Sample records for uk secondary analysis

  1. Followership among UK Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of an exploratory study which investigates the followership of longstanding, classroom-based school teachers working in the UK secondary education sector. Using Gronn's (1999) educational leadership formation model as a frame of reference, the study employs a multiple case study methodology with data…

  2. Designing a Curriculum Model for the Teaching of the Bible in UK Jewish Secondary Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Eli

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the process of designing a curriculum model for Bible teaching in UK Jewish secondary schools. This model was designed over the period 2008-2010 by a team of curriculum specialists from the Jewish Curriculum Partnership UK in collaboration with a group of teachers from Jewish secondary schools. The paper first outlines the…

  3. Headteacher Career Paths in UK Independent Secondary Coeducational Schools: Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLay, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This article presents evidence of the similarities and differences in the career paths of men and women who have achieved headships in UK independent coeducational schools. The research comprised a pilot study of interviews with nine female headteachers and a questionnaire sent to male and female heads of coeducational secondary schools. It…

  4. Negotiating and Contesting "Success": Discourses of Aspiration in a UK Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohrer, Konstanze

    2016-01-01

    The need to "raise aspirations" among young people from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds has been prominent in UK policy debates over the last decade. This paper examines how this discourse is negotiated and contested by teachers and pupils in a Scottish secondary school. Interviews, group discussions and observations were…

  5. Benchmarking of DFLAW Solid Secondary Wastes and Processes with UK/Europe Counterparts

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brown, Elvie E.; Swanberg, David J.; Surman, J.

    This report provides information and background on UK solid wastes and waste processes that are similar to those which will be generated by the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) facilities at Hanford. The aim is to further improve the design case for stabilizing and immobilizing of solid secondary wastes, establish international benchmarking and review possibilities for innovation.

  6. Food Hygiene Education in UK Secondary Schools: A Nationwide Survey of Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, M. B.; Bielby, G.; Eves, A.; Lumbers, M. L.; Raats, M. M.; Adams, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A nationwide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of food hygiene in UK secondary schools. Previous studies have focused on effective strategies in consumer food hygiene training but there is little research focusing on school-based education. Design: The questionnaire was developed based on the results of in-depth interviews…

  7. Impacts of smoke-free public places legislation on inequalities in youth smoking uptake: study protocol for a secondary analysis of UK survey data

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Green, Michael James

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Smoke-free public places legislation has been introduced in many countries to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoking. While evaluations of smoke-free policies have demonstrated major public health benefits, the impact on youth smoking and inequalities in smoking remains unclear. This project aims to evaluate how smoke-free public places legislation in the UK has impacted on inequalities in youth smoking uptake, and how much of any impact is via changes in parental smoking behaviour. Methods and analysis The study will constitute secondary analyses of UK data (from the British Household Panel Survey and the Understanding Society study). Merging these datasets gives coverage of the period from 1994 to 2016. Missing data will be handled using multiple imputation. The primary outcomes are the rates and inequalities in initiation, experimentation, escalation to daily smoking and quitting among youths aged 11–15 years. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of smoking among parents of these youths. Discrete-time event history analysis will be conducted to examine whether changes in the probability of youth smoking transitions are associated with the implementation of the smoke-free public places legislation; and whether any observed effects differ by socioeconomic position and parental smoking. A multilevel logistic regression model will be used to investigate whether there is a step change or change in trend for the prevalence of parental smoking after the policy was implemented. The models will be adjusted for relevant factors (including cigarette taxation, the change in the legal age for purchase of cigarettes and e-cigarette prevalence) that may be associated with the implementation of the legislation. Ethics and dissemination This project will use anonymised survey data which have been collected following independent ethical review. The dissemination of the study findings will adopt multiple communication channels

  8. Modelling the cost implications of using carboxymethylcellulose dressing compared with gauze in the management of surgical wounds healing by secondary intention in the US and UK.

    PubMed

    Guest, Julian F; Ruiz, Francis J

    2005-02-01

    To estimate the costs of using carboxymethyl cellulose dressing (CMCD; Aquacel* Hydrofiber) compared to gauze in managing surgical wounds healing by secondary intention in the US and UK. This was a modelling study performed from the perspective of payers (i.e. the hospital and community sector in the US and the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK). Clinical outcomes attributable to managing surgical wounds healing by secondary intention with gauze were obtained from the published literature in the English language. There were no published studies on wounds healing by secondary intention with CMCD. Hence, the analysis conservatively assumed that wound healing rates associated with gauze would be the same for CMCD. These data were combined with resource utilisation estimates derived from a panel of clinicians enabling us to perform decision modelling. The models were used to determine the expected direct healthcare costs eight weeks after the surgical wounds were dressed by CMCD or gauze and left to heal by secondary intention in the US and UK. All wounds are expected to heal within eight weeks, irrespective of dressing. Managing abscesses and other surgical wounds with CMCD instead of gauze in the US is expected to reduce costs by 4% in both wound types (i.e. $247 and $507 respectively) per patient over eight weeks. In the UK, managing abscesses and other surgical wounds with CMCD instead of gauze is expected to reduce costs by 30% (574 pounds) and 12% (581 pounds) respectively per patient over eight weeks. The lower cost of managing CMCD-treated patients is due to decreased nursing costs associated with a lower frequency of CMCD changes compared to gauze dressing changes. Dressing surgical wounds healing by secondary intention with CMCD instead of gauze is expected to lead to a reduction in healthcare costs in both the US and UK. Hence, the purchase price of a dressing is not indicative of the cost effectiveness of a given method of surgical wound care.

  9. An Introduction to ESERO-UK, the UK Space Education Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Allan; Mather, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the UK branch of the European Space Education Resource Office (ESERO-UK), also known as the UK Space Education Office. It is a teaching project designed to use space to enthuse primary and secondary students to study science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects. The office is funded by the European Space…

  10. The cancer care experiences of gay, lesbian and bisexual patients: A secondary analysis of data from the UK Cancer Patient Experience Survey.

    PubMed

    Hulbert-Williams, N J; Plumpton, C O; Flowers, P; McHugh, R; Neal, R D; Semlyen, J; Storey, L

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the effects of population diversity on cancer-related experiences is a priority in oncology care. Previous research demonstrates inequalities arising from variation in age, gender and ethnicity. Inequalities and sexual orientation remain underexplored. Here, we report, for the first time in the UK, a quantitative secondary analysis of the 2013 UK National Cancer Patient Experience Survey which contains 70 questions on specific aspects of care, and six on overall care experiences. 68,737 individuals responded, of whom 0.8% identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual. Controlling for age, gender and concurrent mental health comorbidity, logistic regression models applying post-estimate probability Wald tests explored response differences between heterosexual, bisexual and lesbian/gay respondents. Significant differences were found for 16 questions relating to: (1) a lack of patient-centred care and involvement in decision-making, (2) a need for health professional training and revision of information resources to negate the effects of heteronormativity and (3) evidence of substantial social isolation through cancer. These findings suggest a pattern of inequality, with less positive cancer experiences reported by lesbian, gay and (especially) bisexual respondents. Poor patient-professional communication and heteronormativity in the healthcare setting potentially explain many of the differences found. Social isolation is problematic for this group and warrants further exploration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in UK therapists who work with adult trauma clients.

    PubMed

    Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) working with adult trauma clients. An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5) to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion satisfaction.

  12. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in UK therapists who work with adult trauma clients

    PubMed Central

    Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A.; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) working with adult trauma clients. Method An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5) to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Results Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. Conclusions UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion satisfaction. PMID

  13. The role of long-range transport and domestic emissions in determining atmospheric secondary inorganic particle concentrations across the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieno, M.; Heal, M. R.; Hallsworth, S.; Famulari, D.; Doherty, R. M.; Dore, A. J.; Tang, Y. S.; Braban, C. F.; Leaver, D.; Sutton, M. A.; Reis, S.

    2014-08-01

    Surface concentrations of secondary inorganic particle components over the UK have been analysed for 2001-2010 using the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model and evaluated against measurements. Gas/particle partitioning in the EMEP4UK model simulations used a bulk approach, which may lead to uncertainties in simulated secondary inorganic aerosol. However, model simulations were able to accurately represent both the long-term decadal surface concentrations of particle sulfate and nitrate and an episode in early 2003 of substantially elevated nitrate measured across the UK by the AGANet network. The latter was identified as consisting of three separate episodes, each of less than 1 month duration, in February, March and April. The primary cause of the elevated nitrate levels across the UK was meteorological: a persistent high-pressure system, whose varying location impacted the relative importance of transboundary versus domestic emissions. Whilst long-range transport dominated the elevated nitrate in February, in contrast it was domestic emissions that mainly contributed to the March episode, and for the April episode both domestic emissions and long-range transport contributed. A prolonged episode such as the one in early 2003 can have substantial impact on annual average concentrations. The episode led to annual concentration differences at the regional scale of similar magnitude to those driven by long-term changes in precursor emissions over the full decade investigated here. The results demonstrate that a substantial part of the UK, particularly the south and southeast, may be close to or exceeding annual mean limit values because of import of inorganic aerosol components from continental Europe under specific conditions. The results reinforce the importance of employing multiple year simulations in the assessment of emissions reduction scenarios on particulate matter concentrations and the need for international agreements to address the

  14. Impacts of smoke-free public places legislation on inequalities in youth smoking uptake: study protocol for a secondary analysis of UK survey data.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Philip Emeka; Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Green, Michael James

    2018-03-27

    Smoke-free public places legislation has been introduced in many countries to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoking. While evaluations of smoke-free policies have demonstrated major public health benefits, the impact on youth smoking and inequalities in smoking remains unclear. This project aims to evaluate how smoke-free public places legislation in the UK has impacted on inequalities in youth smoking uptake, and how much of any impact is via changes in parental smoking behaviour. The study will constitute secondary analyses of UK data (from the British Household Panel Survey and the Understanding Society study). Merging these datasets gives coverage of the period from 1994 to 2016. Missing data will be handled using multiple imputation. The primary outcomes are the rates and inequalities in initiation, experimentation, escalation to daily smoking and quitting among youths aged 11-15 years. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of smoking among parents of these youths. Discrete-time event history analysis will be conducted to examine whether changes in the probability of youth smoking transitions are associated with the implementation of the smoke-free public places legislation; and whether any observed effects differ by socioeconomic position and parental smoking. A multilevel logistic regression model will be used to investigate whether there is a step change or change in trend for the prevalence of parental smoking after the policy was implemented. The models will be adjusted for relevant factors (including cigarette taxation, the change in the legal age for purchase of cigarettes and e-cigarette prevalence) that may be associated with the implementation of the legislation. This project will use anonymised survey data which have been collected following independent ethical review. The dissemination of the study findings will adopt multiple communication channels targeting both scientific and non-scientific audiences. © Article

  15. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  16. What is the effect of secondary (high) schooling on subsequent medical school performance? A national, UK-based, cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tiffin, Paul A; Paton, Lewis W; Kasim, Adetayo S; Böhnke, Jan R

    2018-01-01

    Objectives University academic achievement may be inversely related to the performance of the secondary (high) school an entrant attended. Indeed, some medical schools already offer ‘grade discounts’ to applicants from less well-performing schools. However, evidence to guide such policies is lacking. In this study, we analyse a national dataset in order to understand the relationship between the two main predictors of medical school admission in the UK (prior educational attainment (PEA) and performance on the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT)) and subsequent undergraduate knowledge and skills-related outcomes analysed separately. Methods The study was based on national selection data and linked medical school outcomes for knowledge and skills-based tests during the first five years of medical school. UKCAT scores and PEA grades were available for 2107 students enrolled at 18 medical schools. Models were developed to investigate the potential mediating role played by a student’s previous secondary school’s performance. Multilevel models were created to explore the influence of students’ secondary schools on undergraduate achievement in medical school. Results The ability of the UKCAT scores to predict undergraduate academic performance was significantly mediated by PEA in all five years of medical school. Undergraduate achievement was inversely related to secondary school-level performance. This effect waned over time and was less marked for skills, compared with undergraduate knowledge-based outcomes. Thus, the predictive value of secondary school grades was generally dependent on the secondary school in which they were obtained. Conclusions The UKCAT scores added some value, above and beyond secondary school achievement, in predicting undergraduate performance, especially in the later years of study. Importantly, the findings suggest that the academic entry criteria should be relaxed for candidates applying from the least well performing

  17. GeoBus: bringing Earth science learning to secondary schools in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ruth; Roper, Kathryn; Pike, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have no or little expertise of teaching Earth science, to share the outcomes of new science research and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Almost 35,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities by April 2015, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The challenge with secondary school experiential learning as outreach is that activities need to be completed in either 50 or 80 minutes to fit within the school timetables in the UK, and this can limit the amount of hands-on activities that pupils undertake in one session. However, it is possible to dedicate a whole or half day of linked activities to Earth science learning within the Scotland Curriculum for Excellence, and this provides a long enough period to undertake field work, conduct group projects, or complete more complicated experiments. GeoBus has developed a suite of workshops that all involve experiential learning and are targeted for shorter and longer time slots, and the lessons learned in developing and refining these workshops to maximise the learning achieved will be presented. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate research outcomes directly into workshops, and to involve early career researchers in project development. One example that is currently in progress is a set of hydrology workshops that focus on the water

  18. GeoBus: bringing experiential Earth science learning to secondary schools in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, C. J.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Roper, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have no or little expertise of teaching Earth science, to share the outcomes of new science research and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Over 30,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities by December 2014, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The challenge with secondary school experiential learning as outreach is that activities need to be completed in either 50 or 80 minutes to fit within the school timetables in the UK, and this can limit the amount of hands-on activities that pupils undertake in one session. However, it is possible to dedicate a whole or half day of linked activities to Earth science learning in Scotland and this provides a long enough period to undertake field work, conduct group projects, or complete more complicated experiments. GeoBus has developed a suite of workshops that all involve experiential learning and are targeted for shorter and longer time slots, and the lessons learned in developing and refining these workshops to maximise the learning achieved will be presented. Three potentially unsurprising observations hold true for all the schools that GeoBus visits: young learners like to experiment and use unfamiliar equipment to make measurements, the element of competition stimulates learners to ask questions and maintain focus and enthusiasum

  19. An Examination of Barriers to Physical Education for Christian and Muslim Girls Attending Comprehensive Secondary Schools in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Dave; Hoyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined barriers to Physical Education (PE) in a sample of Christian and Muslim schoolgirls attending UK comprehensive secondary schools. Also assessed was whether religion and school year (age) had any impact upon barrier strength and if school year × religion interactions existed. A questionnaire was developed and exploratory factor…

  20. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Methods and analysis Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to

  1. Systematic analysis of funding awarded for mycology research to institutions in the UK, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat; May, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fungal infections cause significant global morbidity and mortality. We have previously described the UK investments in global infectious disease research, and here our objective is to describe the investments awarded to UK institutions for mycology research and outline potential funding gaps in the UK portfolio. Design Systematic analysis. Setting UK institutions carrying out infectious disease research. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome is the amount of funding and number of studies related to mycology research. Secondary outcomes are describing the investments made to specific fungal pathogens and diseases, and also the type of science along the R&D value chain. Methods We systematically searched databases and websites for information on research studies from public and philanthropic funding institutions awarded between 1997 and 2010, and highlighted the mycology-related projects. Results Of 6165 funded studies, we identified 171 studies related to mycology (total investment £48.4 million, 1.9% of all infection research, with mean annual funding £3.5 million). Studies related to global health represented 5.1% of this funding (£2.4 million, compared with 35.6% of all infectious diseases). Leading funders were the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (£14.8 million, 30.5%) and Wellcome Trust (£12.0 million, 24.7%). Preclinical studies received £42.2 million (87.3%), with clinical trials, intervention studies and implementation research in total receiving £6.2 million (12.7%). By institution, University of Aberdeen received most funding (£16.9 million, 35%). Studies investigating antifungal resistance received £1.5 million (3.2%). Conclusions There is little translation of preclinical research into clinical trials or implementation research in spite of substantial disease burden globally, and there are few UK institutions that carry out significant quantities of mycology research of any type. In the context

  2. Working with Secondary School Leadership in a Large-Scale Reform in London, UK: Consultants' Perspectives of Their Role as Agents of School Change and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, David Hagen

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a cultural and political theoretical framework to examine the relationship between consultants and secondary school leaders within a large-scale consultancy-based reform, the Secondary National Strategy (SNS), in London UK. The SNS follows a cascade model of implementation, in which nationally created initiatives are introduced…

  3. UK School Students' Attitudes towards Science and Potential Science-Based Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Emelia L.; Harrison, Timothy G.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of literature pertaining to UK secondary school students, their uptake of science at higher levels and their consideration of careers as scientists. As with all countries, the continued uptake of sufficient numbers of science at all levels is in the UK's interest. Unfortunately too many UK secondary students see science as…

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Ranibizumab Versus Aflibercept for Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A UK Healthcare Perspective.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, Lola; Burke, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Ranibizumab and aflibercept are anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents licensed for the treatment of visual impairment due to macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). The aim of this study was to estimate, from a UK healthcare payer's perspective, the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab versus aflibercept in this indication. A Markov model was used to simulate the outcomes and costs of treating BRVO. Patient baseline characteristics and efficacy data for ranibizumab were obtained from the BRAVO trial. The relative efficacy of aflibercept was derived from a published network meta-analysis. Injection frequencies were derived from ranibizumab and aflibercept studies included in the network meta-analysis. Health states were defined by increments of 10 letters in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Patients could gain or lose a maximum of two health states between cycles. The first cycle was 6 months, followed by monthly cycles. Different utility values were assigned to the better-seeing and worse-seeing eyes based on BCVA. A 2-year treatment time frame and a lifetime time horizon were used. Future costs and health outcomes were discounted at 3.5% per annum. Sensitivity analyses were used to test the robustness of the model. The lifetime cost per patient treated was £15,273 with ranibizumab and £17,347 with aflibercept. Ranibizumab was dominant over aflibercept, producing incremental health gains of 0.0120 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and cost savings of £2074. Net monetary benefit for ranibizumab at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY was £2314. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were robust to variations in model parameters. Ranibizumab provides greater health gains at a lower overall cost than aflibercept in the treatment of visual impairment due to macular edema secondary to BRVO. Ranibizumab is therefore cost-effective from a UK healthcare payer's perspective. Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

  5. Gender and Publishing in Nursing: a secondary analysis of h-index ranking tables.

    PubMed

    Porter, Sam

    2018-05-24

    To analyse published ranking tables on academics' h-index scores to establish whether male nursing academics are disproportionately represented in these tables compared with their representation across the whole profession. Previous studies have identified a disproportionate representation of UK male nursing academics in publishing in comparison to their US counterparts. Secondary statistical analysis, which involved comparative correlation of proportions. Four papers from the UK, Canada and Australia containing h-index ranking tables and published between 2010-2017, were re-analysed in June 2017 to identify authors' sex. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to ascertain whether the number of men included in the tables was statistically proportionate to the number of men on the pertinent national professional register. There was a disproportionate number of men with high h-index scores in the UK and Canadian data sets, compared with the proportion of men on the pertinent national registers. The number of men in the Australian data set was proportionate with the number of men on the nursing register. There was a disproportionate number of male professors in UK universities. The influence of men over nursing publishing in the UK and Canada outweighs their representation across the whole profession. Similarly, in the UK, men's representation in the professoriate is disproportionately great. However, the Australian results suggest that gender inequality is not inevitable and that it is possible to create more egalitarian nursing cultures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Who applies and who gets admitted to UK graduate entry medicine? - an analysis of UK admission statistics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Graduate-entry medicine is a recent development in the UK, intended to expand and broaden access to medical training. After eight years, it is time to evaluate its success in recruitment. Objectives This study aimed to compare the applications and admissions profiles of graduate-entry programmes in the UK to traditional 5 and 6-year courses. Methods Aggregate data on applications and admissions were obtained from the Universities and Colleges Admission Service covering 2003 to 2009. Data were extracted, grouped as appropriate and analysed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results Graduate-entry attracts 10,000 applications a year. Women form the majority of applicants and admissions to graduate-entry and traditional medicine programmes. Graduate-entry age profile is older, typically 20's or 30's compared to 18 or 19 years in traditional programmes. Graduate-entry applications and admissions were higher from white and black UK ethnic communities than traditional programmes, and lower from southern and Chinese Asian groups. Graduate-entry has few applications or admissions from Scotland or Northern Ireland. Secondary educational achievement is poorer amongst graduate-entry applicants and admissions than traditional programmes. Conclusions Graduate-entry has succeeded in recruiting substantial additional numbers of older applicants to medicine, in which white and black groups are better represented and Asian groups more poorly represented than in traditional undergraduate programmes. PMID:21943332

  7. Restrictive and Expansive Policy Learning--Challenges and Strategies for Knowledge Exchange in Upper Secondary Education across the Four Countries of the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann; Spours, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the challenges and possibilities for UK policy learning in relation to upper secondary education (USE) across England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (NI) within current national and global policy contexts. Drawing on a range of international literature, the article explores the concepts of "restrictive" and…

  8. Systematic analysis of funding awarded for mycology research to institutions in the UK, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat; May, Robin C

    2014-01-09

    Fungal infections cause significant global morbidity and mortality. We have previously described the UK investments in global infectious disease research, and here our objective is to describe the investments awarded to UK institutions for mycology research and outline potential funding gaps in the UK portfolio. Systematic analysis. UK institutions carrying out infectious disease research. Primary outcome is the amount of funding and number of studies related to mycology research. Secondary outcomes are describing the investments made to specific fungal pathogens and diseases, and also the type of science along the R&D value chain. We systematically searched databases and websites for information on research studies from public and philanthropic funding institutions awarded between 1997 and 2010, and highlighted the mycology-related projects. Of 6165 funded studies, we identified 171 studies related to mycology (total investment £48.4 million, 1.9% of all infection research, with mean annual funding £3.5 million). Studies related to global health represented 5.1% of this funding (£2.4 million, compared with 35.6% of all infectious diseases). Leading funders were the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (£14.8 million, 30.5%) and Wellcome Trust (£12.0 million, 24.7%). Preclinical studies received £42.2 million (87.3%), with clinical trials, intervention studies and implementation research in total receiving £6.2 million (12.7%). By institution, University of Aberdeen received most funding (£16.9 million, 35%). Studies investigating antifungal resistance received £1.5 million (3.2%). There is little translation of preclinical research into clinical trials or implementation research in spite of substantial disease burden globally, and there are few UK institutions that carry out significant quantities of mycology research of any type. In the context of global health and the burden of disease in low-income countries, more investment is

  9. The role of long-range transport and domestic emissions in determining atmospheric secondary inorganic particle concentrations across the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieno, M.; Heal, M. R.; Hallsworth, S.; Famulari, D.; Doherty, R. M.; Dore, A. J.; Tang, Y. S.; Braban, C. F.; Leaver, D.; Sutton, M. A.; Reis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface concentrations of secondary inorganic particle components over the UK have been analysed for 2001-2010 using the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model. In early 2003 an episode of substantially elevated surface concentrations of ammonium nitrate was measured across the UK by the AGANET network. The EMEP4UK model was able accurately to represent both the long-term decadal surface concentrations and the episode in 2003. The latter was identified as consisting of three separate episodes, each of less than 1 month duration, in February, March and April. The primary cause of the elevated nitrate levels across the UK was meteorological, a persistent high pressure system, but whose varying location impacted the relative importance of transboundary vs. domestic emissions. Whilst long-range transport dominated the elevated nitrate in February, in contrast it was domestic emissions that mainly contributed to the March episode, and for the April episode both domestic emissions and long-range transport contributed. A prolonged episode such as the one in early 2003 can have substantial impact on annual average concentrations. The episode led to annual concentration differences at the regional scale of similar magnitude to those driven by long-term changes in precursor emissions over the full decade investigated here. The results demonstrate that a substantial part of the UK, particularly the south and south-east, may be close to or actually exceeding annual mean limit values because of import of inorganic aerosol components from continental Europe under specific conditions. The results reinforce the importance of employing multiple year simulations in the assessment of emissions reduction scenarios on PM concentrations and the need for international agreements to address the transboundary component of air pollution.

  10. "I DON'T CARE DO UR OWN PAGE!!" A Case Study of Using Wikis for Collaborative Work in a UK Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyndsay

    2009-01-01

    Alongside other forms of social software, wikis have been heralded as supporting more collaborative and democratic teaching and learning practices. This paper explores, through a case study approach, the use of wikis to support a collaborative research project undertaken in a UK secondary school. Findings are analysed in the context of research on…

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of quadrivalent influenza vaccination in at-risk adults and the elderly: an updated analysis in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Meier, G; Gregg, M; Poulsen Nautrup, B

    2015-01-01

    To update an earlier evaluation estimating the cost-effectiveness of quadrivalent influenza vaccination (QIV) compared with trivalent influenza vaccination (TIV) in the adult population currently recommended for influenza vaccination in the UK (all people aged ≥65 years and people aged 18-64 years with clinical risk conditions). This analysis takes into account updated vaccine prices, reference costs, influenza strain circulation, and burden of illness data. A lifetime, multi-cohort, static Markov model was constructed with seven age groups. The model was run in 1-year cycles for a lifetime, i.e., until the youngest patients at entry reached the age of 100 years. The base-case analysis was from the perspective of the UK National Health Service, with a secondary analysis from the societal perspective. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3.5%. Herd effects were not included. Inputs were derived from systematic reviews, peer-reviewed articles, and government publications and databases. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base-case, QIV would be expected to avoid 1,413,392 influenza cases, 41,780 hospitalizations, and 19,906 deaths over the lifetime horizon, compared with TIV. The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was £14,645 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. From the societal perspective, the estimated ICER was £13,497/QALY. A strategy of vaccinating only people aged ≥65 years had an estimated ICER of £11,998/QALY. Sensitivity analysis indicated that only two parameters, seasonal variation in influenza B matching and influenza A circulation, had a substantial effect on the ICER. QIV would be likely to be cost-effective compared with TIV in 68% of simulations with a willingness-to-pay threshold of <£20,000/QALY and 87% with a willingness-to-pay threshold of <£30,000/QALY. In this updated analysis, QIV was estimated to be cost-effective compared with TIV in the U.K.

  12. The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitude). Sex and ethnic differences were also analyzed in light of the changing demographics of medical students over the past decades. Methods Data from five cohort studies were available: the Westminster Study (began clinical studies from 1975 to 1982), the 1980, 1985, and 1990 cohort studies (entered medical school in 1981, 1986, and 1991), and the University College London Medical School (UCLMS) Cohort Study (entered clinical studies in 2005 and 2006). Different studies had different outcome measures, but most had performance on basic medical sciences and clinical examinations at medical school, performance in Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations, and being on the General Medical Council Specialist Register. Results Correlation matrices and path analyses are presented. There were robust correlations across different years at medical school, and medical school performance also predicted MRCP(UK) performance and being on the GMC Specialist Register. A-levels correlated somewhat less with undergraduate and post-graduate performance, but there was restriction of range in entrants. General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)/O-level results also predicted undergraduate and post-graduate outcomes, but less so than did A-level results, but there may be incremental validity for clinical and post-graduate performance. The AH5 had some significant correlations with outcome, but they were inconsistent. Sex and ethnicity also had predictive effects on

  13. UK Schools, CCTV and the Data Protection Act 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Emmeline

    2011-01-01

    The use of CCTV in schools is now commonplace in the UK. It is estimated that 85% of all UK secondary schools currently have CCTV systems in operation. The introduction of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) (enacted in March 2000) meant that for the first time CCTV had direct legislation governing its use in the UK. This paper attempts to apply…

  14. Qualitative Secondary Analysis: A Case Exemplar.

    PubMed

    Tate, Judith Ann; Happ, Mary Beth

    Qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) is the use of qualitative data that was collected by someone else or was collected to answer a different research question. Secondary analysis of qualitative data provides an opportunity to maximize data utility, particularly with difficult-to-reach patient populations. However, qualitative secondary analysis methods require careful consideration and explicit description to best understand, contextualize, and evaluate the research results. In this article, we describe methodologic considerations using a case exemplar to illustrate challenges specific to qualitative secondary analysis and strategies to overcome them. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Age of BLood Evaluation (ABLE) randomised controlled trial: description of the UK-funded arm of the international trial, the UK cost-utility analysis and secondary analyses exploring factors associated with health-related quality of life and health-care costs during the 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Timothy S; Stanworth, Simon; Boyd, Julia; Hope, David; Hemmatapour, Sue; Burrows, Helen; Campbell, Helen; Pizzo, Elena; Swart, Nicholas; Morris, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    At present, red blood cells (RBCs) are stored for up to 42 days prior to transfusion. The relative effectiveness and safety of different RBC storage times prior to transfusion is uncertain. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of transfusing fresher RBCs (stored for ≤ 7 days) compared with current standard-aged RBCs in critically ill patients requiring blood transfusions. The international Age of BLood Evaluation (ABLE) trial was a multicentre, randomised, blinded trial undertaken in Canada, the UK, the Netherlands and France. The UK trial was funded to contribute patients to the international trial and undertake a UK-specific health economic evaluation. Twenty intensive care units (ICUs) in the UK, as part of 64 international centres. Critically ill patients aged ≥ 18 years (≥ 16 years in Scotland) expected to require mechanical ventilation for ≥ 48 hours and requiring a first RBC transfusion during the first 7 days in the ICU. All decisions to transfuse RBCs were made by clinicians. One patient group received exclusively fresh RBCs stored for ≤ 7 days whenever transfusion was required from randomisation until hospital discharge. The other group received standard-issue RBCs throughout their hospital stay. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included development of organ dysfunction, new thrombosis, infections and transfusion reactions. The primary economic evaluation was a cost-utility analysis. The international trial took place between March 2009 and October 2014 (UK recruitment took place between January 2012 and October 2014). In total, 1211 patients were assigned to receive fresh blood and 1219 patients to receive standard-aged blood. RBCs were stored for a mean of 6.1 days [standard deviation (SD) ± 4.9 days] in the group allocated to receive fresh blood and 22.0 days (SD ± 8.4 days) in the group allocated to receive standard-aged blood. Patients received a mean of 4.3 RBC units

  16. Secondary Fire Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    of wood frame and brick veneer, slab on grade construction), killed 33, injured more than 1,000, derailed a train, destroyed 4,000 cars, uprooted most... of a nuclear detonation) in or near structures, with emphasis on critical facil- ities and industries. Assessment of the potential for secondary fires...and/or 517 East Dayshore, Redwood City, CA 94063 DistI pial (DETACHABLE SUMMARY) SECONDARY FIRE ANALYSIS This report presents the results of a

  17. Modelling the long-range transport of secondary PM 10 to the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, A. L.; Derwent, R. G.; Maryon, R. H.

    The fine fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM 10) is known to be harmful to human health. In order to establish how current air quality standards can best be met now and in the future, it is necessary to understand the cause of PM 10 episodes. The UK Met Office's dispersion model, NAME, has been used to model hourly concentrations of sulphate aerosol for 1996 at a number of UK locations. The model output has been compared with measured values of PM 10 or sulphate aerosol at these sites and used to provide attribution information. In particular two large PM 10 episodes in March and July 1996 have been studied. The March episode has been shown to be the result of imported pollution from outside the UK, whereas the July case was dominated by UK emissions. This work highlights the need to consider trans-boundary pollution when setting air quality standards and when making policy decisions on emissions.

  18. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales-a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-11-04

    Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to peer-reviewed journals and construct an interactive map

  19. Impact of the UK voluntary sodium reduction targets on the sodium content of processed foods from 2006 to 2011: analysis of household consumer panel data.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Webster, Jacqueline; Jebb, Susan; Capelin, Cathy; Neal, Bruce; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2013-11-01

    In 2006 the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) introduced voluntary sodium reduction targets for more than 80 categories of processed food. Our aim was to determine the impact of these targets on the sodium content of processed foods in the UK between 2006 and 2011. Household consumer panel data (n>18,000 households) were used to calculate crude and sales-weighted mean sodium content for 47,337 products in 2006 and 49,714 products in 2011. Two sample t-tests were used to compare means. A secondary analysis was undertaken to explore reformulation efforts and included only products available for sale in both 2006 and 2011. Between 2006 and 2011 there was an overall mean reduction in crude sodium content of UK foods of -26 mg/100g (p ≤ 0.001), equivalent to a 7% fall (356 mg/100g to 330 mg/100g). The corresponding sales-weighted reduction was -21 mg/100g (-6%). For products available for sale in both years the corresponding reduction was -23 mg/100g (p<0.001) or -7%. The UK FSA voluntary targets delivered a moderate reduction in the mean sodium content of UK processed foods between 2006 and 2011. Whilst encouraging, regular monitoring and review of the UK sodium reduction strategy will be essential to ensure continued progress. © 2013.

  20. Momentum and Kinetic Energy: Confusable Concepts in Secondary School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, T. G. K.; MacMillan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike express concerns about the conceptual difficulties associated with the concepts of momentum and kinetic energy currently taught in school physics. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the treatment given to them in 44 published textbooks written for UK secondary school certificate courses. This is set…

  1. Review and analysis of global agricultural N₂O emissions relevant to the UK.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, S; Anthony, S; Bellamy, P H; Cardenas, L M; Higgins, S; McGeough, K; Topp, C F E

    2014-07-15

    As part of a UK government funded research project to update the UK N2O inventory methodology, a systematic review of published nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors was carried out of non-UK research, for future comparison and synthesis with the UK measurement based evidence base. The aim of the study is to assess how the UK IPCC default emission factor for N2O emissions derived from synthetic or organic fertiliser inputs (EF1) compares to international values reported in published literature. The availability of data for comparing and/or refining the UK IPCC default value and the possibility of analysing sufficient auxiliary data to propose a Tier 2 EF1 reporting strategy is evaluated. The review demonstrated a lack of consistency in reporting error bounds for fertiliser-derived EFs and N2O flux data with 8% and 44% of publications reporting EF and N2O flux error bounds respectively. There was also poor description of environmental (climate and soil) and experimental design auxiliary data. This is likely to be due to differences in study objectives, however potential improvements to soil parameter reporting are proposed. The review demonstrates that emission factors for agricultural-derived N2O emissions ranged -0.34% to 37% showing high variation compared to the UK Tier 1 IPCC EF1 default values of 1.25% (IPCC 1996) and 1% (IPPC 2006). However, the majority (83%) of EFs reported for UK-relevant soils fell within the UK IPCC EF1 uncertainty range of 0.03% to 3%. Residual maximum likelihood (REML) analysis of the data collated in the review showed that the type and rate of fertiliser N applied and soil type were significant factors influencing EFs reported. Country of emission, the length of the measurement period, the number of splits, the crop type, pH and SOC did not have a significant impact on N2O emissions. A subset of publications where sufficient data was reported for meta-analysis to be conducted was identified. Meta-analysis of effect sizes of 41

  2. UK Secondary Schools under Surveillance: What Are the Implications for Race? A Critical Race and Butlerian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Since September 11th 2001, and the London bombings of July 2005, the "war on terror" has led to the subjection of populations to new regimes of control and reinforced state sovereignty. This involves, in countries such as the UK and the US, the limiting of personal freedoms, increased regulation of immigration and constant surveillance,…

  3. The Collyhurst Sandstone as a secondary storage unit for CCS in the East Irish Sea Basin (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, D.; Williams, J. D. O.; Kirk, K.; Gent, C. M. A.; Bentham, M.; Schofield, D. I.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is key technology for low-carbon energy and industry. The UK hosts a large CO2 storage potential offshore with an estimated capacity of 78 Gt. The East Irish Sea Basin (EISB) is the key area for CCS in the western UK, with a CO2 storage potential of 1.7 Gt in hydrocarbon fields and in saline aquifers within the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Formation. However, this theoretical storage capacity does not consider the secondary storage potential in the lower Permian Collyhurst Sandstone Formation. 3D seismic data were used to characterise the Collyhurst Sandstone Formation in the EISB. On the southern basin domain, numerous fault-bound blocks limit the lateral continuity of the sandstone strata, while on the northern domain the sandstones are intersected by less faults. The caprock for the Collyhurst sandstones is variable. The Manchester Marls predominate in the south, transitioning to the St. Bees evaporites towards the north. The evaporites in the EISB cause overburden faults to terminate or detach along Upper Permian strata, limiting the deformation of the underlying reservoir units. Five main storage closures have been identified in the Permian strata. In the southern and central area these are predominantly fault bounded, occurring at depths over 1000m. Despite the higher Collyhurst sandstone thickness in the southern IESB, the dolomitic nature of the caprock constitutes a storage risk in this area. Closures in the northern area are deeper (around 2000-2500m) and wider, reaching areas of 34Km2, and are overlain by evaporitic caprocks. The larger Collyhurst closures to the north underlie large Triassic fields with high storage potential. The spatial overlap favours storage plans including secondary storage units in the EISB. The results of this work also expand the understanding of prospective areas for CO2 sequestration in the East Irish Sea Basin in locations where the primary Sherwood Sandstone Formation is either too shallow

  4. The importance of KMR completion for dermatology income in secondary care in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hague, J; Nichols, H; Klimmeck, J; Lanigan, S

    2007-05-01

    In the UK, a Korner Medical Record (KMR) document is completed for each inpatient discharged from hospital. The number and type of medical conditions entered onto this record are used to determine the income the department will receive for that individual patient. We set out to audit the accuracy of the KMR documentation of our dermatology ward, and to assess what impact improving these records would have on the department's income. The audit standard was that KMRs should be completed accurately and contain all of the relevant information. KMRs from May 2005, which had been completed initially by the ward clerk, and later by the junior medical staff, were reviewed. They were then completed by the main auditor, who had received training in KMR completion from the coding department. All three sets of KMRs were reviewed by the coding officer, and their respective income calculated. In total, 20 patients were discharged from the dermatology ward during April 2005. The main diagnosis given for two patients was initially incorrect, and in another eight cases it could have been more accurate than was originally documented. The total number of comorbid or 'secondary' diagnoses (for all 20 patients) reported by the ward clerk was 5. Junior staff added a further 36 secondary diagnoses. The main auditor identified an additional 35 secondary diagnoses. In total, an extra pound 9211 would have been paid to the department if KMRs had been completed by the main auditor rather than the ward clerk. On an annual basis, a potential pound 110,532 would remain unclaimed if KMR completion continued to be performed by the ward clerk. This audit shows that KMR completion is inadequate when performed by a nonmedical practitioner. Training of medical staff in KMR completion by the coding department also significantly increases the accuracy and completeness of documentation. Dermatologists of all grades need to be aware of the importance and process of KMR completion, and routine training of

  5. Current Capabilities, Requirements and a Proposed Strategy for Interdependency Analysis in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Robin; Chozos, Nick; Salako, Kizito

    The UK government recently commissioned a research study to identify the state-of-the-art in Critical Infrastructure modelling and analysis, and the government/industry requirements for such tools and services. This study (Cetifs) concluded with a strategy aiming to bridge the gaps between the capabilities and requirements, which would establish interdependency analysis as a commercially viable service in the near future. This paper presents the findings of this study that was carried out by CSR, City University London, Adelard LLP, a safety/security consultancy and Cranfield University, defense academy of the UK.

