Science.gov

Sample records for uitgawe van die

  1. [Dentistry in the Middle Ages in the low lands 4. "Van den tanden die siin gegaet"].

    PubMed

    Jonkman, E J; Eijkman, M A J

    2015-04-01

    Wat deed de middeleeuwse chirurgijn als in kiezen die “siin gegaet”, caviteiten ontstonden? Dan dreigde, volgens de chirurgijn, het gevaar dat er ‘tandwormen’ in kwamen. Dat was gemakkelijk te herkennen, vond men, want als de wormen stil lagen, dan zou de kiespijn tijdelijk ophouden. Deze theorie was al heel oud, mogelijk gaat hij al terug tot in het oude Egypte.

  2. James A. Van Allen (1914-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    James A. Van Allen, who served as presidentof AGU from 1982 to 1984, died on 9August. Van Allen was president of the PlanetarySciences Section from 1964 to 1968 andpresident of the Solar-Planetary RelationshipsSection (now the Space Physics andAeronomy Section) from 1976 to 1978. Hewas awarded the John Adam Fleming Medalin 1963 and the William Bowie Medal in1977. Van Allen joined AGU in 1948.

  3. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  4. Analysis of Adaptive Team Concept through Simulation Models: A Survey (toetsing van adaptieve teamconcepten door middel van simulatiemodellen: een verkenning)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    beschikt dat ondieptes kan vaststellen dan zou op basis van ’vaart en koers ’ de mogelijkheid van ’grounding’ kunnen worden vastgesteld. Op een...omgeving aanwezig zijn hun kenmerken, zoals: afstand, hoogte, snelheid, koers , radartype, verandering van gedrag, informatie die beschikbaar komt (wat

  5. Tactisch Optreden van kleine eenheden (Small Unit Tactics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    conform artikel Armex nr. 2 april 2005. Artikel: Landmacht september 2005. Afghanistan medio 2005. PRT verricht zijn werkzaamheden onder bescherming...battalion (SRF Bn). Artikel: Rinoceros medio 2005. Blad van de 13’ Painfbrig. Verhaal van soldaat I J. Kloek die op 29 juni 2005 het Kruis van...instanties/personen ontvangen een volledig exemplaar van bet rapport. 1 DMO/SC-DR&D standaard inclusief digitale versie bijgeleverd op cd-rom 2/3 DMO/DR&D

  6. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  7. REMOTE LAND MINE(FIELD) DETECTION. An Overview of Techniques (DETECTIE VAN LANDMIJNEN EN MIJNENVELDEN OP AFSTAND. Een Overzicht van de technieken),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    systeem voor mijnen of mijnenvelden essentieel. De basis principes en sterke en zwakke punten van "real time" mijnen detectie met visuele, nabij...tweede deel van het rapport worden aanbevelingen gegeven voor een toekomstig systeem voor de detectie van mijnen. Deze aanbevelingen zijn gebaseerd...multi-sensor systeem voor op een voertuig. Dit is gebaseerd op de interesse die de "Genie" toont voor een dergelijk systeem , de kosten van een

  8. Storings analyse Ten Behoeve van het Materieelverzorgingsplan (Failure Analysis for the Maintenance Plan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    van kwantitatieve normen voor logistieke parameters, op grond waarvan de logistieke ondersteuning ontworpen moet worden. Binnen ILS wordt de logistieke...ondersteuning zodanig ingericht dat aan van tevoren vastgestelde kwantitatieve normen voor bescbikbaarheid, inzetbaarheid, betrouwbaarbeid en...9] ’Richtlijnen ten aanzien van het materieelverzorgingsplan’. Deze docuinenten geven de uitgangspunten en normen die de opsteller in acht moet nemen

  9. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  10. Wege in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  11. Bewegingshinder van Impactbeschermingsmiddelen voor de ME van de KMar (Restriction of Movement of Impact Protective Clothing for the Anti-Riot Squad of the Dutch Military Police)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    impactbeschermingsmiddelen voor de ME van de KMar Resultaten van ergonomi etesten die uitgevoerd zijn met irnpactbeschermingsmiddelen...testen van fysieke ergonomie bestaat voor deze kledingpakketten, heeft bet KPU-bedrijf TNO gevraagd hiernaar onderzoek te doen. TNO heeft al vaker voor...testen: ’V-Top’ en ’KLPD nieuwe kleding’. TNO heeft verschillende testen uitgevoerd om de kledingpakketten te beoordelen op fysieke ergonomie . TNO

  12. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  13. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  14. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  15. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  16. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  17. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  18. Kwaliteit van Expertsystemen: Algoritmen voor Integriteits-Controle (Quality of Expert Systems: Algorithms for Integrity Control)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    gelegd kan worden tussen de gebanteerde ontwikkelmetbode en algoritmen voor integriteitscontrole. In concreto komt dit neer op: * Evaluatie van...feiten) te bepalen am de beperkingsregels te kunnen lacaliseren die getvalueeiti moeten warden. In concreto moeten twee feitenverzamelingen warden...gebanteerd worden. Consistentie bij Suwa komt in concreto neer op bet detecteren van drie soorten ’potentible fouten’ in de kennisbank: tegenstrijdigbeid

  19. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  20. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  1. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  2. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  3. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  4. The Angry Dying Patient.

    PubMed

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  5. Revisiting van Hiele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papademetri-Kachrimani, Chrystalla

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I argue my opposition to the consensus which has dominated the literature that young children view shapes as a whole and pay no attention to shape structure and that geometrical thinking can be described through a hierarchical model formed by levels. This consensus is linked to van Hiele's weok by van Hiele-based research. In the…

  6. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  7. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  8. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  9. Pultrusion Die Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor); Frye, Mark W. (Inventor); Stanfield, Clarence E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pultrusion die assemblies, and more particularly, to a pultrusion die assembly which incorporates a plurality of functions in order to produce a continuous, thin composite fiber reinforced thermoplastic material. The invention is useful for making high performance thermoplastic composite materials in sheets which can be coiled on a spool and stored for further processing.

  10. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  11. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  12. Extrusion die and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, G.D.

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity. 4 figures.

  13. Die Kometenmission Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Die Rosetta-Mission ist ein Meilenstein in der Erforschung der Kometen und ihrer Entstehung. Eine der größten üerraschungen war die unregelmäßge hantelförmige Gestalt des Zielkometen 67P/Tschurjumow-Gerassimenko. Er besteht wahrscheinlich aus zwei Einzelkörpern, die durch ihre Schwerkraft aneinander gehalten werden. Seine Oberfläche ist sehr rau und zeigt eine sehr vielf ältige Morphologie, die auf eine Vielzahl von ablaufenden Prozessen hindeutet. Der Kometenkern ist vermutlich auf Gr ößnskalen von mehr als etwa 10 bis 100 Metern homogen, Inhomogenitäten auf kleineren Skalen k nnten f r seine Aktivä t verantwortlich sein. Diese ist auf kleine Gebiete konzentriert, und auch Oberflächenveränderungen, die sich innerhalb von einigen Tagen bis wenigen Wochen abspielen, sind lokal. Im Kometenmaterial wurde eine Vielzahl an organischen Substanzen gemessen, die zum Teil als Schlüsselmoleküle für die Synthese der Grundbausteine des Lebens gelten, wie wir es kennen.

  14. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  15. Van Gogh Sun

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Nicholeen Viall, a solar scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center creates images of the sun reminiscent of Van Gogh, but it's science, not art. The color of each pixel contains a wealth of i...

  16. VAN method lacks validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David D.; Kagan, Yan Y.

    Varotsos and colleagues (the VAN group) claim to have successfully predicted many earthquakes in Greece. Several authors have refuted these claims, as reported in the May 27,1996, special issue of Geophysical Research Letters and a recent book, A Critical Review of VAN [Lighthill 1996]. Nevertheless, the myth persists. Here we summarize why the VAN group's claims lack validity.The VAN group observes electrical potential differences that they call “seismic electric signals” (SES) weeks before and hundreds of kilometers away from some earthquakes, claiming that SES are somehow premonitory. This would require that increases in stress or decreases in strength cause the electrical variations, or that some regional process first causes the electrical signals and then helps trigger the earthquakes. Here we adopt their notation SES to refer to the electrical variations, without accepting any link to the quakes.

  17. Van Gogh in Arles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1985-01-01

    Recently an outstanding cross-section of works from Van Gogh's Arlesian period was on exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. His works are discussed; some samples are included. (RM)

  18. Die Zeitung der Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Christoph; Schaffert, Sebastian

    Schon lange wird spekuliert, wie wir in Zukunft Zeitung lesen werden. Werden wir am Frühstückstisch wie gewohnt in einer Zeitung aus Papier schmökern oder werden wir die Zeitung als biegsame Folie beschrieben mit elektronischer Tinte in Händen halten? Wird die Zeitung mit anderen Medien wie Radio und Fernsehen verschmelzen? Viele Varianten sind denkbar. Heute lässt sich schon ein Trend ablesen: Immer mehr Leser entdecken die Online-Zeitung als Informationsmedium, eine Voraussetzung für die Nutzung neuer Technologien in der Zeitung der Zukunft. In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Online-Zeitung dar, wie sie im Social Semantic Web möglich werden.

  19. Einführung in die Renaturierungsökologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, Stefan; Wiegleb, Gerhard; Rosenthal, Gert

    Durch die übernutzung der Naturressourcen sind heute weltweit viele natürliche wie auch durch Kultur entstandene ökosysteme und Landschaften in ihren Funktionen und Leistungen stark beeinträchtigt oder sogar völlig zerstört. Bereits vor mehr als einem Jahrzehnt konstatierte (1995), dass ca. 45 % der terrestrischen Landoberfläche nur eine reduzierte Kapazität für die zukünftige Landnutzung haben. Als Grund hob er eine in der Vergangenheit nicht nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung hervor. Mit einer gezielten Renaturierung der betroffenen ökosysteme soll dieser Trend umgekehrt werden (Harris und van Diggelen 2006). Vor diesem Hintergrund ist die ökosystemrenaturierung (ecological restoration) wichtiger Bestandteil der Planungs- und Naturschutzpraxis in Mitteleuropa und die Renaturierungsökologie (restoration ecology) zu einer eigenen wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsrichtung geworden.

  20. Space Van system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  1. Assisted Dying & Disability.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2017-07-01

    This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in this journal. I suggest that these changes are likely to only strengthen opposition to assisted dying from disability rights activists and people with disabilities. Second, I focus on respect for people with disabilities and in particular, respect for their autonomy and decision-making abilities. Third, I explore the opposition to assisted dying that focuses on risk and the vulnerability of people with disabilities. Here I suggest that this risk ought not to be of special concern. Ultimately, I conclude that upholding respect for the disabled requires the legalization of assisted dying, rather than the denial of access in a misguided effort to protect people with disabilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Lived experience of caring for dying patients in emergency room.

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Waraporn; Matchim, Yaowarat; Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Locsin, Rozzano C; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Yasuhara, Yuko

    2016-03-01

    Dying often occurs in hospitals and frequently in emergency rooms. Understanding caring for critical and dying patients is necessary for quality nursing. This study described the meaning of nurses' lived experience of caring for critical and dying patients in the emergency rooms. This study was conducted in three emergency rooms of tertiary hospitals in southern Thailand. Twelve nurses met the inclusion criteria: nurses working in emergency room for at least 2 years, and experienced caring for critical and dying patients in an emergency department. Data were collected using in-depth individual interviews. Data transcription and analysis used van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Trustworthiness was established following Lincoln and Guba's criteria. Experiences of caring for critical and dying patients revealed four thematic categories: defying death; no time for palliative care; lacking support for family; and privacy for peaceful deaths. These thematic categories reflected van Manen's four lived worlds of body, time, relations and space. The study described the meaning of the experience of caring for critical and dying patients while supporting the development of nursing knowledge for palliative and end-of-life care in emergent settings. Findings of the study influence nursing policies toward enhancing education of nurses regarding palliative and end-of-life care in emergency settings. These findings can also influence the value of caring-healing environments for critical and dying patients and their families. Policies can focus on practice and education of families particularly about end-of-life care for critical and dying patients. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Die einzelnen Beanspruchungsarten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böge, Gert; Böge, Wolfgang

    Wird ein Stab mit beliebigem, gleichbleibendem Querschnitt durch die äußere Kraft F in der Schwerachse auf Zug oder Druck beansprucht, so wird bei gleichmäßiger Spannungsverteilung, also in genügender Entfernung vom Angriffspunkt der Kraft, die Zug- oder Druckspannung σ_{z,d}= Zug- oder Druckkraft F/Querschnittsfläche A {Zug- und Druck-Hauptgleichung} σ_{z,d}=F/A\\qquad σ&F&A N/mm2 & N&mm2 Je nach vorliegender Aufgabe kann die Hauptgleichung umgestellt werden zur Berechnung des erforderlichen Querschnitts (Querschnittsnachweis): A_{erf}=F/σ_{zul} Berechnung der vorhandenen Spannung (Spannungsnachweis): σ_{vorh}=F/A Berechnung der maximal zulässigen Belastung (Belastungsnachweis): F_{max}=σ_{zul}A Treten Zug- und Druckspannungen in einer Rechnung gleichzeitig auf, werden sie durch den Index z und d oder durch das Vorzeichen + und - unterschieden.

  4. [Ellis van Creveld. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Perea, M; Luna, D; Ramírez-Cheyne, J; Saldarriaga Gil, W; Isaza, C

    2014-10-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) (OMIM # 225500) syndrome is a rare skeletal dysplasia disorder transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance. The diagnosis is made based on phenotypic characteristics such as chondrodysplasia, heart defects and polydactyly. The prognosis depends mainly on the severity of the disease, diagnosis and comprehensive management of the condition. To describe a patient diagnosed with EVC syndrome. Newborn diagnosed with EVC syndrome who presented dysmorphic facies, shortened long bones, rhizomelic shortening, small hands, brachydactyly, single transverse palmar crease, postaxial polydactyly in the upper limbs, bilateral preaxial polysyndactyly in lower limbs and hypoplastic nails, complex heart defects and narrow thorax. The evolution was unfavorable; the patient died 8 weeks after birth from complications due to heart defects. EVC syndrome is rare and unknown; therefore, it is important to spread its characteristics within the pediatric community, emphasizing that it affects multiple organ systems and requires a multidisciplinary approach to treat individually each patient, to provide genetic and reproductive counseling to couples and to give information regarding child development expectations.

  5. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  6. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have fun with. That absence leaves a big hole in our lives. Maybe you had a pet that died . Remember the first few times you walked into the house after your dog or cat was gone? It was strange not to have ...

  7. When a Baby Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Martha Jo; And Others

    Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…

  8. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  9. Poetry and the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates roles poetry can play as people confront the death of loved ones and their own dying. Gives examples of Heinrich Heine transforming his agony into art and, from the poetry of two college students, both in advanced stages of neurological disease, which was read aloud in class, teaching all present something about how to approach their…

  10. When a Student Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    A student athlete died after the first day of football practice in Texas. His parents brought suit (Roventini v. Pasadena Independent School District) for monetary damages in federal district court contending that the defendants violated the student's rights. Presents the judge's analysis of the legal issues. Advises board members and…

  11. Dying to Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    1998-01-01

    In August 1995, a young football player died as a result of heat exhaustion suffered on the first day of football practice in Arkansas. Spurred by this tragedy, the district made some changes that every school district with an athletic program should consider. These include using a heat-stress monitor; abandoning the practice of group physical…

  12. Dying in hospital.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-06-22

    While surveys consistently show that about two thirds of people want to die at home, more than half of all deaths happen in hospitals. And in their last days, many people are cared for by generalist nursing staff who may be reticent, or even afraid, to talk about what is happening.

  13. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... container is gone, but what's inside — the water — remains. The part of a person that's left after the body dies is often called the "soul" or "spirit." Some people believe the soul is the part of a human that loves, feels, and creates; it's the part ...

  14. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  15. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  16. Segments of van Gogh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that was used with first grade students in which they learn about Vincent van Gogh's style of painting. Explains that the children learn to create circles and straight lines and how to fill in with color. (CMK)

  17. Remembering Van Gogh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity in which fourth grade students created a three-dimensional representation of Vincent Van Gogh's room in Arles (France). Expounds that the students had to invent their own strategies for three-dimensional construction and two-dimensional embellishment. Provides directions for creating the room and bed. (CMK)

  18. Heath Van Essen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Heath Van Essen, Respondent, an individual who owns or operates an animal feeding operation (“Facility”) that is located in Section 27 of Township 98 North, Range 47 West,

  19. Pythagoras Meets Van Hiele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfinio

    1993-01-01

    Develops the Pythagorean Theorem in the context of the Van Hiele levels by presenting activities appropriate for each level. Activities point to preparatory development (level 0), give 3 different versions of Euclid's proof (levels 1, 2, and 3), give some generalizations of the theorem (level 3), and explore the Pythagorean relationship in other…

  20. Pythagoras Meets Van Hiele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfinio

    1993-01-01

    Develops the Pythagorean Theorem in the context of the Van Hiele levels by presenting activities appropriate for each level. Activities point to preparatory development (level 0), give 3 different versions of Euclid's proof (levels 1, 2, and 3), give some generalizations of the theorem (level 3), and explore the Pythagorean relationship in other…

  1. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  2. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  3. Die kalte Zunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Sören; Müller, Rüdiger

    Gefühlte Temperaturen. Ist ein Null Grad Celsius kalter Metallstab eigentlich kälter als ein Holzstab mit der selben Temperatur? Rein physikalisch gesehen natürlich nicht, aber wenn wir beide Stäbe anfassen, kommt uns der Metallstab deutlich kälter vor. Und wer kennt nicht die Szene aus dem Film Dumm und Dümmer in der Harry mit seiner Zunge am Metallrahmen des Skilifts hängen bleibt.Würde das auch passieren, wenn man an einem eiskalten Stück Holz lecken würde? Wohl kaum, doch woran liegt das eigentlich? Unterschiedliche Materialien haben verschiedene Fähigkeiten, Wärme zu übertragen und zu leiten. So transportiert Metall die von der Zunge ausgehende Wärme sehr schnell weiter und verändert seine Temperatur kaum, während die Zunge abkühlt. Holz hingegen leitet Wärme fast gar nicht und daher wird der Teil, der von der Zunge berührt wird, aufgewärmt.

  4. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  5. 'We Have No Dying Patients'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lisa

    1974-01-01

    A course on death and dying offered by the University of Maryland School of Nursing focuses on developing relationships between health care workers and dying people, using actual clients as the vehicle for learning. (Author/EA)

  6. Designing a Die for Hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Radu

    2016-12-01

    Designing a die is in every application field an intensive process of bringing together know how from design, testing and every-day use from previous dies with the new application requirements. Contribution deals with a knowledge oriented, modular and feature integrated computer aided design system for die development. This paper describes the concepts behind designing a hydroforming die for sheet metal forming, with easy application-use in small workshops for testing hydroforming capabilities of different materials.

  7. Van Gogh from Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Van Gogh from Space - July 13th, 2005 Description: In the style of Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night," massive congregations of greenish phytoplankton swirl in the dark water around Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea. Phytoplankton are microscopic marine plants that form the first link in nearly all ocean food chains. Population explosions, or blooms, of phytoplankton, like the one shown here, occur when deep currents bring nutrients up to sunlit surface waters, fueling the growth and reproduction of these tiny plants. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  8. Van Horn folio, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, G.B.

    1914-01-01

    The Van Horn quadrangle is situated in EL Paso and Culberson counties, Tex., about 100 miles southeast of El Paso.  It is bounded by parallels 31° and 31° 30' and meridians 104° 30' and 105° and incluedes 1019 square miles.  This area lies within the Cordilleran region, about midway between Peco River and teh Rio Grande, and forms a part of what is known as trans-Pecos Texas.  

  9. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  10. [Van Helmont and gas].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Johan Baptista van Helmont (1579-1644) was born in Brussels, around the time the Southern Netherlands ceased their resistance against the Spanish rule. He studied a variety of disciplines in Louvain and made a 'grand tour' in Europe, but remained dissatisfied with traditional knowledge, which he regarded as empty phrases and sophistry. His spouse being wealthy, he devoted himself to studying nature anew, unencumbered by prejudice, as Paracelsus (1493-1541) had done before him. Yet in his attempts to explain living and inanimate matter he could not avoid making basic assumptions. Among these was his view that there were only two elements: water and air. Water might carry elementary seeds from which a variety of substances could develop. When a substance was consumed by fire, an ethereal essence would remain, which he called 'Gas' (a term perhaps derived from Paracelsian 'chaos', perhaps from 'Geist'). Today 'gas' is defined as the volatile state of a given substance, but in Van Helmont's view it was mainly a metaphysical characteristic. Most of Van Helmont's work was published only after his death, through a verdict of the Spanish Inquisition.

  11. Dying with dignity.

    PubMed

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Rep. George Brown dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    George E. Brown, ranking Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee, died on July 15 at the age of 79 due to complications following a heart valve replacement last May. He was a strong advocate for science and environmental protection measures, and an independent thinker who sometimes found himself alone or far ahead of other people on issues. A congressman for 34 years who represented first the 29th Congressional District and then the 42nd District in California, Brown served on the science committee since 1965 and was chair from 1991 through 1994.

  13. First NATO/SIBCA Exercise in Sampling of Chemical Warfare Agents (Eerste NATO/SIBCA-oefening in monstername van chemische strijdmiddelen).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    hoog model, circa 50 liter), 3 stuks ; plastic afvalbakken (laag model, circa 30 liter), 8 stuks ; DS2-apparaten met patronen; 10 liter Saval...Voor monsters van materialen die niet of siecht in de monsterpotten kunnen worden gebracht, zoals bijvoorbeeld vegetatie of een stuk kunststof, zijn...benodigdheden voor monsterneming Bijlage 2 Materieel verzorgd door teamleden van de NBC-school materiaal voor afbakenen van terrein CAM’S, 4 stuks

  14. [Johann van Beethoven (1776-1848)].

    PubMed

    Eikermann, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The article about the life and achievements of the apothecary Johann van Beethoven, the younger brother of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, depicts a vivid picture of life in the 18th, 19t century. Research on archived original documents in Bonn, Vienna and Linz on the Danube made it possible to reveal details about the relationship inside this famous family and describes the hurdles of life of a successful apothecary. In 1776 Johann van Beethoven was born as the fourth child of the Beethoven family, a family of Bonner musicians. In 1790 he began his apprenticeship to become an apothecary at the Bonner "Hofapotheke". Towards the end of 1795 he moved to join his older brothers Ludwig and Karl in Vienna. During his time there he worked as a "subject" in various Viennese pharmacies. However in 1808 he purchased the pharmacy "Zur Goldenen Krone" in Linz on the Danube. His new pharmacy flourished, supplying first the Napoleonic occupation troops, and later the Austrian Military with medicines and field dressing/bandage materials. When in 1812 he married his Housekeeper, his Brother Ludwig opposed harshly, on reasons of social status and on moral grounds. Four years later, in 1816 Johann sold the pharmacy in Linz and founded a new pharmacy in Urfahr, on the opposite bank of the Danube. In 1819 he became a squire (or landowner), when he purchased a manor estate in Gneixendorf, near Krems on the Danube. In spite of his numerous duties as an apothecary and squire, Johann was frequently resident in Vienna, supporting his brother both emotionally and pharmaceutically. At the end of his life Johann sold both his pharmacy and the Gneixendorf estate, and spent his last years as a private gentleman living a dazzling lifestyle in Vienna. He died on January 12th 1848 and was buried in Vienna's "Waldmüllerpark".

  15. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  16. Van Gogh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roka, Y B; Thapa, R; Puri, P R; Aryal, S

    2011-04-01

    Self injury is the intentional and direct injury to self that include bite, burn, ulceration and head banging. These injuries are rarely fatal and are usually not suicidal in nature. This behavior is common among adolescents, psychiatric patients and in females. Bipolar disorder, drug abuse and metabolic syndromes like LeschNyhan and Munchausen's syndrome are often associated with this disorder. Repetitive self mutilation is termed the Van Gogh syndrome after the famous painter who cut off his ear and gave it to a prostitute. We describe two such cases of self mutilation in schizophrenic patients.

  17. Die großen Zeppeline: Die Geschichte des Luftschiffbaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinheins, Peter; Meighörner, Wolfgang

    Über die glanzvolle Zeit der Zeppeline sind viele Bücher erschienen, die vorwiegend den Einsatz der Luftschiffe in Frieden und Krieg schildern. Nur wenige wissen, dass die Baugeschichte der Zeppeline eine der faszinierendsten Phasen der modernen Technik ist. Peter Kleinheins hat dieses Geschehen sachkundig aufgearbeitet und zusammengestellt. Entstanden ist eine reich illustrierte Dokumentation in einer interessanten Mischform aus zeitgenössischen Berichten und hochwertigen Originalquellen.

  18. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  19. Defending commercial surrogate motherhood against Van Niekerk and Van Zyl.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, H V

    1997-12-01

    The arguments of Van Niekerk and Van Zyl that, on the grounds that it involves an inappropriate commodification and alienation of women's labour, commercial surrogate motherhood (CSM) is morally suspect are discussed and considered to be defective. In addition, doubt is cast on the notion that CSM should be illegal.

  20. Where people die.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources. PMID:515338

  1. Development of osmoregulatory tissues in the Lake van fish (Alburnus tarichi) during larval development.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R

    2017-09-27

    Lake Van is one of the largest alkaline lakes worldwide and Lake Van Fish (Alburnus tarichi Güldenstädt, 1814) is the only vertebrate species inhabiting it. Lake Van Fish is an anadromous species that migrates to the streams (salinity 0.02%, pH 8.42) flowing into Lake Van (salinity 0.22%, pH 9.8) during the spawning period (April-July). Following spawning, fish return to Lake Van while larvae remain in fresh water. This study examined the development of osmoregulatory organs and the distribution of ionocytes in Lake Van Fish larvae adapting to the highly alkaline water characterizing the lake. Ionocytes were marked immunohistochemically and observed in whole mounts with immunofluorescence staining using the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase antibody. Ionocytes were first identified in the yolk sac membrane and skin, and then in the gills, digestive tract, and kidneys of larvae. The number of ionocytes on yolk sac membrane and skin decreased during larval development, indicating ionocytes on these tissues have a role in larvae osmoregulation. Larvae hatched from eggs in stream waters die when transferred to Lake Van water but survived in lake water diluted with deionized water. Thus, larvae need to go through certain alterations at the cellular and organ levels in order to adapt to the conditions of Lake Van water, indicating they do not enter this lake immediately after hatching.

  2. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  3. Die Milchstraße.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, N.; Couper, H.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, from the English original "The guide to the Galaxy", published in 1994 (see Abstr. 61.003.065). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung unserer Galaxis. 2. Die Lokale Gruppe. 3. Die Geographie der Galaxis. 4. Der Perseus-Arm. 5. Der Orion-Arm. 6. Unsere lokale Nachbarschaft: ein typischer Winkel der Galaxis. 7. Der Sagittarius-Arm: innerhalb der Sonnenumlaufbahn. 8. Das Zentrum der Galaxis.

  4. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  5. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  6. Adapt or die?

    PubMed

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  7. Dying and 'euthanasia'.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1992-07-01

    Medical progress, secularisation of life, growing acceptance of individual human rights (including the right to refuse medical treatment) and of shared decision-making in medicine have focused public attention on the ways in which life may, and perhaps even ought to, be allowed to end in our complex modern era. Intense and thoughtful bio-ethical debate over many years has 'unpacked' the many different understandings and interpretations of the word euthanasia. The consequent conceptual clarification together with recognition and acknowledgement of psychological implications has facilitated a growing rational consensus on openly accepting the withholding and withdrawing of treatment (under defined conditions) within the realm of sound medical practice. This is clearly distinct from assisted suicide and active euthanasia which are generally considered unacceptable perversions of medical practice. Given the ability to sustain life for prolonged periods, often in a permanent state of unconsciousness, the unrealistic expectations of some medical personnel and the lay public, the severe constraints on health care facilities in South Africa and the totally inadequate allocation of resources for highly effective medical treatments, it is appropriate to re-open public debate on the limits of 'striving officiously to keep alive' and on the distinction between 'allowing to die' and 'killing'. Concern that 'rational' arguments reflect moral decay rather than moral progress keeps the debate open and focuses attention on some 'slippery slope' consequences.

