raphaël; Lepoultier, Romain; Mouet, Audrey; Lesteven, Claire; Borgey, France; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

    2010-07-01

    The detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci using a novel commercial multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (Xpert vanA/vanB, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) was evaluated on 804 rectal swab specimens. Compared to enriched culture, sensitivity and negative predictive value of this method were 100%. Many false-positive results were recovered (sensitivity, 85.4%; positive predictive value, 8.7%), especially for the vanB gene.

  12. Fundacion Bernard van Leer, Boletin Informativo, 1987-1996 (Bernard van Leer Foundation Information Bulletin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fundacion Bernard van Leer, Boletin Informativo, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of ten annual Spanish Language Bulletins, published during the period 1987-1996. The early bulletins were largely composed of selections originally published in the Bernard van Lear Foundation's English-Language "Newsletter The articles discuss topics such as: (1) parents as children's first teachers; (2) health and…

  13. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Review 1993 = Fundacion Bernard van Leer Revista Anual 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This report, in both English and Spanish versions, aims to highlight the Bernard van Leer Foundation's identity, objectives, and major activities, as well as the work undertaken by the projects the foundation supports. The review features articles on the Foundation's work on advocacy, supporting families living in disadvantaged circumstances,…

  14. Enhanced van der Waals interaction at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaš, Marin-Slobodan

    2008-04-01

    Using a recently obtained (general) formula for the interaction energy between an excited and a ground-state atom (Sherkunov 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 012705), we consider the interaction energy between two such atoms near the interface between two media. We demonstrate that under the circumstances of the resonant coupling of the excited atom to the surface polariton mode of a vacuum-medium system the nonretarded atom*-atom interaction energy can be enhanced by (several) orders of magnitude in comparison with the van der Waals interaction energy of the two isolated atoms.

  15. Modified Van Nes rotationplasty in the treatment of malignant neoplasms in the lower extremities of children.

    PubMed

    Krajbich, J I

    1991-01-01

    A technique of modified Van Nes rotationplasty has been used since 1981 for limb salvage surgery in children and adolescents with malignant sarcoma of the lower extremity. The original procedure for lesions of the distal femur was further modified and adopted for selected lesions of the proximal femur and tibia. Sixteen skeletally immature children form the base of this report. The tumors were located in the distal femur in ten children, the proximal tibia in five and the proximal femur in one. There were no intraoperative complications and postoperative complications included one infection requiring debridement and three minor healing delays. There were no local recurrences, neurovascular compromises, late derotations, or psychologic decompensations. One patient died of metastatic disease and another died of a second malignancy (leukemia). The remaining patients are good, functional, below-knee prosthesis users who participate in a number of sporting and athletic activities. The procedure is safe, has a relatively low complication rate, allows for the functional demands of an active, growing child, and accommodates for the future growth of extremities.

  16. Bio-Aerosol Testkamer: Ontwikkeling van Protocollen (Bio Aerosol Test Chamber: Development of Protocols)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    MS2 is een bacteriofaag (kortweg faag) van de bacterie Escherichia coli en moet dus gekweekt warden middels een infectieproces in een kweek van deze...agglomerans (ATCC 33243). 3 Deeltjes van het virus MS2. Dit virus is in staat tot infectie van de bacterie Escherichia cl’iI, en wordt daarorn meestal...zogenaamde plaques te tellen in een dichtgegroeide laag van E. coli bacterien. Vanwege deze bijzondere manier van apvangen in een STA sampler, en

  17. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  18. Necroptosis: A new way of dying?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Britt

    2016-09-01

    This review embarks upon a cell death journey from the discovery of apoptosis and necrosis through to the coalescence of these: necroptosis. The mechanisms of 2 emerging necrotic cell death pathways, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, will be explored before delving into apoptotic and necroptotic signaling cascades, highlighting the complex interplay between molecular players. The involvement of the ripoptosome, interferon signaling and DNA damage in necroptosis will be discussed briefly. The major focus is on necroptosis initiation by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and its cognate receptor TNFR1, caspase-independent RIP1/RIP3/MLKL necrosome activation and cell death propagation by damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release. Finally, the implications of a complex cell death signaling network will be revealed in the context of cancer biology and therapy. The clinical contribution of the discovery of necroptosis as an unequivocally new way of dying is monumental and could drastically alter cancer therapy strategies in the future.

  19. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  20. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van…

  1. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... construction. (a) Vans shall be of substantial metal construction. Their interior shall be insulated with an... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15... system shall be of watertight construction and bear a label plate denoting the power requirement of the...

  2. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... construction. (a) Vans shall be of substantial metal construction. Their interior shall be insulated with an... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15... system shall be of watertight construction and bear a label plate denoting the power requirement of the...

  3. 53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION F, HIGHWAY 1. 1. 1-HUM-1-F #24, VAN DUZEN BR. APPRAOCH/ST. 167+50. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  4. 38 CFR 61.18 - Capital grants for vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capital grants for vans. 61.18 Section 61.18 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants § 61.18 Capital grants for vans. (a...

  5. 38 CFR 61.18 - Capital grants for vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants for vans. 61.18 Section 61.18 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants § 61.18 Capital grants for vans. (a...

  6. Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem in non-commutative space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Shovon

    2017-11-01

    Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem has been studied in non-commutative space where the space coordinates do not commute. It has been found that in non-commutative space Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem, in general, is not satisfied and a classical treatment of the partition function of charged particles in a magnetic field gives rise to non zero magnetization.

  7. van't Hoff enthalpies without baselines.

    PubMed Central

    John, D. M.; Weeks, K. M.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of thermal melting curves represents one important approach for evaluating protein stability and the consequences of amino acid substitution on protein structure. By use of the van't Hoff relationship, the differential melting curve can be robustly fit to only three parameters, two of which are the underlying physical constants of melting temperature (Tm) and van't Hoff enthalpy (deltaHvH). Calculated Tm and deltaHvH values are insensitive to the choice of pre- and post-transition baselines. Consequently, the method accurately computes Tm and deltaHvH for extremely truncated data sets, in the complete absence of baseline information, and for proteins with low melting temperatures, where the traditional direct approach routinely fails. Moreover, agreement between deltaHvH values obtained using points derived from pre- vs. post-transition data provide an independent method for detecting some classes of non-two-state transitions. Finally, fitting of the differential denaturation curve should prove useful for analysis of abbreviated data sets obtained from high throughput array analysis of protein stability. PMID:10933511

  8. Vincent van Gogh: a pathographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Correa, R

    2014-02-01

    The life and artistic legacy of Vincent van Gogh has generated great interest among physicians from different areas of specialization in proposing a retrospective differential diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to present a systematic pathographic analysis of the artist and to suggest a diagnosis consistent with the extant evidence. To this end, the available evidence is classified into five types: type I evidence (clinical opinion of an attending physician), type II evidence (description of symptoms in correspondence), type III evidence (historical accounts from first-hand sources or direct observation), type IV evidence (interpretation of the artist's work) and type V evidence (family medical history). Three basic prerequisites for a successful analysis are: (1) consideration of type II, III and V evidence as carrying the greatest pathographic weight, (2) consideration of the course of symptoms over time as a key element in the analysis, and (3) consideration of a single diagnostic hypothesis as the most probable explanation. After reviewing the available evidence in the light of these criteria, the author supports the diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) as the most likely cause of van Gogh's ailment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photoresponse of Natural van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kyle; Yore, Alexander E; Mou, Tong; Jha, Sauraj; Smithe, Kirby K H; Wang, Bin; Pop, Eric; Newaz, A K M

    2017-06-27

    Van der Waals heterostructures consisting of two-dimensional materials offer a platform to obtain materials by design and are very attractive owing to unique electronic states. Research on 2D van der Waals heterostructures (vdWH) has so far been focused on fabricating individually stacked atomically thin unary or binary crystals. Such systems include graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and members of the transition metal dichalcogenide family. Here we present our experimental study of the optoelectronic properties of a naturally occurring vdWH, known as franckeite, which is a complex layered crystal composed of lead, tin, antimony, iron, and sulfur. We present here that thin film franckeite (60 nm < d < 100 nm) behaves as a narrow band gap semiconductor demonstrating a wide-band photoresponse. We have observed the band-edge transition at ∼1500 nm (∼830 meV) and high external quantum efficiency (EQE ≈ 3%) at room temperature. Laser-power-resolved and temperature-resolved photocurrent measurements reveal that the photocarrier generation and recombination are dominated by continuously distributed trap states within the band gap. To understand wavelength-resolved photocurrent, we also calculated the optical absorption properties via density functional theory. Finally, we have shown that the device has a fast photoresponse with a rise time as fast as ∼1 ms. Our study provides a fundamental understanding of the optoelectronic behavior in a complex naturally occurring vdWH, and may pave an avenue toward developing nanoscale optoelectronic devices with tailored properties.

  10. Hubble's View of a Dying Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A recent image of a dying star containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. The image of protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306 (in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog) was taken on Dec. 15, 2001, by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, onboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It is one of the best images yet to capture a fleeting period at the end of a Sun-like star's life, called the protoplanetary nebula phase.

    This phase, which looks like a beautiful cloud of glowing gas lit up by ultraviolet light from the star's core, results when a star evolves into a bloated red giant and sheds its outer layers. 'Protoplanetary nebulas are rare objects with short lifetimes,' said JPL astrophysicist Dr. Raghvendra Sahai. 'It has generally been very difficult to obtain images of such objects in which their structure can be resolved in detail.'

    This image is particularly important because it contains a series of what Sahai and his colleagues call 'knotty jets,' blob-like objects emerging along roughly straight lines from the center of the cigar-shaped, bipolar nebula (See insets). There are various theories about what may produce such jets, though it is hard to prove their existence due to their short-lived, episodic nature. Detailed multi-wavelength studies of these nebulas with NASA's Great Observatories are being carried out to understand the nature and origin of these enigmatic jets, and how they may be sculpting shrouds of dying stars into exotic shapes. The Hubble Space Telescope is one of NASA's Great Observatories.

  11. Die klimaresiliente Gesellschaft - Transformation und Systemänderungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschfeld, Jesko; Hansen, Gerrit; Messner, Dirk

    Die Autoren erörtern die Zusammenhänge zwischen Klimaschutz und Anpassung an den Klimawandel, die Chancen, Risiken und Grenzen der Anpassung sowie den nationalen und globalen Transformationsbedarf. Neben den einzel- und volkswirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen des Klimawandels stellt das Kapitel auch die sozialen, politischen und ökologischen Auswirkungen in einen systemischen Zusammenhang. Die Autoren zeigen zudem, wie wichtig und schwierig räumliche und zeitliche Differenzierung sein kann. Auf nationaler Ebene stehen gesellschaftliche Akteure und politische Entscheidungsträger vor komplexen Analyse- und Steuerungsproblemen. Um Klimarisiken zu begegnen und Chancen der Klimaanpassung auszuschöpfen, müssen die verschiedenen Dimensionen wirtschaftlicher, sozialer, politischer und ökologischer Systeme, räumliche und zeitliche Skalenebenen berücksichtigt und Praxisakteure einbezogen werden.

  12. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  13. Efficiency of the Cepheid Xpert vanA/vanB assay for screening of colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci during hospital outbreak.

    PubMed

    Zabicka, Dorota; Strzelecki, Janusz; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Strzelecki, Pawel; Sadowy, Ewa; Kuch, Alicja; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficiency of the Cepheid Xpert vanA/vanB test for detecting vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization during a VanA Enterococcus faecium outbreak and to compare the Cepheid Xpert vanA/vanB (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, USA) test to a culture method with chromogenic medium chromID VRE agar (bioMérieux). The Cepheid Xpert vanA/vanB assay showed sensitivity 61.5%, specificity 79.2%, positive predictive value 61.5% and negative predictive value 79.2%. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that a positive result in the Cepheid Xpert vanA/vanB test for vanA enables the rapid (less than 1 h) presumptive, prior to culture, recognition of patients colonized with VRE. However, the Cepheid Xpert vanA/vanB assay cannot be the only test used to screen patients during an ongoing VRE outbreak, because additional culturing of all samples negative for both vanA and vanB or positive for vanB should be performed in order to confirm the carrier status of the patient.

  14. Thermal Hotspots in CPU Die and It's Future Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Fu-Yuan

    Owing to the increasing core frequency and chip integration and the limited die dimension, the power densities in CPU chip have been increasing fastly. The high temperature on chip resulted by power densities threats the processor's performance and chip's reliability. This paper analyzed the thermal hotspots in die and their properties. A new architecture of function units in die - - hot units distributed architecture is suggested to cope with the problems of high power densities for future processor chip.

  15. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials

    PubMed Central

    Gobre, Vivekanand V.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly. PMID:23955481

  16. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  17. Assisted dying - should the UK change its stance?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel; Raphael, Claire E; Vassiliou, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    Along with an increasing interest in assisted dying by many European and North American countries, some of which have already modified their existing laws to accommodate this, the interest in assisted dying in the UK has increased once again following Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. Drawing on examples from countries where similar assisted dying laws are already in place, this article analyses and contextualises the proposed bill and discusses its potential pitfalls and benefits for the UK. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Nursing experience and the care of dying patients.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Karen S; Otten, Cecilia; Stephens, Elizabeth

    2005-01-19

    To examine relationships among demographic variables and nurses attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients. Descriptive and correlational. Two metropolitan hospitals in Detroit, MI. 58 RNs practicing in oncology and medical/surgical nursing. The majority was female and white, with a mean age of 41 years. Completed survey of three measurement tools: a demographic survey, Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale, and Death Attitude Profile Revised (DAP-R) Scale. Of 60 surveys distributed, 58 were completed and returned. Past experiences (level of education and death training), personal experiences (age, race, religion, and attitudes toward death), professional experiences (months or years of nursing experience and the percentage of time spent in contact with terminally ill or dying patients), and attitudes toward caring for dying patients. Most respondents demonstrated a positive attitude about caring for dying patients. Nurses who reported spending a higher percentage of time in contact with terminally ill or dying patients reported more positive attitudes. No significant relationship was found between nurses attitudes toward death and nurses attitudes about caring for dying patients. Statistically significant relationships were found among certain demographic variables, DAP-R subscales, and FATCOD Scale. Regardless of how the nurses felt about death, providing professional and quality care to dying patients and their families was salient. Developing continuing education programs that teach effective coping strategies to prevent death anxiety and identifying barriers that can make caring for dying patients difficult may make the journey from novice to expert nurse a gratifying and rewarding experience.

  19. Toekomstvisie op Verstrekking en Ontwikkeling van Kleding op Basis van Scangegenereerde Gegevens (Scan Based Distribution and Development of Clothing)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Equipment Branch is a valuable source of information for development of an effective sizing system for clothes for the target population...model, welke stof en kleur zijn voorkeur heeft. Daaraan wordt informatie over de afmetingen van de klant toegevoegd, wat kan vari~ren van

  20. Mentale Inzetbaarheid van Teams: Ontwikkeling van een Moden van Teamfunctioneren als Module voor SCOPE (Mental Readiness of Teams - Development of a Team Model as Module for SCOPE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    zijn 100% voor elkaar te gaan en het doel te steunen zullen ze misschien iets minder gezellig zijn, maar het doe] wordt misschien juist door de...Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk onclerzoek I Netherlands OrganisationTNO Defensie en Veiigheid for Applied Scientific...van Defensie werd uigebracht, word! voor de rechten en verplicblingen van de opdrachlgever en opdrachinemer verwezen naar de ’Modelvoorwaarden voor

  1. L-connect routing of die surface pads to the die edge for stacking in a 3D array

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips and method of routing the interface pads from the face of the chip or die to one or more sidewall surfaces of the die. The interconnection is routed from the face of the die to one or more edges of the die, then routed over the edge of the die and onto the side surface. A new pad is then formed on the sidewall surface, which allows multiple die or chips to be stacked in a three-dimensional array, while enabling follow-on signal routing from the sidewall pads. The routing of the interconnects and formation of the sidewall pads can be carried out in an L-connect or L-shaped routing configuration, using a metalization process such as laser pantography.

  2. Van de Hulst Essay: Light Scattering, Aerosols, Clouds, Climate, Hendrik van de Hulst, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr

    2017-12-06

    It is not often that I have the opportunity to write something that is not a scientific study, and I am thankful for this opportunity to express my thoughts with regard to pursuits that are greater than those of science. In this van de Hulst assay, to honor Hendrik van de Hulst, I briefly summarize a few points from Hendrik's life that I find especially interesting, including his interests in spiritual (or religious) aspects of life, and his decision to avoid involvement in nucleation problems, a critical and basic uncertainty of current climate models. Finally, after that, I present briefly a few episodes from my own experiences as an apprentice of science and life.

  3. Van de Hulst Essay: Light Scattering, Aerosols, Clouds, Climate, Hendrik van de Hulst, and I

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr

    2017-12-06

    It is not often that I have the opportunity to write something that is not a scientific study, and I am thankful for this opportunity to express my thoughts with regard to pursuits that are greater than those of science. In this van de Hulst assay, to honor Hendrik van de Hulst, I briefly summarize a few points from Hendrik's life that I find especially interesting, including his interests in spiritual (or religious) aspects of life, and his decision to avoid involvement in nucleation problems, a critical and basic uncertainty of current climate models. Finally, after that, I present brieflymore » a few episodes from my own experiences as an apprentice of science and life.« less

  4. Regional ontogeny of New England salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    Coastal areas are among the world's most productive and highly affected ecosystems. Centuries of human activity on coastlines have led to overexploitation of marine predators, which in turn has led to cascading ecosystem-level effects. Human effects and approaches to mediating them, however, differ regionally due to gradients in biotic and abiotic factors. Salt marsh die-off on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), triggered by a recreational-fishing-induced trophic cascade that has released herbivorous crabs from predator control, has been ongoing since 1976. Similar salt marsh die-offs have been reported in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.), but the driving mechanism of these die-offs has not been examined. We used field experiments to assess trophic interactions and historical reconstructions of 24 New England marshes to test the hypotheses that recreational fishing and predator depletion are a regional trigger of salt marsh die-off in New England and that die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are more recent than those on Cape Cod. Predator depletion was the general trigger of marsh die-off and explained differences in herbivorous crab abundance and the severity of die-off across regions. Die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are following a trajectory similar to die-off on Cape Cod, but are approximately 20 years behind those on Cape Cod. As a result, die-off currently affects 31.2% (SE 2.2) of low-marsh areas in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay, less than half the severity of die-off on Cape Cod. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that recreational fishing is an increasing threat to coastal ecosystems and that studying the effects of human activity at regional scales can provide insight into local effects and aid in early detection and potential remediation. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  6. Mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Deep; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-02-01

    The isolation of a growing number of two-dimensional (2D) materials has inspired worldwide efforts to integrate distinct 2D materials into van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Given that any passivated, dangling-bond-free surface will interact with another through vdW forces, the vdW heterostructure concept can be extended to include the integration of 2D materials with non-2D materials that adhere primarily through non-covalent interactions. We present a succinct and critical survey of emerging mixed-dimensional (2D + nD, where n is 0, 1 or 3) heterostructure devices. By comparing and contrasting with all-2D vdW heterostructures as well as with competing conventional technologies, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for mixed-dimensional vdW heterostructures.

  7. Laser Tuning in van der Waals Crystals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Fadi; Li, Guo; Liang, Yufeng; Ji, Xu; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Zhaojun; Huang, Feng

    2018-01-31

    The great progress that optoelectronic technologies have achieved in van der Waals crystals promises the development of next-generation two-dimensional (2D) integrated optoelectronic systems (IOSs). Here, relying on the anomalous avoidance of pump-light absorption, the harvest of extremely strong Raman scattering, and the achievement of polarization inheritance by the designed optical geometry, we realized laser wavelength tuning with ultrahigh precision (0.01 nm/25 K) in layered MoS 2 and WS 2 by adjusting the temperature. Our results offer a potential approach for 2D laser tuning, while also building a substantial theoretical foundation, which might be of use in developing future wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in 2D IOSs.

  8. NICMOS PEERS INTO HEART OF DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Egg Nebula, also known as CRL 2688, is shown on the left as it appears in visible light with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and on the right as it appears in infrared light with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Since infrared light is invisible to humans, the NICMOS image has been assigned colors to distinguish different wavelengths: blue corresponds to starlight reflected by dust particles, and red corresponds to heat radiation emitted by hot molecular hydrogen. Objects like the Egg Nebula are helping astronomers understand how stars like our Sun expel carbon and nitrogen -- elements crucial for life -- into space. Studies on the Egg Nebula show that these dying stars eject matter at high speeds along a preferred axis and may even have multiple jet-like outflows. The signature of the collision between this fast-moving material and the slower outflowing shells is the glow of hydrogen molecules captured in the NICMOS image. The distance between the tip of each jet is approximately 200 times the diameter of our solar system (out to Pluto's orbit). Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Dean Hines (University of Arizona); Raghvendra Sahai (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); NICMOS Instrument Definition Team; and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  9. Sonnet XXX: Love, dignity, and dying.

    PubMed

    Ely, E Wesley

    2016-05-01

    All of us in medicine who care for patients who are chronically critically ill, dying of incurable illnesses, will be faced with discussions about the value of their lives and about the appropriateness of ongoing supportive care. Such discussions are good and true, and they must always be done within the context of the sanctity of every human life and the promise of God that we are His children, each and every one of us. In this article, I explore the end-of-life path of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the courageous faith that she demonstrated in the face of her illness. I explore with you, the reader, the hard-core conversations that took place at her bedside and their meaning in light of Catholic moral teaching. This story is not meant to indicate that we should always do all interventions at all times for all patients. That would be a teaching counter to Evangelium vitae . This story is meant to help you think through the path of your patients and of you as a physician or other type of healthcare professional in serving your patients. Primum non nocere. Ad majorem Dei gloriam .

  10. Faster, Less Expensive Dies Using RSP Tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knirsch, James R.

    2007-08-01

    RSP Tooling is an indirect spray form additive process that can produce production tooling for virtually any forming process and from virtually any metal. In the past 24 months a significant amount of research and development has been performed. This resulted in an increase in the basic metallurgical understanding of what transpires during the rapid solidification of the metal, significant improvements in the production machine up time, ceramic developments that have improved finish, process changes that have resulted in a shorter lead time for tool delivery, and the testing of many new alloys. RSP stands for Rapid Solidification Process and is the key to the superior metallurgical properties that result from the technology. Most metals that are sprayed in the process leave the machine with the same physical properties as the same metal normally achieves through heat treatment and in some cases the properties are superior. Many new applications are being pursued including INVAR tools for aerospace composite materials, and bimetallic tools made from tool steel and beryllium copper for die casting and plastic injection molding. Recent feasibility studies have been performed with tremendous success.

  11. 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... System 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies Print A A A en español 5 ... presence of other people who knew your loved one can be comforting. Let your emotions be expressed ...

  12. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  13. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  14. Can We Humanize Dying in the General Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen

    This paper reviews the literature on the behavior and attitudes of medical-nursing personnel toward the dying person and illustrates the frequent conflict between hospital staff and the needs of dying. Inner perturbation stemming from feelings of vicarious suffering, vicarious disintegration, or personal anxiety about death, education deficiencies…

  15. End of Life (Caring for a Dying Loved One)

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle End of life Whether you bring a dying loved one home or keep vigil at the hospital, you can take measures to provide comfort and relief at the end of life. By Mayo Clinic Staff Caring for a dying ...

  16. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  17. Alternatives to the Stages Model of the Dying Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabough, Tillman

    1980-01-01

    Several models of the dying process--the Dying as Stages Model, the Death Trajectory-Phases Model, and the Personality-Repetitive Alternation Model--are reviewed and evaluated. An Interpersonal Reactions Model, based on social psychological concepts, is presented to resolve the differences in findings based on the previous models. (Author)

  18. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  19. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  20. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Billet/Die Interface and Measures to Relieve Thermal Stress for Hot Forging Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baoshan; Wang, Leigang; Geng, Zhe; Huang, Yao

    2017-07-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) shows the heat transfer capacity at the billet/die interface during the hot forming process, which affects the temperature gradient in the die that may potentially induce high thermal stress. Consequently, this determines the service life of the die. In this paper, a set of experimental equipments were used to identify the IHTC and the upsetting test of superalloy Inconel718 (GH4169) was carried out on the hot flat die to evaluate the IHTC characteristics after the billet heating and die preheating temperature, holding time, and billet deformation rate. The results indicated that the billet heating temperature has a minimal role in IHTC but the other components have a great impact on IHTC. Among them, the billet deformation rate has influenced the IHTC the most. In the die preheating temperature ranging from 150°C to 400°C, it was found that the preheating temperature was proportional to IHTC. A high preheating temperature that leads to a high IHTC was found unfavorable in relieving the die surface thermal stress, and also weakened the die hardness and strength. The IHTC declined with the increase in the holding time as a result of the billet oxidation. Based on these findings, the composite ceramic and polymetallic heat-resistant coatings on the die surface were prepared, respectively, to relieve the thermal stress of die surface by reducing IHTC. It showed that both of the treated dies could effectively reduce the IHTC, blocking the transferred heat from the hot billet and making it applicable to the different hot forging events.

  1. Where do Egyptian palliative care patients with cancer die?

    PubMed

    Alsirafy, Samy A; El Mesidy, Salah M; Abou-Elela, Enas N

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the death place of patients with advanced cancer referred to an Egyptian palliative care program over 1 year. Of 79 patients included, 73% died at home and 27% in hospital or ambulance. Patients who were visited by a palliative care physician at home were significantly more likely to die at home compared to those who did not (92% vs 64%, P = .008). The palliative care survival of those who died at home was significantly longer than those who died in hospital or ambulance (63 vs 39 days, P = .04). These results demonstrate the need for the integration of effective home care model in evolving Egyptian palliative care programs and suggest that physician home visits and earlier referral to palliative care help patients die at home.