  6. A content analysis of the UK press response to the diagnosis of Ebola in a British healthcare worker.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Constance; Myles, Puja; Pritchard, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The Ebola epidemic led to considerable media attention, which may influence public risk perception. Therefore, this study analysed the UK press response following diagnosis of a British healthcare worker (HCW) with Ebola. Using the Nexis database, the frequency of Ebola-related articles in UK national newspaper articles was mapped. This was followed by a content analysis of Ebola-related articles in the four newspapers with highest UK net readership from November 2014 to February 2015. During the 16-week study period, 1349 articles were found. The day with the highest number of Ebola-related articles was 31 December 2014, the day after the diagnosis of Ebola in a UK HCW. Seventy-seven articles were included in the content analysis. Content analysis demonstrated a shift from West African to UK-focused articles, increased discussion of border control, UK policy decisions and criticism, and an increased number of articles with a reassuring/threatening message. UK press coverage of Ebola increased following a HCW's diagnosis, particularly regarding discussion of screening measures. This is likely to have increased risk perception of Ebola in the UK population and may have contributed to subsequent strengthening of UK screening policy beyond World Health Organisation requirements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Developing Student Character through Disciplinary Curricula: An Analysis of UK QAA Subject Benchmark Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    What aspects of student character are expected to be developed through disciplinary curricula? This paper examines the UK written curriculum through an analysis of the Quality Assurance Agency's subject benchmark statements for the most popular subjects studied in the UK. It explores the language, principles and intended outcomes that suggest…

  8. Devolution and health in the UK: policy and its lessons since 1998.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L

    2016-06-01

    Since devolution in 1998, the UK has had four increasingly distinct health systems, in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Secondary literature and authors' own research since 1998. From a similar starting point, there has been a considerable distancing of the four health systems from each other in policies, priorities and organization. The comparative efficiency and quality of the different systems as well as the wisdom of their greater or lesser reliance on integration and competition. Better and more comparable public data would be useful, as would consideration of potential devolved lessons for UK policy. Comparisons of organization and performance at levels more detailed than whole systems; analysis of the resilience and management of different systems in a context of budgetary austerity; analysis of the politics behind policy decisions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Devolution and health in the UK: policy and its lessons since 1998

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since devolution in 1998, the UK has had four increasingly distinct health systems, in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Sources of data Secondary literature and authors’ own research since 1998. Areas of agreement From a similar starting point, there has been a considerable distancing of the four health systems from each other in policies, priorities and organization. Areas of controversy The comparative efficiency and quality of the different systems as well as the wisdom of their greater or lesser reliance on integration and competition. Growing points Better and more comparable public data would be useful, as would consideration of potential devolved lessons for UK policy. Areas timely for developing further research Comparisons of organization and performance at levels more detailed than whole systems; analysis of the resilience and management of different systems in a context of budgetary austerity; analysis of the politics behind policy decisions. PMID:27151953

  10. Cost-efficacy analysis of the MONET trial using UK antiretroviral drug prices.

    PubMed

    Gazzard, Brian; Hill, Andrew; Anceau, Anne

    2011-07-01

    In virologically suppressed patients, switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy maintains HIV RNA suppression, and could also lower treatment costs. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the potential cost savings from the use of DRV/r monotherapy in the UK. In the MONET trial, 256 patients with HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL on current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for over 24 weeks (non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI] based [43%] or protease inhibitor [PI] based [57%]), switched to DRV/r 800/100 mg once daily, either as monotherapy (n = 127) or with two NRTIs (n = 129). The UK costs per patient with HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL at week 48 (responders) were calculated using a 'switch included' analysis to account for additional antiretrovirals taken after initial treatment failure. By this analysis, efficacy was 93.5% versus 95.1% in the DRV/r monotherapy and triple therapy arms, respectively. British National Formulary 2009 values were used. Before the trial, the mean annual cost of antiretrovirals was £6906 for patients receiving NNRTI-based HAART, and £8348 for patients receiving PI-based HAART. During the MONET trial, the mean annual per-patient cost of antiretrovirals was £8642 in the triple therapy arm, of which 55% was from NRTIs and 45% from PIs. The mean per-patient cost in the monotherapy arm was £4126, a saving of 52% versus triple therapy. The mean cost per responder was £9085 in the triple therapy arm versus £4413 in the DRV/r monotherapy arm. Based on the MONET results, the lower cost of DRV/r monotherapy versus triple therapy in the UK would allow more patients to be treated for fixed budgets, while maintaining HIV RNA suppression at < 50 copies/mL. If all patients meeting the inclusion criteria of the MONET trial in the UK were switched to DRV/r monotherapy, there is the potential to save up to £60 million in antiretroviral drug costs from the UK NHS budget.

  11. Adolescent Moral Judgement: A Study of UK Secondary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David Ian; Thoma, Stephen J.; Jones, Chantel; Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent world-wide upsurge of academic interest in moral and character education, little is known about pupils' character development in schools, especially in the UK context. The authors used a version of the Intermediate Concept Measure for Adolescents, involving dilemmas, to assess an important component of character--moral…

  12. TB in healthcare workers in the UK: a cohort analysis 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jennifer A; Lalor, Maeve K; Anderson, Laura F; Tamne, Surinder; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Thomas, H Lucy

    2017-07-01

    To describe the burden of TB in healthcare workers (HCWs) in the UK and determine whether HCWs are at increased risk of TB due to occupational exposure. Retrospective cohort analysis of national UK TB surveillance and genotyping data between 2009 and 2013. The rate of TB in HCWs compared with non-HCWs to calculate incidence rate ratios stratified by country of birth. 2320 cases of TB in HCWs were notified in the study period, 85% were born abroad. The TB rate in HCWs was 23.4 (95% CI 22.5 to 24.4) per 100 000 compared with 16.2 (95% CI 16.0 to 16.3) per 100 000 in non-HCWs. After stratifying by country of birth, there was not an increased TB incidence in HCWs for the majority of countries of birth, including in the UK-born. Using combined genotyping and epidemiological data, only 10 confirmed nosocomial transmission events involving HCWs were identified between 2010 and 2012. Of these, only two involved transmission to patients. The lack of an increased risk of TB after stratifying by country of birth, and the very few transmission events involving nosocomial transmission in the UK suggests that TB in HCWs in the UK is not generally acquired through UK occupational exposure. The majority of cases in foreign-born HCWs are likely to result from reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) acquired abroad, and is not likely to be prevented by BCG vaccination in the UK. Testing and treatment of LTBI in HCWs with exposure to high TB burden countries should be the focus of occupational health prevention activities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) survey of secondary care services for diabetes in the UK, 2000. 1. Methods and major findings.

    PubMed

    Winocour, P H; Ainsworth, A; Williams, R

    2002-04-01

    To examine the provision, and variations in, secondary care diabetes services in the UK. A postal survey of all 238 identified secondary care providers of diabetes services in 2000. Following two reminders, a 77% response rate was achieved. Major deficiencies in core staffing levels were recorded, with 36% of services provided by only one consultant physician with an interest in diabetes. The provision of diabetes specialist nurses was less than recommended in 87% of responses, whereas podiatry and dietetic support was unavailable in 3% and 27% of responses, respectively. Diabetes registers were not present in 28%, and a co-ordinated retinopathy screening programme unavailable in 26% of responses. Key biochemical measurements were unavailable in 9% (microalbuminuria) to 18% (HDL-cholesterol) of responses. A 'Well-Resourced Service' score was devised taking account of levels of personnel, facilities and specialized clinical services. There was a significant geographical variation in this score (P < 0.001), with the lowest score (least well-resourced services) in the Eastern NHS Region of England, and the highest score in the North-west NHS Region of England. The 'Well-Resourced Service' score was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) where there were less than two whole-time consultant physicians providing diabetes services. In contrast to other aspects of service provision, availability of dieticians and a combined diabetes-ophthalmology service had declined since 1990. Of 245 recorded bids for resources and service improvements for diabetes care, the success rate overall was 44%, and lowest where bids were made for dietetic and podiatry support. There is presently a major shortfall in provision of secondary care diabetes services throughout the UK, with evidence that there is significant regional variation and less facilities and resources where there are less than two consultants providing specialized diabetes services. On average bids for service improvements were

  14. Student Representations of Psychology in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Philip; Duffy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Psychology is a popular choice for UK students in their secondary school curriculum. Policy makers and elite universities, however, express concern about the subject. The British Psychological Society (2013) commissioned a detailed study of the provision of school curricula in psychology and as part of this work a survey of students was conducted.…

  15. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  16. Primary, Secondary, and Meta-Analysis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    1976-01-01

    Examines data analysis at three levels: analysis of data; secondary analysis is the re-analysis of data for the purpose of answering the original research question with better statistical techniques, or answering new questions with old data; and, meta-analysis refers to the statistical analysis of many analysis results from individual studies for…

  17. A UK trial-based cost--utility analysis of transmyocardial laser revascularization compared to continued medical therapy for treatment of refractory angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Campbell, H E; Tait, S; Buxton, M J; Sharples, L D; Caine, N; Schofield, P M; Wallwork, J

    2001-08-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) is used to treat patients with refractory angina considered unsuitable for conventional forms of revascularization. Using patient specific data from a single centre UK randomised-controlled trial, we aimed to determine whether, from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective, TMLR plus standard medical management is cost-effective when compared with standard medical management alone. One hundred and eighty-eight patients assessed as having refractory angina, and not suitable for conventional forms of revascularization were randomized to receive TMLR and medical management (94) or medical management alone (94). Costs to the UK NHS of TMLR (where appropriate), and all secondary sector health care contacts and cardiac-related medication in the 12 months following randomization, were collected. Patient utility as measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire was combined with 12-month survival data to generate quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The mean cost per patient over the year from hospitalization for TMLR was 11,470 pounds sterling and for medical management alone was 2586 pounds sterling, giving a cost difference of 8901 pounds sterling (95% confidence interval (CI) 7502 pounds sterling--10,008 pounds sterling: P < 0.0001). The mean QALY difference, in favour of TMLR was 0.039 (95% CI -0.033 to 0.113: P = 0.268). This gives an incremental cost per QALY of over 228,000 pounds sterling. Analysis of stochastic uncertainty and of sensitivity to gross changes in key parameters consistently produces very high costs per QALY. The policy implications are clear: for such patients TMLR is an inefficient use of UK health service resources. This conclusion would not be changed by considerable improvements in effectiveness or reductions in cost.

  18. Evaluating the progress of the UK's Material Recycling Facilities: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Courtenay, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 15 years, the UK has made great strides in reducing the amount of waste being sent to landfill while also increasing the amount of waste being recycled. The key drivers for this change are the European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) and the UK Landfill Tax. However, also playing their part are the growing numbers of Material Recycling Facilities (MRFs), which process recyclables. This mini review evaluates the current state of MRFs in the UK, through extensive secondary research, and detailed primary data analysis focussing on MRFs located in South-East England, UK. This study also explores technologies that aim to generate energy from waste, including Waste-to-Energy (WtE) and Refuse-derived Fuel (RDF) facilities. These facilities can have a huge appetite for waste, which can be detrimental to recycling efforts as some of the waste being sent there should be recycled. It was found that the waste sent to a typical UK MRF would recycle around 92% of materials while 6% was sent to energy recovery and the remaining 2% ended up in landfill. Therefore, the total estimated rejected or non-compliance materials from MRFs are around 8%. A key recommendation from this study is to adopt a strategy to combine MRFs with a form of energy generation, such as WtE or RDF. This integrated approach would ensure any residual waste arising from the recycling process can be used as a sustainable fuel, while also increasing the recycling rates. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Conducting high-value secondary dataset analysis: an introductory guide and resources.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander K; Ayanian, John Z; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Landon, Bruce E; McCarthy, Ellen P; Wee, Christina C; Steinman, Michael A

    2011-08-01

    Secondary analyses of large datasets provide a mechanism for researchers to address high impact questions that would otherwise be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming to study. This paper presents a guide to assist investigators interested in conducting secondary data analysis, including advice on the process of successful secondary data analysis as well as a brief summary of high-value datasets and online resources for researchers, including the SGIM dataset compendium ( www.sgim.org/go/datasets ). The same basic research principles that apply to primary data analysis apply to secondary data analysis, including the development of a clear and clinically relevant research question, study sample, appropriate measures, and a thoughtful analytic approach. A real-world case description illustrates key steps: (1) define your research topic and question; (2) select a dataset; (3) get to know your dataset; and (4) structure your analysis and presentation of findings in a way that is clinically meaningful. Secondary dataset analysis is a well-established methodology. Secondary analysis is particularly valuable for junior investigators, who have limited time and resources to demonstrate expertise and productivity.

  20. Binary asteroid population. 3. Secondary rotations and elongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.; Scheirich, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Naidu, S. P.; Pray, D. P.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Gaftonyuk, N.; Pollock, J.; Husárik, M.; Chiorny, V.; Stephens, R. D.; Durkee, R.; Reddy, V.; Dyvig, R.; Vraštil, J.; Žižka, J.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Oey, J.; Benishek, V.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Higgins, D.; Ries, J.; Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Macomber, B.; Inasaridze, R.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Ayvazian, V.; Rumyantsev, V.; Masi, G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Montaigut, R.; Leroy, A.; Brown, P.; Krzeminski, Z.; Molotov, I.; Reichart, D.; Haislip, J.; LaCluyze, A.

    2016-03-01

    We collected data on rotations and elongations of 46 secondaries of binary and triple systems among near-Earth, Mars-crossing and small main belt asteroids. 24 were found or are strongly suspected to be synchronous (in 1:1 spin-orbit resonance), and the other 22, generally on more distant and/or eccentric orbits, were found or are suggested to have asynchronous rotations. For 18 of the synchronous secondaries, we constrained their librational angles, finding that their long axes pointed to within 20° of the primary on most epochs. The observed anti-correlation of secondary synchroneity with orbital eccentricity and the limited librational angles agree with the theories by Ćuk and Nesvorný (Ćuk, M., Nesvorný, D. [2010]. Icarus 207, 732-743) and Naidu and Margot (Naidu, S.P., Margot, J.-L. [2015]. Astron. J. 149, 80). A reason for the asynchronous secondaries being on wider orbits than synchronous ones may be longer tidal circularization time scales at larger semi-major axes. The asynchronous secondaries show relatively fast spins; their rotation periods are typically < 10 h. An intriguing observation is a paucity of chaotic secondary rotations; with an exception of (35107) 1991 VH, the secondary rotations are single-periodic with no signs of chaotic rotation and their periods are constant on timescales from weeks to years. The secondary equatorial elongations show an upper limit of a2 /b2 ∼ 1.5 . The lack of synchronous secondaries with greater elongations appears consistent, considering uncertainties of the axis ratio estimates, with the theory by Ćuk and Nesvorný that predicts large regions of chaotic rotation in the phase space for a2 /b2 ≳√{ 2 } . Alternatively, secondaries may not form or stay very elongated in gravitational (tidal) field of the primary. It could be due to the secondary fission mechanism suggested by Jacobson and Scheeres (Jacobson, S.A., Scheeres, D.J. [2011]. Icarus 214, 161-178), as its efficiency is correlated with the

  1. Using secondary analysis of qualitative data of patient experiences of health care to inform health services research and policy.

    PubMed

    Ziebland, Sue; Hunt, Kate

    2014-07-01

    Qualitative research is recognized as an important method for including patients' voices and experiences in health services research and policy-making, yet the considerable potential to analyse existing qualitative data to inform health policy and practice has been little realized. This failure may partly be explained by: a lack of awareness amongst health policy makers of the increasing wealth of qualitative data available; and around 15 years of internal debates among qualitative researchers on the strengths, limitations and validity of re-use of qualitative data. Whilst acknowledging the challenges of qualitative secondary data analysis, we argue that there is a growing imperative to be pragmatic and to undertake analysis of existing qualitative data collections where they have the potential to contribute to health policy formulation. Time pressures are inherent in the policy-making process and in many circumstances it is not possible to seek funding, conduct and analyse new qualitative studies of patients' experiences in time to inform a specific policy. The danger then is that the patient voice, and the experiences of relatives and carers, is either excluded or included in a way that is easily dismissed as 'unrepresentative'. We argue that secondary analysis of qualitative data collections may sometimes be an effective means to enable patient experiences to inform policy decision-making. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Using Applied Behaviour Analysis as Standard Practice in a UK Special Needs School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Denise; Hoerger, Marguerite; Philpott, Hannah; Jones, Elin Walker; Hughes, J. Carl; Morgan, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how applied behaviour analysis can be implemented effectively and affordably in a maintained special needs school in the UK. Behaviour analysts collaborate with classroom teachers to provide early intensive behaviour education for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and function based behavioural…

  3. The NHS Redress Act 2006 (UK): background and analysis.

    PubMed

    Munro, Howard

    2009-08-01

    The NHS Redress Act 2006 (UK) is an example of a legislated compensation scheme for adverse health care incidents that aims to supplement the tort-based system of compensation, without going all the way to adopting a no-fault compensation system. It proposes an administrative method of providing speedier and more efficient and responsive remedies to adverse health care incidents than traditional legal proceedings. This article examines the detail of the United Kingdom policy arguments both prior to and since the passage of the legislation, as well as providing a detailed analysis of the original Bill, the parliamentary debates and the subsequent Act.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study - Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies.

    PubMed

    Keane, Pearse A; Grossi, Carlota M; Foster, Paul J; Yang, Qi; Reisman, Charles A; Chan, Kinpui; Peto, Tunde; Thomas, Dhanes; Patel, Praveen J

    2016-01-01

    To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness. In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available "spectral domain" OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon). Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL). This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion. 67,321 participants (134,642 eyes) in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days. We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging.

  5. Members of the YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family of proteins inhibit phosphoribosylamine synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Jennifer A; Browne, Beth Ann; Downs, Diana M

    2010-11-05

    The YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family of proteins is highly conserved across all three domains of life and currently lacks a consensus biochemical function. Analysis of Salmonella enterica strains lacking yjgF has led to a working model in which YjgF functions to remove potentially toxic secondary products of cellular enzymes. Strains lacking yjgF synthesize the thiamine precursor phosphoribosylamine (PRA) by a TrpD-dependent mechanism that is not present in wild-type strains. Here, PRA synthesis was reconstituted in vitro with anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (TrpD), threonine dehydratase (IlvA), threonine, and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate. TrpD-dependent PRA formation in vitro was inhibited by S. enterica YjgF and the human homolog UK114. Thus, the work herein describes the first biochemical assay for diverse members of the highly conserved YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family of proteins and provides a means to dissect the cellular functions of these proteins.

  6. Assessment of resource use and costs associated with parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in end stage renal disease in the UK.

    PubMed

    Pockett, Rhys D; Cevro, Emir; Chamberlain, George; Scott-Coombes, David; Baboolal, Kesh

    2014-03-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major complication of end stage renal disease (ESRD). For the National Health Service (NHS) to make appropriate choices between medical and surgical management, it needs to understand the cost implications of each. A recent pilot study suggested that the current NHS healthcare resource group tariff for parathyroidectomy (PTX) (£2071 and £1859 in patients with and without complications, respectively) is not representative of the true costs of surgery in patients with SHPT. This study aims to provide an estimate of healthcare resources used to manage patients and estimate the cost of PTX in a UK tertiary care centre. Resource use was identified by combining data from the Proton renal database and routine hospital data for adults undergoing PTX for SHPT at the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, from 2000-2008. Data were supplemented by a questionnaire, completed by clinicians in six centres across the UK. Costs were obtained from NHS reference costs, British National Formulary and published literature. Costs were applied for the pre-surgical, surgical, peri-surgical, and post-surgical periods so as to calculate the total cost associated with PTX. One hundred and twenty-four patients (mean age=51.0 years) were identified in the database and 79 from the questionnaires. The main costs identified in the database were the surgical stay (mean=£4066, SD=£,130), the first month post-discharge (£465, SD=£176), and 3 months prior to surgery (£399, SD=£188); the average total cost was £4932 (SD=£4129). From the questionnaires the total cost was £5459 (SD=£943). It is possible that the study was limited due to missing data within the database, as well as the possibility of recall bias associated with the clinicians completing the questionnaires. This analysis suggests that the costs associated with PTX in SHPT exceed the current NHS tariffs for PTX. The cost implications associated with PTX need to be considered in the

  7. Variability in body size and shape of UK offshore workers: A cluster analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Arthur; Ledingham, Robert; Williams, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Male UK offshore workers have enlarged dimensions compared with UK norms and knowledge of specific sizes and shapes typifying their physiques will assist a range of functions related to health and ergonomics. A representative sample of the UK offshore workforce (n = 588) underwent 3D photonic scanning, from which 19 extracted dimensional measures were used in k-means cluster analysis to characterise physique groups. Of the 11 resulting clusters four somatotype groups were expressed: one cluster was muscular and lean, four had greater muscularity than adiposity, three had equal adiposity and muscularity and three had greater adiposity than muscularity. Some clusters appeared constitutionally similar to others, differing only in absolute size. These cluster centroids represent an evidence-base for future designs in apparel and other applications where body size and proportions affect functional performance. They also constitute phenotypic evidence providing insight into the 'offshore culture' which may underpin the enlarged dimensions of offshore workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. International variation in adherence to referral guidelines for suspected cancer: a secondary analysis of survey data.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Brian D; Mant, David; Neal, Richard D; Hart, Nigel; Hamilton, Willie; Shinkins, Bethany; Rubin, Greg; Rose, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Variation in cancer survival persists between comparable nations and appears to be due, in part, to primary care practitioners (PCPs) having different thresholds for acting definitively in response to cancer-related symptoms. To explore whether cancer guidelines, and adherence to them, differ between jurisdictions and impacts on PCPs' propensity to take definitive action on cancer-related symptoms. A secondary analysis of survey data from six countries (10 jurisdictions) participating in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. PCPs' responses to five clinical vignettes presenting symptoms and signs of lung (n = 2), colorectal (n = 2), and ovarian cancer (n = 1) were compared with investigation and referral recommendations in cancer guidelines. Nine jurisdictions had guidelines covering the two colorectal vignettes. For the lung vignettes, although eight jurisdictions had guidelines for the first, the second was covered by a Swedish guideline alone. Only the UK and Denmark had an ovarian cancer guideline. Survey responses of 2795 PCPs (crude response rate: 12%) were analysed. Guideline adherence ranged from 20-82%. UK adherence was lower than other jurisdictions for the lung vignette covered by the guidance (47% versus 58%; P <0.01) but similar (45% versus 46%) or higher (67% versus 38%; P <0.01) for the two colorectal vignettes. PCPs took definitive action least often when a guideline recommended a non-definitive action or made no recommendation. UK PCPs adhered to recommendations for definitive action less than their counterparts (P <0.01). There wasno association between jurisdictional guideline adherence and 1-year survival. Cancer guideline content is variable between similarly developed nations and poor guideline adherence does not explain differential survival. Guidelines that fail to cover high-risk presentations or that recommend non-definitive action may reduce definitive diagnostic action. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  9. Secondary analysis of national survey datasets.

    PubMed

    Boo, Sunjoo; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the methodological issues associated with secondary analysis of large national survey datasets. Issues about survey sampling, data collection, and non-response and missing data in terms of methodological validity and reliability are discussed. Although reanalyzing large national survey datasets is an expedient and cost-efficient way of producing nursing knowledge, successful investigations require a methodological consideration of the intrinsic limitations of secondary survey analysis. Nursing researchers using existing national survey datasets should understand potential sources of error associated with survey sampling, data collection, and non-response and missing data. Although it is impossible to eliminate all potential errors, researchers using existing national survey datasets must be aware of the possible influence of errors on the results of the analyses. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  10. SOFIA secondary mirror Hindle test analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul K.

    2003-02-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a NASA facility, nearing completion, consisting of an infrared telescope of 2.5 meter system aperture flying in a modified Boeing 747. Its Cassegrain secondary mirror has recently completed polishing. The SOFIA Project Office at Ames Research Center considered it important to perform an independent analysis of secondary mirror figure. The polishing was controlled by the standard test for a convex hyperboloid, the Hindle test, in a modified form with a meniscus lens partially reflecting on the concave face, rather than a fully reflecting mirror with a central hole. The spacing between this meniscus lens and the secondary mirror was controlled by three peripherally located spacing spheres. This necessitated special analysis to determine what the resulting curvature and conic constant of the mirror would be, if manufacturing imprecisions of the test set-up components were to be taken into account. This set-up was specially programmed, and the resulting hyperboloid calculated for the nominal case, and all extreme cases from the reported error limits on the manufacturing of the components. The results were then verified using the standard program CODE-V of Optical Research Associates. The conclusion is that the secondary mirror has a vertex radius of curvature of 954.05 mm +/- .1 mm (design value: 954.13), and a conic constant of -1.2965 +/- .001 (dimensionless, design value: -1.298). Such small divergences from design are to be expected, and these are within the refocusing ability of SOFIA, and would result in an acceptably small amount of spherical aberration in the image.

  11. A statistical analysis of UK financial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, with a growing interest in big or large datasets, there has been a rise in the application of large graphs and networks to financial big data. Much of this research has focused on the construction and analysis of the network structure of stock markets, based on the relationships between stock prices. Motivated by Boginski et al. (2005), who studied the characteristics of a network structure of the US stock market, we construct network graphs of the UK stock market using same method. We fit four distributions to the degree density of the vertices from these graphs, the Pareto I, Fréchet, lognormal, and generalised Pareto distributions, and assess the goodness of fit. Our results show that the degree density of the complements of the market graphs, constructed using a negative threshold value close to zero, can be fitted well with the Fréchet and lognormal distributions.

  12. Qualitative risk analysis of introducing Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis to the UK through the importation of live amphibians.

    PubMed

    Peel, Alison J; Hartley, Matt; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-03-20

    The international amphibian trade is implicated in the emergence and spread of the amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis, which has resulted in amphibian declines and extinctions globally. The establishment of the causal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), in the UK could negatively affect the survival of native amphibian populations. In recognition of the ongoing threat that it poses to amphibians, Bd was recently included in the World Organisation for Animal Health Aquatic Animal Health Code, and therefore is in the list of international notifiable diseases. Using standardised risk analysis guidelines, we investigated the likelihood that Bd would be introduced to and become established in wild amphibians in the UK through the importation of live amphibians. We obtained data on the volume and origin of the amphibian trade entering the UK and detected Bd infection in amphibians being imported for the pet and private collection trade and also in amphibians already held in captive pet, laboratory and zoological collections. We found that current systems for recording amphibian trade into the UK underestimate the volume of non-European Union trade by almost 10-fold. We identified high likelihoods of entry, establishment and spread of Bd in the UK and the resulting major overall impact. Despite uncertainties, we determined that the overall risk estimation for the introduction of Bd to the UK through the importation of live amphibians is high and that risk management measures are required, whilst ensuring that negative effects on legal trade are minimised.

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study – Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Carlota M.; Foster, Paul J.; Yang, Qi; Reisman, Charles A.; Chan, Kinpui; Peto, Tunde; Thomas, Dhanes; Patel, Praveen J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness. Methods In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available “spectral domain” OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon). Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL). This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion. Results 67,321 participants (134,642 eyes) in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days. Conclusions We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging. PMID:27716837

  14. Ethnicity and academic performance in UK trained doctors and medical students: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Katherine; Potts, Henry W W; McManus, I C

    2011-03-08

    To determine whether the ethnicity of UK trained doctors and medical students is related to their academic performance. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Online databases PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC; Google and Google Scholar; personal knowledge; backwards and forwards citations; specific searches of medical education journals and medical education conference abstracts. The included quantitative reports measured the performance of medical students or UK trained doctors from different ethnic groups in undergraduate or postgraduate assessments. Exclusions were non-UK assessments, only non-UK trained candidates, only self reported assessment data, only dropouts or another non-academic variable, obvious sampling bias, or insufficient details of ethnicity or outcomes. Results 23 reports comparing the academic performance of medical students and doctors from different ethnic groups were included. Meta-analyses of effects from 22 reports (n = 23,742) indicated candidates of "non-white" ethnicity underperformed compared with white candidates (Cohen's d = -0.42, 95% confidence interval -0.50 to -0.34; P<0.001). Effects in the same direction and of similar magnitude were found in meta-analyses of undergraduate assessments only, postgraduate assessments only, machine marked written assessments only, practical clinical assessments only, assessments with pass/fail outcomes only, assessments with continuous outcomes only, and in a meta-analysis of white v Asian candidates only. Heterogeneity was present in all meta-analyses. Ethnic differences in academic performance are widespread across different medical schools, different types of exam, and in undergraduates and postgraduates. They have persisted for many years and cannot be dismissed as atypical or local problems. We need to recognise this as an issue that probably affects all of UK medical and higher education. More detailed information to track the problem as well as further research into its causes is required. Such

  15. Psycho-educational interventions for children and young people with Type 1 Diabetes in the UK: How effective are they? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Kathryn R.; Amin, Rakesh; Paes, Veena Mazarello; Viner, Russell M.; Stephenson, Terence

    2017-01-01

    Aims To synthesise evidence from UK-based randomised trials of psycho-educational interventions in children and young people (CYP) with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) to inform the evidence-base for adoption of such interventions into the NHS. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science up to March 2016. Two reviewers independently selected UK-based randomised trials comparing psycho-educational interventions for improving management of T1D for CYP with a control group of usual care or attention control. The main outcome was glycaemic control measured by percentage of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); secondary outcomes included psychosocial functioning, diabetes knowledge, adverse and other clinical outcomes. A narrative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted. Pooled effect sizes of standardised mean difference (SMD) were calculated. Results Ten eligible trials of three educational and seven psycho-educational interventions were identified. Most interventions were delivered by non-psychologists and targeted adolescents with more than one year duration of diabetes. Meta-analysis of nine of these trials (N = 1,838 participants) showed a non-significant reduction in HbA1c attributable to the intervention (pooled SMD = -0.06, 95% CI: -0.21 to 0.09). Psycho-educational interventions aiming to increase children’s self-efficacy had a moderate, beneficial effect (SMD = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.87). No benefits on diabetes knowledge and other indicators of psychosocial functioning were identified. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of particular psycho-educational programme for CYP with T1D in the UK. Further trials with sufficient power and reporting standards are needed. Future trials could consider active involvement of psychological specialists in the delivery of psychologically informed interventions and implementation of psycho-educational interventions earlier in the course of the disease. Systematic

  16. Integration of Informal Music Technologies in Secondary School Music Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowell, Dan; Dixon, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Technologies such as YouTube, mobile phones and MP3 players are increasingly integrated into secondary school music in the UK. At the same time, the gap between formal and informal music learning is being bridged by the incorporation of students' preferred music into class activities. We conducted an ethnographic study in two secondary schools in…

  17. Foundation Year 2 doctors’ reasons for leaving UK medicine: an in-depth analysis of decision-making using semistructured interviews

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samantha E; Tallentire, Victoria R; Pope, Lindsey M; Morrison, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. Setting All four regions of Scotland. Participants Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. Primary and secondary outcome measures Semistructured interviews were coded using template analysis. Six perspectives, described by Feldman and Ng, were used as the initial coding template. The codes were then configured to form a framework that explores the interplay of factors influencing Foundation Year 2 (F2) doctors’ decisions to leave UK medicine. Results Seventeen participants were interviewed. Six perspectives were explored. Structural influences (countrywide and worldwide issues) included visas, economic and political considerations, structure of healthcare systems and availability of junior doctor jobs worldwide. Organisational influences (the National Health Service (NHS) and other healthcare providers) included staffing and compensation policies, the working environment and the learning environment. Occupational influences (specific to being a junior doctor) comprised the junior doctor contract, role and workload, pursuit of career interests and the structure of training. Work group influences (relationships with colleagues) included support at work, task interdependence and use of locums. Personal life influences consisted of work-life balance, and support in resolving work-life conflict. The underlying theme of ‘taking a break’ recurred through multiple narratives. Conclusions F2s give reasons similar to those given by any professional considering a change in their job. However, working within the NHS as an F2 doctor brought specific challenges, such as a need to make a choice of specialty within the F2 year, exposure to workplace bullying and difficulties in raising

  18. Analysis of Air Force Secondary Power Logistics Solution Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    IL 62225 SUBJECT: Audit. Analysis of Air Force Secondary Power Logistics Solution Contract, 748th Supply Chain Management Group, Hill Air Fon:r... Power Logis.tics Solution Contnict. 748111 Supply Ch.,in Management Group. !-lill Air FOfC! BII.SI!, UT (Project 02009· DOOOCH·0213.000) I. AUlIctlcd...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analysis of Air Force Secondary Power Logistics Solution Contract 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  19. Rasch analysis of the UK Functional Assessment Measure in patients with complex disability after stroke.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Oleg N; Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Ashford, Stephen; Siegert, Richard J

    2018-02-28

    To determine whether the UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM) fits the Rasch model in stroke patients with complex disability and, if so, to derive a conversion table of Rasch-transformed interval level scores. The sample included a UK multicentre cohort of 1,318 patients admitted for specialist rehabilitation following a stroke. Rasch analysis was conducted for the 30-item scale including 3 domains of items measuring physical, communication and psychosocial functions. The fit of items to the Rasch model was examined using 3 different analytical approaches referred to as "pathways". The best fit was achieved in the pathway where responses from motor, communication and psychosocial domains were summarized into 3 super-items and where some items were split because of differential item functioning (DIF) relative to left and right hemisphere location (χ2 (10) = 14.48, p = 0.15). Re-scoring of items showing disordered thresholds did not significantly improve the overall model fit. The UK FIM+FAM with domain super-items satisfies expectations of the unidimensional Rasch model without the need for re-scoring. A conversion table was produced to convert the total scale scores into interval-level data based on person estimates of the Rasch model. The clinical benefits of interval-transformed scores require further evaluation.

  20. Cost-utility analysis of eprosartan compared to enalapril in primary prevention and nitrendipine in secondary prevention in Europe--the HEALTH model.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Björn; Gradl, Birgit; Zöllner, York; Lindgren, Peter; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Lüders, Stephan; Schrader, Joachim; Villar, Fernando Antoñanzas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Jönsson, Bengt

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the cost-utility of eprosartan versus enalapril (primary prevention) and versus nitrendipine (secondary prevention) on the basis of head-to-head evidence from randomized controlled trials. The HEALTH model (Health Economic Assessment of Life with Teveten for Hypertension) is an object-oriented probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation model. It combines a Framingham-based risk calculation with a systolic blood pressure approach to estimate the relative risk reduction of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events based on recent meta-analyses. In secondary prevention, an additional risk reduction is modeled for eprosartan according to the results of the MOSES study ("Morbidity and Mortality after Stroke--Eprosartan Compared to Nitrendipine for Secondary Prevention"). Costs and utilities were derived from published estimates considering European country-specific health-care payer perspectives. Comparing eprosartan to enalapril in a primary prevention setting the mean costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained were highest in Germany (Euro 24,036) followed by Belgium (Euro 17,863), the UK (Euro 16,364), Norway (Euro 13,834), Sweden (Euro 11,691) and Spain (Euro 7918). In a secondary prevention setting (eprosartan vs. nitrendipine) the highest costs per QALY gained have been observed in Germany (Euro 9136) followed by the UK (Euro 6008), Norway (Euro 1695), Sweden (Euro 907), Spain (Euro -2054) and Belgium (Euro -5767). Considering a Euro 30,000 willingness-to-pay threshold per QALY gained, eprosartan is cost-effective as compared to enalapril in primary prevention (patients >or=50 years old and a systolic blood pressure >or=160 mm Hg) and cost-effective as compared to nitrendipine in secondary prevention (all investigated patients).

  1. Case-finding for coeliac disease in secondary care: a prospective multicentre UK study.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Peter D; Leeds, John S; Libzo, Nafan; Sidhu, Reina; Evans, Kate E; Hall, Emma J; Jandu, Veerinder S; Hopper, Andrew D; Basumani, Pandurangan; Dear, Keith L; McAlindon, Mark E; Sanders, David S

    2014-01-01

    Coeliac disease affects 1% of the population. Despite this high prevalence, the majority of individuals are undetected. Many patients present with subtle symptoms which may also contribute to under diagnosis. Our aim was to determine the relative importance of different presenting characteristics. Unselected gastroenterology patients referred to 4 hospitals in South Yorkshire were investigated for coeliac disease. Diagnosis was based on positive serology and the presence of villous atrophy. Odds ratios were calculated for presenting characteristics and multivariate analysis performed to identify independent risk factors. 4089 patients were assessed (41.5% male, mean age 55.8 ± 18.2 years); 129 had coeliac disease (3.2%, 95% CI 2.6-3.7%). Multivariate analysis of patients referred to secondary care showed family history of coeliac disease (OR 1.26, p < 0.0001), anaemia (OR 1.03, p < 0.0001) and osteoporosis (OR 1.1, p = 0.006) were independent risk factors for diagnosis of coeliac disease. When compared to population controls, diarrhoea (OR 4.1, p < 0.0001), weight loss (OR 2.7, p = 0.02), irritable bowel syndrome symptoms (OR 3.2, p = 0.005) thyroid disease (OR 4.4, p = 0.01) and diabetes (OR 3.0, p = 0.05) were also associated with increased coeliac disease risk. Coeliac disease accounts for 1 in 31 referrals in secondary care to unselected gastroenterology clinics. A low threshold for coeliac disease testing should be adopted. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The nutritional content of supermarket beverages: a cross-sectional analysis of New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the UK.

    PubMed

    Chepulis, Lynne; Mearns, Gael; Hill, Shaunie; Wu, Jason Hy; Crino, Michelle; Alderton, Sarah; Jenner, Katharine

    2018-02-07

    To compare the nutritional content, serving size and taxation potential of supermarket beverages from four different Western countries. Cross-sectional analysis. Multivariate regression analysis and χ 2 comparisons were used to detect differences between countries. Supermarkets in New Zealand (NZ), Australia, Canada and the UK. Supermarket beverages in the following categories: fruit juices, fruit-based drinks, carbonated soda, waters and sports/energy drinks. A total of 4157 products were analysed, including 749 from NZ, 1738 from Australia, 740 from Canada and 930 from the UK. NZ had the highest percentage of beverages with sugar added to them (52 %), while the UK had the lowest (9 %, P8 % sugar) categories. There is substantial difference between countries in the mean energy, serving size and proportion of products eligible for fiscal sugar taxation. Current self-regulatory approaches used in these countries may not be effective to reduce the availability, marketing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and subsequent intake of free sugars.