  8. I Could Have Died Laughing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael Forrest; Smith, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Notes that caregivers of the dying would do well to consider the prescriptive power of humor when confronting the challenges of healthy care for the terminally ill. Addresses laughter as the best medicine not only for the dying person but also for family and principal caregivers. Includes examples of therapeutic use of humor with the terminally…

  9. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  10. Meetopstelling van een Gepulste CO2 Laser Afstandsmeter met Heterodyne Detectie (Experimental Set-Up for a Pulsed CO2 Laser Range-Finder with Heterodyne Detection)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    voor een staande golf om te resoneren via een andere weg dan door het midden van de cavity. Meestal kan door het verdraaien van het tralie hier iets aan...gedaan worden. Mogelijkerwijs speelt ook hier het tralie dus een rol. Tot slot is gebleken dat de RF laser, die gevoed wordt door een wissel- spanning...laser. Bij beide lasers is het mogelijk door middel van hat verstellen van een tralie een lijn uit bet C0 2-spectrum in de 9 en 10 pm band te selekteren

  11. Imaging van der Waals Interactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhumin; Wei, Xinyuan; Xu, Chen; Chiang, Chi-Lun; Zhang, Yanxing; Wu, Ruqian; Ho, W

    2016-12-15

    The van der Waals interactions are responsible for a large diversity of structures and functions in chemistry, biology, and materials. Discussion of van der Waals interactions has focused on the attractive potential energy that varies as the inverse power of the distance between the two interacting partners. The origin of the attractive force is widely discussed as being due to the correlated fluctuations of electron charges that lead to instantaneous dipole-induced dipole attractions. Here, we use the inelastic tunneling probe to image the potential energy surface associated with the van der Waals interactions of xenon atoms.

  12. van Leeuwenhoek microscopes-where are they now?

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-05-01

    When Antonie van Leeuwenhoek died, he left over 500 simple microscopes, aalkijkers (an adaption of his microscope to allow the examination of blood circulation in the tails of small eels) and lenses, yet now there are only 10 microscopes with a claim to being authentic, one possible aalkijker and six lenses. He made microscopes with more than one lens, and possibly three forms of the aalkijker. This paper attempts to establish exactly what he left and trace the fate of some of the others using the earliest possible documents and publications.

  13. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  14. Stirling Powered Van Progam overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The Stirling Powered Van Program (SPVP) is a multiyear, multiphase program to evaluate the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) in Air Force vans under realistic conditions. The objective of the SPVP is to transfer to manufacturer and end user(s) (i.e., on the path to commercialization) the second-generation Mod 2 ASE upon completion of the Automotive Stirling Engine Program in 1987. In order to meet this objective, the SPVP must establish Stirling performance, integrity, reliability, durability and maintainability. The ASE program background leading to the van program is reviewed and plans for evaluating the kinematic Stirling engine in Air Force vans examined. Also discussed are the NASA technology transfers to industry that have been accomplished and those which are currently being developed.

  15. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Chondroectodermal dysplasia; EVC ... 1 of 2 Ellis-van Creveld syndrome genes ( EVC and EVC2 ). These genes are positioned next to ... performed for mutations in 1 of the 2 EVC genes Skeletal x-ray Ultrasound Urinalysis

  16. Van der Waals quintessence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-01-15

    The van der Waals quintessence equation of state is an interesting scenario for describing the late universe, and seems to provide a solution to the puzzle of dark energy, without the presence of exotic fluids or modifications of the Friedmann equations. In this work, the construction of inhomogeneous compact spheres supported by a van der Waals equation of state is explored. These relativistic stellar configurations shall be denoted as van der Waals quintessence stars. Despite of the fact that, in a cosmological context, the van der Waals fluid is considered homogeneous, inhomogeneities may arise through gravitational instabilities. Thus, these solutions may possibly originate from density fluctuations in the cosmological background. Two specific classes of solutions, namely, gravastars and traversable wormholes are analyzed. Exact solutions are found, and their respective characteristics and physical properties are further explored.

  17. Stirling Powered Van Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    The Stirling Powered Van Program (SPVP) is a multiyear, multiphase program to evaluate the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) in Air Force vans under realistic conditions. The objective of the SPVP is to have a manufacturer and end user(s) (i.e., on the path to commercialization) of the second-generation Mod II ASE upon completion of the Automotive Stirling Engine Program in 1987. In order to meet this objective, the SPVP must establish Stirling performance, integrity, reliability, durability, and maintainability. This paper reviews the ASE Program background leading to the Van Program and focuses on plans for evaluating the kinematic Stirling engine in Air Force vans. Also discussed are the NASA technology transfers to industry that have been accomplished and those which are currently being developed.

  18. Stirling Powered Van Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    The Stirling Powered Van Program (SPVP) is a multiyear, multiphase program to evaluate the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) in Air Force vans under realistic conditions. The objective of the SPVP is to have a manufacturer and end user(s) (i.e., on the path to commercialization) of the second-generation Mod II ASE upon completion of the Automotive Stirling Engine Program in 1987. In order to meet this objective, the SPVP must establish Stirling performance, integrity, reliability, durability, and maintainability. This paper reviews the ASE Program background leading to the Van Program and focuses on plans for evaluating the kinematic Stirling engine in Air Force vans. Also discussed are the NASA technology transfers to industry that have been accomplished and those which are currently being developed. 14 refs.

  19. Dying: A universal human experience?

    PubMed

    Bregman, L

    1989-03-01

    This paper explores the question, "Is there a universal psychological experience suffered by all dying persons?" a question to which the popular theory of Kübler-Ross presupposes an affirmative answer. Our answer takes three steps: first, a comparison between the Kübler-Ross model of dying and that of the late medievalBook of the Craft of Dying centered upon the five Kübler-Ross "stages"; second, a philosophical critique of the terms of this comparison; and third, a revised look at the alleged similarities between the two models, providing a deeper look at the moral and spiritual assumptions behind each.

  20. Die Sonne, Stern unserer Erde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Ehlers, A.

    Dieses reich bebilderte Buch gibt eine Einführung in die Physik der Sonne und ihre Bedeutung für die Erde. Gestützt auf neueste Forschungsergebnisse aus Radioteleskop- und Satellitenbeobachtungen beschreibt der Autor die gewaltigen atomenergetischen Prozesse der Sonne, ihren geheimnisvollen Neutrinofluß, ihre seismischen Aktivitäten, Magnetfelder und Sonnenflecke, Korona, Sonnenausbrüche und Protuberanzen, den Sonnenwind, und die außerordentlich wichtige und vielfältige Bedeutung des Sonnenlichts, das Leben auf der Erde entstehen läßt und es auch gefährdet. Gut verständlich und in ansprechender Sprache geschrieben ist es ein wunderbares Buch für den Leser populärwissenschaftlicher Literatur, ein wertvolles Geschenk für Studenten der Astronomie und verwandter Disziplinen sowie Amateurastronomen.

  1. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  2. Heat treatment of forging dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovnar, S. A.; Kadnikov, S. A.

    1987-08-01

    In forging-die production there is a considerable range of forging dies which are promising for a changeover into advanced heat treatment involving bulk temper hardening and surface hardening using induction heating. The heat treatment suggested provides a saving of material resources as a result of improving the life of forging dies by a factor of 1.5-3 depending on the grade of die steel. As a result of induction hardening of forging dies, after temper hardening close to the boundary of the hardened layer a zone of reduced hardness forms whose unfavorable effect may be reduced by using before induction surface hardening bulk warming in a furnace or deep induction heating with a reduced energy concentration in the heating zone to the tempering temperature in the temper hardening cycle. In order to improve the uniformity of induction surface hardening for dies with a complex working shape it is desirable to use heating at reduced power with an increase in heating time.

  3. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  4. Twisted Van der Waals Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, Satrio; Rossi, Enrico

    Van der Waals systems formed by two-dimensional (2D) crystals and nanostructures possess electronic properties that make them extremely interesting for basic science and for possible technological applications. By tuning the relative angle (the twist angle) between the layers, or nanostructures, forming the Van der Waals systems experimentalists have been able to control the stacking configuration of such systems. We study the dependence on the twist angle of the electronic properties of two classes of Van der Waals systems: double layers formed by two, one-atom thick, layers of a metal dichalcogenide such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and graphene nanoribbons on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate. We present results that show how, for both classes of systems, the electronic properties can be strongly tuned via the twist angle. Work supported by ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5 and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  5. Acting to let someone die.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  7. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  8. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  9. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  10. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  11. Five-body van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing

    2017-06-01

    We report on the five-body repulsive and attractive van der Waals interactions between the strongly dipole-dipole coupled Rydberg states. Compared to four-body van der Waals interactions, five-body van der Waals interactions show more energy levels and more potential wells caused by avoided crossings. This research bridges the few-body physics and many-body physics. Other disciplines, such as chemistry, biology, and medical fields, will also benefit from better understanding van der Waals interactions.

  12. Mobile Telemetry Van Remote Control Upgrade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Advantages of Remote Control System Upgrade • Summary Overview • Remote control of Telemetry Mobile Ground Support ( TMGS ) Van proposed to allow...NWC) personnel provided valuable data for full-function remote control of telemetry tracking vans Background • TMGS Vans support Flight Test...control capability from main TM site at Building 5790 currently allows support via TMGS Van at nearby C- 15 Site, Plant 42 in Palmdale, and as far

  13. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  14. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  15. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  16. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  17. Automatic hybrid electric lumina van

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A parallel/Series split-drive hybrid system driving a seven passenger Lumina van is described. The series type hybrid uses a heat-engine driven generator to charge the batteries and/or supply power to the electric drive motor. Volvo is now showing the Volvo ECC (Environmental Concept Car) which is one of the best examples of the series hybrid concept.

  18. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  19. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets,...

  20. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  1. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  2. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  3. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  4. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Thomas Charles Van Flandern, an expert in celestial mechanics and cosmology, died January 9, 2009 in Seattle, Washington, of colon cancer. He was 68. Van Flandern was an astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory from 1963 to 1983. He developed software to predict and analyze lunar occultations to improve lunar orbital and fundamental star catalog data. In later years he championed increasingly controversial theories. But his 1978 prediction that some asteroids have natural satellites, which was almost universally rejected, was verified when the Galileo spacecraft photographed Dactyl, a satellite of (243) Ida, during its flyby in 1993. Besides astronomy and computers, he had strong interests in biochemistry and nutrition, and he ran a business selling personal computers in the 1980s. Tom Van Flandern was born June 26, 1940 in Cleveland, Ohio, the first child of Robert F. Van Flandern and Anna Mary Haley. His father, a police officer, left the family when Tom Van Flandern was 5. His mother died when he was 16; he and his siblings then lived with their grandmother, Margery Jobe, until he went to college. Tom Van Flandern became interested in astronomy as a child. He used his first telescope, purchased with newspaper delivery earnings, to observe lunar occultations, and then learned how to predict them, sparking a life-long passion for dynamical astronomy. While attending St. Ignatius High School, Van Flandern and fellow student Thomas Petrie organized the Cleveland Moonwatch team to observe the first artificial satellites, the only team without an adult organizer. In 1958, Tom Van Flandern entered Xavier University where he led the Cincinnati Moonwatch team. He learned computer programming at a summer job with General Electric and wrote software to calculate "look angles" from orbital elements. The Cincinnati team became a top producer of observations using these predictions. Tom obtained a B.S. in mathematics from Xavier in 1962. He spent the next year at

  5. A micro-mechanical evaluation of the effects of die hardener on die stone.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Hong; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Planitz, Nina; Swain, Michael V

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of a die hardener penetrated layer and evaluate its protective effects on the surface of die stone. A commercial die hardener (PDQ die hardener, Whipmix corp., USA) was tested on a die stone (GC Fujirock EP die stone, GC Europe, Belgium) and a dental plaster (Dental Stone, United States Gypsum Company, USA). Nanoindentation and micro-scratch tests were performed on both coated and uncoated specimens. The scratch damage was observed by SEM and the penetration depth of die hardener was detected by the affiliated EDX. Upon drying, the die hardener penetrated into the die stone to a depth of 3-5 microm, and deposited a thin film on the surface of die stone. Although the die hardener penetrated layer did not show improved mechanical properties, the die hardener film on the surface did protect the specimens from abrasion damage.

  6. Exploratory study on H13 steel dies

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    Ultrahigh-strength H13 steel is a recommended die material for aluminum die casting; dies made from H13 steel can be safely water- cooled during hot working operations without cracking. However, after time the dies exhibited surface cracking and excessive wear. Erosive wear also occurs owing to high pressure injection of molten Al. An exploratory study was made of the causes for surface cracking of H13 dies. Results suggest that surface cracking is caused by interrelated factors, internal to the die material as well as externally induced conditions.

  7. Integrated Forming Simulations and Die Structural Analysis for Optimal Die Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitharaju, Venkat; Liu, Malcolm; Dong, Jennifer; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, Chuan-tao

    2005-08-01

    After gaining a huge success in applying stamping simulations and formability analysis to validate die face developments, GM moves forward to winning total manufacturability in stamping process. Of which, ensuring die structure integrity and minimizing weight is one of the important initiatives. Stamping die design (or solid modeling of stamping dies) was traditionally conducted by following the die design manuals and standards. For any design changes beyond the standards, however, there are no math-based tools available to die designers to verify the outcome of the changes. Die structural analysis (DSA) provides a math-tool to validate the design changes and quantify the safety factors. Several years ago, GM Manufacturing Engineering — Die Center started die structural analysis to meet the increasing demands of customer needs in various areas: (1) to validate design changes; (2) to identify root cause of die breakage during the tryout and stamping operations and propose repair schemes; (3) to optimize the die design for weight reduction; (4) to improve press throughput via optimizing the scrap chute openings, and (5) to provide a math-based tool to validate revisions to the current die design standards. In the integrated forming and die structural analysis, after successful line die surface developments, the forming loads (binder force, pad force, and forming tonnages) are extracted from forming simulations and applied to solid die members for structural analyses of stress, strains, and deflections. In the past few years, Die Center conducted static, dynamic and fatigue analysis for many dies that covers the die design changes requested by die design, die construction and stamping plants. This paper presents some fundamentals and issues of integrated forming and die structural analysis and illustrates the significant impact of die structural analysis on die design, die construction and production stamping.

  8. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed

    Frost, Thomas D G; Sinha, Devan; Gilbert, Barnabas J

    2014-01-15

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion "This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying". This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework.

  9. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Husak, D N

    1979-01-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  10. Adolescents’ Perceived Risk of Dying

    PubMed Central

    Fischhoff, Baruch; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Parker, Andrew M.; Millstein, Susan G.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Although adolescents’ expectations are accurate or moderately optimistic for many significant life events, they greatly overestimate their chances of dying soon. We examine here whether adolescents’ mortality judgments are correlated with their perceptions of direct threats to their survival. Such sensitivity would indicate the importance of ensuring that adolescents have accurate information about those threats, as well as the psychological support needed to deal with them. Methods Data from two separate studies were used: a national study of 3,436 14–18 year old adolescents and a regional sample of 124 7th graders and 132 9th graders, 12–16 years old. Participants were asked about their chance of dying in the next year and before age 20, and about the extent of various threats to their physical well being. Results Adolescents in both samples greatly overestimated their chance of dying. Those mortality estimates were higher for adolescents who reported direct threats (e.g., an unsafe neighborhood). Thus, adolescents were sensitive to the relative size of threats to their survival, but not to the implications for absolute risk levels. Conclusions Contrary to the folk wisdom that adolescents have a unique sense of invulnerability, those studied here reported an exaggerated sense of mortality, which was highest among those reporting greater threats in their lives. Such fears could affect adolescents’ short-term well being and future planning. PMID:20159504

  11. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  12. Letting die and mercy killing.

    PubMed

    Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

    2003-01-01

    We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia'). The word "killing" seems proper for euthanasia, because "to kill" does mean " to intentionally cause the death of someone." It can be morally acceptable to withhold or withdraw a treatment precisely because it is reasonably judged as inefficacious (futile), or excessively burdensome for the patient. One's reason for withholding such treatment must not be a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the patient's life, but a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the treatment, which is futile or burdensome.

  13. Guide for extrusion dies eliminates straightening operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.; Hoover, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent distortion of extruded metal, a guidance assembly is aligned with the die. As the metal emerges from the extrusion dies, it passes directly into the receiver and straightening tube system, and the completed extrusion is withdrawn.

  14. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  15. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  16. Description of the Rayflux Ray Tracing Program and Comparison to Other Models and Measurements (Beschrijving van het Rayflux Ray Tracing Programma en Vergelijing Met Andere Modellen en Metingen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    ontwikkeld amn geluidniveaus te voorspeilen. Deze metbode berekent bet geluidniveau door het aantal geluidstralen die een bepaald opperviak treffen te...vergelijken met bet aantal wat in bet vrije veld dat opperviak zou treffen . Dit levert voor lage frequenties een middeling op van de ongewenste...die de onivanger (x,z) precies treffen noemen we eigenrays, en worden gekarakteriseerd door hun lanceerhoek. Om de Excess Attenuation te berekenen

  17. Occurrence of the vancomycin-resistant genes vanA, vanB, vanCl, vanC2 and vanC3 in Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry and pork.

    PubMed

    Lemcke, R; Bülte, M

    2000-09-25

    It is suspected that the use of avoparcin as a feeding antibiotic for the fat stock contributes to development of cross-resistance against vancomycin and teicoplanin. After isolating enterococci strains from poultry and pork meat by cultivation on citrate azide Tween carbonate agar (CATC) and screening the vancomycin resistance on Columbia colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA, supplemented with 5% sheepblood and 5 mg vancomycin/l) the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the vancomycin resistance genes vanA ('high level'), vanB ('moderate high level'), vanC1, vanC2 and vanC3 ('low level'). Out of 1643 E.-isolates from 115 poultry and 50 pork samples, 420 isolates could be identified as vancomycin resistant, 202 isolates of which carry the vanA, one isolate both the vanA and the vanC1, 38 isolates the vanC1, 14 isolates the vanC2, nine isolates both the vanC1 and the vanC3 gene and 156 isolates carry no gene. The vanB gene was not found in these isolates. Comparing vanA-positive food isolates with those from different human sources by means of the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) it could clearly be demonstrated that they do not show homological fingerprints according to the source of origin. It is therefore unlikely that there is a close genetic relationship between isolates from animal foodstuff and humans.

  18. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  19. 77 FR 64580 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Van Nuys Airport, Van Nuys, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Angeles World Airports, Environmental Services Division, 7301 World Way West, 3rd Floor, Los Angeles... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Van Nuys Airport, Van Nuys, California... Airports, for Van Nuys Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (Aviation Safety and...

  20. Indoor Radon Measurement in Van

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Celebi, N.; Dogan, I.

    2007-04-23

    In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

  1. Rotary press utilizing a flexible die wall.

    PubMed

    Amidon, G E; Smith, D P; Hiestand, E N

    1981-06-01

    A die with a flexible wall was constructed and evaluated on a specially modified instrumented rotary tablet press. The design permits an inward deflection of the die wall by a side punch, which rolls past a side compression roll during compression-decompression. The side compression roll is instrumented to monitor the applied side compression roll forces. On decompression, return of the die wall to its original position permits release of residual die wall pressure. The decreased residual die wall pressure can decrease fracture and capping of tablets for problem formulations. The performance was tested on three experimental formulations. For these formulations, tablets made in a conventional die exhibited severe capping problems. However, most tablets compressed in the special die were superior. With proper adjustment of punch and die wall compression forces, excellent tablets could be manufactured. The merits of the special die and modified tablet machine are substantiated, although this initial design did not provide adequate die wall pressure for all formulations. Further engineering efforts could result in practical production equipment.

  2. Psychiatry and the dying prisoner.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Due to the growing number of ageing prisoners in the American correctional system, penal institutions are increasingly caring for patients with chronic and potentially terminal medical conditions. To address this problem states have attempted sentencing reform initiatives and adopted compassionate release programmes; however, these efforts have failed to significantly reduce the number of elderly or seriously ill inmates. Correctional mental health services are now called upon to aid in the care of prisoners at the end of life. This article presents the common elements of prison hospice programmes and the role psychiatry plays in this multidisciplinary effort. The right-to-die movement holds future implications for correctional mental health professionals. The historical and legal background of this international movement is presented with particular attention given to landmark cases and statutes protecting institutionalized patients.

  3. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  4. Bacteria Interactions with Dying Diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smriga, S.; Juarez, G.; Fernandez, V.; Stocker, R.

    2016-02-01

    Dying phytoplankton are surrounded by microscale gradients of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can attract bacteria. These 'phycospheres' may impact the trophic transfer of DOM in the marine microbial food web and enable the growth of bacterial populations, yet these effects remain poorly quantified particularly in relation to the physiological state of the phytoplankton. We dissected phycosphere interactions at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution using the model diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the bacterium Marinobacter adhaerans. Diatom stress was stimulated by addition of polyunsaturated aldehyde (PUA) and both diatom and bacterial responses were captured via time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. We found that stressed diatoms underwent lysis 10-15 h after PUA treatment. Coordinated with the timing of this transition into phytodetritus, wild-type Marinobacter accumulated via chemotaxis near the diatoms immediately following lysis. In contrast, at lysis there was no accumulation of either a non-chemotactic or a non-motile mutant of Marinobacter, pointing to behavioral rather than demographic responses as drivers for the accumulation. Despite the lack of response, non-chemotactic as well as non-swimming bacterial cells that by chance attached to or were located near (<30 µm) stressed diatoms experienced more growth than cells further afield. Growth within the phycosphere was even greater after diatom lysis. Through quantification at the microscale, these results reveal that chemotaxis may precede rapid bacterial attachment to stressed and dying diatoms and may be integral to the microbial colonization of new phytodetritus during phytoplankton blooms and bloom collapses in coastal ecosystems. Even while chemotactic cells retain a growth advantage given their ability to sense and respond to lysis events, phycosphere DOM provides growth benefits to both motile and non-motile taxa that become attached to or happen to be co-located with new

  5. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  6. Van Go: A Labor of Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Like a tapestry woven with one outstanding thread from beginning to end, the author's forty-year tenure as an art educator has its golden thread in her Van Go art outreach project. Quite literally, she takes students in a "van" and they "go," mostly on dirt roads, taking art to rural schools in Idaho, some of which have no more…

  7. Van Go: A Labor of Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Like a tapestry woven with one outstanding thread from beginning to end, the author's forty-year tenure as an art educator has its golden thread in her Van Go art outreach project. Quite literally, she takes students in a "van" and they "go," mostly on dirt roads, taking art to rural schools in Idaho, some of which have no more…

  8. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  9. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C [Tucson, AZ; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Clews, Peggy J [Tijeras, NM; Baker, Michael S [Albuquerque, NM; De Boer, Maarten P [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  10. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  11. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  12. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasalawad, Shilpa S; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Poonacha, K S; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-07-09

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome or chondroectodermal dysplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic clinical manifestations. The four principal characteristics are chondrodysplasia, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and congenital heart defects. Its incidence in the general population is low. The oral manifestations of EvC syndrome include both soft tissues and teeth, but the dental literature on the subject is scarce. The present case describes the constant and variable oral findings in these patients, which can be diagnosed at any age, even during pregnancy. The presence of a variety of oral manifestations, such as fusion of upper lip to the gingival margin, presence of multiple frenula, abnormally shaped and microdontic teeth and congenitally missing teeth requires multidisciplinary dental treatment, with consideration for the high incidence of cardiac defects in these patients.

  13. Goethe almost died of urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Gross, A J; Hummel, G

    1999-12-01

    In the year of 1805, Goethe almost died of urosepsis. His urological problems were not diseases arising from full health but a new variation in a life accompanied by illnesses. Some sources date the first colics he experienced to the year 1795 and others say 1805. The most dramatic period in the course of his illness was in February, when he suffered from fever of such an extent that one could speak of urosepsis. Recovery took place slowly and was accompanied by minor relapses. Nothing about this is written down in his work. On the advice of his doctors, Goethe undertook a cure in Lauchstädt in July and August. The report of his consultant, Professor Johann Christian Reil, on his problems in the field of urology remained undiscovered until 1937. Professor Reil recommended treatment with thermae carolinae, aqua calcis, soap soda crystallisata, herbae subastringentes, and uva ursi, among other measures. With increasing age, Goethe's colics disappeared. The passing of a stone has never been described. Whereas Goethe hinted about medical problem other than those reported herein, the urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned. Nonetheless, literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting from the aspect of both the history of medicine and the history of culture.

  14. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  15. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  16. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  17. Death and Dying: Issues for Educational Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore, Myers, Jane E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on death orientations, the dying process, and bereavement, with a major focus on the elderly. Suggests that relevant knowledge about death and dying are important for gerontological practitioners and proposes that death-related content be systematically integrated into academic curricula at the preservice and inservice levels.…

  18. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  19. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  20. Puzzling cases about killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Favor, C D

    1996-01-01

    Discussions of euthanasia often appeal to the distinction between killing people and letting them die. Favor asks whether this distinction is morally important--in particular, whether killing is worse than merely letting someone die, even when the motivations and consequences are the same. She explores our moral intuitions via a discussion of various subtly different hypothetical examples.

  1. Killing and letting die: a defensible distinction.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, W

    1996-04-01

    The distinction between killing and letting die is investigated and clarified. It is then argued that in most cases, though not in all, it is worse to kill than to let die. In euthanasia the significance of the distinction is diminished, but still important.

  2. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  3. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  4. Killing, letting die, and simple conflicts.

    PubMed

    Malm, H M

    1989-01-01

    Proponents of the moral equivalence of killing and letting die argue that in cases of simple conflict, where one agent must either perform a positive act and kill one person, or not perform that act and allow another person to die, the agent's alternatives are clearly morally equivalent. Malm rejects this view in a three part essay. He argues that in cases of simple conflict, the acts of killing and letting die are morally different, and that killing is not in itself worse than letting die. Malm considers and rejects the suggestion that the agent should decide randomly between the two alternatives. He concludes that while simple conflict cases require us to recognize a morally significant difference between killing and letting die, they do not require us to recognize a morally significant difference between acting and refraining.

  5. [Dying and death in societal transformation].

    PubMed

    Heller, Andreas; Wegleitner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1. We live longer and we die longer. 2. We no longer die suddenly and unexpectedly but slowly and foreseeably. 3. Even though our biological life on earth has become longer, our life has been shortened by the loss of eternity. 4. We no longer die on the stage of ritualized relationships with our family and neighbours but behind the curtains of organizations. 5. We live and die in a society of organizations and have to get organized for the final phase of our life. 6. Living and dying are no large, state-owned enterprises but small, private enterprises. 7. The hospice movement as well as palliative medicine have created public awareness, made dying a matter of discussion and offered a new set of options.In late modernism end-of-life care requires new approaches based on individual and shared responsibility as well as cooperation between professional institutions and community-based voluntary care.A change towards community care is visible. Thus "dying" is a topic in the discussion about the future of public health and societal solidarity.

  6. Awareness of dying: it needs words.

    PubMed

    Lokker, Martine E; van Zuylen, Lia; Veerbeek, Laetitia; van der Rijt, Carin C D; van der Heide, Agnes

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to study to what extent dying patients are aware of the imminence of death, whether such awareness is associated with patient characteristics, symptoms and acceptance of dying, and whether medical records and nurses' and family caregivers' views on patients' awareness of dying agree. Nurses and family caregivers of 475 deceased patients from three different care settings in the southwest Netherlands were requested to fill out questionnaires. The two groups were asked whether a patient had been aware of the imminence of death. Also, medical records were screened for statements indicating that the patient had been informed of the imminence of death. Nurses completed questionnaires about 472 patients, family caregivers about 280 patients (response 59%). According to the medical records, 51% of patients had been aware of the imminence of death; according to nurses, 58%; according to family caregivers, 62%. Patients who, according to their family caregiver, had been aware of the imminence of death were significantly more often in peace with dying and felt more often that life had been worth living. Inter-rater agreement on patients' awareness of dying was fair (Cohen's kappa = 0.23-0.31). Being aware of dying is associated with acceptance of dying, which supports the idea that open communication in the dying phase can contribute to the quality of the dying process. However, views on whether or not patients are aware of the imminence of death diverge between different caregivers. This suggests that communication in the dying phase of patients is open for improvement.