  2. Including die and press deformations in sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Sigvant, Mats; Kao-Walter, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis, in Abaqus, of a stamping die and subsequent morphing of the tool surfaces in AutoForm were performed to improve a sheet metal forming simulation. First, the tool surfaces of the XC90 rear door inner were scanned. They were not matching when the die was unloaded and could therefore not give any satisfying results in sheet metal forming simulations. Scanned surface geometries were then added to a structural FE-model of the complete stamping die and some influential parts of the production press. The structural FE- model was analysed with Abaqus to obtain the structural deformations of the die. The calculated surface shapes were then transferred to AutoForm where a forming simulation was performed. Results from the different sheet metal forming simulations were compared to measured draw in curves and showed a substantial increase in accuracy and ability to analyse dies in running production when the morphed surfaces were used.

  3. Einführung in die Technische Chemie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Arno; Agar, David W.; Jörissen, Jakob

    Die "Technische Chemie" ist ein Lehrfach an Universitäten und Hochschulen. Nach dem die Studierenden der Chemie in den ersten Semestern ihres Studiums ausrei chen de theoretische Kenntnisse in Allgemeiner, Anorganischer, Organischer und Physikalischer Chemie erlangt haben, soll die Technische Chemie einen Blick auf die praktische Anwendung dieser Naturwissenschaft in unserer Wirtschaft lenken. Es gibt keine "biologische Industrie", "physikalische Industrie" oder "mathematische Industrie", wohl aber seit über 150 Jahren eine "chemische Industrie", die in dieser lan gen Zeit zahlreiche chemische Prozesse entwickelt und dazu vielfältige Methoden erarbeitet hat. Das Lehrfach Technische Chemie gibt einen Überblick über diese Pro zesse und Methoden und erleichtert dadurch den Schritt von der Universität zur be ruflichen Praxis.

  4. The artist in the hospital: the van Gogh case.

    PubMed

    Meissner, W W

    1994-01-01

    As a result of psychotic crises, Vincent van Gogh was hospitalized several times during a period of about a year and a half from December 1888 to May 1890. The author focuses on van Gogh's intense intrapsychic struggle during this relatively brief but critical time. He discusses how van Gogh's painting not only reflected his struggles but also enabled him, for a time, to stave off the hopelessness and despair that eventually overwhelmed him, culminating in his suicide. After reviewing possible factors in the artist's illness, the author agrees with others that the most persuasive explanation involves epileptic underpinnings.

  5. Image potential states from the van der Waals density functional.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Ikutaro; Hamamoto, Yuji; Morikawa, Yoshitada

    2017-07-28

    The image potential state is one of the fundamental surface electronic states and has a great relevance to many surface phenomena, but its accurate description is a great challenge for the semilocal density functional. Here, we use the nonlocal van der Waals density functional to describe the image potential states of graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes. We found that although it does not yield the correct image potential outside the surface, the van der Waals density functional improves the description of image potential states because of the nonlocal correlation potential. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of the van der Waals density functional to study the surface electronic properties.

  6. Vehicle test report: Jet Industries Electra Van 600

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Electra Van 600, an electric vehicle, was tested. Tests were performed to characterize parameters of the Electra Van 600 and to provide baseline data to be used for comparison of improved batteries and to which will be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem, the batteries, controller, and motor; coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluation for cyclic and constant speed conditions; and qualitative performance was evaluated. It is found that the Electra Van 600 range performance is approximately equal to the majority of the vehicles tested previously.

  7. 46 CFR 195.11-10 - Design and construction of portable vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and construction of portable vans. 195.11-10... and construction of portable vans. (a) The design and material selection shall incorporate... may be used for construction of the basic van box. (c) Accommodation vans are those intended to...

  8. MATE (Mentale Aspecten van Team Effectiviteit) (MATE (Mental Aspects of Team Effectiveness))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    interviews en informele commandant gericht ingaan op de status van gesprekken tijdens een oefening van I11 intbat zijn team en de gewenste ontwikkeling...door mniddel van ( informele ) 3/27 MATE (Mental. Aspecten van Team Effectiviteit) Kampweg 5 Postbus 23 PROGRAMMA PROJECT 3769 ZG Soesterberg T +31 346

  9. First description in Europe of the emergence of Enterococcus faecium ST117 carrying both vanA and vanB genes, isolated in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papagiannitsis, C C; Malli, E; Florou, Z; Medvecky, M; Sarrou, S; Hrabak, J; Petinaki, E

    2017-12-01

    An Enterococcus faecium isolate (Efa-125) carrying both the vanA and vanB genes was recovered from a patient with bacteraemia treated in a Greek hospital. Since this is the first description in Europe of E. faecium carrying both vanA and vanB genes, the isolate was further studied. Susceptibility to several antibiotics was determined using the VITEK ® 2 automated system. The isolate was typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). To define the genetic units of the vanA and vanB genes, the plasmid content of Efa-125 was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digested with S1 nuclease followed by hybridisation with digoxigenin-labelled vanA and vanB probes. In addition, plasmids and chromosomes were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. E. faecium Efa-125 belonged to ST117 and expressed resistance both to vancomycin and teicoplanin, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for both of 256mg/L. The vanA gene was carried on a 29 320-bp plasmid exhibiting high similarity to pA6981 previously characterised from Enterococcus gallinarum A6981, whereas vanB was part of a Tn1549-like transposon integrated into the chromosome. Expression of the VanA phenotype was correlated with the presence of intact vanZ and vanS genes. This is the first detection in Greece of vanA-vanB genotype/VanA phenotype E. faecium and indicates an evolving epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  11. Hubble Sees a Dying Star's Final Moments

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-31

    A dying star’s final moments are captured in this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The death throes of this star may only last mere moments on a cosmological timescale, but this star’s demise is still quite lengthy by our standards, lasting tens of thousands of years! The star’s agony has culminated in a wonderful planetary nebula known as NGC 6565, a cloud of gas that was ejected from the star after strong stellar winds pushed the star’s outer layers away into space. Once enough material was ejected, the star’s luminous core was exposed, enabling its ultraviolet radiation to excite the surrounding gas to varying degrees and causing it to radiate in an attractive array of colors. These same colors can be seen in the famous and impressive Ring Nebula (heic1310), a prominent example of a nebula like this one. Planetary nebulae are illuminated for around 10,000 years before the central star begins to cool and shrink to become a white dwarf. When this happens, the star’s light drastically diminishes and ceases to excite the surrounding gas, so the nebula fades from view. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Matej Novak NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. Determination of the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of high pressure die cast B390 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongyou; Guo, Zhipeng; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    High-pressure die cast B390 alloy was prepared on a 350 ton cold chamber die casting machine. The metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of the alloy was investigated. Considering the filling process, a "finger"-shaped casting was designed for the experiments. This casting consisted of five plates with different thicknesses (0.05 inch or 1.27 mm to 0.25 inch or 6.35 mm) as well as individual ingates and overflows. Experiments under various operation conditions were conducted, and temperatures were measured at various specific locations inside the die. Based on the results, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and heat flux were determined by solving the inverse heat transfer problem. The influence of the mold-filling sequence, sensor locations, as well as processing parameters including the casting pressure, die temperature, and fast/slow shot speeds on the heat transfer coefficient were discussed.

  13. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  14. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  15. Where the elderly die: the influence of socio-demographic factors and cause of death on people dying at home.

    PubMed

    Beng, Arthur K L; Fong, Chee Weng; Shum, Eugene; Goh, Cynthia R; Goh, Kee Tai; Chew, Suok Kai

    2009-08-01

    The place of death of the elderly has implications on the overall healthcare delivery system. The aim of this study is to describe where deaths of elderly occur in Singapore and to determine the association of socio-demographic characteristics and the causes of death on dying at home. Data of 10,399 Singapore resident decedents aged 65 years and above in 2006 were obtained from the national Registry of Births and Deaths. Distributions of socio-demographic characteristics and causes of death by place of death were analysed, and associations between socio-demographic characteristics and home death for major causes of death were assessed by logistic regression models controlling for age, gender and ethnic group. Most elderly deaths occurred in hospitals (57%), followed by deaths at home (31%). The proportion of deaths at home increased with age while deaths in hospital declined with age. Significantly more elderly women died at home compared to men. Malay elderly had the highest proportion of home deaths (49%), and the lowest proportion of hospital deaths (47%). Elderly persons who died from stroke were most likely to die at home [odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-3.3] while those who died from lung and respiratory system diseases were less likely to die at home (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.8). Elderly people in Singapore die mainly in hospitals. About a third of them die at home. The proportion of decedents dying at home increased with age. Home deaths among the elderly are most likely in those aged 85 years and above, females, Malays, and those who die of stroke.

  16. STS-42 Earth observation of Lake Van in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of Lake Van in Turkey, near the Iranian border (38.5N, 43.0E). Lake Van sits in the middle of a large fault and volcanic zone, the details of which are barely known. Earthquakes, sometimes severe, are frequent in this area. The lake is surrounded by many volcanic cones, calderas and lava plains. Because the climate is semi-arid and the lake has no apparent outlet, scientists say, the lake is relatively alkaline. Lake Van sits at an elevation of 5,400 feet with surrounding mountains completely snow-covered, reaching elevations in excess of 13,000 feet. The city of Van on the eastern edge of the lake shows up well because of the wintertime reflectance contrast between urban development and the snowy countryside.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... fingernails and toenails, and dental abnormalities. More than half of affected individuals are born with a heart defect, which can cause serious or life-threatening health problems. The features of Ellis-van ...

  18. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  19. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site alternative transportation feasibility study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-31

    The Martin Van Buren National Historic Site (MVBNHS) Alternative Transportation Feasibility Study examines the feasibility of : alternative transportation system (ATS) service to MVBNHS. The report investigates opportunities for a shuttle carrying vi...

  20. Isotope separation by photodissociation of Van der Waal's molecules

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on the dissociation of a Van der Waal's complex. A beam of molecules of a Van der Waal's complex containing, as one partner of the complex, a molecular species in which an element is present in a plurality of isotopes is subjected to radiation from a source tuned to a frequency which will selectively excite vibrational motion by a vibrational transition or through electronic transition of those complexed molecules of the molecular species which contain a desired isotope. Since the Van der Waal's binding energy is much smaller than the excitational energy of vibrational motion, the thus excited Van der Waal's complex dissociate into molecular components enriched in the desired isotope. The recoil velocity associated with vibrational to translational and rotational relaxation will send the separated molecules away from the beam whereupon the product enriched in the desired isotope can be separated from the constituents of the beam.

  1. 12 & 15 passenger vans tire pressure study : preliminary results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-05-01

    A study was conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA) to determine the extent of underinflation and observe the tire condition in 12- and 15-passenger vans. This Res...

  2. "Public" and "Private" Meanings: The Paintings of van Gogh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskill, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Examines the distinctions and interrelation of the artist's intentions and the viewers' understanding of a work of art by using the work of Vincent van Gogh and relating it to the artist's correspondence about his own work. (JMF)

  3. Understanding die fill variation during mini-tablet production.

    PubMed

    Goh, Hui Ping; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2017-12-20

    Reproducibility of die fill during tablet production is critical to ensure consistent tablet drug content and mechanical attributes. In the production of mini-tablets, tablets smaller than 6mm, achievement of uniform die fill is much more challenging. Powder flow is often associated with die fill accuracy but this relationship has not been well characterised especially for mini-tablets. In this study, flow properties of different types of granules were characterised. Mini-tablets of 1.8 and 3mm diameters were prepared from the granules using a rotary press with multiple-tip compression tooling. A methodology was established to evaluate mini-tablet die fill variation within and across compaction cycles using data from compression roller displacement and mini-tablet weight. Both sizes of mini-tablets showed similar extents of inter-cycle weight variation that could be associated with granules' inter-particulate friction. However, smaller mini-tablets had higher intra-cycle weight variation due to their narrower die orifices. Multivariate and univariate analyses suggested that gravity fill influenced intra-cycle weight variation of 3mm mini-tablets while suction fill was associated with that of 1.8mm mini-tablets. Possible differences in die fill mechanisms between the mini-tablet sizes were identified and this provided a better insight into die fill variations during the production of mini-tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fear of dying and inflammation following acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Molloy, Gerard J; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Wikman, Anna; Randall, Gemma; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Many patients are afraid of dying during acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but the origins and biological correlates of these emotional responses are poorly understood. This study evaluated the prevalence of fear of dying, associations with inflammatory responses during ACS, and later heart rate variability (HRV) and cortisol secretion. Two hundred and eight patients admitted with clinically verified ACS rated their fear of dying on interview in hospital. Plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α was recorded on admission, and HRV and salivary cortisol were assessed 3 weeks later. Intense distress and fear of dying was experienced by 21.7%, with moderate levels in 66.1% patients. Fear of dying was more common in younger, lower socioeconomic status, and unmarried patients. It was positively associated with plasma TNFα on admission after controlling for sociodemographic factors, clinical risk, and pain intensity (adjusted odds = 4.67, 95% C.I. 1.66-12.65). TNFα was associated with reduced HRV 3 weeks later, adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors and medication (P = 0.019), while fear of dying was associated with reduced cortisol output (P = 0.004). Intense distress and fear of dying and heightened inflammation may be related manifestations of an acute biobehavioural response to severe cardiac injury, and have implications for prognostically significant biological risk processes.

  5. Über die Methode der physikalischen Naturbeschreibung [33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenn es zu den Aufgaben der Philosophie und der wissensehaftlicher Theologie gehört, das Warum und Wie unserer Existenz und ihrer Umwelt zu ergründen, so muss als ihr Ausgangspunkt eine vollständige und möglichst übersichtliche Beschreibung unserer Empfindungen vorliegen. Einen Teil dieser Empfindungen fassen wir unter dem Namen Sinnesempfindungen zusammen. Ob ein solcher Aussehnitt genau abgegrenzt werden kann, soll hier nicht untersucht werden. Es kann sogar mit gewisser Berechtigung behauptet werden, dass eine Unterteilung gar nicht streng durchführbar ist. Der schon in der Philosophie der Antike uns entgegentretende Gedanke, dass die Welt nur in ihrer Gesamtheit rerständlich sein kann, kommt sicherlich der Wahrheit näher als die philosophischen Systeme des verflossenen Jahrhunderts, welche glaubten, dass alies aus unseren materialistischen Erkenntnissen heraus erklärt werden könne. Die Entstehung dieser Systeme, ich denke z. Â. an den Monisimis Haeckels, erklärt sich aus der Hybris, welche die Reaktion der Philosophie auf die bedeutenden Erfolge der exakten Naturwissenschaften war. Die ebenfalls nicht zu imterschätzenden Fortschritte unserer heutigen Kenntnisse auf diesem Gebiete zwingen din Naturforschung eher zu einer immer steigenden Bescheidenheit den "Welträtseln" gegenüber, deren letzte Konsequenz vielleicht darin liegen wird, dass sie die eingangs der Philosophie und Theologie zugewiesene Aufgabe als unlosbar bezeichnen muss..

  6. Compaction die for forming a solid annulus on a right circular cylinder. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Harlow, J.L.

    1981-09-14

    A compacting die is disclosed wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  7. From the corner of Charlie Kelly Blvd. And S. Van ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of Charlie Kelly Blvd. And S. Van Valzah St., looking northwest up S. Van Valzah St. Building 604 is in the foreground and to the right of it are buildings 605 and 606. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. Analysing Operational Effects (Het analyseren van operationele effecten)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Managerneritlittricksel Ongerubricecrd Abstract OngertibriccerdMSRC TO SAE EEN AReport text Onugerubriceerd D TI~U!O T T EN Appendix Ongerubriceerd Approved...effecten - verschillende niveaus in de organisatie (van stafniiveau tot bet niveau van kleine LenhLden). Resultaten en conclusies Ten eerste is een aantal...begrippen helder ornschreven (doelstelling, ’effectgebaseerd optreden’, operationele effectiviteit) en gedefinieerd (effecten en taken). Ten tweede

  9. The research contributions of Dr. Paul Van Deusen

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Lynch; Francis A. Roesch; John Paul McTague; Jeffrey H. Gove; Gregory A. Reams; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Paul Van Deusen’s recent passing concluded a rich 30+-year research career dedicated to development and implementation of quantitative methods for forestry and natural resources. Since the early part of his career as a biometrician with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station in the 1980s-1990s and continuing with his later employment at NCASI, Dr. Van...

  10. Modified Van der Waals equation and law of corresponding states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Changming; Zhu, Yongkai

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the Van der Waals equation is a modification of the ideal gas law, yet it can be used to describe both gas and liquid, and some important messages can be obtained from this state equation. However, the Van der Waals equation is not a precise state equation, and it does not give a good description of the law of corresponding states. In this paper, we expand the Van der Waals equation into its Taylor's series form, and then modify the fourth order expansion by changing the constant Virial coefficients into their analogous ones. Via this way, a more precise result about the law of corresponding states has been obtained, and the law of corresponding states can then be expressed as: in terms of the reduced variables, all fluids should obey the same equation with the analogous Virial coefficients. In addition, the system of 3 He with quantum effects has also been taken into consideration with our modified Van der Waals equation, and it is found that, for a normal system without quantum effect, the modification on ideal gas law from the Van der Waals equation is more significant than the real case, however, for a system with quantum effect, this modification is less significant than the real case, thus a factor is introduced in this paper to weaken or strengthen the modification of the Van der Waals equation, respectively.

  11. Margaret Cavendish's materialist critique of van Helmontian chymistry.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    A striking omission in the scholarship on the reception of the chymical philosophy of Jan Baptista van Helmont in England in the seventeenth century is the work of the mid-seventeenth-century natural philosopher Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle. In her Philosophical Letters (1664), Cavendish offers an extended critique of Van Helmont's work (whose Ortus Medicince had recently been translated into English by John Sadler). In this paper, I compare Cavendish's criticisms with those of Robert Boyle in his Sceptical Chymist (1661). Both Boyle and Cavendish attacked Van Helmont for the obscurity of his chymical vocabulary and concepts, and attacked his seminalism. Although their critiques had much in common, they diverged in their attitudes to Van Helmont's experiments. As an opponent of the experimental philosophy, Cavendish had little interest in the quality of Van Helmont's experimental claims, whereas Boyle was critical of their unreplicability. I also try to show that the two writers had very different polemical agendas, with Boyle defending his vision of chymistry based on a corpuscularian natural philosophy, and Cavendish being as much concerned with establishing her religious orthodoxy as with defending the truth claims of her own materialist vitalism. For Cavendish, Van Helmont was an example of the dangers of mingling theology and natural philosophy.

  12. Beslisbevoegdheden en Verantwoordelijkheden van de Uitgestegen Soldaat. Deel A: Verplaatsen van Beslisbevoegdheden (Authority and Responsibility of the Dismounted Soldier. Part A. Empowering the Dismounted Soldier)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Veizeboer en De Veer, 2002, in: Rypkema. 2005a). Een ander deel van de informatie betreft informatie rondom het doel van de operatie, de beschikbare middelen...41 26/30 6.1.1 Beperkingen in de tijd Het doel van het huidige project was vast te stellen hoe beslisbevoegdheden verdeeld zijn en of deze plaatst...inforrnatie te verzamnelen over groeperingen en het terrein. 2 Gevechtspatrouille De gevechtspatrouille heeft ten doel bet uitvoeren van een

  13. Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Simeonov, D; Smith, A

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  14. Strain engineering of van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Paul A; Mulder, Jefta; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J

    2018-01-18

    Modifying the strain state of solids allows control over a plethora of functional properties. The weak interlayer bonding in van der Waals (vdWaals) materials such as graphene, hBN, MoS2, and Bi2Te3 might seem to exclude strain engineering, since strain would immediately relax at the vdWaals interfaces. Here we present direct observations of the contrary by showing growth of vdWaals heterostructures with persistent in-plane strains up to 5% and we show that strain relaxation follows a not yet reported process distinctly different from strain relaxation in three-dimensionally bonded (3D) materials. For this, 2D bonded Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 and 2D/3D bonded Bi2Te3-GeTe multilayered films are grown using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and their structure is monitored in situ using Reflective High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) and post situ analysis is performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Strain relaxation is modeled and found to solely depend on the layer being grown and its initial strain. This insight demonstrates that strain engineering of 2D bonded heterostructures obeys different rules than hold for epitaxial 3D materials and opens the door to precise tuning of the strain state of the individual layers to optimize functional performance of vdWaals heterostructures.

  15. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  16. Supercurrent in van der Waals Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, Naoto; Moriya, Rai; Arai, Miho; Sata, Yohta; Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru; Machida, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Supercurrent flow between two superconductors with different order parameters, a phenomenon known as the Josephson effect, can be achieved by inserting a non-superconducting material between two superconductors to decouple their wavefunctions. These Josephson junctions have been employed in fields ranging from digital to quantum electronics, yet their functionality is limited by the interface quality and use of non-superconducting material. Here we show that by exfoliating a layered dichalcogenide (NbSe2) superconductor, the van der Waals (vdW) contact between the cleaved surfaces can instead be used to construct a Josephson junction. This is made possible by recent advances in vdW heterostructure technology, with an atomically flat vdW interface free of oxidation and inter-diffusion achieved by eliminating all heat treatment during junction preparation. Here we demonstrate that this artificially created vdW interface provides sufficient decoupling of the wavefunctions of the two NbSe2 crystals, with the vdW Josephson junction exhibiting a high supercurrent transparency.

  17. Van der Waals Interactions Involving Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Charles M.; Neal, Brian L.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    1996-01-01

    Van der Waals (dispersion) forces contribute to interactions of proteins with other molecules or with surfaces, but because of the structural complexity of protein molecules, the magnitude of these effects is usually estimated based on idealized models of the molecular geometry, e.g., spheres or spheroids. The calculations reported here seek to account for both the geometric irregularity of protein molecules and the material properties of the interacting media. Whereas the latter are found to fall in the generally accepted range, the molecular shape is shown to cause the magnitudes of the interactions to differ significantly from those calculated using idealized models. with important consequences. First, the roughness of the molecular surface leads to much lower average interaction energies for both protein-protein and protein-surface cases relative to calculations in which the protein molecule is approximated as a sphere. These results indicate that a form of steric stabilization may be an important effect in protein solutions. Underlying this behavior is appreciable orientational dependence, one reflection of which is that molecules of complementary shape are found to exhibit very strong attractive dispersion interactions. Although this has been widely discussed previously in the context of molecular recognition processes, the broader implications of these phenomena may also be important at larger molecular separations, e.g., in the dynamics of aggregation, precipitation, and crystal growth.

  18. Recent progress in van der Waals heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wanshun; Dai, Liping; Yu, Peng; Tong, Xin; Song, Wenping; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Zhiming

    2017-03-30

    Following the development of many novel two-dimensional (2D) materials, investigations of van der Waals heterojunctions (vdWHs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent properties such as smooth heterointerface, highly gate-tunable bandgap, and ultrafast carrier transport. Benefits from the atom-scale thickness, physical and chemical properties and ease of manipulation of the heterojunctions formulated by weak vdW forces were demonstrated to indicate their outstanding potential in electronic and optoelectronic applications, including photodetection and energy harvesting, and the possibility of integrating them with the existing semiconductor technology for the next-generation electronic and sensing devices. In this review, we summarized the recent developments of vdWHs and emphasized their applications. Basically, we introduced the physical properties and some newly discovered phenomena in vdWHs. Then, we emphatically presented four classical vdWHs and some novel heterostructures formed by vdW forces. Based on their unique physical properties and structures, we highlighted the applications of vdWHs including in photodiodes, phototransistors, tunneling devices, and memory devices. Finally, we provided a conclusion on the recent advances in vdWHs and outlined our perspectives. We aim for this review to serve as a solid foundation in this field and to pave the way for future research on vdW-based materials and their heterostructures.

  19. Modern theory of van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, John

    2014-03-01

    van der Waals (vdW, dispersion) interactions are important in diverse areas such as colloid, surface and nano science, cohesion of molecular crystals, and biomolecular science. They also provide competition in experiments to discover the fifth fundamental force.While vdW interactions have been understood in principle for a century, their quantitative first-principles prediction and modelling down to chemical contact separations have proven stubbornly difficult because the quantal many-electron problem is involved. After some brief historical material, the current state of the art will be discussed with particular reference to several approaches: pairwise additive, perturbative quantum chemical, vdW-DF, Lifshitz-like scattering, RPA-like, Adiabatic Connection Fluctuation Dissipation / Time Dependent DFT based etc.. A potentially useful classification will be introduced to aid in understanding the physical causes of departures from pairwise additivity, that is from the usual sum of C6R-6 contributions. These departures result in non-standard power law decays of nanostructure vdW interactions as a function of separation D, as well as surprising dependences of the attraction on the number, N, of atoms within each vdW-interacting fragment. Some further recent results on non-additivity will also be presented. Work supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant.