  3. Local and National Testing in the UK: The Last Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, Caroline; Goldstein, Harvey

    New developments in testing in the United Kingdom (UK) since 1965 are described. Standardized testing at the local level declined dramatically with the widespread introduction of comprehensive secondary education. However, in the late 1970's widespread local testing programs were re-introduced for the purposes of monitoring student progress,…

  4. Secondary data analysis of large data sets in urology: successes and errors to avoid.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Bruce J; Copp, Hillary L

    2014-03-01

    Secondary data analysis is the use of data collected for research by someone other than the investigator. In the last several years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of these studies being published in urological journals and presented at urological meetings, especially involving secondary data analysis of large administrative data sets. Along with this expansion, skepticism for secondary data analysis studies has increased for many urologists. In this narrative review we discuss the types of large data sets that are commonly used for secondary data analysis in urology, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of secondary data analysis. A literature search was performed to identify urological secondary data analysis studies published since 2008 using commonly used large data sets, and examples of high quality studies published in high impact journals are given. We outline an approach for performing a successful hypothesis or goal driven secondary data analysis study and highlight common errors to avoid. More than 350 secondary data analysis studies using large data sets have been published on urological topics since 2008 with likely many more studies presented at meetings but never published. Nonhypothesis or goal driven studies have likely constituted some of these studies and have probably contributed to the increased skepticism of this type of research. However, many high quality, hypothesis driven studies addressing research questions that would have been difficult to conduct with other methods have been performed in the last few years. Secondary data analysis is a powerful tool that can address questions which could not be adequately studied by another method. Knowledge of the limitations of secondary data analysis and of the data sets used is critical for a successful study. There are also important errors to avoid when planning and performing a secondary data analysis study. Investigators and the urological community need to strive to use

  5. UK Parents' Beliefs about Applied Behaviour Analysis as an Approach to Autism Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denne, Louise D.; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, J. Carl

    2017-01-01

    Research into factors underlying the dissemination of evidence-based practice is limited within the field of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA). This is pertinent, particularly in the UK where national policies and guidelines do not reflect the emerging ABA evidence base, or policies and practices elsewhere. Theories of evidence-based practice in…

  6. Research investments for UK infectious disease research 1997-2013: A systematic analysis of awards to UK institutions alongside national burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Head, Michael G; Brown, Rebecca J; Clarke, Stuart C

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease remains a significant burden in the UK and the focus of significant amounts of research investment each year. The Research Investments in Global Health study has systematically assessed levels of funding for infection research, and here considers investment alongside UK burden of individual infectious diseases. The study included awards to UK institutions between 1997 and 2013 that were related to infectious disease. Awards related to global health projects were excluded here. UK burden data (mortality, years lived with disability, and disability adjusted life years) was sourced from the Global Burden of Disease study (IHME, USA). Awards were categorised by pathogen, disease, disease area and by type of science along the research pipeline (pre-clinical, phase I-III trials, product development, public health, cross-disciplinary research). New metrics present relative levels of funding by comparing sum investment with measures of disease burden. There were 5685 relevant awards comprising investment of £2.4 billion. By disease, HIV received most funding (£369.7m; 15.6% of the total investment). Pre-clinical science was the predominant type of science (£1.6 billion, 68.7%), with the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) the largest funder (£714.8 million, 30.1%). There is a broad temporal trend to increased fundingper annum. Antimicrobial resistance received (£102.8 million, 4.2%), whilst sepsis received £23.6 million (1.0%). Compared alongside disease burden, acute hepatitis C and measles typically were relatively well-funded, whilst pneumonia, syphilis and gonorrhoea were poorly-funded. The UK has a broad research portfolio across a wide range of infectious diseases and disciplines. There are notable strengths including HIV, some respiratory infections and in pre-clinical science, though there was less funding for UK-relevant trials and public health research. Compared to the UK burden of disease, syphilis, gonorrhoea and pneumonia appear

  7. Secondary school teachers and mental health competence: Italy-United Kingdom comparison.

    PubMed

    Monducci, Elena; Battaglia, Claudia; Forte, Alberto; Masillo, Alice; Telesforo, Ludovica; Carlotto, Alessandra; Piazzi, Gioia; Patanè, Martina; De Angelis, Giulia; Romano, Antonio; Fagioli, Francesca; Girardi, Paolo; Cocchi, Angelo; Meneghelli, Anna; Alpi, Andrea; Pafumi, Nicoletta; Moreno Granados, Noelia; Preti, Antonio; Masolo, Francesca; Benzoni, Stefano; Cavenaghi, Sonia; Molteni, Ilaria; Salvadori, Lavinia; Solbiati, Sara; Costantino, Antonella; Di Lauro, Rosalba; Piccinini, Annachiara; Collins Eade, Amanda; Holmshaw, Janet; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between teachers' knowledge about early psychosis among three different Italian cities and a UK sample. The sample consisted of 556 secondary school teachers from three different cities in Italy (Milan, Rome and Lamezia Terme) and London (UK). The research was based on the Knowledge and Experience of Social Emotional Difficulties Among Young People Questionnaire. The Italian version of the questionnaire was used in Italy. Overall, 67.6% of English teachers, 58.5% of Milan's teachers, 41.8% of Rome's teachers and 33.3% of Lamezia Terme's teachers were able to recognize psychotic symptoms from a case vignette. Logistic regression analysis showed that 'city' was the only independent variable significantly related to the correct/wrong answer about diagnosis. We found statistically significant differences between the three Italian samples and the UK sample regarding teachers' knowledge about first signs of psychosis. English teachers showed a better knowledge than Italian teachers in general. Teachers from Milan, where a specific early detection program was established in 2000, seemed to be more familiar with early signs of psychosis than teachers in the other two Italian towns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer: UK Biobank cohort study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jana J; Darwis, Narisa D M; Mackay, Daniel F; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Lyall, Donald M; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M R; Pell, Jill P

    2018-02-01

    Red and processed meat may be risk factors for breast cancer due to their iron content, administration of oestrogens to cattle or mutagens created during cooking. We studied the associations in UK Biobank and then included the results in a meta-analysis of published cohort studies. UK Biobank, a general population cohort study, recruited participants aged 40-69 years. Incident breast cancer was ascertained via linkage to routine hospital admission, cancer registry and death certificate data. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the associations between red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Previously published cohort studies were identified from a systematic review using PubMed and Ovid and a meta-analysis conducted using a random effects model. Over a median of 7 years follow-up, 4819 of the 262,195 women developed breast cancer. The risk was increased in the highest tertile (>9 g/day) of processed meat consumption (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.35, p = 0.001). Collation with 10 previous cohort studies provided data on 40,257 incident breast cancers in 1.65 million women. On meta-analysis, processed meat consumption was associated with overall (relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11) and post-menopausal (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.15), but not pre-menopausal (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88-1.10), breast cancer. In UK Biobank and the meta-analysis, red meat consumption was not associated with breast cancer (adjusted HR 0.99 95% CI 0.88-1.12 and RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.08, respectively). Consumption of processed meat, but not red meat, may increase the risk of breast cancer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Secondary Analysis of Large-Scale Assessment Data: An Alternative to Variable-Centred Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Kui Foon; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    International large-scale assessments are now part of the educational landscape in many countries and often feed into major policy decisions. Yet, such assessments also provide data sets for secondary analysis that can address key issues of concern to educators and policymakers alike. Traditionally, such secondary analyses have been based on a…

  10. Ethnicity and academic performance in UK trained doctors and medical students: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Henry W W; McManus, I C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the ethnicity of UK trained doctors and medical students is related to their academic performance. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Online databases PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC; Google and Google Scholar; personal knowledge; backwards and forwards citations; specific searches of medical education journals and medical education conference abstracts. Study selection The included quantitative reports measured the performance of medical students or UK trained doctors from different ethnic groups in undergraduate or postgraduate assessments. Exclusions were non-UK assessments, only non-UK trained candidates, only self reported assessment data, only dropouts or another non-academic variable, obvious sampling bias, or insufficient details of ethnicity or outcomes. Results 23 reports comparing the academic performance of medical students and doctors from different ethnic groups were included. Meta-analyses of effects from 22 reports (n=23 742) indicated candidates of “non-white” ethnicity underperformed compared with white candidates (Cohen’s d=−0.42, 95% confidence interval −0.50 to −0.34; P<0.001). Effects in the same direction and of similar magnitude were found in meta-analyses of undergraduate assessments only, postgraduate assessments only, machine marked written assessments only, practical clinical assessments only, assessments with pass/fail outcomes only, assessments with continuous outcomes only, and in a meta-analysis of white v Asian candidates only. Heterogeneity was present in all meta-analyses. Conclusion Ethnic differences in academic performance are widespread across different medical schools, different types of exam, and in undergraduates and postgraduates. They have persisted for many years and cannot be dismissed as atypical or local problems. We need to recognise this as an issue that probably affects all of UK medical and higher education. More detailed information to track the problem

  11. The social context of parenting 3-year-old children with developmental delay in the UK.

    PubMed

    Emerson, E; Graham, H; McCulloch, A; Blacher, J; Hatton, C; Llewellyn, G

    2009-01-01

    Children with intellectual or developmental disability have significantly poorer health and mental health than their non-disabled peers and are at high risk of social exclusion. The aim of the present paper is to provide information on the circumstances in which 3-year-old children at risk of intellectual or developmental disability are growing up in the UK. Secondary analysis of data on 12 689 families in English-speaking monolingual households from the first two waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. A total of 440 children (3% of the weighted sample) were identified as being developmentally delayed. When compared with other children, children with developmental delays were more disadvantaged on every indicator of social and economic disadvantage examined. Two out of three children with developmental delays had been exposed to repeated disadvantage as measured by income poverty, material hardship, social housing and receipt of means-tested benefits. The effect of repeated disadvantage on the risk of developmental delay remained after account was taken of parental education and occupational status. Young children with delayed development in the UK are likely to be exposed to repeated socio-economic disadvantage. Implications for policy and understanding the nature of the link between poverty and child disability are discussed.

  12. Uncovering degrees of workplace bullying: A comparison of baccalaureate nursing students' experiences during clinical placement in Australia and the UK.

    PubMed

    Birks, Melanie; Cant, Robyn P; Budden, Lea M; Russell-Westhead, Michele; Sinem Üzar Özçetin, Yeter; Tee, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Bullying in health workplaces has a negative impact on nurses, their families, multidisciplinary teams, patient care and the profession. This paper compares the experiences of Australian and UK baccalaureate nursing students in relation to bullying and harassment during clinical placement. A secondary analysis was conducted on two primary cross-sectional studies of bullying experiences of Australian and UK nursing students. Data were collected using the Student Experience of Bullying during Clinical Placement (SEBDCP) questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The total sample was 833 Australian and 561 UK students. Australian nursing students experienced a higher rate of bullying (50.1%) than UK students (35.5%). Students identified other nurses as the main perpetrators (Aust 53%, UK 68%), although patients were the main source of physical acts of bullying. Few bullied students chose to report the episode/s. The main reason for non-reporting was fear of being victimised. Sadly, some students felt bullying and harassment was 'part of the job'. A culture of bullying in nursing persists internationally. Nursing students are vulnerable and can question their future in the 'caring' profession of nursing after experiencing and/or witnessing bullying during clinical placement. Bullying requires a zero tolerance approach. Education providers must develop clearer policies and implement procedures to protect students - the future nursing workforce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Analysis of Gender Diversity in Urology in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, E M; Nason, G J; Manecksha, R P

    2017-12-18

    Traditionally, surgery and certain surgical sub-specialities in particular have been predominantly male orientated. In recent years, there has been an increased proportion of female medical graduates which will ultimately have an effect on speciality choices. The aim of this study was to assess the gender diversity among urologists in the UK and Ireland. The total number and gender breakdown of consultant urologists and trainees in the UK and Ireland was obtained from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) and the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) membership offices. The total number and gender breakdown of medical school entrants and graduates in 2015 was obtained from the six medical schools in the Republic of Ireland. There are a total of 1,012 consultant urologists in the UK and Ireland. In the UK, 141 (14.6%) are female compared to four (8.2%) in Ireland, p= 0.531. There was a significant increase in the number of females between consultant urologists and trainees in both the UK (p=0.0001) and Ireland (p=0.015). In recent years, there has been a significant change in the percentage of female trainees in the UK and Ireland (22.8% (n=75) in 2011 vs 31.7% (n=93) in 2014, p=0.019. Between the six medical schools in Ireland, there were significantly more female entrants (n=726, 56.5%) than female graduates (n=521, 51.2%) in 2015, p=0.013.There has been a significant shift in gender diversity in urology in the UK and Ireland. Efforts to increase diversity should be pursued to attract further trainees to urology.

  14. Rationalising "for" and "against" a Policy of School-Led Careers Guidance in STEM in the U.K.: A Teacher Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard; Morton, Pat; Collins, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on teacher attitudes to changes in the provision of careers guidance in the U.K., particularly as it relates to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). It draws on survey data of n = 94 secondary-school teachers operating in STEM domains and their attitudes towards a U.K. and devolved policy of internalising…

  15. Soft Power as a Policy Rationale for International Education in the UK: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a textual analysis conducted on policy discourses on international students in the UK between 1999 and 2013. A number of rationales for and against increasing their numbers have been made, which have largely remained consistent over changing political administrations. One key rationale is that international…

  16. Geographic variation in secondary fracture prevention after a hip fracture during 1999-2013: a UK study.

    PubMed

    Shah, A; Prieto-Alhambra, D; Hawley, S; Delmestri, A; Lippett, J; Cooper, C; Judge, A; Javaid, M K

    2017-01-01

    Fragility fractures of the hip have a major impact on the lives of patients and their families. This study highlights significant geographical variation in secondary fracture prevention with even the highest performing regions failing the majority of patients despite robust evidence supporting the benefits of diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of the study is to describe the geographic variation in anti-osteoporosis drug therapy prescriptions before and after a hip fracture during 1999-2013 in the UK. We used primary care data (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) to identify patients with a hip fracture and primary care prescriptions of any anti-osteoporosis drugs prior to the index hip fracture and up to 5 years after. Geographic variations in prescribing before and after availability of generic oral bisphosphonates were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Thirteen thousand sixty-nine patients (76 % female) diagnosed with a hip fracture during 1999-2013 were identified. Eleven per cent had any anti-osteoporosis drug prescription in the 6 months prior to the index hip fracture. In the 0-4 months following a hip fracture, 5 % of patients were prescribed anti-osteoporosis drugs in 1999, increasing to 51 % in 2011 and then decreasing to 39 % in 2013. The independent predictors (OR (95 % CI)) of treatment initiation included gender (male 0.42 (0.36-0.49)), BMI (0.98 per kg/m 2 increase (0.97-1.00)) and geographic region (1.29 (0.89-1.87) North East vs. 0.56 (0.43-0.73) South Central region). Geographic differences in prescribing persisted over the 5-year follow-up. If all patients were treated at the rate of the highest performing region, then nationally, an additional 3214 hip fracture patients would be initiated on therapy every year. Significant geographic differences exist in prescribing of anti-osteoporosis drugs after hip fracture despite adjustment for potential confounders

  17. Residue-residue contacts: application to analysis of secondary structure interactions.

    PubMed

    Potapov, Vladimir; Edelman, Marvin; Sobolev, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Protein structures and their complexes are formed and stabilized by interactions, both inside and outside of the protein. Analysis of such interactions helps in understanding different levels of structures (secondary, super-secondary, and oligomeric states). It can also assist molecular biologists in understanding structural consequences of modifying proteins and/or ligands. In this chapter, our definition of atom-atom and residue-residue contacts is described and applied to analysis of protein-protein interactions in dimeric β-sandwich proteins.

  18. A systematic analysis of UK cancer research funding by gender of primary investigator

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Charlie D; Head, Michael G; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; O’Connor, Henrietta

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To categorically describe cancer research funding in the UK by gender of primary investigator (PIs). Design Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Methods Data about public and philanthropic cancer research funding awarded to UK institutions between 2000 and 2013 were obtained from several sources. Fold differences were used to compare total investment, award number, mean and median award value between male and female PIs. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to determine statistically significant associations between PI gender and median grant value. Results Of the studies included in our analysis, 2890 (69%) grants with a total value of £1.82 billion (78%) were awarded to male PIs compared with 1296 (31%) grants with a total value of £512 million (22%) awarded to female PIs. Male PIs received 1.3 times the median award value of their female counterparts (P<0.001). These apparent absolute and relative differences largely persisted regardless of subanalyses. Conclusions We demonstrate substantial differences in cancer research investment awarded by gender. Female PIs clearly and consistently receive less funding than their male counterparts in terms of total investment, the number of funded awards, mean funding awarded and median funding awarded. PMID:29712689

  19. Dermatology within the UK podiatric literature: a content analysis (1989-2010)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although dermatology, as a medical subject, has been a facet of the training and education of podiatrists for many years, it is, arguably, only in recent years that the speciality of podiatric dermatology has emerged within the profession. Some indication of this gradual development may be identified through a content analysis of the podiatric literature in the UK, spanning a 21 year timeframe. Method 6 key professional journals were selected for content analysis in order to provide a picture of the emergence and development of podiatric dermatology over a period extending from 1989 to 2010. Both syntactical and thematic unitization were deployed in the analysis, revealing both manifest and latent content. Categories were devised using a prior coding, a codebook produced to define relevant concepts and category characteristics, and the coding scheme subject to an assessment of reliability. Results 1611 units appeared in the 6 journals across a 21 year timeframe. 88% (n = 1417) occurred in one journal (Podiatry Now and its predecessors). Modal categories within all journals included course adverts (n = 673), commercial adverts (n = 562) and articles by podiatrists (n = 133). There was an overall rise from 40 per annum in 1989, to over 100 in 2010. A wider range of dermatological topics were addressed, ranging from fungal nail infections to melanoma. Conclusions It is evident from this analysis that there has been an increasing focus on dermatology as a topic within the main podiatric journals in the UK over the last 21 years, primarily reflecting a rise in commercial advertising and an increase in academic dermatology related publications. Whilst earlier publications tended to focus on warts and fungal infections, more recent publications address a broader spectrum of topics. Changes in prescribing rights may be relevant to these findings, as may the enhanced professional and regulatory body requirements on continuing professional

  20. UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Antonenkov, Vasily D; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Sormunen, Raija T; Hiltunen, J Kalervo

    2007-05-25

    Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism.

  1. Racism, mental illness and social support in the UK.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Apu T; McKenzie, Kwame J; Hajat, Shakoor; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    The difference in risk of mental illness in UK ethnic minorities may be related to a balance between specific risk factors such as racial discrimination and mediating factors such as social support. We investigated whether social support from friends or relatives reduces the cross-sectional association between perceived racism and the risk of mental illness in an ethnic minority group. We conducted secondary analyses of nationally representative community samples of five UK ethnic minority groups (EMPIRIC dataset; n = 4,281) using multiple regression techniques. We found that the associations between perceived racism, common mental disorder and potentially psychotic symptoms were mainly independent of social support as measured by the number of close persons and their proximity to the individual. Social support when measured in this way does not mediate the associations between perceived racism and mental ill health in this population-based sample.

  2. A survey of UK clinical librarianship: February 2004.

    PubMed

    Ward, Linda

    2005-03-01

    This article will describe a survey carried out in February 2004, the aim of which was to summarize the form and content of clinical librarian (CL) and other similar outreach information services to UK health professionals in the acute (secondary or tertiary) sector. (i) To survey the activities and views of UK information professionals offering information services involving the librarians' presence in the clinical setting, (ii) to develop a tool to explore critical aspects of this form of information work, (iii) to create a contacts database for UK CLs, to be made available on the Internet. All known information specialists/librarians offering CL or similar services were surveyed. The semi-structured questionnaire was piloted. Respondents were asked to consider their activity over a period of 4 weeks. Twenty-six people responded to the invitation to take part and met the inclusion criteria. A summary of a 'typical' clinical librarian revealed by this survey is given, with a major conclusion that there is a very mixed picture of activity. Opinion on how far CLs should go in fully appraising search results is uncertain. The survey suggests reasons for this and the developments that may influence change are discussed. Recommendations for future research and development are offered.

  3. Aspirations to and Perceptions of Secondary Headship: Contrasting Female Teachers' and Headteachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on some of the findings of a wider, life history study of the factors affecting the career decisions of 40 female secondary school teachers, including 10 female headteachers. As a part of this, insights were sought into why women continue to be proportionally under-represented in secondary headship posts in UK secondary…

  4. Investments in respiratory infectious disease research 1997–2010: a systematic analysis of UK funding

    PubMed Central

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Hayward, Andrew C; Lipman, Marc C; Atun, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Respiratory infections are responsible for a large global burden of disease. We assessed the public and philanthropic investments awarded to UK institutions for respiratory infectious disease research to identify areas of underinvestment. We aimed to identify projects and categorise them by pathogen, disease and position along the research and development value chain. Setting The UK. Participants Institutions that host and carry out infectious disease research. Primary and secondary outcome measures The total amount spent and number of studies with a focus on several different respiratory pathogens or diseases, and to correlate these against the global burden of disease; also the total amount spent and number of studies relating to the type of science, the predominant funder in each category and the mean and median award size. Results We identified 6165 infectious disease studies with a total investment of £2·6 billion. Respiratory research received £419 million (16.1%) across 1192 (19.3%) studies. The Wellcome Trust provided greatest investment (£135.2 million; 32.3%). Tuberculosis received £155 million (37.1%), influenza £80 million (19.1%) and pneumonia £27.8 million (6.6%). Despite high burden, there was relatively little investment in vaccine-preventable diseases including diphtheria (£0.1 million, 0.03%), measles (£5.0 million, 1.2%) and drug-resistant tuberculosis. There were 802 preclinical studies (67.3%) receiving £273 million (65.2%), while implementation research received £81 million (19.3%) across 274 studies (23%). There were comparatively few phase I–IV trials or product development studies. Global health research received £68.3 million (16.3%). Relative investment was strongly correlated with 2010 disease burden. Conclusions The UK predominantly funds preclinical science. Tuberculosis is the most studied respiratory disease. The high global burden of pneumonia-related disease warrants greater investment than it has

  5. Gypsy Students in the UK: The Impact of 'Mobility' on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that Gypsy students in primary and secondary education in the UK are marginalised because of ambiguous understandings of their 'mobility'. Drawing on research conducted on the south coast of England, it examines Gypsy families' experiences of education. Despite often describing their identity in relation to travelling or…

  6. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity steady-state training in UK cardiac rehabilitation programmes (HIIT or MISS UK): study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Gordon; Nichols, Simon; Hamborg, Thomas; Bryning, Lucy; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; Markland, David; Mercer, Jenny; Birkett, Stefan; Ennis, Stuart; Powell, Richard; Begg, Brian; Haykowsky, Mark J; Banerjee, Prithwish; Ingle, Lee; Shave, Rob; Backx, Karianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current international guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) advocate moderate-intensity exercise training (MISS, moderate-intensity steady state). This recommendation predates significant advances in medical therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD) and may not be the most appropriate strategy for the ‘modern’ patient with CHD. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be a safe and effective alternative, resulting in greater improvements in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). To date, HIIT trials have predominantly been proof-of-concept studies in the laboratory setting and conducted outside the UK. The purpose of this multicentre randomised controlled trial is to compare the effects of HIIT and MISS training in patients with CHD attending UK CR programmes. Methods and analysis This pragmatic study will randomly allocate 510 patients with CHD to 8 weeks of twice weekly HIIT or MISS training at 3 centres in the UK. HIIT will consist of 10 high-intensity (85–90% peak power output (PPO)) and 10 low-intensity (20–25% PPO) intervals, each lasting 1 min. MISS training will follow usual care recommendations, adhering to currently accepted UK guidelines (ie, >20 min continuous exercise at 40–70% heart rate reserve). Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 months. The primary outcome for the trial will be change in VO2 peak as determined by maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Secondary measures will assess physiological, psychosocial and economic outcomes. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol V.1.0, dated 1 February 2016, was approved by the NHS Health Research Authority, East Midlands—Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (16/EM/0079). Recruitment will start in August 2016 and will be completed in June 2018. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at national and international scientific meetings and are expected to inform future national guidelines for exercise

  7. Cost viability of 3D printed house in UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Omar, S. A.; Yehia, Z.; Al-Ojaili, S.; Hashim, A.; Orhan, O.

    2018-03-01

    UK has been facing housing crisis due to the rising price of the property on sale. This paper will look into the viability of 3D printing technology as an alternative way for house construction on UK. The analysis will be carried out based on the data until the year of 2014 due to limited resources availability. Details cost breakdown on average size house construction cost in UK were analysed and relate to the cost viability of 3D printing technology in reducing the house price in UK. It is found that the 3D printing generates saving of up to around 35% out of total house price in UK. This cost saving comes from the 3D printed construction of walls and foundations for material and labour cost.

  8. Conducting retrospective impact analysis to inform a medical research charity’s funding strategies: the case of Asthma UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Debate is intensifying about how to assess the full range of impacts from medical research. Complexity increases when assessing the diverse funding streams of funders such as Asthma UK, a charitable patient organisation supporting medical research to benefit people with asthma. This paper aims to describe the various impacts identified from a range of Asthma UK research, and explore how Asthma UK utilised the characteristics of successful funding approaches to inform future research strategies. Methods We adapted the Payback Framework, using it both in a survey and to help structure interviews, documentary analysis, and case studies. We sent surveys to 153 lead researchers of projects, plus 10 past research fellows, and also conducted 14 detailed case studies. These covered nine projects and two fellowships, in addition to the innovative case studies on the professorial chairs (funded since 1988) and the MRC-Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma (the ‘Centre’) which together facilitated a comprehensive analysis of the whole funding portfolio. We organised each case study to capture whatever academic and wider societal impacts (or payback) might have arisen given the diverse timescales, size of funding involved, and extent to which Asthma UK funding contributed to the impacts. Results Projects recorded an average of four peer-reviewed journal articles. Together the chairs reported over 500 papers. All streams of funding attracted follow-on funding. Each of the various categories of societal impacts arose from only a minority of individual projects and fellowships. Some of the research portfolio is influencing asthma-related clinical guidelines, and some contributing to product development. The latter includes potentially major breakthroughs in asthma therapies (in immunotherapy, and new inhaled drugs) trialled by university spin-out companies. Such research-informed guidelines and medicines can, in turn, contribute to health improvements

  9. Reactions on Twitter to updated alcohol guidelines in the UK: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bignardi, Giacomo; Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In January 2016, the 4 UK Chief Medical Officers released a public consultation regarding updated guidelines for low-risk alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess responses to the updated guidelines using comments made on Twitter. Methods Tweets containing the hashtag #alcoholguidelines made during 1 week following the announcement of the updated guidelines were retrieved using the Twitter Archiver tool. The source, sentiment and themes of the tweets were categorised using manual content analysis. Results A total of 3061 tweets was retrieved. 6 sources were identified, the most prominent being members of the public. Of 821 tweets expressing sentiment specifically towards the guidelines, 80% expressed a negative sentiment. 11 themes were identified, 3 of which were broadly supportive of the guidelines, 7 broadly unsupportive and 1 neutral. Overall, more tweets were unsupportive (49%) than supportive (44%). While the most common theme overall was sharing information, the most common in tweets from members of the public encouraged alcohol consumption (15%) or expressed disagreement with the guidelines (14%), reflecting reactance, resistance and misunderstanding. Conclusions This descriptive analysis revealed a number of themes present in unsupportive comments towards the updated UK alcohol guidelines among a largely proalcohol community. An understanding of these may help to tailor effective communication of alcohol and health-related policies, and could inform a more dynamic approach to health communication via social media. PMID:28246145

  10. A systematic analysis of UK cancer research funding by gender of primary investigator.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Charlie D; Head, Michael G; Marshall, Dominic C; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; O'Connor, Henrietta; Atun, Rifat; Maruthappu, Mahiben

    2018-04-30

    To categorically describe cancer research funding in the UK by gender of primary investigator (PIs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Data about public and philanthropic cancer research funding awarded to UK institutions between 2000 and 2013 were obtained from several sources. Fold differences were used to compare total investment, award number, mean and median award value between male and female PIs. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to determine statistically significant associations between PI gender and median grant value. Of the studies included in our analysis, 2890 (69%) grants with a total value of £1.82 billion (78%) were awarded to male PIs compared with 1296 (31%) grants with a total value of £512 million (22%) awarded to female PIs. Male PIs received 1.3 times the median award value of their female counterparts (P<0.001). These apparent absolute and relative differences largely persisted regardless of subanalyses. We demonstrate substantial differences in cancer research investment awarded by gender. Female PIs clearly and consistently receive less funding than their male counterparts in terms of total investment, the number of funded awards, mean funding awarded and median funding awarded. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. An analysis of UK waste minimization clubs: key requirements for future cost effective developments.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P S; Pratt, R M; Pike, K

    2001-01-01

    The UK waste strategy is based upon use of the best practicable environmental option (BPEO), by those making waste management decisions. BPEO is supported by the use of the waste hierarchy, with its range of preferable options for dealing with waste, and the proximity principle, where waste is treated/disposed of as close to its point of origin as possible. The national waste strategy emphasizes the key role of waste minimization and encourages industry, commerce and the public to move towards sustainable waste management practice for economic and environmental reasons. Waste minimization clubs have been used, since the early 1990s, to demonstrate to industry/commerce that reducing waste production can lead to significant financial savings. There have been around 75 such clubs in the UK and they receive support from a wide range of agencies, including the Environmental Technology Best Practice Program. The early Demonstration Clubs had significant savings to cost ratios, e.g. Aire and Calder at 8.4, but had very high costs, e.g. Aire and Calder at 400,000 pounds. It is acknowledged that the number of clubs will have to be approximately doubled in the next few years so as to have an adequate coverage of the UK. There are at present, marked regional variations in club development and cognizance needs to be taken, by facilitators, of the need for extensive coverage of the UK. Future clubs will probably have to operate in a financially constrained climate and they need to be designed to deliver significant savings and waste reduction at low cost. To aid future club design, final reports of all projects should report in a standard manner so that cost benefit analysis can be used to inform facilitators about the most effective club type. rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying primary and secondary source contributions to ultrafine particles in the UK urban background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, S. M. L.; Cordell, R. L.; Monks, P. S.

    2017-10-01

    Total particle number (TNC, ≥7 nm diameter), particulate matter (PM2.5), equivalent black carbon (eBC) and gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, CO) have been measured at an urban background site in Leicester over two years (2014 and 2015). A derived chemical climatology for the pollutants showed maximum concentrations for all pollutants during the cold period except O3 which peaked during spring. Quantification of primary and secondary sources of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was undertaken using eBC as a tracer for the primary particle number concentration in the Leicester urban area. At the urban background site, which is influenced by fresh vehicle exhaust emissions, TNC was segregated into two components, TNC = N1 + N2. The component N1 represents components directly emitted as particles and compounds which nucleate immediately after emission. The component N2 represents the particles formed during the dilution and cooling of vehicle exhaust emissions and by in situ new particle formation (NPF). The values of highest N1 (49%) were recorded during the morning rush hours (07:00-09:00 h), correlating with NOx, while the maximum contribution of N2 to TNC was found at midday (11:00-14:00 h), at around 62%, correlated with O3. Generally, the percentage of N2 (57%) was greater than the percentage of N1 (43%) for all days at the AURN site over the period of the study. For the first time the impact of wind speed and direction on N1 and N2 was explored. The overall data analysis shows that there are two major sources contributing to TNC in Leicester: primary sources (traffic emissions) and secondary sources, with the majority of particles being of secondary origin.

  13. The carbon component of the UK power price

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kris Voorspools

    2006-08-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions trading is in full swing in Europe and is already having an impact on the price of power in the UK. If EU allowances (EUAs) trade at euro 20/t-CO{sub 2}, the EUA component in the power price is estimated to be slightly < euro 10/MW.h. In the case of UK power for delivery 1 year ahead, this is {approximately} 10% of the market price of power. The introduction of a carbon components into the UK power prices took place along before the 'official' start of ETS in 2005. Analysis of historical data of the price of power,more » gas, coal and EUAs shows that the first trace of a CO{sub 2} component in UK power dates back to August 2003, shortly after EUAs first started to trade. In April 2004, CO{sub 2} was fully integrated into the UK power price. 4 refs., 5 figs.« less

  14. Characterizing the relationship between health utility and renal function after kidney transplantation in UK and US: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) occurs in a large share of transplant recipients and it is the leading cause of graft loss despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressants. The reduction in renal function secondary to immunologic and non-immunologic CAN leads to several complications, including anemia and calcium-phosphorus metabolism imbalance and may be associated to worsening Health-Related Quality of Life. We sought to evaluate the relationship between kidney function and Euro-Qol 5 Dimension Index (EQ-5Dindex) scores after kidney transplantation and evaluate whether cross-cultural differences exist between UK and US. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of existing data gathered from two cross-sectional studies. We enrolled 233 and 209 subjects aged 18–74 years who received a kidney transplant in US and UK respectively. For the present analysis we excluded recipients with multiple or multi-organ transplantation, creatinine kinase ≥200 U/L, acute renal failure, and without creatinine assessments in 3 months pre-enrollment leaving 281 subjects overall. The questionnaires were administered independently in the two centers. Both packets included the EQ-5Dindex and socio-demographic items. We augmented the analytical dataset with information abstracted from clinical charts and administrative records including selected comorbidities and biochemistry test results. We used ordinary least squares and quantile regression adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics to assess the association between EQ-5Dindex and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Results CKD severity was negatively associated with EQ-5Dindex in both samples (UK: ρ= −0.20, p=0.02; US: ρ= −0.21, p=0.02). The mean adjusted disutility associated to CKD stage 5 compared to CKD stage 1–2 was Δ= −0.38 in the UK sample, Δ= −0.11 in the US sample and Δ= −0.22 in the whole sample. The adjusted median disutility associated to CKD

  15. Mental health stigmatisation in deployed UK Armed Forces: a principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Fertout, Mohammed; Jones, N; Keeling, M; Greenberg, N

    2015-12-01

    UK military research suggests that there is a significant link between current psychological symptoms, mental health stigmatisation and perceived barriers to care (stigma/BTC). Few studies have explored the construct of stigma/BTC in depth amongst deployed UK military personnel. Three survey datasets containing a stigma/BTC scale obtained during UK deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan were combined (n=3405 personnel). Principal component analysis was used to identify the key components of stigma/BTC. The relationship between psychological symptoms, the stigma/BTC components and help seeking were examined. Two components were identified: 'potential loss of personal military credibility and trust' (stigma Component 1, five items, 49.4% total model variance) and 'negative perceptions of mental health services and barriers to help seeking' (Component 2, six items, 11.2% total model variance). Component 1 was endorsed by 37.8% and Component 2 by 9.4% of personnel. Component 1 was associated with both assessed and subjective mental health, medical appointments and admission to hospital. Stigma Component 2 was associated with subjective and assessed mental health but not with medical appointments. Neither component was associated with help-seeking for subjective psycho-social problems. Potential loss of credibility and trust appeared to be associated with help-seeking for medical reasons but not for help-seeking for subjective psychosocial problems. Those experiencing psychological symptoms appeared to minimise the effects of stigma by seeking out a socially acceptable route into care, such as the medical consultation, whereas those who experienced a subjective mental health problem appeared willing to seek help from any source. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Processes affecting concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in the UK atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Laxen, Kieran

    2012-01-01

    PM 2.5 is now subject to a limit value and exposure-reduction targets across the European Union. This has led to a rapid expansion in PM 2.5 monitoring across Europe and this paper reviews data collected in the United Kingdom in 2009. The expected gradient between rural, urban background and roadside sites is observed, although the roadside increment is generally rather small except for heavily trafficked street canyon locations. PM 2.5:PM 10 ratios decline from around 0.8 in southeast England to below 0.6 in Scotland consistent with a higher contribution of secondary particulate matter in southeast England. Average diurnal profiles of PM 2.5 differ around the UK but have a common feature in a nocturnal minimum and a peak during the morning rush hour. Central and southern UK sites also show an evening peak following a concentration reduction during the mid afternoon which is not seen at northern UK sites and is attributed to evaporation of semi-volatile components, particularly ammonium nitrate. Concentrations of PM 2.5 are typically highest in the winter months and lowest in the mid-summer consistent with better mixing and volatilisation of semi-volatile components in the warmer months of the year. Directional analysis shows a stronger association of PM 2.5 with easterly winds associated with air masses from the European mainland than with the direction of local traffic sources.

  17. The UK Language Learning Crisis in the Public Media: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanvers, Ursula; Coleman, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of foreign language learning in the United Kingdom have been attributed to a lack of interest and motivation which, it is claimed, is partly fostered by the media. The present study examines 90 UK newspaper articles that contributed to the public debate on the language learning crisis in the UK between February 2010 and February 2012.…

  18. Project SEARCH UK - Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kaehne, Axel

    2016-11-01

    The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. The evaluation obtained data from all sites operational in the UK at the time of evaluation (n = 17) and analysed employment outcomes. Data were available for 315 young people (n = 315) in the programme and pay and other employment related data were available for a subsample. The results of the analysis suggest that Project SEARCH achieves on average employment rates of around 50 per cent. Project SEARCH UK represents a valuable addition to the supported employment provision in the UK. Its unique model should inform discussions around best practice in supported employment. Implications for other supported employment programmes are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prediction of River Flooding using Geospatial and Statistical Analysis in New York, USA and Kent, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsellos, A.; Tsakiri, K.; Smith, M.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding in the rivers normally occurs during periods of excessive precipitation (i.e. New York, USA; Kent, UK) or ice jams during the winter period (New York, USA). For the prediction and mapping of the river flooding, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial distribution of the water (volume) in the river as well as study the interaction between the climatic and hydrological variables. Two study areas have been analyzed; one in Mohawk River, New York and one in Kent, United Kingdom (UK). A high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Mohawk River, New York has been used for a GIS flooding simulation to determine the maximum elevation value of the water that cannot continue to be restricted in the trunk stream and as a result flooding in the river may be triggered. The Flooding Trigger Level (FTL) is determined by incremental volumetric and surface calculations from Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) with the use of GIS software and LiDAR data. The prediction of flooding in the river can also be improved by the statistical analysis of the hydrological and climatic variables in Mohawk River and Kent, UK. A methodology of time series analysis has been applied for the decomposition of the hydrological (water flow and ground water data) and climatic data in both locations. The KZ (Kolmogorov-Zurbenko) filter is used for the decomposition of the time series into the long, seasonal, and short term components. The explanation of the long term component of the water flow using the climatic variables has been improved up to 90% for both locations. Similar analysis has been performed for the prediction of the seasonal and short term component. This methodology can be applied for flooding of the rivers in multiple sites.

  20. Deciphering the shape and deformation of secondary structures through local conformation analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein deformation has been extensively analysed through global methods based on RMSD, torsion angles and Principal Components Analysis calculations. Here we use a local approach, able to distinguish among the different backbone conformations within loops, α-helices and β-strands, to address the question of secondary structures' shape variation within proteins and deformation at interface upon complexation. Results Using a structural alphabet, we translated the 3 D structures of large sets of protein-protein complexes into sequences of structural letters. The shape of the secondary structures can be assessed by the structural letters that modeled them in the structural sequences. The distribution analysis of the structural letters in the three protein compartments (surface, core and interface) reveals that secondary structures tend to adopt preferential conformations that differ among the compartments. The local description of secondary structures highlights that curved conformations are preferred on the surface while straight ones are preferred in the core. Interfaces display a mixture of local conformations either preferred in core or surface. The analysis of the structural letters transition occurring between protein-bound and unbound conformations shows that the deformation of secondary structure is tightly linked to the compartment preference of the local conformations. Conclusion The conformation of secondary structures can be further analysed and detailed thanks to a structural alphabet which allows a better description of protein surface, core and interface in terms of secondary structures' shape and deformation. Induced-fit modification tendencies described here should be valuable information to identify and characterize regions under strong structural constraints for functional reasons. PMID:21284872

  1. Deciphering the shape and deformation of secondary structures through local conformation analysis.

    PubMed

    Baussand, Julie; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2011-02-01

    Protein deformation has been extensively analysed through global methods based on RMSD, torsion angles and Principal Components Analysis calculations. Here we use a local approach, able to distinguish among the different backbone conformations within loops, α-helices and β-strands, to address the question of secondary structures' shape variation within proteins and deformation at interface upon complexation. Using a structural alphabet, we translated the 3 D structures of large sets of protein-protein complexes into sequences of structural letters. The shape of the secondary structures can be assessed by the structural letters that modeled them in the structural sequences. The distribution analysis of the structural letters in the three protein compartments (surface, core and interface) reveals that secondary structures tend to adopt preferential conformations that differ among the compartments. The local description of secondary structures highlights that curved conformations are preferred on the surface while straight ones are preferred in the core. Interfaces display a mixture of local conformations either preferred in core or surface. The analysis of the structural letters transition occurring between protein-bound and unbound conformations shows that the deformation of secondary structure is tightly linked to the compartment preference of the local conformations. The conformation of secondary structures can be further analysed and detailed thanks to a structural alphabet which allows a better description of protein surface, core and interface in terms of secondary structures' shape and deformation. Induced-fit modification tendencies described here should be valuable information to identify and characterize regions under strong structural constraints for functional reasons.

  2. Topographic analysis of lunar secondary craters of Copernicus and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Aggarwal, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the topography of lunar secondary craters and the associated herringbone pattern observed on lunar topophotomaps. The topography and the patterns are compared with those of crater pairs produced in the laboratory. The results are used to identify secondaries on the lunar uplands. The chain of craters that was selected for mapping and which is described is known to be a secondary impact crater chain produced by material ejected from Copernicus Crater because it lies on a well-developed ray system of Copernicus. Oberbeck et al. (1977) had hypothesized that most lunar areas exhibit more craters smaller than 50 km than are observed on Mars and Mercury because lower lunar gravity permitted more widespread distribution of secondaries for the moon. After removal of basin secondaries it is found that the surfaces of the lunar uplands are only sparsely populated by craters between 5 and 50 km. The lunar uplands appear then similar to the Mercurian terrain.