  7. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  8. [Where do people die?: On the question of dying in institutions].

    PubMed

    Thönnes, M; Jakoby, N R

    2011-10-01

    There is a great discrepancy in society between the number of people that prefer to die within their home and the number of cases where this wish actually becomes reality. The most frequent place of dying in Western societies is not the home but an institution, such as a hospital or nursing home. But what is the actual distribution of places of dying? Can we identify social patterns of dying related to the various places of dying? The article provides a theoretical and empirical overview of place of dying as a social phenomenon. Contemporary discourse on the institutionalization of dying is subjected to critical scrutiny in light of the state of the art of research.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: van der Woude syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Moretti-Ferreira D, Richieri-Costa A, Dixon MJ, Murray JC. Mutations in IRF6 cause Van der Woude ... PubMed Central Nopoulos P, Richman L, Andreasen N, Murray JC, Schutte B. Cognitive dysfunction in adults with ...

  10. Stirling Powered Van Program overview. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    The Stirling Powered Van Program (SPVP) is a multiyear, multiphase program to evaluate the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) in Air Force vans under realistic conditions. The objective of the SPVP is to have a manufacturer and end user(s) (i.e., on the path to commercializatin) of the second-generation Mod II ASE upon completion of the Automotive Stirling Engine Program in 1987. In order to meet this objective, the SPVP must establish Stirling performance, integrity, reliability, durability, and maintainability. This paper reviews the ASE Program background leading to the Van Program and focuses on plans for evaluating the kinematic Stirling engine in Air Force vans. Also discussed are the NASA technology transfers to industry that have been accomplished and those which are currently being developed.

  11. Flower Still Life, Maria Van Oosterwijck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtrop, Emily

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life of Maria van Oosterwijck. It also discusses her art and its significance and symbolism. A list of suggested activities for elementary, middle, and high school students is included.

  12. Flower Still Life, Maria Van Oosterwijck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtrop, Emily

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life of Maria van Oosterwijck. It also discusses her art and its significance and symbolism. A list of suggested activities for elementary, middle, and high school students is included.

  13. Nodal Statistics for the Van Vleck Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Alain

    The Van Vleck polynomials naturally arise from the generalized Lamé equation as the polynomials of degree for which Eq. (1) has a polynomial solution of some degree k. In this paper, we compute the limiting distribution, as well as the limiting mean level spacings distribution of the zeros of any Van Vleck polynomial as N --> ∞.

  14. Clinical implications of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) with VanD phenotype and vanA genotype.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Oh, Won Sup; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Lee, Wee Gyo

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the clinical implications of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) with VanD phenotype and vanA genotype (VanD-vanA VRE). We tested in vitro and in vivo efficacies of teicoplanin against VanD-vanA VRE strains. Change in teicoplanin MICs was monitored during incubation with teicoplanin. In vitro and in vivo time-kill assay and survival analysis using a mouse peritonitis model were performed. Teicoplanin MICs of VanD-vanA VRE strains increased to 128 mg/L within 48 h when they were cultured with 120 mg/L teicoplanin. In vitro and in vivo time-kill assay showed that VanD-vanA VRE strains were not eliminated by 120 mg/L teicoplanin in contrast to vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium and VanD-vanB strains. The survival rate of mice infected with VanD-vanA VRE strains treated with teicoplanin was comparable with that of untreated mice. Data suggest that teicoplanin would fail in the treatment of VanD type VRE infections if the strains contained the vanA gene, which cannot be detected in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  15. Van Allen Discovery Most Important

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrow, R.

    1959-01-01

    The first step toward the exploration of space occurred approximately 22 months ago as a part of the International Geophysical Year. In the short interval since October, 1957, the new tools of research, the satellite and the space rocket, have produced two unexpected results of fundamental scientific importance. First, instruments placed in the Explorer satellites by James A. Van Allen have revealed the existence of layers of energetic particles in the outer atmosphere. This discovery constitutes the most significant research achievement of the IGY satellite program. The layers may provide the explanation for the aurora and other geophysical phenomena, and they will also influence the design of vehicles for manned space flight, whose occupants must be shielded against their harmful biological effects. Second, the shape of the earth has been determined very accurately with the aid of data from the first Vanguard. As a result of this investigation, we have found that our planet tends toward the shape of a pear, with its stem at the North Pole. This discovery may produce major changes in our ideas on the interior structure of the earth.

  16. Caring for dying people in hospital.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Jane B; Hallett, Christine E; Luker, Karen A

    2003-12-01

    Fifty-four per cent of people who die in England and Wales do so in hospital. Evidence suggests that care delivered to dying people in hospital does not match up to the ideal of a good death. These studies have provided organizational and structural explanations of nurses' behaviour that support argument for change at the macro level, in order to improve the quality of care delivered to dying people. There has been little study of the perceptions of nurses working in acute medical settings in relation to their experience of caring for dying people. Therefore, there is little evidence on which to base supportive strategies at the level of individual nurses. In this study we set out to develop an understanding of care for dying people in hospital, from the perspective of newly qualified staff nurses in the UK. The purpose was to build a theory of how nurses might be helped to deliver quality care to dying people in hospital. This paper is based on an exploratory study underpinned by phenomenological philosophy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 newly qualified nurses, focusing on their experiences of caring for dying people on medical wards in two acute hospitals in England in 1999. The interview transcripts were interpreted using a phenomenological approach. The findings presented in this paper relate to commonalities found to underlie study participants' perceptions of their experiences. All the nurses' stories were found to be built around six essences - the personal ideal, the actual, the unknown, the alone, tension and anti-tension. These essences, and the relationships between them, were used to build a model of the experience of caring for dying people in hospital. This descriptive study of the experience of individual nurses does not examine the wider social context. It attempts to complement existing sociological theory of death and dying. The study revealed how a group of newly qualified nurses experienced caring for dying people. We theorize that

  17. Competition between VanU(G) repressor and VanR(G) activator leads to rheostatic control of vanG vancomycin resistance operon expression.

    PubMed

    Depardieu, Florence; Mejean, Vincent; Courvalin, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 is resistant to vancomycin by synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-alanyl-D-serine. In the chromosomal vanG locus, transcription of the resistance genes from the PYG resistance promoter is inducible and, upstream from these genes, there is an unusual three-component regulatory system encoded by the vanURS(G) operon from the P(UG) regulatory promoter. In contrast to the other van operons in enterococci, the vanG operon possesses the additional vanU(G) gene which encodes a transcriptional regulator whose role remains unknown. We show by DNase I footprinting, RT-qPCR, and reporter proteins activities that VanU(G), but not VanR(G), binds to P(UG) and negatively autoregulates the vanURS(G) operon and that it also represses PYG where it overlaps with VanR(G) for binding. In clinical isolate BM4518, the transcription level of the resistance genes was dependent on vancomycin concentration whereas, in a ΔvanUG mutant, resistance was expressed at a maximum level even at low concentrations of the inducer. The binding competition between VanU(G) and VanR(G) on the P(YG) resistance promoter allowed rheostatic activation of the resistance operon depending likely on the level of VanR(G) phosphorylation by the VanS(G) sensor. In addition, there was cross-talk between VanS(G) and VanR'(G), a VanR(G) homolog, encoded elsewhere in the chromosome indicating a sophisticated and subtle regulation of vancomycin resistance expression by a complex two-component system.

  18. Die histologischen Typen der lymphomatoiden Papulose - Ein Vorschlag für die Vereinfachung des Buchstabenchaos.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mitteldorf, Christina; Karai, Laszlo J; Robson, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Die lymphomatoide Papulose (LYP) ist klinisch durch rezidivierende papulonoduläre Läsionen charakterisiert. Im Gegensatz zu dieser stereotypen klinischen Präsentation zeigt die Erkrankung ein breites histologisches Spektrum mit verschiedenen Infiltratmustern, unterschiedlichen Tumorzellgrößen und variablen Phänotypen. Die revidierte WHO-Klassifikation 2016 umfasst die histologischen LYP-Typen A bis E und einen sechsten Typ, dem eine spezielle Mutation zugrunde liegt. Darüber hinaus werden jedoch immer wieder neue Typen vorgeschlagen, wobei sich die Ausweitung nicht ausschließlich auf histologische Muster bezieht, sondern sich auch auf klinische und genetische Aspekte ausdehnt. Dies führt zu einer Ausweitung der alphabetischen Liste mit zunehmender Komplexität der Terminologie und kann anstelle eines vereinfachten diagnostischen Zugangs zur Verwirrung führen. Zudem kann es zu Überschneidungen unterschiedlicher Typen kommen. Diese Entwicklung wirft die Frage auf, wie die Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose vereinfacht werden kann, ohne dabei auf die histologischen Besonderheiten zu verzichten. Wir schlagen daher einen praktischen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoide Papulosen vor, welcher sich ausschließlich auf deskriptive Begriffe beschränkt und nicht auf einer alphabetischen Bezeichnung der LYP-Typen beruht. Unser Vorschlag soll einen praktikablen und benutzerfreundlichen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose ermöglichen und damit den diagnostischen Prozess sowie die Kommunikation zwischen Klinikern und Pathologen vereinfachen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  20. House of Lords debates assisted dying (again).

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Lord Joffe's Patient (Assisted Dying) Bill (see Bulletin 187) had its Second Reading on 6 June. The debate was lively, informed and inevitably somewhat polarised. However, some common themes emerged and are outlined below.

  1. Is there a moral duty to die?

    PubMed

    Corlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.

  2. Hubble View of a Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-21

    This image of a dying star, protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306, containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. Taken by NASA Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

  3. Supporting dignified dying in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Abaquin, Carmencita; Perrin, Margot E; Eaton, Linda; Balabagno, Araceli O; Rue, Tessa; Ramos, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the appropriateness of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue for palliative nursing in the Philippines. Methods The study recruited 230 nurses to complete the ICNP Dignified Dying survey. Participants rated ICNP nursing intervention items and identified additional interventions for promoting dignified dying. Results All of the intervention items were scored on average as being at least ‘slightly important’. The three top-ranked nursing intervention categories were providing social support, maintaining privacy boundaries, and relieving psychological distress. Conclusions The ICNP Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue lists nursing interventions that are appropriate to promoting dignity at the end of life in the Philippines. PMID:21471908

  4. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  5. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  6. Thick film silicon growth techniques. [die materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research which was directed toward finding an improved die material is reported. Wetting experiments were conducted with various materials to determine their compatibility with silicon. Work has also continued toward the development of quartz as a die material as new techniques have provided more optimistic results than observed in the past. As a result of the thermal modification previously described, improvements in growth stability have contributed to an increase in ribbon quality.

  7. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  8. Is killing no worse than letting die?

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, W

    1995-01-01

    Those who wish to refute the view that it is worse to kill than to let die sometimes produce examples of cases in which an agent lets someone die but would be generally agreed to be no less reprehensible than if he had killed. It is argued that the examples produced typically possess a feature which makes their use in this context illegitimate, and that when modified to remove this feature, they provide support for the view which they were designed to undermine.

  9. Killing and letting die: hidden value assumptions.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G

    1983-01-01

    In this paper I argue for several related theses: first, that the distinction between killing and letting die, as it is drawn by ordinary persons in ordinary contexts, is more complex than is generally understood; second, that the key feature of this complexity lies in the presence of a hidden normative component in what appears to be a straightforwardly descriptive distinction; and, third, that this complexity renders the killing/letting die distinction an inadequate and hazardous guide for moral reasoning.

  10. Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baujat, Geneviève; Le Merrer, Martine

    2007-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) is a chondral and ectodermal dysplasia characterized by short ribs, polydactyly, growth retardation, and ectodermal and heart defects. It is a rare disease with approximately 150 cases reported worldwide. The exact prevalence is unknown, but the syndrome seems more common among the Amish community. Prenatal abnormalities (that may be detected by ultrasound examination) include narrow thorax, shortening of long bones, hexadactyly and cardiac defects. After birth, cardinal features are short stature, short ribs, polydactyly, and dysplastic fingernails and teeth. Heart defects, especially abnormalities of atrial septation, occur in about 60% of cases. Cognitive and motor development is normal. This rare condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait with variable expression. Mutations of the EVC1 and EVC2 genes, located in a head to head configuration on chromosome 4p16, have been identified as causative. EVC belongs to the short rib-polydactyly group (SRP) and these SRPs, especially type III (Verma-Naumoff syndrome), are discussed in the prenatal differential diagnosis. Postnatally, the essential differential diagnoses include Jeune dystrophy, McKusick-Kaufman syndrome and Weyers syndrome. The management of EVC is multidisciplinary. Management during the neonatal period is mostly symptomatic, involving treatment of the respiratory distress due to narrow chest and heart failure. Orthopedic follow-up is required to manage the bones deformities. Professional dental care should be considered for management of the oral manifestations. Prognosis is linked to the respiratory difficulties in the first months of life due to thoracic narrowness and possible heart defects. Prognosis of the final body height is difficult to predict. PMID:17547743

  11. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baujat, Geneviève; Le Merrer, Martine

    2007-06-04

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) is a chondral and ectodermal dysplasia characterized by short ribs, polydactyly, growth retardation, and ectodermal and heart defects. It is a rare disease with approximately 150 cases reported worldwide. The exact prevalence is unknown, but the syndrome seems more common among the Amish community. Prenatal abnormalities (that may be detected by ultrasound examination) include narrow thorax, shortening of long bones, hexadactyly and cardiac defects. After birth, cardinal features are short stature, short ribs, polydactyly, and dysplastic fingernails and teeth. Heart defects, especially abnormalities of atrial septation, occur in about 60% of cases. Cognitive and motor development is normal. This rare condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait with variable expression. Mutations of the EVC1 and EVC2 genes, located in a head to head configuration on chromosome 4p16, have been identified as causative. EVC belongs to the short rib-polydactyly group (SRP) and these SRPs, especially type III (Verma-Naumoff syndrome), are discussed in the prenatal differential diagnosis. Postnatally, the essential differential diagnoses include Jeune dystrophy, McKusick-Kaufman syndrome and Weyers syndrome. The management of EVC is multidisciplinary. Management during the neonatal period is mostly symptomatic, involving treatment of the respiratory distress due to narrow chest and heart failure. Orthopedic follow-up is required to manage the bones deformities. Professional dental care should be considered for management of the oral manifestations. Prognosis is linked to the respiratory difficulties in the first months of life due to thoracic narrowness and possible heart defects. Prognosis of the final body height is difficult to predict.

  12. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  13. English Translation of Selected Writings of Dina van Hiele-Geldof and Pierre M. van Hiele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuys, David, Ed.; And Others

    After observing secondary school students having great difficulty learning geometry in their classes, Dutch educators Pierre van Hiele and Dina van Hiele-Geldof developed a theoretical model involving five levels of thought development in geometry. It is the purpose of this monograph to present English translations of some significant works of the…

  14. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K.; Brucher, H.G.

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  15. Thermal Modelling In Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasgado, M. T. Alonso; Davey, K.; Watari, H.

    2004-06-01

    The pressure die casting process is cyclic and the temperature levels in the die are principally dictated by the total energy received from the casting. It is thus extremely important that any solidification model for the casting is able to predict energy extraction rates to a high degree of accuracy. In this paper an efficient three dimensional hybrid thermal model for the pressure die casting process is described. The finite element method (FEM) is used for modelling heat transfer in the casting, coupled to a boundary element (BE) model for the die. The FEM can efficiently account for the non-linearity introduced by the release of latent heat on solidification, whereas the BEM is ideally suited for modelling linear heat conduction in the die, as surface temperatures are of principal importance. The FE formulation for the casting is based on a control volume capacitance method, which is shown to provide high accuracy and stability. This method is similar to the apparent and effective heat capacitance methods, which are popular approaches used where conduction predominates over other heat transfer mechanisms. These methods involve the specification of element or nodal capacitances to accommodate for the release of latent heat. Unfortunately they suffer from a major drawback in that energy is not correctly transported through elements and so providing a source of inaccuracy. The control volume capacitance method allows for the transport of mass arising from volumetric shrinkage and ensures that energy is correctly transported. The BE model caters for surface phenomena such as boiling in the cooling channels, which is important, as this effectively controls the manner in which energy is extracted. The die temperature is decomposed into two components, one a steady-state part and the other a time-dependent perturbation. This approach enables the transient die temperatures to be calculated in an efficient way, since only die surfaces close to the die cavity are

  16. A comparison of the accuracy of three removable die systems and two die materials.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, I; Mohan, J; Arunachalam, K S; Zankari, V

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional shift of three commonly used die systems (Conventional system, Pindex system, Di-Lok tray system) with two commercially available type IV die stones (Ultra rock and Pearl stone). Under controlled conditions, ten casts, each with two removable dies, were constructed for each system for a total of 30 casts and 60 removable dies. Before and after sectioning measurements to within 0.01 mm in horizontal and vertical planes were recorded and differences calculated. Data were analyzed with 't' tests, one way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test. The results demonstrated that among the die systems compared, no single system was superior to the others in all respects. But among the die materials, dies poured in Pearl stone exhibited more dimensional changes than Ultra rock (p<0.05). Selection of die material is as critical as selection of any particular die system for successful fabrication of fixed partial denture and implant prosthesis.

  17. The illness of Vincent van Gogh.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Dietrich

    2002-04-01

    Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) had an eccentric personality and unstable moods, suffered from recurrent psychotic episodes during the last 2 years of his extraordinary life, and committed suicide at the age of 37. Despite limited evidence, well over 150 physicians have ventured a perplexing variety of diagnoses of his illness. Henri Gastaut, in a study of the artist's life and medical history published in 1956, identified van Gogh's major illness during the last 2 years of his life as temporal lobe epilepsy precipitated by the use of absinthe in the presence of an early limbic lesion. In essence, Gastaut confirmed the diagnosis originally made by the French physicians who had treated van Gogh. However, van Gogh had earlier suffered two distinct episodes of reactive depression, and there are clearly bipolar aspects to his history. Both episodes of depression were followed by sustained periods of increasingly high energy and enthusiasm, first as an evangelist and then as an artist. The highlights of van Gogh's life and letters are reviewed and discussed in an effort toward better understanding of the complexity of his illness.

  18. Integrable extended van der Waals model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Francesco; Landolfi, Giulio; Moro, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the recent developments in the study of the thermodynamics of van der Waals fluids via the theory of nonlinear conservation laws and the description of phase transitions in terms of classical (dissipative) shock waves, we propose a novel approach to the construction of multi-parameter generalisations of the van der Waals model. The theory of integrable nonlinear conservation laws still represents the inspiring framework. Starting from a macroscopic approach, a four parameter family of integrable extended van der Waals models is indeed constructed in such a way that the equation of state is a solution to an integrable nonlinear conservation law linearisable by a Cole-Hopf transformation. This family is further specified by the request that, in regime of high temperature, far from the critical region, the extended model reproduces asymptotically the standard van der Waals equation of state. We provide a detailed comparison of our extended model with two notable empirical models such as Peng-Robinson and Soave's modification of the Redlich-Kwong equations of state. We show that our extended van der Waals equation of state is compatible with both empirical models for a suitable choice of the free parameters and can be viewed as a master interpolating equation. The present approach also suggests that further generalisations can be obtained by including the class of dispersive and viscous-dispersive nonlinear conservation laws and could lead to a new type of thermodynamic phase transitions associated to nonclassical and dispersive shock waves.

  19. Ethical challenges when caring for dying children.

    PubMed

    Furingsten, Lovisa; Sjögren, Reet; Forsner, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Caring for dying children presents special challenges, according to the children themselves, their relatives and healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to describe caring as represented in healthcare workers' experiences of caring for dying children. A phenomenological approach was chosen, in-depth interviews were carried out and data were analysed in four steps focusing on (a) open reading, (b) meaning units, (c) constituents and (d) essence. Four nurses in a general acute paediatric care setting in Sweden participated after providing written informed consent. Voluntary participation and confidentiality were ensured, and the study was ethically approved. The essence of caring for dying children was likened to a musically attuned composition, comprising five constituents: presence, self-knowledge, injustice in dying, own suffering and in need of others. Presence was found to be a prerequisite for caring when a child is dying. Self-knowledge and support from others can be of help when struggling with emotional pain and injustice. Caring for dying children has been found to be a delicate task for healthcare workers all over the world, and the ethical dimension is emphasized in international research. In this study, emotional pain and suffering accompanied caring, but an atmosphere in which it is possible to give and get support from colleagues and to have time to grieve and time to focus on the patient's needs may ease the burden, as can having time to process thoughts about life and death, and a possibility to grow in self-knowledge. Caring in ethically demanding situations may be facilitated through presence, atmosphere, self-knowledge and time. The challenge does not demand highly technological solutions; these assets are readily available, no matter where on earth. However, there is a need to further investigate these prerequisites for caring, particularly when a child is dying. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The illness of Vincent van Gogh.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Wilfred Niels

    2004-03-01

    Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) was a wonderfully accomplished artist whose work is now widely appreciated. He created a great number of masterpiece paintings and drawings in just one decade devoted to art. His productivity is even more remarkable when considered in the context of his debilitating illness. He suffered from medical crises that were devastating, but in the intervening periods he was both lucid and creative. He left a profound, soul-searching description of his jagged life in his correspondence, which provides the basis for the present analysis. An inherited metabolic disease, acute intermittent porphyria, accounts for all of the signs and symptoms of van Gogh's underlying illness. On this 150th anniversary of the birth of Vincent van Gogh it is appropriate to revisit the subject and to analyze the lack of organized skepticism in the popular media about other diagnoses.

  1. Compassionate community networks: supporting home dying.

    PubMed

    Abel, Julian; Bowra, Jon; Walter, Tony; Howarth, Glennys

    2011-09-01

    How may communities be mobilised to help someone dying at home? This conceptual article outlines the thinking behind an innovative compassionate community project being developed at Weston-super-Mare, UK. In this project, a health professional mentors the dying person and their carer to identify and match: (a) the tasks that need to be done and (b) the members of their social network who might help with these tasks. Network members may subsequently join a local volunteer force to assist others who are network poor. Performing practical tasks may be more acceptable to some family, friends and neighbours than having to engage in a conversation about dying, and provides a familiarity with dying that is often lacking in modern societies, so in this model, behavioural change precedes attitudinal change. The scheme rejects a service delivery model of care in favour of a community development model, but differs from community development schemes in which the mentor is a volunteer rather than a health professional, and also from those approaches that strive to build community capacity before any one individual dying person is helped. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. There is a need for evaluation of this and similar schemes, and for basic research into naturally occurring resource mobilisation at the end of life.

  2. Efficient thermoelectric van der Pauw measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boor, Johannes; Schmidt, Volker

    2011-07-01

    The development of powerful thermoelectric materials requires fast and simple characterization techniques. We combine three measurements to obtain a complete thermoelectric characterization. The electrical conductivity is measured by the van der Pauw method, while ZT is determined directly by means of a Harman measurement. Finally, exploiting the analogy between electrical and thermal physics, a thermal van der Pauw measurement is performed and the sample Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity can be determined. No temperature differences need to be measured; all quantities can be deduced from voltage measurements concurrently on the same sample which allows for quick and convenient material screening.

  3. van der Waals radii of noble gases.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Jürgen; Alvarez, Santiago

    2014-09-02

    Consistent van der Waals radii are deduced for Ne-Xe, based on the noble gas···oxygen intermolecular distances found in gas phase structures. The set of radii proposed is shown to provide van der Waals distances for a wide variety of noble gas···element atom pairs that represent properly the distribution of distances both in the gas phase and in the solid state. Moreover, these radii show a smooth periodic trend down the group which is parallel to that shown by the halogens.

  4. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  5. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  6. Acts and omissions, killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1986-01-11

    Gillon asks what, if any, moral importance resides in the distinction between killing and letting die in the context of medical care. He considers and rejects the acts and omissions doctrine, which claims that actions (killing) resulting in some undesirable end are in general morally worse than failures to act (allowing to die) that have the same result. He also refutes the argument that the moral distinction between killing and letting die is one of harming versus benefitting, and that a physician has a responsibility not to harm (kill) a patient but no duty to help (keep alive). Gillon concludes by discussing the moral claims upon which the Roman Catholic rejection of the acts and omissions doctrine is based, which are the subjects of his next British Medical Journal article on medical ethics.

  7. The right to be allowed to die.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A G

    1983-09-01

    The unbridled use of modern medical skills and technology in preserving life at all costs has stimulated interest in expressing a 'right to die' by the legally competent patient who is anxious to protect his autonomy. Some recent decisions by American courts are seen to threaten this 'right to die' of competent patients and imply that legally incompetent patients including children should not have this right under any circumstances, even when expressed on their behalf by guardians, nearest relatives or parents. It is argued that this is contrary to 'natural justice' as viewed by most people. It should be possible to develop procedures which are protective of the basic 'right to life' of the incompetent yet will recognise circumstances where they could be allowed to die. This paper was presented at the 1983 annual conference of the London Medical Group, 'Human Rights in Medicine'.

  8. Is there a duty to die?

    PubMed

    Hardwig, J

    1997-01-01

    Many people were outraged when Richard Lamm claimed that old people had a duty to die. Modern medicine and an individualistic culture have seduced many to feel that they have a right to health care and a right to live, despite the burdens and costs to our families and society. But in fact there are circumstances when we have a duty to die. As modern medicine continues to save more of us from acute illness, it also delivers more of us over to chronic illnesses, allowing us to survive far longer than we can take care of ourselves. It may be that our technological sophistication coupled with a commitment to our loved ones generates a fairly widespread duty to die.

  9. Diagnosing dying: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Catriona; Brooks-Young, Patricia; Brunton Gray, Carol; Larkin, Phil; Connolly, Michael; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Larsson, Maria; Smith, Tracy; Chater, Susie

    2014-09-01

    To ensure patients and families receive appropriate end-of-life care pathways and guidelines aim to inform clinical decision making. Ensuring appropriate outcomes through the use of these decision aids is dependent on timely use. Diagnosing dying is a complex clinical decision, and most of the available practice checklists relate to cancer. There is a need to review evidence to establish diagnostic indicators that death is imminent on the basis of need rather than a cancer diagnosis. To examine the evidence as to how patients are judged by clinicians as being in the final hours or days of life. Integrative literature review. Five electronic databases (2001-2011): Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. The search yielded a total of 576 hits, 331 titles and abstracts were screened, 42 papers were retrieved and reviewed and 23 articles were included. Analysis reveals an overarching theme of uncertainty in diagnosing dying and two subthemes: (1) 'characteristics of dying' involve dying trajectories that incorporate physical, social, spiritual and psychological decline towards death; (2) 'treatment orientation' where decision making related to diagnosing dying may remain focused towards biomedical interventions rather than systematic planning for end-of-life care. The findings of this review support the explicit recognition of 'uncertainty in diagnosing dying' and the need to work with and within this concept. Clinical decision making needs to allow for recovery where that potential exists, but equally there is the need to avoid futile interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, dwarfed by the large Syncom IV-3 satellite, moves in for initial contact. Dr. van Hoften stands on a foot restraint/extension to the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm.

  11. Ambiguities in 'killing' and 'letting die'.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G M

    1983-05-01

    In a recent article Carla Kary (1980) attempts to show that there can be a significant moral difference between instances of killing and letting die. I shall maintain in Section I that Kary's argument is somewhat weakened by her failure to note an important ambiguity in the notion of killing a person. I shall also argue in Section II that a similar ambiguity affects the notion of letting someone die, and that failure to note this latter ambiguity also weakens the position developed by Robert Coburn (1980) with regard to defective newborns.