  20. 8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT

  1. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  2. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons with dementia who die in long-term care. Design and Methods After-death interviews were conducted with staff who had cared for 422 persons with dementia and 159 persons who were cognitively intact who received terminal care in US nursing homes (NHs) or residential care / assisted living (RC/AL) settings. Family caregiver interviews were conducted for 293 decedents. Results No differences were noted between decedents with and without dementia in terms of pain, psychosocial status, family involvement in care, advance care planning, use of most life-prolonging interventions, and hospice use. Dying residents with dementia, in comparison with nondemented, tended to die less often in a hospital, have less shortness of breath, receive more physical restraints and sedative medication, and use emergency services less frequently on the last day of life. Persons with dementia dying in RC/AL tended to have more skin ulcers and poorer hygiene care than nondemented persons in RC/AL. In comparison with persons dying with dementia in NHs, those in RC/AL settings tended to be restrained less often, to have emergency services called more often on the day of death, and to have family more satisfied with physician communication. Implications Overall, care for persons dying with dementia is not inferior to that of dying persons who are cognitively intact, and care for dying persons with dementia in RC/AL facilities is not inferior to that provided in NHs. However numerous specific areas for care improvement were noted. PMID:19139248

  3. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  4. van't Hoff-van der Waals osmotic pressure and energy transformers

    PubMed Central

    Zener, Clarence; Levenson, William

    1983-01-01

    We find the van't Hoff relations between osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and boiling point elevation provide a clue on how, by using salt solutions, one may lower the cost of extracting power from low-grade heat sources. In particular, the ratio of 7 between the heat of evaporation and the heat of freezing of pure water suggests a chemical system that raises 7-fold the temperature difference between heat source and heat sink, while decreasing by the same factor the heat flux. Heat exchangers dominate the cost of heat engines operating upon low-grade heat. Their area for a fixed power output is inversely proportional to the available temperature differential. Herein lies the potential for a great cost reduction. We show that the simple van der Waals concept of a gas of hard elastic spheres suffices to understand the colligative properties of salt solutions, at least up to the concentration of the eutectic composition. This concept enables us to physically interpret the thermodynamic processes during the concentration of salt solutions by evaporation and during the mixing of ice and solid salt hydrates at their eutectic temperature. These are identical to the thermodynamic processes taking place during the isothermal compression and expansion of gases in pumps and in turbines. PMID:16593343

  5. van't Hoff-van der Waals osmotic pressure and energy transformers.

    PubMed

    Zener, C; Levenson, W

    1983-07-01

    We find the van't Hoff relations between osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and boiling point elevation provide a clue on how, by using salt solutions, one may lower the cost of extracting power from low-grade heat sources. In particular, the ratio of 7 between the heat of evaporation and the heat of freezing of pure water suggests a chemical system that raises 7-fold the temperature difference between heat source and heat sink, while decreasing by the same factor the heat flux. Heat exchangers dominate the cost of heat engines operating upon low-grade heat. Their area for a fixed power output is inversely proportional to the available temperature differential. Herein lies the potential for a great cost reduction. We show that the simple van der Waals concept of a gas of hard elastic spheres suffices to understand the colligative properties of salt solutions, at least up to the concentration of the eutectic composition. This concept enables us to physically interpret the thermodynamic processes during the concentration of salt solutions by evaporation and during the mixing of ice and solid salt hydrates at their eutectic temperature. These are identical to the thermodynamic processes taking place during the isothermal compression and expansion of gases in pumps and in turbines.

  6. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  7. Die Face Engineering based Springback Compensation Strategy and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing; He, Jeanne; Xu, Jinbo; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin Chun

    2005-08-01

    Springback or shape change has been one of the major challenges in sheet metal fabrication, particularly with increase application of high strength steel (HSS) and aluminum alloys in automotive stamping. Springback, an elastic material recovery after the unloading of stamping tools, causes variations and inconsistencies of final part dimensions. Minor or mild springback usually can be corrected in the re-strike process. Excessive springback must be corrected so the part will be produced within the given design tolerance and dimension. The commonly used Spring Forward approaches and shape compensations such as over-crown and over-bending are proven effective to alleviate excessive springback. To enhance these approaches, a new strategy of Die Face Engineering (DFE) based processing is proposed to quickly and easily to achieve the maximum allowable compensation using the under cut (or die lock) as the primary criteria. The implementation of the die face compensation through iterative FEA calculation, automatic surface mapping, projection and manual morphing are crucial to meet production environment requirements in terms of generating NC quality CAD surfaces of the compensated or morphed die face. In this paper, the strategy of the die face compensation with the consideration of the under cut criteria is presented. The implementation of various processes to enable user to perform the die face compensation task in a production environment is also discussed. Finally, two examples are shown to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed springback compensation scheme based on the combined CAE/CAD methodology.

  8. Study of sintered silver as a die attach material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Falguni Vikram

    Sintered silver has become a viable and attractive alternative to soldering in various applications especially for high power and high temperature needs. The sintering process used till now is mostly pressure assisted which requires specialized equipment in the processing. A pressure-less sintering process which can be incorporated with the existing equipment is highly desired. The primary objective of this study was to analyze how the sintered silver bond formed behaves with different process and material parameters while using pressure-less sintering. Commercially available dual sized sintered silver paste consisting of micron and sub-micron particles has been studied. The sintering parameters: die/substrate metallization (Au/Ag), sintering temperature and sintering atmosphere were varied. Also an aging study at 220°C was done. It was found that the substrate and die metallization and type affected the characteristics of the sintered bond and the die shear strength. Sintering at 250°C in air atmosphere caused a gap layer to form along with the dense silver layer near the gold surfaces. This gap layer resulted in very low die shear strength thus affecting the reliability while nitrogen atmosphere at 250°C produced a different microstructure without a gap formation. With increase in sintering temperature the die shear strength increases for Ag surface die & substrate while it decreases for Au surfaces. Aging at 220°C produced the densified cluster formation that also involved the shrinkage, thereby resulting in an increase in void spacing between those clusters.

  9. Thermal Modeling and Die Design Tools for Warm Forming Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, N. R.; Luckey, S. G.

    There has been little published work on the production, die architecture and thermal stability issues of warm forming (WF) technology when scaling from the laboratory to a full-size component at production-rates. One critical area of research essential to achieving high volume warm forming is the development of engineering tools for the heating and thermal control of dies. This paper introduces the development of an analytical analysis method supporting upfront WF die design. The analysis applies conservation of energy to manage and simplify the complex boundary conditions. The outputs include heat transfer parameters for the insulated, exposed, and metal working surfaces of the die, as well as energy and heat-up time estimates. These parameters directly support the simulation and optimization of a WF die using steady-state thermal finite element analysis. The validation of the predicted heat transfer parameters for die boundary conditions has been evaluated using a simple benchmark self-heated block with differing boundary condition parameters.

  10. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; Rodriguez-Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-11-02

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insights into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.

  11. Evolutionary design of interfacial phase change van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kalikka, Janne; Zhou, Xilin; Behera, Jitendra; Nannicini, Giacomo; Simpson, Robert E

    2016-10-27

    We use an evolutionary algorithm to explore the design space of hexagonal Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 ; a van der Waals layered two dimensional crystal heterostructure. The Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 structure is more complicated than previously thought. Predominant features include layers of Ge 3 Sb 2 Te 6 and Ge 1 Sb 2 Te 4 two dimensional crystals that interact through Te-Te van der Waals bonds. Interestingly, (Ge/Sb)-Te-(Ge/Sb)-Te alternation is a common feature for the most stable structures of each generation's evolution. This emergent rule provides an important structural motif that must be included in the design of high performance Sb 2 Te 3 -GeTe van der Waals heterostructure superlattices with interfacial atomic switching capability. The structures predicted by the algorithm agree well with experimental measurements on highly oriented, and single crystal Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 samples. By analysing the evolutionary algorithm optimised structures, we show that diffusive atomic switching is probable by Ge atoms undergoing a transition at the van der Waals interface from layers of Ge 3 Sb 2 Te 6 to Ge 1 Sb 2 Te 4 thus producing two blocks of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . Evolutionary methods present an efficient approach to explore the enormous multi-dimensional design parameter space of van der Waals bonded heterostructure superlattices.

  12. Van der Waals interaction in uniaxial anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2013-01-23

    Van der Waals interactions between flat surfaces in uniaxial anisotropic media are investigated in the nonretarded limit. The main focus is the effect of nonzero tilt between the optical axis and the surface normal on the strength of the van der Waals attraction. General expressions for the van der Waals free energy are derived using the surface mode method and the transfer-matrix formalism. To facilitate numerical calculations a temperature-dependent three-band parameterization of the dielectric tensor of the liquid crystal 5CB is developed. A solid slab immersed in a liquid crystal experiences a van der Waals torque that aligns the surface normal relative to the optical axis of the medium. The preferred orientation is different for different materials. Two solid slabs in close proximity experience a van der Waals attraction that is strongest for homeotropic alignment of the intervening liquid crystal for all the materials studied. The results have implications for the stability of plate-like colloids in liquid crystal hosts.

  13. Tracing the geochemical evolution of alkaline Lake Van, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecien, Ola; Viehberg, Finn; Plessen, Birgit; Litt, Thomas; Tillman Meyer, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Terminal Lake Van, the world's largest soda basin, is characterised by Na-CO3-Cl water chemistry (Reimer et al., 2008), salinity of ~22 ‰ and high pH of ~9.7. The sedimentary record of the lake goes ca. 600 ka back and documents major climatic events over that period (Stockhecke et al., 2014). Alas, the longevity of the basin does not mean that it persisted unchanged over such a long time. Information collected within the ICDP PALEOVAN project clearly suggests that upon its birth the chemistry of early Lake Van was very different from its modern alkaline equivalent. Here we document, by means of proxy data, the changes in water chemistry in a transforming basin. Results of lithological (Stockhecke et al., 2014) and micropaleontological (ostracod, gastropod and diatom assemblages) analysis, combined with geochemical data (δ18O, δ13C, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) obtained from the biogenic and authigenic carbonate fraction imply, that early Lake Van was a relatively shallow, fresh-to-brackish and, most probably, open basin. Sedimentological information points to tectonic factors rather than climatic changes responsible for closing the lake ca. 430 ka ago. Reimer, A., Landmann, G., Kempe, S., 2008. Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Hydrochemistry and History. Aquat. Geochemistry 15, 195-222. Stockhecke, M., Sturm, M., Brunner, I., Schmincke, H.-U., Sumita, M., Kipfer, R., Cukur, D., Kwiecien, O., Anselmetti, F.S., 2014. Sedimentary evolution and environmental history of Lake Van (Turkey) over the past 600 000 years. Sedimentology.

  14. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  15. Eos Interviews Robert Van Hook, Former AGU Interim Executive Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Robert Van Hook, who served as AGU's interim executive director since January 2009, led the organization during a transition period that began with the retirement of long-serving executive director A. F. (“Fred”) Spilhaus Jr. Van Hook's tenure concluded on 30 August when Christine McEntee assumed her position as AGU's new executive director (see Eos, 91(17), 153, 156, 2010). During his tenure at AGU, which overlapped with a global economic recession, Van Hook helped to guide the organization through key structural governance changes, strategic planning, and upgrades in technology, human resources, and accounting. He also helped to revitalize public outreach and member services, among many other efforts. Van Hook, president of Transition Management Consulting, recently reflected upon his tenure, the transition period, and the future of AGU. Van Hook credits AGU's strong volunteer leadership—including past presidents Tim Killeen and Tim Grove, current president Mike McPhaden, and president-elect Carol Finn—for courage in moving the organization through a successful transition. “They were the ones who shoved the boat off from the shore. I was lucky enough to be invited into the boat,” he said. He also credits the staff for their resiliency and commitment to supporting AGU's science.

  16. 78 FR 47817 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for an Exemption From Van Hool N...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...; Application for an Exemption From Van Hool N.V. and Coach USA AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... requests public comment on an application for exemption from Van Hool N.V. and Coach USA (Van Hool/Coach...

  17. Moderate-Level Resistance to Glycopeptide LY333328 Mediated by Genes of the vanA and vanB Clusters in Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Michel; Depardieu, Florence; Reynolds, Peter; Courvalin, Patrice

    1999-01-01

    Three of five natural plasmids carrying a wild-type vanA gene cluster did not confer LY333328 glycopeptide resistance on Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 (MIC = 2 μg/ml). The two remaining plasmids conferred resistance to the drug (MIC, 8 μg/ml). The vanB gene cluster did not confer resistance to LY333328, since this antibiotic was not an inducer. Mutations in the vanSB sensor gene that allowed induction by teicoplanin or constitutive expression of the vanB cluster led to LY333328 resistance (MIC, 8 to 16 μg/ml). Overproduction of the VanH, VanA, and VanX proteins for d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-Lac) synthesis and d-Ala-d-Ala hydrolysis was sufficient for resistance to LY333328 (MIC, 16 μg/ml). Mutations in the host d-Ala:d-Ala ligase contributed to LY333328 resistance in certain VanA- and VanB-type strains, but the MICs of the antibiotic did not exceed 16 μg/ml. Addition of d-2-hydroxybutyrate in the culture medium of mutants that did not produce the VanH d-lactate dehydrogenase led to incorporation of this d-2-hydroxy acid at the C-terminal ends of the peptidoglycan precursors and to LY333328 resistance (MIC, 64 μg/ml). The vanZ gene of the vanA cluster conferred resistance to LY333328 (MIC, 8 μg/ml) by an unknown mechanism. These data indicate that VanA- and VanB-type enterococci may acquire moderate-level resistance to LY333328 (MIC ≤ 16 μg/ml) in a single step by various mechanisms. PMID:10428906

  18. Nursing older dying patients: findings from an ethnographic study of death and dying in elderly care wards.

    PubMed

    Costello, J

    2001-07-01

    Nursing older dying patients: findings from an ethnographic study of death and dying in elderly care wards Background and aim. The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of dying patients and nurses working in three elderly care wards focusing on the management of care for dying patients. The majority of patients who die in hospital are over the age of 65 and evidence suggests that three fifths are over the age of 75. Older patients pose tremendous problems and challenges to nurses and doctors regarding the provision of good terminal care, particularly in relation to developing effective communication. An ethnographic research design was chosen. The research sample consisted of 74 patients, 29 nurses and 8 physicians. The principle data collection methods were participant observation and semi-structured interviews. All respondents were interviewed following a period of observation on each of the ward areas. The data obtained from participant observation were then used to structure the interview questions. The purpose of asking questions about meanings associated with observational material was to evaluate the extent to which convergence or divergence of the data was taking place. The findings demonstrate that the care of older dying patients was defined by a lack of 'emotional engagement' with the patient and the institutionalized nondisclosure of information about death and dying. The study raises issues concerning the lack of effective communication about terminal diagnosis and the strategies used by nurses and doctors for disclosing information about death and dying. The findings suggest that although nurses provide individual care to dying patients, much of this was aimed at meeting patients' physical needs. Nurses reported psychosocial aspects including spiritual and emotional care to be important, although there was little evidence of them being orientated towards this in practice. The indicative conclusions from this study suggest that terminal care

  19. Collisional stabilization of van der Waals states of ozone.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Mikhail V; Babikov, Dmitri

    2011-05-07

    The mixed quantum-classical theory developed earlier [M. Ivanov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144107 (2011)] is employed to treat the collisional energy transfer and the ro-vibrational energy flow in a recombination reaction that forms ozone. Assumption is that the van der Waals states of ozone are formed in the O + O(2) collisions, and then stabilized into the states of covalent well by collisions with bath gas. Cross sections for collision induced dissociation of van der Waals states of ozone, for their stabilization into the covalent well, and for their survival in the van der Waals well are computed. The role these states may play in the kinetics of ozone formation is discussed.

  20. Gait analysis in patients after Van Nes rotationplasty.

    PubMed

    Catani, F; Capanna, R; Benedetti, M G; Battistini, A; Leardini, A; Cinque, G; Giannini, S

    1993-11-01

    Gait was analyzed through kinetic, kinematic, and temporal-distance parameters assessment to evaluate the functional performance of ten children treated by the classical Van Nes rotationplasty (VNR). Van Nes rotationplasty is a surgical procedure, which permits the conversion of the ankle joint into a "pseudo-knee" joint. The data were compared with measurements of a normal population of ten healthy subjects. Significant differences with respect to the normal were found in stride duration, stride length, cadence, velocity, and stance-swing ratio, and in ground-reaction forces parameters, which define the propulsive phase in the prosthetic side and the acceptance phase in the sound side. There were differences in some kinematic parameters as well. Van Nes rotationplasty is acceptable from a biomechanical-functional point of view, particularly with respect to the active control of the pseudo-knee, which allows a smooth and coordinate gait pattern.

  1. NASA's Van Allen Probes Discover a Surprise Circling Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Two giant swaths of radiation, known as the Van Allen Belts, surrounding Earth were discovered in 1958. In 2012, observations from the Van Allen Probes showed that a third belt can sometimes appear. The radiation is shown here in yellow, with green representing the spaces between the belts. Credit: NASA/Van Allen Probes/Goddard Space Flight Center To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/rbsp/news/third-belt.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Theoretical foundations of die-to-model inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivishevsky, Lev; Khristo, Sergey; Schwarzband, Ishai; Mangan, Shmoolik

    2009-10-01

    Advanced immersion lithography is enabled by a combination of optimized off-axis illumination, highly complex design patterns, and photo-mask technologies with several transmission and phase levels. The pattern on the mask, for 45nm half pitch and below, shows little resemblance to the target printed pattern, which is revealed only when illuminated with the correct aerial exposure conditions. The main pattern is modified or surrounded by OPC and SRAF features which are comparatively much smaller. The small size and irregularity of these features present a challenge to mask inspection process, both due to their size and the mask manufacturing process sensitivity. While most masks are inspected using a die-to-die scheme, single-die masks use an alternative detection scheme based on comparing the mask image to mask design data. In high-resolution inspection tools, the resolution must be sufficient to resolve the sub-resolution features, and compare them to the mask design. In aerial inspection tools, which have optics that mimic the illumination and collection exposure conditions over the mask as in a scanner, the inspection image depicts the mask at the scanner resolution. As a consequence, in the aerial image, as in the scanner, sub-resolution features are not resolved and do not develop. Therefore, a conventional comparison to a database is not possible. Here, we present a single die detection scheme that takes a new approach - an optical model is calculated from the mask design information, based on an optical modeling of the inspection optics response. The result is an aerial model image, which predicts the aerial image created by the inspection tool, and may be directly compared to the real image captured by the inspection machine. We describe herein the theoretical foundation of the Die-to-Model scheme, and the practical computational implementation. As a consequence of the high quality modeling, the detection scheme employed for single die inspection

  3. Die design and process optimization of plastic gear extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Fu, Zhihong; Yao, Chen; Zang, Gongzheng; Wan, Yue

    2018-01-01

    The flow velocity of the melt in the extruder was simulated by using software Polyflow, and the size of the die channel with the best flow uniformity was obtained. The die profile shape is obtained by reverse design. The length of the shaping section is determined by Ansys transient thermal analysis. According to the simulation results, the design and manufacture of extrusion die of plastic gear and vacuum cooling setting were obtained. The influence of the five process parameters on the precision of the plastic gear were studied by the single factor analysis method, such as the die temperature T, the screw speed R, the die spacing S, the vacuum degree M and the hauling speed V. The optimal combination of process parameters was obtained by using the neural network particle swarm optimization algorithm(T = 197.05 °C, R = 9.04rpm, S = 67mm, M = ‑0.0194MPa). The tooth profile deviation of the extruded plastic gear can reach 9 level of accuracy.

  4. Modern dying: from securing rights to meeting needs.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Mildred Z

    2014-11-01

    Modern medicine has transformed the dying experience. In the developed world, most of us no longer die from infectious diseases and sudden accidents, but from chronic illnesses that progressively worsen. Yet the U.S. healthcare system is not designed to meet the needs of people with chronic illness or of frail elders. In addition, our system incentivizes the use of technologies that are often helpful when an underlying condition is reversible but, when used very near the end of life, may only postpone the dying process and increase burdens on the patient. This state of affairs renders many people near the end of life without adequate symptom control, little or no social and psychological support, and inadequate involvement in decisions about when and how best to use modern technologies. This paper traces efforts over the last three decades to address problems related to modern dying. The author sees three phases: early work focused on securing patients' rights to refuse unwanted treatments, the next phase focused on building the specialty of palliative medicine, and the third and future phase must redesign our healthcare system to better align with how we die in the 21st century. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. The Economics of van der Waals Force Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    As micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication continues on an ever-decreasing scale, new technological challenges must be successfully negotiated if Moore's Law is to be an even approximately valid model of the future of device miniaturization. Among the most significant obstacles is the existence of strong surface forces related to quantum mechanical van der Waals interatomic interactions, which rapidly diverge as the distance between any two neutral boundaries decreases. The van der Waals force is a contributing factor in several device failures and limitations, including, for instance, stiction and oscillator non-linearities. In the last decade, however, it has been conclusively shown that van der Waals forces are not just a MEMS limitation but can be engineered in both magnitude and sign so as to enable classes of proprietary inventions which either deliver novel capabilities or improve upon existing ones. The evolution of van der Waals force research from an almost exclusively theoretical field in quantum-electro-dynamics to an enabling nanotechnology discipline represents a useful example of the ongoing paradigm shift from government-centered to private-capital funded R&D in cutting-edge physics leading to potentially profitable products. In this paper, we discuss the reasons van der Waals force engineering may lead to the creation of thriving markets both in the short and medium terms by highlighting technical challenges that can be competitively addressed by this novel approach. We also discuss some notable obstacles to the cultural transformation of the academic research community required for the emergence of a functional van der Waals force engineering industry worldwide.

  6. Arthur van Gehuchten takes neurology to the movies.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2002-11-26

    To present the cinematographic production of Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914) and to put this collection into its medical and sociocultural context. The arrival of Edison's Kinetoscope (1891) and Lumière's Cinématographe (1895) provoked the immediate interest of neurologists who foresaw the potential of motion pictures for illustration, research, and teaching. Arthur Van Gehuchten, professor of anatomy and neurology at the Catholic University of Louvain, was trained as a microscopist and a cytologist. From neuroanatomy, he progressively broadened his interest to neurology. Van Gehuchten was an avant-garde teacher, eager to adopt new visual aids. In 1895, he attended the first cinematographic screenings. Medical cinematography was soon brought into disrepute in European academic circles, when films made by the French surgeon Doyen were copied and shown on fairgrounds. Nevertheless, in 1905, Van Gehuchten began to film neurologic patients. He used this technique extensively to demonstrate clinical signs, to illustrate neurologic diseases, and to document functional evolution following surgery. For decades, these films were screened for medical students by Van Gehuchten's successors to the chair of neurology. The original nitrate films (more than 2 hours) have been recently rediscovered. They have been restored by the Royal Belgian Film Archive, where they are the oldest Belgian films. At the beginning of the 20th century, Van Gehuchten built up a collection of moving pictures for teaching purposes. This was one of the first such undertakings. This unique set of films has miraculously survived, and serves as an important archive of nervous diseases and their manifestations prior to the advent of modern therapies.

  7. 78 FR 53816 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Van Gogh Repetitions”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Van Gogh Repetitions'' SUMMARY... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Van Gogh Repetitions,'' imported from abroad for...

  8. Conversion of Chemical Reaction Energy into Useful Work in the Van't Hoff Equilibrium Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazhin, N. M.; Parmon, V. N.

    2007-01-01

    The ideal van't Hoff equilibrium box is described in detail. It shows that van't Hoff equilibrium box divided in two parts can simultaneously produce heat and useful work without violation of the first law of thermodynamics.

  9. 77 FR 54646 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Becoming Van Gogh”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Becoming Van Gogh'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Becoming Van Gogh,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  10. Effective field theories for van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Nora; Shtabovenko, Vladyslav; Tarrús Castellà, Jaume; Vairo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Van der Waals interactions between two neutral but polarizable systems at a separation R much larger than the typical size of the systems are at the core of a broad sweep of contemporary problems in settings ranging from atomic, molecular and condensed matter physics to strong interactions and gravity. In this paper, we reexamine the dispersive van der Waals interactions between two hydrogen atoms. The novelty of the analysis resides in the usage of nonrelativistic effective field theories of quantum electrodynamics. In this framework, the van der Waals potential acquires the meaning of a matching coefficient in an effective field theory, dubbed van der Waals effective field theory, suited to describe the low-energy dynamics of an atom pair. It may be computed systematically as a series in R times some typical atomic scale and in the fine-structure constant α . The van der Waals potential gets short-range contributions and radiative corrections, which we compute in dimensional regularization and renormalize here for the first time. Results are given in d space-time dimensions. One can distinguish among different regimes depending on the relative size between 1 /R and the typical atomic bound-state energy, which is of order m α2. Each regime is characterized by a specific hierarchy of scales and a corresponding tower of effective field theories. The short-distance regime is characterized by 1 /R ≫m α2 and the leading-order van der Waals potential is the London potential. We also compute next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections. In the long-distance regime we have 1 /R ≪m α2. In this regime, the van der Waals potential contains contact terms, which are parametrically larger than the Casimir-Polder potential that describes the potential at large distances. In the effective field theory, the Casimir-Polder potential counts as a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order effect. In the intermediate-distance regime, 1 /R ˜m α2, a significantly more complex

  11. Curves of growth for van der Waals broadened spectral lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1980-01-01

    Curves of growth are evaluated for a spectral line broadened by the van der Waals interactions during collisions. The growth of the equivalent widths of such lines is shown to be dependent on the product of the perturber density and the 6/10 power of the van der Waals potential coefficient. When the parameter is small, the widths grow as the 1/2 power of the optical depth as they do for the Voigt profile: but when the parameter is large, they grow as 2/3 power and, hence, faster than the Voigt profile. An approximate analytical expression for the computed growth characteristics is given.

  12. van der Waals interaction potential between Rydberg atoms near surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Johannes; Scheel, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    van der Waals interactions, as a result of the exchange of photons between particles, can be altered by modifying the environment through which these photons propagate. As a consequence, phenomena such as the Rydberg blockade mechanism between highly excited atoms or excitons can be controlled by adding reflecting surfaces. We provide the quantum electrodynamic framework for the van der Waals interaction in the nonretarded limit that is relevant for long-wavelength transitions, such as those between Rydberg systems, and show its intimate connection with common static dipole-dipole interactions, thereby providing a generalization to include macroscopic bodies.