  3. Pre-Exercise Screening and Health Coaching in CHD Secondary Prevention: A Qualitative Study of the Patient Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, R.; Gillies, M.; Barber, J.; MacIntyre, K.; Harkins, C.; Findlay, I. N.; McCloy, K.; Gillie, A.; Scoular, A.; MacIntyre, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary prevention programmes can be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). In particular, UK guidelines, including those from the Department of Health, emphasize physical activity. However, the effects of secondary prevention programmes with an exercise component are moderate and uptake is highly…

  4. People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of genotypes and surnames in a UK-control population

    PubMed Central

    Winney, Bruce; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Davison, Dan; Echeta, Chikodi; Evseeva, Irina; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Leslie, Stephen; Nicodemus, Kristin; Royrvik, Ellen C; Tonks, Susan; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheshire, James; Longley, Paul; Mateos, Pablo; Groom, Alexandra; Relton, Caroline; Bishop, D Tim; Black, Kathryn; Northwood, Emma; Parkinson, Louise; Frayling, Timothy M; Steele, Anna; Sampson, Julian R; King, Turi; Dixon, Ron; Middleton, Derek; Jennings, Barbara; Bowden, Rory; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in a fine-scale population structure in the UK, both as a signature of historical immigration events and because of the effect population structure may have on disease association studies. Although population structure appears to have a minor impact on the current generation of genome-wide association studies, it is likely to have a significant part in the next generation of studies designed to search for rare variants. A powerful way of detecting such structure is to control and document carefully the provenance of the samples involved. In this study, we describe the collection of a cohort of rural UK samples (The People of the British Isles), aimed at providing a well-characterised UK-control population that can be used as a resource by the research community, as well as providing a fine-scale genetic information on the British population. So far, some 4000 samples have been collected, the majority of which fit the criteria of coming from a rural area and having all four grandparents from approximately the same area. Analysis of the first 3865 samples that have been geocoded indicates that 75% have a mean distance between grandparental places of birth of 37.3 km, and that about 70% of grandparental places of birth can be classed as rural. Preliminary genotyping of 1057 samples demonstrates the value of these samples for investigating a fine-scale population structure within the UK, and shows how this can be enhanced by the use of surnames. PMID:21829225

  5. People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of genotypes and surnames in a UK-control population.

    PubMed

    Winney, Bruce; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Davison, Dan; Echeta, Chikodi; Evseeva, Irina; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Leslie, Stephen; Nicodemus, Kristin; Royrvik, Ellen C; Tonks, Susan; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheshire, James; Longley, Paul; Mateos, Pablo; Groom, Alexandra; Relton, Caroline; Bishop, D Tim; Black, Kathryn; Northwood, Emma; Parkinson, Louise; Frayling, Timothy M; Steele, Anna; Sampson, Julian R; King, Turi; Dixon, Ron; Middleton, Derek; Jennings, Barbara; Bowden, Rory; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2012-02-01

    There is a great deal of interest in a fine-scale population structure in the UK, both as a signature of historical immigration events and because of the effect population structure may have on disease association studies. Although population structure appears to have a minor impact on the current generation of genome-wide association studies, it is likely to have a significant part in the next generation of studies designed to search for rare variants. A powerful way of detecting such structure is to control and document carefully the provenance of the samples involved. In this study, we describe the collection of a cohort of rural UK samples (The People of the British Isles), aimed at providing a well-characterised UK-control population that can be used as a resource by the research community, as well as providing a fine-scale genetic information on the British population. So far, some 4000 samples have been collected, the majority of which fit the criteria of coming from a rural area and having all four grandparents from approximately the same area. Analysis of the first 3865 samples that have been geocoded indicates that 75% have a mean distance between grandparental places of birth of 37.3 km, and that about 70% of grandparental places of birth can be classed as rural. Preliminary genotyping of 1057 samples demonstrates the value of these samples for investigating a fine-scale population structure within the UK, and shows how this can be enhanced by the use of surnames.

  6. Resistance delaying strategies on UK sheep farms: A cost benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Learmount, Jane; Glover, Mike J; Taylor, Mike A

    2018-04-30

    UK guidelines for the sustainable control of parasites in sheep (SCOPS) were formulated with the primary aim of delaying development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) on UK sheep farms. Promoting their use requires the engagement and commitment of stakeholders. An important driver for behavioural change in sheep farmers is evidence of economic benefits. A recent evaluation of SCOPS guidance in practice demonstrated a significant reduction in anthelmintic use, suggesting economic benefits through a direct reduction in product and labour costs. However, in order to maintain production, a range of alternative control strategies are advised, resulting in additional costs to farmers and so a full cost benefit analysis of best practice management was undertaken. We allocated financial values to the management recommendations described in the SCOPS technical manual. Benefits were calculated using data for production variables and anthelmintic use measured during studies to evaluate the effect of SCOPS recommendations on 16 UK sheep farms and from other published work. As SCOPS control is not prescriptive and a range of different diagnostics are available, best and worst case scenarios were presented, comparing the cheapest methods (e.g. egg counts without larval culture) and management situations (e.g closed flocks not requiring quarantine treatments) with the most laborious and expensive. Simulations were run for farms with a small, medium or large flock (300; 1000; 1900 ewes) as well as comparing scenarios with and without potential production benefits from using effective wormers. Analysis demonstrated a moderate cost for all farms under both scenarios when production benefits were not included. A cost benefit was demonstrated for medium and large farms when production benefits were included and the benefit could be perceived as significant in the case of the large farms for the best case scenario (>£5000 per annum). Despite a significant potential reduction in

  7. Facilities for investigating occupational asthma in UK non-specialist respiratory departments.

    PubMed

    Barber, Christopher M; Naylor, Steven; Bradshaw, Lisa; Francis, Mandy; Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Rawbone, Roger; Curran, Andrew; Fishwick, David

    2008-01-01

    The facilities which should be available to physicians offering specialist occupational asthma services have recently been agreed upon by a UK panel of experts. This study aimed to investigate whether these facilities are available in UK non-specialist secondary care respiratory departments and to document tertiary care referral patterns. A random sample of 100 UK respiratory units was selected, and the lead consultant invited to participate. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to document information on departmental facilities available for investigating cases of occupational asthma and utilization of tertiary referral centres. In total, 66% of consultants interviewed had seen a case of occupational asthma in the previous month, and 76% reported having ever referred a patient with suspected occupational asthma to a specialist centre for further investigation (referral distance range 1-111 miles). All the departments were able to perform the investigations previously deemed an absolute necessity in all patients. The availability of in-house facilities that were deemed as must be available varied between 3-100%. The results of this study demonstrate that while the majority of basic facilities are widely available, many respiratory departments do not have direct access to investigations routinely required to investigate occupational asthma. Access to specialist occupational respiratory centres varies within the UK, and in some parts of the country involves long travelling distances for patients.

  8. Funding infectious disease research: a systematic analysis of UK research investments by funders 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Atun, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment, with volatility in annual funding amounts and limited investment for product development and clinical trials.

  9. Tensions and conflicts in 'choice': Womens' experiences of freebirthing in the UK.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Claire; Thomson, Gill

    2016-10-01

    the concept of choice is a central tenet of modern maternity care. However, in reality women's choice of birth is constrained by a paucity of resources and dominant medical and risk adverse discourses. In this paper we add to this debate through highlighting the tensions and conflicts that women faced when enacting a freebirthing choice. secondary analysis of data collected to explore why women choose to freebirth in the UK was undertaken. Ten women were recruited from diverse areas of the UK via invitations on freebirthing websites. Women provided a narrative and/or participated in an in-depth interview. A thematic analysis approach was used. we present three key themes. First 'violation of rights' highlights the conflicts women faced from maternity care systems who were unaware of women's legal rights to freebirth, conflating this choice with issues of child protection. 'Tactical planning' describes some of the strategies women used in their attempts to achieve the birth they desired and to circumnavigate any interference or reprisals. The third theme, 'unfit to be a mother' describes distressing accounts of women who were reported to social services. women who choose to freebirth face opposition and conflict from maternity providers, and often negative and distressing repercussions through statutory referrals. These insights raise important implications for raising awareness among health professionals about women's legal rights. They also emphasise a need to develop guidelines and care pathways that accurately and sensitively support the midwives professional scope of practice and women's choices for birth. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. School grounds and physical activity: Associations at secondary schools, and over the transition from primary to secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Corder, Kirsten; Jones, Andy

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to further understanding of the physical environments of secondary schools and their associations with young peoples' physical activity. Accelerometer-derived physical activity measurements from 299 participants in the SPEEDY study (Norfolk, UK) were obtained from baseline measurements (age 9-10y) and +4y follow-up. These were linked to objective measures of primary and secondary school environments as measured by the SPEEDY grounds audit tool. We saw considerable differences in the nature of school grounds between primary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional associations were seen between active travel provision scores and commuting time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 13-14 year old boys and adolescents living further from school. However, few associations were seen between changes in school grounds scores and changes in school-based MVPA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard

    2014-04-17

    To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18,532, 14,094, and 14,376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14,235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all P<0.001). PLAB2 marks correlated with MRCP(UK) PACES and MRCGP CSA (r=0.274, 0.321; both P<0.001). PLAB graduates had significantly lower MRCP(UK) and MRCGP assessments (Glass's Δ=0.94, 0.91, 1.40, 1.01, and 1.82 for MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES and MRCGP AKT and CSA), and were more likely to fail assessments and to progress more slowly than UK medical graduates. IELTS scores correlated

  12. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all P<0.001). PLAB2 marks correlated with MRCP(UK) PACES and MRCGP CSA (r=0.274, 0.321; both P<0.001). PLAB graduates had significantly lower MRCP(UK) and MRCGP assessments (Glass’s Δ=0.94, 0.91, 1.40, 1.01, and 1.82 for MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES and MRCGP AKT and CSA), and were more likely to fail assessments

  13. Chance UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Gracia

    2003-01-01

    Chance UK is a unique charity in the UK that specialises in mentoring programmes for primary schoolchildren with behavioural problems. It was founded in 1995 by a policeman, Chief Superintendent Paul Mathias, who believed that by stepping in early, young children with behavioural difficulties could be given the chance to develop the necessary…

  14. Transitions to material efficiency in the UK steel economy.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Julian M

    2013-03-13

    Steel production is energy intensive so already has achieved impressive levels of energy efficiency. If the emissions associated with steel must be reduced in line with the requirements of the UK Climate Change Act, demand for new steel must be reduced. The strategies of 'material efficiency' aim to achieve such a reduction, while delivering the same final services. To meet the emissions targets set into UK law, UK consumption of steel must be reduced to 30 per cent of present levels by 2050. Previous work has revealed six strategies that could contribute to this target, and this paper presents an approximate analysis of the required transition. A macro-economic analysis of steel in the UK shows that while the steel industry is relatively small, the construction and manufacturing sectors are large, and it would be politically unacceptable to pursue options that lead to a major contraction in other sectors. Alternative business models are therefore required, and these are explored through four representative products--one for each final sector with particular emphasis given to options for reducing product weight, and extending product life. Preliminary evidence on the triggers that would lead to customers preferring these options is presented and organized in order to predict required policy measures. The estimated analysis of transitions explored in this paper is used to define target questions for future research in the area.

  15. New undergraduate curricula in the UK and Australia.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, M A; Symonds, I M

    2010-12-01

    There are many challenges facing undergraduate education in the smaller specialities such as obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G). These are similar throughout the world, although the emphasis may vary according to geography and the approach of those involved in medical education in general. The number of medical students has increased because of the greater number of doctors required, the gender balance and also because it provides revenue for the universities. This means that strategies must be developed to include more teaching units in both primary and secondary care as well as those at a distance from the main teaching provider. Australia and the UK both have this problem but, obviously, the distances involved in Australia are much greater. One of the drivers for the change in undergraduate medical education in the UK was factual overload and the need to teach basic competencies to the students. National curricula that take this into account are being developed and that in the UK has been taken up by a majority of the medical schools. The opportunities offered by O&G to provide basic skills and competencies difficult to find elsewhere in the curriculum are unparalleled. These include issues such as communication in situations where great sensitivity is required and also the impact of cultural beliefs and ethnicity on clinical practice. However, factual knowledge of medical science is also essential and ways of achieving a balance are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The UK Haemophilia Doctors Organisation triennial audit of UK Comprehensive Care Haemophilia Centres.

    PubMed

    Wilde, J T

    2012-07-01

    Under the auspices of the United Kingdom Haemophilia Doctors Organisation (UKHCDO) the UK Comprehensive Care Haemophilia Centres (CCCs) have undergone a three yearly formal audit assessment since 1993. This report describes the evolution of the audit process and details the findings of the most recent audit round, the sixth since inception. The audit reports from the 2009 audit round were reviewed by the audit organizing group and a structured analysis of the data was compiled. CCCs in the UK offer a high standard of comprehensive care services. The main areas of concern were the state of the premises (seven centres), lack of dental services (seven centres), physiotherapy (seven centres) and social work support (11 centres). Major concerns were identified at eight centres requiring a formal letter from the chairman of UKHCDO to the chief executive of the host trust. Since inception of the triennial audit process centre report recommendations have resulted in major improvements in the services available at UK CCCs. The audit process is considered to be a highly effective means of improving the quality of care for patients with bleeding disorders and can be used as a model for the introduction of a similar process in other countries. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Testing a model of research intention among U.K. clinical psychologists: a logistic regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Eke, Gemma; Holttum, Sue; Hayward, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Previous research highlights barriers to clinical psychologists conducting research, but has rarely examined U.K. clinical psychologists. The study investigated U.K. clinical psychologists' self-reported research output and tested part of a theoretical model of factors influencing their intention to conduct research. Questionnaires were mailed to 1,300 U.K. clinical psychologists. Three hundred and seventy-four questionnaires were returned (29% response-rate). This study replicated in a U.K. sample the finding that the modal number of publications was zero, highlighted in a number of U.K. and U.S. studies. Research intention was bimodally distributed, and logistic regression classified 78% of cases successfully. Outcome expectations, perceived behavioral control and normative beliefs mediated between research training environment and intention. Further research should explore how research is negotiated in clinical roles, and this issue should be incorporated into prequalification training. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reactions on Twitter to updated alcohol guidelines in the UK: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Stautz, Kaidy; Bignardi, Giacomo; Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-28

    In January 2016, the 4 UK Chief Medical Officers released a public consultation regarding updated guidelines for low-risk alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess responses to the updated guidelines using comments made on Twitter. Tweets containing the hashtag #alcoholguidelines made during 1 week following the announcement of the updated guidelines were retrieved using the Twitter Archiver tool. The source, sentiment and themes of the tweets were categorised using manual content analysis. A total of 3061 tweets was retrieved. 6 sources were identified, the most prominent being members of the public. Of 821 tweets expressing sentiment specifically towards the guidelines, 80% expressed a negative sentiment. 11 themes were identified, 3 of which were broadly supportive of the guidelines, 7 broadly unsupportive and 1 neutral. Overall, more tweets were unsupportive (49%) than supportive (44%). While the most common theme overall was sharing information, the most common in tweets from members of the public encouraged alcohol consumption (15%) or expressed disagreement with the guidelines (14%), reflecting reactance, resistance and misunderstanding. This descriptive analysis revealed a number of themes present in unsupportive comments towards the updated UK alcohol guidelines among a largely proalcohol community. An understanding of these may help to tailor effective communication of alcohol and health-related policies, and could inform a more dynamic approach to health communication via social media. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Macrofaunal production and biological traits: Spatial relationships along the UK continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolam, S. G.; Eggleton, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    Biological trait analysis (BTA) is increasingly being employed to improve our understanding of the ecological functioning of marine benthic invertebrate communities. However, changes in trait composition are seldomly compared with concomitant changes in metrics of ecological function. Consequently, inferences regarding the functional implications of any changes are often anecdotal; we currently have a limited understanding of the functional significance of the traits commonly used. In this study, we quantify the relationship between benthic invertebrate trait composition and secondary production estimates using data spanning almost the breadth of the UK continental shelf. Communities described by their composition of 10 traits representing life history, morphology and behaviour showed strong relationships with variations in total secondary production. A much weaker relationship was observed for community productivity (or P:B), a measure of rate of energy turnover. Furthermore, the relationship between total production and multivariate taxonomic community composition was far weaker than that for trait composition. Indeed, the similarities between communities as defined by taxonomy were very different from those depicted by their trait composition. That is, as many studies have demonstrated, taxonomically different communities may display similar trait compositions, and vice versa. Finally, we found that descriptions of community trait composition vary greatly depending on whether abundance or biomass is used as the enumeration weighting method during BTA, and trait assessments based on biomass produced better relations with secondary production than those based on abundance. We discuss the significance of these findings with respect to BTA using marine benthic invertebrates.

  20. U.K. science budget. Gene jocks, data crunchers hit jackpot.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, J

    2000-12-01

    Unveiling its science spending plan for the next 3 years, the U.K. government last week announced major new investments in three key areas: tracking disease genes, leveraging the Internet for data analysis, and supporting emerging industries such as nanotechnology and bioengineering. Although these programs cut across a range of disciplines funded by the U.K.'s science councils, the government also bestowed a long-anticipated gift on astronomers: membership in the European Southern Observatory, which will give U.K. researchers access to the world's largest optical telescope.

  1. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    PubMed Central

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence–accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up. PMID:27703695

  2. Secondary outcome analysis for data from an outcome-dependent sampling design.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yinghao; Cai, Jianwen; Longnecker, Matthew P; Zhou, Haibo

    2018-04-22

    Outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) scheme is a cost-effective way to conduct a study. For a study with continuous primary outcome, an ODS scheme can be implemented where the expensive exposure is only measured on a simple random sample and supplemental samples selected from 2 tails of the primary outcome variable. With the tremendous cost invested in collecting the primary exposure information, investigators often would like to use the available data to study the relationship between a secondary outcome and the obtained exposure variable. This is referred as secondary analysis. Secondary analysis in ODS designs can be tricky, as the ODS sample is not a random sample from the general population. In this article, we use the inverse probability weighted and augmented inverse probability weighted estimating equations to analyze the secondary outcome for data obtained from the ODS design. We do not make any parametric assumptions on the primary and secondary outcome and only specify the form of the regression mean models, thus allow an arbitrary error distribution. Our approach is robust to second- and higher-order moment misspecification. It also leads to more precise estimates of the parameters by effectively using all the available participants. Through simulation studies, we show that the proposed estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. Data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project are analyzed to illustrate our method. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A discourse analysis of the construction of mental illness in two UK newspapers from 1985-2000.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Brodie

    2007-10-01

    This study explored the discourse of mental illness contained within two UK newspapers over a 15-year period, excluding those stories that mentioned any reference to a diagnosis. Using frame analysis, a form of discourse analysis, ten distinct frames were identified and classified into "stories." These ten stories were categorized as: foreign, legal, drug, feature, trauma, tragedy, community care tragedy, social policy, inquiry report, and sports/celebrity stories. Each frame is described and the potential influence of such frames on both social policy and nursing practice is discussed.

  4. UK-trained junior doctors' intentions to work in UK medicine: questionnaire surveys, three years after graduation

    PubMed Central

    Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To report on the career intentions, three years after qualification, of 12 national cohorts of UK-trained doctors who qualified between 1974 and 2012, and, specifically, to compare recent UK medical graduates’ intentions to work in medicine in the UK with earlier graduates. Design Questionnaire surveys of cohorts of UK medical graduates defined by year of graduation. Setting UK. Participants 30,272 UK medical graduates. Main outcome measures Stated level of intention to pursue a long-term career in medicine in the UK. Results The response rate was 62% (30,272/48,927). We examined responses to the question ‘Apart from temporary visits abroad, do you intend to practise medicine in the United Kingdom for the foreseeable future?' Of doctors from UK homes, 90% had specified that they would ‘definitely or probably’ practise medicine in the UK in the surveys of 1977–1986, 81% in 1996–2011 and 64% in 2015. Those who said that they would probably or definitely not practise medicine in the UK comprised 5% in 1977–1986, 8% in 1996–2011 and 15% in 2015. Most who were not definite about a future career in UK medicine indicated that they would wish to practise medicine outside the UK rather than to leave medicine. Conclusions The wish to remain in UK medical practice in the 2015 survey was unprecedentedly low in this unique series of 40 years of surveys. PMID:29116902

  5. UK-trained junior doctors' intentions to work in UK medicine: questionnaire surveys, three years after graduation.

    PubMed

    Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W

    2017-12-01

    Objective To report on the career intentions, three years after qualification, of 12 national cohorts of UK-trained doctors who qualified between 1974 and 2012, and, specifically, to compare recent UK medical graduates' intentions to work in medicine in the UK with earlier graduates. Design Questionnaire surveys of cohorts of UK medical graduates defined by year of graduation. Setting UK. Participants 30,272 UK medical graduates. Main outcome measures Stated level of intention to pursue a long-term career in medicine in the UK. Results The response rate was 62% (30,272/48,927). We examined responses to the question ' Apart from temporary visits abroad, do you intend to practise medicine in the United Kingdom for the foreseeable future?' Of doctors from UK homes, 90% had specified that they would 'definitely or probably' practise medicine in the UK in the surveys of 1977-1986, 81% in 1996-2011 and 64% in 2015. Those who said that they would probably or definitely not practise medicine in the UK comprised 5% in 1977-1986, 8% in 1996-2011 and 15% in 2015. Most who were not definite about a future career in UK medicine indicated that they would wish to practise medicine outside the UK rather than to leave medicine. Conclusions The wish to remain in UK medical practice in the 2015 survey was unprecedentedly low in this unique series of 40 years of surveys.

  6. The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM): Psychometric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Specialist Rehabilitation following a Stroke from the National UK Clinical Dataset.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Meenakshi; Vanderstay, Roxana; Siegert, Richard J; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM) is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS). We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation). For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge) was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907). All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p<0.001) with moderate effect sizes (>0.5). Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 p<0.001), while LHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 p<0.001). To conclude, the UK FIM+FAM has a three-factor structure in stroke, similar to the general neurorehabilitation population. It is responsive to change during in

  7. RNAstructure: software for RNA secondary structure prediction and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Jessica S; Mathews, David H

    2010-03-15

    To understand an RNA sequence's mechanism of action, the structure must be known. Furthermore, target RNA structure is an important consideration in the design of small interfering RNAs and antisense DNA oligonucleotides. RNA secondary structure prediction, using thermodynamics, can be used to develop hypotheses about the structure of an RNA sequence. RNAstructure is a software package for RNA secondary structure prediction and analysis. It uses thermodynamics and utilizes the most recent set of nearest neighbor parameters from the Turner group. It includes methods for secondary structure prediction (using several algorithms), prediction of base pair probabilities, bimolecular structure prediction, and prediction of a structure common to two sequences. This contribution describes new extensions to the package, including a library of C++ classes for incorporation into other programs, a user-friendly graphical user interface written in JAVA, and new Unix-style text interfaces. The original graphical user interface for Microsoft Windows is still maintained. The extensions to RNAstructure serve to make RNA secondary structure prediction user-friendly. The package is available for download from the Mathews lab homepage at http://rna.urmc.rochester.edu/RNAstructure.html.

  8. A psoriasis-specific model to support decision making in practice - UK experience.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Keith; Marum, Maggie; Bottomley, Julia M; Auland, Merran; Jackson, Peter; Ryttov, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The balance of service provision for people with psoriasis across community and hospital sectors is inappropriate in many localities. Disease-specific models are being used by policy makers to inform public health decision making and guide their long-term budgets. The aim of the present study was to develop an interactive psoriasis model to compare the 2-year outcomes of topical treatment strategies in patients with moderately severe psoriasis in real-world settings. A previously published 1-year economic analysis of the two-compound formulation (TCF) calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate and other commonly used topical agents in plaque psoriasis was adapted. Literature review and an interview programme identified additional relevant data to inform model assumptions. The model estimated local psoriasis costs and resources in accord with decision makers' priorities. A key element of the model was the facility for all default input data to be adapted to reflect local circumstance. Model validation was not undertaken. The UK experience is described. Topical treatment with high-efficacy first-line therapies is a cost-effective treatment strategy in moderate plaque psoriasis. The model predicts potential savings in psoriasis care for a UK population of £126 million over 2 years if all psoriasis patients received the TCF in a community setting. A frequently used feature of the model was to identify ways of reducing inappropriate referrals to hospital, and so enabling secondary care resources to be focussed on the most resilient psoriasis cases. The present study psoriasis disease model could facilitate collaboration between healthcare professionals to optimise healthcare in the UK. Psoriasis management strategies in primary care can be compared in a variety of realistic clinical settings, allowing the identification of optimal treatment regimens. This model is adaptable to tailor inputs to reflect local situations, providing an attractive tool to GP commissioners

  9. Food advertisements on UK television popular with children: a content analysis in relation to dental health.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazyad, M; Flannigan, N; Burnside, G; Higham, S; Boyland, E

    2017-02-10

    Objective To quantify the prevalence of advertising for foods and beverages potentially detrimental to dental health on UK television watched by children.Design Content analysis of pre-recorded television advertisements (adverts).Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty-two hours of television were recorded (one weekday and one weekend day, 6 am - 10 pm) from the main commercial channel (ITV1). All adverts were coded using pre-defined criteria.Setting UK television recorded between January and December 2012.Results Of 9,151 adverts, foods and beverages were the second most commonly advertised products (16.7%; n = 1,532). Nearly two-thirds of food adverts were for items that are potentially harmful to dental health (61%; n = 934). Of these, 96.6% were cariogenic and 11% were acidogenic foods. During peak children's viewing hours, the proportion of foods that are potentially harmful to dental health was significantly higher than for non-harmful foods (65.9% vs. 34.1%; p = 0.011). Adverts for foods potentially harmful to dental health were rare around children's programmes, but significantly more frequent during other programmes watched by children (p <0.001).Conclusion UK children are exposed to a particularly high proportion of advertisements for foods that are potentially detrimental to their dental health during their peak viewing hours and around the programmes they watch the most.

  10. Funding Infectious Disease Research: A Systematic Analysis of UK Research Investments by Funders 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Fitchett, Joseph R.; Head, Michael G.; Cooke, Mary K.; Wurie, Fatima B.; Atun, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Conclusions/Significance Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment, with volatility in annual funding amounts and limited investment for product development and clinical trials. PMID:25162631

  11. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  12. The Professional Identity of English Teachers in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Kate

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on a research study investigating the professional identity of English teachers in the secondary school in the UK, and the effects of their subject philosophies and their conceptions of learning on their teaching. The various and often competing definitions of the subject have a long history, and a number of factors have been…

  13. Comorbidities and medications of patients with chronic hepatitis C under specialist care in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Benjamin; Walker, Alex J.

    2017-01-01

    Designing services with the capacity and expertise to meet the needs of the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) population in the era of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), and widening access to such treatments, requires detailed understanding of the characteristics and healthcare needs of the existing patient population. In this retrospective analysis of data from the National HCV Research UK Biobank between March 2012 and October 2014, the characteristics of the CHC population currently under specialist care in the UK were evaluated—with specific focus upon use of medications, adverse lifestyle choices, and comorbidities. Demographic data, risk factors for CHC acquisition, HCV genotype, liver disease status, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and medication classes were collected. Data were analyzed by history of injecting drug use (IDU), age, and severity of liver disease. A total of 6278 patients (70.5% white; median age, 52 years) from 59 UK specialist centres were included; 59.1% of patients had acquired HCV through IDU. The prevalence of adverse lifestyle factors was significantly lower in non‐IDU compared with previous IDU or recent IDU patients. Depression was common in the previous (50.8%) and recent IDU (68.1%) groups, compared with 27.6% in non‐IDU patients. Cirrhosis was common (23.6%), and prevalence increased with age. We describe a heterogeneous, polymorbid, and aging population of CHC patients in secondary care, and demonstrate underrepresentation of injecting drug users within the current system. The implications of this present significant challenges to physicians and healthcare commissioners in designing services which are fit for purpose inthe DAA era. PMID:28480974

  14. The mobile GeoBus outreach project: hands-on Earth and Mars activities for secondary schools in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ruth; Pike, Charlotte; Roper, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Just under 35,000 pupils have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities since the project began in 2012, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run 50 - 80 minute workshops, and half- or whole-day Enterprise Challenges and field excursions. Workshops are aimed at a class of up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are increasingly popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. Enterprise Challenge are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Topics include "Journey to Mars", "Scotland's Rocks", "Drilling for Oil", and "Renewable Energy". Both of the energy Enterprise Challenges were designed to incorporates ideas and

  15. Solar wind modulation of UK lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Chris; Harrison, Giles; Lockwood, Mike; Owens, Mathew; Barnard, Luke

    2013-04-01

    The response of lightning rates in the UK to arrival of high speed solar wind streams at Earth is investigated using a superposed epoch analysis. The fast solar wind streams' arrivals are determined from modulation of the solar wind Vy component, measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. Lightning rate changes around these event times are then determined from the very low frequency Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system of the UK Met Office. Arrival of high speed streams at Earth is found to be preceded by a decrease in total solar irradiance and an increase in sunspot number and Mg II emissions. These are consistent with the high speed stream's source being co-located with an active region appearing on the Eastern solar limb and rotating at the 27 day rate of the Sun. Arrival of the high speed stream at Earth also coincides with a rapid decrease in cosmic ray flux and an increase in lightning rates over the UK, persisting for around 40 days. The lightning rate increase is corroborated by an increase in the total number of thunder days observed by UK Met stations, again for around 40 days after the arrival of a high speed solar wind stream. This increase in lightning may be beneficial to medium range forecasting of hazardous weather.

  16. Managing breastfeeding and work: a Foucauldian secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Payne, Deborah; Nicholls, David A

    2010-08-01

    This paper is a report of a secondary analysis of the experiences of employed breastfeeding mothers. Health promotion policies exhort mothers to feed their infants breastmilk exclusively for the first 6 months and partially until the age of 2 years. More mothers are returning to paid employment less than a year after having a baby. Combining breastfeeding and paid work is an issue for nursing and midwifery as predominantly female professions caring for women and their children. Foucauldian discourse analysis was used for a secondary analysis of interviews performed in 2005 with 20 women who continued to breastfeed on their return to work. The discursive positions and disciplinary practices were identified and analysed. Combining breastfeeding and paid work required negotiating the positions of good mother and good worker. Being a good mother conferred health benefits on infants. Being a good worker required the mothers to constrain their breastfeeding practices. The practices performed by the mothers involved stockpiling breastmilk, maintaining milk supply, preparing the baby ready for absence, making sacrifices and remaining silent and invisible as a breastfeeding worker. Breastfeeding workers have the potential to threaten the focus of the workplace. They discipline themselves to minimize their disruptive potential. Such strategies serve to maintain the marginalization of breastfeeding in the workplace and to keep women's efforts to continue breastfeeding invisible. The work of breastfeeding workers needs to be better recognized and supported.

  17. Financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviour: an analysis of UK media coverage

    PubMed Central

    Parke, Hannah; Ashcroft, Richard; Brown, Rebecca; Marteau, Theresa M; Seale, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Policies to use financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviour are controversial. Much of this controversy is played out in the mass media, both reflecting and shaping public opinion. Objective  To describe UK mass media coverage of incentive schemes, comparing schemes targeted at different client groups and assessing the relative prominence of the views of different interest groups. Design  Thematic content analysis. Subjects  National and local news coverage in newspapers, news media targeted at health‐care providers and popular websites between January 2005 and February 2010. Setting  UK mass media. Results  The study included 210 articles. Fifteen separate arguments favourable towards schemes, and 19 unfavourable, were identified. Overall, coverage was more favourable than unfavourable, although most articles reported a mix of views. Arguments about the prevalence and seriousness of the health problems targeted by incentive schemes were uncontested. Moral and ethical objections to such schemes were common, focused in particular on recipients such as drug users or the overweight who were already stereotyped as morally deficient, and these arguments were largely uncontested. Arguments about the effectiveness of schemes and their potential for benefit or harm were areas of greater contestation. Government, public health and other health‐care provider interests dominated favourable coverage; opposition came from rival politicians, taxpayers’ representatives, certain charities and from some journalists themselves. Conclusions  Those promoting incentive schemes for people who might be regarded as ‘undeserving’ should plan a media strategy that anticipates their public reception. PMID:21771227

  18. What Major Search Engines Like Google, Yahoo and Bing Need to Know about Teachers in the UK?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyedarabi, Faezeh

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the current major search engines' approach to teachers' web searching. The aim of this article is to make Web searching easier for teachers when searching for relevant online teaching materials, in general, and UK teacher practitioners at primary, secondary and post-compulsory levels, in particular. Therefore, major…

  19. The UK particulate matter air pollution episode of March-April 2014: more than Saharan dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieno, M.; Heal, M. R.; Twigg, M. M.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Braban, C. F.; Lingard, J. J. N.; Ritchie, S.; Beck, R. C.; Móring, A.; Ots, R.; Di Marco, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.; Reis, S.

    2016-04-01

    A period of elevated surface concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the UK in spring 2014 was widely associated in the UK media with a Saharan dust plume. This might have led to over-emphasis on a natural phenomenon and consequently to a missed opportunity to inform the public and provide robust evidence for policy-makers about the observed characteristics and causes of this pollution event. In this work, the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) was used in conjunction with speciated PM measurements to investigate the sources and long-range transport (including vertical) processes contributing to the chemical components of the elevated surface PM. It is shown that the elevated PM during this period was mainly driven by ammonium nitrate, much of which was derived from emissions outside the UK. In the early part of the episode, Saharan dust remained aloft above the UK; we show that a significant contribution of Saharan dust at surface level was restricted only to the latter part of the elevated PM period and to a relatively small geographic area in the southern part of the UK. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the capability of advanced ACTMs, corroborated with chemically-speciated measurements, to identify the underlying causes of complex PM air pollution episodes. Specifically, the analyses highlight the substantial contribution of secondary inorganic ammonium nitrate PM, with agricultural ammonia emissions in continental Europe presenting a major driver. The findings suggest that more emphasis on reducing emissions in Europe would have marked benefits in reducing episodic PM2.5 concentrations in the UK.

  20. Impact of omalizumab on treatment of severe allergic asthma in UK clinical practice: a UK multicentre observational study (the APEX II study)

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Robert M; Saralaya, Dinesh; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Masoli, Matthew; Clifton, Ian; Mansur, Adel H; Hacking, Victoria; McLain-Smith, Susan; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the impact of omalizumab on asthma management in patients treated as part of normal clinical practice in the UK National Health Service (NHS). Design A non-interventional, mixed methodology study, combining retrospective and prospective data collection for 12 months pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab initiation, respectively. Setting Data were collected in 22 UK NHS centres, including specialist centres and district general hospitals in the UK. Participants 258 adult patients (aged ≥16 years; 65% women) with severe persistent allergic asthma treated with omalizumab were recruited, of whom 218 (84.5%) completed the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was change in mean daily dose of oral corticosteroids (OCS) between the 12-month pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab initiation periods. A priori secondary outcome measures included response to treatment, changes in OCS dosing, asthma exacerbations, lung function, employment/education, patient-reported outcomes and hospital resource utilisation. Results The response rate to omalizumab at 16 weeks was 82.4%. Comparing pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab periods, the mean (95% CIs) daily dose of OCS decreased by 1.61 (−2.41 to −0.80) mg/patient/day (p<0.001) and hospital exacerbations decreased by 0.97 (−1.19 to −0.75) exacerbations/patient (p<0.001). Compared with baseline, lung function, assessed by percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s, improved by 4.5 (2.7 to 6.3)% at 16 weeks (p<0.001; maintained at 12 months) and patient quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire) improved by 1.38 (1.18 to 1.58) points at 16 weeks (p<0.001, maintained at 12 months). 21/162 patients with complete employment data gained employment and 6 patients lost employment in the 12-month post-omalizumab period. The mean number of A&E visits, inpatient hospitalisations, outpatient visits (excluding for omalizumab) and number of bed days

  1. Impact of regulation of Community Pharmacies on efficiency, access and equity. Evidence from the UK and Spain.

    PubMed

    Lluch, Maria; Kanavos, Panos

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we focus on regulatory restrictions on Community Pharmacies and whether these have an impact on efficiency, access and equity and thus in the delivery of services community pharmacists provide to patients. Primary data collection through semi-structured interviews and secondary data collection through literature review have been used with a particular focus on Spain (a country where Community Pharmacy is strictly regulated) and the UK (a country where Community Pharmacy is considered liberalised by EU standards). The findings indicate that improved pharmacy operational efficiency is the result of appropriate incentive structures, ownership liberalisation and OTC price freedom as is the case in the UK. Equity and access seem to be better achieved by establishing geographic, demographic or needs-based criteria to open new pharmacies (as is the case in Spain). In sum, there are useful lessons for both countries: the UK could look into the policies applied in Spain that increase access and equity whilst Spain could adopt some of the policies from the UK to increase efficiency in the system. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. RDNAnalyzer: A tool for DNA secondary structure prediction and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Shehzadi, Abida; Nadeem, Shahid; Husnain, Tayyab

    2012-01-01

    RDNAnalyzer is an innovative computer based tool designed for DNA secondary structure prediction and sequence analysis. It can randomly generate the DNA sequence or user can upload the sequences of their own interest in RAW format. It uses and extends the Nussinov dynamic programming algorithm and has various application for the sequence analysis. It predicts the DNA secondary structure and base pairings. It also provides the tools for routinely performed sequence analysis by the biological scientists such as DNA replication, reverse compliment generation, transcription, translation, sequence specific information as total number of nucleotide bases, ATGC base contents along with their respective percentages and sequence cleaner. RDNAnalyzer is a unique tool developed in Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 using Microsoft Visual C# and Windows Presentation Foundation and provides user friendly environment for sequence analysis. It is freely available. http://www.cemb.edu.pk/sw.html RDNAnalyzer - Random DNA Analyser, GUI - Graphical user interface, XAML - Extensible Application Markup Language.

  3. RDNAnalyzer: A tool for DNA secondary structure prediction and sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Shehzadi, Abida; Nadeem, Shahid; Husnain, Tayyab

    2012-01-01

    RDNAnalyzer is an innovative computer based tool designed for DNA secondary structure prediction and sequence analysis. It can randomly generate the DNA sequence or user can upload the sequences of their own interest in RAW format. It uses and extends the Nussinov dynamic programming algorithm and has various application for the sequence analysis. It predicts the DNA secondary structure and base pairings. It also provides the tools for routinely performed sequence analysis by the biological scientists such as DNA replication, reverse compliment generation, transcription, translation, sequence specific information as total number of nucleotide bases, ATGC base contents along with their respective percentages and sequence cleaner. RDNAnalyzer is a unique tool developed in Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 using Microsoft Visual C# and Windows Presentation Foundation and provides user friendly environment for sequence analysis. It is freely available. Availability http://www.cemb.edu.pk/sw.html Abbreviations RDNAnalyzer - Random DNA Analyser, GUI - Graphical user interface, XAML - Extensible Application Markup Language. PMID:23055611

  4. A pilot study of an online universal school-based intervention to prevent alcohol and cannabis use in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Nicola C; Conrod, Patricia J; Rodriguez, Daniel M; Teesson, Maree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The online universal Climate Schools intervention has been found to be effective in reducing the use of alcohol and cannabis among Australian adolescents. The aim of the current study was to examine the feasibility of implementing this prevention programme in the UK. Design A pilot study examining the feasibility of the Climate Schools programme in the UK was conducted with teachers and students from Year 9 classes at two secondary schools in southeast London. Teachers were asked to implement the evidence-based Climate Schools programme over the school year with their students. The intervention consisted of two modules (each with six lessons) delivered approximately 6 months apart. Following completion of the intervention, students and teachers were asked to evaluate the programme. Results 11 teachers and 222 students from two secondary schools evaluated the programme. Overall, the evaluations were extremely positive. Specifically, 85% of students said the information on alcohol and cannabis and how to stay safe was easy to understand, 84% said it was easy to learn and 80% said the online cartoon-based format was an enjoyable way to learn health theory topics. All teachers said the students were able to recall the information taught, 82% said the computer component was easy to implement and all teachers said the teacher's manual was easy to use to prepare class activities. Importantly, 82% of teachers said it was likely that they would use the programme in the future and recommend it to others. Conclusions The Internet-based universal Climate Schools prevention programme to be both feasible and acceptable to students and teachers in the UK. A full evaluation trial of the intervention is now required to examine its effectiveness in reducing alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents in the UK before implementation in the UK school system. PMID:24840248

  5. The Problematic Relationship Between Knowing How and Knowing That in Secondary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    This article explores and attempts to rectify current conceptual confusion found in secondary art education in the UK between procedural knowledge or "knowing how" and declarative knowledge or "knowing that". The paper argues that current practice confuses procedural knowledge with declarative knowledge. A corollary is that…

  6. Global meteorological influences on the record UK rainfall of winter 2013-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jeff R.; Maidens, Anna; Watson, Peter A. G.; Andrews, Martin; Belcher, Stephen; Brunet, Gilbert; Fereday, David; Folland, Chris K.; Scaife, Adam A.; Slingo, Julia

    2017-07-01

    The UK experienced record average rainfall in winter 2013-14, leading to widespread and prolonged flooding. The immediate cause of this exceptional rainfall was a very strong and persistent cyclonic atmospheric circulation over the North East Atlantic Ocean. This was related to a very strong North Atlantic jet stream which resulted in numerous damaging wind storms. These exceptional meteorological conditions have led to renewed questions about whether anthropogenic climate change is noticeably influencing extreme weather. The regional weather pattern responsible for the extreme UK winter coincided with highly anomalous conditions across the globe. We assess the contributions from various possible remote forcing regions using sets of ocean-atmosphere model relaxation experiments, where winds and temperatures are constrained to be similar to those observed in winter 2013-14 within specified atmospheric domains. We find that influences from the tropics were likely to have played a significant role in the development of the unusual extra-tropical circulation, including a role for the tropical Atlantic sector. Additionally, a stronger and more stable stratospheric polar vortex, likely associated with a strong westerly phase of the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), appears to have contributed to the extreme conditions. While intrinsic climatic variability clearly has the largest effect on the generation of extremes, results from an analysis which segregates circulation-related and residual rainfall variability suggest that emerging climate change signals made a secondary contribution to extreme rainfall in winter 2013-14.