  12. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  13. Van Gogh: a new Drosophila tissue polarity gene.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Abramova, N; Charlton, J; Adler, P N

    1998-09-01

    Mutations in the Van Gogh gene result in the altered polarity of adult Drosophila cuticular structures. On the wing, Van Gogh mutations cause an altered polarity pattern that is typical of mutations that inactivate the frizzled signaling/signal transduction pathway. The phenotype however, differs from those seen previously, as the number of wing cells forming more than one hair is intermediate between that seen previously for typical frizzled-like or inturned-like mutations. Consistent with Van Gogh being involved in the function of the frizzled signaling/signal transduction pathway, Van Gogh mutations show strong interactions with mutations in frizzled and prickle. Mitotic clones of Van Gogh display domineering cell nonautonomy. In contrast to frizzled clones, Van Gogh clones alter the polarity of cells proximal (and in part anterior and posterior) but not distal to the clone. In further contrast to frizzled clones, Van Gogh clones cause neighboring wild-type hairs to point away from rather than toward the clone. This anti-frizzled type of domineering nonautonomy and the strong genetic interactions seen between frizzled and Van Gogh suggested the possibility that Van Gogh was required for the noncell autonomous function of frizzled. As a test of this possibility we induced frizzled clones in a Van Gogh mutant background and Van Gogh clones in a frizzled mutant background. In both cases the domineering nonautonomy was suppressed consistent with Van Gogh being essential for frizzled signaling.

  14. Van Gogh: a new Drosophila tissue polarity gene.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J; Abramova, N; Charlton, J; Adler, P N

    1998-01-01

    Mutations in the Van Gogh gene result in the altered polarity of adult Drosophila cuticular structures. On the wing, Van Gogh mutations cause an altered polarity pattern that is typical of mutations that inactivate the frizzled signaling/signal transduction pathway. The phenotype however, differs from those seen previously, as the number of wing cells forming more than one hair is intermediate between that seen previously for typical frizzled-like or inturned-like mutations. Consistent with Van Gogh being involved in the function of the frizzled signaling/signal transduction pathway, Van Gogh mutations show strong interactions with mutations in frizzled and prickle. Mitotic clones of Van Gogh display domineering cell nonautonomy. In contrast to frizzled clones, Van Gogh clones alter the polarity of cells proximal (and in part anterior and posterior) but not distal to the clone. In further contrast to frizzled clones, Van Gogh clones cause neighboring wild-type hairs to point away from rather than toward the clone. This anti-frizzled type of domineering nonautonomy and the strong genetic interactions seen between frizzled and Van Gogh suggested the possibility that Van Gogh was required for the noncell autonomous function of frizzled. As a test of this possibility we induced frizzled clones in a Van Gogh mutant background and Van Gogh clones in a frizzled mutant background. In both cases the domineering nonautonomy was suppressed consistent with Van Gogh being essential for frizzled signaling. PMID:9725839

  15. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Van Hook Crude Terminal, LLC - Van Hook Crude Terminal/Rail Loading Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the current effective synthetic minor NSR permit for the Van Hook Crude Terminal, LLC, Van Hook Crude Terminal/Rail Loading Facility, located on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in Mountrail County, ND.

  16. Die Arbeitsunfähigkeit in der Statistik der GKV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Klaus

    Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt anhand der Statistiken des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit (BMG) einen Überblick über die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsdaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenkassen (GKV). Zunächst werden die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsstatistiken der Krankenkassen und die Erfassung der Arbeitsunfähigkeit erläutert. Hiernach wird auf die Entwicklung der Fehlzeiten auf GKV-Ebene eingegangen. Ebenfalls wird Bezug auf die Unterschiede der Fehlzeiten zwischen den verschiedenen Kassen genommen.

  17. Vincent van Gogh: The Postman Roulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stacy

    1989-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan for teaching K-three students to analyze and empathize with a portrait by post-impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh. Describes background of the artist and the painting "The Postman Roulin." Suggests instructional strategies, activities, and evaluation methods. Lists bibliographical material relative to van…

  18. Painting with Clay Van Gogh Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" and describes a lesson where fifth- and sixth-grade students created their own version of the artwork. Explains that the students utilized four colors of Permoplast clay, using their hands and fingers as brushes and blending tools and the clay as paint. (CMK)

  19. Passenger Vans: A Transportation Concern for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentle, Don; Gordon, Harold; Schainman, Steve

    2002-01-01

    In April 2002, the National Transportation Safety Board reissued a cautionary warning about the high accident potential of 15-passenger vans; some states have prohibited their use for transporting children. Three camp directors discuss legal and cost considerations for camps, possible alternative transportation, additional staff training needs,…

  20. The Forced van der Pol Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the forced van der Pol equation x + [epsilon](x[superscript 2] - 1)x + x = F cos[omega]t, by solving numerically the differential equation for a variety of values of the parameters [epsilon], F and [omega]. In doing so, many striking and interesting trajectories can be discovered and phenomena such as frequency entrainment,…

  1. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report for 2000 describes the year's activities, achievements, and financial status of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private foundation based in The Netherlands that operates internationally to improve opportunities for young children from birth to age 7 living in circumstances of social and economic disadvantage. Following an…

  2. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report for 2002 describes the year's activities, achievements, and financial status of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private foundation based in The Netherlands operating internationally to improve opportunities for young children from birth to age 7 living in circumstances of social and economic disadvantage. Following the…

  3. Note on a van der Waals Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Harrison, Joseph G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties with the standard model for introduction of attractive forces into the van der Waals equation. Presents an analysis in terms of force and time delays and an alternative analysis for more advanced students in terms of energy. (JRH)

  4. Q & A with Carmella Van Vleet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Carmella Van Vleet, a former teacher and educational speaker. She has written family humor and parenting articles, and is also the author of "How to Handle School Snafus," "Great Ancient Egypt Projects You Can Build Yourself" and "Amazing Ben Franklin Inventions You Can Build Yourself." In this interview,…

  5. The van Gogh of the Infrared Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-25

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is a little like the Vincent van Gogh of the infrared sky, providing the world with picturesque images of the cosmos by representing infrared light through color. This image is the nebula NGC 2174.

  6. Interview with Joyce VanTassel-Baska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2001-01-01

    This interview with Joyce VanTassel-Baska discusses the growth of talent search programs to identify highly gifted students via the Scholastic Aptitude Test and the role of computer technology in what can be offered to gifted students. Also identified are key characteristics of gifted elementary, middle, and secondary school programs. (CR)

  7. van Maanen, Adriaan (1884-1947)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Dutch astronomer, became a member of the Mount Wilson staff, and studied the rotation of spiral nebulae as a means to establish their distances. His detection of rotational motions was illusory and misleadingly suggested that they were relatively nearby. Through its proper motion and parallax, he discovered the white dwarf van Maanen's star....

  8. Q & A with Carmella Van Vleet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Carmella Van Vleet, a former teacher and educational speaker. She has written family humor and parenting articles, and is also the author of "How to Handle School Snafus," "Great Ancient Egypt Projects You Can Build Yourself" and "Amazing Ben Franklin Inventions You Can Build Yourself." In this interview,…

  9. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report details the activities and financial status for 1999 of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private institution created in 1949 for broad humanitarian purposes. Following the introduction by the chairman of the Foundation's board of trustees, the report of the executive director details activities during the Foundation's fiftieth…

  10. Die Europäische Union, die Europäische Gemeinschaft und ihre Rechtsordnung, die Europäische Lebensmittelkontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhoff, Gudrun; Rimkus, Gerhard G.

    Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein Zusammenschluss von siebenundzwanzig unabhängigen Staaten, um deren wirtschaftliche, politische und soziale Zusammenarbeit zu verstärken. Seit 1. Mai 2007 hat sie die folgenden Mitglieder: Österreich, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Griechenland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande, Portugal, Spanien, Schweden, das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Rumänien, die Slowakei und Slowenien [1]. (Hinweis: Die Republik Zypern hat juristisch Souveränität über die ganze Insel, da die Türkische Republik Nordzypern international nicht anerkannt wird.)

  11. Hydrodynamics of the VanA-type VanS histidine kinase: an extended solution conformation and first evidence for interactions with vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Jones, Mary K.; Channell, Guy; Kelsall, Claire J.; Hughes, Charlotte S.; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Patching, Simon G.; Dinu, Vlad; Gillis, Richard B.; Adams, Gary G.; Harding, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    VanA-type resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in clinical enterococci is regulated by the VanSARA two-component signal transduction system. The nature of the molecular ligand that is recognised by the VanSA sensory component has not hitherto been identified. Here we employ purified, intact and active VanSA membrane protein (henceforth referred to as VanS) in analytical ultracentrifugation experiments to study VanS oligomeric state and conformation in the absence and presence of vancomycin. A combination of sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge (SEDFIT, SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG analysis) showed that VanS in the absence of the ligand is almost entirely monomeric (molar mass M = 45.7 kDa) in dilute aqueous solution with a trace amount of high molar mass material (M ~ 200 kDa). The sedimentation coefficient s suggests the monomer adopts an extended conformation in aqueous solution with an equivalent aspect ratio of ~(12 ± 2). In the presence of vancomycin over a 33% increase in the sedimentation coefficient is observed with the appearance of additional higher s components, demonstrating an interaction, an observation consistent with our circular dichroism measurements. The two possible causes of this increase in s – either a ligand induced dimerization and/or compaction of the monomer are considered. PMID:28397853

  12. Hydrodynamics of the VanA-type VanS histidine kinase: an extended solution conformation and first evidence for interactions with vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Jones, Mary K; Channell, Guy; Kelsall, Claire J; Hughes, Charlotte S; Ashcroft, Alison E; Patching, Simon G; Dinu, Vlad; Gillis, Richard B; Adams, Gary G; Harding, Stephen E

    2017-04-11

    VanA-type resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in clinical enterococci is regulated by the VanSARA two-component signal transduction system. The nature of the molecular ligand that is recognised by the VanSA sensory component has not hitherto been identified. Here we employ purified, intact and active VanSA membrane protein (henceforth referred to as VanS) in analytical ultracentrifugation experiments to study VanS oligomeric state and conformation in the absence and presence of vancomycin. A combination of sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge (SEDFIT, SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG analysis) showed that VanS in the absence of the ligand is almost entirely monomeric (molar mass M = 45.7 kDa) in dilute aqueous solution with a trace amount of high molar mass material (M ~ 200 kDa). The sedimentation coefficient s suggests the monomer adopts an extended conformation in aqueous solution with an equivalent aspect ratio of ~(12 ± 2). In the presence of vancomycin over a 33% increase in the sedimentation coefficient is observed with the appearance of additional higher s components, demonstrating an interaction, an observation consistent with our circular dichroism measurements. The two possible causes of this increase in s - either a ligand induced dimerization and/or compaction of the monomer are considered.

  13. Evaluation of the Xpert vanA/vanB Assay Using Enriched Inoculated Broths for Direct Detection of vanB Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Arends, J. P.; Kampinga, G. A.; Ahmad, H. M.; Dijkhuizen, B.; van Barneveld, P.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Friedrich, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci) is required for adequate antimicrobial treatment and infection prevention measures. Previous studies using PCR for the detection of VRE, including Cepheid's Xpert vanA/vanB assay, reported accurate detection of vanA VRE; however, many false-positive results were found for vanB VRE. This is mainly due to nonenterococcal vanB genes, which can be found in the gut flora. Our goal was to optimize the rapid and accurate detection of vanB VRE and to improve the positive predictive value (PPV) by limiting false-positive results. We evaluated the use of the Xpert vanA/vanB assay on rectal swabs and on enriched inoculated broths for the detection of vanB VRE. By adjusting the cycle threshold (CT) cutoff value to ≤25 for positivity by PCR on enriched broths, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 96.9%, 100%, 100%, and 99.5% for vanB VRE, respectively. As shown in this study, CT values of ≤25 acquired from enriched broths can be considered true positive. For broths with CT values between 25 and 30, we recommend confirming the results by culture. CT values of >30 appeared to be true negative. In conclusion, this study shows that the Cepheid's Xpert vanA/vanB assay performed on enriched inoculated broths with an adjusted cutoff CT value is a useful and rapid tool for the detection of vanB VRE. PMID:25297325

  14. vanD and vanG-Like Gene Clusters in a Ruminococcus Species Isolated from Human Bowel Flora▿

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, M.-C.; Huletsky, A.; Giroux, R.; Picard, F. J.; Bergeron, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    A vancomycin-resistant, anaerobic, gram-positive coccus containing the vanD and vanG-like genes (strain CCRI-16110) was isolated from a human fecal specimen during a hospital surveillance program to detect carriers of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain CCRI-16110 with databases revealed a potentially novel Ruminococcus species that was most similar (<94% identity) to Clostridium and Ruminococcus species. Strain CCRI-16110 was highly resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin (MICs of >256 μg/ml). The complete DNA sequence of the vanD cluster was most similar (98.2% identity) to that of Enterococcus faecium BM4339, containing the vanD1 allele. An intD gene with 99% identity with that of this E. faecium strain was found to be associated with the vanD gene cluster of this novel anaerobic bacterium. Strain CCRI-16110 also harbors genes encoding putative VanSG, VanG, and VanTG proteins displaying 56, 73.6, and 55% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, compared to the corresponding proteins encoded by the vanG1 and vanG2 operons of Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 and N03-0233. This study reports for the first time an anaerobic bacterium containing the vanD gene cluster. This strain also harbors a partial vanG-like gene cluster. The presence of vanD- and vanG-containing anaerobic bacteria in the human bowel flora suggests that these bacteria may serve as a reservoir for the vanD and vanG vancomycin resistance genes. PMID:17724150

  15. Effect of Die Strength and Work Piece Strength on the Wear of Hot Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the strength ratio extracted from an Archard model for wear is used to describe the wear rates expected in hot forging dies. In the current study, the strength ratio is the strength of the hot forging die to the strength of the work piece. Three hot forging die steels are evaluated. The three die steels are FX, 2714, and WF. To determine the strength of the forging die, a continuous function has been developed that describes the yield strength of three die steels for temperatures from 600 to 700 °C and for times up to 20 h (i.e., tempering times of up to 20 h). The work piece material is assumed to be AISI 1045. Based on the analysis, the wear resistance of WF should be superior and FX should be slightly better than 2714. Decreasing the forging temperature increases the strength ratio, because the strength of the die surface increases faster than the flow strength of AISI 1045. The increase in the strength ratio indicates a decrease in the expected wear rate.

  16. Deformation properties of pharmaceutical excipients determined using an in-die and out-die method.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Ilija; Govedarica, Biljana; Šibanc, Rok; Dreu, Rok; Srčič, Stane

    2013-03-25

    This study investigated deformation mechanisms of some commonly used pharmaceutical fillers, such as microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, dicalcium phosphate, isomalt and cornstarch, using a combination of the in-die and out-die method with the Heckel and Walker models. The tableting mixtures contained of 98.5% (w/w) filler, the rest consisted of dry binder and an antiadhesive agent. Our results showed that plasticity and elasticity may be considered independent deformation properties as highly plastic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cornstarch) also exhibited high elasticity. Particular emphasis was placed on explaining the differences observed between the in-die and out-die method-comparison revealed that the differences are a consequence of the material's elastic properties. Larger error of in-die results can be expected for more elastic materials, and thus in-die Heckel should be used with some considerations. In contrast, the Walker model was found to be more robust and smaller differences were observed between the two methods. We consider the most correct results to have been obtained by the out-die approach, which excludes the elastic properties of the material evaluated. An excellent correlation between elastic determination at the single-particle level and multiple-particle scale was demonstrated, suggesting a great potential of nanoscale determination of a material's mechanical properties for better elucidation of deformation mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of Die Stress Profiles during Powder Compaction using Instrumented Die

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The radial stress profile in a cylindrical die during compaction of titanium (Ti) powder was investigated by experiments. The concept of an instrumented die was extended to design an enhanced instrumented die. Custom-made strain gage pins were used to measure the radial stress during powder compaction. The test fixture was designed to simulate double-action pressing. The measured die stress profile for Ti powder was compared with that for a commercially available iron (Fe) powder. The stress history shows that an appreciable residual stress remains in the die in the radial direction after the axial compaction stress is removed from the powder. Furthermore, the radial stress profile in the die, while under maximum axial compaction stress, is more uniform across the height of the Fe compact than that of the Ti compact. In addition, the residual stress profile in the die in the radial direction reduces symmetrically in both directions beyond the height of the compact for both powders. Finally, the Ti powder shows a significantly higher frictional coefficient at the maximum axial compaction stress, and consequently a higher maximum axial ejection stress than the Fe powder.

  18. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  19. A Dying Star in a Different Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-17

    This image composite shows two views of a puffy, dying star, or planetary nebula, known as NGC 1514. At left is a view from a ground-based, visible-light telescope; the view on the right shows the object in infrared light from NASA WISE telescope.

  20. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  1. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  2. The Hospice: Advocate for the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anspaugh, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The hospice philosophy seeks to meet the needs of dying patients and their families. These needs include: effective control of pain; to be loved and to alleviate loneliness; to retain dignity and maintain control of as many aspects of life as possible; and to help the family be supportive and adapt to their inevitable loss. (JMF)

  3. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  4. Counseling Older Persons: Careers, Retirement, Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinick, Daniel

    The focus of this monograph is on three areas of counseling with older clients: career counseling, retirement counseling, and counseling regarding death and dying. The portion on career counseling includes reasons older persons change careers, obstacles they are likely to face when seeking employment, myths surrounding the employability of older…

  5. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  6. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  7. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  8. Continuing Education on Dying and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodil, Judith J.; Dulaney, Peggy E.

    1984-01-01

    "Dying and Death in Critical Care Practice" was a one-day continuing education offering designed for registered nurses who practiced in settings such as emergency rooms, intensive care units, coronary care units, and operating rooms. The workshop was part of a continuing education curriculum in critical care nursing. (SSH)

  9. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  10. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  11. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  12. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  13. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  14. Death and Dying in Young Adult Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Carolyn; Dowd, Frances S.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a content analysis study of 25 novels about youth facing death and dying to determine whether death and grieving are realistically portrayed in young adult literature. Describes the evaluative instruments developed and discusses findings, concluding that young people can be informed and comforted by these realistic novels. (38…

  15. Teaching Humane Care for Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Elise L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an elective, upper-level course on caring for terminally ill patients, designed for baccalaureate nursing students. Discusses the hospice concept and its background, course design, communication with dying patients and their families, and outcomes of the course as measured by a pretest and two posttests. (CH)

  16. A profile of silicosis cases who died.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H

    1982-01-01

    Silicosis cases which had been notified by doctors and confirmed after investigations were followed up by the Industrial Health Division. Up to August 1981, a total of 313 persons were confirmed as having the disease. Of these, 59 had died. The majority of these 59 persons had had their silica exposure in the granite quarries. 13 had been exposed to "rubber powder" which contained a high percentage of free silica. 52 of those who died were male, and their average age at death was 60.87 years. This did not appear to be significantly shorter than their life expectancy of 65.1 years. But the average age of death for the 7 women was 58.86 years, which was much shorter than their life expectancy of 70 years. Many of the men died from causes unrelated to silicosis. But 6 of the 7 women had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) and they apparently died of the disease or complications arising from it.

  17. Constructing Death: Three Pathographies about Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Anne Hunsaker

    1991-01-01

    Discusses three pathographies as models for the "good death." In each, the author organizes the phenomena associated with the illness and death of a spouse from cancer into a coherent pattern. The result is three different paradigms of the experience of dying: "ritual death,""victorious death," and "one's own death." (Author/LLL)

  18. Die Baukastensystematik in der Fördertechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebulke, Johannes

    In der Fördertechnik wird kaum ein größerer Einsatzfall so dem anderen gleichen, dass man zwei Anlagen nach denselben Zeichnungen fertigen kann. Konstruktionszeiten, Rüst- und Umstellungszeiten der Fertigung sind hoch; der Kunde muss bei Einzelanfertigung lange Lieferzeiten in Kauf nehmen. In der Fördertechnik haben sich daher Baukastenprinzip, Standardisierung und die Konstruktion von Erzeugnisreihen weitgehend durchgesetzt.

  19. March of Asteroids Across Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-12

    A dying star, called the Helix nebula, is shown surrounded by the tracks of asteroids in an image captured by NASA WISE. Skirting around the edges of the Helix nebula are the footprints of asteroids marching across the field of view.

  20. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  1. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  2. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  3. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  4. A moral dilemma: killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K

    Most health care professionals believe that there is a clear difference between killing and letting die, i.e. between active and passive euthanasia. Philosophers, however, have repeatedly attacked the moral validity of their argument. This article explores various related issues and theoretical approaches to the distinction between acts and omissions.

  5. A moral dilemma: killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kath

    1993-06-24

    Most health care professionals believe that there is a clear difference between killing and letting die, i.e. between active and passive euthanasia. Philosophers, however, have repeatedly attacked the moral validity of their argument. This article explores various related issues and theoretical approaches to the distinction between acts and omissions.

  6. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  7. Porcelain shoulder adaptation using direct refractory dies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D M; Levi, M S; Mori, D F

    1976-11-01

    Eleven direct refractory dies were made from separate polysulfide rubber impressions of two Dentoform teeth which had been prepared for porcelain-fused-to-gold veneer crowns with labial porcelain shoulders. Porcelain veneer crowns were built and fired directly on the dies, following the manufacturer's instructions and using a common laboratory technique. The finished crowns were seated on the Dentoform teeth, and the porcelain-tooth adaptation was measured with a micrometer eyepiece in a dissecting microscope. In general, the study indicated that by use of a direct refractory die, the porcelain adaptation of an average porcelain shoulder veneer crown could be made to fall within the tolerances of a clinically acceptable gold margin (39 mu).21 The crown could likewise be made to adapt closer than the normal thickness of cement film may allow (20 to 40 mu).22 However the adaptation of many crowns was more uneven than the above statements would tend to indicate. The study also showed that with great care and a limited number of firings, margins of a lesser thickness than a piece of 0.001 inch (25.4 mu) platinum foil could be attained. There appears to be promise in the use of a direct refractory die material. However, more studies are needed to overcome some of the problems in the technique described.

  8. Wie LCC-Management die Produktionstechnik und die Instandhaltung verändert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Manfred

    Die zunehmende Komplexität von Produktionsanlagen und deren steigende Investitionssummen erfordern eine intensive Nutzung und überschaubare Folgekosten, zum Beispiel in der Instandhaltung. Um diese Ziele beim Investitionsvorgang von Anlagen effizienter als in der Vergangenheit zu gestalten sind Organisationsverfahren wie Life Cycle Cost Management (LCC-Management) bzw. Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) sinnvoll. Dieser Beitrag zeigt, wie Hersteller und Betreiber bis heute mit diesen Verfahren die Auslegung und das Betriebsverhalten von Anlagen entwickeln, deren reduzierten Instandhaltungsaufwand prognostizieren und die Leistungen zum Vorteil beider Vertragspartner steigern.

  9. Dying other, dying self: creating culture and meaning in palliative healthcare.

    PubMed

    McCann, Christopher J; Adames, Hector Y

    2013-08-01

    Dying is an act of creativity, and we each die as cultural beings. Culture helps us create the meaning death requests of us. However, the dominant culture of the healthcare system views death as a failure of modern medicine, an event of unspeakable terror and taboo. Palliative clinicians must honor each dying person's cultural identity (as well as the person's family), not subject it to the dominant discourse of Western medicine. This article offers practical guidelines for palliative clinicians to do so, as well as a case vignette.

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Interpretation of Logical Operators in Database Querying (Een Verkennende Studie van de Interpretatie van Logische Operatoren bijhet Bevragen van een Database)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-22

    nn i 3 CONTENTS Page SUMMARY 5 SAMENVATTING 6 1 INTRODUCTION 7 2 METHOD 11 2.1 Subjects 12 2.2 Stimuli 12 2.3 Procedure 14 3 RESULTS 15 3.1 Latency...SAMENVATITING Het gebruik van logische operatoren in vraagtalen wordt beschouwd als een belangrijke bron van gebruikersproblemen bij het bevragen van een...verwerkingscomponenten werden getest. 7 1 INTRODUCTION Database management systems (DBMSs) are now widely used for structuring and storing textual information in

  11. [Anguish about death and fear of dying, supportive care for the dying].

    PubMed

    Bouregba, A; Lebret, T

    2008-11-01

    During metastatic patient follow up, anguish about death is different from the fear of dying. In fact anguish is unconscious and associated with anxiety, on the other hand the fear of dying is a reaction to the threat of imminent death. Physical pain and isolation are factors that increase the pangs of death. The support of friends and family constitutes a real benefit for the treatment of patients during this period.

  12. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  13. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed Central

    Mermann, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377

  14. Clayton's compromises and the assisted dying debate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Richard Huxtable has recently argued that while assisted dying has been both repeatedly condemned and commended, a compromise resolution is possible. Following critique of other purported solutions, he argues for a new legal offence of "compassionate killing" as a plausible compromise between supporters and opponents of legalised assisted dying, because it offers something of significance to both sides. However, it turns out that "compassionate killing" would leave both sides with insufficient net benefit for the proposal to qualify as a compromise between them. By analogy with another apparently intractable bioethical debate, concerning destructive embryo research, this column rejects Huxtable's solution as another "Clayton's compromise". True compromise is not possible in bioethical debates involving divisions over deeply held values and world views. Resolving such debates inevitably involves the substitution of one dominant world view with another.

  15. Natural law and the "right to die".

    PubMed

    Whiting, R A

    Over the last two decades social concerns with the "right to die" have grown beyond the ability of our governmental and judicial institutions to consistently deal with them. One reason for this difficulty has been the unavailability of any legal or judicial standard that is consistent with American conceptions of liberty, morality, and justice. This article attempts to examine the theory of natural law to determine whether it may provide a consistent standard for resolving these difficult questions. As natural law theories are traced through history, they lead directly to the United States where a uniquely American interpretation became one of the foundational principles for our constitution. By applying these theories to the contemporary question of the "right to die," natural law can again provide the foundational principles needed to develop standards for dealing with such questions that are consistent with our historical, philosophical, and political traditions.

  16. [Assisted dying and conflict of interest].

    PubMed

    Hug, G

    1997-01-18

    A Swiss physician obtained his elderly patient's house, valued at $2 million, as a gift. The patient retained the right to stay in the house until her death. The physician also knew that she had made him the beneficiary of her estate, valued at + 10 million. She then died of untreated pneumonia while in his care. He had not discussed withholding of antibiotics with her or her family. In countries with advanced life-sustaining technology, 35% of all deaths are thought to occur after withholding of treatment. Physicians and others making such "MDEL" (medical decisions concerning the end of life) have a conflict of interest, if they benefit from their patients' death. These conflicts are unethical. They are dangerous to patients, physicians, the medical profession, and the public. The Netherlands have laws and rules of professional conduct that prohibit MDEL-for-profit, i.e., a mode of assisted dying that benefits caregivers to the detriment of patients and their families.

  17. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu Gandi, Appala; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation.

  18. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Appala Naidu; Alshareef, Husam N; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-25

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation.

  19. [Psychiatric case history of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    van Meekeren, E

    2000-12-23

    Much has been written about Vincent van Gogh's pathological condition. Most authors base their various diagnoses on the symptoms he exhibited in the last years of his life. However, Van Gogh during a much longer part of his life displayed symptoms best consistent with a borderline (personality) disorder: impulsivity, variable moods, self-destructive behaviour, fear of abandonment, an unbalanced self-image, authority conflicts and other complicated relationships. The precipitating element disturbing Vincent's psychic balance--delicate in any case due to a positive family history, malnutrition, intoxication and exhaustion and the borderline disorder--may have been his being deserted by his friend Gauguin. He (also) developed an organic psychosyndrome with psychotic and epileptic elements. The stress (due to social isolation, by his being a psychiatric patient, and by poor prospects), the intoxication going on outside the hospitals and especially also the problems relating to his brother Theo caused a downward spiral culminating in suicide.

  20. Vincent van Gogh and the thujone connection.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W N

    1988-11-25

    During his last two years Vincent van Gogh experienced fits with hallucinations that have been attributed to a congenital psychosis. But the artist admitted to episodes of heavy drinking that were amply confirmed by colleagues and there is good evidence to indicate that addiction to absinthe exacerbated his illness. Absinthe was distilled from an alcoholic steep of herbs. Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) was the most significant constituent because it contributed thujone. This terpene can cause excitation, convulsions that mimic epilepsy, and even permanent brain damage. Statements in van Gogh's letters and from his friends indicate that he had an affinity for substances with a chemical connection to thujone; the documented examples are camphor and pinene. Perhaps he developed an abnormal craving for terpenes, a sort of pica, that would explain his attempts to eat paints and so on, which were previously regarded as unrelated absurdities.