  13. Description of an Infrared Zoomcollimator (Beschrijving van een Infrarood Zoomcollimator)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Jong ln3*lUUt Fysisch en Elektronisch L.aboratorium TNO datuam rnaart 1993 hdo-opdr~no. A90KL654 On--i. in ulgeordoIp.ir N.d ln Onderzoek uitgevoerd door...Ike in het brandvlak van een collmator worden geplaatst. Voor MRTD metingen worden balkenpatronen gebruikt met een bepaalde frequentie en variabel...afstandvaniatie tot een doel in het terrein met een zekere afmneting en temperatuurcontrast. Bij gebruik van een lijnbron en een circulaire, bran met

  14. Baseline tests of the Volkswagen transporter electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, R. F.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Gourash, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Volkswagen Transporter, an electric delivery van, was tested as part of an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state of the art of electric vehicles. The Volkswagen Transporter is a standard Volkswagen van that has been converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by a 144-volt traction battery. A direct current (dc) chopper controller, actuated by a conventional accelerator pedal, regulates the voltage or power applied to the 16-kilowatt (21-hp) motor. The braking system uses conventional hydraulic braking in combination with an electric regenerative braking system. The Volkswagen vehicle performance test results are presented.

  15. Van vleck paramagnetism in orthorhombic TiO2 (Brookite)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.

    1968-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of the orthorhombic form of titanium dioxide has been measured from 5 to 300??K. After deducting the temperature-dependent component, which is probably due to defects or impurities, and the free-ion diamagnetic component, the Van Vleck paramagnetism was estimated to be 33??10-6 emu/mole. Comparison is made between this value and the Van Vleck paramagnetism of strontium titanate and the two tetragonal forms of titanium dioxide: rutile and anatase. ?? 1968 The American Physical Society.

  16. Is "healthy dying" a paradox? revisiting an early Kastenbaum challenge.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, Allan

    This article is a review of Robert Kastenbaum's 1979 essay entitled "Healthy dying: A paradoxical quest continues." It begins with a summary of the arguments and challenges in the original essay. This is followed by an evaluation of his original claims in the light of contemporary insights in modern public health history and empirical studies of near-death experiences and death bed visions. The recent development of health promotion in palliative care is described in relation to these developments and Kastenbaum's early question about the paradoxical quest for health while dying is again posed against this background. Given our modern understanding of "health" in current global health policy and debates, it is argued that "healthy dying" is no paradox. Instead, the pursuit of health at the end of life represents a realistic modern desire to compress morbidity, minimize unnecessary suffering, and enhance quality of life at this time.

  17. Phenomenological study of ICU nurses' experiences caring for dying patients.

    PubMed

    King, Phyllis Ann; Thomas, Sandra P

    2013-11-01

    This existential phenomenological study explored caring for the dying based on the philosophical works of Merleau-Ponty. Fourteen critical care nurses were asked to describe lived experiences of caring for dying patients. An encompassing theme of Promises to Keep emerged, with five subthemes, including the following: (a) promise to be truthful: "Nurses are in the game of reality," (b) promise to provide comfort: "I'll make him comfortable," (c) promise to be an advocate: "Just one more day," (d) "Promise that couldn't be kept," and (e) "Promise to remain connected." The essence of intensive care nurses' lived experience of caring for dying patients is captured in the theme Promises to Keep. Nurses accept the reality of death and express strong commitment to making it as comfortable, peaceful, and dignified as possible, despite critical care unit environments that foster a "paradigm of curing" rather than a "paradigm of caring.".

  18. Hospice nurses' emotional challenges in their encounters with the dying.

    PubMed

    Ingebretsen, Lina Paola; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' emotional challenges when caring for the dying in hospices. The study has a qualitative design, and knowledge was developed through a dialectical exchange between theory and data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses recruited from two hospices in Denmark. Although all of the nurses said that they experienced emotional challenges or felt emotionally touched during their work, the study found a variety of opinions related to the extent to which their emotional reactions should be revealed in their role as a hospice professional. The participants described their emotional challenges as being simultaneously draining and enriching experiences leading to personal and professional growth and development. The study may contribute to increased awareness of emotional challenges for hospice nurses, which involve continuous reflection and balancing between meeting the dying as a human being and meeting the dying as a hospice professional.

  19. Heat-Transfer Coefficient and In-Cavity Pressure at the Casting-Die Interface during High-Pressure Die Casting of the Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasaiid, A.; Dour, G.; Dargusch, M. S.; Loulou, T.; Davidson, C.; Savage, G.

    2008-04-01

    The present article deals with the application of a new measurement method to determine the heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) and the heat flux density at the casting-die interface during high-pressure die casting (HPDC) and solidification of the magnesium AZ91D alloy. The main measurements during the trial included velocity and the position of the piston that delivers the metal into the die, the pressure in the die cavity and at the tip of the piston, the alloy surface temperature, and the die temperature at different depths from the surface of the die. The temperature data were analyzed using an inverse method to determine the HTC at the casting-die interface during solidification. This article examines in detail the influence of the piston velocity and in-cavity pressure on heat transfer at the casting-die interface during casting and solidification of the magnesium AZ91D alloy.

  20. Where a Cancer Patient Dies: The Effect of Rural Residency

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley; Johnston, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Context Surveys indicate 50% to 80% of cancer patients would choose to die at home if possible, although far fewer actually do. In Nova Scotia (NS), cancer deaths occurring out-of-hospital increased from 19.8% in 1992 to 30.2% in 1997. The impact of rural residency on this trend has not been studied. Purpose To determine the association between dying of cancer in a rural locale and the likelihood of it being an out-of-hospital death. Methods Secondary analysis of linked population-based administrative health data files. Subjects were all Nova Scotians who died of cancer from 1992 to 1997. Measures included location of death, dichotomized as a hospital death or an out-of-hospital death; and urban-rural residency, using an enumeration area urban-rural indicator created from postal code information adjusted for individual characteristics. Results Of the 13,652 total cancer deaths, 6,171 occurred in rural NS, of which 1,471 (23.8%) died out-of-hospital. Out-of-hospital deaths in rural NS increased from 16.2% in 1992 to just over 27% in 1997. Compared with urban cancer patients, the adjusted odds of an out-of-hospital death in rural NS was lower (adjusted odds ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.95). Conclusions There was an increasing trend during the 1990s for cancer patients to die out-of-hospital. Compared with their urban counterparts, patients in rural areas were less likely to do so. Those with cancer living in the rural setting who wish to die at home may face unique challenges. PMID:16092297

  1. Dying With a Left Ventricular Assist Device as Destination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dunlay, Shannon M; Strand, Jacob J; Wordingham, Sara E; Stulak, John M; Luckhardt, Angela J; Swetz, Keith M

    2016-10-01

    Despite the ability of left ventricular assist device as destination therapy (DT-LVAD) to prolong survival for many patients with advanced heart failure, little is known about the eventual end-of-life care that patients with DT-LVAD receive. All patients undergoing DT-LVAD at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, from January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2014, who subsequently died before July 1, 2015, were included. Information about end-of-life care was obtained from documentation in the electronic medical record. Of 89 patients who died with a DT-LVAD, the median (25th-75th percentile) time from left ventricular assist device implantation to death was 14 (4-31) months. The most common causes of death were multiorgan failure (26%), hemorrhagic stroke (24%), and progressive heart failure (21%). Nearly half (46%) of the patients saw palliative care within 1 month before death; however, only 13 (15%) patients enrolled in hospice a median 11 (range 1-315) days before death. Most patients (78%) died in the hospital, of which 88% died in the intensive care unit. In total, 49 patients had their left ventricular assist device deactivated before death, with all but 3 undergoing deactivation in the hospital. Most patients died within an hour of left ventricular assist device deactivation and all within 26 hours. In contrast to the general heart failure population, most patients with DT-LVAD die in the hospital and few use hospice. Further work is needed to understand these differences and to determine whether patients with DT-LVAD are receiving optimal end-of-life care. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Die chronische venöse Insuffizienz - Eine Zusammenfassung der Pathophysiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Santler, Bettina; Goerge, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Die chronische Venenerkrankung ist eine weit verbreitete Krankheit, die in späteren Stadien mit einer Vielzahl an Symptomen, aber auch Komplikationen wie dem Ulcus cruris, einhergeht. Dies wiederum hat weitreichende Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität der Patienten wie auch auf das Gesundheitssystem. Für die Diagnostik der chronischen Venenerkrankungen steht eine Auswahl an Verfahren zur Verfügung, wobei sich die farbkodierte Duplexsonographie als Goldstandard etabliert hat. Im Bereich der Therapie kam es in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu großen Fortschritten, sodass heute auch Alternativen zum klassischen Stripping durch die endoluminalen Verfahren zur Verfügung stehen. Die Wahl der Therapieoption ist jedoch weiterhin stark abhängig von mehreren Faktoren, unter anderem von den anatomischen Gegebenheiten und dem Krankheitsstadium. Im folgenden Artikel werden die Anatomie und Pathophysiologie, sowie die aktuellen Standards der Diagnostik und Therapie zusammengefasst. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  4. Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) and Die Cellularpathologie (1858).

    PubMed

    Breathnach, C S

    2002-01-01

    Rudolf Virchow gave clinical significance to Schwann's cell theory and thereby changed the course of pathology. Although he intended to found a science of pathological physiology based on omnis cellula e cellula, advances in microscopy facilitated and promoted, even dictated, the development of histopathology. As well as Die Cellularpathologie and Die krankhaften Geschwülste, Virchow has left the Archiv which he edited until shortly before his death in 1902. In later life he turned increasingly to anthropology, archaeology, and ethnology, but from an early age he was renowned as a fiery liberal politician.

  5. Circumstances surrounding dying in the paediatric intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    ten Berge, Jetske; de Gast-Bakker, Dana-Anne H; Plötz, Frans B

    2006-01-01

    Background Death is inevitable in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding dying in a PICU. Method The chart records of all patients less than 18 years of age who died at the PICU between January first 2000 and July first 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Information regarding sex, age, length of stay, admission, diagnosis, and the way a patient died was registered. Post mortem information regarding natural versus unnatural death, autopsy and donation was obtained. Non-survivors were allocated in five groups: do-not-resuscitate (DNR), withholding and/or withdrawal of therapy (W/W), failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (failed CPR), brain death (BD), and terminal organ failure (TOF). Results During the study period 87 (4.4%) of the 1995 admitted patients died. Non-survivors were more often admitted during the day (54%) and the week (68%). W/W was found in 27.6%, TOF in 26.4%, BD in 23.0%, failed CPR in 18.4%, and DNR in 4.6%. Forty-three percent died in the first two days, of which BD (40.5%) and failed CPR (37.8%) were most common. Seventy-five children (86%) died due to a natural cause. Autopsy permission was obtained in 19 of 54 patients (35%). The autopsies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 11 patients, revealed new information in 5 patients, and in 3 patients the autopsy did not provide additional information. Nine patients were medically suitable for organ donation and 24 patients for tissue donation, whereas consent was only obtained in 2 cases in both groups. Conclusion We observed that 43% of the patients died within the first two days of admission due to BD and failed CPR, whereas after 4 days most patients died after W/W. Autopsy remains an useful tool to confirm clinical diagnoses or to provide new information. Only a small percentage of the deceased children is suitable for organ donation. PMID:16893468

  6. 77 FR 66493 - Van Eck Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 17(d) of the Investment...: Applicants request an order to permit certain registered open-end management investment companies to co... affiliated private investment companies. Applicants: Van Eck Funds, Van Eck VIP Trust (formerly known as Van...

  7. ‘Those, that die by reason of their madness’: dying insane in London, 1629–1830

    PubMed Central

    Black, John

    2012-01-01

    Dying insane provoked ‘great fear, and apprehension’ in the minds of men and women. Death as a lunatic disrupted deathbed performance and rendered the victim incapable at law. This article examines lunacy as a cause of death in the metropolis between 1629 and 1830. It draws on new material from the admission registers of St Luke’s Hospital, existing data from Bethlem and the London Bills of Mortality and unique biographical data on pauper lunatics dying in the parish of St Martin in the Fields. The article argues that lunacy being ascribed as a cause of death had a distinctive chronology in this period. Those most vulnerable to the stigma of lunacy at death were those dying as parish paupers and those who inhabited metropolitan institutions. PMID:22701925

  8. Modification of the Van Nes rotationplasty: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Merkel, K D; Reinus, W R; Miller, G; Koudsi, B

    1997-03-01

    Rotationplasty is a reconstructive option that provides a highly functional limb after tumor resection about the knee in the skeletally immature patient. However, in the very young child with large intramedullary extension of the tumor, leg length may not be possible to maintain. Described is a modification of the Van Nes rotationplasty that preserves the proximal tibial physis, allowing maximization of future growth.

  9. Aldo van Eyck's Playgrounds: Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity.

    PubMed

    Withagen, Rob; Caljouw, Simone R

    2017-01-01

    After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck's play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child. Whereas a slide or a swing almost dictates what a child is supposed to do, van Eyck's play equipment invites the child to actively explore the numerous affordances (action possibilities) it provided. However, it is argued that the standardization (e.g., equal distances between blocks or bars) that tends to characterize van Eyck' play equipment has negative effects on the playability. This standardization, which was arguably the result of the aesthetic motives of the designer, might be appealing to children when simply looking at the equipment, but it is not of overriding importance to them when playing in it. Indeed, a recent study indicates that the affordances provided by messy structures appear to have a greater appeal to playing children.

  10. Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    junctions that allowed to study transport across the van der Waals interface between the conductor and superconductor . Our observation of gate tunable...interface between the conductor and superconductor . Our observation of gate tunable transitions between retro intraband and specular interband Andreev...interface between the conductor and superconductor . Our observation of gate tunable transitions between retro intraband and specular interband Andreev

  11. James Van Allen and His Namesake NASA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Hoxie, V. C.; Jaynes, A.; Kale, A.; Kanekal, S. G.; Li, X.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    In many ways, James A. Van Allen defined and "invented" modern space research. His example showed the way for government-university partners to pursue basic research that also served important national and international goals. He was a tireless advocate for space exploration and for the role of space science in the spectrum of national priorities.

  12. Aldo van Eyck’s Playgrounds: Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Withagen, Rob; Caljouw, Simone R.

    2017-01-01

    After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck’s play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child. Whereas a slide or a swing almost dictates what a child is supposed to do, van Eyck’s play equipment invites the child to actively explore the numerous affordances (action possibilities) it provided. However, it is argued that the standardization (e.g., equal distances between blocks or bars) that tends to characterize van Eyck’ play equipment has negative effects on the playability. This standardization, which was arguably the result of the aesthetic motives of the designer, might be appealing to children when simply looking at the equipment, but it is not of overriding importance to them when playing in it. Indeed, a recent study indicates that the affordances provided by messy structures appear to have a greater appeal to playing children. PMID:28725208

  13. van der Pauw's Theorem on Sheet Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The sheet resistance of a conducting material of uniform thickness is analogous to the resistivity of a solid material and provides a measure of electrical resistance. In 1958, L. J. van der Pauw found an effective method for computing sheet resistance that requires taking two electrical measurements from four points on the edge of a simply…

  14. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-15

    41C-05-188 (12 April 1984) --- Astronaut James D. van Hoften, mission specialist, holds an aluminum box, full of honeybees. The experiment in Earth-orbit is duplicated with another colony of the young honeycomb builders on Earth. Dan Poskevich submitted the experiment to NASA as part of the Shuttle student involvement program.

  15. MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF PHILLIPS PETROLEUM CO.) POSE FOR GAMMA IRRADIATION EXPERIMENT IN MTR CANAL. CANS OF FOOD WILL BE LOWERED TO CANAL BOTTOM, WHERE SPENT MTR FUEL ELEMENTS EMIT GAMMA RADIATION. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11746. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine van... incombustible materials. (b) Lighting fixtures, if installed, shall be of an approved type equipped with globes... system shall be of watertight construction and bear a label plate denoting the power requirement of the...

  17. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine van... incombustible materials. (b) Lighting fixtures, if installed, shall be of an approved type equipped with globes... system shall be of watertight construction and bear a label plate denoting the power requirement of the...

  18. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine van... incombustible materials. (b) Lighting fixtures, if installed, shall be of an approved type equipped with globes... system shall be of watertight construction and bear a label plate denoting the power requirement of the...

  19. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: A Centralized Data Access Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G. K.; Kessel, R.; Potter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the Van Allen Probes Space Weather data to users. Over the past years, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes science and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including, simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell, capability of visualizing data from both probes (A & B) on the same plot. In cooperation with all Van Allen Probes Instrument SOCs, the Science Gateway will soon be able to serve higher level data products (Level 3), and to visualize them via the above mentioned HTML5 interface. Users will also be able to create customized CDF files on the fly.

  20. High Photovoltaic Quantum Efficiency in Ultrathin van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joeson; Jariwala, Deep; Tagliabue, Giulia; Tat, Kevin; Davoyan, Artur R; Sherrott, Michelle C; Atwater, Harry A

    2017-07-25

    We report experimental measurements for ultrathin (<15 nm) van der Waals heterostructures exhibiting external quantum efficiencies exceeding 50% and show that these structures can achieve experimental absorbance >90%. By coupling electromagnetic simulations and experimental measurements, we show that pn WSe 2 /MoS 2 heterojunctions with vertical carrier collection can have internal photocarrier collection efficiencies exceeding 70%.

  1. Nonadiabatic corrections to the van der Waals potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the finite-mass nonadiabatic corrections to the van der Waals potential in the electric-dipole approximations in terms of London-analog two-center atomic spectral sums. The nonadiabatic corrections to all orders at threshold energy and also those with first-order energy dependence are given.

  2. Van der Waals forces in pNRQED

    SciTech Connect

    Shtabovenko, Vladyslav

    2016-01-22

    We report on the calculation of electromagnetic van der Waals forces [1] between two hydrogen atoms using non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) of QED for large and small momentum transfers with respect to the intrinsic energy scale of the hydrogen atom. Our results reproduce the well known London and Casimir-Polder forces.

  3. Heath Van Essen - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Heath Van Essen, Respondent, an individual who owns or operates an animal feeding operation (“Facility”) that is located in Section 27 of Township 98 North, Range 47 West,

  4. Research at the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff Facility, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Research programs at the Brookhaven Van de Graaff accelerators are summarized. Major accomplishments of the laboratory are discussed including quasielastic reactions, high-spin spectroscopy, yrast spectra, fusion reactions, and atomic physics. The outside user program at the Laboratory is discussed. Research proposed for 1981 is outlined. (GHT)

  5. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction < 63 µm assuming that it represents only carbonates precipitating in the water column. Microfossil assemblage consists of three different species of ostracods (Candona spp, Loxoconcha sp, Amnicythere spp.), diatoms, gastropods and bivalves. Brakish-water ostracods, Loxoconcha sp and Amnicythere sp occur more often after 530 ka. Additionaly, Loxoconcha sp is a shallow-water species relaying on plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic

  6. Consequences of the Introduction of Insensitive Munitions on Safety, Collateral Damage and Operations (consequenties van de invoering van mkm-munitie op veiligheid, gevolgschade en (internationaal) opereren

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Nederlandse Organisatie vnone toegepast-naturwetenschappehijk ontemzeki Netherlands OrganisationTNO Defensie en Veilighelid for Applied Sinii tsac...invoering van N4KM-munitie op veiligheid, gevolgschade en (intemnationaal) opereren Datum juni 2006 Auteur(s) ir. P.G. van ’t Hof ir. J.H.G. Scholtes...voorbehonden. Niets nit dit rapport mag worden vernrenigvntdigd en /of openbaar gernaakt door niddet van druk, fotokopie, microfilm of op welke andere wijze dan

  7. De Ontwikkeling van een PBPK Model voor VX; Stand van Zaken V013-813 en 207C (The Development of a PBPK Model for VX: Status Report)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    VX huid intoxicatie gebruikelijk is, namelijk toediening van inJecties met behuip van auto -in jectoren waarin onder andere atropine At op regelm-atige... injector . Temperatuur van de injector en detector waren 260 en 300 ’C, respectievelijk. Tijdens de injectie werd de splitleiding voor 60 s gesloten. De...Langenberg, J.P. en Benschop, H.P., Toxicokinetics of the nerve agent (±)-VX in anesthetized and atropinized hairless guinea pigs and marmosets

  8. Dreams of the Dying Patient: An Exploration of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Pamela N.; Hoffmann, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 25 dream reports of individuals in Palliative Care Unit. Content analysis of dream reports supports hypothesis that continuity exists between dreaming and waking experience. Results did not indicate that themes of death and aggression, negative emotion, or infant and child characters were more prevalent among the dying. (Author/NB)

  9. Barriers to Quality Care for Dying Patients in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Crane, Lori A.; Barton, Phoebe Lindsey; Kutner, Jean S.; Kallail, K. James; Westfall, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Barriers to providing optimal palliative care in rural communities are not well understood. Purpose: To identify health care personnel's perceptions of the care provided to dying patients in rural Kansas and Colorado and to identify barriers to providing optimal care. Methods: An anonymous self-administered survey was sent to health care…

  10. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  11. Attitudes of Dental and Medical Students toward Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundin, Robert H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explores attitudes of dental and medical students toward death and dying. Attitudes toward death influencing choice between dental school and medical school are latent. Attitudes of dental and medical students toward death may be differentially affected by their professional experiences. (Author/BEF)

  12. Exploring the Counselor's Role in "Right to Die" Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    1993-01-01

    Explores issues related to "right to die." Makes case for counselors to assist clients and families with concerns related to refusal or withdrawal of medical treatment in cases of terminal illness or in cases where quality of life is severely impaired such as permanent comatose state. Presents historical, ethical, and legal perspectives.…

  13. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  14. Thermal Simulation of Four Die-Attach Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    contact between circuit board layers. ..............................................................5 Figure 4. Simulation results with AuSn braze on...Simulation results with AuSn braze on all diodes at t = 5 seconds. Figure 5 shows the results of a CosmosWorks simulation with the Epo-Tek P1011 die

  15. Do People Whose Names Begin with "D" Really Die Young?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to…

  16. Construction of a test bench for closed die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batit, G.; Kaczmarek, B.; Ravassard, P.

    1984-03-01

    A swan neck press was equipped with hydraulic jacks to enable it to press and forge complex shapes in closed dies in one operation without wasting metal. Maximum closing stress is 250 kN, maximum pressing stress is 250 kN, maximum forging stress is 70 kN.

  17. Preventive Therapy with Siblings of a Dying Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Daniel

    A case study of psychiatric intervention for two sisters whose brother is dying of leukemia is presented. The therapeutic technique attempted to deal with the threatened loss by a forthright approach to the reality situation, encouraging "immunizing" discussions, allowance for catharsis without severe regression, emphasis on reality orientation,…

  18. An indicator for fitting castings to a die.

    PubMed

    Troendle, G R; Troendle, K B

    1992-10-01

    This article describes a procedure for making an indicator to be used in fitting a casting to a die. It also describes how to use the indicator in the laboratory. The materials for making the indicator are inexpensive, present no health hazard, and are readily available at any arts and crafts store.

  19. Family and Community Services. Module XIII: Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrich, Beatrice

    This thirteenth of 14 curriculum modules in the Family and Community Services Occupational Education Modules series deals with death and dying. It helps the student to be aware of different kinds of death, stages of emotion, and attitudes toward death. Students have opportunities also to express their own feelings. The role of community…

  20. Death and Dying as a Controversial Issue in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Robert D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Various perspectives on the inclusion of death education in health education curricula are offered. Discussed are: (1) positive and negative attitudes toward death; (2) teacher competence, qualifications, and skills; (3) religious beliefs about death; (4) Kubler-Ross's Five Stages of Dying; and (5) political implications of teaching about death.…

  1. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  2. Hubble Finds an Hourglass Nebula around a Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-16

    This Hubble telescope snapshot of MyCn18, a young planetary nebula, reveals that the object has an hourglass shape with an intricate pattern of etchings in its walls. A planetary nebula is the glowing relic of a dying, Sun-like star.