  7. Exploring the potential duty of care in clinical genomics under UK law.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Colin; Ploem, Corrette; Chico, Victoria; Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Hall, Alison; Wallace, Susan; Fay, Michael; Goodwin, Deirdre; Bell, Jessica; Phillips, Simon; Taylor, Jenny C; Hennekam, Raoul; Kaye, Jane

    2017-09-01

    Genome-wide sequencing technologies are beginning to be used in projects that have both clinical diagnostic and research components. The clinical application of this technology, which generates a huge amount of information of varying diagnostic certainty, involves addressing a number of challenges to establish appropriate standards. In this article, we explore the way that UK law may respond to three of these key challenges and could establish new legal duties in relation to feedback of findings that are unrelated to the presenting condition (secondary, additional or incidental findings); duties towards genetic relatives as well as the patient and duties on the part of researchers and professionals who do not have direct contact with patients. When considering these issues, the courts will take account of European and international comparisons, developing guidance and relevant ethical, social and policy factors. The UK courts will also be strongly influenced by precedent set in case law.

  8. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Model for Evaluating and Planning Secondary Vocational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin Eun

    1977-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes a cost-effectiveness analysis and describes a cost-effectiveness analysis model for secondary vocational programs. It generates three kinds of cost-effectiveness measures: program effectiveness, cost efficiency, and cost-effectiveness and/or performance ratio. (Author)

  9. US/UK Loan Account Project Status PMOD477

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stevens, Patrice A.

    2012-07-12

    The viewgraphs describe the status of PMOD477 for LANL. The meeting will occur at DOE-HQ with NA-11 and Military Applications personnel in attendance. Serves to repatriate material with a balance to zero by December 2012. Phase 1 -- Establish formality of operations for War Reserve (WR): Complete surrogate taskings to A90 through a Materials Channel and perform US/UK lessons learned; Complete the US/UK agreed Quality Acceptance Plan, Materials Plan, Shipping procedure, and establish the formal UK/US point of contacts. Phase 2 -- Metal Manufacture (WR): Process material and store material as electrorefined metal (ER) rings, with initial assay and isotopicmore » analysis, prior to manufacturing. Material is cast into accepted configuration and appropriate acceptance document for each aliquot will be generated. Phase 3 -- Intermediate Material Manufacture, Packaging and Shipping (WR): Continue processing of the material in accepted configuration with appropriate acceptance documentation for each aliquot. Provide an initial tasking of the material owed to UK including appropriate quality acceptance documentation. Phase 4 -- Complete Tasking (WR). Phase 5 -- Residue Processing (Non-WR): Complete processing of residue material and waste into accepted configuration with appropriate acceptance document for disposal.« less

  10. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

    PubMed

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-10-14

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  11. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories.

    PubMed

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-2011. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomenon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and men as marginalised, exceptional or dangerous. There is also a focus on mothers as the spokespersons and caretakers for parenting and family health while fathers are rendered more invisible. This contributes to our understanding of how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is constructed in the media using a range of gendered representations that draw on cultural stereotypes familiar in Western societies.

  12. Management of School Attendance in the UK: A Strategic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1997, managing school attendance was the sole responsibility of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Since devolution, responsibility for school attendance has resided with each of the four UK-wide administrations. These are the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) in England; the Scottish Executive Education…

  13. Ten commandments for the future of ageing research in the UK: a vision for action

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Oscar H; Kirkwood, Thomas BL; Powell, Jonathan R; Catt, Michael; Goodwin, James; Ordovas, Jose M; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2007-01-01

    Increases in longevity resulting from improvements in health care and living conditions together with a decrease in fertility rates have contributed to a shift towards an aged population profile. For the first time the UK has more people over age 60 than below 16 years of age. The increase in longevity has not been accompanied by an increase in disease-free life expectancy and research into ageing is required to improve the health and quality of life of older people. However, as the House of Lords reported, ageing research in the UK is not adequately structured and a clear vision and plan are urgently required. Hence, with the aim of setting a common vision for action in ageing research in the UK, a 'Spark Workshop' was organised. International experts from different disciplines related to ageing research gathered to share their perspectives and to evaluate the present status of ageing research in the UK. A detailed assessment of potential improvements was conducted and the prospective secondary gains were considered, which were subsequently distilled into a list of 'ten commandments'. We believe that these commandments, if followed, will help to bring about the necessary implementation of an action plan for ageing research in the UK, commensurate with the scale of the challenge, which is to transform the manifold opportunities of increased longevity into actual delivery of a society living not only for longer, but also healthier, wealthier and happier. PMID:17477869

  14. Genomic analysis reveals secondary glioblastoma after radiotherapy in a subset of recurrent medulloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Ae Kyung; Lee, Semin; Choi, Seung Ah; Baek, In-Pyo; Kim, Pora; Kim, Eun-Hye; Park, Hee Chul; Kim, Byung Chul; Bhak, Jong; Park, Sung-Hye; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu Won; Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2018-06-01

    Despite great advances in understanding of molecular pathogenesis and achievement of a high cure rate in medulloblastoma, recurrent medulloblastomas are still dismal. Additionally, misidentification of secondary malignancies due to histological ambiguity leads to misdiagnosis and eventually to inappropriate treatment. Nevertheless, the genomic characteristics of recurrent medulloblastomas are poorly understood, largely due to a lack of matched primary and recurrent tumor tissues. We performed a genomic analysis of recurrent tumors from 17 pediatric medulloblastoma patients. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed that a subset of recurrent tumors initially diagnosed as locally recurrent medulloblastomas are secondary glioblastomas after radiotherapy, showing high similarity to the non-G-CIMP proneural subtype of glioblastoma. Further analysis, including whole exome sequencing, revealed missense mutations or complex gene fusion events in PDGFRA with augmented expression in the secondary glioblastomas after radiotherapy, implicating PDGFRA as a putative driver in the development of secondary glioblastomas after treatment exposure. This result provides insight into the possible application of PDGFRA-targeted therapy in these second malignancies. Furthermore, genomic alterations of TP53 including 17p loss or germline/somatic mutations were also found in most of the secondary glioblastomas after radiotherapy, indicating a crucial role of TP53 alteration in the process. On the other hand, analysis of recurrent medulloblastomas revealed that the most prevalent alterations are the loss of 17p region including TP53 and gain of 7q region containing EZH2 which already exist in primary tumors. The 7q gain events are frequently accompanied by high expression levels of EZH2 in both primary and recurrent medulloblastomas, which provides a clue to a new therapeutic target to prevent recurrence. Considering the fact that it is often challenging to differentiate between recurrent

  15. Cost-effectiveness of available treatment options for patients suffering from severe COPD in the UK: a fully incremental analysis.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Nadine; Kotchie, Robert W; Samyshkin, Yevgeniy; Radford, Matthew; Humphreys, Samantha; Jameson, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Frequent exacerbations which are both costly and potentially life-threatening are a major concern to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite the availability of several treatment options. This study aimed to assess the lifetime costs and outcomes associated with alternative treatment regimens for patients with severe COPD in the UK setting. A Markov cohort model was developed to predict lifetime costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of various combinations of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), a long-acting beta agonist (LABA), an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), and roflumilast in a fully incremental analysis. Patients willing and able to take ICS, and those refusing or intolerant to ICS were analyzed separately. Efficacy was expressed as relative rate ratios of COPD exacerbation associated with alternative treatment regimens, taken from a mixed treatment comparison. The analysis was conducted from the UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Parameter uncertainty was explored using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Based on the results of the fully incremental analysis a cost-effectiveness frontier was determined, indicating those treatment regimens which represent the most cost-effective use of NHS resources. For ICS-tolerant patients the cost-effectiveness frontier suggested LAMA as initial treatment. Where patients continue to exacerbate and additional therapy is required, LAMA + LABA/ICS can be a cost-effective option, followed by LAMA + LABA/ICS + roflumilast (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] versus LAMA + LABA/ICS: £16,566 per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained). The ICER in ICS-intolerant patients, comparing LAMA + LABA + roflumilast versus LAMA + LABA, was £13,764/QALY gained. The relative rate ratio of exacerbations was identified as the primary driver of cost-effectiveness. The treatment algorithm recommended in UK clinical practice represents a cost-effective approach for the

  16. Issues encountered in a qualitative secondary analysis of help-seeking in the prodrome to psychosis.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Brenda M; Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M

    2007-10-01

    Primary data are rarely used explicitly as a source of data outside of the original research purpose for which they were collected. As a result, qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) has been described as an "invisible enterprise" for which there is a "notable silence" amongst the qualitative research community. In this paper, we report on the methodological implications of conducting a secondary analysis of qualitative data focusing on parents' narratives of help-seeking activities in the prodrome to psychosis. We review the literature on QSA, highlighting the main characteristics of the approach, and discuss issues and challenges encountered in conducting a secondary analysis. We conclude with some thoughts on the implications for conducting a QSA in children's mental health services and research.

  17. Can UK NHS research ethics committees effectively monitor publication and outcome reporting bias?

    PubMed

    Begum, Rasheda; Kolstoe, Simon

    2015-07-25

    Publication and outcome reporting bias is often caused by researchers selectively choosing which scientific results and outcomes to publish. This behaviour is ethically significant as it distorts the literature used for future scientific or clinical decision-making. This study investigates the practicalities of using ethics applications submitted to a UK National Health Service (NHS) research ethics committee to monitor both types of reporting bias. As part of an internal audit we accessed research ethics database records for studies submitting an end of study declaration to the Hampshire A research ethics committee (formerly Southampton A) between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2011. A literature search was used to establish the publication status of studies. Primary and secondary outcomes stated in application forms were compared with outcomes reported in publications. Out of 116 studies the literature search identified 57 publications for 37 studies giving a publication rate of 32%. Original Research Ethics Committee (REC) applications could be obtained for 28 of the published studies. Outcome inconsistencies were found in 16 (57%) of the published studies. This study showed that the problem of publication and outcome reporting bias is still significant in the UK. The method described here demonstrates that UK NHS research ethics committees are in a good position to detect such bias due to their unique access to original research protocols. Data gathered in this way could be used by the Health Research Authority to encourage higher levels of transparency in UK research.

  18. Exploring the potential duty of care in clinical genomics under UK law

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colin; Ploem, Corrette; Chico, Victoria; Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Hall, Alison; Wallace, Susan; Fay, Michael; Goodwin, Deirdre; Bell, Jessica; Phillips, Simon; Taylor, Jenny C.; Hennekam, Raoul; Kaye, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide sequencing technologies are beginning to be used in projects that have both clinical diagnostic and research components. The clinical application of this technology, which generates a huge amount of information of varying diagnostic certainty, involves addressing a number of challenges to establish appropriate standards. In this article, we explore the way that UK law may respond to three of these key challenges and could establish new legal duties in relation to feedback of findings that are unrelated to the presenting condition (secondary, additional or incidental findings); duties towards genetic relatives as well as the patient and duties on the part of researchers and professionals who do not have direct contact with patients. When considering these issues, the courts will take account of European and international comparisons, developing guidance and relevant ethical, social and policy factors. The UK courts will also be strongly influenced by precedent set in case law. PMID:28943725

  19. Financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviour: an analysis of U.K. media coverage.

    PubMed

    Parke, Hannah; Ashcroft, Richard; Brown, Rebecca; Marteau, Theresa M; Seale, Clive

    2013-09-01

    Policies to use financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviour are controversial. Much of this controversy is played out in the mass media, both reflecting and shaping public opinion. To describe U.K. mass media coverage of incentive schemes, comparing schemes targeted at different client groups and assessing the relative prominence of the views of different interest groups. Thematic content analysis. National and local news coverage in newspapers, news media targeted at health-care providers and popular websites between January 2005 and February 2010. U.K. mass media. The study included 210 articles. Fifteen separate arguments favourable towards schemes, and 19 unfavourable, were identified. Overall, coverage was more favourable than unfavourable, although most articles reported a mix of views. Arguments about the prevalence and seriousness of the health problems targeted by incentive schemes were uncontested. Moral and ethical objections to such schemes were common, focused in particular on recipients such as drug users or the overweight who were already stereotyped as morally deficient, and these arguments were largely uncontested. Arguments about the effectiveness of schemes and their potential for benefit or harm were areas of greater contestation. Government, public health and other health-care provider interests dominated favourable coverage; opposition came from rival politicians, taxpayers' representatives, certain charities and from some journalists themselves. Those promoting incentive schemes for people who might be regarded as 'undeserving' should plan a media strategy that anticipates their public reception. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. What Works and What Fails? Evidence from Seven Popular Literacy "Catch-Up" Schemes for the Transition to Secondary School in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat

    2017-01-01

    There are concerns that too many young people, from disadvantaged backgrounds, are moving into secondary education in the UK, and elsewhere, without the necessary literacy skills to make progress with the wider secondary school curriculum. A large number of interventions have been proposed to reduce this poverty gradient. This paper summarises the…

  1. Aerodynamic analysis of the Darrieus rotor including secondary effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.; Fraunie, P.; Beguier, C.

    1983-10-01

    An aerodynamic analysis is made of two variants of the two-actuator-disk theory for modeling the Darrieus wind turbine. The double-multiple-streamtube model with constant and variable interference factors, including secondary effects, is examined for a Darrieus rotor. The influence of the secondary effects, namely, the blade geometry and profile type, the rotating tower, and the presence of struts and aerodynamic spoilers, is relatively significant, especially at high tip-speed ratios. Variation of the induced velocity as a function of the azimuthal angle allows a more accurate calculation of the aerodynamic loads on the downwind zone of the rotor with respect to the assumed constant interference factors. The theoretical results were compared with available experimental data for the Magdalen Islands wind turbine and Sandia-type machines (straight-line/circular-arc shape).

  2. Factors affecting the uptake of new medicines in secondary care - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, D; Mason, A

    2008-08-01

    The rate of uptake of new medicines in the UK is slower than in many other OECD countries. The majority of new medicines are introduced initially in secondary care and prescribed by specialists. However, the reasons for relatively low precribing levels are poorly understood. This review explores the determinants of uptake of new medicines in secondary care. Nine electronic databases were searched covering the period 1992-2006. Once the searches had been run, records were downloaded and those which evaluated uptake of new medicines in secondary care were identified. UK studies were of primary interest, although research conducted in other countries was also reviewed if relevant. With the exception of 'think pieces', eligibility was not limited by study design. Studies published in languages other than English were excluded from the review. Determinants of uptake in secondary care were classified using Bonair and Persson's typology for determinants of the diffusion of innovation. Almost 1400 records were screened for eligibility, and 29 studies were included in the review. Prescribing of new medicines in secondary care was found to be subject to a number of interacting influences. The support structures which exist within secondary care facilitate access to other colleagues and shape prescribing practices. Clinical trial investigators and physicians who sit on decision-making bodies such as Drug and Therapeutic Committees (DTCs) appear to have a special influence due to their proximity to their research and understanding of evidence base. Pharmaceutical representatives may also influence prescribing decisions through funding of meetings and academic detailing, but clinicians are wary of potential bias. Little evidence on the influence of patients upon prescribing decisions was identified. The impact of clinical guidelines has been variable. Some guidelines have significantly increased the uptake of new medicines, but others have had little discernible impact despite

  3. UK audit of analysis of quantitative parameters from renography data generated using a physical phantom.

    PubMed

    Nijran, Kuldip S; Houston, Alex S; Fleming, John S; Jarritt, Peter H; Heikkinen, Jari O; Skrypniuk, John V

    2014-07-01

    In this second UK audit of quantitative parameters obtained from renography, phantom simulations were used in cases in which the 'true' values could be estimated, allowing the accuracy of the parameters measured to be assessed. A renal physical phantom was used to generate a set of three phantom simulations (six kidney functions) acquired on three different gamma camera systems. A total of nine phantom simulations and three real patient studies were distributed to UK hospitals participating in the audit. Centres were asked to provide results for the following parameters: relative function and time-to-peak (whole kidney and cortical region). As with previous audits, a questionnaire collated information on methodology. Errors were assessed as the root mean square deviation from the true value. Sixty-one centres responded to the audit, with some hospitals providing multiple sets of results. Twenty-one centres provided a complete set of parameter measurements. Relative function and time-to-peak showed a reasonable degree of accuracy and precision in most UK centres. The overall average root mean squared deviation of the results for (i) the time-to-peak measurement for the whole kidney and (ii) the relative function measurement from the true value was 7.7 and 4.5%, respectively. These results showed a measure of consistency in the relative function and time-to-peak that was similar to the results reported in a previous renogram audit by our group. Analysis of audit data suggests a reasonable degree of accuracy in the quantification of renography function using relative function and time-to-peak measurements. However, it is reasonable to conclude that the objectives of the audit could not be fully realized because of the limitations of the mechanical phantom in providing true values for renal parameters.

  4. The Social-Emotional Well-Being of Children of Mothers with Intellectual Impairment: A Population-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindmarsh, Gabrielle; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Emerson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with intellectual impairment are thought to be at risk for poor social-emotional well-being. This study investigated the relationship between maternal intellectual impairment and poor child social-emotional well-being. Method: Secondary analysis of data from waves 2-4 of the Millennium Cohort Study (UK).…

  5. Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys in Japan Toward Improving Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis of national health surveys of the general population is a standard methodology for health metrics and evaluation; it is used to monitor trends in population health over time and benchmark the performance of health systems. In Japan, the government has established electronic databases of individual records from national surveys of the population’s health. However, the number of publications based on these datasets is small considering the scale and coverage of the surveys. There appear to be two major obstacles to the secondary use of Japanese national health survey data: strict data access control under the Statistics Act and an inadequate interdisciplinary research environment for resolving methodological difficulties encountered when dealing with secondary data. The usefulness of secondary analysis of survey data is evident with examples from the author’s previous studies based on vital records and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, which showed that (i) tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases in Japan; (ii) the decrease in mean blood pressure in Japan from the late 1980s to the early 2000s was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medication and reduced dietary salt intake; and (iii) progress in treatment coverage and control of high blood pressure is slower in Japan than in the United States and Britain. National health surveys in Japan are an invaluable asset, and findings from secondary analyses of these surveys would provide important suggestions for improving health in people around the world. PMID:26902170

  6. Have women born outside the U.K. driven the rise in U.K. births since 2001?

    PubMed

    Tromans, Nicola; Natamba, Eva; Jefferie, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The number of births in the U.K. has increased each year since 2001. This article examines the demographic drivers underlying this rise, assessing the contribution of U.K. born and foreign born women. It brings together key information from across the U.K. to provide a coherent picture of childbearing trends among U.K. born and foreign born women since 2001. Geographical variations in the proportion of births to foreign born women are also explored at the local authority level.

  7. Modelling secondary organic aerosol in the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redington, A. L.; Derwent, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, NAME, has been used to model the formation and transport of anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) over North-West Europe in 2008. The model has been tested against daily organic carbon measurements at Harwell, a rural site in southern UK, where it was able to represent adequately the observed values in summer, with some under-prediction in winter. The model has been used to look at the contribution of SOA to total measured PM10 at four selected UK sites. The site with the greatest contribution (32%) of SOA to PM10 was Auchencorth, a rural site in Scotland and least (9%) at London Bloomsbury. The biogenic SOA (BSOA) dominated over the anthropogenic SOA (ASOA) in the UK and showed a strong seasonal cycle peaking in the summer. There was also a slight summer increase in ASOA. The model has been employed to provide source attribution between UK sources and sources in the rest of Europe. The contribution from Europe was generally small but varied considerably due to meteorology. The UK component showed a seasonal cycle, peaking in the summer months. On an annual basis, considering the four measurement sites, the percentage of SOA arriving from outside the UK was least at Auchencorth (9.8%) and most at London (28.4%). Total modelled SOA had a maximum contribution of 2-3 μg m-3 as a monthly average. (It should be noted that in addition there will be a small contribution from background SOA to these figures.) Emission sensitivity studies revealed that the response of ASOA was highly non-linear, showing both positive and negative responses to a 30% reduction in all man-made NOx sources and the response was greater than 1:1 to a 30% reduction in all man-made VOC sources. BSOA showed only a small negative response to a 30% NOx reduction and no change to a 30% VOC reduction.

  8. Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

  9. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  10. Failure Analysis of Sapphire Refractive Secondary Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Quinn, George D.

    2009-01-01

    Failure analysis was performed on two sapphire, refractive secondary concentrators (RSC) that failed during elevated temperature testing. Both concentrators failed from machining/handling damage on the lens face. The first concentrator, which failed during testing to 1300 C, exhibited a large r-plane twin extending from the lens through much of the cone. The second concentrator, which was an attempt to reduce temperature gradients and failed during testing to 649 C, exhibited a few small twins on the lens face. The twins were not located at the origin, but represent another mode of failure that needs to be considered in the design of sapphire components. In order to estimate the fracture stress from fractographic evidence, branching constants were measured on sapphire strength specimens. The fractographic analysis indicated radial tensile stresses of 44 to 65 MPa on the lens faces near the origins. Finite element analysis indicated similar stresses for the first RSC, but lower stresses for the second RSC. Better machining and handling might have prevented the fractures, however, temperature gradients and resultant thermal stresses need to be reduced to prevent twinning.

  11. Numerical analysis of exhaust jet secondary combustion in hypersonic flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tian-Peng; Wang, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Fa-Ming; Fan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yu-Han

    2018-05-01

    The interaction effect between jet and control surface in supersonic and hypersonic flow is one of the key problems for advanced flight control system. The flow properties of exhaust jet secondary combustion in a hypersonic compression ramp flow field were studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with multi-species and combustion reaction effects. The analysis was focused on the flow field structure and the force amplification factor under different jet conditions. Numerical results show that a series of different secondary combustion makes the flow field structure change regularly, and the temperature increases rapidly near the jet exit.

  12. On-Demand Testing and Maintaining Standards for General Qualifications in the UK Using Item Response Theory: Possibilities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Qingping

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although on-demand testing is being increasingly used in many areas of assessment, it has not been adopted in high stakes examinations like the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and General Certificate of Education Advanced level (GCE A level) offered by awarding organisations (AOs) in the UK. One of the major issues…

  13. Report on primate supply for biomedical scientific work in the UK. EUPREN UK Working Party.

    PubMed

    Owen, S; Thomas, C; West, P; Wolfensohn, S; Wood, M

    1997-10-01

    A Working Party of the UK group of European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN) considered primate supply for scientific work in the UK. Through a questionnaire, which achieved a very good response, it obtained details of primate use, sources and breeding in the UK and it put forward options to ensure that animal welfare is the best possible whilst ensuring continued supply. The questionnaire showed that contract research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies use about 80% of the 4233 primates used annually at the moment, with the rest accounted for by academic establishments and public sector laboratories. Fifty-four per cent are cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), of which nearly 90% are captive-bred outside the European Union (EU), the remainder being bred in the UK. Nearly 90% of cynomolgus macaques are used by only five institutions. Thirty-seven per cent of primates used are marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus), all of which are bred in the UK. Most of the rest are rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), about half of which are captive-bred outside the EU, the other half being bred in the UK. Overall primate use has increased from about 3000 per year in 1990 and users predict that requirements for all species except baboons (Papio sp.) will be maintained or increase. Marmoset breeding in the UK is already closely matched to use, and it could be increased reasonably easily if necessary. Some of the existing breeding centres of macaques in the UK would be prepared to consider expanding to supply others, although investment and imported breeding stock would be needed and it is likely that a large investment would be needed to breed a significant fraction of the macaque use in the UK. A further problem is that the users of only about 10% of the cynomolgus macaques said that they could replace this species by rhesus macaques, which are easier to breed in the UK. The questionnaire showed that much of the use of macaques would be transferred to other countries

  14. How is stroke thrombolysis portrayed in UK national and London local newspapers? A review and critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Cluckie, Gillian; Rudd, Anthony G; McKevitt, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    thrombolysis for stroke has been licensed in the UK since 2007 and needs to be administered within 4.5 h. Given this time critical factor, the media may have an important role in public awareness. this review aimed to find out how stroke thrombolysis was reported in UK national and London local newspapers and how treatment risks and benefits were communicated. Newspapers published between 1 January 2007 and 31 March 2010 were searched for articles on thrombolysis. Fifty-six articles were included and dispositive analysis, a qualitative analysis method, was used to identify themes. four main themes were identified: inaccurate description of thrombolysis, stroke clinicians' involvement, presentation of risks and benefits and patient stories. Inaccuracies included the presentation of thrombolysis as a treatment for transient ischaemic attack. Clinicians were quoted to suggest that thrombolysis produced complete recovery but were not reported to discuss risks or broader stroke management. The articles reported little or no risks of treatment. Patients' stories were used to reinforce that thrombolysis produces full recovery. this review found that newspaper media provides the public with inaccurate perspectives on thrombolysis. Clinicians may wish to check press articles prior to publishing and to consider the impact of reporting thrombolysis as a treatment which produces complete recovery.

  15. Changes needed to medicine in the UK before senior UK-trained doctors, working outside the UK, will return: questionnaire surveys undertaken between 2004 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    To report the changes to UK medicine which doctors who have emigrated tell us would increase their likelihood of returning to a career in UK medicine. Questionnaire survey. UK-trained medical graduates. Questionnaires were sent 11 years after graduation to 7158 doctors who qualified in 1993 and 1996 in the UK: 4763 questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were sent 17 and 19 years after graduation to the same cohorts: 4554 questionnaires were returned. Comments from doctors working abroad about changes needed to UK medicine before they would return. Eleven years after graduation, 290 (6%) of respondents were working in medicine abroad; 277 (6%) were doing so 17/19 years after graduation. Eleven years after graduation, 53% of doctors working abroad indicated that they did not intend to return, and 71% did so 17/19 years after graduation. These respondents reported a number of changes which would need to be made to UK medicine in order to increase the likelihood of them returning. The most frequently mentioned changes cited concerned 'politics/management/funding', 'pay/pension', 'posts/security/opportunities', 'working conditions/hours', and 'factors outside medicine'. Policy attention to factors including funding, pay, management and particularly the clinical-political interface, working hours, and work-life balance may pay dividends for all, both in terms of persuading some established doctors to return and, perhaps more importantly, encouraging other, younger doctors to believe that the UK and the National Health Service can offer them a satisfying and rewarding career.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes: analysis of the ADDITION-UK cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tao, L; Wilson, E C F; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the short- and long-term cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care among people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Cost–utility analysis in ADDITION-UK, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of early intensive treatment in people with screen-detected diabetes in 69 UK general practices. Unit treatment costs and utility decrement data were taken from published literature. Accumulated costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using ADDITION-UK data from 1 to 5 years (short-term analysis, n = 1024); trial data were extrapolated to 30 years using the UKPDS outcomes model (version 1.3) (long-term analysis; n = 999). All costs were transformed to the UK 2009/10 price level. Results Adjusted incremental costs to the NHS were £285, £935, £1190 and £1745 over a 1-, 5-, 10- and 30-year time horizon, respectively (discounted at 3.5%). Adjusted incremental QALYs were 0.0000, – 0.0040, 0.0140 and 0.0465 over the same time horizons. Point estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) suggested that the intervention was not cost-effective although the ratio improved over time: the ICER over 10 years was £82 250, falling to £37 500 over 30 years. The ICER fell below £30 000 only when the intervention cost was below £631 per patient: we estimated the cost at £981. Conclusion Given conventional thresholds of cost-effectiveness, the intensive treatment delivered in ADDITION was not cost-effective compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected diabetes in the UK. The intervention may be cost-effective if it can be delivered at reduced cost. PMID:25661661

  17. A Secondary School Drama Teacher's Experience of Drama in the Curriculum in 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a perspective on Drama as a separate subject within the UK secondary school curriculum from the point of view of a working Head of a Drama department. I explore the various concerns a teacher of this subject must consider when planning a curriculum within their school, including breadth and depth of content and assessment of…

  18. Who thinks what about e-cigarette regulation? A content analysis of UK newspapers.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Chris; Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide

    2016-07-01

    To establish how frequently different types of stakeholders were cited in the UK media debate about e-cigarette regulation, their stances towards different forms of e-cigarette regulation, and what rationales they employed in justifying those stances. Quantitative and qualitative content analyses of 104 articles about e-cigarette regulation published in eight UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Reporting on e-cigarette regulation grew significantly (P < 0.001) throughout the sample period. Governments and regulatory bodies were the most frequently cited stakeholders and uniformly supported regulation, while other stakeholders did not always support regulation. Arguments for e-cigarette regulation greatly outnumbered arguments against regulation. Regulating purchasing age, restricting marketing and regulating e-cigarettes as medicine were broadly supported, while stakeholders disagreed about prohibiting e-cigarette use in enclosed public spaces. In rationalizing their stances, supporters of regulation cited child protection and concerns about the safety of e-cigarette products, while opponents highlighted the potential of e-cigarettes in tobacco cessation and questioned the evidence base associating e-cigarette use with health harms. In the UK between 2013 and 2014, governments and tobacco control advocates frequently commented on e-cigarettes in UK-wide and Scottish national newspapers. Almost all commentators supported e-cigarette regulation, but there was disagreement about whether e-cigarette use should be allowed in enclosed public spaces. This appeared to be linked to whether commentators emphasized the harms of vapour and concerns about renormalizing smoking or emphasized the role of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Copyright Ownership of E-Learning and Teaching Materials: Policy Approaches Taken by UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadd, Elizabeth; Weedon, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Investigates whether and how UK university copyright policies address key copyright ownership issues relating to printed and electronic teaching materials. A content analysis of 81 UK university copyright policies is performed to understand their approach towards copyright ownership of printed and e-learning materials and performances; rights on…

  20. UK Student Alcohol Consumption: A Cluster Analysis of Drinking Behaviour Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigs, Cheryl L.; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Radley, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which university students are following UK Government advice regarding appropriate consumption of alcohol, and to investigate if students can be placed into distinct clusters based on their drinking behaviour. Design: A descriptive questionnaire study. Setting: One hundred and nineteen undergraduate students from…

  1. Examining the Use of Audience Response Systems in Secondary School Classrooms: A Formative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; LeSage, Ann; Knaack, Liesel

    2010-01-01

    To date, extensive research has been done on the use of Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in colleges and universities, but not in secondary school schools. The purpose of this study was to conduct a detailed formative analysis on the benefits, challenges, and use of ARSs from the perspective of 659 secondary school students. Key benefits reported…

  2. Advanced Carbon Materials Center Established At UK

    Science.gov Websites

    UK Home Academics Athletics Medical Center Research Site Index Search UK University Master ] [research at UK] Advanced Carbon Materials Center Established At UK The tiny but mighty nanotube will continue to be the subject of several research projects at the University of Kentucky, thanks in part to a

  3. Changes needed to medicine in the UK before senior UK-trained doctors, working outside the UK, will return: questionnaire surveys undertaken between 2004 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To report the changes to UK medicine which doctors who have emigrated tell us would increase their likelihood of returning to a career in UK medicine. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting UK-trained medical graduates. Participants Questionnaires were sent 11 years after graduation to 7158 doctors who qualified in 1993 and 1996 in the UK: 4763 questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were sent 17 and 19 years after graduation to the same cohorts: 4554 questionnaires were returned. Main outcome measures Comments from doctors working abroad about changes needed to UK medicine before they would return. Results Eleven years after graduation, 290 (6%) of respondents were working in medicine abroad; 277 (6%) were doing so 17/19 years after graduation. Eleven years after graduation, 53% of doctors working abroad indicated that they did not intend to return, and 71% did so 17/19 years after graduation. These respondents reported a number of changes which would need to be made to UK medicine in order to increase the likelihood of them returning. The most frequently mentioned changes cited concerned ‘politics/management/funding’, ‘pay/pension’, ‘posts/security/opportunities’, ‘working conditions/hours’, and ‘factors outside medicine’. Conclusions Policy attention to factors including funding, pay, management and particularly the clinical–political interface, working hours, and work–life balance may pay dividends for all, both in terms of persuading some established doctors to return and, perhaps more importantly, encouraging other, younger doctors to believe that the UK and the National Health Service can offer them a satisfying and rewarding career. PMID:29230305

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: a comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Macdonald, H M; Horton, K; Kang'ombe, A R; Berry, J L; Lanham-New, S A

    2013-02-01

    This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51° N), aged 20-55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Serum 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L was highly prevalent in South Asians in the winter (81 %) and autumn (79.2 %). Deficient status (below 50 nmol/L) was common in Caucasian women. Multi-level modelling suggested that, in comparison to sun exposure (1.59, 95 %CI = 0.83-2.35), dietary intake of vitamin D had no impact on 25(OH)D levels (-0.08, 95 %CI = -1.39 to 1.23). Year-round vitamin D deficiency was extremely common in South Asian women. These findings pose great health threats regarding the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and warrant urgent vitamin D public health policy and action.

  5. The effects of integrated care: a systematic review of UK and international evidence.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Susan; Johnson, Maxine; Chambers, Duncan; Sutton, Anthea; Goyder, Elizabeth; Booth, Andrew

    2018-05-10

    Healthcare systems around the world have been responding to the demand for better integrated models of service delivery. However, there is a need for further clarity regarding the effects of these new models of integration, and exploration regarding whether models introduced in other care systems may achieve similar outcomes in a UK national health service context. The study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the effects of integration or co-ordination between healthcare services, or between health and social care on service delivery outcomes including effectiveness, efficiency and quality of care. Electronic databases including MEDLINE; Embase; PsycINFO; CINAHL; Science and Social Science Citation Indices; and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature published between 2006 to March 2017. Online sources were searched for UK grey literature, and citation searching, and manual reference list screening were also carried out. Quantitative primary studies and systematic reviews, reporting actual or perceived effects on service delivery following the introduction of models of integration or co-ordination, in healthcare or health and social care settings in developed countries were eligible for inclusion. Strength of evidence for each outcome reported was analysed and synthesised using a four point comparative rating system of stronger, weaker, inconsistent or limited evidence. One hundred sixty seven studies were eligible for inclusion. Analysis indicated evidence of perceived improved quality of care, evidence of increased patient satisfaction, and evidence of improved access to care. Evidence was rated as either inconsistent or limited regarding all other outcomes reported, including system-wide impacts on primary care, secondary care, and health care costs. There were limited differences between outcomes reported by UK and international studies, and overall the literature had a limited consideration of effects on service users. Models of

  6. Secondary structure estimation and properties analysis of stretched Asian and Caucasian hair.

    PubMed

    Zhou, A J; Liu, H L; Du, Z Q

    2015-02-01

    In this previous work, we investigated the secondary structure changes of stretched yak hairs by deconvolution, secondary derivation, and curve fitting and determined the number of bands and their positions in order to resolve the protein spectrum of Raman spectroscopy. The secondary structure estimation and properties analysis of stretched Asian and Caucasian hair were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, tensile curves, and measurement of density. The hairs were stretched, dried, and baked at ratios 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The analysis of the amide I band indicated that the transformation from α-helix to β-pleated structure occurred during the stretching process, which could be verified from the tensile analysis. The cysteine oxide in S-O vibration area exhibited that stretching led to the breakage of the disulfide bonds. When the stretching ratio of Caucasian hair was more than a certain ratio, the fiber macromolecular structure was destroyed because Caucasian hair had finer diameter and less medulla than Asian hair. The β turn was easier to retract compared with other conformations, resulted in the content increase. The density measurements revealed that the structure of Caucasian hair was indeed more destroyed than that of Asian hair. The cuticles characterization indicated the length of scales was stretched longer and the thickness became thinner. Caucasian hair tended to collapse to form small fragments at the early stage of stretching. With the increase in stretching ratio, the scales of Caucasian hair lifted up, then flaked off and the scale interval increased accordingly. Asian hair was more easily peeled off than Caucasian hair cuticles with the increase in stretching ratio. The secondary structure of Caucasian hair was destroyed more easily than that of Asian hair. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The bedrock electrical conductivity map of the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamish, David

    2013-09-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys, when regionally extensive, may sample a wide-range of geological formations. The majority of AEM surveys can provide estimates of apparent (half-space) conductivity and such derived data provide a mapping capability. Depth discrimination of the geophysical mapping information is controlled by the bandwidth of each particular system. The objective of this study is to assess the geological information contained in accumulated frequency-domain AEM survey data from the UK where existing geological mapping can be considered well-established. The methodology adopted involves a simple GIS-based, spatial join of AEM and geological databases. A lithology-based classification of bedrock is used to provide an inherent association with the petrophysical rock parameters controlling bulk conductivity. At a scale of 1:625k, the UK digital bedrock geological lexicon comprises just 86 lithological classifications compared with 244 standard lithostratigraphic assignments. The lowest common AEM survey frequency of 3 kHz is found to provide an 87% coverage (by area) of the UK formations. The conductivities of the unsampled classes have been assigned on the basis of inherent lithological associations between formations. The statistical analysis conducted uses over 8 M conductivity estimates and provides a new UK national scale digital map of near-surface bedrock conductivity. The new baseline map, formed from central moments of the statistical distributions, allows assessments/interpretations of data exhibiting departures from the norm. The digital conductivity map developed here is believed to be the first such UK geophysical map compilation for over 75 years. The methodology described can also be applied to many existing AEM data sets.

  8. Evolution of primary care databases in UK: a scientometric analysis of research output.

    PubMed

    Vezyridis, Paraskevas; Timmons, Stephen

    2016-10-11

    To identify publication and citation trends, most productive institutions and countries, top journals, most cited articles and authorship networks from articles that used and analysed data from primary care databases (CPRD, THIN, QResearch) of pseudonymised electronic health records (EHRs) in UK. Descriptive statistics and scientometric tools were used to analyse a SCOPUS data set of 1891 articles. Open access software was used to extract networks from the data set (Table2Net), visualise and analyse coauthorship networks of scholars and countries (Gephi) and density maps (VOSviewer) of research topics co-occurrence and journal cocitation. Research output increased overall at a yearly rate of 18.65%. While medicine is the main field of research, studies in more specialised areas include biochemistry and pharmacology. Researchers from UK, USA and Spanish institutions have published the most papers. Most of the journals that publish this type of research and most cited papers come from UK and USA. Authorship varied between 3 and 6 authors. Keyword analyses show that smoking, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental illnesses, as well as medication that can treat such medical conditions, such as non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents, insulin and antidepressants constitute the main topics of research. Coauthorship network analyses show that lead scientists, directors or founders of these databases are, to various degrees, at the centre of clusters in this scientific community. There is a considerable increase of publications in primary care research from EHRs. The UK has been well placed at the centre of an expanding global scientific community, facilitating international collaborations and bringing together international expertise in medicine, biochemical and pharmaceutical research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. A quantitative content analysis of UK newsprint coverage of proposed legislation to prohibit smoking in private vehicles carrying children.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Chris; Semple, Sean; Wood, Karen; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2015-08-08

    Mass media representations of health issues influence public perceptions of those issues. Despite legislation prohibiting smoking in public spaces, second-hand smoke (SHS) remains a health risk in the United Kingdom (UK). Further legislation might further limit children's exposure to SHS by prohibiting smoking in private vehicles carrying children. This research was designed to determine how UK national newspapers represented the debate around proposed legislation to prohibit smoking in private vehicles carrying children. Quantitative analysis of the manifest content of 422 articles about children and SHS published in UK and Scottish newspapers between 1st January 2003 and 16th February 2014. Researchers developed a coding frame incorporating emergent themes from the data. Each article was double-coded. The frequency of relevant articles rose and fell in line with policy debate events. Children were frequently characterised as victims of SHS, and SHS was associated with various health risks. Articles discussing legislation targeting SHS in private vehicles carrying children presented supportive arguments significantly more frequently than unsupportive arguments. The relatively positive representation of legislation prohibiting smoking in vehicles carrying children is favourable to policy advocates, and potentially indicative of likely public acceptance of legislation. Our findings support two lessons that public health advocates may consider: the utility of presenting children as a vulnerable target population, and the possibility of late surges in critical arguments preceding policy events.