  1. Superlubricity using repulsive van der Waals forces.

    PubMed

    Feiler, Adam A; Bergström, Lennart; Rutland, Mark W

    2008-03-18

    Using colloid probe atomic force microscopy, we show that if repulsive van der Waals forces exist between two surfaces prior to their contact then friction is essentially precluded and supersliding is achieved. The friction measurements presented here are of the same order as the lowest ever recorded friction coefficients in liquid, though they are achieved by a completely different approach. A gold sphere attached to an AFM cantilever is forced to interact with a smooth Teflon surface (templated on mica). In cyclohexane, a repulsive van der Waals force is observed that diverges at short separations. The friction coefficient associated with this system is on the order of 0.0003. When the refractive index of the liquid is changed, the force can be tuned from repulsive to attractive and adhesive. The friction coefficient increases as the Hamaker constant becomes more positive and the divergent repulsive force, which prevents solid-solid contact, gets switched off.

  2. [Sudden die-off of honeybee colonies].

    PubMed

    Muz, Mustafa N

    2008-01-01

    Apis mellifera is used for honeybee keeping all over Turkey. Recently, honeybees have been suddenly disappearing for no apparent reason. It is presumed that some viral and parasitic honeybee pathogens are responsible for this. No medical research has been conducted to determine the pathologic causes of the sudden die-off of the honeybee colonies in Turkey as yet. This is of urgent importance for future of the honeybee industry.

  3. Died of wounds: a mortality review.

    PubMed

    Keene, Damian Douglas; Penn-Barwell, J G; Wood, P R; Hunt, N; Delaney, R; Clasper, J; Russell, R J; Mahoney, P F

    2016-10-01

    Combat casualty care is a complex system involving multiple clinicians, medical interventions and casualty transfers. Improving the performance of this system requires examination of potential weaknesses. This study reviewed the cause and timing of death of casualties deemed to have died from their injuries after arriving at a medical treatment facility during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, in order to identify potential areas for improving outcomes. This was a retrospective review of all casualties who reached medical treatment facilities alive, but subsequently died from injuries sustained during combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. It included all deaths from start to completion of combat operations. The UK military joint theatre trauma registry was used to identify cases, and further data were collected from clinical notes, postmortem records and coroner's reports. There were 71 combat-related fatalities who survived to a medical treatment facility; 17 (24%) in Iraq and 54 (76%) in Afghanistan. Thirty eight (54%) died within the first 24 h. Thirty-three (47%) casualties died from isolated head injuries, a further 13 (18%) had unsurvivable head injuries but not in isolation. Haemorrhage following severe lower limb trauma, often in conjunction with abdominal and pelvic injuries, was the cause of a further 15 (21%) deaths. Severe head injury was the most common cause of death. Irrespective of available medical treatment, none of this group had salvageable injuries. Future emphasis should be placed in preventative strategies to protect the head against battlefield trauma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Public attitudes toward the right to die.

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, S J; Genuis, S K; Chang, W C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine public attitudes toward the right to die, euthanasia and related end-of-life decisions. DESIGN: Mail survey based on telephone numbers randomly selected by computer. SETTING: Edmonton. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1347 computer-generated, randomly selected telephone numbers called between February and June 1992, 902 individuals were reached, and 500 eligible contacts (55%) agreed to fill out the mailed questionnaire based on 12 vignettes involving end-of-life decisions. A total of 356 usable questionnaires (71%) were subsequently returned. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Attitudes toward end-of-life decisions including withdrawal of life support, euthanasia, chronic suffering and the right to die, living wills and family involvement in decision making for incompetent individuals. Comments and demographic data were also solicited. RESULTS: Of the respondents 84% supported a family's right to withdraw life support from a patient in a persistent coma, and 90% supported a mentally competent patient's right to request that life support be withdrawn. Active euthanasia was supported by 65% for only patients experiencing severe pain and terminal illness. There was marked opposition to euthanasia for patients in other circumstances, such as an elderly disabled person who feels he or she is a burden on relatives (opposed by 65%), a patient with chronic depression resistant to treatment (by 75%) or an elderly person no longer satisfied with life and who has various minor physical ailments (by 83%). In all, 63% of the respondents felt that legalization of euthanasia for terminal illnesses would lead to euthanasia for many other, unsupported reasons, and 34% supported legislation to prohibit euthanasia in all situations. CONCLUSIONS: Public support for the right to die varies depending on the circumstances of the patient. The single most significant factor determining attitudes was the level of religious activity. The family's wishes were an important factor in end

  5. Diagnosing dying: an integrative literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona; Brooks-Young, Patricia; Brunton Gray, Carol; Larkin, Phil; Connolly, Michael; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Larsson, Maria; Smith, Tracy; Chater, Susie

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure patients and families receive appropriate end-of-life care pathways and guidelines aim to inform clinical decision making. Ensuring appropriate outcomes through the use of these decision aids is dependent on timely use. Diagnosing dying is a complex clinical decision, and most of the available practice checklists relate to cancer. There is a need to review evidence to establish diagnostic indicators that death is imminent on the basis of need rather than a cancer diagnosis. Aim To examine the evidence as to how patients are judged by clinicians as being in the final hours or days of life. Design Integrative literature review. Data sources Five electronic databases (2001–2011): Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. The search yielded a total of 576 hits, 331 titles and abstracts were screened, 42 papers were retrieved and reviewed and 23 articles were included. Results Analysis reveals an overarching theme of uncertainty in diagnosing dying and two subthemes: (1) ‘characteristics of dying’ involve dying trajectories that incorporate physical, social, spiritual and psychological decline towards death; (2) ‘treatment orientation’ where decision making related to diagnosing dying may remain focused towards biomedical interventions rather than systematic planning for end-of-life care. Conclusions The findings of this review support the explicit recognition of ‘uncertainty in diagnosing dying’ and the need to work with and within this concept. Clinical decision making needs to allow for recovery where that potential exists, but equally there is the need to avoid futile interventions. PMID:24780536

  6. Van de Graaff Irradiation of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, Kevin; Chemerisov, Sergey; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-10-01

    Through irradiations using our 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator, Argonne is testing the radiation stability of components of equipment that are being used to dispense molybdenum solutions for use as feeds to 99mTc generators and in the 99mTc generators themselves. Components have been irradiated by both a direct electron beam and photons generated from a tungsten convertor.

  7. The hospice: Humane care for the dying.

    PubMed

    Franco, V W

    1983-09-01

    The hospice movement arose as a reaction to the dehumanizing atmosphere of acute-care hospitals, where excessive utilization of life support equipment deprived dying patients of a meaningful vision of their destiny. Respecting the spiritual quest of the terminally ill for wholeness and dignity, the hospice concept prescribes the rendering of compassionate and pastoral care by a benevolent community of family, health care staff, friends, and clergy. Approximately 800 hospice programs are currently evolving in the United States. St. Mary's (formerly "Hillhaven") Hospice in Tucson, Arizona, offers the most comprehensive program of services, including home care, inpatient care, and artistic media through which the dying express their creativity. Numerous demonstration projects funded by several government agencies, principally the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), are expected to result in the legislative actions eliminating barriers to reimbursement of the cost of hospice services by Medicare, Medicaid, and other third-party payers. Existential analysis reveals the value of religion and spiritual support in enabling the dying to banish anxiety and muster the hope requisite for fully appreciating the authentic meaning of their destiny.

  8. The hospice: Humane care for the dying.

    PubMed

    Franco, V W

    1985-03-01

    The hospice movement arose as a reaction to the dehumanizing atmosphere of acute-care hospitals, where excessive utilization of life support equipment deprived dying patients of a meaningful vision of their destiny. Respecting the spiritual quest of the terminally ill for wholeness and dignity, the hospice concept prescribes the rendering of compassionate and pastoral care by a benevolent community of family, health care staff, friends, and clergy. Approximately 800 hospice programs are currently evolving in the United States. St. Mary's (formerly "Hillhaven") Hospice in Tucson, Arizona, offers the most comprehensive program of services, including home care, inpatient care, and artistic media through which the dying express their creativity. Numerous demonstration projects funded by several government agencies, principally the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), are expected to result in legislative actions eliminating barriers to reimbursement of the cost of hospice services by Medicare, Medicaid, and other third-party payers. Existential analysis reveals the value of religion and spiritual support in enabling the dying to banish anxiety and muster the hope requisite for fully appreciating the authentic meaning of their destiny.

  9. Parents dying of cancer and their children.

    PubMed

    Beale, Estela A; Sivesind, Debra; Bruera, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    We reviewed our experience with 28 consecutive children referred for assessment and intervention. These were the children of patients with terminal cancer referred to the Palliative Care and Symptom Control Service. In all cases the dying parent was a biological parent. Eleven parameters were assessed in each of 29 children and their incidence was calculated. The children and their parents were seen in a semistructured interview, together as well as separately. The parameters were: seeking reassurance (82), becoming a caretaker (79), inability to separate from parent (79), anger about feeling abandoned (68), despair (57), guilt (54), discipline problems, aggressive behavior (46), denial (39), blame of others (21), and fear for the child's own health (18). Our results suggest that children with dying parents manifest significant distress as well as a greater understanding of their parent's illness than is usually suspected. Timely intervention by a child psychiatrist or other mental health professional with proven competence in working with children can help children to better cope with the death and dying of their parent and ameliorate the process of bereavement following the parent's death. Because of our small sample, we cannot generalize about all of the findings. Further research is required to characterize the level of distress in the children and the long-term impact in their overall adjustment to life.

  10. Caring Science Conscious Dying: An Emerging Metaparadigm.

    PubMed

    Rosa, William; Estes, Tarron; Watson, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Caring science is an extant theory of human relationship, guiding the profession of nursing with the understanding and application of a moral-ethical praxis that promotes, protects, and provides human dignity throughout the life continuum. Over the past 30 or more years, caring science has transformed nursing by calling for a heightened ethical perspective of human dignity in how nurses practice, educate, research, and evolve the profession. Conscious dying is a framework rooted in a human caring ontology, which strives to deepen the nurse healer's awareness in tending to a patient's dying and death, returning death to its sacred place in the cycle of life. Reflective inventories are self-reflection tools that have been used to encourage nurses' personal growth and development and may be utilized in individual or group settings. The purpose herein is to introduce an emerging metaparadigm that links self to system, interweaving and integrating the teachings of caring science and conscious dying through the use of reflective inventories for both the individual nurse and collective of nursing.

  11. Killing, letting die, and withdrawing aid.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    One of the aims of this article is to contribute to the identification of the empirical criteria governing the use of the concepts of killing and letting die. I will not attempt a comprehensive analysis of the concepts but will limit the inquiry to certain problematic cases -- namely, cases involving the removal or withdrawal of life-supporting aid or protection. The analysis of these cases will, however, shed light on the criteria for distinguishing killing and letting die in other cases as well. My overall aims in the article are partly constructive and partly skeptical. I hope to advance our understanding of the nature of the distinction between killing and letting die. This, I believe, will enable us to defend the moral relevance of the distinction against certain objections -- in particular, objections that claim that the distinction fails to coincide with commonsense moral intuitions. Yet I will suggest that, as we get clearer about the nature of the distinction and the sources of its intuitive appeal, it may seem that the intuitions it supports are not so well grounded as one could wish.

  12. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    this is radiation from a SiO maser in the atmosphere of the star. If it would not have been a maser, it would have been far too weak to have been detected. Although we know several hundred masers of this type in the Milky Way, this is the first discovery of a SiO maser in another galaxy than our own . Since then, the observations have been continued in collaboration with Australian astronomers, using radio telescopes at Parkes and Mopra on that continent. A most unusual star When Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund and his colleagues first observed this LMC maser star in 1981 with optical telescopes, they thought that it was a rather normal, cool and not particularly bright star. However, a few years later, the Dutch-British-USA InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revealed its true nature. The IRAS measurements showed that the star radiates most of its light in the form of infrared radiation [4], making it one of the most powerful stars in the LMC; in fact, it emits about half a million times more energy than the Sun. On this occasion, it was given the designation IRAS 04553-6825 , the number indicating its position in the sky. IRAS 04553-6825 is unusual in other ways. It is some fifty times as heavy as our Sun, and it is the biggest known star in the LMC: if it were to take the place of our Sun, it would fill the solar system out to the planet Neptune, thirty times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is rather cool when compared to other stars - although it still has a temperature of about 2,000 C - and it therefore has a very red colour [5]. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 15/96 which demonstrates that while the star is hardly visible in blue light, it shines brightly in red and infrared light. Stars like IRAS 04553-6825 are known as red supergiants. It has been unofficially dubbed `The Monster', and having reached the end of a short and hectic life, it is now dying. The nuclear reactions deep inside are undergoing important changes at

  13. Van de Graaff generator for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jae; Castro, Eric R; Guijt, Rosanne M; Tarn, Mark D; Manz, Andreas

    2017-09-29

    A new approach for high voltage capillary electrophoresis (CE) is proposed, which replaces the standard high voltage power supply with a Van de Graaff generator, a low current power source. Because the Van de Graaff generator is a current-limited source (10μA), potentials exceeding 100kV can be generated for CE when the electrical resistance of the capillary is maximized. This was achieved by decreasing the capillary diameter and reducing the buffer ionic strength. Using 2mM borate buffer and a 5μm i.d. capillary, fluorescently labeled amino acids were separated with efficiencies up to 3.5 million plates; a 5.7 fold improvement in separation efficiency compared to a normal power supply (NPS) typically used in CE. This separation efficiency was realized using a simple set-up without significant Joule heating, making the Van de Graaff generator a promising alternative for applying the high potentials required for enhancing resolution in the separation and analysis of highly complex samples, for example mixtures of glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter.

    PubMed

    Kulić, Igor M; Kulić, Miodrag L

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R(-6)), in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R(-9)). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  15. Xanthopsia and van Gogh's yellow palette.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W N; Loftus, L S

    1991-01-01

    A survey of van Gogh's work from 1886 to 1890 indicated that paintings with a yellow dominance were numerous, episodic, and multi-regional. His underlying illness, by his own admission, affected his life and work; furthermore, episodes of malnutrition, substance abuse, environmental exposure, and drug experimentation (all evident from correspondence) exacerbated his condition. Accordingly, we reviewed plausible agents that might have modified the artist's colour perception. Xanthopsia due to overdosage of digitalis or santonin is well documented elsewhere, but evidence of useage of either drug by van Gogh cannot be substantiated. It is unlikely that ageing of the human lens was an influence because of the artist's youth. Sunstroke is too restrictive to fit the multiplicity of regions and motifs. Hallucinations induced by absinthe, the popular liqueur of the period, may explain particular canvases but not the majority of 'high yellow' paintings. Van Gogh's proclivity for exaggerated colours and his embrance of yellow in particular are clear from his letters and, in contradistinction to chemical or physical insults modifying perception, artistic preference is the best working hypothesis to explain the yellow dominance in his palette.

  16. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulić, Igor M.; Kulić, Miodrag L.

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R-6) , in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R-9 ). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  17. Members of the genera Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus harbor genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB.

    PubMed

    Guardabassi, L; Christensen, H; Hasman, H; Dalsgaard, A

    2004-12-01

    Genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB were found in glycopeptide-resistant Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus strains from soil. The putative D-Ala:D-Lac ligase genes in Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B were closely related to vanA (92 and 87%) and flanked by genes homologous to vanH and vanX in vanA operons.

  18. Members of the Genera Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus Harbor Genes Homologous to Enterococcal Glycopeptide Resistance Genes vanA and vanB

    PubMed Central

    Guardabassi, L.; Christensen, H.; Hasman, H.; Dalsgaard, A.

    2004-01-01

    Genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB were found in glycopeptide-resistant Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus strains from soil. The putative d-Ala:d-Lac ligase genes in Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B were closely related to vanA (92 and 87%) and flanked by genes homologous to vanH and vanX in vanA operons. PMID:15561881

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of the Cepheid GeneXpert vanA/vanB assay ver. 1.0 to detect the vanA and vanB vancomycin resistance genes in Enterococcus from perianal specimens.

    PubMed

    Marner, Erin S; Wolk, Donna M; Carr, Jeanne; Hewitt, Carolyn; Dominguez, Lorraine L; Kovacs, Thomas; Johnson, Desiree R; Hayden, Randall T

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriers could be useful to health care facilities to minimize transmission. To that end, we compared the performance of the Cepheid GeneXpert vanA/vanB assay with that of direct and broth-enriched culture methods for detection of VRE from perianal swabs. Enterococci were cultivated on Enterococcosel™ agar with 8 μg/mL vancomycin, Bile Esculin Azide Agar with 6 μg/mL vancomycin, and Bile Esculin Azide Enterococcosel Broth. Compared to the reference standard (combination of direct agar plating, broth-enriched culture, and clinical chart review), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the vanA/vanB assay were 96.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, and 96.9%, respectively (n=184). The 95% limit of detection was 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL for vanA and 114 CFU/mL for vanB. In summary, the GeneXpert vanA/vanB assay is a rapid and accurate method to identify vanA/vanB-colonized patients for VRE screening programs that use perianal swab specimens.

  20. A recent example of continent-continent collision : October 23, 2011 Van Earthquake (Mw=7.2) : Southeastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Suvarikli, M.; Ogutcu, Z.; Kekovali, K.; Yilmazer, M.; Ocal, M. F.; Gunes, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Anatolia region is one of the best examples of a continental collision zone in the world. The tectonics of the Lake Van region is dominated by the active convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.The southeast border of the Anatolian plate with the Arabian plate is Bitlis Suture Zone. This zone is formed by collision of Arabian-and in large scale Eurasian plates at mid-Miocen age. This type of thrust generation as a result of compressional regime extends east-west. On 23 October 2011 at 13:41(local time) a strong earthquake (Mw=7.2) occurred in east of Lake Van. The earthquake destroyed the regions especially between the cities of Van and Ercis, and East of Lake Van-Lake Ercek region. It caused deaths of 600 people and more than 4150 people were injured with tens of thousands rendered homeless. In addition, 40 people died in the earthquake of September 9, 2011 Edremit-Van (Mw=5.7). The initial rapid fault solution shows that the rupture started at 43.41(deg.) North -38.72 (deg.) East coordinates. The fault that caused the Van earthquake is a reverse fault with a northward dipping fault plane. After the main shock 11 important earthquakes (5.0≤M≤6.0) were occurred in the region which have hypocentral distances of 8-38 km. from the main shock location. These earthquakes have shallow epicenters and they have less than 16 km depth. In general, the distribution of the aftershocks show high activity along the east-northeast of Lake Van and the northern part of the Van city. The distribution of the important earthquakes and the aftershock distribution shows that the E-W and NE-SW oriented fault segments cause the earthquake activities. Stress increase and related triggered seismic activity were observed at NE-SW and NW-SE oriented directions of the east-west trending fault that was broken during Van Earthquake. Indeed, November 9, 2011 Edremit-Van Earthquake (Mw=5.7) is considered to be triggered by the mainshock. Stress change and breakage of the

  1. Numerical simulation and experiment on multilayer stagger-split die.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Mingzhe; Han, Qigang; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Bolong; Sui, Zhou

    2013-05-01

    A novel ultra-high pressure device, multilayer stagger-split die, has been constructed based on the principle of "dividing dies before cracking." Multilayer stagger-split die includes an encircling ring and multilayer assemblages, and the mating surfaces of the multilayer assemblages are mutually staggered between adjacent layers. In this paper, we investigated the stressing features of this structure through finite element techniques, and the results were compared with those of the belt type die and single split die. The contrast experiments were also carried out to test the bearing pressure performance of multilayer stagger-split die. It is concluded that the stress distributions are reasonable and the materials are utilized effectively for multilayer stagger-split die. And experiments indicate that the multilayer stagger-split die can bear the greatest pressure.

  2. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  3. Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164254.html Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study Slight differences in death rates were possibly ... likely to die if they are treated during weeks that inspectors are checking on the staff, a ...

  4. Interaction of Several Dies on an Elastic Half-Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argatov, I. I.

    2003-09-01

    A contact problem is solved for several rigid dies on an elastic half-space. Relationships between the generalized loads and generalized displacements of a large number of spaced dies are established. The interaction between flat-based dies is described in terms of their capacity characteristics. The general solution is constructed on the basis of Mossakovski's theorem. Explicit formulas are derived for a system of elliptic dies

  5. Impact of Temperature on Cooling Structural Variation of Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesova, Marianna; Czan, Andrej

    2014-12-01

    The article is focused on the issue of die forging in the automotive industry. The cooling effect of temperature on the structure of forged die are under review. In the article, there is elaborated the analysis of theoretical knowledge in the field, focusing on die forging and experimentally proven effect of the cooling rate on the final structure of forged dies made of hypoeutectic carbon steel C56E2.

  6. A unique Austin Chalk reservoir, Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Significant shallow oil production from the Austin Chalk was established in the Van field, Van Zandt County, in East Texas in the late 1980s. The Van field structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion. The Woodbine sands, which underlie the Austin Chalk, have been and continue to be the predominant reservoir rocks in the field. Evidence indicates that faults provided vertical conduits for migration of Woodbine oil into the Austin Chalk where it was trapped along the structural crest. The most prolific Austin Chalk production is on the upthrown side of the main field fault, as is the Woodbine. The Austin Chalk is a soft, white to light gray limestone composed mostly of coccoliths with some pelecypods. Unlike the Austin Chalk in the Giddings and Pearsall fields, the chalk at Van was not as deeply buried and therefore did not become brittle and susceptible to tensional or cryptic fracturing. The shallow burial in the Van field was also important in that it allowed the chalk to retain primary microporosity. The production comes entirely from this primary porosity. In addition to the structural position and underlying oil source from the Woodbine, the depositional environment and associated lithofacies are also keys to the reservoir quality in the Van field as demonstrated by cores from the upthrown and downthrown (less productive) sides of the main field fault. It appears that at the time of Austin Chalk deposition, the main field fault was active and caused the upthrown side to be a structural high and a more agreeable environment for benthonic organisms such as pelecypods and worms. The resulting bioturbation enhanced the reservoir's permeability enough to allow migration and entrapment of the oil. Future success in exploration for analogous Austin Chalk reservoirs will require the combination of a favorable environment of deposition, a nearby Woodbine oil source, and a faulted trap that will provide the conduit for migration.

  7. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  8. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  9. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  10. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  11. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  12. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  13. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  14. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  15. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  16. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  17. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  18. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  19. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  20. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  1. Die and telescoping punch form convolutions in thin diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Die and punch set forms convolutions in thin dished metal diaphragm without stretching the metal too thin at sharp curvatures. The die corresponds to the metal shape to be formed, and the punch consists of elements that progressively slide against one another under the restraint of a compressed-air cushion to mate with the die.

  2. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  3. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  4. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  5. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  6. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  7. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  8. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  9. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  10. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  11. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  12. Differentiating suicide decedents who died using firearms from those who died using other methods.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Joye C

    2017-02-22

    Studies have documented a link between gun ownership and suicide, but little is known about characteristics of those most likely to use a gun in a suicide attempt rather than alternative methods. We examined which factors differentiate suicide decedents who died using a gun from those who died by other methods. We further examined whether such findings are consistent within the subcomponent of our larger sample comprised entirely of gun owning suicide decedents. Data reflect 267 suicide decedents, with data provided by individuals who identified as having lost someone to suicide (loss survivors). Within the full sample, a higher proportion of gun-owning and male suicide decedents died by firearm. Further, individuals who had previously discussed suicide or engaged in one or more non-lethal suicide attempts were less likely to die by suicide using a gun. Within the subsample of gun owning suicide decedents, a greater proportion of decedents who stored guns at home and in unsecure locations died from self-inflected gunshot wounds. These findings add clarity to the relationship between firearm ownership and death by suicide at the individual level. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the notion that means safety implementation may represent a vital suicide prevention tool.

  13. Cor pulmonale in a patient with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Pereira; Moura, Rafael de Deus; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Marchiori, Paulo Eurípedes; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins

    2011-01-15

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS) is a rare neurological disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and multiple cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the VIIth and IXth to XIIth cranial nerves. We describe the clinical and pathological features of a 33-year-old woman with BVVLS. The patient developed progressive exertional dyspnea, with clinical and laboratory findings of right-sided heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. She developed status epilepticus in the setting of cardiac deterioration and respiratory infection, and died of cardiogenic and septic shock. Autopsy disclosed bilateral neuronal loss and gliosis in the inferior colliculi, locus coeruleus and facial and vestibular nuclei. Cor pulmonale is a complication of hypoventilation-induced hypoxia and hypercapnia and had not yet been reported in BVVLS.

  14. [The meaning of dying with dignity from caregivers perspective: a phenomenological study].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Masero, Olivia; Ortega-Galán, Ángela M; Carmona-Rega, M Inés; Ruiz-Fernández, M Dolores; Cabrera-Troya, José; García-Cisneros, Rogelio; Medina, Fernando Relinque

    To explore the meaning of dying with dignity from the perspective of the direct witnesses who have accompanied this process in dying people from Andalusia. Phenomenological study conducted in different centres, which including analysing the transcriptions of the dialogues from discussion groups with 40 participants in five provinces in Southern Spain. The data was analysed using the Van Manen proposal and Atlas Ti 7.0 program was applied as a software tool. Being in the company of loved ones is noted as a key element in the perception of a dignified death. The following elements, according to a priority order, were also pointed out: relief of suffering, a good professional care, decision making ability, and the opportunity to consider their spiritual dimension. Achievement of their Living Wills is hardly mentioned. The essential elements defined in the Death with Dignity Law, 2/2010 are confirmed as being true (without suffering, with company, respecting living wills, having possibilities of the farewell, and the transcendental meaning of the death process). Caregivers, at the end of life, give priority to psychological aspects, underlying the need of company, a farewell of the loved ones, and a good professional care on the physical aspects. The promotion of the dignified Death Law and Living Wills are still being developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  16. WA30 The dying well community charter and dying matters: a united kingdom (uk) approach to public health and dying.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nuzhat; Chapman, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The Dying Matters Coalition, set up following the UK Government's End of Life Care Strategy in 2008, is led by the NCPC (UK umbrella organisation). Dying Matters supports changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards dying, death and bereavement, and through this to make 'living and dying well' the norm. The Coalition has over 30,000 members, and encourages people to talk to friends and family about their end of life wishes, including how they would like to be cared for, where they want to die and their funeral plans. The Dying Well Community Charter is an innovative approach to community development work, working with Pathfinder areas to pilot this approach, rather than encouraging health and social care services to "do" end of life care "to" people, to encourage them to work with community leaders to make end of life care everyone's responsibility. Participants will discover what has worked in the UK, including many low resource options, and a community development approach to palliative care. We worked with 8 Pathfinder communities to ask them to pilot the Dying Well Community Charter approach. Dying Matters was the first national awareness and behaviour change campaign around death, dying and bereavement. Dying Matters has over 30,000 members. Outcome of the Charter work is unknown, but more will be known by the time of the conference. How communities can come together for better death, dying and bereavement. That death and dying are not subjects that need to be avoided, and can be engaged with for better outcomes. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. [Drugs and poisons in the life of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Berggren, L

    1997-01-01

    Van Gogh was during his last years exposed to several potentially toxic substances such as; bromides, lead, camphor and terpene oils in absinthe liquor. All of them produce signs of toxicity which are similar to the symptoms known from van Gogh's attacks of illness; hallucinations, confusion, delirium, convulsions and agitation. However, the many interpretations of van Gogh's illness and state of mind have in most cases not taken into account the possible influence of toxic chemicals.