  3. View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith Shop, Boilermakers Department, east side of building 57; during World War II approximately forty women were employed as blacksmith's forging a variety of small tools; these may be the tools they used. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Learning from Clients: Counseling the Frail and Dying Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, James T.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that experience with a frail or dying client is a learning opportunity for the counselor. Presents several examples illustrating the reactions of the elderly to approaching death and suggests that successful counselors accept their own mortality and acknowledge the decision of the failing elderly that death is near. (JAC)

  5. Technological Change in Michigan's Tool and Die Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald N.

    This study was conducted to answer four questions about the tool and die industry in Michigan. These were: (1) What are the current production techniques? (2) To what extent are these industrialists aware of new technologies? (3) What technical and economic factors affect technological change? and (4) To what extent will new technologies replace…

  6. Where a Cancer Patient Dies: The Effect of Rural Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley; Johnston, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Context: Surveys indicate 50% to 80% of cancer patients would choose to die at home if possible, although far fewer actually do. In Nova Scotia (NS), cancer deaths occurring out-of-hospital increased from 19.8% in 1992 to 30.2% in 1997. The impact of rural residency on this trend has not been studied. Purpose: To determine the association between…

  7. Did Van Gogh have Ménière's disease?

    PubMed

    Martin, C

    2011-09-01

    Very surprising diagnoses have sometimes been made of the illness from which Vincent van Gogh suffered. Most of them can be safely ignored; the diagnosis of Ménière's disease, however, put forward by K. I. Arenberg, deserves attention. This diagnosis was first criticized in a doctoral thesis in 1992 in the university of Saint-Etienne (France), and again in a book published by Henri André Martin in 1994, and the present study is based on these. Analyzing van Gogh's pathology presupposes awareness of the family context in which he lived, his eventful life, his artistic career and of his correspondence, which notably provides no support for a diagnosis of Ménière's disease. Analysis, indeed, enables Ménière's disease to be categorically eliminated in favor of temporal epilepsy, as confirmed in 1956 by Gastaut following the diagnosis initially made half a century earlier by Dr Rey. Van Gogh's illness is an example of the contradictory changes in affect, behavior and personality to be observed in epileptic patients. Absinth intoxication doubtless aggravated van Gogh's epilepsy and may account for certain prolonged episodes of confusion. It would be wrong, however, to speak of alcoholic dementia rather than of a probable epileptic psychosis or other pathology such as hallucinatory psychosis, or delirious attack, either isolated or related to late-onset schizophrenia. Apart from certain episodes of severe mental disorder, however, van Gogh's exceptional creativity was maintained up to the very end. Like any other artist, his temperament was expressed in his art, exalted rather than impaired by his illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  9. Softwaremodule voor het Simuleren van de Gevolgen van Raketonderschepping (The Dutch Program for the Simulation of Missile Intercept Effects)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Evertse DSIIMS/Afd. Navo-EU/Stafofficier Navo, nucleaire en non-proliferatiezaken 1 ex. D.M. van Weel HDAB 1 ex. Drs. E.S.A. Brands DJZ/IJB I ex. Ltkol A. Solkcesz HDP/DPB 1 ex. Maj R.F.M. Schr6der Las/PBDLJOB

  10. Dying and death in some Roma communities: ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gabriel; Gramma, Rodica; Enache, Angela; Pârvu, Andrada; Ioan, Beatrice; Moisa, Ştefana Maria; Dumitraş, Silvia; Chirita, Radu

    2014-04-01

    The Roma people have specific values, therefore their views and beliefs about illness, dying and death are important to be known for health care providers caring for members of this community. The aim of this qualitative study based on 48 semi-structured interviews with Roma patients and caregivers in communities in two regions of Romania was to examine their selfdescribed behaviors and practices, their experiences and perceptions of illness, dying and death. Five more important themes about the Roma people facing dying and death have been identified: (1) The perception of illness in the community as reason for shame and the isolation that results from this, as well as the tendency for Roma people to take this on in their self image; (2) The importance of the family as the major support for the ill/dying individual, including the social requirement that family gather when someone is ill/dying; (3) The belief that the patient should not be told his/her diagnosis for fear it will harm him/her and that the family should be informed of the diagnosis as the main decision maker regarding medical treatment; (4) The reluctance of the Roma to decide on stopping life prolonging treatment; (5) The view of death as 'impure'. These results can be useful for health care providers working with members of the Roma community. By paying attention to and respecting the Roma patients' values, spirituality, and relationship dynamics, the medical staff can provide the most suitable healthcare by respecting the patients' wishes and expectations.

  11. Folklore associated with dying in the west of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, S

    1999-01-01

    The warm welcome for modern advances in the care of the dying should not exclude the past in which there is much to be learned from the skills of our ancestors. A bilingual two-year qualitative research project into traditions associated with dying and death was undertaken. Research began in the archives available in the internationally recognized university folklore departments of Ireland and Scotland. This was augmented by 40 indepth personal interviews with Gaelic- and English-speaking residents in rural communities of both countries, recalling local customs and practices in the care of the dying. This paper reports the Irish experience; the collection of data in Scotland continues. From this study, several main themes emerged. Death was seen and accepted as a natural continuation of life, simply a step into the spirit world. In view of people's oneness with nature and the spiritual world, death was not to be feared. Traditions were unique to each area even down to the precise number of candles used at the sickbed. People understood the signs and symptoms of dying and were skilled in alleviating the distress of both relatives and the dying; and, in this, language was important in capturing and expressing the philosophy of these people. The acceptance of death as the one truism of life was facilitated by the strong faith and prayer of people for whom, in the celebration of death, humour was never far away. In their grief, the community was supported by the loose formality of the wake (torramh), funeral procession, keening (caoineadh) and music. In all these, the men and women of the community and its leaders had distinct and respected roles to play.

  12. Which patients die in their preferred place? A secondary analysis of questionnaire data from bereaved relatives.

    PubMed

    Raijmakers, Natasja Jh; de Veer, Anke Je; Zwaan, Rosanne; Hofstede, Jolien M; Francke, Anneke L

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies on factors influencing the place of death have focused on cancer patients dying at home. However, home is not always the preferred place. To provide insight into the extent to which patients with various diseases die in their preferred place and into factors associated with dying in the preferred place. A secondary analysis of the data set of the evaluation study of the National Quality Improvement Programme for Palliative Care was undertaken to explore factors related to 'dying in the preferred place'. A total of 797 bereaved relatives filled in the Consumer Quality Index Palliative Care, a validated and reliable questionnaire. Two-thirds of the patients died in the preferred place. A preference for dying at home and having had a stroke decreased the likelihood of dying in the preferred place, while having a partner, dementia, contact with the general practitioner in the last week before death, and continuity of care between professionals increased the likelihood of dying in the preferred place. Furthermore, people who wanted to die at home and also had dementia were more likely to die elsewhere than people without dementia who wanted to die at home. Positive associations were found between continuity of care between healthcare professionals and contact with the general practitioner and the chance of people dying in their preferred place. Moreover, special attention for people who have had a stroke and for people with dementia who want to die at home seems indicated as their diagnosis is negatively associated with dying in their preferred place.

  13. Nursing home residents dying with dementia in Flanders, Belgium: a nationwide postmortem study on clinical characteristics and quality of dying.

    PubMed

    Vandervoort, An; Van den Block, Lieve; van der Steen, Jenny T; Volicer, Ladislav; Vander Stichele, Robert; Houttekier, Dirk; Deliens, Luc

    2013-07-01

    There is a lack of large-scale, nationwide data describing clinical characteristics and quality of dying of nursing home residents dying with dementia. We set out to investigate quality of end-of-life care and quality of dying of nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium. To obtain representativity, we conducted a postmortem study (2010) using random cluster sampling. In selected nursing homes, all deceased residents with dementia in a period of 3 months were reported. For each case, a structured questionnaire was filled in by the nurse most involved in care, the family physician, and the nursing home administrator. We used the Cognitive Performance Scale and Global Deterioration Scale to assess dementia. Main outcome measures were health status, clinical complications, symptoms at the end of life, and quality of dying. Health status, clinical complications, symptoms at the end of life, and quality of dying. We identified 198 deceased residents with dementia in 69 nursing homes (58% response rate). Age distribution was the same as all deceased residents with dementia in Flanders, 2010. Fifty-four percent had advanced dementia. In the last month of life, 95.5% had 1 or more sentinel events (eg, eating/drinking problems, febrile episodes, or pneumonia); most frequently reported symptoms were pain, fear, anxiety, agitation, and resistance to care. In the last week, difficulty swallowing and pain were reported most frequently. Pressure sores were present in 26.9%, incontinence in 89.2%, and cachexia in 45.8%. Physical restraints were used in 21.4% of cases, and 10.0% died outside the home. Comparing stages of dementia revealed few differences between groups regarding clinical complications, symptoms, or quality of dying. Regardless of the dementia stage, many nursing home residents develop serious clinical complications and symptoms in the last phase of life, posing major challenges to the provision of optimum end-of-life care. Copyright © 2013

  14. Emergence of vanA Enterococcus faecium in Denmark, 2005-15.

    PubMed

    Hammerum, Anette M; Baig, Sharmin; Kamel, Yasmin; Roer, Louise; Pinholt, Mette; Gumpert, Heidi; Holzknecht, Barbara; Røder, Bent; Justesen, Ulrik S; Samulioniené, Jurgita; Kjærsgaard, Mona; Østergaard, Claus; Holm, Anette; Dzajic, Esad; Søndergaard, Turid Snekloth; Gaini, Shahin; Edquist, Petra; Alm, Erik; Lilje, Berit; Westh, Henrik; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    To describe the changing epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in clinical samples in Denmark 2005-15 according to species and van type, and, furthermore, to investigate the genetic relatedness of the clinical E. faecium isolates from 2015. During 2005-14, all clinical VRE isolates were tested for the presence of vanA/B/C genes by PCR. In 2015, all clinical VRE isolates were whole-genome sequenced. From the WGS data, the presence of van genes and MLST STs were extracted in silico . Core-genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis was performed for the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates. During 2005-15, 1043 vanA E. faecium , 25 vanB E. faecium , 4 vanA E. faecalis and 28 vanB E. faecalis were detected. The number of VRE was <50 isolates/year until 2012 to > 200 isolates/year in 2013-15. In 2015, 368 vanA E. faecium and 1 vanB E. faecium were detected along with 1 vanA E. faecalis and 1 vanB E. faecalis . cgMLST subdivided the 368 vanA E. faecium isolates into 33 cluster types (CTs), whereas the vanB E. faecium isolate belonged to a different CT. ST203-CT859 was most prevalent (51%), followed by ST80-CT14 (22%), ST117-CT24 (6%), ST80-CT866 (4%) and ST80-CT860 (2%). Comparison with the cgMLST.org database, previous studies and personal communications with neighbouring countries revealed that the novel cluster ST203-CT859 emerged in December 2014 and spread to the south of Sweden and the Faroe Islands during 2015. VRE increased in Denmark during 2005-15 due to the emergence of several vanA E. faecium clones.

  15. Theory of force transducer design optimization for die wall stress measurement during tablet compaction: optimization and validation of split-web die using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C; Altaf, S A; Hoag, S W

    1997-09-01

    1) To illustrate how computer aided engineering stress analysis can be used to improve the transducer design process for tablet press instrumentation; 2) to use these optimal design procedures for the geometric optimization of a cylindrical, segmented, and a novel split-web die design. Discussion includes the selection of optimal die wall thickness, segment cutting angle, strain gage placement, Wheatstone bridge configuration, and the influence of tablet height and position within the die on signal output. Stress analysis was done with a finite element analysis (FEA) software package running on a personal computer. For the segmented die, the admissible range of die wall thicknesses depends upon cutting angle; the signal output is non-linear because the stress distribution in the die wall is influenced by tablet height and position within the die. For the split-web die, the optimal configuration consists of a 1/8 in. sensing web with a strain gage located at the peak of the sensing-web arch. This prototype had a linear calibration curve (r2 = 0.999) with no hysteresis. Radial versus axial stress transmission curves for: starch and sodium chloride were consistent with literature data. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a useful numerical tool for the systematic optimization of tablet press instrumentation. By enclosing the sensing web of a three layered die design in a cylinder, the split-web design can be directly mounted without modification of the die table.

  16. Development and evaluation of die and container materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, R. R.; Niesz, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    X = 0.75 Beta prime Sialon (a silicon aluminum oxynitride) and Sibeon (silicon beryllium oxynitride) are promising die materials. In sessile drop tests in contact with molten silicon, beryllium contamination was less than ppm and aluminum contamination 50 ppm. A shaping die of the Sialon material was successfully fabricated. Dry milling studies for the preparation of Si3N4-Al2O3-ALN mixtures were performed with butanol, acetic anhydride, oleic acid, and triethanolamine milling aids. Optimum mixing was achieved with 0.15 percent triethanolamine using a milling time of 8 hours. Preliminary evaluation of Sibeon materials indicates that they are more resistent to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Silicon contamination from the beryllium was less than aluminum contamination even though the aluminum impurity level in the Sibeon was only 450 to 1300 ppm. Work designed to produce an aluminum-free Sibeon is described.

  17. Limitation of Shrinkage Porosity in Aluminum Rotor Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Se-Weon; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Jae-Ik; Lee, Sung-Ho; Kang, Chang-Seog

    Aluminum rotor prone to have many casting defects especially large amount of air and shrinkage porosity, which caused eccentricity, loss and noise during motor operation. Many attempts have been made to develop methods of shrinkage porosity control, but still there are some problems to solve. In this research, the process of vacuum squeeze die casting is proposed for limitation of defects. The 6 pin point gated dies which were in capable of local squeeze at the end ring were used. Influences of filling patterns on HPDC were evaluated and the important process control parameters were high injection speed, squeeze length, venting and process conditions. By using local squeeze and vacuum during filling and solidification, air and shrinkage porosity were significantly reduced and the feeding efficiency at the upper end ring was improved 10%. As a result of controlling the defects, the dynamometer test showed improved motor efficiency by more than 4%.

  18. Computer aided die design: A new open-source methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Olga Sousa; Rajkumar, Ananth; Ferrás, Luís Lima; Fernandes, Célio; Sacramento, Alberto; Nóbrega, João Miguel

    2017-05-01

    In this work we present a detailed description of how to use open source based computer codes to aid the design of complex profile extrusion dies, aiming to improve its flow distribution. The work encompasses the description of the overall open-source die design methodology, the implementation of the energy conservation equation in an existing OpenFOAM® solver, which will be then capable of simulating the steady non-isothermal flow of an incompressible generalized Newtonian fluid, and two case studies to illustrate the capabilities and practical usefulness of the developed methodology. The results obtained with these case studies, used to solve real industrial problems, demonstrate that the computational design aid is an excellent alternative, from economical and technical points of view, to the experimental trial-and-error procedure commonly used in industry.

  19. Experimental predator removal causes rapid salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Coverdale, Tyler C; Bevil, Matt C; Crotty, Sinead M; Suglia, Elena R

    2014-07-01

    Salt marsh habitat loss to vegetation die-offs has accelerated throughout the western Atlantic in the last four decades. Recent studies have suggested that eutrophication, pollution and/or disease may contribute to the loss of marsh habitat. In light of recent evidence that predators are important determinants of marsh health in New England, we performed a total predator exclusion experiment. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that predator depletion can cause salt marsh die-off by releasing the herbivorous crab Sesarma reticulatum from predator control. Excluding predators from a marsh ecosystem for a single growing season resulted in a >100% increase in herbivory and a >150% increase in unvegetated bare space compared to plots with predators. Our results confirm that marshes in this region face multiple, potentially synergistic threats. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  20. Evolution und die Natürlichkeit des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, Jürgen

    Der große Darwin ist nicht nur ein Thema für Biologen. Immer dann, wenn wissenschaftliche Theorien Karriere auch auf der Ebene der Weltbilder machen, ist es Aufgabe auch anderer Disziplinen, sich Gedanken über derartige Entwicklungen, ihre Tragweite und ihre Legitimität zu machen. Das galt z. B. zu Beginn der Neuzeit, als Newtons Mechanik zu einem neuen Weltbild, dem so genannten mechanistischen Weltbild, führte, aber auch für die Theorien Einsteins und Plancks, die wiederum das Newton'sche Weltbild ablösten. In einer Newton-Welt bewegen sich schwere Massen in absoluter Zeit durch einen absoluten Raum, ausgedrückt in einer Mechanik der Gravitationsbewegungen; in einer Einstein-Welt mit ihrem relationalen Raumbegriff ist real allein ein statisches vierdimensionales Sein, das der Anschauung, im Gegensatz zu allen vorausgegangenen Weltbildern, nur noch wenig Raum gibt.

  1. How dying cells alert the immune system to danger

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Hajime; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    When a cell dies in vivo the event does not go unnoticed. The host has evolved mechanisms to detect the death of cells and rapidly investigate the nature of their demise. If cell death is a result of natural causes, that is, it is part of normal physiological processes, then there is little threat to the organism. In this situation, little else is done other than removing the corpse. However, if cells have died as the consequence of some violence or disease, then both defence and repair mechanisms are mobilized. The importance of this process to host defence and disease pathogenesis has only been appreciated relatively recently. This article will review our current knowledge of these processes. PMID:18340345

  2. Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.

  3. Electrical characterization of different DEPFET designs on die level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergbauer, B.; Aschauer, S.; Bähr, A.; Hermenau, K.; Horstmann, J.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Majewski, P.; Meidinger, N.; Reiffers, J.; Richter, R.; Sandow, C.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Stefanescu, A.; Strüder, L.; Treis, J.

    2014-01-01

    For the future X-ray astronomy project Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics plus (ATHENA+) wafer-scale DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detectors are proposed as Focal Plane Array (FPA) for the Wide Field Imager (WFI). Prototype structures with different pixel layouts, each consisting of 64 x 64 pixels, were fabricated to study four different DEPFET designs. We report on the results of the electrical characterization of the different DEPFET designs. The transistor properties of the DEPFET structures are investigated in order to determine whether the design intentions are reflected in the transistor characteristics. In addition yield and homogeneity of the prototypes can be studied on die, wafer and batch level for further improvement of the production technology with regard to wafer-scale devices. These electrical characterization measurements prove to be a reliable tool to pre-select the best detector dies for further integration into full detector systems.

  4. IVAN: intelligent van for the distribution of pharmaceutical drugs.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Asier; Angulo, Ignacio; Perallos, Asier; Landaluce, Hugo; García Zuazola, Ignacio Julio; Azpilicueta, Leire; Astrain, José Javier; Falcone, Francisco; Villadangos, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a telematic system based on an intelligent van which is capable of tracing pharmaceutical drugs over delivery routes from a warehouse to pharmacies, without altering carriers' daily conventional tasks. The intelligent van understands its environment, taking into account its location, the assets and the predefined delivery route; with the capability of reporting incidences to carriers in case of failure according to the established distribution plan. It is a non-intrusive solution which represents a successful experience of using smart environments and an optimized Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) embedded system in a viable way to resolve a real industrial need in the pharmaceutical industry. The combination of deterministic modeling of the indoor vehicle, the implementation of an ad-hoc radiating element and an agile software platform within an overall system architecture leads to a competitive, flexible and scalable solution.

  5. Photovoltaic effect in an electrically tunable van der Waals heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Furchi, Marco M; Pospischil, Andreas; Libisch, Florian; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Mueller, Thomas

    2014-08-13

    Semiconductor heterostructures form the cornerstone of many electronic and optoelectronic devices and are traditionally fabricated using epitaxial growth techniques. More recently, heterostructures have also been obtained by vertical stacking of two-dimensional crystals, such as graphene and related two-dimensional materials. These layered designer materials are held together by van der Waals forces and contain atomically sharp interfaces. Here, we report on a type-II van der Waals heterojunction made of molybdenum disulfide and tungsten diselenide monolayers. The junction is electrically tunable, and under appropriate gate bias an atomically thin diode is realized. Upon optical illumination, charge transfer occurs across the planar interface and the device exhibits a photovoltaic effect. Advances in large-scale production of two-dimensional crystals could thus lead to a new photovoltaic solar technology.

  6. Poisson-Boltzmann Calculations: van der Waals or Molecular Surface?

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is widely used for modeling the electrostatics of biomolecules, but the calculation results are sensitive to the choice of the boundary between the low solute dielectric and the high solvent dielectric. The default choice for the dielectric boundary has been the molecular surface, but the use of the van der Waals surface has also been advocated. Here we review recent studies in which the two choices are tested against experimental results and explicit-solvent calculations. The assignment of the solvent high dielectric constant to interstitial voids in the solute is often used as a criticism against the van der Waals surface. However, this assignment may not be as unrealistic as previously thought, since hydrogen exchange and other NMR experiments have firmly established that all interior parts of proteins are transiently accessible to the solvent. PMID:23293674

  7. [Van Nes rotationplasty in two patients with congenital femoral deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Korhan; Kocaoğlu, Mehmet; Eralp, Levent; Yağmurlu, Firat

    2005-01-01

    Congenital femoral deficiencies have a wide spectrum ranging from simple hypoplasia to complete femoral aplasia. They are often associated with congenital shortening of the tibia and fibular hemimelia. This anomaly has no known genetic transmission. There are two main treatment modalities for congenital femoral deficiency: prosthetic replacement surgery (Syme amputation or Van Nes rotationplasty followed by prosthetic fitting) and lengthening reconstruction surgery. In this report, we presented two patients (male, 26 years; girl, 7 years) with congenital femoral deficiency treated with Van Nes rotationplasty. In both cases, the treatment took 1.5 months, after which the patients were mobilized with prosthesis. No complications were encountered within a follow-up period of five years and 1.5 years, respectively. Rotationplasty enables an improved functional gait in patients with a very short femoral segment or Paley type 3 femoral deficiency.

  8. Accurate van der Waals coefficients from density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    The van der Waals interaction is a weak, long-range correlation, arising from quantum electronic charge fluctuations. This interaction affects many properties of materials. A simple and yet accurate estimate of this effect will facilitate computer simulation of complex molecular materials and drug design. Here we develop a fast approach for accurate evaluation of dynamic multipole polarizabilities and van der Waals (vdW) coefficients of all orders from the electron density and static multipole polarizabilities of each atom or other spherical object, without empirical fitting. Our dynamic polarizabilities (dipole, quadrupole, octupole, etc.) are exact in the zero- and high-frequency limits, and exact at all frequencies for a metallic sphere of uniform density. Our theory predicts dynamic multipole polarizabilities in excellent agreement with more expensive many-body methods, and yields therefrom vdW coefficients C6, C8, C10 for atom pairs with a mean absolute relative error of only 3%. PMID:22205765

  9. IVAN: Intelligent Van for the Distribution of Pharmaceutical Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Asier; Angulo, Ignacio; Perallos, Asier; Landaluce, Hugo; Zuazola, Ignacio Julio García; Azpilicueta, Leire; Astrain, José Javier; Falcone, Francisco; Villadangos, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a telematic system based on an intelligent van which is capable of tracing pharmaceutical drugs over delivery routes from a warehouse to pharmacies, without altering carriers' daily conventional tasks. The intelligent van understands its environment, taking into account its location, the assets and the predefined delivery route; with the capability of reporting incidences to carriers in case of failure according to the established distribution plan. It is a non-intrusive solution which represents a successful experience of using smart environments and an optimized Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) embedded system in a viable way to resolve a real industrial need in the pharmaceutical industry. The combination of deterministic modeling of the indoor vehicle, the implementation of an ad-hoc radiating element and an agile software platform within an overall system architecture leads to a competitive, flexible and scalable solution. PMID:22778659

  10. Aqueous gating of van der Waals materials on bilayer nanopaper.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenzhong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wan, Jiayu; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhu, Hongli; Han, Xiaogang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Preston, Colin; Hu, Liangbing

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we report transistors made of van der Waals materials on a mesoporous paper with a smooth nanoscale surface. The aqueous transistor has a novel planar structure with source, drain, and gate electrodes on the same surface of the paper, while the mesoporous paper is used as an electrolyte reservoir. These transistors are enabled by an all-cellulose paper with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on the top surface that leads to an excellent surface smoothness, while the rest of the microsized cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte effectively. Based on two-dimensional van der Waals materials, including MoS2 and graphene, we demonstrate high-performance transistors with a large on-off ratio and low subthreshold swing. Such planar transistors with absorbed electrolyte gating can be used as sensors integrated with other components to form paper microfluidic systems. This study is significant for future paper-based electronics and biosensors.

  11. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  12. Years after Inventors Die, Royalties Are Pennies from Heaven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    Sarah L. Kieweg had her own nice surprise when the University of Central Florida contacted her. She understood quite a bit about her father's pioneering work on artificial intelligence in the 1990s. Still, in 2006, eight years after he died of a heart attack, at age 50, the call from the university came out of the blue: some of James R. Driscoll's…

  13. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A method for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers.