  10. Attitudes towards people with intellectual disability in the UK and Libya: A cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Benomir, Aisha M; Nicolson, Roderick I; Beail, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The attitude of the general population towards people with intellectual disability (ID) provides important background for policy development. Furthermore, because of changes in attitudes across cultures, it is vital to ground policy development for each country in data from that country. This paper aimed to undertake a cross-cultural study, investigating attitudes to people with ID in Libya in the year 2011, and to compare the Libyan data with those for the UK. This paper provides a cross-cultural analysis of attitudes to people with ID, using a questionnaire study of three groups in Libya and in the UK: science students, psychology students and professionals in ID support. The questionnaire used was the established Community Living Attitude Scales for Mental Retardation (CLAS-MR). In terms of the four CLAS-MR sub-scales, the Libyan sample showed significantly less favourable scores on Empowerment, Similarity and Exclusion than the UK sample, but no significant difference on the Sheltering sub-scale. Within-country analysis indicated no main effects of gender on all four sub-scales in Libya and the UK. This study is the first to undertake quantitative analysis of attitudes to people with ID in Libya. The attitudes were in general less favourable than in the UK and other Western countries, but showed similarities with studies of attitudes to people with ID in Pakistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. News media representations of electronic cigarettes: an analysis of newspaper coverage in the UK and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) have recently been attracting interest for their potential as a less harmful alternative to smoking, their rising popularity and the regulatory issues they raise. The news media can play an important role in shaping public perceptions of new technologies. It is, therefore, important to understand the ways the news media present ENDS. This paper examines how ENDS are represented in the UK and in the Scottish press. Twelve national UK and Scottish newspapers and the three most popular online news sources were searched between 2007 and 2012. A thematic analysis was conducted to explore how the meanings, uses and users of ENDS are presented, and whether and how this has changed. Newspaper coverage of ENDS increased substantially over this period. Five key themes emerged from the analysis: getting around smokefree legislation; risk and uncertainty; healthier choice; celebrity use; price. Drawing on the diffusion of innovations theory, we suggest that newspaper constructions of ENDS provide readers with important information about what ENDS are for, how they work, and their relative advantages. These themes, and dominance of more positive meanings, raise a number of issues for tobacco control, including concerns around celebrity use and promotion; the impact of increasing ENDS use on social norms around smoking; their potential to undermine smokefree legislation; and their promotion as effective cessation aids. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Summary The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , the UK's strategic science investment agency, today announced that the government of the United Kingdom is making funds available that provide a baseline for this country to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO) . The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , and the ESO Community warmly welcome this move towards fuller integration in European astronomy. "With the UK as a potential member country of ESO, our joint opportunities for front-line research and technology will grow significantly", she said. "This announcement is a clear sign of confidence in ESO's abilities, most recently demonstrated with the construction and operation of the unique Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal. Together we will look forward with confidence towards new, exciting projects in ground-based astronomy." It was decided earlier this year to place the 4-m UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) at Paranal, cf. ESO Press Release 03/00. Following negotiations between ESO and PPARC, a detailed proposal for the associated UK/ESO Agreement with the various entry modalities will now be presented to the ESO Council for approval. Before this Agreement can enter into force, the ESO Convention and associated protocols must also be ratified by the UK Parliament. Research and key technologies According to the PPARC press release, increased funding for science, announced by the UK government today, will enable UK astronomers to prepare for the next generation of telescopes and expand their current telescope portfolio through membership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The uplift to its baseline budget will enable PPARC to enter into final negotiations for UK membership of the ESO. This will ensure that UK astronomers, together with their colleagues in the ESO member states, are actively involved in global scale preparations for the next generation of astronomy facilities. among these are ALMA

  13. Public responses to proposals for a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages: A thematic analysis of online reader comments posted on major UK news websites.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Meyer, Molly; Mytton, Oliver; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Regular consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries. The UK will introduce a levy on the manufacturers of SSBs in 2018. Details will be negotiated over the next two years. How the UK public views SSB taxes is likely to be an important determinant of the content and success of the final policy. We aimed to capture the views, ideas and concerns of commenters on major UK news websites on SSB taxes. We conducted a qualitative analysis of reader comments to online news coverage of one proposal for an SSB tax in the UK. 1645 comments on four articles were included. Three underpinning themes influenced support or opposition to the tax: the balance between individual responsibility and autonomy, and population need; mistrust of the intention of the proposed tax and those promoting it; and variations in the perceived complexity of unhealthy diets and obesity associated with variations in what are considered appropriate interventions. Arguments under each theme were used to justify both support and opposition in different cases. As the final form of the UK SSB tax is negotiated, effort should be made to address the concerns we identified. Our results suggest these efforts could usefully focus on emphasising the social and environmental determinants of diet and obesity, reinforcing the benefits of the tax to the NHS, and pitching the tax as playing into a variety of different conceptualisations of obesity.

  14. Perspectives and Visions of Computer Science Education in Primary and Secondary (K-12) Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubwieser, Peter; Armoni, Michal; Giannakos, Michail N.; Mittermeir, Roland T.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the recent developments in many countries, for example, in the USA and in the UK, it appears that computer science education (CSE) in primary or secondary schools (K-12) has reached a significant turning point, shifting its focus from ICT-oriented to rigorous computer science concepts. The goal of this special issue is to offer a…

  15. Examining the Practice of Information Literacy Teaching and Learning in Vietnamese Upper Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Huyen; Walton, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Information literacy (IL) research has been hitherto dominated by the USA, Australia and the UK [22]. Vietnam, however, remains under-represented and there is no IL work in upper secondary schools in the country to date. This paper, which is part of an ongoing PhD research, presents preliminary findings of the study to understand IL level of…

  16. Descriptive Analysis of Secondary Special Education and Transition Services Model Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Frank R.; And Others

    This monograph provides a descriptive analysis of five grant programs funded by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) in 1984. The programs were designed to stimulate the improvement and development of programs for secondary special education and to strengthen and coordinate education, training, and related services…

  17. Analysis of secondary motions in square duct flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesti, Davide; Pirozzoli, Sergio; Orlandi, Paolo; Grasso, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    We carry out direct numerical simulations (DNS) of square duct flow spanning the friction Reynolds number range {Re}τ * =150-1055, to study the nature and the role of secondary motions. We preliminarily find that secondary motions are not the mere result of the time averaging procedure, but rather they are present in the instantaneous flow realizations, corresponding to large eddies persistent in both space and time. Numerical experiments have also been carried out whereby the secondary motions are suppressed, hence allowing to quantifying their effect on the mean flow field. At sufficiently high Reynolds number, secondary motions are found to increase the friction coefficient by about 3%, hence proportionally to their relative strength with respect to the bulk flow. Simulations without secondary motions are found to yield larger deviations on the mean velocity profiles from the standard law-of-the-wall, revealing that secondary motions act as a self-regulating mechanism of turbulence whereby the effect of the corners is mitigated.

  18. "Appearance potent"? A content analysis of UK gay and straight men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Fawkner, Helen; Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-09-01

    With little actual appraisal, a more 'appearance potent' (i.e., a reverence for appearance ideals) subculture has been used to explain gay men's greater body dissatisfaction in comparison to straight men's. This study sought to assess the respective appearance potency of each subculture by a content analysis of 32 issues of the most read gay (Attitude, Gay Times) and straight men's magazines (Men's Health, FHM) in the UK. Images of men and women were coded for their physical characteristics, objectification and nudity, as were the number of appearance adverts and articles. The gay men's magazines featured more images of men that were appearance ideal, nude and sexualized than the straight men's magazines. The converse was true for the images of women and appearance adverts. Although more research is needed to understand the effect of this content on the viewer, the findings are consistent with a more appearance potent gay male subculture. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) in a population of people using Secondary Care Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Bass, Malcolm; Dawkin, Mathew; Muncer, Steven; Vigurs, Scott; Bostock, Janet

    2016-08-01

    The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is a relatively new measure and to date has been validated in a number of populations, including student, general and adolescent samples across the UK. There is increasing interest in measuring the mental well-being of users of secondary care mental health services and therefore it is apt to validate WEMWBS for this population. To investigate the validity of WEMWBS in a secondary care mental health service user population. Data was collected from two NHS Trusts and one charity. Analyses are based on 1180 completed WEMWBS. WEMWBS scores for this population are significantly lower than those in a general population (Mean 34.9, SD 13.8). Overall the data analyses supported the use of WEMWBS in this population sample. The Rasch analysis found that the majority of the items can be seen as measuring one dimension. The confirmatory factor analysis supports a one factor solution and thus, measures a single underlying concept. The findings from this study show WEMWBS to be a valid and reliable measure for this population sample.

  20. Evaluation of a nutrient-based diet quality index in UK young children and investigation into the diet quality of consumers of formula and infant foods.

    PubMed

    Verger, Eric O; Eussen, Simone; Holmes, Bridget A

    2016-07-01

    To adapt and evaluate a nutrient-based diet quality index (PANDiet) for UK young children and to determine the nutritional adequacy of their diets according to consumption of young child formula (YCF) and commercial infant foods (CIF). Content and construct validity of the PANDiet were assessed by studying associations between the PANDiet and its components, energy intake, food intakes, and child and maternal characteristics. Four groups of children were defined according to their intake of YCF and CIF: (i) no consumption; (ii) consumption of YCF; (iii) consumption of CIF; and (iv) consumption of YCF and CIF. Child and maternal characteristics, PANDiet scores and food intakes of these four groups were compared. Secondary analysis of data from the UK Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC, 2011). Young children (n 1152) aged 12-18 months. The PANDiet was adapted to the UK based on twenty-five nutrients. A lower PANDiet score was linked to lower intakes of YCF, CIF, vegetables and fruits. Determinants of having a lower score were being older, having siblings and having a younger mother with a lower educational level. Compared with children consuming neither YCF nor CIF, PANDiet scores were higher in children consuming CIF (+1·4), children consuming YCF (+7·2) and children consuming YCF and CIF (+7·8; all P<0·001). The PANDiet is a valid indicator of the nutrient adequacy of the diet of UK young children. Consuming CIF was not found to be associated with lower nutritional adequacy whereas consuming YCF was associated with higher nutritional adequacy.

  1. SIFT-MS and FA-MS methods for ambient gas phase analysis: developments and applications in the UK.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2015-04-21

    Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, a relatively new gas/vapour phase analytical method, is derived from the much earlier selected ion flow tube, SIFT, used for the study of gas phase ion-molecule reactions. Both the SIFT and SIFT-MS techniques were conceived and developed in the UK, the former at Birmingham University, the latter at Keele University along with the complementary flowing afterglow mass spectrometry, FA-MS, technique. The focus of this short review is largely to describe the origins, developments and, most importantly, the unique features of SIFT-MS as an analytical tool for ambient analysis and to indicate its growing use to analyse humid air, especially exhaled breath, its unique place as a on-line, real time analytical method and its growing use and applications as a non-invasive diagnostic in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, principally within several UK universities and hospitals, and briefly in the wider world. A few case studies are outlined that show the potential of SIFT-MS and FA-MS in the detection and quantification of metabolites in exhaled breath as a step towards recognising pathophysiology indicative of disease and the presence of bacterial and fungal infection of the airways and lungs. Particular cases include the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (SIFT-MS) and the measurement of total body water in patients with chronic kidney disease (FA-MS). The growing exploitation of SIFT-MS in other areas of research and commerce are briefly listed to show the wide utility of this unique UK-developed analytical method, and future prospects and developments are alluded to.

  2. The adoption of sustainable remediation behaviour in the US and UK: a cross country comparison and determinant analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Deyi; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Guthrie, Peter

    2014-08-15

    The sustainable remediation concept, aimed at maximizing the net environmental, social, and economic benefits in contaminated site remediation, is being increasingly recognized by industry, governments, and academia. However, there is limited understanding of actual sustainable behaviour being adopted and the determinants of such sustainable behaviour. The present study identified 27 sustainable practices in remediation. An online questionnaire survey was used to rank and compare them in the US (n=112) and the UK (n=54). The study also rated ten promoting factors, nine barriers, and 17 types of stakeholders' influences. Subsequently, factor analysis and general linear models were used to determine the effects of internal characteristics (i.e. country, organizational characteristics, professional role, personal experience and belief) and external forces (i.e. promoting factors, barriers, and stakeholder influences). It was found that US and UK practitioners adopted many sustainable practices to similar extents. Both US and UK practitioners perceived the most effectively adopted sustainable practices to be reducing the risk to site workers, protecting groundwater and surface water, and reducing the risk to the local community. Comparing the two countries, we found that the US adopted innovative in-situ remediation more effectively; while the UK adopted reuse, recycling, and minimizing material usage more effectively. As for the overall determinants of sustainable remediation, the country of origin was found not to be a significant determinant. Instead, organizational policy was found to be the most important internal characteristic. It had a significant positive effect on reducing distant environmental impact, sustainable resource usage, and reducing remediation cost and time (p<0.01). Customer competitive pressure was found to be the most extensively significant external force. In comparison, perceived stakeholder influence, especially that of primary stakeholders

  3. Labour Market Mismatch among UK Graduates: An Analysis Using REFLEX Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…

  4. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Space Weather Operational Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Trichas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) have carried out a study for an operational L5 space weather mission, in collaboration with RAL, the UK Met Office, UCL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for operational forecasting needs. The study focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a US mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 offers the greatest benefit for SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to address all MOSWOC/SWPC priorities using UK/US instruments, consisting of: a heliospheric imager, coronagraph, EUV imager, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform is based on extensive re-use from Airbus' past missions to minimize the cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could occur in 2020, assuming Phase A KO in 2015. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  5. Media Hyping and the "Herceptin Access Story": An Analysis of Canadian and UK Newspaper Coverage.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Julia; Collins, Patricia A

    2009-02-01

    In May 2005, preliminary trial results pronouncing the effectiveness of Herceptin (trastuzumab) for treatment of early-stage breast cancer were disseminated at a high-profile scientific meeting. Herceptin was subsequently approved for use in the public healthcare systems of Canada and the United Kingdom, although the differences between the two decision timelines were stark. The authors compared UK and Canadian newspaper coverage of the Herceptin story to assess how it may have been "hyped" in each country. They analyzed a diverse sample of newspapers and coded clippings for reporters' framing of the drug's efficacy, costs and funding approval process. Canadian news coverage preceded formal publication of the trial results, while UK coverage mirrored major national events. Reporters in both countries used predominantly individualistic perspectives and framed Herceptin's efficacy in salutary terms. Framing of costs was more neutral in Canadian than in UK newspapers. Funding approval framing focused on inequitable access in the UK and timeliness in Canada. News coverage of drug access stories varies across jurisdictions in terms of intensity and some aspects of framing. Such variations likely reflect different journalistic practices and dominant political rhetoric. Greater attention should be given to the role that news coverage of drug access plays in shaping public opinion and policy action, especially when this coverage precedes scientific debate. Copyright © 2009 Longwoods Publishing.

  6. Why doctors consider leaving UK medicine: qualitative analysis of comments from questionnaire surveys three years after graduation

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To report the reasons why doctors are considering leaving medicine or the UK. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting UK. Participants Questionnaires were sent three years after graduation to all UK medical graduates of 2008 and 2012. Main outcome measures Comments from doctors about their main reasons for considering leaving medicine or the UK (or both). Results The response rate was 46.2% (5291/11,461). Among the 60% of respondents who were not definitely intent on remaining in UK medicine, 50% were considering working in medicine outside the UK and 10% were considering leaving medicine. Among those considering working in medicine outside the UK, the most commonly cited reasons were to gain wider experience, that things would be ‘better’ elsewhere and a negative view of the National Health Service and its culture, state and politics. Other reasons included better training or job opportunities, better pay and conditions, family reasons and higher expectations. Three years after graduation, doctors surveyed in 2015 were significantly more likely than doctors surveyed in 2011 to cite factors related to the National Health Service, to pay and conditions, to their expectations and to effects on work–life balance and patient care. Among those considering leaving medicine, the dominant reason for leaving medicine was a negative view of the National Health Service (mentioned by half of those in this group who commented). Three years after graduation, doctors surveyed in 2015 were more likely than doctors surveyed in 2011 to cite this reason, as well as excessive hours and workload, and financial reasons. Conclusions An increasingly negative view is held by many doctors of many aspects of the experience of being a junior doctor in the National Health Service, and the difficulty of delivering high-quality patient care within what many see as an under-funded system. Policy changes designed to encourage more doctors to remain should be motivated by a desire to

  7. Why doctors consider leaving UK medicine: qualitative analysis of comments from questionnaire surveys three years after graduation.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Objective To report the reasons why doctors are considering leaving medicine or the UK. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting UK. Participants Questionnaires were sent three years after graduation to all UK medical graduates of 2008 and 2012. Main outcome measures Comments from doctors about their main reasons for considering leaving medicine or the UK (or both). Results The response rate was 46.2% (5291/11,461). Among the 60% of respondents who were not definitely intent on remaining in UK medicine, 50% were considering working in medicine outside the UK and 10% were considering leaving medicine. Among those considering working in medicine outside the UK, the most commonly cited reasons were to gain wider experience, that things would be 'better' elsewhere and a negative view of the National Health Service and its culture, state and politics. Other reasons included better training or job opportunities, better pay and conditions, family reasons and higher expectations. Three years after graduation, doctors surveyed in 2015 were significantly more likely than doctors surveyed in 2011 to cite factors related to the National Health Service, to pay and conditions, to their expectations and to effects on work-life balance and patient care. Among those considering leaving medicine, the dominant reason for leaving medicine was a negative view of the National Health Service (mentioned by half of those in this group who commented). Three years after graduation, doctors surveyed in 2015 were more likely than doctors surveyed in 2011 to cite this reason, as well as excessive hours and workload, and financial reasons. Conclusions An increasingly negative view is held by many doctors of many aspects of the experience of being a junior doctor in the National Health Service, and the difficulty of delivering high-quality patient care within what many see as an under-funded system. Policy changes designed to encourage more doctors to remain should be motivated by a desire to address

  8. Using functional data analysis to understand daily activity levels and patterns in primary school-aged children: Cross-sectional analysis of a UK-wide study.

    PubMed

    Sera, Francesco; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Geraci, Marco; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Temporal characterisation of physical activity in children is required for effective strategies to increase physical activity (PA). Evidence regarding determinants of physical activity in childhood and their time-dependent patterns remain inconclusive. We used functional data analysis (FDA) to model temporal profiles of daily activity, measured objectively using accelerometers, to identify diurnal and seasonal PA patterns in a nationally representative sample of primary school-aged UK children. We hypothesised that PA levels would be lower in girls than boys at play times and after school, higher in children participating in social forms of exercise (such as sport or play), and lower among those not walking to school. Children participating in the UK-wide Millennium Cohort Study wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for seven consecutive days during waking hours. We modelled 6,497 daily PA profiles from singleton children (3,176 boys; mean age: 7.5 years) by means of splines, and used functional analysis of variance to examine the cross-sectional relation of time and place of measurement, demographic and behavioural characteristics to smoothed PA profiles. Diurnal and time-specific patterns of activity showed significant variation by sex, ethnicity, UK country and season of measurement; girls were markedly less active than boys during school break times than boys, and children of Indian ethnicity were significantly less active during school hours (9:30-12:00). Social activities such as sport clubs, playing with friends were associated with higher level of PA in afternoon (15:00-17:30) and early evenings (17:30-19:30). Lower PA levels between 8:30-9:30 and 17:30-19:30 were associated with mode of travel to and from school, and number of cars in regular use in the household. Diminished PA in primary school aged children is temporally patterned and related to modifiable behavioural factors. FDA can be used to inform and evaluate public health policies to promote

  9. The UK population: how does it compare?

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jil

    2010-01-01

    This is the fourth demographic report for the UK, providing an overview of the latest statistics on the population. This year's article compares the UK with other European countries and a range of nations from around the world. Statistical comparisons are made for fertility, mortality, ageing, migration and population density. The UK has an ageing population, but one that is not ageing as rapidly as some other countries such as Germany, Italy and Japan. Although life expectation in the UK is improving in line with most western European countries, relatively high levels of fertility ensure that the proportion of the population that is young remains high. Around one in ten residents of the UK are foreign born, a lower proportion than many developed countries. UK population density has increased steadily and is the fourth highest in the EU.

  10. Analysis of secondary cytoreduction for recurrent ovarian cancer by robotics, laparoscopy and laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Magrina, Javier F; Cetta, Rachel L; Chang, Yu-Hui; Guevara, Gregory; Magtibay, Paul M

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of perioperative outcomes and survival of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer undergoing secondary cytoreduction by robotics, laparoscopy, or laparotomy. Retrospective analysis of 52 selected patients with recurrent ovarian cancer undergoing secondary cytoreduction by laparoscopy (9), laparotomy (33) or robotics (10) between January 2006 and December 2010. Comparison was made by a total of 21 factors including age, BMI, number of previous surgeries, tumor type and grade, number of procedures, and 15 types of procedures performed at secondary cytoreduction. For all patients, the mean operating time was 213.8 min, mean blood loss 657.4 ml; and mean hospital stay 7.5 days. Complete debulking was achieved in 75% of patients. Postoperative complications were noted in 36.5% of patients. Overall and progression-free survival at 3-years were 58.8% and 34.1%, respectively. Laparoscopy and robotics had reduced blood loss and hospital stay, while no differences were observed among the three groups for operating time, complications, complete debulking, and survival. Selected patients with recurrent ovarian cancer benefit from a laparoscopic or robotic secondary cytoreduction without compromising survival. Robotics and laparoscopy provide similar perioperative outcomes, and reduced blood loss and shorter hospital stay as compared to laparotomy. Laparotomy seems preferable for patients with widespread peritoneal implants, multiple sites of recurrence, and/or extensive adhesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity steady-state training in UK cardiac rehabilitation programmes (HIIT or MISS UK): study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Gordon; Nichols, Simon; Hamborg, Thomas; Bryning, Lucy; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; Markland, David; Mercer, Jenny; Birkett, Stefan; Ennis, Stuart; Powell, Richard; Begg, Brian; Haykowsky, Mark J; Banerjee, Prithwish; Ingle, Lee; Shave, Rob; Backx, Karianne

    2016-11-16

    Current international guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) advocate moderate-intensity exercise training (MISS, moderate-intensity steady state). This recommendation predates significant advances in medical therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD) and may not be the most appropriate strategy for the 'modern' patient with CHD. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be a safe and effective alternative, resulting in greater improvements in peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 peak ). To date, HIIT trials have predominantly been proof-of-concept studies in the laboratory setting and conducted outside the UK. The purpose of this multicentre randomised controlled trial is to compare the effects of HIIT and MISS training in patients with CHD attending UK CR programmes. This pragmatic study will randomly allocate 510 patients with CHD to 8 weeks of twice weekly HIIT or MISS training at 3 centres in the UK. HIIT will consist of 10 high-intensity (85-90% peak power output (PPO)) and 10 low-intensity (20-25% PPO) intervals, each lasting 1 min. MISS training will follow usual care recommendations, adhering to currently accepted UK guidelines (ie, >20 min continuous exercise at 40-70% heart rate reserve). Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 months. The primary outcome for the trial will be change in VO 2 peak as determined by maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Secondary measures will assess physiological, psychosocial and economic outcomes. The study protocol V.1.0, dated 1 February 2016, was approved by the NHS Health Research Authority, East Midlands-Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (16/EM/0079). Recruitment will start in August 2016 and will be completed in June 2018. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at national and international scientific meetings and are expected to inform future national guidelines for exercise training in UK CR. NCT02784873; pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  12. ‘What does that mean?’: a qualitative exploration of the primary and secondary clinical care experiences of young people with continence problems in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Whale, Katie; Cramer, Helen; Wright, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Joinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore the clinical care experiences of young people with continence problems. Design In-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted by Skype and telephone, with the addition of art-based participatory research techniques. Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Setting Primary and secondary care in the UK. Participants We interviewed 20 participants (9 females, 11 males) aged 11–20 years. There were six participants with bedwetting alone, five with daytime wetting alone, five with combined (day and night) wetting and four with soiling. Results We identified four themes: appointment experiences, treatment experiences, engagement with treatment and internalisation and externalisation of the continence problem. Patient-focused appointments using age-appropriate language were highly desirable. Continuity of care was highlighted as an important aspect of positive clinical experiences; however, this was found to be rare with many participants seeing a different person on each visit. Participants had tried a wide range of treatments for their continence problems with varying degrees of success. Relapse and treatment failure were common. Experiencing relapse was distressing and diminished participants’ belief in the success of future treatments and undermined adherence. Participants would be seen to adopt two opposing coping strategies for dealing with their continence problem— internalisation and externalisation. Conclusion Incontinence in young people is challenging to manage. Young people may need to try a range of treatments before their symptoms improve. Due to challenges in treatment, there is an increased risk of poor adherence. During patient-focused appointments, clinicians should work to build rapport with patients and use age-appropriate language. Involving young people in their own care decisions is important. The way in which young people understand their continence problem can influence their coping

  13. Emergent Communities of Practice: Secondary Schools' Interaction with Primary School Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael; Fisher, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an account of the response of secondary schools to the primary school foreign language teaching initiative recently introduced by the UK government. The paper also explores defining features of the process of cross-phase interaction and the role that knowledge and collaborative practice plays in generating change…

  14. Accelerated Reader as a Literacy Catch-Up Intervention during Primary to Secondary School Transition Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Nadia; Gorard, Stephen; See, Beng Huat

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of an internet-based reading programme called Accelerated Reader (AR), which is widely used in UK schools and worldwide. AR is a whole-group reading management and monitoring programme that aims to stimulate the habit of independent reading among primary and secondary age pupils. The evaluation involved 349…

  15. Choosing a Secondary School for Young People on the Autism Spectrum: A Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNerney, Catherine; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Deciding on a secondary school for children with autism is notoriously difficult for parents. While current UK legislation emphasises the choice that parents of children with special educational needs should have in educational decision-making, there is a dearth of research in this area, which means that little is known about how parents come to…

  16. Dataset of the livability performance of the city of Birmingham, UK, as measured by its citizen wellbeing, resource security, resource efficiency and carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Leach, Joanne M; Lee, Susan E; Boyko, Christopher T; Coulton, Claire J; Cooper, Rachel; Smith, Nicholas; Joffe, Hélène; Büchs, Milena; Hale, James D; Sadler, Jonathan P; Braithwaite, Peter A; Blunden, Luke S; De Laurentiis, Valeria; Hunt, Dexter V L; Bahaj, AbuBakr S; Barnes, Katie; Bouch, Christopher J; Bourikas, Leonidas; Cavada, Marianna; Chilvers, Andrew; Clune, Stephen J; Collins, Brian; Cosgrave, Ellie; Dunn, Nick; Falkingham, Jane; James, Patrick; Kwami, Corina; Locret-Collet, Martin; Medda, Francesca; Ortegon, Adriana; Pollastri, Serena; Popan, Cosmin; Psarikidou, Katerina; Tyler, Nick; Urry, John; Wu, Yue; Zeeb, Victoria; Rogers, Chris D F

    2017-12-01

    This data article presents the UK City LIFE 1 data set for the city of Birmingham, UK. UK City LIFE 1 is a new, comprehensive and holistic method for measuring the livable sustainability performance of UK cities. The Birmingham data set comprises 346 indicators structured simultaneously (1) within a four-tier, outcome-based framework in order to aid in their interpretation (e.g., promote healthy living and healthy long lives, minimize energy use, uncouple economic vitality from CO2 emissions) and (2) thematically in order to complement government and disciplinary siloes (e.g., health, energy, economy, climate change). Birmingham data for the indicators are presented within an Excel spreadsheet with their type, units, geographic area, year, source, link to secondary data files, data collection method, data availability and any relevant calculations and notes. This paper provides a detailed description of UK city LIFE 1 in order to enable comparable data sets to be produced for other UK cities. The Birmingham data set is made publically available at http://epapers.bham.ac.uk/3040/ to facilitate this and to enable further analyses. The UK City LIFE 1 Birmingham data set has been used to understand what is known and what is not known about the livable sustainability performance of the city and to inform how Birmingham City Council can take action now to improve its understanding and its performance into the future (see "Improving city-scale measures of livable sustainability: A study of urban measurement and assessment through application to the city of Birmingham, UK" Leach et al. [2]).

  17. Microstructure analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobules by 3D synchrotron radiation CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of abnormalities related to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SRμCT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semiautomatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule and to track small vessels running inside alveolar walls in human acinus imaged by the SRμCT. The method beains with and segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using a threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. 3-D air space are then conustructed separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. A graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems are interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Finally, we performed vessel tracking using a non-linear sate space which captures both smoothness of the trajectories and intensity coherence along vessel orientations. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SRμCT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

  18. Rationalising for and against a policy of school-led careers guidance in STEM in the U.K.: a teacher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watermeyer, Richard; Morton, Pat; Collins, Jill

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on teacher attitudes to changes in the provision of careers guidance in the U.K., particularly as it relates to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). It draws on survey data of n = 94 secondary-school teachers operating in STEM domains and their attitudes towards a U.K. and devolved policy of internalising careers guidance within schools. The survey presents a mixed message of teachers recognising the significance of their unique position in providing learners with careers guidance yet concern that their 'relational proximity' to students and 'informational distance' from higher education and STEM industry may produce bias and misinformation that is harmful to their educational and occupational futures.

  19. "It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine": a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-05-29

    Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002-7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as 'gender appropriate', 'gender anomalous' or 'gender neutral'. A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as 'a young woman's illness', serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently 'female' and so 'anomalous' for men. Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying help-seeking, gaining late access to treatments and reducing chances of

  20. Secondary structure prediction and structure-specific sequence analysis of single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Dong, F; Allawi, H T; Anderson, T; Neri, B P; Lyamichev, V I

    2001-08-01

    DNA sequence analysis by oligonucleotide binding is often affected by interference with the secondary structure of the target DNA. Here we describe an approach that improves DNA secondary structure prediction by combining enzymatic probing of DNA by structure-specific 5'-nucleases with an energy minimization algorithm that utilizes the 5'-nuclease cleavage sites as constraints. The method can identify structural differences between two DNA molecules caused by minor sequence variations such as a single nucleotide mutation. It also demonstrates the existence of long-range interactions between DNA regions separated by >300 nt and the formation of multiple alternative structures by a 244 nt DNA molecule. The differences in the secondary structure of DNA molecules revealed by 5'-nuclease probing were used to design structure-specific probes for mutation discrimination that target the regions of structural, rather than sequence, differences. We also demonstrate the performance of structure-specific 'bridge' probes complementary to non-contiguous regions of the target molecule. The structure-specific probes do not require the high stringency binding conditions necessary for methods based on mismatch formation and permit mutation detection at temperatures from 4 to 37 degrees C. Structure-specific sequence analysis is applied for mutation detection in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis katG gene and for genotyping of the hepatitis C virus.

  1. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Community-Based Glaucoma Check Service in Hackney, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Elizabeth; Datta, Jessica; Marks, Dalya; Kuper, Hannah; Lee, Helen; Leamon, Shaun; Lindfield, Robert; Wormald, Richard; Clarke, Jonathan; Elkarmouty, Ahmed; Macdowall, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the uptake, feasibility and acceptability of a general practice-based optometrist-led glaucoma check service. The service targeted people of black Caribbean and black African descent aged 40-65 years, resident in Hackney, London, United Kingdom. The study used a mixed-method design, including analysis of service data, prospective audit of secondary care referrals patient survey, cost-consequence analysis, and interviews with staff involved in developing and implementing the service. A total of 3040 patients were invited to undergo the free check; 595 (19.6%) booked an appointment and 461 (15.2%) attended. Overall, 31 patients (6.8%) were referred to secondary care, of whom 22 attended and were assessed for glaucoma. Four were diagnosed with glaucoma and eight with suspected glaucoma, i.e. 2.6% of patients who underwent the check. The cost per patient identified with suspected or confirmed glaucoma was £9,013. Staff who were interviewed suggested that patients who attended might be those who routinely attended optometrist appointments, however only 62.4% of survey respondents reported having had an eye examination in the previous two years, and 11.4% of women and 16.0% of men reported never having had an eye examination. This study represents one possible configuration for a glaucoma case-finding service, and it contributes to a wider debate about whether screening, targeted or otherwise, should be offered in the UK. Our findings suggest that general practice is an acceptable setting and that such a service may reach some people not previously engaged with primary eye care services.

  2. Introducing peer worker roles into UK mental health service teams: a qualitative analysis of the organisational benefits and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of peer support as a component of mental health care, including the employment of Peer Workers (consumer-providers) by mental health service organisations, is increasingly common internationally. Peer support is strongly advocated as a strategy in a number of UK health and social care policies. Approaches to employing Peer Workers are proliferating. There is evidence to suggest that Peer Worker-based interventions reduce psychiatric inpatient admission and increase service user (consumer) empowerment. In this paper we seek to address a gap in the empirical literature in understanding the organisational challenges and benefits of introducing Peer Worker roles into mental health service teams. Methods We report the secondary analysis of qualitative interview data from service users, Peer Workers, non-peer staff and managers of three innovative interventions in a study about mental health self-care. Relevant data was extracted from interviews with 41 participants and subjected to analysis using Grounded Theory techniques. Organisational research literature on role adoption framed the analysis. Results Peer Workers were highly valued by mental health teams and service users. Non-peer team members and managers worked hard to introduce Peer Workers into teams. Our cases were projects in development and there was learning from the evolutionary process: in the absence of formal recruitment processes for Peer Workers, differences in expectations of the Peer Worker role can emerge at the selection stage; flexible working arrangements for Peer Workers can have the unintended effect of perpetuating hierarchies within teams; the maintenance of protective practice boundaries through supervision and training can militate against the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice; lack of consensus around what constitutes peer practice can result in feelings for Peer Workers of inequality, disempowerment, uncertainty about identity and of being under

  3. Introducing peer worker roles into UK mental health service teams: a qualitative analysis of the organisational benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Steve G; Edwards, Christine; Gibson, Sarah L; Owen, Katherine; Wright, Christine

    2013-05-24

    The provision of peer support as a component of mental health care, including the employment of Peer Workers (consumer-providers) by mental health service organisations, is increasingly common internationally. Peer support is strongly advocated as a strategy in a number of UK health and social care policies. Approaches to employing Peer Workers are proliferating. There is evidence to suggest that Peer Worker-based interventions reduce psychiatric inpatient admission and increase service user (consumer) empowerment. In this paper we seek to address a gap in the empirical literature in understanding the organisational challenges and benefits of introducing Peer Worker roles into mental health service teams. We report the secondary analysis of qualitative interview data from service users, Peer Workers, non-peer staff and managers of three innovative interventions in a study about mental health self-care. Relevant data was extracted from interviews with 41 participants and subjected to analysis using Grounded Theory techniques. Organisational research literature on role adoption framed the analysis. Peer Workers were highly valued by mental health teams and service users. Non-peer team members and managers worked hard to introduce Peer Workers into teams. Our cases were projects in development and there was learning from the evolutionary process: in the absence of formal recruitment processes for Peer Workers, differences in expectations of the Peer Worker role can emerge at the selection stage; flexible working arrangements for Peer Workers can have the unintended effect of perpetuating hierarchies within teams; the maintenance of protective practice boundaries through supervision and training can militate against the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice; lack of consensus around what constitutes peer practice can result in feelings for Peer Workers of inequality, disempowerment, uncertainty about identity and of being under-supported. This research is

  4. Performance of the JULES land surface model for UK Biogenic VOC emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, Garry; Comyn-Platt, Edward; Vieno, Massimo; Langford, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of biogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are important for air quality and tropospheric composition. Through their contribution to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), biogenic VOCs indirectly contribute to climate forcing and climate feedbacks [1]. Biogenic VOCs encompass a wide range of compounds and are produced by plants for growth, development, reproduction, defence and communication [2]. There are both biological and physico-chemical controls on emissions [3]. Only a few of the many biogenic VOCs are of wider interest and only two or three (isoprene and the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene) are represented in chemical transport models. We use the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), the UK community land surface model, to estimate biogenic VOC emission fluxes. JULES is a process-based model that describes the water, energy and carbon balances and includes temperature, moisture and carbon stores [4, 5]. JULES currently provides emission fluxes of the 4 largest groups of biogenic VOCs: isoprene, terpenes, methanol and acetone. The JULES isoprene scheme uses gross primary productivity (GPP), leaf internal carbon and the leaf temperature as a proxy for the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis [6]. In this study, we compare JULES biogenic VOC emission estimates of isoprene and terepenes with (a) flux measurements made at selected sites in the UK and Europe and (b) gridded estimates for the UK from the EMEP/EMEP4UK atmospheric chemical transport model [7, 8], using site-specific or EMEP4UK driving meteorological data, respectively. We compare the UK-scale emission estimates with literature estimates. We generally find good agreement in the comparisons but the estimates are sensitive to the choice of the base or reference emission potentials. References (1) Unger, 2014: Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8563, doi:10.1002/2014GL061616; (2) Laothawornkitkul et al., 2009: New Phytol., 183, 27, doi

  5. Transplantation of organs from deceased donors with meningitis and encephalitis: a UK registry analysis.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Patrick B; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Summers, Dominic M; Watson, Christopher J E; Bradley, J Andrew; Neuberger, James

    2016-12-01

    Deceased organ donors, where the cause of death is meningitis or encephalitis, are a potential concern because of the risks of transmission of a potentially fatal infection to recipients. Using the UK Transplant Registry, a retrospective cohort analysis of deceased organ donors in the UK was undertaken to better understand the extent to which organs from deceased donors with meningitis and/or encephalitis (M/E) (of both known and unknown cause) have been used for transplantation, and to determine the associated recipient outcomes. Between 2003 and 2015, 258 deceased donors with M/E were identified and the causative agent was known in 188 (72.9%). These donors provided 899 solid organs for transplantation (455 kidneys and 444 other organs). The only recorded case of disease transmission was from a donor with encephalitis of unknown cause at time of transplantation who transmitted a fatal nematode infection to 2 kidney transplant recipients. A further 3 patients (2 liver and 1 heart recipient) died within 30 days of transplantation from a neurological cause (cerebrovascular accident) with no suggestion of disease transmission. Overall, patient and graft survival in recipients of organs from donors with M/E were similar to those for all other types of deceased organ donor. Donors dying with M/E represent a valuable source of organs for transplantation. The risk of disease transmission is low but, where the causative agent is unknown, caution is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Public responses to proposals for a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages: A thematic analysis of online reader comments posted on major UK news websites

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Meyer, Molly; Mytton, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Background Regular consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries. The UK will introduce a levy on the manufacturers of SSBs in 2018. Details will be negotiated over the next two years. How the UK public views SSB taxes is likely to be an important determinant of the content and success of the final policy. We aimed to capture the views, ideas and concerns of commenters on major UK news websites on SSB taxes. Methods and findings We conducted a qualitative analysis of reader comments to online news coverage of one proposal for an SSB tax in the UK. 1645 comments on four articles were included. Three underpinning themes influenced support or opposition to the tax: the balance between individual responsibility and autonomy, and population need; mistrust of the intention of the proposed tax and those promoting it; and variations in the perceived complexity of unhealthy diets and obesity associated with variations in what are considered appropriate interventions. Arguments under each theme were used to justify both support and opposition in different cases. Conclusions As the final form of the UK SSB tax is negotiated, effort should be made to address the concerns we identified. Our results suggest these efforts could usefully focus on emphasising the social and environmental determinants of diet and obesity, reinforcing the benefits of the tax to the NHS, and pitching the tax as playing into a variety of different conceptualisations of obesity. PMID:29166399

  7. Benchmarking of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis practice with ENT.UK guidelines.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ali S

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to benchmark our guidelines of prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in ENT surgical population against ENT.UK guidelines, and also to encourage healthcare providers to utilize benchmarking as an effective method of improving performance. The study design is prospective descriptive analysis. The setting of this study is tertiary referral centre (Assir Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia). In this study, we are benchmarking our practice guidelines of the prevention of VTE in the ENT surgical population against that of ENT.UK guidelines to mitigate any gaps. ENT guidelines 2010 were downloaded from the ENT.UK Website. Our guidelines were compared with the possibilities that either our performance meets or fall short of ENT.UK guidelines. Immediate corrective actions will take place if there is quality chasm between the two guidelines. ENT.UK guidelines are evidence-based and updated which may serve as role-model for adoption and benchmarking. Our guidelines were accordingly amended to contain all factors required in providing a quality service to ENT surgical patients. While not given appropriate attention, benchmarking is a useful tool in improving quality of health care. It allows learning from others' practices and experiences, and works towards closing any quality gaps. In addition, benchmarking clinical outcomes is critical for quality improvement and informing decisions concerning service provision. It is recommended to be included on the list of quality improvement methods of healthcare services.