  18. Militaire Toepassingen Van Adaptieve Optiek (Military Applications of Adaptive Optics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    deze technologic laser- DIRCM-s ystemen gemaakt voor welke optieken en voor welke toekomst gebruiki gaan worden en dat de kan verbeteren. In dit...waarneembaar Geen beeld onscherpte door atmosferische turbulentie D > ro Cohoronte elgonschappon van bron gaan door sen middoling in do aportuur vertoron Goon...L is gevarieerd van 0. 1 tot 2.5 km. Als we voor deze geavanceerde optieken gebruik willen gaan maken van adaptieve optiek, dan moet ook nog bekeken

  19. Dying with dignity: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemati, Zeinab; Ashouri, Elaheh; AllahBakhshian, Maryam; Pourfarzad, Zahra; Shirani, Farimah; Safazadeh, Shima; Ziyaei, Marziyeh; Varzeshnejad, Maryam; Hashemi, Maryam; Taleghani, Fariba

    2016-05-01

    This article is a report of an analysis of the concept of dying with dignity. Dignity is an important component of providing care for dying patients and their families. Nevertheless, given that this concept is poorly defined, concept analysis is one of the best ways to define and clarify the concept of death with dignity with the aim to enhance its application in clinical practice, research and education. A search of multiple nursing and social sciences databases was undertaken, including Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, ProQuest, Scopus, Medline, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Noormage, Cinahl, Magiran, PsycINFO and SID. After an extensive review of the literature from 1998-2014, about 14 related articles were included in the study. Based on these articles, the applications, attributes and experimental results of and references to death with dignity were recorded. Based on this analysis, the most important attributes of this concept included respect for privacy, respect, spiritual peace and hope. The antecedents of this concept included consideration of moral values during caregiving, preservation of human dignity as a patient right and professional ethics, and belief in the dignity of self and others, consideration of culture in providing end-of-life care. The consequences of this concept included a sense of peace in the patient and their family, peaceful death and provision of patient privacy and comfort. The concept of patient dignity has been referred to in many contexts. However, considering the dignity of dying patients commensurate with their culture is the most important component of care provided by nurses to facilitate a peaceful death. Respecting the dignity of the patient results in the reduction of her/his suffering and prepares her/him for a comfortable death. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Dying cancer patients talk about euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N

    2008-08-01

    Within developed nations, there is increasing public debate about and apparent endorsement of the appropriateness of euthanasia as an autonomous choice to die in the face of intolerable suffering. Surveys report socio-demographic differences in rates of acceptance of euthanasia, but there is little in-depth analysis of how euthanasia is understood and positioned within the social and moral lives of individuals, particularly those who might be considered suitable candidates-for example, terminally-ill cancer patients. During discussions with 28 such patients in Australia regarding medical decisions at the end of life, euthanasia was raised by 13 patients, with the others specifically asked about it. Twenty-four patients spoke positively of euthanasia, 19 of these voicing some concerns. None identified euthanasia as a currently favoured option. Four were completely against it. Endorsement for euthanasia was in the context of a hypothetical future or for a hypothetical other person, or temporally associated with acute pain. Arguments supporting euthanasia framed the issue as a matter of freedom of choice, as preserving dignity in death, and as curbing intolerable pain and suffering, both of the patient and of those around them. A common analogy featured was that of euthanising a dog. These arguments were typically presented as self-evident justification for euthanasia, construed as an appropriate choice to die, with opposers positioned as morally inferior or ignorant. The difficulties of ensuring 'choice' and the moral connotations of 'choosing to die,' however, worked to problematise the appropriateness of euthanising specific individuals. We recommend further empirical investigation of the moral and social meanings associated with euthanasia.

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: who dies, and why?

    PubMed

    Lantigua, Hector; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Schmidt, J Michael; Lee, Kiwon; Badjatia, Neeraj; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander; Mayer, Stephan A

    2015-08-31

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Causes and mechanisms of in-hospital death after SAH in the modern era of neurocritical care remain incompletely understood. We studied 1200 consecutive SAH patients prospectively enrolled in the Columbia University SAH Outcomes Project between July 1996 and January 2009. Analysis was performed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality was 18% (216/1200): 3% for Hunt-Hess grade 1 or 2, 9% for grade 3, 24% for grade 4, and 71% for grade 5. The most common adjudicated primary causes of death or neurological devastation leading to withdrawal of support were direct effects of the primary hemorrhage (55%), aneurysm rebleeding (17%), and medical complications (15%). Among those who died, brain death was declared in 42%, 50% were do-not-resuscitate at the time of cardiac death (86% of whom had life support actively withdrawn), and 8% died despite full support. Admission predictors of mortality were age, loss of consciousness at ictus, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, large aneurysm size, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) physiologic subscore, and Modified Fisher Scale score. Hospital complications that further increased the risk of dying in multivariable analysis included rebleeding, global cerebral edema, hypernatremia, clinical signs of brain stem herniation, hypotension of less than 90 mm Hg treated with pressors, pulmonary edema, myocardial ischemia, and hepatic failure. Delayed cerebral ischemia, defined as deterioration or infarction from vasospasm, did not predict mortality. Strategies directed toward minimizing early brain injury and aneurysm rebleeding, along with prevention and treatment of medical complication, hold the best promise for further reducing mortality after SAH.

  2. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  3. The VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system controls synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147.

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, M; Molinas, C; Courvalin, P

    1992-01-01

    Plasmid pIP816 of Enterococcus faecium BM4147 confers inducible resistance to vancomycin and encodes the VanH dehydrogenase and the VanA ligase for synthesis of depsipeptide-containing peptidoglycan precursors which bind the antibiotic with reduced affinity. We have characterized a cluster of five genes of pIP816 sufficient for peptidoglycan synthesis in the presence of vancomycin. The distal part of the van cluster encodes VanH, VanA, and a third enzyme, VanX, all of which are necessary for resistance. Synthesis of these enzymes was regulated at the transcriptional level by the VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system encoded by the proximal part of the cluster. VanR was a transcriptional activator related to response regulators of the OmpR subclass. VanS stimulated VanR-dependent transcription and was related to membrane-associated histidine protein kinases which control the level of phosphorylation of response regulators. Analysis of transcriptional fusions with a reporter gene and RNA mapping indicated that the VanR-VanS two-component regulatory system activates a promoter used for cotranscription of the vanH, vanA, and vanX resistance genes. Images PMID:1556077

  4. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  5. Die Schokoladen-Diät

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    Schlankheitskuren sind einerseits ein soziales Phänomen, aber auch ein großer Zweig der Nahrungsmittelindustrie. Die Industrie bietet dabei verschiedene Produkte an, wie Diätlebensmittel, Nahrungsergänzungsmittel, Sportkleidung und -ausrüstung, Übungsvideos und -bücher, usw. Allerdings ist es bekanntermaßen sehr schwer, das einmal erreichte Wunschgewicht auch langfristig zu halten. Häufig tritt dabei der so genannte Jojo-Effekt auf, so dass man schließlich nach der Diät mehr wiegt als vorher.

  6. Do imaginary companions die? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kastenbaum, Robert; Fox, Lynn

    Adults in this exploratory study usually recalled that their childhood imaginary companions faded away or were dismissed as other options for social interaction became more appealing. However, eight participants reported that their IC had died. Analysis of these deaths offers a glimpse of the child's talent for transitional thought processes that navigate between the emerging constraints of logic and the continuing appeal of fantasy. It is suggested that young children are testing the limits and possibilities of what it means to be "real" at the same time they are trying to puzzle out "alive" and "dead."

  7. Implementing California's Law on Assisted Dying.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ruchika

    2017-03-01

    On October 5, 2015, Governor Jerry Brown approved bill ABX2 15, the End of Life Option Act, making California the fifth state in the country to allow physician-assisted dying. The law was modeled after Oregon's 1997 Death with Dignity Act. When the legislative special session ended on March 10, 2016, California health care providers had only ninety days to respond to the state mandate before the law would take effect, on June 9, 2016. Experience with the law so far suggests several challenges with implementation.

  8. Method and apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darter, John L.

    1986-06-01

    The invention comprises an apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions which utilizes die blocks of low melting temperature metallic material. The die blocks are formed in an adjustable mold which comprises a mold box, a pivotable dam within the mold box and blocking means for locking the pivotable dam member in a desired angular position. Once a desired die block angle is ascertained for a particular joggle, the pivotable member of the mold box is adjusted to produce the desired angle in the die casting made in the mold box.

  9. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  10. Devices and applications of van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-03-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures, composed of individual two-dimensional material have been developing extremely fast. Synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures without the constraint of lattice matching and processing compatibility provides an ideal platform for fundamental research and new device exploitation. We review the approach of synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures, discuss the property of heterostructures and thoroughly illustrate the functional van der Waals heterostructures used in novel electronic and photoelectronic device. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (No. 2016YFA0203900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61376093, 61622401).

  11. Die swell as an objective in the design of polymer extrusion dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegbert, Roland; Behr, Marek; Elgeti, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on developing a suitable objective function for the inverse form of profile extrusion die design. First, the problem is motivated by introducing the extrusion die design process. After describing how Computer Aided Engineering enhances the traditional design process, a set of applicable objective functions is introduced. The main criteria for identifying the most suitable are computational applicability, robustness and smoothness of the functional. After discussing the results of several simulations, an objective function is proposed for the implementation in an existing optimization framework utilizing parameter-based optimization.

  12. [The cause of death of Theo van Gogh (1857-1891)].

    PubMed

    Voskuil, Piet H A

    2009-01-01

    In 1992 Theo van Gogh's medical files from the Willem Arntsz Huis, a psychiatric centre in Utrecht, the Netherlands, were made available. A study based on two copies of these files was published in this journal earlier. While reviewing the archives, the author noticed a third copy which included an extra (last) page that was missing in the other two copies. This page provided medical information regarding Theo van Gogh's final days. Based on this new information the present article corrects some misconceptions about his death. For example, it is commonly thought that Theo had uraemia or, like his brother Vincent the painter (1853-1890), committed suicide. This new information demonstrates that this is not the case. The extra page, dated 26 January 1891, shows that on the two days before he died Theo suffered two epileptic fits, most probably symptomatic to his dementia paralytica. After the second fit he did not regain consciousness. Heartbeat and respiration gradually weakened and he passed away on January 25th at eleven thirty P.M. Other symptoms mentioned were vomiting, fever and early signs of decubitus. The family did not give permission for a post-mortem.

  13. Van Kampen modes for bunch longitudinal motion

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Conditions for existence, uniqueness and stability of bunch steady states are considered. For the existence uniqueness problem, simple algebraic equations are derived, showing the result both for the action and Hamiltonian domain distributions. For the stability problem, van Kampen theory is used. Emerging of discrete van Kampen modes show either loss of Landau damping, or instability. This method can be applied for an arbitrary impedance, RF shape and beam distribution function Available areas on intensity-emittance plane are shown for resistive wall wake and single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening RF configurations. Language of van Kampen modes is a powerful tool for studying beam stability. Its unique efficiency reveals itself in those complicated cases, when the dielectric function cannot be obtained, as it is for the longitudinal bunch motion. Emergence of a discrete mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. By definition, the discrete modes lie outside the continuous incoherent spectrum, but they still may stay within the bucket. In the last case, the discrete mode would disappear after a tiny portion of resonant particles would be added. However, if the discrete mode lie outside the bucket, the Landau damping cannot be restored by tiny perturbation of the particle distribution; LLD is called radical in that case. For a given bunch emittance and RF voltage, the intensity is limited either by reduction of the bucket acceptance or by (radical) LLD. In this paper, results are presented for longitudinal bunch stability in weak head-tail approximation and resistive wall impedance; three RF configurations are studied: single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening. It is shown that every RF configuration may be preferable, depending on the bunch emittance and intensity.

  14. van der Waals Heterostructures Grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Christopher

    In this work, we demonstrate the high-quality MBE heterostructure growth of various layered 2D materials by van der Waals epitaxy (VDWE). The coupling of different types of van der Waals materials including transition metal dichalcogenide thin films (e.g., WSe2, WTe2, HfSe2) , insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and topological insulators (e.g., Bi2Se3) allows for the fabrication of novel electronic devices that take advantage of unique quantum confinement and spin-based characteristics. The relaxed lattice-matching criteria of van der Waals epitaxy has allowed for high-quality heterostructure growth with atomically abrupt interfaces, allowing us to couple these materials based primarily on their band alignment and electronic properties. We will discuss the impact of sample preparation, surface reactivity, and lattice mismatch of various substrates (sapphire, graphene, TMDs, Bi2Se3) on the growth mode and quality of the films and will discuss our studies of substrate temperature and flux rates on the resultant growth and grain size. Structural and chemical characterization was conducted via reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Experimentally determined band alignments have been determined and compared with first-principles calculations allowing the design of novel low-power logic and magnetic memory devices. Initial results from the electrical characterization of these grown thin films and some simple devices will also be presented. These VDWE grown layered 2D materials show significant potential for fabricating novel heterostructures with tunable band alignments and magnetic properties for a variety of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  15. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    PubMed

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. DIE Deflection Modeling: Empirical Validation and Tech Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2003-05-28

    This report summarizes computer modeling work that was designed to help understand how the die casting die and machine contribute to parting plane separation during operation. Techniques developed in earlier research (8) were applied to complete a large computational experiment that systematically explored the relationship between the stiffness of the machine platens and key dimensional and structural variables (platen area covered, die thickness, platen thickness, thickness of insert and the location of the die with respect to the platen) describing the die/machine system. The results consistently show that there are many significant interactions among the variables and it is the interactions, more than the individual variables themselves, which determine the performance of the machine/die system. That said, the results consistently show that it is the stiffness of the machine platens that has the largest single impact on die separation.

  17. The microscopes of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

    PubMed

    van Zuylen, J

    1981-03-01

    The seventeenth-century Dutch microscopist, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, was the first man to make a protracted study of microscopical objects, and, unlike his contemporary Robert Hooke, he viewed by transmitted light. Leeuwenhoek made over 500 of his own, curious, simple microscopes, but now only nine are known to exist. The exact nature of the lenses Leeuwenhoek made, has for long been a puzzle. The existing microscopes have now been examined in detail, and their optical characteristics measured and tabulated. It is proposed that the lens of highest magnification, x 266, was made using a special blown bubble technique.

  18. Interlayer Hybridization in van der Waals Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam; Tran, Huan; Woods, Lilia

    Van der Waals heterostructures composed of chemically inert dissimilar layers are of great interest for fundamental science and applications. The weak interplanar interactions and orbital overlap are expected to bring modifications to the constituent materials. By using first principles simulations, we investigate the properties of several heterostructures, including graphene/silicene, graphene/MoS2, and silicene/MoS2. The calculations reveal superlattice characteristic points in the Brillouin zone associated with the different stacking patterns. Band structures projected on each of the constituents show hybridization features related to specific orbital overlap for each heterostructure. Phonon dispersion spectra for the considered heterostructures are also investigated.

  19. Fundacion Bernard van Leer, Boletin Informativo, 1987-1996 (Bernard van Leer Foundation Information Bulletin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fundacion Bernard van Leer, Boletin Informativo, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of ten annual Spanish Language Bulletins, published during the period 1987-1996. The early bulletins were largely composed of selections originally published in the Bernard van Lear Foundation's English-Language "Newsletter The articles discuss topics such as: (1) parents as children's first teachers; (2) health and…

  20. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Review 1993 = Fundacion Bernard van Leer Revista Anual 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This report, in both English and Spanish versions, aims to highlight the Bernard van Leer Foundation's identity, objectives, and major activities, as well as the work undertaken by the projects the foundation supports. The review features articles on the Foundation's work on advocacy, supporting families living in disadvantaged circumstances,…

  1. Additional Value from Road Mapping in Defense Policy Making (meerwaarde van roadmapping bij beleidsontwikkeling van de koninklijke landmacht)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    diplomaat, woordvoerder ( media ) en manager zijn. Kuj dient in elke faso van eon oporatie met do media to kunnen communicoron an Commandant van do aan to...doel te richten. Hierbij kan gedacht worden aan politieke-, sociale -, humanitaire-, economische-, militaire- en financiele instrumenten. Door de...Hierbij kan gedacht worden aan politieke-, sociale -, humanitaire-, economisvhe-, militaire- en financi~le instrumenten. Door de ontwikkeling van NEC

  2. [The debate about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Armando; Solar, Sebastián

    2005-05-01

    The Right to Die is a debatable issue and some basic notions need to be clarified to discuss it. Death needs to be recognized as part of human life. The goal of medicine is to avoid pain and alleviate suffering, to prevent premature death and when this is not possible, to let it occur peacefully. The concept of euthanasia is unclear, which increases the confusion on end-of-life topics. The term euthanasia should be used only when referring to medical acts performed to produce the patient's death, with the intention of terminating his/her suffering. It is what is usually called "active" euthanasia, which can be voluntary or involuntary. It is essential to understand the difference between producing and allowing death. This will permit timely decisions about limiting or withdrawing treatments, that can be disproportionate or that are only prolonging suffering. Limiting treatments does not mean to abandon the patient but rather to redefine his needs, such as pain treatment, prevention of complications, and relief of suffering. The ethic rationale for these decisions is the respect to the dignity of human life, and the estimation of proportionality or futility of each treatment. The physician's duty with the patient at the end of his life is to assist him in dying according to his values and to minimize his distress.

  3. Dying, mourning, and spirituality: a psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Marrone, R

    1999-09-01

    Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled.

  4. The dying child and surviving family members.

    PubMed

    Shrier, D K

    1980-12-01

    This overview of death and dying focuses on the dying child and surviving family members. Children's concepts of death at different developmental stages are reviewed. These range from an inability to distinguish death from other forms of separation prior to age 3, through partial concepts of death until, by age 10 to 15 years, children are able to conceptualize death as universal, inevitable and final. The importance of adults assisting in the child's growing comprehension of death is stressed. The stages of grief and mourning, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, are reviewed from the perspective of the child and family: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Recognition is given to the variations in coping styles among different family members. The special circumstances related to the death of an infant and the impact of the death of a child on the surviving siblings are discussed. Specific helpful interventions to assist families in coping with mourning are described. The death of a child remains one of the most painful and difficult events for a family and its physician to accept.

  5. Dying or living?: The double bind.

    PubMed

    Longhofer, J

    1980-06-01

    Describing the behaviors of terminally ill patients, their families and those charged with their care has received considerable attention during the past decade. This study of comprehensive cancer treatment and research facility indicates that the prevailing theory is limited to explanation at the intra-psychic level. In her work with hundreds of terminal cases, Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross found that patients typically progress through five stages: 1) denial, 2) anger, 3) bargaining, 4) depression, and 5) acceptance. She concludes that the majority of her patients die in a stage of acceptance--a state of equanimity. Recently, scholars have claimed that this five stage scheme has limited applicability and may in fact contribute to the formalization of a dying person's behavior. This preliminary report proposes that the stage theory, if it has any descriptive validity, becomes meaningful only when used to describe behaviors occurring among patients, families, and medical practitioners. A plausible explanation of these behaviors is accomplished by examination of communication patterns containing the structure of paradox or double bind. Patients are forced to perceive realities about their physical conditions not as they appear to them, but as they are defined by those in their environment. This paper explores these communication patterns in relation to the structure of social relationships and the specific contents of messages being transmitted and received.

  6. Death and dying: what the patient wants.

    PubMed

    Balducci, L

    2012-04-01

    A good death and a death with dignity may be achieved when death is congruent with the personal values of the patient. It behooves the practitioner to recognize these values and to cater to them. This paper describes effective communication with the dying person, and the partnership of treatment team, patient and family in face of the patient death. To identify and define the patient wishes it is necessary to learn how to interpret the patient's non verbal as often patients are unable to formulate the questions they wish to ask concerning their passing. These difficulties stem from several cultural factors including concern about disturbing the practitioner. It is the treatment team's responsibility to facilitate this discussion. A good death is achieved when symptoms are controlled and when patients and family recognize death as a unique living experience to be treasured as any other living experience. A death with dignity brings healing, that is always possible even when cure is out of reach. Patient's and practitioner's values may be at odd in face of controversial issues including euthanasia, assisted suicide and terminal sedation. Though he/she should not be compelled to execute these requests, the practitioner should be able to entertain an open discussion with the patient concerning these issues. Open communication and reflective listening even in presence of disagreements are the venue of healing. The study of death and dying requires novel approaches including personal narrative and qualitative research to complement traditional research instrument, such as questionnaire that cannot embrace the whole human dimension.

  7. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  8. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  9. Ergonomische Evaluatie van Drie Prototypen van een Gevechtsbepak- Kingssysteem (Ergonomical Evaluation of Three Prototypes of a Military Backpack)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-25

    M. Holewijn KINGSSYSTEEM (V) R. Heus . t d (’ JNiets uit daeze LIligave mag wre vermenlgvuldigd en/of openbaar gemaakt door middel van druk, fotoliople...met twos schouderbanden en is gemaakt van 6 Cordurn (Hp ]i.1A) . 0) doýý e henphand hey I nd t z iech tulltioW bhar d wnnrop melt schuifhiakezi de...tostonderdool word or eon significant vorschil. gevondon tussen hot pros tatiovorl ios (1) van do vrouweiijko on hot prostatie- verlios ( t ) van do

  10. Caregivers in Death, Dying, and Bereavement Situations: International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    This document examines issues related to the work of both formal and informal caregivers as they are involved in caring for dying and/or bereaved individuals. The examination is organized around five central questions: what brings individuals to this work?; what enables them to develop effective caregiving relationships?; what sustains them in…

  11. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.Allen; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Choudhury, Aswin K.; Dedhia, Sanjay

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects or problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  12. [From absolute necessity of dying to preventive planning of dying? The change of social and medicine debates on dying in the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Jordan, I

    2010-04-01

    International euthanasia debates focussing on "autonomous dying" in the 1980s corresponded with a general change in the health-care system: availability of new technical means with an analogous medical-ethic understanding of human suffering and dying. This change is part of a general development from "passive health consumption" to "active prevention" in our society.

  13. [The psychiatric illness of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Strik, W K

    1997-05-01

    Vincent van Gogh's illness has been the object of much speculation. Explanations as disparate as acute intermittent porphyria, epilepsy and schizophrenia have been proposed. Many of the diagnostic hypotheses, however, are based on partial or incomplete consideration of the biography and of the reports of his subjective experience in his letters to his brother. Karl Leonhard showed, in a detailed analysis of Vincent's biography, that both the course and symptoms of the disorder were consistent with the diagnosis of a cycloid psychosis (anxiety-elation psychosis). In the present paper, the diagnostic judgement of Leonhard is described and discussed in the light of independent research on van Gogh's letters, his works and biography. The bibliographical sources were investigated for information consistent with a cycloid psychosis, but also for information that might contradict this hypothesis. The course and symptoms of the disorder are presented as comprehensively and systematically as possible and are documented with the respective citations. Furthermore, the most important diagnoses proposed in the literature are critically discussed. Based on this investigation, it was possible to show that only the diagnosis of a cycloid psychosis allowed us to connect all the available information to a typical psychiatric syndrome.

  14. Vincent van Gogh: a pathographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Correa, R

    2014-02-01

    The life and artistic legacy of Vincent van Gogh has generated great interest among physicians from different areas of specialization in proposing a retrospective differential diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to present a systematic pathographic analysis of the artist and to suggest a diagnosis consistent with the extant evidence. To this end, the available evidence is classified into five types: type I evidence (clinical opinion of an attending physician), type II evidence (description of symptoms in correspondence), type III evidence (historical accounts from first-hand sources or direct observation), type IV evidence (interpretation of the artist's work) and type V evidence (family medical history). Three basic prerequisites for a successful analysis are: (1) consideration of type II, III and V evidence as carrying the greatest pathographic weight, (2) consideration of the course of symptoms over time as a key element in the analysis, and (3) consideration of a single diagnostic hypothesis as the most probable explanation. After reviewing the available evidence in the light of these criteria, the author supports the diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) as the most likely cause of van Gogh's ailment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Acceptance of van Swieten's liquor in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumi

    2002-12-01

    Carl Peter Thunberg, a Swedish medical doctor and botanist who visited Japan in 1775 as a medical doctor attached to the Dutch Trade House in Dejima, Nagasaki, taught the treatment of syphilis using mercury water to Japanese doctors and interpreters. This therapy is based on the oral administration of a 0.014% solution of mercuric chloride and was published in 1754 by Gerard van Swieten in Vienna, who questioned the utility of the conventional salivation therapy. The dose was set taking safety into account. Kogyu Yoshio, a Japanese-Dutch interpreter, had already read about it in a book written by J. J. Plenck, when he was taught about the therapy by Thunberg. He recorded Thunberg's teachings in his book "Komohijiki", presenting details of various formulations, including a high-dose formulation. The mercury therapy was subsequently spread across the country by medical doctors who learned Western medicine through the Dutch. In the 1820's, Genshin Udagawa, who read a number of Western medical books, published books on Western drugs. In these books, G. Udagawa included precise information on "Swieten Yakushu-hu (medicated alcohol)", including information on the dosage, formulation, mode of usage, and precautions for use. The maximum dose of mercuric chloride established chloride established by van Swieten was included in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia up to its 5th edition.

  16. The dying role: its relevance to improved patient care.

    PubMed

    Noyes, R; Clancy, J

    1977-02-01

    Society is failing to meet the obligation it has to its dying members. Persons with terminal illnesses suffer isolation and neglect in hospitals, receive overzealous treatment by physicians, and are kept in ignorance of their situation by families and medical personnel. Evidence for these statements has come from observers of the medical care system and from dying patients themselves (Kübler-Ross, 1969; Reynolds and Kalish, 1974; Sudnow, 1967); In the nineteenth century it was common for persons to die in the familiar environs of their homes, surrounded by grieving families from whom they parted in a meaningful manner (Blauner, 1966). Dying persons of today no longer fill a well-defined social role. Instead, the distinction between the roles of sick and dying persons has been lost and, in the resulting confusion, the care of dying people has suffered. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between the dying and sick roles, identify the signs of existing role confusion, suggest ways in which this confusion may be corrected, and show how reestablishment of the dying role can result in improved care of dying people. The important part physicians play in defining sick and dying roles will be emphasized.

  17. The Dying Role: Its Relevance to Improved Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Russell; Clancy, John

    2016-01-01

    SOCIETY is failing to meet the obligation it has to its dying members. Persons with terminal illnesses suffer isolation and neglect in hospitals, receive overzealous treatment by physicians, and are kept in ignorance of their situation by families and medical personnel. Evidence for these statements has come from observers of the medical care system and from dying patients themselves (Kübler-Ross, 1969; Reynolds and Kalish, 1974; Sudnow, 1967). In the nineteenth century it was common for persons to die in the familiar environs of their homes, surrounded by grieving families from whom they parted in a meaningful manner (Blauner, 1966). Dying persons of today no longer fill a well-defined social role. Instead, the distinction between the roles of sick and dying persons has been lost and, in the resulting confusion, the care of dying people has suffered. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between the dying and sick roles, identify the signs of existing role confusion, suggest ways in which this confusion may be corrected, and show how reestablishment of the dying role can result in improved care of dying people. The important part physicians play in defining sick and dying roles will be emphasized.

  18. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  19. 38 CFR 61.18 - Capital grants for vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants for vans. 61.18 Section 61.18 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants § 61.18 Capital grants for vans....

  20. 38 CFR 61.18 - Capital grants for vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capital grants for vans. 61.18 Section 61.18 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants § 61.18 Capital grants for vans....

  1. Multiple Voices in Charles Van Riper's Desensitization Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Charles Van Riper (1905-94) author, researcher and practitioner, was one of the major contributors to the field of stuttering in the 20th century. His series of Action Therapy videotapes provide a useful model of how therapy was implemented by a master clinician. Aims: Van Riper's session with a client is analysed to reveal how voices…

  2. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van…

  3. Necroptosis: A new way of dying?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Britt

    2016-09-01

    This review embarks upon a cell death journey from the discovery of apoptosis and necrosis through to the coalescence of these: necroptosis. The mechanisms of 2 emerging necrotic cell death pathways, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, will be explored before delving into apoptotic and necroptotic signaling cascades, highlighting the complex interplay between molecular players. The involvement of the ripoptosome, interferon signaling and DNA damage in necroptosis will be discussed briefly. The major focus is on necroptosis initiation by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and its cognate receptor TNFR1, caspase-independent RIP1/RIP3/MLKL necrosome activation and cell death propagation by damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release. Finally, the implications of a complex cell death signaling network will be revealed in the context of cancer biology and therapy. The clinical contribution of the discovery of necroptosis as an unequivocally new way of dying is monumental and could drastically alter cancer therapy strategies in the future.