  14. Oomycete Communities Associated with Reed Die-Back Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerri, Martina; Sapkota, Rumakanta; Coppi, Andrea; Ferri, Valentina; Foggi, Bruno; Gigante, Daniela; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Selvaggi, Roberta; Venanzoni, Roberto; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Ferranti, Francesco; Reale, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. die-back is a widely-studied phenomenon that was first discovered in northern Europe and that, until recently, was almost unknown in the Mediterranean basin. It has been described as a complex syndrome affecting reed populations leading to their retreat and decline, with significant impacts on valuable ecosystem services. Among the factors that cause the decline, soil-living microorganisms can be crucial. The aims of this study were to analyze the diversity of oomycetes communities associated with reed stands, and to understand whether they could play a key role in the decline. Variations in the structure of oomycetes communities were studied by metabarcoding of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 region of ribosomal DNA, from the sediments of five Italian freshwater ecosystems. They were chosen to cover a large variability in terms of surface area, water depth, microclimate, and presence of documented reed retreat. From 96 samples collected from reed roots, rhizosphere, and bulk soil, we assembled 207661 ITS1 reads into 523 OTUs. We demonstrated that oomycete communities were structured by several factors, among which the most important was die-back occurrence. Our study also indicates that Pythiogeton spp. could be potentially involved in the development of die-back. The role of heavy metals in the soil was also explored, and cadmium concentration was shown to affect oomycetes distribution. This study represents a significant step forward for the characterization of microbial communities associated with reed die-back syndrome and helps to gain knowledge of the complexity of these important wet ecosystems. PMID:28936223

  15. Should the patient be allowed to die? 1

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Richard

    1975-01-01

    In considering the patient's right to a certain quality of dying, this essay outlines how the legal and ethical justifications for passive euthanasia depend on the doctrine of acts and omissions. It is suggested that this doctrine is untenable and that alternative justifications are needed. The development of the modern mechanistic approach to death is traced, showing that a possible basis for an humane way of death lies in a reacceptance of a metaphysical concept of life. PMID:1100831

  16. Comment to the Article by van Arensbergen and van den Besselaar "The Selection of Scientific Talent in the Allocation of Research Grants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maessen, K. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The article entitled "The selection of scientific talent in the allocation of research grants" by van Arensbergen and van den Besselaar published in "Higher Education Policy" 25/3 (2012) is based on research that both researchers carried out on behalf of The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. In this comment, we…

  17. Metingen van TNT in Gebouw El van de Bewapeningswerkplaatsem der Koninklijke Marine (TNT-Measurements in Building El of the Araments-workshop of the Royal Dutch Navy)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    lucht constant open staan. De ruimte heeft een aftnering van 5 x 4 x 3 m. Via een grof filter in de uitspuirinstallatie en een centrifuge filter worden...adsorptiebuizen werden elk geextraheerd met 1 ml acetonitril. Het stof van de vloeren werden met een zeef (maasgrootte 1 num) gescheiden in grof en fijn

  18. Characterisation of the selective binding of antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin by the VanS receptor regulating type A vancomycin resistance in the enterococci.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C S; Longo, E; Phillips-Jones, M K; Hussain, R

    2017-08-01

    A-type resistance towards "last-line" glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin in the leading hospital acquired infectious agent, the enterococci, is the most common in the UK. Resistance is regulated by the VanRASA two-component system, comprising the histidine sensor kinase VanSA and the partner response regulator VanRA. The nature of the activating ligand for VanSA has not been identified, therefore this work sought to identify and characterise ligand(s) for VanSA. In vitro approaches were used to screen the structural and activity effects of a range of potential ligands with purified VanSA protein. Of the screened ligands (glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin, and peptidoglycan components N-acetylmuramic acid, D-Ala-D-Ala and Ala-D-y-Glu-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) only glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin were found to bind VanSA with different affinities (vancomycin 70μM; teicoplanin 30 and 170μM), and were proposed to bind via exposed aromatic residues tryptophan and tyrosine. Furthermore, binding of the antibiotics induced quicker, longer-lived phosphorylation states for VanSA, proposing them as activators of type A vancomycin resistance in the enterococci. Copyright © 2017 Diamond Light Source Ltd. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The functional vanGCd cluster of Clostridium difficile does not confer vancomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ammam, Fariza; Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Blanot, Didier; Patin, Delphine; Boneca, Ivo G; Courvalin, Patrice; Lambert, Thierry; Candela, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    vanGCd, a cryptic gene cluster highly homologous to the vanG gene cluster of Enterococcus faecalis is largely spread in Clostridium difficile. Since emergence of vancomycin resistance would have dramatic clinical consequences, we have evaluated the capacity of the vanGCd cluster to confer resistance. We showed that expression of vanGCd is inducible by vancomycin and that VanGCd , VanXYCd and VanTCd are functional, exhibiting D-Ala : D-Ser ligase, D,D-dipeptidase and D-Ser racemase activities respectively. In other bacteria, these enzymes are sufficient to promote vancomycin resistance. Trans-complementation of C. difficile with the vanC resistance operon of Enterococcus gallinarum faintly impacted the MIC of vancomycin, but did not promote vancomycin resistance in C. difficile. Sublethal concentration of vancomycin led to production of UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[D-Ser], suggesting that the vanGCd gene cluster is able to modify the peptidoglycan precursors. Our results indicated amidation of UDP-MurNAc-tetrapeptide, UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[D-Ala] and UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[D-Ser]. This modification is passed on the mature peptidoglycan where a muropeptide Tetra-Tetra is amidated on the meso-diaminopimelic acid. Taken together, our results suggest that the vanGCd gene cluster is functional and is prevented from promoting vancomycin resistance in C. difficile. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Strong van der Waals attractive forces in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, Jeffrey

    The Dobson classification scheme for failure of London-like expressions for describing dispersion is reviewed. New ways to measure using STM data and calculate by first principles free energies of organic self-assembly processes from solution will be discussed, considering tetraalkylporphyrins on graphite. How strong van der Waals forces can compete against covalent bonding to produce new molecular isomers and reaction pathways will also be demonstrated, focusing on golds-sulfur bonds for sensors and stabilizing nanoparticles.

  1. Use of Van Nes rotationplasty to manage a burnt knee.

    PubMed

    Khatri, B; Richard, B

    2000-02-01

    An 11 month old child sustained a deep burn injury to the left knee causing total destruction and sequestration of the knee epiphyses. The ensuing leg length discrepancy with growth was managed by a Van Nes rotationplasty at age four with a good immediate functional result using a below 'knee' prosthesis and the prospect of continuing ambulation as he grows. The surgical options for managing this problem are discussed.

  2. The van Cittert-Zernike theorem for electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrey S; Martínez-Niconoff, Gabriel; Martínez-Vara, Patricia; Olvera-Santamaría, Miguel A

    2009-02-02

    The van Cittert-Zernike theorem, well known for the scalar optical fields, is generalized for the case of vector electromagnetic fields. The deduced theorem shows that the degree of coherence of the electromagnetic field produced by the completely incoherent vector source increases on propagation whereas the degree of polarization remains unchanged. The possible application of the deduced theorem is illustrated by an example of optical simulation of partially coherent and partially polarized secondary source with the controlled statistical properties.

  3. Grippers Based on Opposing Van Der Waals Adhesive Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Kennedy, Brett A. (Inventor); Heverly, Matthew C (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Hawkes, Elliot Wright (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel gripping structures based on van der Waals adhesive forces are disclosed. Pads covered with fibers can be activated in pairs by opposite forces, thereby enabling control of the adhesive force in an ON or OFF state. Pads can be used in groups, each comprising a group of opposite pads. The adhesive structures enable anchoring forces that can resist adverse forces from different directions. The adhesive structures can be used to enable the operation of robots on surfaces of space vehicles.

  4. Van der Woude syndrome with an unusual intraoral finding.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Desai, Rajiv S; Sarode, Sachin C; Kulkarni, Meena A

    2011-01-01

    Orofacial manifestations of Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) include cleft lip or palate, lower lip pits, hypodontia, hypernasal voice, cleft or bifid uvula, syngnathia, narrow high arched palate, and ankyloglossia. Extraoral manifestations include limb anomalies, popliteal webs, accessory nipples, congenital heart defects, and Hirschsprung disease. We report an interesting case of VWS with characteristic orofacial features along with an unusual additional finding of fusion of primary mandibular left lateral incisor and canine in a 7-year-old boy.

  5. Mother's death means baby is likely to die too.

    PubMed

    Abdulghani, N

    1994-02-01

    A study by Dr. Nagiba Abdulghani, conducted for the University of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, reports that in almost 2/3 of the cases of maternal death during childbirth in North Yemen, the children died within 1 year of their mothers. The maternal mortality ratio in North Yemen is 753 per 100,000 live births. The study included 224 maternal deaths in 10 hospitals between May, 1987, and April, 1989. 9 out of 10 mothers who died were illiterate. Only 1/5 had received prenatal care. The inaccessibility of health services, the poor quality of care and facilities, and a lack of faith in a system that humiliates women were given as reasons for failure to seek medical care. Causes of death in order of frequency were hepatitis, hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia. 3/4 of the women died postpartum. 1/5 of the babies were stillbirths. 1/5 of the mothers had a history of maternal complications. 1/5 had chronic disease. 2/3 of the women had begun their pregnancies within 1 year of their last childbirth. 1/2 of the women had symptoms ranging from vomiting and fatigue to jaundice and vaginal bleeding. Recommendations of the study included: 1) programs to prevent and treat hepatitis and; 2) an information, education, and communication (IEC) community campaign on the signs of maternal complications. Personnel should also continue their training and research activities.

  6. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-11

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  7. Going home to die from surgical intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Ko, Wen-Je

    2009-05-01

    To better understand events related to going home to die (GHTD) from the intensive care unit (ICU), with the hope that this information might improve the palliative care of ICU patients. This retrospective observational study was performed at a tertiary medical center-the National Taiwan University Hospital. All surgical ICU mortality cases between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2007 were included in this study. The rate of GHTD from the ICU declined annually, but has reached a plateau of around 25% in recent years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found independently significant factors associated with GHTD, including older age (OR: 1.013; P = 0.001), married status (OR: 2.128; P < 0.001), lower educational level (OR: 1.799; P = 0.001), and lack of DNR consent (OR: 1.499; P = 0.006). When treatment intensity was compared on the date of death, GHTD patients in general received more treatments and diagnostic procedures than those who died in the ICU. Univariate analysis showed that GHTD patients received significantly more advanced antibiotics, more chest radiography, greater use of sedatives, greater use of analgesics, and more transfusions, but less FiO(2) and mechanical circulatory support than patients who died in the ICU. CO NCLUSION: GHTD from the ICU is a special phenomenon in the Chinese cultural area, representing a cultural tradition rather than a form of palliative care.

  8. Splitting the difference? Principled compromise and assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Huxtable, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Compromise on moral matters attracts ambivalent reactions, since it seems at once laudable and deplorable. When a hotly-contested phenomenon like assisted dying is debated, all-or-nothing positions tend to be advanced, with little thought given to the desirability of, or prospects for, compromise. In response to recent articles by Søren Holm and Alex Mullock, in this article I argue that principled compromise can be encouraged even in relation to this phenomenon, provided that certain conditions are present (which I suggest they are). In order to qualify as appropriately principled, the ensuing negotiations require disputants to observe three constraints: they should be suitably reflective, reliable and respectful in their dealings with one another. The product that will result from such a process will also need to split the difference between the warring parties. In assisted dying, I argue that a reduced offence of 'compassionate killing' can achieve this. I acknowledge, however, that splitting the difference can induce splitting headaches, as there remain certain questions to be answered. Hopefully, however, sufficient work is done here to defend attempts to occupy the middle ground, whether these relate to assisted dying specifically or to other disputed moral matters. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  10. Results from prototype die-to-database reticle inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Bo; Dayal, Aditya; Broadbent, Bill; Lim, Phillip; Goonesekera, Arosha; Chen, Chunlin; Yeung, Kevin; Pinto, Becky

    2009-03-01

    A prototype die-to-database high-resolution reticle defect inspection system has been developed for 32nm and below logic reticles, and 4X Half Pitch (HP) production and 3X HP development memory reticles. These nodes will use predominantly 193nm immersion lithography (with some layers double patterned), although EUV may also be used. Many different reticle types may be used for these generations including: binary (COG, EAPSM), simple tritone, complex tritone, high transmission, dark field alternating (APSM), mask enhancer, CPL, and EUV. Finally, aggressive model based OPC is typically used, which includes many small structures such as jogs, serifs, and SRAF (sub-resolution assist features), accompanied by very small gaps between adjacent structures. The architecture and performance of the prototype inspection system is described. This system is designed to inspect the aforementioned reticle types in die-todatabase mode. Die-to-database inspection results are shown on standard programmed defect test reticles, as well as advanced 32nm logic, and 4X HP and 3X HP memory reticles from industry sources. Direct comparisons with currentgeneration inspection systems show measurable sensitivity improvement and a reduction in false detections.

  11. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications. PMID:27725780

  12. Chlorhexidine Induces VanA-Type Vancomycin Resistance Genes in Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Ziegler, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a bisbiguanide antiseptic used for infection control. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) is among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. VREfm may be exposed to chlorhexidine at supra- and subinhibitory concentrations as a result of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine-impregnated central venous catheter use. We used RNA sequencing to investigate how VREfm responds to chlorhexidine gluconate exposure. Among the 35 genes upregulated ≥10-fold after 15 min of exposure to the MIC of chlorhexidine gluconate were those encoding VanA-type vancomycin resistance (vanHAX) and those associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility (liaXYZ). We confirmed that vanA upregulation was not strain or species specific by querying other VanA-type VRE. VanB-type genes were not induced. The vanH promoter was found to be responsive to subinhibitory chlorhexidine gluconate in VREfm, as was production of the VanX protein. Using vanH reporter experiments with Bacillus subtilis and deletion analysis in VREfm, we found that this phenomenon is VanR dependent. Deletion of vanR did not result in increased chlorhexidine susceptibility, demonstrating that vanHAX induction is not protective against chlorhexidine. As expected, VanA-type VRE is more susceptible to ceftriaxone in the presence of sub-MIC chlorhexidine. Unexpectedly, VREfm is also more susceptible to vancomycin in the presence of subinhibitory chlorhexidine, suggesting that chlorhexidine-induced gene expression changes lead to additional alterations in cell wall synthesis. We conclude that chlorhexidine induces expression of VanA-type vancomycin resistance genes and genes associated with daptomycin nonsusceptibility. Overall, our results indicate that the impacts of subinhibitory chlorhexidine exposure on hospital-associated pathogens should be further investigated in laboratory studies. PMID:26810654

  13. Determining Core Plasmaspheric Electron Densities with the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascuale, S.; Hartley, D.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.; Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    We survey three methods for obtaining electron densities inside of the core plasmasphere region (L < 4) to the perigee of the Van Allen Probes (L 1.1) from September 2012 to December 2014. Using the EMFISIS instrument on board the Van Allen Probes, electron densities are extracted from the upper hybrid resonance to an uncertainty of 10%. Some measurements are subject to larger errors given interpretational issues, especially at low densities (L > 4) resulting from geomagnetic activity. At high densities EMFISIS is restricted by an upper observable limit near 3000 cm-3. As this limit is encountered above perigee, we employ two additional methods validated against EMFISIS measurements to determine electron densities deep within the plasmasphere (L < 2). EMFISIS can extrapolate density estimates to lower L by calculating high densities, in good agreement with the upper hybrid technique when applicable, from plasma wave properties. Calibrated measurements, from the Van Allen Probes EFW potential instrument, also extend into this range. In comparison with the published EMFISIS database we provide a metric for the validity of core plasmaspheric density measurements obtained from these methods and an empirical density model for use in wave and particle simulations.

  14. Mid infrared observations of Van Maanen 2: no substellar companion.

    SciTech Connect

    Farihi, J; Becklin, E; Macintosh, B

    2004-11-03

    The results of a comprehensive infrared imaging search for the putative 0.06 M{sub {circle_dot}} astrometric companion to the 4.4 pc white dwarf van Mannen 2 are reported. Adaptive optics images acquired at 3.8 {micro}m reveal a diffraction limited core of 0.09 inch and no direct evidence of a secondary. Models predict that at 5 Gyr, a 50 M{sub J} brown dwarf would be only 1 magnitude fainter than van Maanen 2 at this wavelength and the astrometric analysis suggested a separation of 0.2 inch. In the case of a chance alignment along the line of sight, a 0.4 mag excessmore » should be measured. An independent photometric observation at the same wavelength reveals no excess. In addition, there exist published ISO observations of van Maanen 2 at 6.8 {micro}m and 15.0 {micro}m which are consistent with photospheric flux of a 6750 K white dwarf. If recent brown dwarf models are correct, there is no substellar companion with T{sub eff} {approx}> 500 K.« less

  15. Recent Science Highlights of the Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr

    2016-10-01

    The morning of 30 August 2012 saw an Atlas 5 rocket launch NASA's second Living With a Star spacecraft mission, the twin Radiation Belt Storm Probes, into an elliptic orbit cutting through Earth's radiation belts. Renamed the Van Allen Probes soon after launch, the Probes are designed to determine how the highly variable populations of high-energy charged particles within the radiation belts, dangerous to astronauts and satellites, are created, respond to solar variations, and evolve in space environments. The Van Allen Probes mission extends beyond the practical considerations of the hazard's of Earth's space environment. Twentieth century observations of space and astrophysical systems throughout the solar system and out into the observable universe have shown that the processes that generate intense particle radiation within magnetized environments such as Earth's are universal. During its mission the Van Allen Probes verified and quantified previously suggested energization processes, discovered new energization mechanisms, revealed the critical importance of dynamic plasma injections into the innermost magnetosphere, and used uniquely capable instruments to reveal inner radiation belt features that were all but invisible to previous sensors. This paper gives a brief overview of the mission, presents some recent science highlights, and discusses plans for the extended mission.

  16. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and Space Weather Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts as a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the VAP Space Weather data to users. Over the past year, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes summary and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell. We discuss the new Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and the Space Weather Data Pipeline.

  17. Self-Aligned van der Waals Heterojunction Diodes and Transistors.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Beck, Megan E; Henning, Alex; Luo, Jiajia; Bergeron, Hadallia; Kang, Junmo; Balla, Itamar; Inbar, Hadass; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Hersam, Mark C

    2018-02-14

    A general self-aligned fabrication scheme is reported here for a diverse class of electronic devices based on van der Waals materials and heterojunctions. In particular, self-alignment enables the fabrication of source-gated transistors in monolayer MoS 2 with near-ideal current saturation characteristics and channel lengths down to 135 nm. Furthermore, self-alignment of van der Waals p-n heterojunction diodes achieves complete electrostatic control of both the p-type and n-type constituent semiconductors in a dual-gated geometry, resulting in gate-tunable mean and variance of antiambipolar Gaussian characteristics. Through finite-element device simulations, the operating principles of source-gated transistors and dual-gated antiambipolar devices are elucidated, thus providing design rules for additional devices that employ self-aligned geometries. For example, the versatility of this scheme is demonstrated via contact-doped MoS 2 homojunction diodes and mixed-dimensional heterojunctions based on organic semiconductors. The scalability of this approach is also shown by fabricating self-aligned short-channel transistors with subdiffraction channel lengths in the range of 150-800 nm using photolithography on large-area MoS 2 films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Overall, this self-aligned fabrication method represents an important step toward the scalable integration of van der Waals heterojunction devices into more sophisticated circuits and systems.

  18. Nonadiabatic Van der Pol oscillations in molecular transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsev, Alexey; Verdozzi, Claudio; Stefanucci, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The force exerted by the electrons on the nuclei of a current-carrying molecular junction can be manipulated to engineer nanoscale mechanical systems. In the adiabatic regime a peculiarity of these forces is negative friction, responsible for Van der Pol oscillations of the nuclear coordinates. In this work we study the robustness of the Van der Pol oscillations against high-frequency sources. For this purpose we go beyond the adiabatic approximation and perform full Ehrenfest dynamics simulations. The numerical scheme implements a mixed quantum-classical algorithm for open systems and is capable to deal with arbitrary time-dependent driving fields. We find that the Van der Pol oscillations are extremely stable. The nonadiabatic electron dynamics distorts the trajectory in the momentum-coordinate phase space but preserves the limit cycles in an average sense. We further show that high-frequency fields change both the oscillation amplitudes and the average nuclear positions. By switching the fields off at different times one obtains cycles of different amplitudes which attain the limit cycle only after considerably long times.

  19. Impact of Simulation Technology on Die and Stamping Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark W.

    2005-08-01

    Over the last ten years, we have seen an explosion in the use of simulation-based techniques to improve the engineering, construction, and operation of GM production tools. The impact has been as profound as the overall switch to CAD/CAM from the old manual design and construction methods. The changeover to N/C machining from duplicating milling machines brought advances in accuracy and speed to our construction activity. It also brought significant reductions in fitting sculptured surfaces. Changing over to CAD design brought similar advances in accuracy, and today's use of solid modeling has enhanced that accuracy gain while finally leading to the reduction in lead time and cost through the development of parametric techniques. Elimination of paper drawings for die design, along with the process of blueprinting and distribution, provided the savings required to install high capacity computer servers, high-speed data transmission lines and integrated networks. These historic changes in the application of CAE technology in manufacturing engineering paved the way for the implementation of simulation to all aspects of our business. The benefits are being realized now, and the future holds even greater promise as the simulation techniques mature and expand. Every new line of dies is verified prior to casting for interference free operation. Sheet metal forming simulation validates the material flow, eliminating the high costs of physical experimentation dependent on trial and error methods of the past. Integrated forming simulation and die structural analysis and optimization has led to a reduction in die size and weight on the order of 30% or more. The latest techniques in factory simulation enable analysis of automated press lines, including all stamping operations with corresponding automation. This leads to manufacturing lines capable of running at higher levels of throughput, with actual results providing the capability of two or more additional strokes per

  20. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  1. Milling strategies evaluation when simulating the forming dies' functional surfaces production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ižol, Peter; Tomáš, Miroslav; Beňo, Jozef

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with selection and evaluation of milling strategies, available in CAM systems and applicable when complicated shape parts are produced, such as forming dies. A method to obtain samples is proposed and this stems from real forming die surface machined by proper strategies. The strategy applicability for the whole part - forming die - is reviewed by the particular specimen evaluation. The presented methodology has been verified by machining model die and comparing it to the production procedure proposed in other CAM systems.

  2. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  3. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  4. Development of Novel Orifice Die Design for Precise Entrance Pressure Drop Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Martin; Musil, Jan

    2009-07-01

    In this work, novel patent pending orifice die design for precise extensional viscosity data determination from entrance pressure drop measurements has been developed and tested both, theoretically (through Finite Element Analysis) and experimentally. It has been demonstrated that the proposed novel orifice die allows much more precise extensional viscosity measurements for polymer melts in comparison with conventionally used orifice dies.

  5. Palliative and Curative Care Nurses' Attitudes Toward Dying and Death in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Examined sociodemographic background, nursing unit, amount of experience caring for dying patients, death anxiety, and attitudes toward working with dying patients among 56 nurses in palliative, surgical, and pediatric services. Work setting was found to be a more significant force in shaping attitudes toward caring for the dying than was…

  6. Application of Diffusion Monte Carlo to Materials Dominated by van der Waals Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Romero, Nichols A.; ...

    2014-06-12

    Van der Waals forces are notoriously difficult to account for from first principles. We perform extensive calculation to assess the usefulness and validity of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo when applied to van der Waals forces. We present results for noble gas solids and clusters - archetypical van der Waals dominated assemblies, as well as a relevant pi-pi stacking supramolecular complex: DNA + intercalating anti-cancer drug Ellipticine.

  7. Psychologische Operaties: de theorie van Gedragsbeinvloeding (Psychological Operations: The Theory of Behavioral Influence)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Overigens wordt het referentiekader van waaruit mensen hun omgeving interpreteren ook wel ’cognitief frame ’ genoemd. Het be’nvloeden van doelen, waarmee...specifieke referentiekaders worden gestimuleerd, wordt ook wel ’ framing ’ genoemd. TNO-rapport I TNO-DV 2006 A211 12/47 voldoende is om de doelen en...specifieke doel te bereiken en als er geen sprake is van tegen- strijdige doelen of frames in het brein (Strahan, Spencer & Zanna, 2002). Zo zullen

  8. Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome: dental management considerations and description of a new oral finding.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Hamdan, M; Shqaidef, A; Abu Karaky, A; Scully, C

    2015-01-01

    Ellis-Van Creveld is a rare syndrome with characteristic dental and orofacial findings. Dental management of patients with Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome can be complicated by the associated skeletal and cardiac abnormalities. Here, we present the dental and orofacial findings in a patient with Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome, describe a new oral finding, and discuss the dental management considerations. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A notable difference between ideal gas and infinite molar volume limit of van der Waals gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. H.; Shen, Y.; Bai, R. L.; Wang, X.

    2010-05-01

    The van der Waals equation of state does not sufficiently represent a gas unless a thermodynamic potential with two proper and independent variables is simultaneously determined. The limiting procedures under which the behaviour of the van der Waals gas approaches that of an ideal gas are letting two van der Waals coefficients be zero rather than letting the molar volume become infinitely large; otherwise, the partial derivative of internal energy with respect to pressure at a fixed temperature does not vanish.

  10. Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

  11. VanE, a New Type of Acquired Glycopeptide Resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4405

    PubMed Central

    Fines, Marguerite; Perichon, Bruno; Reynolds, Peter; Sahm, Daniel F.; Courvalin, Patrice

    1999-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis BM4405 was resistant to low levels of vancomycin (MIC, 16 μg/ml) and was susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml). No PCR product was obtained when the total DNA of this clinical isolate was used as a template with primers specific for glycopeptide resistance genes vanA, vanB, vanC, and vanD. However, a 604-bp PCR fragment was obtained when V1 and V2 degenerate primers were used and total DNA was digested with HindIII as a template. The product was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence had greater identity (55%) with VanC than with VanA (45%), VanB (43%), or VanD (44%). This was consistent with the fact that BM4405 synthesized peptidoglycan precursors that terminated in d-serine residues. After induction with vancomycin, weak d,d-dipeptidase and penicillin-insensitive d,d-carboxypeptidase activities were detected in cytoplasmic extracts of BM4405, whereas a serine racemase activity was found in the membrane preparation. This new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance was named VanE. PMID:10471558

  12. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees

    PubMed Central

    NANAMI, SATOSHI; KAWAGUCHI, HIDEYUKI; YAMAKURA, TAKUO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes. • Methods Sex expression, growth rate and mortality of A. rufinerve trees in a natural population were monitored from 1992 to 1997. • Key Results Three types of sex expression were observed among A. rufinerve: male, female and bisexual. Among the three types of sex expression, sex changes occurred in all directions. In the growing season of 1994, precipitation was reduced. Stem growth rate decreased and mortality was high in 1994. In the spring of 1995, a drastic sex change from male to female or to bisexual occurred. As a result, the sex ratio became female‐biased in 1995, although it had been male‐biased from 1992 to 1994. In 1996 and 1997, the proportion of males in the population increased, partly as a result of female mortality and partly as a result of female‐to‐male sex changes. Sex expression of A. rufinerve was associated with their growth rate and mortality. The growth rate decreased for trees whose sex changed from male to female or to bisexual, and increased for trees whose sex changed from female to male or to bisexual. Dead trees reproduced as females before they died, except for those that died as males in 1994. • Conclusions One explanation for the sex change towards increasing femaleness for this A. rufinerve population in 1995 was the deterioration of plant health in the previous growing season, because of reduced precipitation. Sex changes of unhealthy and dying A. rufinerve towards femaleness may facilitate re‐occupancy by offspring in gaps created by the death of A. rufinerve trees. PMID:15102611

  13. 'Eat coffee candy and die': sex, death and Huli funerals.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Philip; Worth, Heather

    2012-11-01

    Sex and death have traditionally been linked in Huli culture in the Southern Highlands in Papua New Guinea. Huli regarded that close contact with women could result in men becoming sick or dying. However, there has been rapid social and economic development in the area and Huli traditions are changing. At the same time, HIV prevalence is rising. Twenty-five semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out with key informants during a study on HIV risk in the Southern Highlands. Interviews were conducted mostly in Tok Pisin. Interviews were transcribed and the data were analysed though thematic coding. Huli people use 'eating coffee candy' as a metaphor for engaging in sex at funerals. This is very new and against traditional values, where women attended funerals and men only built the coffins and buried the body. Nowadays, sex occurs at funerals. This change has disturbed older people because it has not only changed the customary meaning of the funeral space, but it has also encouraged the spread of HIV. Huli use the fatalistic expression 'Eat coffee candy and die,' to refer to funerals as a space of HIV risk. Huli community and church leaders, and health workers are attempting to deal with the situation by not allowing men to stay at the funeral site overnight, burying the dead on the same day they die and using customary village law to charge men caught having sex at a funeral. However, traditional beliefs and rapid social change in the context of an HIV epidemic need to be taken into account.