  8. The hospital microbiome project: meeting report for the UK science and innovation network UK-USA workshop ‘beating the superbugs: hospital microbiome studies for tackling antimicrobial resistance’, October 14th 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The UK Science and Innovation Network UK-USA workshop ‘Beating the Superbugs: Hospital Microbiome Studies for tackling Antimicrobial Resistance’ was held on October 14th 2013 at the UK Department of Health, London. The workshop was designed to promote US-UK collaboration on hospital microbiome studies to add a new facet to our collective understanding of antimicrobial resistance. The assembled researchers debated the importance of the hospital microbial community in transmission of disease and as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes, and discussed methodologies, hypotheses, and priorities. A number of complementary approaches were explored, although the importance of the built environment microbiome in disease transmission was not universally accepted. Current whole genome epidemiological methods are being pioneered in the UK and the benefits of moving to community analysis are not necessarily obvious to the pioneers; however, rapid progress in other areas of microbiology suggest to some researchers that hospital microbiome studies will be exceptionally fruitful even in the short term. Collaborative studies will recombine different strengths to tackle the international problems of antimicrobial resistance and hospital and healthcare associated infections.

  9. Engaging Gypsy and Traveller Pupils in Secondary Education in Wales: Tensions and Dilemmas of Addressing Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Despite decades of research and policy, we are still some way in the U.K. from ameliorating barriers for Gypsy and Traveller pupils. A complex set of factors exist which influence young people's engagement with secondary education. This interpretive-deductive study, which draws upon 'tensions and dilemmas of difference', presents Gypsy/Traveller…

  10. Writing for Learning in Science: A Secondary Analysis of Six Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunel, Murat; Hand, Brian; Prain, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of six previous studies that formed part of an ongoing research program focused on examining the benefits of using writing-to-learn strategies within science classrooms. The study is an attempt to make broader generalizations than those based on individual studies, given limitations related to sample sizes,…

  11. The GeoBus project: a mobile Earth science outreach project for secondary schools in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, R. A.; Roper, K. A.; Macfarlane, D.; Pike, C.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBus is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews. It is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (high) schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. These linkages are important for introducing career opportunities in Earth sciences. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 140 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Over 20,000 pupils will have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities by December 2013, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run workshops, field excursions and Enterprise Challenges. GeoBus provides 16 workshops which can be adapted for different learning levels. Workshops are 50 to 80 minute sessions for up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. The Enterprise Challenges are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Current topics are Drilling for Oil, Renewable Energy, a Journey to Mars and Scotland

  12. Sex differences in mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Saratzis, A.; Sweeting, M. J.; Michaels, J.; Powell, J. T.; Thompson, S. G.; Bown, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The UK abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening programmes currently invite only men for screening because the benefit in women is uncertain. Perioperative risk is critical in determining the effectiveness of screening, and contemporary estimates of these risks in women are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare mortality following AAA repair between women and men in the UK. Methods Anonymized data from the UK National Vascular Registry (NVR) for patients undergoing AAA repair (January 2010 to December 2014) were analysed. Co‐variables were extracted for analysis by sex. The primary outcome measure was in‐hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures included mortality by 5‐year age groups and duration of hospital stay. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for age, calendar time, AAA diameter and smoking status. NVR‐based outcomes were checked against Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data. Results A total of 23 245 patients were included (13·0 per cent women). Proportionally, more women than men underwent open repair. For elective open AAA repair, the in‐hospital mortality rate was 6·9 per cent in women and 4·0 per cent in men (odds ratio (OR) 1·48, 95 per cent c.i. 1·08 to 2·02; P = 0·014), whereas for elective endovascular AAA repair it was 1·8 per cent in women and 0·7 per cent in men (OR 2·86, 1·72 to 4·74; P < 0·001); the results in HES were similar. For ruptured AAA, there was no sex difference in mortality within the NVR; however, in HES, for ruptured open AAA repair, the in‐hospital mortality rate was higher in women (33·6 versus 27·1 per cent; OR 1·36, 1·16 to 1·59; P < 0·001). Conclusion Women have a higher in‐hospital mortality rate than men after elective AAA repair even after adjustment. This higher mortality may have an impact on the benefit offered by any screening programme offered to women. PMID:28745403

  13. Parliamentary privilege--mortality in members of the Houses of Parliament compared with the UK general population: retrospective cohort analysis, 1945-2011.

    PubMed

    Dennis, John; Crayford, Tim

    2015-12-14

    To examine mortality in members of the two UK Houses of Parliament compared with the general population, 1945-2011. Retrospective cohort analysis of death rates and predictors of mortality in Members of Parliament (MPs) and members of the House of Lords (Lords). UK. 4950 MPs and Lords first joining the UK parliament in 1945-2011. Standardised mortality ratios, comparing all cause death rates of MPs and Lords from first election or appointment with those in the age, sex, and calendar year matched general population. Between 1945 and 2011, mortality was lower in MPs (standardised mortality ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.76) and Lords (0.63, 0.60 to 0.67) than in the general population. Over the same period, death rates among MPs also improved more quickly than in the general population. For every 100 expected deaths, 22 fewer deaths occurred among MPs first elected in 1990-99 compared with MPs first elected in 1945-49. Labour party MPs had 19% higher death rates compared with the general population than did Conservative MPs (relative mortality ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.40). The effect of political party on mortality disappeared when controlling for education level. From 1945 to 2011, MPs and Lords experienced lower mortality than the UK general population, and, at least until 1999, the mortality gap between newly elected MPs and the general population widened. Even among MPs, educational background was an important predictor of mortality, and education possibly explains much of the mortality difference between Labour and Conservative MPs. Social inequalities are alive and well in UK parliamentarians, and at least in terms of mortality, MPs are likely to have never had it so good. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. 5th HUPO BPP Bioinformatics Meeting at the European Bioinformatics Institute in Hinxton, UK--Setting the analysis frame.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Christian; Hamacher, Michael; Blüggel, Martin; Körting, Gerhard; Chamrad, Daniel; Scheer, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Reidegeld, Kai A; Lohaus, Christiane; Schäfer, Heike; Martens, Lennart; Jones, Philip; Müller, Michael; Auyeung, Kevin; Taylor, Chris; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Thiele, Herbert; Parkinson, David; Meyer, Helmut E; Apweiler, Rolf

    2005-09-01

    The Bioinformatics Committee of the HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) meets regularly to execute the post-lab analyses of the data produced in the HUPO BPP pilot studies. On July 7, 2005 the members came together for the 5th time at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) in Hinxton, UK, hosted by Rolf Apweiler. As a main result, the parameter set of the semi-automated data re-analysis of MS/MS spectra has been elaborated and the subsequent work steps have been defined.

  15. External cavity-quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy for secondary structure analysis of proteins at low concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schwaighofer, Andreas; Alcaráz, Mirta R.; Araman, Can; Goicoechea, Héctor; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy are analytical techniques employed for the analysis of protein secondary structure. The use of CD spectroscopy is limited to low protein concentrations (<2 mg ml−1), while FTIR spectroscopy is commonly used in a higher concentration range (>5 mg ml−1). Here we introduce a quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based IR transmission setup for analysis of protein and polypeptide secondary structure at concentrations as low as 0.25 mg ml−1 in deuterated buffer solution. We present dynamic QCL-IR spectra of the temperature-induced α-helix to β-sheet transition of poly-L-lysine. The concentration dependence of the α-β transition temperature between 0.25 and 10 mg ml−1 was investigated by QCL-IR, FTIR and CD spectroscopy. By using QCL-IR spectroscopy it is possible to perform IR spectroscopic analysis in the same concentration range as CD spectroscopy, thus enabling a combined analysis of biomolecules secondary structure by CD and IR spectroscopy. PMID:27633337

  16. External cavity-quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy for secondary structure analysis of proteins at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Schwaighofer, Andreas; Alcaráz, Mirta R; Araman, Can; Goicoechea, Héctor; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-09-16

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy are analytical techniques employed for the analysis of protein secondary structure. The use of CD spectroscopy is limited to low protein concentrations (<2 mg ml(-1)), while FTIR spectroscopy is commonly used in a higher concentration range (>5 mg ml(-1)). Here we introduce a quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based IR transmission setup for analysis of protein and polypeptide secondary structure at concentrations as low as 0.25 mg ml(-1) in deuterated buffer solution. We present dynamic QCL-IR spectra of the temperature-induced α-helix to β-sheet transition of poly-L-lysine. The concentration dependence of the α-β transition temperature between 0.25 and 10 mg ml(-1) was investigated by QCL-IR, FTIR and CD spectroscopy. By using QCL-IR spectroscopy it is possible to perform IR spectroscopic analysis in the same concentration range as CD spectroscopy, thus enabling a combined analysis of biomolecules secondary structure by CD and IR spectroscopy.

  17. Governance versus government: drug consumption rooms in Australia and the UK.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Giulia Federica

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate, through a case study, the extent to which elements of governance and elements of government are influential in determining the implementation or non-implementation of a drugs intervention. Comparative analysis of the case of a drug consumption room in the UK (England) and Australia (New South Wales), including 16 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and analysis of relevant documents according to characteristic features of governance and government (power decentralisation, power centralisation, independent self-organising policy networks, use of evidence, top-down steering/directing, legislation). Characteristic features of both governance and government are found in the data. Elements of governance are more prominent in New South Wales, Australia than in England, UK, where government prevails. Government is seen as the most important actor at play in the making, or absence, of drug consumption rooms. Both governance and government are useful frameworks in conceptualising the policy process. The governance narrative risks overlooking the importance of traditional government structures. In the case of drug consumption rooms in the UK and Australia, a focus on government is shown to have been crucial in determining whether the intervention was implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementing statistical equating for MRCP(UK) Parts 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Chis, Liliana; Fox, Ray; Waller, Derek; Tang, Peter

    2014-09-26

    The MRCP(UK) exam, in 2008 and 2010, changed the standard-setting of its Part 1 and Part 2 examinations from a hybrid Angoff/Hofstee method to statistical equating using Item Response Theory, the reference group being UK graduates. The present paper considers the implementation of the change, the question of whether the pass rate increased amongst non-UK candidates, any possible role of Differential Item Functioning (DIF), and changes in examination predictive validity after the change. Analysis of data of MRCP(UK) Part 1 exam from 2003 to 2013 and Part 2 exam from 2005 to 2013. Inspection suggested that Part 1 pass rates were stable after the introduction of statistical equating, but showed greater annual variation probably due to stronger candidates taking the examination earlier. Pass rates seemed to have increased in non-UK graduates after equating was introduced, but was not associated with any changes in DIF after statistical equating. Statistical modelling of the pass rates for non-UK graduates found that pass rates, in both Part 1 and Part 2, were increasing year on year, with the changes probably beginning before the introduction of equating. The predictive validity of Part 1 for Part 2 was higher with statistical equating than with the previous hybrid Angoff/Hofstee method, confirming the utility of IRT-based statistical equating. Statistical equating was successfully introduced into the MRCP(UK) Part 1 and Part 2 written examinations, resulting in higher predictive validity than the previous Angoff/Hofstee standard setting. Concerns about an artefactual increase in pass rates for non-UK candidates after equating were shown not to be well-founded. Most likely the changes resulted from a genuine increase in candidate ability, albeit for reasons which remain unclear, coupled with a cognitive illusion giving the impression of a step-change immediately after equating began. Statistical equating provides a robust standard-setting method, with a better

  19. Vascular access in lipoprotein apheresis: a retrospective analysis from the UK's largest lipoprotein apheresis centre.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Daniel J; Pottle, Alison; Malietzis, George; Hakim, Nadey; Barbir, Mahmoud; Crane, Jeremy S

    2018-01-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has proven to be an effective, safe and life-saving therapy. Vascular access is needed to facilitate this treatment but has recognised complications. Despite consistency in treatment indication and duration there are no guidelines in place. The aim of this study is to characterise vascular access practice at the UK's largest LA centre and forward suggestions for future approaches. A retrospective analysis of vascular access strategies was undertaken in all patients who received LA treatment in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Apheresis Unit at Harefield Hospital (Middlesex, UK) from November 2000 to March 2016. Fifty-three former and current patients underwent 4260 LA treatments. Peripheral vein cannulation represented 79% of initial vascular access strategies with arteriovenous (AV) fistula use accounting for 15%. Last used method of vascular access was peripheral vein cannulation in 57% versus AV fistula in 32%. Total AV fistula failure rate was 37%. Peripheral vein cannulation remains the most common method to facilitate LA. Practice trends indicate a move towards AV fistula creation; the favoured approach receiving support from the expert body in this area. AV fistula failure rate is high and of great concern, therefore we suggest the implementation of upper limb ultrasound vascular mapping in all patients who meet treatment eligibility criteria. We encourage close ties between apheresis units and specialist surgical centres to facilitate patient counselling and monitoring. Further prospective data regarding fistula failure is needed in this expanding treatment field.

  20. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS APPLIED TO OCCUPATIONAL INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILVERN, LEONARD C.

    GOAL OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPING A MODEL TO DESCRIBE "REAL-LIFE" FEEDBACK SIGNAL PATHS FROM OUTSIDE THE SECONDARY SCHOOL OR SCHOOL DISTRICT TO AN OCCUPATIONAL TEACHER. AFTER A REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE LITERATURE IN SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS SINCE 1914, IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT ATTENTION SHOULD BE DIRECTED TO…

  1. Print media representations of UK Accident and Emergency treatment targets: Winter 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Grant, Aimee; Hoyle, Louise

    2017-12-01

    To undertake an analysis of UK national daily newspaper coverage of accident and emergency treatment targets, in order to understand whether the media could be seen to be creating a scandal. Emergency department treatment targets have become common in developed countries. In the UK, hospitals are required to treat and discharge patients within four hours, and statistics are published daily. Breaches of targets are regularly reported by the UK print media. Exploratory research of tabloid newspaper articles that reported on four-hour treatment targets in the UK during a seven-month period over the winter of 2014-2015 (n = 1,317). An interpretivist thematic approach was used during analysis. The main "problem" identified by newspapers was the failure to meet the target, rather than negative effects on patient care (where they existed). Proposed solutions were diverse. Many articles did not describe who was to blame for the failure. We conclude that the media created a feeling of scandal, and hypothesise that this is related to political reasons and the availability of data on a daily basis. It is important for nursing staff to understand the influence of the media on patients and how stories are reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Epidemiology of U.K. Military Burns 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Page, Felicity; Hamnett, Nathan; D'Asta, Federica; Jeffery, Steven

    After sustaining burn injuries overseas, U.K. Armed Forces personnel are evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine. The objective was to review the etiology of U.K. Military burns managed at the center between 2008 and 2013. Analysis will aid provision planning and assist in the prevention of burn injuries for future tours. The International Burn Injury Database database of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients evacuated to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital Birmingham between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Analysis included patient demographics, injury mechanism, burn severity, management, and mortality. There were 65 military personnel with burn injuries requiring repatriation to the United Kingdom. Percentage of 78.5 were sustained in Afghanistan. The mean age was 25 (18-46) years. Percentage of 70.8 were considered noncombat burn injuries. Of the noncombat burns, the mechanism of injury most commonly involved burning waste and misuse of fuels and scalds. The mean TBSA for all patients was 6% (0.05-51%). Areas most commonly affected included arms, legs, and face. The length of hospital stay for combat vs noncombat burn injury patients was 10 vs 7 days. There were no fatalities. In conclusion, substantially fewer military personnel sustained combat burns between 2008 and 2013 than in preceding study period (19 vs 79). The number of accidental noncombat burns remained constant. The decrease in combat burns may reflect a relative decrease in military intensity and effective protective equipment and safety measures. Further education may allow for an additional decrease in preventable burn injuries.

  3. A national-scale analysis of the impacts of drought on water quality in UK rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, G.; Howden, N. J. K.; Freer, J. E.; Whitehead, P. G.; Bussi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of droughts on water quality qre difficult to quanitify but are essential to manage ecosystems and maintain public water supply. During drought, river water quality is significantly changed by increased residence times, reduced dilution and enhanced biogeochemical processes. But, the impact severity varies between catchments and depends on multiple factors including the sensitivity of the river to drought conditions, anthropogenic influences in the catchment and different delivery patterns of key nutrient, contaminant and mineral sources. A key constraint is data availability for key water quality parameters such that impacts of drought periods on certain determinands can be identified. We use national-scale water quality monitoring data to investigate the impacts of drought periods on water quality in the United Kingdom (UK). The UK Water Quality Sampling Harmonised Monitoring Scheme (HMS) dataset consists of >200 UK sites with weekly to monthly sampling of many water quality variables over the past 40 years. This covers several major UK droughts in 1975-1976, 1983-1984,1989-1992, 1995 and 2003, which cover severity, spatial and temporal extent, and how this affects the temporal impact of the drought on water quality. Several key water quality parameters, including water temperature, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, orthophosphate, chlorophyll and pesticides, are selected from the database. These were chosen based on their availability for many of the sites, high sampling resolution and importance to the drinking water function and ecological status of the river. The water quality time series were then analysed to investigate whether water quality during droughts deviated significantly from non-drought periods and examined how the results varied spatially, for different drought periods and for different water quality parameters. Our results show that there is no simple conclusion as to the effects of drought on water quality in UK rivers; impacts are

  4. Fair access to medicine? Retrospective analysis of UK medical schools application data 2009-2012 using three measures of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Steven, Kathryn; Dowell, Jon; Jackson, Cathy; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-01-13

    Medical students have historically largely come from more affluent parts of society, leading many countries to seek to broaden access to medical careers on the grounds of social justice and the perceived benefits of greater workforce diversity. The aim of this study was to examine variation in socioeconomic status (SES) of applicants to study medicine and applicants with an accepted offer from a medical school, comparing the four UK countries and individual medical schools. Retrospective analysis of application data for 22 UK medical schools 2009/10-2011/12. Data were analysed for all 32,964 UK-domiciled applicants aged <20 years to 22 non-graduate medical schools requiring applicants to sit the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT). Rates of applicants and accepted offers were compared using three measures of SES: (1) Postcode-assigned Index of Multiple Deprivation score (IMD); (2) School type; (3) Parental occupation measured by the National Statistics Socio Economic Classification (NS-SEC). There is a marked social gradient of applicants and applicants with accepted offers with, depending on UK country of residence, 19.7-34.5% of applicants living in the most affluent tenth of postcodes vs 1.8-5.7% in the least affluent tenth. However, the majority of applicants in all postcodes had parents in the highest SES occupational group (NS-SEC1). Applicants resident in the most deprived postcodes, with parents from lower SES occupational groups (NS-SEC4/5) and attending non-selective state schools were less likely to obtain an accepted offer of a place at medical school further steepening the observed social gradient. Medical schools varied significantly in the percentage of individuals from NS-SEC 4/5 applying (2.3%-8.4%) and gaining an accepted offer (1.2%-7.7%). Regardless of the measure, those from less affluent backgrounds are less likely to apply and less likely to gain an accepted offer to study medicine. Postcode-based measures such as IMD may be

  5. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK)…

  6. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  7. Centre of IT Excellence for SMEs in the West Midlands, UK: A Suitable Project Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Diana; Homer, Garry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the IT Futures Centre, a European technology transfer project based at the University of Wolverhampton in the UK. After reviewing UK government policy in technology transfer, the authors highlight the project's two key elements--a new state-of-the-art building and an IT consultancy team--both of which are…

  8. What Factors Influence the Decisions of Parents of Children with Special Educational Needs when Choosing a Secondary Educational Provision for their Child at Change of Phase from Primary to Secondary Education? A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the results of a literature scoping exercise looking at the decisions parents of children with special educational needs (SEN) make when choosing a secondary placement to send their child at change of phase. The review reports on studies that were conducted in England and other areas of the UK as well as in Australia and the…

  9. Who or what has agency in the discussion of antimicrobial resistance in UK news media (2010-2015)? A transitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Luke Curtis; Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    The increase in infections resistant to the existing antimicrobial medicines has become a topic of concern for health professionals, policy makers and publics across the globe; however, among the public there is a sense that this is an issue beyond their control. Research has shown that the news media can have a significant role to play in the public's understanding of science and medicine. In this article, we respond to a call by research councils in the United Kingdom to study antibiotic or antimicrobial resistance as a social phenomenon by providing a linguistic analysis of reporting on this issue in the UK press. We combine transitivity analysis with a social representations framework to determine who and what the social actors are in discussions of antimicrobial resistance in the UK press (2010-2015), as well as which of those social actors are characterised as having agency in the processes around antimicrobial resistance. Findings show that antibiotics and the infections they are designed to treat are instilled with agency, that there is a tension between allocating responsibility to either doctors-as-prescribers or patients-as-users and collectivisation of the general public as an unspecified 'we': marginalising livestock farming and pharmaceutical industry responsibilities.

  10. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  11. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of 'Post-Devolution' Public Policy in the UK 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy - thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities - such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision - policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance.

  12. Acceptability of financial incentives for breastfeeding: thematic analysis of readers' comments to UK online news reports.

    PubMed

    Giles, Emma L; Holmes, Matthew; McColl, Elaine; Sniehotta, Falko F; Adams, Jean M

    2015-05-16

    Whilst it is recommended that babies are breastfed exclusively for the first six months, many mothers do not maintain breastfeeding for this length of time. Previous research confirms that women and midwives value financial incentives for breastfeeding, but limited research has explored the wider acceptability of these interventions to the general public. This paper examines opinion towards financial incentives for breastfeeding using reader responses to UK on-line media coverage of a study undertaken in this area. This study used netnography to undertake a thematic analysis of 3,373 reader comments posted in response to thirteen articles, published in November 2013, which reported findings from a feasibility study of financial incentives for breastfeeding. All articles were published on one of six UK news websites that achieved a monthly audience of at least five million viewers across laptop and desktop computers and mobile devices during April-May 2013. Nine analytical themes were identified, with a majority view that financial incentives for breastfeeding are unacceptable. These themes cover a range of opinions: from negligent parents unable to take responsibility for their own actions; through to psychologically vulnerable members of society who should be protected from coercion and manipulation; to capable and responsible women who can, and should be allowed to, make their own decisions. Many views focused on the immediate costs of the intervention, concluding that this was something that was currently unaffordable to fund (e.g. by the NHS). Others contrasted the value of the incentive against other 'costs' of breastfeeding. There was some consideration of the issue of cost-effectiveness and cost-saving, where the potential future benefit from initial investment was identified. Many commenters identified that financial incentives do not address the many structural and cultural barriers to breastfeeding. Overall, those commenting on the on-line UK news

  13. Opportunities and barriers to cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in English secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Lockey, Andrew S; Barton, Katherine; Yoxall, Heather

    2016-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are poor in the UK compared with areas abroad that deliver mandatory training to all school children. We sought to identify barriers to training and develop a strategy to enable delivery of this training. Qualitative analysis, comprising semistructured interviews and group discussions, covering 14 schools in the metropolitan borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire. Only three schools out of 14 were delivering training to entire year groups. Barriers include lack of resources, lack of training for teachers and difficulty in initiating a programme. Strategies were developed to overcome these barriers with the result that four additional schools are now teaching a whole year group. There is no single solution and bespoke plans may be needed for each school. The establishment of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in secondary schools in the UK is achievable. The commonly perceived barriers to establishment of training are all surmountable, but solving them does not necessarily ensure universal coverage. Support from healthcare professionals, in particular public health, is essential to ensure that the training is as widespread as possible. Mandatory inclusion of this training on the school curriculum, as seen in other countries, would result in significantly improved survival rates from out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest. Solutions to improve training have been proposed, which could be used in other parts of Europe where such training is not a mandatory requirement.

  14. The concept of compassion within uk media generated discourse: A corpus informed analysis.

    PubMed

    Bond, Carmel; Stacey, Gemma; Field-Richards, Sarah; Callaghan, Patrick; Keeley, Philip; Lymn, Joanne; Redsell, Sarah; Spiby, Helen

    2018-04-27

    To examine how the concept of compassion is socially constructed within UK discourse, in response to recommendations that aspiring nurses gain care experience prior to entering nurse education. Following a report of significant failings in care, the UK government proposed prior care experience for aspiring nurses as a strategy to enhance compassion amongst the profession. Media reporting of this generated substantial online discussion, which formed the data for this research. There is a need to define how compassion is constructed through language as a limited understanding exists, of what compassion means in healthcare. This is important, for any meaningful evaluation of quality, compassionate practices. A corpus-informed discourse analysis. A 62626-word corpus of data was analysed using Laurence Anthony software 'AntCon', a free corpus analysis toolkit. Frequent words were retrieved and used as a focal point for further analysis. Concordance lines were computed and analysed in the context of which frequent word-types occurred. Patterns of language were revealed and interpreted through researcher immersion. Findings identified that compassion was frequently described in various ways as a natural characteristic attribute. A pattern of language also referred to compassion as something that was not able to be taught, but could be developed through the repetition of behaviours observed in practice learning. In the context of compassion, the word-type 'nurse' was used positively. This paper adds to important debates highlighting how compassion is constructed and defined in the context of nursing. Compassion is constructed as both an individual, personal trait and a professional behaviour to be learnt. Educational design could include effective interpersonal skills training, which may help enhance and develop compassion from within the nursing profession. Likewise, ways of thinking, behaving and communicating should also be addressed by established practitioners in

  15. Parental smoking and child poverty in the UK: an analysis of national survey data.

    PubMed

    Belvin, Charmaine; Britton, John; Holmes, John; Langley, Tessa

    2015-05-29

    In 2011/12 approximately 2.3 million children, 17% of children in the UK, were estimated to be in relative poverty. Cigarette smoking is expensive and places an additional burden on household budgets, and is strongly associated with socioeconomic deprivation. The aim of this study was to provide an illustrative first estimate of the extent to which parental smoking exacerbates child poverty in the UK. Findings from the 2012 Households Below Average Income report and the 2012 Opinions and Lifestyle Survey were combined to estimate the number of children living in poor households containing smokers; the expenditure of typical smokers in these households on tobacco; and the numbers of children drawn into poverty if expenditure on smoking is subtracted from household income. 1.1 million children - almost half of all children in poverty - were estimated to be living in poverty with at least one parent who smokes; and a further 400,000 would be classed as being in poverty if parental tobacco expenditure were subtracted from household income. Smoking exacerbates poverty for a large proportion of children in the UK. Tobacco control interventions which effectively enable low income smokers to quit can play an important role in reducing the financial burden of child poverty.

  16. Understanding changes in the UK's CO2 emissions: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Giovanni; Minx, Jan C

    2010-02-15

    The UK appears to be a leading country in curbing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Unlike many other developed countries, it has already met its Kyoto obligations and defined ambitious, legally binding targets for the future. Recently this achievement has been called into question as it ignores rapidly changing patterns of production and international trade. We use structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to investigate the drivers behind annual changes in CO(2) emission from consumption in the UK between 1992 and 2004. In contrast with previous SDA-based studies, we apply the decomposition to a global, multiregional input-output model (MRIO), which accounts for UK imports from all regions and uses region-specific production structures and CO(2) intensities. We find that improvements from "domestic" changes in efficiency and production structure led to a 148 Mt reduction in CO(2) emissions, which only partially offsets emission increases of 217 Mt from changes in the global supply chain and from growing consumer demand. Recent emission reductions achieved in the UK are not merely a reflection of a greening of the domestic supply chain, but also of a change in the international division of labor in the global production of goods and services.

  17. “It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine”: a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002–7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as ‘gender appropriate’, ‘gender anomalous’ or ‘gender neutral’. Design A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. Methods We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. Findings The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as ‘a young woman's illness’, serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently ‘female’ and so ‘anomalous’ for men. Conclusions Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying

  18. Seasonal variations of alkenones and UK37 in the Chesapeake Bay water column

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, J.L.; Zhao, M.; Colman, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Alkenone unsaturation indices (UK37 and U K???37) have long been used as proxies for surface water temperature in the open ocean. Recent studies have suggested that in other marine environments, variables other than temperature may affect both the production of alkenones and the values of the indices. Here, we present the results of a reconnaissance field study in which alkenones were extracted from particulate matter filtered from the water column in Chesapeake Bay during 2000 and 2001. A multivariate analysis shows a strong positive correlation between UK37 (and UK???37) values and temperature, and a significant negative correlation between UK37 (and UK???37) values and nitrate concentrations. However, temperature and nitrate concentrations also co-vary significantly. The temperature vs. UK37 relationships (UK37=0.018 (T)-0.162, R2=0.84, UK???37=0.013 (T)-0.04, R2=0.80) have lower slopes than the open-ocean equations of Prahl et al. [1988. Further evaluation of long-chain alkenones as indicators of paleoceanographic conditions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, 2303-2310] and Mu??ller et al. [1998. Calibration of the alkenone paleotemperature index UK???37 based on core-tops from the eastern South Atlantic and the global ocean (60??N-60??S). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62, 1757-1772], but are similar to the relationships found in controlled studies with elevated nutrient levels and higher nitrate:phosphate (N:P) ratios. This implies that high nutrient levels in Chesapeake Bay have either lowered the UK37 vs. temperature slope, or nutrient levels are the main controller of the U K37 index. In addition, particularly high abundances (>5% of total C37 alkenones) of the tetra-unsaturated ketone, C37:4, were found when water temperatures reached 25??C or higher, thus posing further questions about the controls on alkenone production as well as the biochemical roles of alkenones. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of the Use of Workplace-Based Assessments in UK Surgical Training.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Joseph; Santos, Cristel; Bussey, Maria; Eardley, Ian; Allum, William

    2015-01-01

    Workplace-based assessments (WBAs) were introduced formally in the UK in 2007. The aim of the study was to describe the use of WBAs by UK surgical trainees and examine variations by training region, specialty, and level of training. The database of the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme was examined for WBAs between August 2007 and July 2013, with in-depth analysis of 2 periods: August 2011 to July 2012 and August 2012 to July 2013. The numbers of validated WBAs per trainee per year increased more than 7-fold, from median 6 per trainee in 2007 to 2008, to 39 in 2011 to 2012, and 44 in 2012 to 2013. In the period 2011 to 2012, 58.4% of core trainees completed the recommended 40 WBAs, with only 38.1% of specialty trainees achieving 40 validated WBAs. In the period 2012 to 2013, these proportions increased to 67.7% and 57.0% for core and specialty trainees, respectively. Core trainees completed more WBAs per year than specialty trainees in the same training region. London core trainees completed the highest numbers of WBAs in both the periods 2011 to 2012 (median 67) and 2012 to 2013 (median 74). There was a peak in WBAs completed by London specialty trainees in the period 2012 to 2013 (median 63). The most validated WBAs were completed by ST1/CT1 (specialty surgical training year, core surgical training year), with a gradual decrease in median WBAs to ST4, followed by a plateau; in the period 2012 to 2013, there was an increase in WBAs at ST8. Core surgical trainees complete ~50% "operative" (procedure-based assessment/direct observation of procedural skills) and ~50% "nonoperative" assessments (case-based discussion/clinical evaluation exercise). During specialty training, procedure-based assessments represented ~46% of WBAs, direct observation of procedural skills 11.2%, case-based discussion ~23%, and clinical evaluation exercise ~15%. UK surgical trainees are, on an average, undertaking 1 WBA per week. Variation exists in use of WBAs between training

  20. Quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometric analysis of secondary ion polarity in GaN films implanted with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Sakaguchi, Isao; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analyses of N and O ions in GaN thin films implanted with oxygen ions (16O+) were conducted by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Positive (CsM+) and negative secondary ions extracted by Cs+ primary ion bombardment were analyzed for oxygen quantitative analysis. The oxygen depth profiles were obtained using two types of primary ion beams: a Gaussian-type beam and a broad spot beam. The oxygen peak concentrations in GaN samples were from 3.2 × 1019 to 7.0 × 1021 atoms/cm3. The depth profiles show equivalent depth resolutions in the two analyses. The intensity of negative oxygen ions was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of positive ions. In contrast, the O/N intensity ratio measured using CsM+ molecular ions was close to the calculated atomic density ratio, indicating that the SIMS depth profiling using CsM+ ions is much more effective for the measurements of O and N ions in heavy O-implanted GaN than that using negative ions.

  1. The medline UK filter: development and validation of a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline.

    PubMed

    Ayiku, Lynda; Levay, Paul; Hudson, Tom; Craven, Jenny; Barrett, Elizabeth; Finnegan, Amy; Adams, Rachel

    2017-07-13

    A validated geographic search filter for the retrieval of research about the United Kingdom (UK) from bibliographic databases had not previously been published. To develop and validate a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline with high recall and precision. Three gold standard sets of references were generated using the relative recall method. The sets contained references to studies about the UK which had informed National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance. The first and second sets were used to develop and refine the medline UK filter. The third set was used to validate the filter. Recall, precision and number-needed-to-read (NNR) were calculated using a case study. The validated medline UK filter demonstrated 87.6% relative recall against the third gold standard set. In the case study, the medline UK filter demonstrated 100% recall, 11.4% precision and a NNR of nine. A validated geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK with high recall and precision has been developed. The medline UK filter can be applied to systematic literature searches in OVID medline for topics with a UK focus. © 2017 Crown copyright. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2017 Health Libraries GroupThis article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  2. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Huw; Brunet, Gilbert; Harris, Chris; Best, Martin; Saulter, Andrew; Holt, Jason; Bricheno, Lucy; Brerton, Ashley; Reynard, Nick; Blyth, Eleanor; Martinez de la Torre, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    It has long been understood that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. This was well demonstrated in the UK throughout winter 2013/14 when an exceptional run of severe winter storms, often with damaging high winds and intense rainfall led to significant damage from the large waves and storm surge along coastlines, and from saturated soils, high river flows and significant flooding inland. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus on a 2-year Prototype project will demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode, including an analysis of the winter 2013/14 storms and its impacts. By linking science development to operational collaborations such as the UK Natural Hazards Partnership, we can ensure that science priorities are rooted in user requirements. This presentation will provide an overview of UK environmental prediction activities and an update on progress during the first year of the Prototype project. We will present initial results from the coupled model development and discuss the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  3. Clinical excellence: evidence on the assessment of senior doctors' applications to the UK Advisory Committee on Clinical Excellence Awards. Analysis of complete national data set

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John L; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To inform the rational deployment of assessor resource in the evaluation of applications to the UK Advisory Committee on Clinical Excellence Awards (ACCEA). Setting ACCEA are responsible for a scheme to financially reward senior doctors in England and Wales who are assessed to be working over and above the standard expected of their role. Participants Anonymised applications of consultants and senior academic GPs for awards were considered by members of 14 regional subcommittees and 2 national assessing committees during the 2014–2015 round of applications. Design It involved secondary analysis of complete anonymised national data set. Primary and secondary outcome measures We analysed scores for each of 1916 applications for a clinical excellence award across 4 levels of award. Scores were provided by members of 16 subcommittees. We assessed the reliability of assessments and described the variance in the assessment of scores. Results Members of regional subcommittees assessed 1529 new applications and 387 renewal applications. Average scores increased with the level of application being made. On average, applications were assessed by 9.5 assessors. The highest contributions to the variance in individual assessors' assessments of applications were attributable to assessors or to residual variance. The applicant accounted for around a quarter of the variance in scores for new bronze applications, with this proportion decreasing for higher award levels. Reliability in excess of 0.7 can be attained where 4 assessors score bronze applications, with twice as many assessors being required for higher levels of application. Conclusions Assessment processes pertaining in the competitive allocation of public funds need to be credible and efficient. The present arrangements for assessing and scoring applications are defensible, depending on the level of reliability judged to be required in the assessment process. Some relatively minor reconfiguration in

  4. Temporal geospatial analysis of secondary school students’ examination performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nik Abd Kadir, ND; Adnan, NA

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia's Ministry of Education has improved the organization of the data to have the geographical information system (GIS) school database. However, no further analysis is done using geospatial analysis tool. Mapping has emerged as a communication tool and becomes effective way to publish the digital and statistical data such as school performance results. The objective of this study is to analyse secondary school student performance of science and mathematics scores of the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia Examination result in the year 2010 to 2014 for the Kelantan's state schools with the aid of GIS software and geospatial analysis. The school performance according to school grade point average (GPA) from Grade A to Grade G were interpolated and mapped and query analysis using geospatial tools able to be done. This study will be beneficial to the education sector to analyse student performance not only in Kelantan but to the whole Malaysia and this will be a good method to publish in map towards better planning and decision making to prepare young Malaysians for the challenges of education system and performance.

  5. Media Hyping and the “Herceptin Access Story”: An Analysis of Canadian and UK Newspaper Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Julia; Collins, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2005, preliminary trial results pronouncing the effectiveness of Herceptin (trastuzumab) for treatment of early-stage breast cancer were disseminated at a high-profile scientific meeting. Herceptin was subsequently approved for use in the public healthcare systems of Canada and the United Kingdom, although the differences between the two decision timelines were stark. The authors compared UK and Canadian newspaper coverage of the Herceptin story to assess how it may have been “hyped” in each country. They analyzed a diverse sample of newspapers and coded clippings for reporters' framing of the drug's efficacy, costs and funding approval process. Canadian news coverage preceded formal publication of the trial results, while UK coverage mirrored major national events. Reporters in both countries used predominantly individualistic perspectives and framed Herceptin's efficacy in salutary terms. Framing of costs was more neutral in Canadian than in UK newspapers. Funding approval framing focused on inequitable access in the UK and timeliness in Canada. News coverage of drug access stories varies across jurisdictions in terms of intensity and some aspects of framing. Such variations likely reflect different journalistic practices and dominant political rhetoric. Greater attention should be given to the role that news coverage of drug access plays in shaping public opinion and policy action, especially when this coverage precedes scientific debate. PMID:19377347

  6. Database Creation and Statistical Analysis: Finding Connections Between Two or More Secondary Storage Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS DATABASE CREATION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: FINDING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TWO OR MORE SECONDARY...BLANK ii Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DATABASE CREATION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: FINDING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TWO OR MORE...Problem and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 DOD Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 2 1.3 Research

  7. Extraversion, neuroticism and secondary trauma in Internet child abuse investigators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Working with victims and perpetrators of child sexual abuse has been shown to cause secondary traumatic stress (STS) in child protection professionals. Aims To examine the role of gender and personality on the development of secondary trauma responses. Methods A study of Internet child abuse investigators (ICAIs) from two UK police forces. Participants completed a personality test together with tests for anxiety, depression, burnout, STS and post-traumatic stress disorder to assess secondary trauma. The data were normally distributed and the results were analysed using an independent t-test, Pearson correlation and linear regression. Results Among 126 study subjects (50 females and 75 males), there was a higher incidence of STS in investigators who were female, introverted and neurotic. However, there were lower levels of STS in the participants in this study than those found in other studies. Conclusions Psychological screening and surveillance of ICAI teams can help to identify risk factors for the development of STS and identify where additional support may be required. PMID:26928859

  8. The Geomatics.org.UK Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramald, Tom; Powell, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how pupils can benefit from some unusual and exciting free resources of geomatics.org.uk. Geomatics.org.uk is a project that provides free resources to support teaching and learning in a variety of subjects including maths and geography, often in a cross-curricular way. Via the project website, it is possible,…

  9. Use of a safety climate questionnaire in UK health care: factor structure, reliability and usability.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, A; Cooper, K L; Dean, J E; McIntosh, A; Patterson, M; Stride, C B; Laurence, B E; Smith, C M

    2006-10-01

    To explore the factor structure, reliability, and potential usefulness of a patient safety climate questionnaire in UK health care. Four acute hospital trusts and nine primary care trusts in England. The questionnaire used was the 27 item Teamwork and Safety Climate Survey. Thirty three healthcare staff commented on the wording and relevance. The questionnaire was then sent to 3650 staff within the 13 NHS trusts, seeking to achieve at least 600 responses as the basis for the factor analysis. 1307 questionnaires were returned (36% response). Factor analyses and reliability analyses were carried out on 897 responses from staff involved in direct patient care, to explore how consistently the questions measured the underlying constructs of safety climate and teamwork. Some questionnaire items related to multiple factors or did not relate strongly to any factor. Five items were discarded. Two teamwork factors were derived from the remaining 11 teamwork items and three safety climate factors were derived from the remaining 11 safety items. Internal consistency reliabilities were satisfactory to good (Cronbach's alpha > or =0.69 for all five factors). This is one of the few studies to undertake a detailed evaluation of a patient safety climate questionnaire in UK health care and possibly the first to do so in primary as well as secondary care. The results indicate that a 22 item version of this safety climate questionnaire is useable as a research instrument in both settings, but also demonstrates a more general need for thorough validation of safety climate questionnaires before widespread usage.