  4. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  5. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, D M

    1999-01-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide. PMID:10635498

  6. Paradoxical contributions of EEG during protracted dying.

    PubMed

    Spudis, E V; Penry, J K; Link, A S

    1984-02-01

    Estimates of the potential for recovery from severe brain damage have become more accurate as EEG and imaging techniques evolve. When all modern electrical criteria for brain death are satisfied, useful recovery is probably impossible. Many patients who have no reasonable chance of returning to a cognitive, sapient, or useful state may be nurtured throughout a prolonged final illness primarily because of brain waves that fluctuate in the 2- to 5-microV range. The incidence of such protracted dying is unknown. We illustrate diffuse low-amplitude wave forms and regional fragments recorded from a 27-year-old woman maintained on a respirator for six months after loss of brain-stem reflexes. Considering the limited noise-signal ratio of modern equipment, popular EEG criteria for death may be prematurely rigid, prolonging death in tragic circumstances.

  7. Hubble's View of a Dying Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A recent image of a dying star containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. The image of protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306 (in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog) was taken on Dec. 15, 2001, by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, onboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It is one of the best images yet to capture a fleeting period at the end of a Sun-like star's life, called the protoplanetary nebula phase.

    This phase, which looks like a beautiful cloud of glowing gas lit up by ultraviolet light from the star's core, results when a star evolves into a bloated red giant and sheds its outer layers. 'Protoplanetary nebulas are rare objects with short lifetimes,' said JPL astrophysicist Dr. Raghvendra Sahai. 'It has generally been very difficult to obtain images of such objects in which their structure can be resolved in detail.'

    This image is particularly important because it contains a series of what Sahai and his colleagues call 'knotty jets,' blob-like objects emerging along roughly straight lines from the center of the cigar-shaped, bipolar nebula (See insets). There are various theories about what may produce such jets, though it is hard to prove their existence due to their short-lived, episodic nature. Detailed multi-wavelength studies of these nebulas with NASA's Great Observatories are being carried out to understand the nature and origin of these enigmatic jets, and how they may be sculpting shrouds of dying stars into exotic shapes. The Hubble Space Telescope is one of NASA's Great Observatories.

  8. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period. PMID:26539979

  9. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David; Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A

    2016-03-01

    More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period.

  10. Correspondence of the Gardner and van Genuchten relativepermeability function parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Su, Grace W.

    2006-07-13

    The Gardner and van Genuchten models of relativepermeability are widely used in analytical and numerical solutions toflow problems. However, the applicability of the Gardner model to realproblems is usually limited, because empirical relative permeability datato calibrate the model are not routinely available. In contrast, vanGenuchten parameters can be estimated using more routinely availablematric potential and saturation data. However, the van Genuchten model isnot amenable to analytical solutions. In this paper, we introducegeneralized conversion formulae that reconcile these two models. Ingeneral, we find that the Gardner parameter alpha G is related to the vanGenuchten parameters alpha vG and n by alpha G/alpha vG ~; 1.3 n. Thisconversion rule will allow direct recasting of Gardner-based analyticalsolutions in the van Genuchten parameter space. The validity of theproposed formulae was tested by comparing the predicted relativepermeability of various porous media with measured values.

  11. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  12. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  13. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  14. Death and dying anxiety among bereaved and nonbereaved elderly parents.

    PubMed

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-08-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying anxiety scores than nonbereaved parents, but there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in death anxiety. Religiosity was unrelated to death and dying anxiety. Dying anxiety was higher among bereaved mothers than bereaved fathers. Death and dying anxiety were not associated with the length of time since the loss of the child or the nature of the child's death. Results are discussed in light of the difficulties that bereaved parents experience after the loss of their child. Implications for theory, for health and welfare professionals, and for policy are suggested.

  15. Frequency of VanA, VanB and VanH variants amongst vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from patients in central region of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Jaafar; Nasr, Reza; T. Shamsabadi, Fatemeh; Akbari Eidgahi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the VRE frequency and the rate of each gene in isolated enterococci from patients with intestinal infection in the central region of Iran. Background: Enterococci infections are a public health growing concern due to the glycopeptide antibiotics resistance especially vancomycin. Genes, vanA, B, and H contribute to the influence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Patients and methods: This study was conducted from January to July 2014 in Shahrood university hospital. Enterococci isolation and its antibacterial susceptibility were performed by culturing in Aesculin Azide agar and Kirby-Bauer method, respectively. Vancomycin-resistant genes were screened through conventional PCR, and subsequently sequenced. Results: Among 265 specimens, 100 isolates revealed enterococci, in which E. faecalis (91%) and E. faecium (9%). The isolated enterococci were resistant to vancomycin (6%) and chloramphenicol (21%), whereas their large proportions (94% to 100%) were multi-drug resistant. All VRE isolates belonged to E. faecalis, conversely, the E. faecium were susceptible to the same antibiotic. Both vanA and vanH genes were identified in all VRE isolates, although, no vanB gene was indicated. Homology analysis of sequenced amplicons verified the full length compatibility to the worldwide reported genes. Conclusion: The present study revealed VR E. faecalis in gastroenteritis patients and resistance factor for vanA and vanH genes are coordinated. Since enterococci isolates were all multidrug resistance, increase in VR E. faecalis vanA / vanH in this area could be expected. PMID:27895857

  16. Dancing bunches as Van Kampen modes

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Van Kampen modes are eigen-modes of Jeans-Vlasov equation [1-3]. Their spectrum consists of continuous and, possibly, discrete parts. Onset of a discrete van Kampen mode means emergence of a coherent mode without any Landau damping; thus, even a tiny couple-bunch wake is sufficient to drive instability. Longitudinal instabilities observed at Tevatron [4], RHIC [5] and SPS [6] can be explained as loss of Landau damping (LLD), which is shown here to happen at fairly low impedances. For repulsive wakes and single-harmonic RF, LLD is found to be extremely sensitive to steepness of the bunch distribution function at small amplitudes. Based on that, a method of beam stabilization is suggested. Emergence of a discrete van Kampen mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. Longitudinal bunch stability is analysed in weak head-tail approximation for inductive impedance and single-harmonic RF. The LLD threshold intensities are found to be rather low: for cases under study all of them do not exceed a few percent of the zero-amplitude incoherent synchrotron frequency shift, strongly decreasing for shorter bunches. Because of that, LLD can explain longitudinal instabilities happened at fairly low impedances at Tevatron [4], and possibly for RHIC [5] and SPS [6], being in that sense an alternative to the soliton explanation [5, 20]. Although LLD itself results in many cases in emergence of a mode with zero growth rate, any couple-bunch (and sometimes multi-turn) wake would drive instability for that mode, however small this wake is. LLD is similar to a loss of immune system of a living cell, when any microbe becomes fatal for it. The emerging discrete mode is normally very different from the rigid-bunch motion; thus the rigid-mode model significantly overestimates the LLD threshold. The power low of LLD predicted in Ref. [17] agrees with results of this paper. However, the numerical factor in that scaling low strongly depends on the bunch distribution function

  17. Rater Biases in Genetically Informative Research Designs: Comment on Bartels, Boomsma, Hudziak, van Beijsterveldt, and van den Oord (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Rater biases are of interest to behavior genetic researchers, who often use ratings data as a basis for studying heritability. Inclusion of multiple raters for each sibling pair (M. Bartels, D. I. Boomsma, J. J. Hudziak, T. C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt, & E. J. C. G. van den Oord, 2007) is a promising strategy for controlling bias variance and may…

  18. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  19. Rahmen, Herausforderungen und Visionen für die Unternehmensorganisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westkämper, Engelbert; Seidel, Bernhard; Bruhn, Manfred; Bahke, Torsten; Klotz, Ulrich; Buck, Hartmut

    Die Produktion trägt entscheidend zur gesamten Wertschöpfung des Landes mit mehr als einem Drittel aller Beschäftigten bei. Die direkte Wertschöpfung ist dabei für ein rohstoff- und energiearmes Land allein durch Veredelung und technisches Know-how sowie durch die Herstellung von Produkten für den Binnen- und Weltmarkt möglich.

  20. Thermal Hotspots in CPU Die and It's Future Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Fu-Yuan

    Owing to the increasing core frequency and chip integration and the limited die dimension, the power densities in CPU chip have been increasing fastly. The high temperature on chip resulted by power densities threats the processor's performance and chip's reliability. This paper analyzed the thermal hotspots in die and their properties. A new architecture of function units in die - - hot units distributed architecture is suggested to cope with the problems of high power densities for future processor chip.

  1. The duty to die and the burdensomeness of living.

    PubMed

    Cholbi, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the question of whether the arguments for a duty to die given by John Hardwig, the most prominent philosophical advocate of such a duty, are sound. Hardwig believes that the duty to die is relatively widespread among those with burdensome illnesses, dependencies, or medical conditions. I argue that although there are rare circumstances in which individuals have a duty to die, the situations Hardwig describes are not among these. After reconstructing Hardwig's argument for such a duty, highlighting his central premise that ill, dependent, or aged individuals can impose unfair burdens upon others by continuing to live, I clarify precisely what Hardwig intends by his thesis that many of us have a duty to die. I then show that an important disanalogy exists between an uncontroversial example in which an individual has a duty to die and the situations in which Hardwig proposes individuals have a duty to die. More specifically, in situations where a duty to die exists, an individual's having a duty to die logically implies that those she burdens have a right to kill that individual in self-defense. I then suggest that the burdens that ill, dependent, or aged individuals impose on their families, loved ones, or caregivers do not constitute the kind of threat that warrants the latter killing the former in self-defense. Hence, the duty to die is much rarer than Hardwig supposes.

  2. Nursing experience and the care of dying patients.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Karen S; Otten, Cecilia; Stephens, Elizabeth

    2005-01-19

    To examine relationships among demographic variables and nurses attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients. Descriptive and correlational. Two metropolitan hospitals in Detroit, MI. 58 RNs practicing in oncology and medical/surgical nursing. The majority was female and white, with a mean age of 41 years. Completed survey of three measurement tools: a demographic survey, Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale, and Death Attitude Profile Revised (DAP-R) Scale. Of 60 surveys distributed, 58 were completed and returned. Past experiences (level of education and death training), personal experiences (age, race, religion, and attitudes toward death), professional experiences (months or years of nursing experience and the percentage of time spent in contact with terminally ill or dying patients), and attitudes toward caring for dying patients. Most respondents demonstrated a positive attitude about caring for dying patients. Nurses who reported spending a higher percentage of time in contact with terminally ill or dying patients reported more positive attitudes. No significant relationship was found between nurses attitudes toward death and nurses attitudes about caring for dying patients. Statistically significant relationships were found among certain demographic variables, DAP-R subscales, and FATCOD Scale. Regardless of how the nurses felt about death, providing professional and quality care to dying patients and their families was salient. Developing continuing education programs that teach effective coping strategies to prevent death anxiety and identifying barriers that can make caring for dying patients difficult may make the journey from novice to expert nurse a gratifying and rewarding experience.

  3. MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL SHOWING INSCRIPTION ON FRONT ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  4. Assisted dying - should the UK change its stance?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel; Raphael, Claire E; Vassiliou, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    Along with an increasing interest in assisted dying by many European and North American countries, some of which have already modified their existing laws to accommodate this, the interest in assisted dying in the UK has increased once again following Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. Drawing on examples from countries where similar assisted dying laws are already in place, this article analyses and contextualises the proposed bill and discusses its potential pitfalls and benefits for the UK. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  6. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and dyserythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Deven; Ostler, Daniel; Nguyen, Andy; Wahed, Amer

    2005-05-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome or chondroectodermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a variable spectrum of clinical findings. Classical EVC syndrome comprises a tetrad of clinical manifestations of chondrodystrophy, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cardiac defects. In several case reports, dysplasia involving other organs has also been identified. Hematologic abnormalities have been rarely reported in patients with EVC syndrome. Here, we report a case of a 3-year-old Hispanic boy with EVC syndrome and marked dyserythropoiesis. The dyserythropoiesis may be part of an isolated myelodysplastic change or a primary myelodysplastic syndrome and likely represents an unusual EVC syndrome association. To our knowledge, this association has not been previously reported.

  7. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet

    2004-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of the fasciolosis in Erciş, a town in the Van province located in the Eastern Turkey. The study includes 500 asymptomatic subjects (322 males and 178 females) whose ages ranged from 5 to 75 years. In all subjects, stool samples were examined at initiation of the study and one week later to rule out pseudoparasitosis. The methods of flotation (in saturated saline solution) and sedimentation (in formalin-ether solution) were used in examination of the stool samples. Fasciola hepatica eggs were detected in nine (1.8%) out of 500 subjects. In conclusion, our data showed that the prevalence of human fasciolosis was high in our region because watercress consumption was common. We also think that human fasciolosis is more frequent than expected in Turkey. To determine the exact prevalence of the disease, extensive serological investigations should be performed in different regions of Turkey.

  8. Direct synthesis of van der Waals solids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Lu, Ning; Perea-Lopez, Nestor; Li, Jie; Lin, Zhong; Peng, Xin; Lee, Chia Hui; Sun, Ce; Calderin, Lazaro; Browning, Paul N; Bresnehan, Michael S; Kim, Moon J; Mayer, Theresa S; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2014-04-22

    The stacking of two-dimensional layered materials, such as semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), insulating hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and semimetallic graphene, has been theorized to produce tunable electronic and optoelectronic properties. Here we demonstrate the direct growth of MoS2, WSe2, and hBN on epitaxial graphene to form large-area van der Waals heterostructures. We reveal that the properties of the underlying graphene dictate properties of the heterostructures, where strain, wrinkling, and defects on the surface of graphene act as nucleation centers for lateral growth of the overlayer. Additionally, we show that the direct synthesis of TMDs on epitaxial graphene exhibits atomically sharp interfaces. Finally, we demonstrate that direct growth of MoS2 on epitaxial graphene can lead to a 10(3) improvement in photoresponse compared to MoS2 alone.

  9. Hyperdislocations in van der Waals Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Zhao, Jiong; Keum, Dong Hoon; Deng, Qingming; Yu, Zhiyang; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-12-14

    Dislocations are one-dimensional line defects in three-dimensional crystals or periodic structures. It is common that the dislocation networks made of interactive dislocations be generated during plastic deformation. In van der Waals layered materials, the highly anisotropic nature facilitates the formation of such dislocation networks, which is critical for the friction or exfoliation behavior for these materials. By transmission electron microscopy analysis, we found the topological defects in such dislocation networks can be perfectly rationalized in the framework of traditional dislocation theory, which we applied the name "hyperdislocations". Due to the strong pinning effect of hyperdislocations, the state of exfoliation can be easily triggered by 1° twisting between two layers, which also explains the origin of disregistry and frictionlessness for all of the superlubricants that are widely used for friction reduction and wear protection.

  10. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all.

  11. Resonance Van Hove singularities in wave kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yi-Kang; Eyink, Gregory L.

    2016-10-01

    Wave kinetic theory has been developed to describe the statistical dynamics of weakly nonlinear, dispersive waves. However, we show that systems which are generally dispersive can have resonant sets of wave modes with identical group velocities, leading to a local breakdown of dispersivity. This shows up as a geometric singularity of the resonant manifold and possibly as an infinite phase measure in the collision integral. Such singularities occur widely for classical wave systems, including acoustical waves, Rossby waves, helical waves in rotating fluids, light waves in nonlinear optics and also in quantum transport, e.g. kinetics of electron-hole excitations (matter waves) in graphene. These singularities are the exact analogue of the critical points found by Van Hove in 1953 for phonon dispersion relations in crystals. The importance of these singularities in wave kinetics depends on the dimension of phase space D =(N - 2) d (d physical space dimension, N the number of waves in resonance) and the degree of degeneracy δ of the critical points. Following Van Hove, we show that non-degenerate singularities lead to finite phase measures for D > 2 but produce divergences when D ≤ 2 and possible breakdown of wave kinetics if the collision integral itself becomes too large (or even infinite). Similar divergences and possible breakdown can occur for degenerate singularities, when D - δ ≤ 2, as we find for several physical examples, including electron-hole kinetics in graphene. When the standard kinetic equation breaks down, then one must develop a new singular wave kinetics. We discuss approaches from pioneering 1971 work of Newell & Aucoin on multi-scale perturbation theory for acoustic waves and field-theoretic methods based on exact Schwinger-Dyson integral equations for the wave dynamics.

  12. van Vleck determinants: Traversable wormhole spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M. )

    1994-04-15

    Prompted by various questions regarding the putative existence, stability, and chronological properties of traversable wormholes, a number of authors have presented calculations of the renormalized stress-energy tensor in wormhole spacetimes. In particular, the use of point-splitting techniques leads to expressions that contain the van Vleck determinant as a common prefactor. Recent technical advances permit one to undertake extensive computations of the van Vleck determinant in traversable wormhole spacetimes, at least in the short-throat flat-space approximation. This paper presents several such computations for various model spacetimes. Implications with regard to Hawking's chronology protection conjecture are discussed. In particular, any attempt to transform a single isolated wormhole into a time machine results in large vacuum polarization effects. These vacuum polarization effects are sufficient to disrupt the internal structure of the wormhole long before the onset of Planck scale physics, and before the onset of time travel. Thus for isolated wormholes, vacuum polarization effects are sufficient to enforce Hawking's chronology protection conjecture. On the other hand, it is possible to conceive of a putative time machine built out of two or more wormholes, each of which taken in isolation is not itself a time machine. Such Roman configurations'' are much more subtle to analyze. For reasonable'' configurations (traversable by humans) the vacuum polarization effects in such multiple wormhole putative time machines become large long before the onset of Planck scale physics. The disruption scale for would-be traversable time machines'' is well above the Planck length. On the other hand, for some particularly bizarre configurations (not traversable by humans) the vacuum polarization effects can be arranged to be arbitrarily small at the onset of Planck scale physics.

  13. Strategic Capacity RNLA Central Maintenance Depot for Electronic Materials (ECW), Investigation into the Future Workload of ECW. (Strategische Omvang Elektronische Centrale Werkplaats (ECW) onderzoek naar de toekomstige werkiast van ECW)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    installatie van lokale netwerken RVS /EM Artillerie MeetMiddelen Meteo (5 stuks ) RVS MOR (3 stuks ) Geluid Meet Dienst (4 stuks ) Perba (80 stuks ) Vo-meters...200 A 300 stuks ) In tweede instantie is bezien of werkzaamheden die apart vermeld staan, tot een gemeenschappelijke technologiecel gerekend kunnen...Leopard) 12 Sensoren Meteo (5 stuks ) MOR (3 stuks ) Geluid Meet Dienst (4 stuks ) Perba (80 stuks ) VO-meters (200 ý 300 stuks ) EOV RPV 13 IT systemen

  14. ["When the soul is depleted, the body dies". Dying and death on the island Nias/Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Klasen, H

    1993-11-01

    In our society death and dying are largely displaced from everyday experiences. Since old rites and traditions seem antiquated and new behavioral patterns haven't yet developed, interaction with dying persons is ruled by helplessness and speechlessness. This article describes death and dying on the islands of Nias/Indonesia, where a big celebration is held before someone is dying. Relatives keep close physical contact to the dying person. Rites and Customs finally help the bereaved to structure their time of mourning and to express their grief in a socially accepted way. Thus the adat (custom, tradition) is not only supporting the dying person, but also helps the survivors to cope with their loss.

  15. L-connect routing of die surface pads to the die edge for stacking in a 3D array

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips and method of routing the interface pads from the face of the chip or die to one or more sidewall surfaces of the die. The interconnection is routed from the face of the die to one or more edges of the die, then routed over the edge of the die and onto the side surface. A new pad is then formed on the sidewall surface, which allows multiple die or chips to be stacked in a three-dimensional array, while enabling follow-on signal routing from the sidewall pads. The routing of the interconnects and formation of the sidewall pads can be carried out in an L-connect or L-shaped routing configuration, using a metalization process such as laser pantography.

  16. Remote thermal neutron die-away measurements to improve Differential Die-Away Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Kelly A.; Vujic, Jasmina; Gozani, Tsahi

    2007-08-01

    Differential Die-away Analysis (DDAA) is a very effective detection technique of special nuclear material (SNM). It is based on the detection of fast fission neutrons that decay with a time constant characteristic of the thermal neutron that created them. The presence of fast neutrons with this slow die-away time is a positive, sensitive indication of the presence of SNM in the inspected cargo. The thermal decay time of an inspected medium is not known before a DDAA measurement is taken. The choice of when, from the end of a neutron pulse, data are to be acquired must be taken conservatively. If the thermal decay time of an inspected medium can be determined, a priori, then a better estimate of the expected time of separation between the intrinsic detector signal and the fission signal can be achieved. With a better estimate of this time, the choice of times after the end of the pulse to perform signal integration can be optimized. A more optimal choice for this time will result in higher detection sensitivity. This paper describes a method of remotely assessing the thermal die-away properties of an interrogated cargo, and grossly characterizes the class of material being inspected in terms of neutron attenuation and moderation properties.

  17. Die Casting Part Distortion: Prediction and Attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Dr, R. Allen Miller

    2002-02-12

    The goal of this research was to predict the part deformation and residual stresses after ejection from the die and cooling to room temperature. A finite element model was built to achieve this goal and several modeling techniques were investigated throughout this research. Die-casting is a very complex process and the researchers are faced with a large number of hard to solve physical problems when modeling the process. Several assumptions are made in our simulation model. The first significant assumption is the instantaneous cavity filling. This means that the cavity filling stage is not considered in our model. Considering the cavity filling stage increases the modeling complexity as a result of different flow patterns. expected in the shot sleeve, gate, runner and different cavity features. The flow of gas from the cavity through the vents is another problem that is ignored in our model as a result of this assumption. Our second assumption is that the cast metal has uniform temperature distribution inside the cavity, at the starting point of simulation. This temperature is assumed to be over liquidus limit, i.e. the solid fraction is 0.0% of the cast metal. The third assumption is due to ABAQUS (commercial software used in this research) limitations. ABAQUS cannot deal with multi-phase models; therefore we use solid elements to define the casting instead of multi-phase (liquid/solid) elements. Liquid elements can carry the hydrostatic pressure from the shot sleeve and apply it on the cavity surfaces, while the solid elements do not have this capability. To compensate for this assumption we add the cavity pressure as a boundary condition and apply it on the cavity surface separately from the part. Another issue with this assumption is that, liquid casting can follow the cavity shape when it distorts. With the use of solid elements to represent the casting during its liquid state, it loses this capability to follow the cavity. Several techniques were tested to

  18. The extraordinary career of Professor Dr. Simon van Creveld.

    PubMed

    Stoelinga, Paul J W; Berdon, Walter E; Cohen, M Michael

    2014-11-01

    Simon van Creveld received both the MD and PhD degrees and had a multifaceted medical and scientific education at many hospitals and research institutes in the Netherlands, Germany, and the UK. He and his wife were the first to develop insulin for the Netherlands. His major interests were in hemophilia and hemorrhagic disorders, which accounted for 87 of his publications. In 1934, van Creveld demonstrated that a dispersed protein fraction obtained from serum could reduce the clotting time of hemophilic blood. His interest in glycogen storage disease resulted in van Creveld-von Gierke disease for which van Creveld contributed four published articles. The Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, also known as chondroectodermal dysplasia, was published in 1940 and became well known to medical geneticists. During the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, van Creveld's professorship was taken away from him because he was Jewish. His visits to hospitals of concentration camps to treat babies and give pediatric advice while wearing a Jewish Yellow Star and interacting with SS Commandants in charge, and then leaving can only be described as amazing. After the war, his professorship was returned, and in the same year as his retirement, he established a large Hemophila Treatment and Research Center now known as the Van Creveld Clinic, which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2005.

  19. Regional ontogeny of New England salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    Coastal areas are among the world's most productive and highly affected ecosystems. Centuries of human activity on coastlines have led to overexploitation of marine predators, which in turn has led to cascading ecosystem-level effects. Human effects and approaches to mediating them, however, differ regionally due to gradients in biotic and abiotic factors. Salt marsh die-off on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), triggered by a recreational-fishing-induced trophic cascade that has released herbivorous crabs from predator control, has been ongoing since 1976. Similar salt marsh die-offs have been reported in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.), but the driving mechanism of these die-offs has not been examined. We used field experiments to assess trophic interactions and historical reconstructions of 24 New England marshes to test the hypotheses that recreational fishing and predator depletion are a regional trigger of salt marsh die-off in New England and that die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are more recent than those on Cape Cod. Predator depletion was the general trigger of marsh die-off and explained differences in herbivorous crab abundance and the severity of die-off across regions. Die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are following a trajectory similar to die-off on Cape Cod, but are approximately 20 years behind those on Cape Cod. As a result, die-off currently affects 31.2% (SE 2.2) of low-marsh areas in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay, less than half the severity of die-off on Cape Cod. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that recreational fishing is an increasing threat to coastal ecosystems and that studying the effects of human activity at regional scales can provide insight into local effects and aid in early detection and potential remediation. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Transcriptional Regulation of the Vanillate Utilization Genes (vanABK Operon) of Corynebacterium glutamicum by VanR, a PadR-Like Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Julian; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Kalinowski, Jörn; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to utilize vanillate, the product of lignin degradation, as the sole carbon source. The vanillate utilization components are encoded by the vanABK operon. The vanA and vanB genes encode the subunits of vanillate O-demethylase, converting vanillate to protocatechuate, while VanK is the specific vanillate transporter. The vanABK operon is regulated by a PadR-type repressor, VanR. Heterologous gene expression and variations of the vanR open reading frame revealed that the functional VanR contains 192 residues (21 kDa) and forms a dimer, as analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. In vivo, ferulate, vanillin, and vanillate induced PvanABK in C. glutamicum, while only vanillate induced the activity of PvanABK in Escherichia coli lacking the ferulate catabolic system. Differential scanning fluorimetry verified that vanillate is the only effector of VanR. Interaction between the PvanABK DNA fragment and the VanR protein had an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 15.1 ± 1.7 nM. The VanR-DNA complex had a dissociation rate constant (Kd) of (267 ± 23) × 10−6 s−1, with a half-life of 43.5 ± 3.6 min. DNase I footprinting localized the VanR binding site at PvanABK, extending from +9 to +45 on the coding strand. Deletion of the nucleotides +18 to +27 inside the VanR binding site rendered PvanABK constitutive. Fusion of the T7 promoter and the wild-type VanR operator, as well as its shortened versions, indicated that the inverted repeat AACTAACTAA(N4)TTAGGTATTT is the specific VanR binding site. It is proposed that the VanR-DNA complex contains two VanR dimers at the VanR operator. PMID:25535273

  1. The right to die: beyond academia.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Carole

    2016-03-01

    The world's first legal euthanasia death occurred in the Australian City of Darwin on Sunday 22 September 1996 when Bob Dent ended his life under the Northern Territory's short-lived Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995. Dent's death intensified argument about euthanasia in Australia, transforming the debate from a textbook discussion in social ethics into a vigorous and divisive social dispute. The day before he ended his life, Dent dictated a letter, written down by his wife. This description of his experience with terminal illness is graphic-the letter, his last effort to bring the plight of those living with terminal illness to public consciousness. In this paper I outline issues from the perspective of those, who like Bob Dent, the choice to die with dignity is personal and urgent. Rather than approach the issue purely from the theoretical, academic debate therefore, I present aspects that are largely unknown unless the experience of life-denying symptoms becomes real. From these aspects, dilemmas and consequences emerge that are not framed through the academic debate and in this way, I argue for the possibility of a framework that could change the law.

  2. NICMOS PEERS INTO HEART OF DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Egg Nebula, also known as CRL 2688, is shown on the left as it appears in visible light with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and on the right as it appears in infrared light with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Since infrared light is invisible to humans, the NICMOS image has been assigned colors to distinguish different wavelengths: blue corresponds to starlight reflected by dust particles, and red corresponds to heat radiation emitted by hot molecular hydrogen. Objects like the Egg Nebula are helping astronomers understand how stars like our Sun expel carbon and nitrogen -- elements crucial for life -- into space. Studies on the Egg Nebula show that these dying stars eject matter at high speeds along a preferred axis and may even have multiple jet-like outflows. The signature of the collision between this fast-moving material and the slower outflowing shells is the glow of hydrogen molecules captured in the NICMOS image. The distance between the tip of each jet is approximately 200 times the diameter of our solar system (out to Pluto's orbit). Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Dean Hines (University of Arizona); Raghvendra Sahai (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); NICMOS Instrument Definition Team; and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  3. Transient Heat Conduction Simulation around Microprocessor Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Koji

    This paper explains about fundamental formula of calculating power consumption of CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) devices and its voltage and temperature dependency, then introduces equation for estimating power consumption of the microprocessor for notebook PC (Personal Computer). The equation is applied to heat conduction simulation with simplified thermal model and evaluates in sub-millisecond time step calculation. In addition, the microprocessor has two major heat conduction paths; one is from the top of the silicon die via thermal solution and the other is from package substrate and pins via PGA (Pin Grid Array) socket. Even though the dominant factor of heat conduction is the former path, the latter path - from package substrate and pins - plays an important role in transient heat conduction behavior. Therefore, this paper tries to focus the path from package substrate and pins, and to investigate more accurate method of estimating heat conduction paths of the microprocessor. Also, cooling performance expression of heatsink fan is one of key points to assure result with practical accuracy, while finer expression requires more computation resources which results in longer computation time. Then, this paper discusses the expression to minimize computation workload with a practical accuracy of the result.