  14. Fear, Pain, Denial, and Spiritual Experiences in Dying Processes

    PubMed Central

    Reichmuth, O.; Bueche, D.; Traichel, B.; Mao, M. Schuett; Cerny, T.; Strasser, F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Approaching death seems to be associated with physiological/spiritual changes. Trajectories including the physical–psychological–social–spiritual dimension have indicated a terminal drop. Existential suffering or deathbed visions describe complex phenomena. However, interrelationships between different constituent factors (e.g., fear and pain, spiritual experiences and altered consciousness) are largely unknown. We lack deeper understanding of patients’ inner processes to which care should respond. In this study, we hypothesized that fear/pain/denial would happen simultaneously and be associated with a transformation of perception from ego-based (pre-transition) to ego-distant perception/consciousness (post-transition) and that spiritual (transcendental) experiences would primarily occur in periods of calmness and post-transition. Parameters for observing transformation of perception (pre-transition, transition itself, and post-transition) were patients’ altered awareness of time/space/body and patients’ altered social connectedness. Method: Two interdisciplinary teams observed 80 dying patients with cancer in palliative units at 2 Swiss cantonal hospitals. We applied participant observation based on semistructured observation protocols, supplemented by the list of analgesic and psychotropic medication. Descriptive statistical analysis and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) were combined. International interdisciplinary experts supported the analysis. Results: Most patients showed at least fear and pain once. Many seemed to have spiritual experiences and to undergo a transformation of perception only partly depending on medication. Line graphs representatively illustrate associations between fear/pain/denial/spiritual experiences and a transformation of perception. No trajectory displayed uninterrupted distress. Many patients seemed to die in peace. Previous near-death or spiritual/mystical experiences may facilitate the dying

  15. Fear, Pain, Denial, and Spiritual Experiences in Dying Processes.

    PubMed

    Renz, M; Reichmuth, O; Bueche, D; Traichel, B; Mao, M Schuett; Cerny, T; Strasser, F

    2018-03-01

    Approaching death seems to be associated with physiological/spiritual changes. Trajectories including the physical-psychological-social-spiritual dimension have indicated a terminal drop. Existential suffering or deathbed visions describe complex phenomena. However, interrelationships between different constituent factors (e.g., fear and pain, spiritual experiences and altered consciousness) are largely unknown. We lack deeper understanding of patients' inner processes to which care should respond. In this study, we hypothesized that fear/pain/denial would happen simultaneously and be associated with a transformation of perception from ego-based (pre-transition) to ego-distant perception/consciousness (post-transition) and that spiritual (transcendental) experiences would primarily occur in periods of calmness and post-transition. Parameters for observing transformation of perception (pre-transition, transition itself, and post-transition) were patients' altered awareness of time/space/body and patients' altered social connectedness. Two interdisciplinary teams observed 80 dying patients with cancer in palliative units at 2 Swiss cantonal hospitals. We applied participant observation based on semistructured observation protocols, supplemented by the list of analgesic and psychotropic medication. Descriptive statistical analysis and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) were combined. International interdisciplinary experts supported the analysis. Most patients showed at least fear and pain once. Many seemed to have spiritual experiences and to undergo a transformation of perception only partly depending on medication. Line graphs representatively illustrate associations between fear/pain/denial/spiritual experiences and a transformation of perception. No trajectory displayed uninterrupted distress. Many patients seemed to die in peace. Previous near-death or spiritual/mystical experiences may facilitate the dying process. Approaching death seems not only

  16. [Recent case law about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Bascuñán R, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the sentences dictated between 1993 and 2002 by the Supreme Courts of Canada and the Unites States, the House of Lords and Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and the European Human Rights Court, about the validity of the legal prohibition of assistance for suicide. These sentences constituted a judicial consensus about the right to die. This consensus recognized the legal right of patients to reject medical treatments but did not recognize the right to be assisted by a physician to commit suicide. This exclusion is changing in the recent case law of Canada and the United Kingdom, which accepts the fundamental right of terminal patients to medically assisted suicide.

  17. Dying well? A colloquy on euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Bette-Jane

    1992-01-01

    With this special issue the Report once again joins the debate on what patients, physicians, and society can -- and cannot -- live with at the end of life. The articles gathered here address in various ways, from various perspectives, the questions that inform the debate on euthanasia and assisted suicide. Do the canons of self-determination and respect for persons compel us to honor the choices of those who request active assistance in dying? Can we coherently argue that physicians' professional obligations to alleviate suffering extend so far as to taking life on request? To what extent ought our policy decisions rest on consideration of possible consequences?

  18. [The rescue of the human in the patient who dies].

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss briefly a proposal for the recovery of the essential content of the concept of human nature through the careful attention to ethics which must be received by a terminal ill person in the last phase of life. I propose palliative medicine as a way to rescue the human mind in the life of dying patients to whom the fullness of nature and human dignity belongs. It's about recovering the original medical ethos through the exercise of the virtues through which staff can be trained to recognize the weak, the sick, miserable, the dispossessed are important, are worthy of medicine, used for science: are human and quite valid.

  19. Reliability Testing the Die-Attach of CPV Cell Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Sweet, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    Results and progress are reported for a course of work to establish an efficient reliability test for the die-attach of CPV cell assemblies. Test vehicle design consists of a ~1 cm2 multijunction cell attached to a substrate via several processes. A thermal cycling sequence is developed in a test-to-failure protocol. Methods of detecting a failed or failing joint are prerequisite for this work; therefore both in-situ and non-destructive methods, including infrared imaging techniques, are being explored as a method to quickly detect non-ideal or failing bonds.

  20. A merganser die-off associated with larval eustrongylides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Kerwin, J.A.

    1964-01-01

    A die-off of red-breasted mergansers on Lake Holly, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was found to be due to a larval Eustrongylides. Massive tissue destruction and hemorrhage was produced by the migration of the larval Eustrongylides. Earlier stages of the same Eustrongylides were found in eastern mosquitofish and silversides upon which the mergansers had been feeding. In addition, residues of DDT were found in mosquitofish, gizzard shad, and five mergansers collected from Lake Holly, and in the tissues of two mergansers from Back Bay, Virginia. However, the information available was insufficient to establish the significance of these residue levels.

  1. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  2. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1998-02-17

    A method is disclosed for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers. 17 figs.

  3. Developing a Blended Course on Dying, Loss, and Grief

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Karen; Andreoni, V. Ann; Wilkie, Diana J.; Burgener, Sandra; Buschmann, MaryBeth Tank; Henderson, Gloria; Hsiung, Yi-Fang Yvonne; Zhao, Zhongsheng

    2010-01-01

    An important component of end-of-life education is to provide health professionals with content related to dying, loss, and grief. The authors describe the strategies used to develop and offer a blended course (integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning) that addressed the sensitive and often emotional content associated with grieving and bereavement. Using Kolb’s experiential learning theory, a set of 4 online learning modules, with engaging, interactive elements, was created. Course evaluations demonstrated the success of the blended course in comparison to the traditional, exclusive face-to-face approach. PMID:19412055

  4. Investigating the Evolution of Progressive Die Wear on Uncoated Dp1180 Steel in Production Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Zhou, D. J.; Adamski, D. J.; Young, D.; Wang, Y. W.

    2017-09-01

    A study of die wear was performed using an uncoated dual phase, 1,180 MPa ultimate tensile strength steel (DP1180) in a progressive die. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for forming operations on uncoated DP1180 steel and update OEM’s die standards based on the experimental results in the real production environment. In total, 100,800 hits were performed in manufacturing production conditions, where 33 die inserts with the combination of 10 die materials and 9 coatings were investigated. The die inserts were evaluated for surface wear using scanning electron microscopy and characterized in terms of die material and/or coating defects, failure mode, failure initiation and propagation. Surface roughness of the formed parts was characterized using a WYKO NT110 machine. The analytical analysis of the die inserts and formed parts, combined with the failure mode and service life, provide a basis for die material and coating selection for forming AHSS components. The conclusions of this study will guide the selection of die material and coatings for high-volume production of AHSS components.

  5. Why do older people oppose physician-assisted dying? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Wilson, Maria K R; Rae, Nicola; Johnson, Malcolm

    2014-04-01

    Physician-assisted dying at the end of life has become a significant issue of public discussion. While legally available in a number of countries and jurisdictions, it remains controversial and illegal in New Zealand. The study aimed to explore the reasons some healthy older New Zealanders oppose physician-assisted dying in order to inform current debate. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by the authors after some edits had been made by respondents. In all, 11 older participants (over 65 years) who responded to advertisements placed in Grey Power magazines and a University of Auckland email list were interviewed for around 1 h and asked a number of open-ended questions. Four central themes opposing physician-assisted dying were identified from the interviews: one's personal experience with health care and dying and death, religious reasoning and beliefs, slippery slope worries and concern about potential abuses if physician-assisted dying were legalised. An important finding of the study suggests that how some older individuals think about physician-assisted dying is strongly influenced by their past experiences of dying and death. While some participants had witnessed good, well-managed dying and death experiences which confirmed for them the view that physician-assisted dying was unnecessary, those who had witnessed poor dying and death experiences opposed physician-assisted dying on the grounds that such practices could come to be abused by others.

  6. Die Starter: A New System to Manage Early Feasibility in Sheet Metal Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narainen, Rodrigue; Porzner, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Die Starter, a new system developed by ESI Group, allows the user to drastically reduce the number of iterations during the early tool process feasibility. This innovative system automatically designs the first quick die face, generating binder and addendum surfaces (NURBS surfaces) by taking account the full die process. Die Starter also improves the initial die face based on feasibility criteria (avoiding splits, wrinkles) by automatically generating the geometrical modifications of the binder and addendum and the bead restraining forces with minimal material usage. This paper presents a description of the new system and the methodology of Die Starter. Some industrial examples are presented from the part geometry to final die face including automatic developed flanges, part on binder and inner binder.

  7. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography as a Method for Finding Die Attach Voids in Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brahm, E. N.; Rolin, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA analyzes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles to understand failure modes of these components. The diode is an EEE part critical to NASA missions that can fail due to excessive voiding in the die attach. Metallography, one established method for studying the die attach, is a time-intensive, destructive, and equivocal process whereby mechanical grinding of the diodes is performed to reveal voiding in the die attach. Problems such as die attach pull-out tend to complicate results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study is to determine if three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), a nondestructive technique, is a viable alternative to metallography for detecting die attach voiding. The die attach voiding in two- dimensional planes created from 3DCT scans was compared to several physical cross sections of the same diode to determine if the 3DCT scan accurately recreates die attach volumetric variability

  8. Factors influencing attitude toward care of dying patients in first-year nursing students.

    PubMed

    Hagelin, Carina Lundh; Melin-Johansson, Christina; Henoch, Ingela; Bergh, Ingrid; Ek, Kristina; Hammarlund, Kina; Prahl, Charlotte; Strang, Susann; Westin, Lars; Österlind, Jane; Browall, Maria

    2016-01-01

    To describe Swedish first-year undergraduate nursing students' attitudes toward care of dying patients. Possible influences such as age, earlier care experiences, care education, experiences of meeting dying patients and place of birth were investigated. The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) was used in six universities. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used. Some 371 students (67.3%) reported overall positive attitude toward caring for dying patients (total mean FATCOD 119.5, SD 10.6) early in their first semester. Older students, students with both earlier care experience and earlier education, those with experience of meeting a dying person, and students born in Sweden reported the highest scores, a more positive attitude. Age, earlier care experience and education, experiences of meeting a dying person and place of birth seems to affect students' attitudes toward care of the dying and need to be considered among nursing educators.

  9. Van Swieten and the renaissance of the Vienna Medical School.

    PubMed

    Kidd, M; Modlin, I M

    2001-04-01

    The period until 1745 found the Viennese medical system languishing far behind advances made in other major European centers. This chaotic situation was reversed by the foresight and breadth of vision of the Empress Maria Theresa, who initiated considerable reform in Austria by actively recruiting the best minds of the time to reduce the intellectual and technologic differences. Her ability to entice one of Boerhaave's most eminent pupils, Gerard van Swieten, to leave Leiden for Vienna, particularly benefited the Vienna Medical School. In 1745 van Swieten assumed responsibility for reconfiguration of the patronage and nepotism-ridden medical system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a first task, he swiftly expunged the influence of the Jesuits and other religious orders from medicine and established formal training and examinations, transforming the medical discipline into a meritocracy. Excelling as a physician and an innovative teacher, he also established a close personal relationship with the Empress and became her medical confidante. To a large part, the success of this first great Viennese medical school was owed to de Haen, who left Leiden to implement Boerhaave's method of clinical teaching. As a result of these innovations and with considerable support from the Empress, the University of Vienna, particularly its medical school, within a few decades achieved recognition throughout Europe as a seat of learning and scholarship. Van Swieten would not be remembered today if his contribution had been only scholarly or scientific achievements. He propelled Austrian medicine to a level commensurate with that of other European states of the day by 27 years of dedicated and industrious service.

  10. Investigation of the Change in the Magnetic Properties of Die Steels in the Process of Manufacture and Operation of Die Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpukhin, I. I.; Selishchev, A. I.; Kornilova, A. V.; Idarmachev, I. M.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of the change in the coercive force in the materials of the die tool working parts during manufacture and operation of die tools; the paper offers possibilities of application of testing based on the coercive force.

  11. Tactisch Optreden van kleine eenheden (Small Unit Tactics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    danken hadden aan Sadarn en fel gekant waren tegen de coalitietroepen. De etnische verschillen tussen Sjiieten en Soennieten zorgden in dit geval voor...missies SFIR4 en PRT3 tijdens ISAF4. TNO-rapport ITNO-DV 2007 A210 57/60 8 Literatuur [1] FEL -03-A288, Tactisch optreden van kleine eenheden in...bewapening. Was bet mandaat voor de, missie bekend en begrepen? Ja :LI1 Nee : D1 Aanvullende informatie: Wat hielden de Rules Of Engagement (ROE’s) op

  12. Accurate Rovibrational State Energies of Bosonic Van Der Waal Dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodley, Mervlyn

    2013-08-01

    Over the past few decades many new and improved techniques have been developed to calculate ground and excited states of atomic clusters with varying degrees of accuracy. Together with progressively enhanced computer capabilities and the development of sophisticated techniques, the accuracy of results obtained from ab initio methods are closely approximating machine precision. In this paper, we use the finite difference method, whose precision is only governed by the machine precision, together with an optimization criterion to calculate the spectrum of two-body van der Waal clusters. This method is also shown to be robust enough to calculate energies close to the unbinding transition.

  13. Kinematics of Electrons near a Van Hove Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J.; Guinea, F.; Vozmediano, M. A. H.

    2000-05-01

    A two-dimensional electronic system, where the Fermi surface is close to a Van Hove singularity, shows a variety of weak coupling instabilities. It is a convenient model to study the interplay between antiferromagnetism and anisotropic superconductivity. We present a detailed analysis of the kinematics of electron scattering in this model. The similarities and differences between a standard renormalization group approach and previous work based on parquet summations of 2 divergences are analyzed, with emphasis on the underlying physical processes. General properties of the phase diagram are discussed.

  14. [Van der Woude syndrome: An unrecognised clinical entity].

    PubMed

    Abbo, O; Vaysse, F; Bieth, E; Galinier, P

    2014-02-01

    Van der Woude syndrome is known to be the first syndromic cause of oral cleft. Apart clefts the cardinal signs are lower lip pits and hypodontia. IRF6 gene mutations have been recently identified as potential cause in this syndrome which permits to better understand its phenotype heterogeneity. Based on a literature review, we tried to cover the different aspects of this syndrome with an emphasis on genetic counselling and surgical correction of lip pits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Band Offsets Engineering for van der Waals Heterostructure Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Daniel S.; Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Marques, Marcelo; Teles, Lara K.

    Two-dimensional crystals (2D) and their stacks in van der Waals heterostructures became prospective for novel devices and physics. To surmount commensurability limitations within first-principles investigations, the coincidence lattice method is developed, enabling studies on interlayer twist and quasiparticle corrections despite limited computational resources. Interesting properties are observed within stacked systems, such as structural deformation on contact, strong orbital hybridization, and tunable band offsets by application of pressure and vertical electric fields. These studies could help to develop versatile electronic and optoelectronic devices and unravel new physics within 2D interfaces.

  16. Nonadditivity of van der Waals forces on liquid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Venkataram, Prashanth S; Whitton, Jeremy D; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2016-09-01

    We present an approach for modeling nanoscale wetting and dewetting of textured solid surfaces that exploits recently developed, sophisticated techniques for computing exact long-range dispersive van der Waals (vdW) or (more generally) Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries. We apply these techniques to solve the variational formulation of the Young-Laplace equation and predict the equilibrium shapes of liquid-vacuum interfaces near solid gratings. We show that commonly employed methods of computing vdW interactions based on additive Hamaker or Derjaguin approximations, which neglect important electromagnetic boundary effects, can result in large discrepancies in the shapes and behaviors of liquid surfaces compared to exact methods.

  17. The Van Fault, Eastern Turkey: A Preliminary Geological Slip Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Kurban, Y.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a preliminary quaternary slip-rate study on the Van fault, the source of the 2011 Mw7.1 reverse-slip earthquake which caused heavy damage to the cities of Van and Ercis, eastern Turkey. From the InSAR solution, we see a strong depth cut-off at 10km depth, above which there was no slip on the fault. We have carried out an investigation of the geomorphological expression of the fault in quaternary material, to determine whether the fault reaches the surface and, if so, whether this upper section could fail in an earthquake. On the western segment of the Van fault, we observe quaternary scarps coincident with the surface projection of the fault segment identified by InSAR, which displace quaternary alluvial fan and lake-bed deposits. These are coincident with the observation of fault gouge in quaternary deposits at a road cutting, providing evidence for a fault reaching the surface and suggesting that the upper section is capable of rupturing seismically. We use structure-from-motion photogrammetry, differential GPS and terrestrial LiDAR to determine offsets on two generations of fault scarps, and the creep offsets from the period following the earthquake. Preliminary radiocarbon and OSL dates from two uplifted terrace surfaces allow us to estimate a late quaternary geological slip-rate for the fault. Following the GPS and InSAR solution of Dogan et al. 2014 (GRL v41,i7), we also present field evidence and satellite image observations confirming the presence of a splay fault within the northern suburbs of Van city, which experienced creep following the 2011 earthquake. This fault is observed to be particularly evident in the early high resolution satellite imagery from the declassified CORONA missions, highlighting the potential for these datasets in identifying faults in areas now covered by urban sprawl. It remains unclear whether this fault could fail seismically. The fault which failed in 2011 is a north dipping reverse fault, unmapped prior to the

  18. Baseline tests of the power-train electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumannick, S.; Dustin, M. O.; Bozek, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics were determined for a modified utility van powered by sixteen 6-volt batteries connected in series. A chopper controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal changes the voltage applied to the 22-kilowatt (30-hp) series-wound drive motor. In addition to the conventional hydraulic braking system, the vehicle has hydraulic regenerative braking. Cycle tests and acceleration tests were conducted with and without hydraulic regeneration.

  19. 10. Whitney Arms Company, Van Slyck steel engraving, 1880 Photocopied ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Whitney Arms Company, Van Slyck steel engraving, 1880 Photocopied from Charles B. Norton, American Inventions and Improvements in Breech-Loading Small Arms (Springfield, Mass., 1880), p. 154 The engraving does not seem to have been included in the earlier 1872 edition. This is probably the single most widely copied view of the Whitney Arms Company works, and it is without doubt the most accurate. Compare with site plan, photo CT-2-13. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  20. A Novel Membrane Protein, VanJ, Conferring Resistance to Teicoplanin

    PubMed Central

    Novotna, Gabriela; Hill, Chris; Vincent, Karen; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to the glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin shows some important differences from the closely related compound vancomycin. They are currently poorly understood but may reflect significant differences in the mode of action of each antibiotic. Streptomyces coelicolor possesses a vanRSJKHAX gene cluster that when expressed confers resistance to both vancomycin and teicoplanin. The resistance to vancomycin is mediated by the enzymes encoded by vanKHAX, but not by vanJ. vanHAX effect a reprogramming of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, which is considered to be generic, conferring resistance to all glycopeptide antibiotics. Here, we show that vanKHAX are not in fact required for teicoplanin resistance in S. coelicolor, which instead is mediated solely by vanJ. vanJ is shown to encode a membrane protein oriented with its C-terminal active site exposed to the extracytoplasmic space. VanJ also confers resistance to the teicoplanin-like antibiotics ristocetin and A47934 and to a broad range of semisynthetic teicoplanin derivatives, but not generally to antibiotics or semisynthetic derivatives with vancomycin-like structures. vanJ homologues are found ubiquitously in streptomycetes and include staP from the Streptomyces toyocaensis A47934 biosynthetic gene cluster. While overexpression of staP also conferred resistance to teicoplanin, similar expression of other vanJ homologues (SCO2255, SCO7017, and SAV5946) did not. The vanJ and staP orthologues, therefore, appear to represent a subset of a larger protein family whose members have acquired specialist roles in antibiotic resistance. Future characterization of the divergent enzymatic activity within this new family will contribute to defining the molecular mechanisms important for teicoplanin activity and resistance. PMID:22232274

  1. A novel membrane protein, VanJ, conferring resistance to teicoplanin.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Gabriela; Hill, Chris; Vincent, Karen; Liu, Chang; Hong, Hee-Jeon

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to the glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin shows some important differences from the closely related compound vancomycin. They are currently poorly understood but may reflect significant differences in the mode of action of each antibiotic. Streptomyces coelicolor possesses a vanRSJKHAX gene cluster that when expressed confers resistance to both vancomycin and teicoplanin. The resistance to vancomycin is mediated by the enzymes encoded by vanKHAX, but not by vanJ. vanHAX effect a reprogramming of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, which is considered to be generic, conferring resistance to all glycopeptide antibiotics. Here, we show that vanKHAX are not in fact required for teicoplanin resistance in S. coelicolor, which instead is mediated solely by vanJ. vanJ is shown to encode a membrane protein oriented with its C-terminal active site exposed to the extracytoplasmic space. VanJ also confers resistance to the teicoplanin-like antibiotics ristocetin and A47934 and to a broad range of semisynthetic teicoplanin derivatives, but not generally to antibiotics or semisynthetic derivatives with vancomycin-like structures. vanJ homologues are found ubiquitously in streptomycetes and include staP from the Streptomyces toyocaensis A47934 biosynthetic gene cluster. While overexpression of staP also conferred resistance to teicoplanin, similar expression of other vanJ homologues (SCO2255, SCO7017, and SAV5946) did not. The vanJ and staP orthologues, therefore, appear to represent a subset of a larger protein family whose members have acquired specialist roles in antibiotic resistance. Future characterization of the divergent enzymatic activity within this new family will contribute to defining the molecular mechanisms important for teicoplanin activity and resistance.

  2. The Assisted Dying Bill and the role of the physician.

    PubMed

    Mullock, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    This article explores the role of the physician in the Assisted Dying Bill, which is currently progressing through the House of Lords. The Supreme Court decision in Nicklinson and Others has alerted Parliament to the possibility that the current prohibition against assisted suicide may breach Article 8 of the European Convention in relation to the right to choose how to end one's life. In this article, the role of healthcare professionals in the proposed legalisation of physician-assisted suicide is examined, together with consideration of key ethical concerns over who might be permitted to access assisted dying. Whether the proposed law presents an ethically sound alternative to the current prohibition against assisting in suicide is not clear, but Parliament must now respond in order to address human rights issues and the call to legalise medically assisted suicide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Optimization of porthole die geometrical variables by Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, F.; Ciancio, C.; Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.

    2017-10-01

    Porthole die extrusion is commonly used to manufacture hollow profiles made of lightweight alloys for numerous industrial applications. The reliability of extruded parts is affected strongly by the quality of the longitudinal and transversal seam welds. According to that, the die geometry must be designed correctly and the process parameters must be selected properly to achieve the desired product quality. In this study, numerical 3D simulations have been created and run to investigate the role of various geometrical variables on punch load and maximum pressure inside the welding chamber. These are important outputs to take into account affecting, respectively, the necessary capacity of the extrusion press and the quality of the welding lines. The Taguchi technique has been used to reduce the number of the required numerical simulations necessary for considering the influence of twelve different geometric variables. Moreover, the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been implemented to individually analyze the effect of each input parameter on the two responses. Then, the methodology has been utilized to determine the optimal process configuration individually optimizing the two investigated process outputs. Finally, the responses of the optimized parameters have been verified through finite element simulations approximating the predicted value closely. This study shows the feasibility of the Taguchi technique for predicting performance, optimization and therefore for improving the design of a porthole extrusion process.

  4. Single pass die-to-database tritone reticle inspection capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Bryan; Heumann, Jan; Schmidt, Norbert

    2006-10-01

    Tritone reticle designs present many challenges for both photomask manufacturers and defect inspection equipment suppliers. From a fabrication standpoint, multi-write and process steps for tritone layers add levels of complexity and increased cost not encountered with most traditional binary (two tone) masks. For inspection tools, the presence of three distinctive light levels presents a challenge for algorithms originally designed to inspect gray scale data between two tones (black and white): especially for database transmitted light modes. While most die-to-die and STARlight TM inspections on tritone reticles produce successful results using binary algorithms, database inspections typically require two separate recipes to reveal all lithographically significant defects. With this dual-inspection technique, DNIR (Do Not Inspect Regions) are often added to eliminate the presence of third tone (typically Chrome) features: a process that adds considerable time to recipe creation. Additional workarounds when using binary inspection algorithms include implementing special light calibration techniques during setup in an effort to minimize nuisance defects caused by the presence of a third tone. As a result of these workarounds, reticle throughput is either reduced or sensitivity compromised when using binary database inspection algorithms on tritone reticles. This paper examines the benefits of using a tritone database inspection algorithm from both productivity and sensitivity standpoints as compared to results obtained from using the aforementioned workarounds and existing binary inspection modes. The results and conclusions contained within are based on data obtained from standard test vehicles and a variety of tritone production reticles.

  5. Quality of Dying in Nursing Home Residents Dying with Dementia: Does Advanced Care Planning Matter? A Nationwide Postmortem Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandervoort, An; Houttekier, Dirk; Vander Stichele, Robert; van der Steen, Jenny T.; Van den Block, Lieve

    2014-01-01

    Background Advance care planning is considered a central component of good quality palliative care and especially relevant for people who lose the capacity to make decisions at the end of life, which is the case for many nursing home residents with dementia. We set out to investigate to what extent (1) advance care planning in the form of written advance patient directives and verbal communication with patient and/or relatives about future care and (2) the existence of written advance general practitioner orders are related to the quality of dying of nursing home residents with dementia. Methods Cross-sectional study of deaths (2010) using random cluster-sampling. Representative sample of nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. Deaths of residents with dementia in a three-month period were reported; for each the nurse most involved in care, GP and closest relative completed structured questionnaires. Findings We identified 101 deaths of residents with dementia in 69 nursing homes (58% response rate). A written advance patient directive was present for 17.5%, GP-orders for 56.7%. Controlling for socio-demographic/clinical characteristics in multivariate regression analyses, chances of having a higher mean rating of emotional well-being (less fear and anxiety) on the Comfort Assessment in Dying with Dementia scale were three times higher with a written advance patient directive and more specifically when having a do-not-resuscitate order (AOR 3.45; CI,1.1–11) than for those without either (AOR 2.99; CI,1.1–8.3). We found no association between verbal communication or having a GP order and quality of dying. Conclusion For nursing home residents with dementia there is a strong association between having a written advance directive and quality of dying. Where wishes are written, relatives report lower levels of emotional distress at the end of life. These results underpin the importance of advance care planning for people with dementia and beginning this process as

  6. Investigation of contact pressure in auto panel drawing dies during the forming process by using FEM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koşar, Fatih; Yaman, Kemal

    2017-06-01

    In automotive stamping dies, the die design is generally based on experience. Usually, the loads on the die is not considered too much when the ribs, which strengthen the structure of the die, are positioned. Despite an abundance of manuscripts in the literature on formability and springback, the number of studies that examine the panel-die interaction is rather limited. The impact of the loads occurs in the form of contact pressure (CP) on the upper and lower die when the sheet metal is formed in a drawing die. For die designs, the CPs on the die must be calculated accurately in order to determine the correct position for the ribs and to optimize the weight of the die. The present study compares the CP distribution on a auto panel drawing die through different solution methods to examine the time-dependent change of the CP.

  7. The VanRS Homologous Two-Component System VnlRSAb of the Glycopeptide Producer Amycolatopsis balhimycina Activates Transcription of the vanHAXSc Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor, but not in A. balhimycina.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Regina; Frasch, Hans-Joerg; Kulik, Andreas; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Stegmann, Evi

    2016-09-01

    In enterococci and in Streptomyces coelicolor, a glycopeptide nonproducer, the glycopeptide resistance genes vanHAX are colocalized with vanRS. The two-component system (TCS) VanRS activates vanHAX transcription upon sensing the presence of glycopeptides. Amycolatopsis balhimycina, the producer of the vancomycin-like glycopeptide balhimycin, also possesses vanHAXAb genes. The genes for the VanRS-like TCS VnlRSAb, together with the carboxypeptidase gene vanYAb, are part of the balhimycin biosynthetic gene cluster, which is located 2 Mb separate from the vanHAXAb. The deletion of vnlRSAb did not affect glycopeptide resistance or balhimycin production. In the A. balhimycina vnlRAb deletion mutant, the vanHAXAb genes were expressed at the same level as in the wild type, and peptidoglycan (PG) analyses proved the synthesis of resistant PG precursors. Whereas vanHAXAb expression in A. balhimycina does not depend on VnlRAb, a VnlRAb-depending regulation of vanYAb was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNA-seq analyses. Although VnlRAb does not regulate the vanHAXAb genes in A. balhimycina, its heterologous expression in the glycopeptide-sensitive S. coelicolor ΔvanRSSc deletion mutant restored glycopeptide resistance. VnlRAb activates the vanHAXSc genes even in the absence of VanS. In addition, expression of vnlRAb increases actinorhodin production and influences morphological differentiation in S. coelicolor.

  8. Optimizations Of Coat-Hanger Die, Using Constraint Optimization Algorithm And Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebaal, Nadhir; Schmidt, Fabrice; Puissant, Stephan

    2007-05-01

    Polymer extrusion is one of the most important manufacturing methods used today. A flat die, is commonly used to extrude thin thermoplastics sheets. If the channel geometry in a flat die is not designed properly, the velocity at the die exit may be perturbed, which can affect the thickness across the width of the die. The ultimate goal of this work is to optimize the die channel geometry in a way that a uniform velocity distribution is obtained at the die exit. While optimizing the exit velocity distribution, we have coupled three-dimensional extrusion simulation software Rem3D®, with an automatic constraint optimization algorithm to control the maximum allowable pressure drop in the die; according to this constraint we can control the pressure in the die (decrease the pressure while minimizing the velocity dispersion across the die exit). For this purpose, we investigate the effect of the design variables in the objective and constraint function by using Taguchi method. In the second study we use the global response surface method with Kriging interpolation to optimize flat die geometry. Two optimization results are presented according to the imposed constraint on the pressure. The optimum is obtained with a very fast convergence (2 iterations). To respect the constraint while ensuring a homogeneous distribution of velocity, the results with a less severe constraint offers the best minimum.

  9. Unconscious Odour Conditioning 25 Years Later: Revisiting and Extending "Kirk-Smith, Van Toller and Dodd"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucco, Gesualdo M.; Paolini, Michela; Schaal, Benoist

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering work by Kirk-Smith, Van Toller, and Dodd [Kirk-Smith, M. D., Van Toller, C., & Dodd, G. H. (1983). "Unconscious odour conditioning in human subjects." "Biological Psychology," 17, 221-231], established that an unnoticed odorant paired with an emotionally meaningful task can influence mood and attitudes when the odorant alone is…

  10. Joyce VanTassel-Baska: The Talent Development of a Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska is the Executive Director of the Center for Gifted Education at The College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, VA. She is the current president of the National Association for Gifted Children. Prior to coming to William & Mary, Dr. VanTassel-Baska founded and directed the Center for Talent Development at Northwestern…

  11. Use of a community mobile health van to increase early access to prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Edgerley, Laura P; El-Sayed, Yasser Y; Druzin, Maurice L; Kiernan, Michaela; Daniels, Kay I

    2007-05-01

    To examine whether the use of a community mobile health van (the Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Women's Health Van) in an underserved population allows for earlier access to prenatal care and increased rate of adequate prenatal care, as compared to prenatal care initiated in community clinics. We studied 108 patients who initiated prenatal care on the van and delivered their babies at our University Hospital from September 1999 to July 2004. One hundred and twenty-seven patients who initiated prenatal care in sites other than the Women's Health Van, had the same city of residence and source of payment as the study group, and also delivered their babies at our hospital during the same time period, were selected as the comparison group. Gestational age at which prenatal care was initiated and the adequacy of prenatal care - as defined by Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (RGINDEX) - were compared between cases and comparisons. Underserved women utilizing the van services for prenatal care initiated care three weeks earlier than women using other services (10.2 +/- 6.9 weeks vs. 13.2 +/- 6.9 weeks, P = 0.001). In addition, the data showed that van patients and non-van patients were equally likely to receive adequate prenatal care as defined by R-GINDEX (P = 0.125). Women who initiated prenatal care on the Women's Health Van achieved earlier access to prenatal care when compared to women initiating care at other community health clinics.

  12. The Effect of Designed Geometry Teaching Lesson to the Candidate Teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli; Koparan, Timur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out how designed Geometry Teaching Lesson affects candidate teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Levels. For that purpose, 14 weeks long study was performed with 44 candidate teachers who were university students in Turkey. Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Test was applied to candidate teachers before and after…

  13. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  14. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  15. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  16. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  17. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  18. Testing the dynamic rollover resistance of two 15-passenger vans with multiple load configurations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-06-01

    As a consequence of NTSB Safety Recommendations H-02-26 and H-02-28, NHTSA performed a study to investigate the effects different load conditions may have on the dynamic rollover resistance of 15-passenger vans. The two vans used in this study, a 200...

  19. 46 CFR 195.11-10 - Design and construction of portable vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 195.11-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... escape, arrangement, interior construction, and electrical installations. (d) Power vans are those outfitted with electrical power generating machinery or batteries providing electrical power for other vans...

  20. 46 CFR 195.11-10 - Design and construction of portable vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 195.11-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... escape, arrangement, interior construction, and electrical installations. (d) Power vans are those outfitted with electrical power generating machinery or batteries providing electrical power for other vans...

  1. 46 CFR 195.11-10 - Design and construction of portable vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 195.11-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... escape, arrangement, interior construction, and electrical installations. (d) Power vans are those outfitted with electrical power generating machinery or batteries providing electrical power for other vans...

  2. 46 CFR 195.11-10 - Design and construction of portable vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 195.11-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... escape, arrangement, interior construction, and electrical installations. (d) Power vans are those outfitted with electrical power generating machinery or batteries providing electrical power for other vans...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of two sisters with Van der Knaap leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Pınar; Karaali, Kamil; Olgaç Dündar, Nihal; Şenol, Utku; Canan, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, or Van der Knaap leukoencephalopathy, is a rare disease which is characterised by macrocephaly and neurological disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. Magnetic resonance imaging is very helpful for determining distinctive findings and distinguishing other diseases. We present the radiological findings of two sisters (aged 6 and 10 years) diagnosed with Van der Knaap leukoencephalopathy. PMID:26427893

  4. 75 FR 54692 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Van Gogh, Gauguin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Van Gogh, Gauguin, C zanne, and... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Van Gogh, Gauguin, C zanne, and Beyond: Post...

  5. 76 FR 77299 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Van Gogh. Up Close”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Van Gogh. Up Close'' SUMMARY: Notice... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Van Gogh. Up Close.,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  6. Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Reply to van Strien et al. (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Lowe, Michael R.; Burton, Emily

    2006-01-01

    In T. van Strien, R. C. M. E. Engels, W. van Staveren, and C. P. Herman's (see record 2006-03905-010) comment, they contested the conclusion that dietary restraint scales are invalid measures of acute dietary restriction (E. Stice, M. Fisher, & M. R. Lowe, 2004). The authors respond to their concerns and conclude that researchers should (a) not…

  7. Community Music during the New Deal: The Contributions of Willem Van de Wall and Max Kaplan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krikun, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Willem Van de Wall (1887-1953) and Max Kaplan (1911-98) built careers spanning music performance, music education, adult education, sociology, social work, music therapy and community music. Willem Van de Wall was a seminal influence on the development of the fields of music therapy and adult education--researching the role of music in…

  8. Cylinders and Seances: Elise van Calcar and the Spirit of Froebel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses the life and work of Elise van Calcar (1822-1904), a writer and maternal feminist who introduced Froebel's kindergarten in the Netherlands. Van Calcar also was the leader of a Christian branch of spiritualism. The focus is pointed at parallels between her reading of Froebel and of "messages" from spirits in the…

  9. Role of crab herbivory in die-off of New England salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Holdredge, Christine; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2009-06-01

    Die-offs of cordgrass are pervasive throughout western Atlantic salt marshes, yet understanding of the mechanisms precipitating these events is limited. We tested whether herbivory by the native crab, Sesarma reticulatum, is generating die-offs of cordgrass that are currently occurring on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), by manipulating crab access to cordgrass transplanted into die-off areas and healthy vegetation. We surveyed 12 Cape Cod marshes to investigate whether the extent of cordgrass die-off on creek banks, where die-offs are concentrated, was related to local Sesarma grazing intensity and crab density. We then used archived aerial images to examine whether creek bank die-off areas have expanded over the past 2 decades and tested the hypothesis that release from predation, leading to elevated Sesarma densities, is triggering cordgrass die-offs by tethering crabs where die-offs are pervasive and where die-offs have not yet been reported. Intensity of crab grazing on transplanted cordgrass was an order of magnitude higher in die-off areas than in adjacent vegetation. Surveys revealed that Sesarma herbivory has denuded nearly half the creek banks in Cape Cod marshes, and differences in crab-grazing intensity among marshes explained >80% of variation in the extent of the die-offs. Moreover, the rate of die-off expansion and area of marsh affected have more than doubled since 2000. Crab-tethering experiments suggest that release from predation has triggered elevated crab densities that are driving these die-offs, indicating that disruption of predator-prey interactions may be generating the collapse of marsh ecosystems previously thought to be exclusively under bottom-up control. ©2008 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Mentale Representatie van Ritmische Patronen (Mental Representation of Rhythmical Patterns)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-29

    0ydelingshvpothese Ondanks het empirische gegeven dat alleen reeksen net intervallen in een 2:1 verhauding goed werden gerepraduceerd bleek bet toch nagelijk...bevinding levert directe empirische evidentie op voor de assuxnptie dat eerst de kiokeenheid wordt geselec- teerd, waarna deze onderverdeeld wordt...waarschijnlijke is. Beide besproken experimenten geven empirische evidentie dat toonreek- sen die op metrische wijze waargenomen kunnen warden, hibrarchisch

  11. van der Waals epitaxy of Ge films on mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, A. J.; Xiang, Y.; Rauch, E.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2017-11-01

    To date, many materials have been successfully grown on substrates through van der Waals epitaxy without adhering to the constraint of lattice matching as is required for traditional chemical epitaxy. However, for elemental semiconductors such as Ge, this has been challenging and therefore it has not been achieved thus far. In this paper, we report the observation of Ge epitaxially grown on mica at a narrow substrate temperature range around 425 °C. Despite the large lattice mismatch (23%) and the lack of high in-plane symmetry in the mica surface, an epitaxial Ge film with [111] out-of-plane orientation is observed. Crystallinity and electrical properties degrade upon deviation from the ideal growth temperature, as shown by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Hall effect measurements. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals that there exist multiple rotational domains in the epitaxial Ge film with dominant in-plane orientations between Ge [" separators="|1 ¯10 ] and mica[100] of (20 n )°, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A superlattice area mismatch model was used to account for the likelihood of the in-plane orientation formation and was found to be qualitatively consistent with the observed dominant orientations. Our observation of Ge epitaxy with one out-of-plane growth direction through van der Waals forces is a step toward the growth of single crystal Ge films without the constraint in the lattice and symmetry matches with the substrates.

  12. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide.

  13. Van der Waals Epitaxy of Ultrathin Halide Perovkistes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Yunfeng; Shi, Jian

    We present our understanding, with CH3NH3PbX3 as a model system, on the 2D van der Waals growth and kinetics of 3D parent materials. We show the successful synthesis of ultrathin (sub-10 nm), large scale (a few tens of μm) single crystalline 2D perovskite thin films on layered mica substrate by van der Waals (VDW) epitaxy. Classical nucleation and growth model explaining conventional epitaxy has been modified to interpret the unique 2D results under VDW mechanism. The generalization of our model shows that a 3D crystal with low cohesive energy tends to favor the 2D growth while the one with strong cohesive energy has less kinetic window. With Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the fractal 2D morphology in perovskite precisely manifests the kinetic competition between VDW diffusivity and thermodynamic driving force, a unique phenomenon to VDW growth, suggesting a fundamental limit on the morphology stability of the 2D form of a 3D material. On the other hand, our single crystal thin film growth results and subsequent cryogenic study in the iodide perovskite provide a perfect resource for the exploration of its complex optical and electronic properties and unveiling the origins of its popularity in the energy conversion field.

  14. Vincent van Gogh (1853-90): the plumbic artist.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Edward

    2008-05-01

    Following Vincent van Gogh's death in 1890, numerous physicians have offered diagnostic opinions regarding his still unverified illness. The discovery that he had ingested leaded oil paints prompted research that revealed his exposure to additional sources of lead and other toxic substances for 13 years before death. His complaints, derived from poignant letters to his brother, added compelling evidence that he had suffered neurotoxicity, encephalopathy and other consequences of lead. Vincent's suicide may have been precipitated by plumbism. Mankind has endured lead's presence for millennia, yet its destructive effects have been recognized sporadically. That symptoms of plumbism mimic other illnesses should prod a heightened index of suspicion. Had it not been for the financial and emotional support of Vincent by his brother, Theo, and the dedication of the latter's wife, Johanna, the artist's genius might never have been recognized. Widowed by the death of her husband six months after Vincent's demise, Johanna(1) remained the guardian of the painter's extraordinary artistic and literary output until critical acclaim established him as one of Europe's greatest artists. Her efforts, assisted by her son, in framing and exhibiting van Gogh's works, were crucial. She then translated and systematized his more than 750 letters to Theo, their sister, Willemien, their mother, fellow artists and others.(2).

  15. Geomagnetic Storms and EMIC waves: Van Allen Probe observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dedong; Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Deng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Meng; Li, Haimeng

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves are believed to play a crucial role in the dynamics of ring current ions and radiation belt electrons, especially during geomagnetic storms. However, there is little consensus on which phase of the storm is more favorable for the generation of EMIC waves. Utilizing the data from magnetometer instrument of EMFISIS suite on board Van Allen Probe A, the occurrences of EMIC waves during geomagnetic storms are investigated in this paper. 76 storms were identified during the period under research, from 8 September 2012 to 30 April 2014, when the apogee of Van Allen Probe A covered all the MLT sectors. 50 of the 76 storms observed 124 EMIC wave events, of which 80 are found in the recovery phase, more than those observed in the main phase. Evolution of the distribution characteristics of EMIC waves respect to L and MLT in different geomagnetic phases is investigated, which is found to be consistent with that of the plasmasphere. These results are different from those derived by the observations of the CRRES satellite. The different results may result from the different orbit coverage of the two different satellite missions or from the different activity level of the magnetosphere during the different periods. Few EMIC waves in the dayside sector during the pre-onset periods are observed. It is implied that, to the generation of EMIC waves, the effect of solar wind dynamic pressure in the inner magnetosphere is not so significant as that in the outer magnetosphere.

  16. van der Waals forces influencing adhesion of cells.

    PubMed

    Kendall, K; Roberts, A D

    2015-02-05

    Adhesion molecules, often thought to be acting by a 'lock and key' mechanism, have been thought to control the adhesion of cells. While there is no doubt that a coating of adhesion molecules such as fibronectin on a surface affects cell adhesion, this paper aims to show that such surface contamination is only one factor in the equation. Starting from the baseline idea that van der Waals force is a ubiquitous attraction between all molecules, and thereby must contribute to cell adhesion, it is clear that effects from geometry, elasticity and surface molecules must all add on to the basic cell attractive force. These effects of geometry, elasticity and surface molecules are analysed. The adhesion force measured between macroscopic polymer spheres was found to be strongest when the surfaces were absolutely smooth and clean, with no projecting protruberances. Values of the measured surface energy were then about 35 mJ m(-2), as expected for van der Waals attractions between the non-polar molecules. Surface projections such as abrasion roughness or dust reduced the molecular adhesion substantially. Water cut the measured surface energy to 3.4 mJ m(-2). Surface active molecules lowered the adhesion still further to less than 0.3 mJ m(-2). These observations do not support the lock and key concept. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic quantum phase transitions and entropy in Van Vleck magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavanov, G. Yu.; Kalita, V. M.; Ivanova, I. M.; Loktev, V. M.

    2016-10-01

    Field-induced magnetic quantum phase transitions in the Van Vleck paramagnet with easy-plane single-ion anisotropy and competing Ising exchange between ions with the spin S=1 have been studied theoretically. The description was made by minimizing the Lagrange function at zero temperature (T=0) and the free energy at T ≠ 0 . Stable and unstable solutions of equations corresponding to the case ψ0 = | 0 > asymptotically transform into those following from the Lagrange function at T=0. First-order phase transitions from the Van Vleck paramagnet state into the ferromagnet one were found to take place at a sufficiently high single-ion anisotropy. The entropy of such a magnet was shown to grow with its magnetization, as it occurs for antiferromagnets. At the point of quantum phase transition, the entropy has a jump, which magnitude depends on the ratio between the Ising exchange and anisotropy constants, as well as on the temperature. The described magnetic phase transition was supposed to be accompanied by the magnetocaloric effect. In the case when the Ising exchange dominates over the single-ion anisotropy, the magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic state by an external field was shown to be a phase transition of the first kind, which does not belong to orientational ones and which should be regarded as a quantum order-order phase transition.

  18. [Education in anatomy initiated by Pompe van Meerdervoort].

    PubMed

    Koji, Takehiko; Aikawa, Tadaomi

    2008-12-01

    Pompe van Meerdervoort arrived at Nagasaki port on September 21, 1857 and started his western-style medical education for the first time in the Nishiyakusho of Nagasaki on November 12, 1857. He had 12 students including Ryojun Matsumono. The curriculum was largely based on that of Utrecht Army Medical School, which was re-organized after 1841 and very good in balance of theory and practice. Among subjects, much attention was paid for Anatomy which was quite advancing at the time and in fact the lecture was given on every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday morning from 1857 to the end of 1859. His lecture note on Anatomy was based on Handboek der Ontleedkunde van den Mensch originally written by C. E. Bock, which was translated into Dutch by P. H. Pool. The note currently available is a copy by the students. In Europe of those days, microscopes were developed and "Histology" had been established as a new science. Therefore, his lecture contained details of histological findings and now we can appreciate his policy to think much of Anatomy in the introduction of western-style medical education.

  19. Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae

    PubMed Central

    Autumn, Kellar; Sitti, Metin; Liang, Yiching A.; Peattie, Anne M.; Hansen, Wendy R.; Sponberg, Simon; Kenny, Thomas W.; Fearing, Ronald; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Full, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Geckos have evolved one of the most versatile and effective adhesives known. The mechanism of dry adhesion in the millions of setae on the toes of geckos has been the focus of scientific study for over a century. We provide the first direct experimental evidence for dry adhesion of gecko setae by van der Waals forces, and reject the use of mechanisms relying on high surface polarity, including capillary adhesion. The toes of live Tokay geckos were highly hydrophobic, and adhered equally well to strongly hydrophobic and strongly hydrophilic, polarizable surfaces. Adhesion of a single isolated gecko seta was equally effective on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of a microelectro-mechanical systems force sensor. A van der Waals mechanism implies that the remarkable adhesive properties of gecko setae are merely a result of the size and shape of the tips, and are not strongly affected by surface chemistry. Theory predicts greater adhesive forces simply from subdividing setae to increase surface density, and suggests a possible design principle underlying the repeated, convergent evolution of dry adhesive microstructures in gecko, anoles, skinks, and insects. Estimates using a standard adhesion model and our measured forces come remarkably close to predicting the tip size of Tokay gecko seta. We verified the dependence on size and not surface type by using physical models of setal tips nanofabricated from two different materials. Both artificial setal tips stuck as predicted and provide a path to manufacturing the first dry, adhesive microstructures. PMID:12198184

  20. van der Waals forces influencing adhesion of cells

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, K.; Roberts, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion molecules, often thought to be acting by a ‘lock and key’ mechanism, have been thought to control the adhesion of cells. While there is no doubt that a coating of adhesion molecules such as fibronectin on a surface affects cell adhesion, this paper aims to show that such surface contamination is only one factor in the equation. Starting from the baseline idea that van der Waals force is a ubiquitous attraction between all molecules, and thereby must contribute to cell adhesion, it is clear that effects from geometry, elasticity and surface molecules must all add on to the basic cell attractive force. These effects of geometry, elasticity and surface molecules are analysed. The adhesion force measured between macroscopic polymer spheres was found to be strongest when the surfaces were absolutely smooth and clean, with no projecting protruberances. Values of the measured surface energy were then about 35 mJ m−2, as expected for van der Waals attractions between the non-polar molecules. Surface projections such as abrasion roughness or dust reduced the molecular adhesion substantially. Water cut the measured surface energy to 3.4 mJ m−2. Surface active molecules lowered the adhesion still further to less than 0.3 mJ m−2. These observations do not support the lock and key concept. PMID:25533101