  4. Faster, Less Expensive Dies Using RSP Tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knirsch, James R.

    2007-08-01

    RSP Tooling is an indirect spray form additive process that can produce production tooling for virtually any forming process and from virtually any metal. In the past 24 months a significant amount of research and development has been performed. This resulted in an increase in the basic metallurgical understanding of what transpires during the rapid solidification of the metal, significant improvements in the production machine up time, ceramic developments that have improved finish, process changes that have resulted in a shorter lead time for tool delivery, and the testing of many new alloys. RSP stands for Rapid Solidification Process and is the key to the superior metallurgical properties that result from the technology. Most metals that are sprayed in the process leave the machine with the same physical properties as the same metal normally achieves through heat treatment and in some cases the properties are superior. Many new applications are being pursued including INVAR tools for aerospace composite materials, and bimetallic tools made from tool steel and beryllium copper for die casting and plastic injection molding. Recent feasibility studies have been performed with tremendous success.

  5. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-06

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional.

  6. Catholic theology and the "right to die".

    PubMed

    Coleman, G D

    1985-03-01

    Catholic moral theology teaches that life is sacred but not absolute. Because life and all activities are subordinated to spiritual ends, it is moral to allow oneself to die when efforts to prolong life will bring no significant benefit and may even make it more difficult to finish life in peace, composure, and union with God. This is not the moral equivalent of suicide, but rather an acceptance of the human condition. In making such a decision, the distinction between morally ordinary and extraordinary means is crucial and based on the patient's total good. Ordinary means are those which offer a reasonable hope of benefit without excessive expense, pain, or other inconvenience. Extraordinary means are those which cannot be obtained without excessive burden or which, if used, would not offer a reasonable hope of benefit. Whether a medical procedure is standard or experimental does not, from a moral viewpoint, affect whether it is ordinary or extraordinary. In Catholic teaching, the patient has the paramount right to decide whether life-preserving measures will be used. If the patient is unable to make this decision, then the family should make it as the patient's representative.

  7. Sonnet XXX: Love, dignity, and dying.

    PubMed

    Ely, E Wesley

    2016-05-01

    All of us in medicine who care for patients who are chronically critically ill, dying of incurable illnesses, will be faced with discussions about the value of their lives and about the appropriateness of ongoing supportive care. Such discussions are good and true, and they must always be done within the context of the sanctity of every human life and the promise of God that we are His children, each and every one of us. In this article, I explore the end-of-life path of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the courageous faith that she demonstrated in the face of her illness. I explore with you, the reader, the hard-core conversations that took place at her bedside and their meaning in light of Catholic moral teaching. This story is not meant to indicate that we should always do all interventions at all times for all patients. That would be a teaching counter to Evangelium vitae. This story is meant to help you think through the path of your patients and of you as a physician or other type of healthcare professional in serving your patients. Primum non nocere. Ad majorem Dei gloriam.

  8. [To die alone, a big city problem?].

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Larsen, D F; Rosdahl, N

    2001-05-28

    The question whether being found dead is a problem related to living in a big city was examined by using death certificates from a 3-month period in 1994. The rates of persons found dead were higher for both sexes in the City of Copenhagen than in the rural County of Storstrøm. The age distribution showed that the rate increased with advancing age. The vast majority were found dead in their own home, although the rate was higher in Copenhagen than in Storstrøm. Whereas the manner of death was natural for the majority of cases in both areas, more deaths with an uncertain manner of death were recorded in Copenhagen than in Storstrøm (32% vs 9%). In general, suicide or accident was more often reported in those found dead in the County of Storstrøm than in those in Copenhagen. The cause of death was unknown in 46% of deaths in Copenhagen where 16% had died from external causes, proportions that were 58% and 21%, respectively, in Storstrøm. The rate of legal autopsies was higher in subjects with an uncertain manner of death than in the rest, and was also associated with an age below 40 years. We conclude that being found dead is related to living in a big city, although the reason(s) for this remains unidentified.

  9. Vehicle test report: Jet Industries Electra Van 600

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Electra Van 600, an electric vehicle, was tested. Tests were performed to characterize parameters of the Electra Van 600 and to provide baseline data to be used for comparison of improved batteries and to which will be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem, the batteries, controller, and motor; coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluation for cyclic and constant speed conditions; and qualitative performance was evaluated. It is found that the Electra Van 600 range performance is approximately equal to the majority of the vehicles tested previously.

  10. Synchronization law for a van der Pol array.

    PubMed

    Peles, Slaven; Wiesenfeld, Kurt

    2003-08-01

    We explore the transition to in-phase synchronization in globally coupled oscillator arrays, and compare results for van der Pol arrays with Josephson junction arrays. Our approach yields in each case an analytically tractable iterative map; the resulting stability formulas are simple because the expansion procedure identifies natural parameter groups. A third example, an array of Duffing-van der Pol oscillators, is found to be of the same fundamental type as the van der Pol arrays, but the Josephson arrays are fundamentally different owing to the absence of self-resonant interactions.

  11. [The simultaneous contrast of the colors in Van Gogh paints].

    PubMed

    Cernea, P

    2002-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh, Dutchman painter, is a forerunner but also a spokesman of the expressionism. His life was short and sad, marked by a psychic instability. In his paintings the color is subordinated of some subjective motivations. Van Gogh uses complementary colors to get a maximum intensity of the overlapped tones. The chromatic increase serves to obtain some strong emotions. In his landscapes the special distances are suggested through tonal distances. The increase of the pure tones through complementary contrast, the cancel of the imitation colors through sensation-colors, the explosive chromatic are characteristic of her painting. In his singular creation, Vincent Van Gogh created his suffering ego.

  12. Optoelektronik Infrarotlicht für die Faseroptik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drach, Volker

    2003-07-01

    Die Eigenschaften der kondensierten Materie sind durch die elektronische Bandstruktur bestimmt. Daher sind sie in Raumladungszonen an Oberflächen abhängig von der Ladungsdichte. Ein Team des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe machte sich nun diesen Effekt zu Nutze und induzierte in metallischen Nanostrukturen durch eine elektrische Spannung reversible Änderungen der makroskopischen Eigenschaften [1].

  13. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  14. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  15. Personality Correlates of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Examined personality dimensions of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale compared to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire in a study of 88 students. Findings supported the validity of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale and its independence of social desirability. (JAC)

  16. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  17. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  18. Can We Humanize Dying in the General Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen

    This paper reviews the literature on the behavior and attitudes of medical-nursing personnel toward the dying person and illustrates the frequent conflict between hospital staff and the needs of dying. Inner perturbation stemming from feelings of vicarious suffering, vicarious disintegration, or personal anxiety about death, education deficiencies…

  19. Characterization of die drool sample produced by HDPE melt extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    In this work, flow induced molecular weight fractionation experiment was performed for HDPE polymer on specially designed laboratory extrusion setup. Die drool sample, accumulated at the die exit face, together with virgin pellets were consequently characterized experimentally by gel permeable chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry and rheology as well as theoretically by recently proposed generalized Newtonian model.

  20. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  1. Potato Early Dying: Molecular Perspectives on Pathogenicity and Host Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato early dying has not received the reputation of being a particularly devastating disease of potato. However, the interaction between the vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae and the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans to form the early dying complex makes studying this disease very in...

  2. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  3. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  4. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  5. 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies Print A A A en español 5 ideas para superar la muerte de un ser ...

  6. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  7. Living and Dying: A Window on (Christian) Children's Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Faith and beliefs about living and dying are fundamental constituents of spiritual development. However, children are seldom asked to talk about their experiences of life and death. This article has a twofold purpose. It first describes children's expressions on living and dying, as heard during a newly developed programme which encourages…

  8. Thoughts about Death and Dying in an African Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijana, E. W. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward death and dying among 163 Xhosa-speaking children and adults in South Africa. Found age, gender, belief in life after death, educational level, and exposure to death and dying were critical factors in formation of attitudes. Findings were similar to those from previous studies in African and western societies. (Author/NB)

  9. Characterization of an Enterococcus gallinarum Isolate Carrying a Dual vanA and vanB Cassette.

    PubMed

    Eshaghi, Alireza; Shahinas, Dea; Li, Aimin; Kariyawasam, Ruwandi; Banh, Philip; Desjardins, Marc; Melano, Roberto G; Patel, Samir N

    2015-07-01

    The ability of vancomycin resistance determinants to be horizontally transferred within enterococci species is a concern. Identification and characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in a clinical isolate have a significant impact on infection control practices. In this study, we describe a clinical isolate of Enterococcus gallinarum exhibiting high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The genetic characterization of this isolate showed the presence of vanA and vanB genes in addition to the naturally carried vanC gene. vanA was identified on pA6981, a 35,608-bp circular plasmid with significant homology to plasmid pS177. The vanB operon was integrated into the bacterial chromosome and showed a high level of homology to previously reported Tn1549 and Tn5382. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. gallinarum carrying both vanA and vanB operons, indicating the importance of identifying the vancomycin resistance mechanism in non-E. faecium and non-E. faecalis enterococcal species.

  10. Characterization of an Enterococcus gallinarum Isolate Carrying a Dual vanA and vanB Cassette

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, Alireza; Shahinas, Dea; Li, Aimin; Kariyawasam, Ruwandi; Banh, Philip; Desjardins, Marc; Melano, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of vancomycin resistance determinants to be horizontally transferred within enterococci species is a concern. Identification and characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in a clinical isolate have a significant impact on infection control practices. In this study, we describe a clinical isolate of Enterococcus gallinarum exhibiting high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The genetic characterization of this isolate showed the presence of vanA and vanB genes in addition to the naturally carried vanC gene. vanA was identified on pA6981, a 35,608-bp circular plasmid with significant homology to plasmid pS177. The vanB operon was integrated into the bacterial chromosome and showed a high level of homology to previously reported Tn1549 and Tn5382. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. gallinarum carrying both vanA and vanB operons, indicating the importance of identifying the vancomycin resistance mechanism in non-E. faecium and non-E. faecalis enterococcal species. PMID:25948610

  11. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Billet/Die Interface and Measures to Relieve Thermal Stress for Hot Forging Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baoshan; Wang, Leigang; Geng, Zhe; Huang, Yao

    2017-07-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) shows the heat transfer capacity at the billet/die interface during the hot forming process, which affects the temperature gradient in the die that may potentially induce high thermal stress. Consequently, this determines the service life of the die. In this paper, a set of experimental equipments were used to identify the IHTC and the upsetting test of superalloy Inconel718 (GH4169) was carried out on the hot flat die to evaluate the IHTC characteristics after the billet heating and die preheating temperature, holding time, and billet deformation rate. The results indicated that the billet heating temperature has a minimal role in IHTC but the other components have a great impact on IHTC. Among them, the billet deformation rate has influenced the IHTC the most. In the die preheating temperature ranging from 150°C to 400°C, it was found that the preheating temperature was proportional to IHTC. A high preheating temperature that leads to a high IHTC was found unfavorable in relieving the die surface thermal stress, and also weakened the die hardness and strength. The IHTC declined with the increase in the holding time as a result of the billet oxidation. Based on these findings, the composite ceramic and polymetallic heat-resistant coatings on the die surface were prepared, respectively, to relieve the thermal stress of die surface by reducing IHTC. It showed that both of the treated dies could effectively reduce the IHTC, blocking the transferred heat from the hot billet and making it applicable to the different hot forging events.

  12. How is death and dying addressed in introductory psychology textbooks?

    PubMed

    Coppola, K M; Strohmetz, David B

    2002-10-01

    Although psychologists have conducted a great deal of research on death and dying, little is known about how topics related to death and dying are introduced in psychology courses. We analyzed the amount and breadth of coverage given to topics related to death and dying in 28 introductory psychology textbooks published between 1995 and 2000. We coded for number of words included, the types of topics discussed, and authors cited. All textbooks included some information about death and dying, most frequently, suicide. Little consistency was found in references cited. We recommend that future textbooks include information to help students explore their own death attitudes, as well as providing more theory and empirical research findings on aspects of death and dying.

  13. Will the UK Supreme Court allow assisted dying?

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    MPs overwhelmingly voted against passing the Assisted Dying Bill into law in September 2015. The Bill was defeated by a majority of 212, despite the heartfelt pleas of many MPs to pass it into law. The size of the defeat means that it is unlikely that Parliament will consider a similar law for many years. Yet many considered the Bill their last opportunity to make assisted dying lawful. There is, however, one further possible way assisted dying could become lawful in the UK--and that would be where the Supreme Court allowed it. In this article, the author reviews the Supreme Court's decision in R (on the application of Nicklinson v Ministry of Justice [2014] and considers how likely it is that the Supreme Court will now sanction assisted dying following Parliament's refusal to enact an assisted dying law.

  14. Including die and press deformations in sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Sigvant, Mats; Kao-Walter, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis, in Abaqus, of a stamping die and subsequent morphing of the tool surfaces in AutoForm were performed to improve a sheet metal forming simulation. First, the tool surfaces of the XC90 rear door inner were scanned. They were not matching when the die was unloaded and could therefore not give any satisfying results in sheet metal forming simulations. Scanned surface geometries were then added to a structural FE-model of the complete stamping die and some influential parts of the production press. The structural FE- model was analysed with Abaqus to obtain the structural deformations of the die. The calculated surface shapes were then transferred to AutoForm where a forming simulation was performed. Results from the different sheet metal forming simulations were compared to measured draw in curves and showed a substantial increase in accuracy and ability to analyse dies in running production when the morphed surfaces were used.

  15. Glycopeptide Resistance vanA Operons in Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Guardabassi, Luca; Perichon, Bruno; van Heijenoort, Jean; Blanot, Didier; Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 μg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of ≥32 μg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanAPT operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanAPA in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanAPA by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-Ala-d-Lac, as demonstrated by d,d-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:16189102

  16. Glycopeptide resistance vanA operons in Paenibacillus strains isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Guardabassi, Luca; Perichon, Bruno; van Heijenoort, Jean; Blanot, Didier; Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-10-01

    The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 microg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of > or =32 microg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanA(PT) operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanA(PA) in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanA(PA) by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-Ala-D-Lac, as demonstrated by D,D-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor.

  17. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    % in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  18. [Why do Hungarian men die early?].

    PubMed

    Kopp, Mária; Skrabski, Arpád

    2009-09-01

    The mortality rate for 40- 69-year-old men was 12.2/thousand males of corresponding age in 1960 and 16.2 in 2005: it increased by 33%, while among 40- 69-year-old women it decreased from 9.6 0/thousand females of corresponding age to 7.8. The aim of the present follow up study was to analyze which psychosocial risk factors might explain the high premature mortality rates among Hungarian men. Participants in the Hungarostudy 2002 study, a nationally representative sample, 1130 men and 1529 women were contacted again in the follow up study in 2006, who in 2002 were between the age of 40-69 years. By 2006, 99 men (8.8%) and 53 women (3.5%) died in this age group. Socio-economic, psychosocial and work-related measures, self-rated health, chronic disorders, depressive symptoms (BDI), WHO well-being, negative affect, self-efficacy, meaning in life and health behavioral factors were included in the analysis. After adjustment according to smoking, alcohol abuse, BMI, education and age, a number of variables were significant predictors of mortality only in men: low education, low subjective social status, low personal and family income, insecurity of work, no control in work, severe depression, no meaning in life, low social support from spouse, low social support from child. Socio-economic and work related risk factors predicted only male premature death. Among women dissatisfaction with personal relations was the most important risk factor. Among men depression seems to mediate between these chronic stress factors and premature death.

  19. "Public" and "Private" Meanings: The Paintings of van Gogh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskill, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Examines the distinctions and interrelation of the artist's intentions and the viewers' understanding of a work of art by using the work of Vincent van Gogh and relating it to the artist's correspondence about his own work. (JMF)

  20. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer June 1960 FRONT (SOUTH) ELEVATION SHOWING ORIGINAL ONE STORY BUILDING - Ship-Carpenter's House, Main Street, Bethel, Sussex County, DE

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer June 1960 FRONT (SOUTH) ELEVATION SHOWING ORIGINAL ONE STORY BUILDING - Ship Carpenter's House, Main Street, Bethel, Sussex County, DE

  3. 1. Photocopy from stereoptican picture (original owned by Charles van ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy from stereoptican picture (original owned by Charles van Ravenswaay, Wilmington, Delaware) J. C. Macurdy, Photographer ca. 1871 EXTERIOR IN 1871 - St. Peter & Paul Roman Catholic Church, Seventh & Spring Streets, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  4. Electric G-Van demonstration and commercial assessment project

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, B.D. )

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute was awarded this grant to continue the joint effort initiated by EPRI, and VE International to proceed beyond the prototype phase of the electric G-Van development. The goal of EPRI and VEHMA was to develop a market for the electric G-Van, and to distribute them to commercial fleet operators. The objective of this project was to produce G-Vans in a production facility that would be comparable to the GMC Truck internal combustion engine Vandura Van produced by General Motors in quality, reliability, durability and safety. An initial market assessment/demonstration phase of sixty (60) vehicles was to be undertaken, with the ability to expand production volume quickly to meet market demands. Brief description of each task of this grant is given and the actions taken by EPRI to complete them.

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  6. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 INTERIOR DETAIL OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  8. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 NORTHWEST CORNER OF 'GREAT ROOM' - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 MOULDING AND DENTIL COURSE ON SOUTH ELEVATION - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  10. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 INTERIOR WITH CLOSED FIREPLACE - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  11. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 SOUTHWEST CORNER - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 BRICK NOGGING AND ORIGINAL WEATHERBOARDING OF SOUTH ELEVATION - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 SOUTHEAST CORNER - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  15. Isotope separation by photodissociation of Van der Waal's molecules

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on the dissociation of a Van der Waal's complex. A beam of molecules of a Van der Waal's complex containing, as one partner of the complex, a molecular species in which an element is present in a plurality of isotopes is subjected to radiation from a source tuned to a frequency which will selectively excite vibrational motion by a vibrational transition or through electronic transition of those complexed molecules of the molecular species which contain a desired isotope. Since the Van der Waal's binding energy is much smaller than the excitational energy of vibrational motion, the thus excited Van der Waal's complex dissociate into molecular components enriched in the desired isotope. The recoil velocity associated with vibrational to translational and rotational relaxation will send the separated molecules away from the beam whereupon the product enriched in the desired isotope can be separated from the constituents of the beam.

  16. Astronauts van Hoften and Nelson conduct pre-breathing exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts James D. van Hoften and George D. Nelson, wearing Shuttle launch and entry helmets, conduct a pre-breathing exercise on the forward flight deck of the shuttle Challenger during the STS 41-C mission.

  17. 21. View West, Detail Mural, Children's Room, Rip Van Winkle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View West, Detail Mural, Children's Room, Rip Van Winkle Mural, Project of the CWA (Civil Works Administration) Completed May 1934. - Ives Memorial Library, 133 Elm Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. Astronauts van Hoften and Nelson conduct pre-breathing exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts James D. van Hoften and George D. Nelson, wearing Shuttle launch and entry helmets, conduct a pre-breathing exercise on the forward flight deck of the shuttle Challenger during the STS 41-C mission.

  19. Art and Wound Healing: van Gogh Cypresses-like Lipodermatosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Papi, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Lipodermatosclerosis may develop clinical aspects that have striking analogies with Van Gogh's style of painting cypresses. They may reveal specific physiopathological disorders and identify a homogeneous group of patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

  20. Van Gogh's disease in the light of his correspondence.

    PubMed

    Voskuil, Piet H A

    2013-01-01

    The literary quality of Vincent van Gogh's correspondence is widely recognized. He wrote expressively and evocatively, and had great literary knowledge. In this essay we follow his medical history in many quotes from in his letters to see how Vincent expressed his complaints, knowledge, and emotions connected with his disease. The symptoms became most clear after December 1888. In the beginning, Van Gogh hesitated to tell much about his ailment, but gradually painted in the letters his experiences, making use of the intermittent course of his cycloid psychoses. We will see an indication that, in the network that mediated Van Gogh's brain (dys)function, elements of synesthesia, prosopagnosia, and spatial agnosia might have been activated. Van Gogh's affinity for poetry, already in his early twenty's, makes the hypothesis of a, by epileptic discharges, kindled temporal lobe at most only part of the complex interpretation of this creative and suffering mind. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  2. EPA awards Van Buren, Ark. Teacher with Presidential Innovation Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 17, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded Jolie Hobbs of King Elementary School in Van Buren, Ark. with the Presidential Innovation Award for Environmental Educators (PIAEE). She was honored today at a ceremony at

  3. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Charles van Ravenswaay) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Charles van Ravenswaay) Photographer unknown, 1871. LOOKING EAST ON VINE STREET FROM STEEPLE OF PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AT CORNER OF MAIN AND VINE STREETS. - Town of Boonville, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer June 1960 EXTERIOR OF THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS - The Judges Law Office, 100 West Market Street, Georgetown, Sussex County, DE

  5. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  6. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  7. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  8. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  9. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thulesius, Hans O; Scott, Helen; Helgesson, Gert; Lynöe, Niels

    2013-03-13

    Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was "what is going on in the field of dying today?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient's death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on "gut feelings" - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North

  10. Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-01

    51I-44-014 (31 Aug-1 Sept. 1985) --- This photograph is one of a series of six covering extravehicular activity (EVA) which were released by NASA on Sept. 4, 1985. Here, astronaut James D. van Hoften, dwarfed by the large satellite, moves in for initial contact. Astronaut John M. (Mike) Lounge, out of frame inside cabin, maneuvers the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm to assist astronauts van Hoften and William F. Fisher. Photo credit: NASA

  11. LEASAT-3 repair during the van Hoften and Fisher EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-08-31

    51I-44-012 (1 Sept. 1985) --- Astronaut James D. van Hoften looks on as the Syncom IVC-3 satellite responds to his push against it moments earlier. Dr. van Hoften, mission specialist, is anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Discovery. The 51-I crew members showed this photograph at their Sept. 11 postflight press conference. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Lifshitz theory of van der Waals pressure in dissipative media

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Yi; Narayanaswamy, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    We derive a first-principles method of determining the van der Waals or Casimir pressure in a dissipative and dispersive planar multilayered system by calculating the Maxwell stress tensor in a fictitious layer of vacuum, that is eventually made to vanish, introduced in the structure. This is illustrated by calculating the van der Waals pressure in a thin film with dissipative properties embedded between two semi-infinite media.

  13. Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-01

    51I-102-029 (31 August - 1 September 1985) --- This is one of a series of six photographs released by NASA covering the extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts James D. van Hoften and William F. Fisher, who helped to capture, repair and release the previously errant Syncom IV-3 communications satellite. Here, Dr. van Hoften has just given a shove to the the Syncom. (For orientation, moon should be in lower right quadrant).

  14. From the corner of Charlie Kelly Blvd. And S. Van ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of Charlie Kelly Blvd. And S. Van Valzah St., looking northwest up S. Van Valzah St. Building 604 is in the foreground and to the right of it are buildings 605 and 606. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. The research contributions of Dr. Paul Van Deusen

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Lynch; Francis A. Roesch; John Paul McTague; Jeffrey H. Gove; Gregory A. Reams; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Paul Van Deusen’s recent passing concluded a rich 30+-year research career dedicated to development and implementation of quantitative methods for forestry and natural resources. Since the early part of his career as a biometrician with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station in the 1980s-1990s and continuing with his later employment at NCASI, Dr. Van...

  16. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Alves-Pereira, Daniela; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-07-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is a genetic disorder that was first described by Richard Ellis and Simon van Creveld in 1940. The four principal characteristics are chondrodysplasia, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and congenital heart defects. The orofacial manifestations include multiple gingivolabial musculofibrous fraenula, dental anomalies, hypodontia and malocclusion. The disease can be diagnosed at any age, even during pregnancy. The differentiation should be made between Jeune syndrome and other orofaciodigital syndromes.

  17. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  18. [Little animals observed by Antony van Leeuwenhoek].

    PubMed

    Amako, Kazunobu

    2014-01-01

    Antony van Leeuwenhoek is the discoverer of bacteria and other microorganisms. However, his name is currently not as well-known as those of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch or Shibasaburo Kitasato. Why not? To answer this question I read a book published in 1932 by Clifford Dobell, an English protozoologist, and found some answers. First, Leeuwenhoek was not a professional scientist in any university or scientific institute, but merely an average citizen in Delft, Holland, working as a merchant in his own shop, and later he also served as an office-holder in Delft city hall. Second, he made and invented his own microscopes but never made his work on microscopes and observation techniques widely known to the public. Accordingly, after his death, his excellent techniques for observing microorganisms were not handed down to the next generation and eventually became forgotten by the scientific community. Although he did not write any scientific paper, he did write about his observations in many letters addressed to the Royal Society of London. Dr. Dobell had translated most of them into English and included them in his book. I picked up and translated several of these letters into Japanese and have included them in this review to show how he described his observations and also what he thought about the presence of such small animals invisible to the naked eye. By reading this review I hope you will come to understand the efforts and abilities of a citizen in Delft about 340 years ago.

  19. Van der Waals Interactions Involving Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Charles M.; Neal, Brian L.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    1996-01-01

    Van der Waals (dispersion) forces contribute to interactions of proteins with other molecules or with surfaces, but because of the structural complexity of protein molecules, the magnitude of these effects is usually estimated based on idealized models of the molecular geometry, e.g., spheres or spheroids. The calculations reported here seek to account for both the geometric irregularity of protein molecules and the material properties of the interacting media. Whereas the latter are found to fall in the generally accepted range, the molecular shape is shown to cause the magnitudes of the interactions to differ significantly from those calculated using idealized models. with important consequences. First, the roughness of the molecular surface leads to much lower average interaction energies for both protein-protein and protein-surface cases relative to calculations in which the protein molecule is approximated as a sphere. These results indicate that a form of steric stabilization may be an important effect in protein solutions. Underlying this behavior is appreciable orientational dependence, one reflection of which is that molecules of complementary shape are found to exhibit very strong attractive dispersion interactions. Although this has been widely discussed previously in the context of molecular recognition processes, the broader implications of these phenomena may also be important at larger molecular separations, e.g., in the dynamics of aggregation, precipitation, and crystal growth.

  20. Van der Waals Force Assisted Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasihithlu, K.; Pendry, J. B.; Craster, R. V.

    2017-02-01

    Phonons (collective atomic vibrations in solids) are more effective in transporting heat than photons. This is the reason why the conduction mode of heat transport in nonmetals (mediated by phonons) is dominant compared to the radiation mode of heat transport (mediated by photons). However, since phonons are unable to traverse a vacuum gap (unlike photons), it is commonly believed that two bodies separated by a gap cannot exchange heat via phonons. Recently, a mechanism was proposed [J. B. Pendry, K. Sasihithlu, and R. V. Craster, Phys. Rev. B 94, 075414 (2016)] by which phonons can transport heat across a vacuum gap - through the Van der Waals interaction between two bodies with gap less than the wavelength of light. Such heat transfer mechanisms are highly relevant for heating (and cooling) of nanostructures; the heating of the flying heads in magnetic storage disks is a case in point. Here, the theoretical derivation for modelling phonon transmission is revisited and extended to the case of two bodies made of different materials separated by a vacuum gap. Magnitudes of phonon transmission, and hence the heat transfer, for commonly used materials in the micro- and nano-electromechanical industry are calculated and compared with the calculation of conduction heat transfer through air for small gaps as well as the heat transfer calculation due to photon exchange.