  10. Predictors of Word-Reading Ability in 7-Year-Olds: Analysis of Data from a U.K. Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ryder, Denise; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm

    2018-01-01

    Previous U.K. population-based studies have found associations amongst early speech and language difficulties, socioeconomic disadvantage and children's word-reading ability later on. We examine the strength of these associations in a recent U.K. population-based birth cohort. Analyses were based on 13,680 participants. Linear regression models…

  11. Secondary School Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    This report on secondary school dropouts consists of an analysis of the scope and nature of the dropout problem, a discussion of successful programs and activities for dropouts, a description of a pilot study involving Minnesota public secondary schools and Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) agencies, and presentation of…

  12. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptom-based phenotypes in two clinical cohorts of adult patients in the UK and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Collin, Simon M; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Heron, Jon; Knoop, Hans; White, Peter D; Crawley, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Studies have provided evidence of heterogeneity within chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but few have used data from large cohorts of CFS patients or replication samples. 29 UK secondary-care CFS services recorded the presence/absence of 12 CFS-related symptoms; 8 of these symptoms were recorded by a Dutch tertiary service. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to assign symptom profiles (phenotypes). Regression models were fitted with phenotype as outcome (in relation to age, sex, BMI, duration of illness) and exposure (in relation to comorbidities and patient-reported measures). Data were available for 7041 UK and 1392 Dutch patients. Almost all patients in both cohorts presented with post-exertional malaise, cognitive dysfunction and disturbed/unrefreshing sleep, and these 3 symptoms were excluded from LCA. In UK patients, six phenotypes emerged: 'full' polysymptomatic (median 8, IQR 7-9 symptoms) 32.8%; 'pain-only' (muscle/joint) 20.3%; 'sore throat/painful lymph node' 4.5%; and 'oligosymptomatic' (median 1, IQR 0-2 symptoms) 4.7%. Two 'partial' polysymptomatic phenotypes were similar to the 'full' phenotype, bar absence of dizziness/nausea/palpitations (21.4%) or sore throat/painful lymph nodes (16.3%). Women and patients with longer duration of illness were more likely to be polysymptomatic. Polysymptomatic patients had more severe illness and more comorbidities. LCA restricted to 5 symptoms recorded in both cohorts indicated 3 classes (polysymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, pain-only), which were replicated in Dutch data. Adults with CFS may have one of 6 symptom-based phenotypes associated with sex, duration and severity of illness, and comorbidity. Future research needs to determine whether phenotypes predict treatment outcomes, and require different treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. No place called home: the causes and social consequences of the UK housing 'bubble'.

    PubMed

    Bone, John; O'Reilly, Karen

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the key causes and social consequences of the much debated UK 'housing bubble' and its aftermath from a multidimensional sociological approach, as opposed to the economic perspective of many popular discussions. This is a phenomenon that has affected numerous economies in the first decade of the new millennium. The discussion is based on a comprehensive study that includes exhaustive analysis of secondary data, content and debate in the mass media and academia, primary data gathered from the monitoring of weblogs and forums debating housing issues, and case histories of individuals experiencing housing difficulties during this period. This paper is intended to provide a broad overview of the key findings and preliminary analysis of this ongoing study, and is informed by a perspective which considers secure and affordable housing to be an essential foundation of stable and cohesive societies, with its absence contributing to a range of social ills that negatively impact on both individual and collective well being. Overall, it is argued that we must return to viewing decent, affordable housing as an essential social resource, that provides the bedrock of stable individual, family and community life, while recognizing that its increasing treatment as a purely economic asset is a key contributor to our so-called 'broken society'.

  14. Reorganization of secondary medical care in the Israeli Defense Forces Medical Corps: A cost-effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Yagil, Yael; Arnon, Ronen; Ezra, Vered; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2006-12-01

    To increase accessibility and availability of secondary medical care, 10 secondary unit specialist clinics were established side-by-side with five existing regional specialist centers, thus achieving decentralization. The purpose was to analyze the impact of this reorganization on overall consumption of secondary medical care and expenditures. Consumption of secondary medical care was analyzed by using computerized clinic and Medical Corps databases. Functional efficiency and budgetary expenditures were evaluated in four representative unit specialist clinics. The reorganization resulted in an 8% increase in total secondary care consumption over 2.5 years. The establishment of unit specialist clinics did not achieve increased accessibility or availability for military personnel. Functional analysis of representative unit specialist clinics showed diversity in efficiency, differences in physicians' performance, and excess expenditures. The decentralizing reorganization of secondary medical care generated an increase in medical care consumption, possibly because of supply-induced demand. The uniform inefficiency of the unit specialist clinics might have been related to incorrect planning and management. The decentralization of secondary medical care within the Israeli Defense Forces has not proved to be cost-efficient.

  15. How policy can help develop and sustain workforce capacity in UK dementia research: insights from a career tracking analysis and stakeholder interviews.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Lichten, Catherine A; Robin, Enora; Parks, Sarah; Harte, Emma; MacLure, Calum; Walton, Clare; Pickett, James

    2016-08-31

    To identify research support strategies likely to be effective for strengthening the UK's dementia research landscape and ensuring a sustainable and competitive workforce. Interviews and qualitative analysis; systematic internet search to track the careers of 1500 holders of UK doctoral degrees in dementia, awarded during 1970-2013, to examine retention in this research field and provide a proxy profile of the research workforce. 40 interviewees based in the UK, whose primary role is or has been in dementia research (34 individuals), health or social care (3) or research funding (3). Interviewees represented diverse fields, career stages and sectors. While the UK has diverse strengths in dementia research, needs persist for multidisciplinary collaboration, investment in care-related research, supporting research-active clinicians and translation of research findings. There is also a need to better support junior and midlevel career opportunities to ensure a sustainable research pipeline and future leadership. From a sample of 1500 UK doctorate holders who completed a dementia-related thesis in 1970-2013, we identified current positions for 829 (55%). 651 (43% of 1500) could be traced and identified as still active in research (any field) and 315 (21%) as active in dementia research. Among recent doctoral graduates, nearly 70% left dementia research within 4-6 years of graduation. A dementia research workforce blueprint should consider support for individuals, institutions and networks. A mix of policy interventions are needed, aiming to attract and retain researchers; tackle bottlenecks in career pathways, particularly at early and midcareer stages (eg, scaling-up fellowship opportunities, rising star programmes, bridge-funding, flexible clinical fellowships, leadership training); and encourage research networks (eg, doctoral training centres, succession and sustainability planning). Interventions should also address the need for coordinated investment to improve

  16. How policy can help develop and sustain workforce capacity in UK dementia research: insights from a career tracking analysis and stakeholder interviews

    PubMed Central

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Robin, Enora; Harte, Emma; MacLure, Calum; Walton, Clare; Pickett, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify research support strategies likely to be effective for strengthening the UK's dementia research landscape and ensuring a sustainable and competitive workforce. Design Interviews and qualitative analysis; systematic internet search to track the careers of 1500 holders of UK doctoral degrees in dementia, awarded during 1970–2013, to examine retention in this research field and provide a proxy profile of the research workforce. Setting and participants 40 interviewees based in the UK, whose primary role is or has been in dementia research (34 individuals), health or social care (3) or research funding (3). Interviewees represented diverse fields, career stages and sectors. Results While the UK has diverse strengths in dementia research, needs persist for multidisciplinary collaboration, investment in care-related research, supporting research-active clinicians and translation of research findings. There is also a need to better support junior and midlevel career opportunities to ensure a sustainable research pipeline and future leadership. From a sample of 1500 UK doctorate holders who completed a dementia-related thesis in 1970–2013, we identified current positions for 829 (55%). 651 (43% of 1500) could be traced and identified as still active in research (any field) and 315 (21%) as active in dementia research. Among recent doctoral graduates, nearly 70% left dementia research within 4–6 years of graduation. Conclusions A dementia research workforce blueprint should consider support for individuals, institutions and networks. A mix of policy interventions are needed, aiming to attract and retain researchers; tackle bottlenecks in career pathways, particularly at early and midcareer stages (eg, scaling-up fellowship opportunities, rising star programmes, bridge-funding, flexible clinical fellowships, leadership training); and encourage research networks (eg, doctoral training centres, succession and sustainability planning

  17. A U.K. cost-benefit analysis of circles of support and accountability interventions.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ian A; Beech, Anthony R

    2013-06-01

    Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA) aim to augment sex offender risk management at the point of community reentry by facilitating "Circles" of volunteers who provide support, guidance, and advice, while ensuring that the offender remains accountable for their actions. In this study, the authors provide (a) a rapid evidence assessment of the effectiveness of CoSA in reducing reoffending, and (b) a U.K. cost-benefit analysis for CoSA when compared to the criminal justice costs of reoffending. From the study analysis, the average cost of a "Circle" was estimated to be £11,303 per annum and appears to produce a 50% reduction in reoffending (sexual and nonsexual), as the estimated cost of reoffending was estimated to be £147,161 per offender, per annum. Based on a hypothetical cohort of 100 offenders--50 of whom receive CoSA and 50 of whom do not--investment in CoSA appears to provide a cost saving of £23,494 and a benefit-cost ratio of 1.04. Accounting for estimates that the full extent of the cost to society may be 5 to 10 times the tangible costs substantially increases estimated cost savings related to CoSA.

  18. Secondary Chemistry School Teachers Working in Tertiary Education Chemistry Departments; Critical Reflections on the Positives and Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, S. R.; Harrison, T. G.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Several UK University Chemistry Departments have former secondary school chemistry teachers employed as School Teacher Fellows (STF) who are heavily involved in outreach work and a range of teaching responsibilities. This study looks at the outreach role from the point of view of several of the STFs; the benefits, and the barriers and how this…

  19. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is different in children compared to in adults: a study of UK and Dutch clinical cohorts.

    PubMed

    Collin, Simon M; Nuevo, Roberto; van de Putte, Elise M; Nijhof, Sanne L; Crawley, Esther

    2015-10-28

    To investigate differences between young children, adolescents and adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Comparison of clinical cohorts from 8 paediatric and 27 adult CFS/ME services in the UK and a paediatric randomised controlled trial from the Netherlands. Outcome measures include: fatigue (the UK-Chalder Fatigue Scale); Disability (the UK-SF-36 physical function subscale; the Netherlands-CHQ-CF87); school attendance, pain, anxiety and depression (the UK-Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Spence Children's Anxiety Scale; the Netherlands-Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Children's Depression Inventory); symptoms; time-to-assessment; and body mass index. We used multinomial regression to compare younger (aged <12 years) and older (aged 12-18 years) children with adults, and logistic regression to compare UK and Dutch adolescents. Younger children had a more equal gender balance compared to adolescents and adults. Adults had more disability and fatigue, and had been ill for longer. Younger children were less likely to have cognitive symptoms (OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.25)) and more likely to present with a sore throat (OR 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90). Adolescents were more likely to have headaches (81.1%, OR 1.56 (1.36% to 1.80%)) and less likely to have tender lymph nodes, palpitations, dizziness, general malaise and pain, compared to adults. Adolescents were more likely to have comorbid depression (OR 1.51 (1.33 to 1.72)) and less likely to have anxiety (OR 0.46 (0.41 to 0.53)) compared to adults. Paediatricians need to recognise that children with CFS/ME present differently from adults. Whether these differences reflect an underlying aetiopathology requires further investigation. FITNET trial registration numbers are ISRCTN59878666 and NCT00893438. This paper includes secondary (post-results) analysis of data from this trial, but are unrelated to trial outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  20. The interpersonal work of dental conscious sedation: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Stephen M; Chadwick, Barbara; Pugsley, Lesley

    2017-08-01

    Whilst there is a considerable body of literature examining the pharmacology of conscious sedation, the social tasks required to successfully provide conscious sedation have not been reported. This paper discusses data regarding the interpersonal work integral to effective conscious sedation provision, from a larger qualitative study exploring how patients and clinicians engage with secondary care conscious sedation provided within the UK. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 conscious sedation providers and nine patients within UK-based secondary care sedation settings. Digital audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and subsequently analysed using a constant comparative method within NVivo Data Analysis Software. Four main themes of interpersonal work were reported by participants: displaying care, containing emotions, demonstrating competence and maximizing the effect. This study shows that performing conscious sedation requires more than technical delivery, and involves the projection of attributes in a literal "performance." The importance of managing outward emotional appearance reflects previous dental research. The need to manage outward appearance, and the emotional impact this has, is of relevance to all clinicians. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Secondary Analysis of the "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyo, Grace; Skybo, Theresa; Carroll, Alisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is preventable; however, an estimated 21-74 per 100,000 children worldwide are victims annually. This study examined the effectiveness of an SBS prevention program in the US. Methods: A descriptive, secondary analysis of the Prevent Child Abuse Ohio (PCAO) "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS education program…

  2. Impacts of maintenance dredged material disposal on macrobenthic structure and secondary productivity.

    PubMed

    Bolam, S G; Barry, J; Bolam, T; Mason, C; Rumney, H S; Thain, J E; Law, R J

    2011-10-01

    The results of a monitoring programme to assess the spatial impacts associated with ongoing dredged material disposal activity at a dispersive, coastal disposal site (southwest UK) are described. Benthic impacts were assessed using benthic community structure and secondary productivity estimates. Analyses of univariate indices (including secondary production) and multivariate community structure revealed differences between stations inside and those outside the disposal site were minimal. Generally, stations within and outside the disposal site were characterised by the same species. Regression models indicated that the variability in biological structure and secondary production was predominantly accounted for by natural variables (e.g., depth, sediment granulometry) with only a small amount of residual variability being due to contaminant variables. Thus, the elevated levels of certain contaminants in the vicinity of the disposal area were not sufficient to result in significant ecological or ecotoxicological changes. We ascribe such findings partly to the dispersive nature of the disposal site. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The multiple imputation method: a case study involving secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Walani, Salimah R; Cleland, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate with the example of a secondary data analysis study the use of the multiple imputation method to replace missing data. Most large public datasets have missing data, which need to be handled by researchers conducting secondary data analysis studies. Multiple imputation is a technique widely used to replace missing values while preserving the sample size and sampling variability of the data. The 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. The authors created a model to impute missing values using the chained equation method. They used imputation diagnostics procedures and conducted regression analysis of imputed data to determine the differences between the log hourly wages of internationally educated and US-educated registered nurses. The authors used multiple imputation procedures to replace missing values in a large dataset with 29,059 observations. Five multiple imputed datasets were created. Imputation diagnostics using time series and density plots showed that imputation was successful. The authors also present an example of the use of multiple imputed datasets to conduct regression analysis to answer a substantive research question. Multiple imputation is a powerful technique for imputing missing values in large datasets while preserving the sample size and variance of the data. Even though the chained equation method involves complex statistical computations, recent innovations in software and computation have made it possible for researchers to conduct this technique on large datasets. The authors recommend nurse researchers use multiple imputation methods for handling missing data to improve the statistical power and external validity of their studies.

  4. Doping in sport: an analysis of sanctioned UK rugby union players between 2009 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S

    2017-08-01

    To inform anti-doping policy and practice, it is important to understand the complexities of doping. The purpose of this study was to collate and systematically examine the reasoned decisions published by UK Anti-Doping for doping sanctions in rugby union in the UK since the introduction of the 2009 World Anti-Doping Code. Case files were content analysed to extract demographic information and details relating to the anti-doping rule violation (ADRV), including individuals' explanations for how/why the ADRV occurred. Between 2009 and 2015, 49 rugby union players and one coach from across the UK were sanctioned. Over 50% of the cases involved players under the age of 25, competing at sub-elite levels. Reasons in defence of the ADRV focused on functional use and lifestyle factors rather than performance enhancement. An a priori assessment of the "need", "risk" and "consequence" of using a substance was not commonplace; further strengthening calls for increasing the reach of anti-doping education. The findings also deconstruct the view that "doped" athletes are the same. Consequently, deepening understanding of the social and cultural conditions that encourage doping remains a priority.

  5. Carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minx, Jan; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Wiedmann, Thomas; Barrett, John; Creutzig, Felix; Feng, Kuishuang; Förster, Michael; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    A growing body of literature discusses the CO2 emissions of cities. Still, little is known about emission patterns across density gradients from remote rural places to highly urbanized areas, the drivers behind those emission patterns and the global emissions triggered by consumption in human settlements—referred to here as the carbon footprint. In this letter we use a hybrid method for estimating the carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK explicitly linking global supply chains to local consumption activities and associated lifestyles. This analysis comprises all areas in the UK, whether rural or urban. We compare our consumption-based results with extended territorial CO2 emission estimates and analyse the driving forces that determine the carbon footprint of human settlements in the UK. Our results show that 90% of the human settlements in the UK are net importers of CO2 emissions. Consumption-based CO2 emissions are much more homogeneous than extended territorial emissions. Both the highest and lowest carbon footprints can be found in urban areas, but the carbon footprint is consistently higher relative to extended territorial CO2 emissions in urban as opposed to rural settlement types. The impact of high or low density living remains limited; instead, carbon footprints can be comparatively high or low across density gradients depending on the location-specific socio-demographic, infrastructural and geographic characteristics of the area under consideration. We show that the carbon footprint of cities and other human settlements in the UK is mainly determined by socio-economic rather than geographic and infrastructural drivers at the spatial aggregation of our analysis. It increases with growing income, education and car ownership as well as decreasing household size. Income is not more important than most other socio-economic determinants of the carbon footprint. Possibly, the relationship between lifestyles and infrastructure only

  6. Management of shoulder pain by UK general practitioners (GPs): a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Majid; van der Windt, Danielle A; Afolabi, Ebenezer K; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Chesterton, Linda S; Hall, Alison; Roddy, Edward; Foster, Nadine E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Studies in Canada, the USA and Australia suggested low confidence among general practitioners (GPs) in diagnosing and managing shoulder pain, with frequent use of investigations. There are no comparable studies in the UK; our objective was to describe the diagnosis and management of shoulder pain by GPs in the UK. Methods A national survey of a random sample of 5000 UK GPs collected data on shoulder pain diagnosis and management using two clinical vignettes that described primary care presentations with rotator cuff tendinopathy (RCT) and adhesive capsulitis (AdhC). Results Seven hundred and fourteen (14.7%) responses were received. 56% and 83% of GPs were confident in their diagnosis of RCT and AdhC, respectively, and a wide range of investigations and management options were reported. For the RCT presentation, plain radiographs of the shoulder were most common (60%), followed by blood tests (42%) and ultrasound scans (USS) (38%). 19% of those who recommended a radiograph and 76% of those who recommended a USS did so ‘to confirm the diagnosis’. For the AdhC presentation, the most common investigations were blood tests (60%), plain shoulder radiographs (58%) and USS (31%). More than two-thirds of those recommending a USS did so ‘to confirm the diagnosis’. The most commonly recommended treatment for both presentations was physiotherapy (RCT 77%, AdhC 71%) followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (RCT 58%, AdhC 74%). 17% opted to refer the RCT to secondary care (most often musculoskeletal interface service), compared with 31% for the AdhC. Conclusions This survey of GPs in the UK highlights reliance on radiographs and blood tests in the management of common shoulder pain presentations. GPs report referring more than 7 out of 10 patients with RCT and AdhC to physiotherapists. These findings need to be viewed in the context of low response to the survey and, therefore, potential non-response bias. PMID:28637737

  7. A qualitative study of independent fast food vendors near secondary schools in disadvantaged Scottish neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Estrade, Michelle; Dick, Smita; Crawford, Fiona; Jepson, Ruth; Ellaway, Anne; McNeill, Geraldine

    2014-08-04

    Preventing and reducing childhood and adolescent obesity is a growing priority in many countries. Recent UK data suggest that children in more deprived areas have higher rates of obesity and poorer diet quality than those in less deprived areas. As adolescents spend a large proportion of time in school, interventions to improve the food environment in and around schools are being considered. Nutrient standards for school meals are mandatory in the UK, but many secondary pupils purchase foods outside schools at break or lunchtime that may not meet these standards. Qualitative interviews were conducted with fast food shop managers to explore barriers to offering healthier menu options. Recruitment targeted independently-owned shops near secondary schools (pupils aged c.12-17) in low-income areas of three Scottish cities. Ten interviews were completed, recorded, and transcribed for analysis. An inductive qualitative approach was used to analyse the data in NVivo 10. Five themes emerged from the data: pride in what is sold; individual autonomy and responsibility; customer demand; profit margin; and neighbourhood context. Interviewees consistently expressed pride in the foods they sold, most of which were homemade. They felt that healthy eating and general wellbeing are the responsibility of the individual and that offering what customers want to eat, not necessarily what they should eat, was the only way to stay in business. Most vendors felt they were struggling to maintain a profit, and that many aspects of the low-income neighbourhood context would make change difficult or impossible. Independent food shops in low-income areas face barriers to offering healthy food choices, and interventions and policies that target the food environment around schools should take the neighbourhood context into consideration.

  8. Paediatric home care in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Tatman, M A; Woodroffe, C

    1993-01-01

    Paediatric home care services in the UK were ascertained in 1991 and 1992. Respondents from 209 (97%) UK health districts and boards identified 62 general and 124 specialist paediatric home care services by January 1993, 15% having opened in the previous year. Of all UK children, 30% lived in a district with a general home care service. Five health regions had only specialist services. Districts differed widely in the availability of home care for different disorders. The home care services were small, general services employing a mean (SD) of 2.5 (1.6) whole time equivalent (WTE) nurses, and specialist services 1.3 (0.8) WTE nurses. Few services were available 24 hours a day. Funding arrangements were diverse and some services had difficulties in obtaining consumables and equipment for home use. Despite rapid growth there remains considerable scope for the development of paediatric home care throughout the UK. PMID:8285782

  9. The Returns to UK Degrees for Foreign-Educated Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valbuena, Javier; Zhu, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Exploiting information on foreign qualifications for the first time, we estimate the returns to obtaining UK higher degrees for foreign graduates who migrated to the UK in their 20s. Accounting for direct measures of foreign and UK qualifications and country-of-origin fixed effects, we find substantial returns to obtaining UK (higher) degrees on…

  10. Pace, Interactivity and Multimodality in Teachers' Design of Texts for Interactive Whiteboards in the Secondary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewitt, Carey; Moss, Gemma; Cardini, Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Teachers making texts for use in the classroom is nothing new, it is an established aspect of pedagogic practice. The introduction of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) into UK secondary schools has, however, impacted on this practice in a number of ways. Changes in the site of design and display--from the printed page or worksheet and the blackboard…

  11. An Analysis of Foster Care Placement History and Post-Secondary Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Angelique; Dworsky, Amy; Feng, Wenning

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has document significant disparities in post-secondary educational attainment between young adults who had been in foster care and their peers in the general population. This study uses survival analysis to compare the four-year college graduation rate of students who had been in foster care to the graduation rate of first…

  12. Work-Life and Well-Being in U.K. Therapeutic Prison Officers: A Thematic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Emma J; Egan, Helen H; Jackson, Craig A; Tonkin, Matthew

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated the positive impact of therapeutic interventions on offenders' well-being. Much less is known about the impact on prison staff facilitating and delivering such interventions. We employed qualitative methodology to capture a deeper understanding of the work of therapeutic prison officers. Seven prison officers working in a U.K. Category B therapeutic community prison were interviewed about their working lives, including their own participation in therapy. Following a thematic analysis approach, key findings indicated that the physical and cultural work environment was very important to staff; the therapeutic element of their job role, although demanding, was both satisfying and rewarding; and that working in a therapeutic prison environment provided the opportunity for personal as well as professional development. We conclude that further attention should be given to the unique nature of therapeutic prison work and the positive impact it can have on well-being at work.

  13. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    PubMed

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Voice hearing: a secondary analysis of talk by people who hear voices.

    PubMed

    Jones, Malcolm; Coffey, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Unitary explanations of mental illness symptoms appear to be inadequate when faced with everyday experiences of living with these conditions. In particular, the experience of voice hearing is not sufficiently accounted for by biomedical explanations. This paper revisits data collected from a sample of people who hear voices to perform a secondary analysis with the aim of examining the explanatory devices deployed by individuals in their accounts of voice hearing. Secondary analysis is the use of existing data, collected for a previous study, in order to explore a research question distinct from the original inquiry. In this study, we subjected these data to a thematic analysis. People who hear voices make use of standard psychiatric explanations about the experience in their accounts. However, the accounts paint a more complex picture and show that people also impute personal meaning to the experience. This in turn implicates both personal and social identity; that is, how the person is known to themselves and to others. We suggest that this knowledge can inform a more thoughtful engagement with the experiences of voice hearing by mental health nurses. © 2011 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. The cost-effectiveness of etanercept in patients with severe ankylosing spondylitis in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ara, R M; Reynolds, A V; Conway, P

    2007-08-01

    To examine the costs and benefits associated with long-term etanercept (ETN) treatment in patients with severe ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the UK in accordance with the BSR guidelines. A mathematical model was constructed to estimate the costs and benefits associated with ETN plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) compared with NSAIDs alone. Individual patient data from Phase III RCTs was used to inform the proportion and magnitude of initial response to treatment and changes in health-related quality of life. A retrospective costing exercise on patients attending a UK secondary care rheumatology unit was used to inform disease costs. Published evidence on long-term disease progression was extrapolated over a 25-yr horizon. Uncertainty was examined using probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Over a 25-yr horizon, ETN plus NSAIDs gave 1.58 more QALYs at an additional cost of 35,978 pounds when compared with NSAID treatment alone. This equates to a central estimate of 22,700 pounds per QALY. The incremental cost per QALYs using shorter time periods were 27,600 pounds, 23,600 pounds and 22,600 pounds at 2, 5 and 15 yrs, respectively. Using a 25-yr horizon, 93% of results from the probabilistic analyses fall below a threshold of 25,000 pounds per QALY. This study demonstrates the potential cost-effectiveness of ETN plus NSAIDs compared with NSAIDs alone in patients with severe AS treated according to the BSR guidelines in the UK.

  16. Physical employment standards for U.K. fire and rescue service personnel.

    PubMed

    Blacker, S D; Rayson, M P; Wilkinson, D M; Carter, J M; Nevill, A M; Richmond, V L

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based physical employment standards are vital for recruiting, training and maintaining the operational effectiveness of personnel in physically demanding occupations. (i) Develop criterion tests for in-service physical assessment, which simulate the role-related physical demands of UK fire and rescue service (UK FRS) personnel. (ii) Develop practical physical selection tests for FRS applicants. (iii) Evaluate the validity of the selection tests to predict criterion test performance. Stage 1: we conducted a physical demands analysis involving seven workshops and an expert panel to document the key physical tasks required of UK FRS personnel and to develop 'criterion' and 'selection' tests. Stage 2: we measured the performance of 137 trainee and 50 trained UK FRS personnel on selection, criterion and 'field' measures of aerobic power, strength and body size. Statistical models were developed to predict criterion test performance. Stage 3: matter experts derived minimum performance standards. We developed single person simulations of the key physical tasks required of UK FRS personnel as criterion and selection tests (rural fire, domestic fire, ladder lift, ladder extension, ladder climb, pump assembly, enclosed space search). Selection tests were marginally stronger predictors of criterion test performance (r = 0.88-0.94, 95% Limits of Agreement [LoA] 7.6-14.0%) than field test scores (r = 0.84-0.94, 95% LoA 8.0-19.8%) and offered greater face and content validity and more practical implementation. This study outlines the development of role-related, gender-free physical employment tests for the UK FRS, which conform to equal opportunities law. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Saunier, S.; Choate, M.J.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite data from the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom (UK) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) were assessed for geometric and radiometric quality. The UK-DMC Surrey Linear Imager 6 (SLIM-6) sensor has a 32-m spatial resolution and a ground swath width of 640 km. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 design consists of a three-band imager with green, red, and near-infrared bands that are set to similar bandpass as Landsat bands 2, 3, and 4. The UK-DMC data consisted of imagery registered to Landsat orthorectified imagery produced from the GeoCover program. Relief displacements within the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery were accounted for by using global 1-km digital elevation models available through the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project. Positional accuracy and relative band-to-band accuracy were measured. Positional accuracy of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), which are designed to meet national map accuracy standards at 1 : 24 000 scales; this corresponds to a horizontal root-mean-square accuracy of about 6 m. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 images were typically registered to within 1.0-1.5 pixels to the DOQ mosaic images. Several radiometric artifacts like striping, coherent noise, and flat detector were discovered and studied. Indications are that the SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data have few artifacts and calibration challenges, and these can be adjusted or corrected via calibration and processing algorithms. The cross-calibration of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was performed using image statistics derived from large common areas observed by the two sensors.

  18. Participation in Lifelong Learning in Portugal and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Hilary; Ingham, Mike; Afonso, José Adelino

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a long-standing European Union priority, with an emphasis on the need for it to be pursued by all, but particularly those at the risk of exclusion. This study explores participation in Portugal and the UK, countries at opposite ends of the European adult learning spectrum with markedly different contexts. Analysis reveals that…

  19. Burden of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) - focus on the UK.

    PubMed

    Speakman, Mark; Kirby, Roger; Doyle, Scott; Ioannou, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can be bothersome and negatively impact on a patient's quality of life (QoL). As the prevalence of LUTS/BPH increases with age, the burden on the healthcare system and society may increase due to the ageing population. This review unifies literature on the burden of LUTS/BPH on patients and society, particularly in the UK. LUTS/BPH is associated with high personal and societal costs, both in direct medical costs and indirect losses in daily functioning, and through its negative impact on QoL for patients and partners. LUTS/BPH is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Men should be encouraged to seek medical advice for this condition and should not accept it as part of ageing, while clinicians should be more active in the identification and treatment of LUTS/BPH. To assess the burden of illness and unmet need arising from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) presumed secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from an individual patient and societal perspective with a focus on the UK. Embase, PubMed, the World Health Organization, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were searched to identify studies on the epidemiological, humanistic or economic burden of LUTS/BPH published in English between October 2001 and January 2013. Data were extracted and the quality of the studies was assessed for inclusion. UK data were reported; in the absence of UK data, European and USA data were provided. In all, 374 abstracts were identified, 104 full papers were assessed and 33 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. An additional paper was included in the review upon a revision in 2014. The papers show that LUTS are common in the UK, affecting ≈3% of men aged 45-49 years, rising to >30% in men aged ≥85 years. European and USA studies have reported the major impact of LUTS on quality of life of the patient

  20. Subsynoptic-scale features associated with extreme surface gusts in UK extratropical cyclone events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, N.; Dorling, S.; Starks, M.; Finch, R.

    2017-04-01

    Numerous studies have addressed the mesoscale features within extratropical cyclones (ETCs) that are responsible for the most destructive winds, though few have utilized surface observation data, and most are based on case studies. By using a 39-station UK surface observation network, coupled with in-depth analysis of the causes of extreme gusts during the period 2008-2014, we show that larger-scale features (warm and cold conveyer belts) are most commonly associated with the top 1% of UK gusts but smaller-scale features generate the most extreme winds. The cold conveyor belt is far more destructive when joining the momentum of the ETC, rather than earlier in its trajectory, ahead of the approaching warm front. Sting jets and convective lines account for two thirds of severe surface gusts in the UK.

  1. Predicting Secondary School Dropout among South African Adolescents: A Survival Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weybright, Elizabeth H.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Xie, Hui; Wegner, Lisa; Smith, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Education is one of the strongest predictors of health worldwide. In South Africa, school dropout is a crisis where by Grade 12, only 52% of the age appropriate population remain enrolled. Survival analysis was used to identify the risk of dropping out of secondary school for male and female adolescents and examine the influence of substance use…

  2. Investigating the Value of Restorative Practice: An Action Research Study of One Boy in a Mixed Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Vicky; Fearon, Colm; Dee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In response to an increasingly high level of exclusion rates for boys within secondary school in the UK, this study seeks to explore the value of restorative practice and justice for changing student behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: As a piece of action research, the authors aimed to look at how methods of restorative practice…

  3. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Russ, Karen

    2010-09-01

    In the UK, a person or organisation that creates risk is required to manage and control that risk so that it is reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' (SFAIRP). How the risk is managed is to be determined by those who create the risk. They have a duty to demonstrate that they have taken action to ensure all risk is reduced SFAIRP and must have documentary evidence, for example a risk assessment or safety case, to prove that they manage the risks their activities create. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) does not tell organisations how to manage the risks they create but does inspect the quality of risk identification and management. This paper gives a brief overview of where responsibility for occupational health and safety lies in the UK, and how risk should be managed through risk assessment. The focus of the paper is three recent major UK incidents, all involving fatalities, and all of which were wholly avoidable if risks had been properly assessed and managed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the common failings of risk assessments and key actions for improvement.

  4. Who thinks what about e‐cigarette regulation? A content analysis of UK newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims To establish how frequently different types of stakeholders were cited in the UK media debate about e‐cigarette regulation, their stances towards different forms of e‐cigarette regulation, and what rationales they employed in justifying those stances. Methods Quantitative and qualitative content analyses of 104 articles about e‐cigarette regulation published in eight UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Results Reporting on e‐cigarette regulation grew significantly (P < 0.001) throughout the sample period. Governments and regulatory bodies were the most frequently cited stakeholders and uniformly supported regulation, while other stakeholders did not always support regulation. Arguments for e‐cigarette regulation greatly outnumbered arguments against regulation. Regulating purchasing age, restricting marketing and regulating e‐cigarettes as medicine were broadly supported, while stakeholders disagreed about prohibiting e‐cigarette use in enclosed public spaces. In rationalizing their stances, supporters of regulation cited child protection and concerns about the safety of e‐cigarette products, while opponents highlighted the potential of e‐cigarettes in tobacco cessation and questioned the evidence base associating e‐cigarette use with health harms. Conclusions In the UK between 2013 and 2014, governments and tobacco control advocates frequently commented on e‐cigarettes in UK‐wide and Scottish national newspapers. Almost all commentators supported e‐cigarette regulation, but there was disagreement about whether e‐cigarette use should be allowed in enclosed public spaces. This appeared to be linked to whether commentators emphasized the harms of vapour and concerns about renormalizing smoking or emphasized the role of e‐cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid. PMID:26802534

  5. Ambivalence and Fluidity in the Teenage Smoking and Quitting Experience: Lessons from a Qualitative Study at an English Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buswell, Marina; Duncan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a school-based stop smoking pilot project and to understand the teenage experience of smoking and quitting within that context. Design: Flexible design methods. Setting: A Kent (United Kingdom [UK]) secondary school. Methods: Semi-structured interviews analyzed following a grounded theory approach. Results: The main themes…

  6. Differences in the pregnancy gestation period and mean birth weights in infants born to Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British mothers in Luton, UK: a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rebecca; Ali, Nasreen; Guppy, Andy; Griffiths, Malcolm; Randhawa, Gurch

    2017-08-11

    To compare mean birth weights and gestational age at delivery of infants born to Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British mothers in Luton, UK. Retrospective analysis using routinely recorded secondary data in Ciconia Maternity information System, between 2008 and 2013. Luton, UK. Mothers whose ethnicity was recorded as white British, Bangladeshi, Pakistani or Indian and living in Luton, aged over 16, who had a live singleton birth over 24 weeks of gestation were included in the analysis (n=14 871). Primary outcome measures were mean birth weight and gestational age at delivery. After controlling for maternal age, smoking, diabetes, gestation age, parity and maternal height and body mass index at booking, a significant difference in infants' mean birth weight was found between white British and Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi infants, F(3, 12 287)=300.32, p<0.0001. The partial Eta-squared for maternal ethnicity was η 2 =0.067. The adjusted mean birth weight for white British infants was found to be 3377.89 g (95% CI 3365.34 to 3390.44); Indian infants, 3033.09 g (95% CI 3038.63 to 3103.55); Pakistani infants, 3129.49 g (95% CI 3114.5 to 3144.48); and Bangladeshi infants, 3064.21 g (95% CI 3041.36 to 3087.06). There was a significant association in preterm delivery found in primipara Indian mothers, compared with Indian mothers (Wald=8.192, df 1, p<0.005). Results show important differences in adjusted mean birth weight between Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British women. Moreover, an association was found between primipara Indian mothers and preterm delivery, when compared with Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. UK GPs' and practice nurses' views of continuity of care for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alazri, Mohammed H; Heywood, Philip; Neal, Richard D; Leese, Brenda

    2007-04-01

    Continuity of care is widely regarded as a core value of primary care. Type 2 diabetes is a common chronic disease with major health, social and economic impacts. Primary health care professionals in many countries are involved in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes, but their perspectives on continuity remain neglected in research. To explore UK GPs' and nurses' experiences of continuity of care for patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care settings. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 16 GPs and 18 practice nurses who manage patients with type 2 diabetes recruited from 20 practices with various organizational structures in Leeds, UK. Three types of continuities were identified: relational continuity from the same health care professional, team continuity from a group of health care professionals and cross-boundary continuity across primary-secondary care settings. Relational continuity was influenced by the quality of the patient-health care professional relationship, policy of the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK (new General Medical Services contract), walk-in centres, the behaviour of receptionists and the structure and systems of the practice. Team and cross-boundary continuities were influenced by the relationship between team members and by effective communication. Relational continuity contributed to more 'personal care', but the usual health care professional might know less about diabetes. Team continuity was important in providing 'physical care', but patients could be confused by conflicting advice from different professionals. Cross-boundary continuity helps to provide 'expert advice', but is dependent upon effective communication. GPs and practice nurses dealing with patients with type 2 diabetes identified three types of continuities, each influenced by several factors. Relational continuity deals better with psychosocial care while team continuity promotes better physical care; therefore, imposing one

  8. Secondary school teachers' attitudes towards and beliefs about ability grouping.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Susan; Ireson, Judith

    2003-09-01

    Internationally and historically considerable research has been undertaken regarding the attitudes of secondary school teachers towards different types of ability grouping. There has been no recent research taking account of the changing educational context in the UK. This paper aims to explore secondary school teachers' attitudes and beliefs about ability grouping taking account of school type, gender, experience and qualifications. The sample comprised over 1,500 teachers from 45 schools divided into three groups based on their ability grouping practices in years 7-9 (the students were aged 11-14). The sample included all the lower school teachers of mathematics, science and English and a random sample of teachers from other subjects in each school. Teachers responded to a questionnaire which explored their attitudes towards ability grouping through the use of rating scales and open-ended questions. The findings showed that the teachers' beliefs broadly reflected research findings on the actual effects of ability grouping, although there were significant differences relating to the type of school they taught in and the subject that they taught. Separate analysis of school types showed that length of time teaching, individual school differences and teacher qualifications were also significant predictors of attitudes. Teachers' beliefs about ability grouping are influenced by the type of groupings adopted in the school where they work, the subject that they teach, their experience and qualifications. As pedagogical practices are known to be influenced by beliefs these findings have important implications for teacher training.

  9. Secondary analysis of a scoping review of health promotion interventions for persons with disabilities: Do health promotion interventions for people with mobility impairments address secondary condition reduction and increased community participation?

    PubMed

    White, Glen W; Gonda, Chiaki; Peterson, Jana J; Drum, Charles E

    2011-04-01

    Secondary conditions can have very serious outcomes for people with physical disabilities. Such consequences can range from immobility due to pressure sores to withdrawal and isolation due to depression, decreasing participation in the community. To further investigate these assumptions, we conducted a review of the literature on health promotion interventions that include physical activity for adults with disabilities to determine whether they have a positive effect on the reduction of secondary conditions and increased community participation. We conducted a secondary analysis of the results of a scoping review of health promotion programs containing physical activity for people with mobility impairments (N = 5). This secondary analysis examined the relationship between health promotion containing physical activity and prevention of secondary conditions among people with various physical disabilities. We further examined evidence and effects of independent variables on the outcome of increased community participation for study participants. The outcomes from this investigation are varied, with 2 studies providing evidence of reducing secondary conditions while another shared anecdotal statements referencing a decrease in secondary conditions. Of the remaining 2 studies in this paper, 1 showed no intervention effect on reducing secondary conditions while the remaining study reported an increase in secondary conditions. Regarding increased participation in the community, 2 of 5 studies directly reported on these outcomes, while increased community participation was referenced in another 2 articles, but without any data presented. The final study did not report on any post intervention in the community. This review demonstrates that research on health promotion interventions containing physical activity lack description about whether such interventions help reduce or prevent secondary conditions. Additionally, the review shows that further work is needed in terms of

  10. Observation and Analysis of Secondary Eclipses of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joesph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Matthew O.; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2014-11-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 +/- 0.07 Mj, a radius of 1.18 +/- 0.07 Rj, and an orbital period of 2.71865 +/- 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurements as well as amatuer and professional data. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  11. Overseas trained nurses' perception of UK nurses' caring attitudes: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Obrey

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore overseas nurses' perception of their nursing colleagues' caring attitudes in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. A qualitative phenomenological approach using semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from 12 overseas nurses. The interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim and analysed using van Manen thematic approach. Although many themes emerged following thematic analysis, this study will report the findings of three themes such as empathy, understanding and caring perspectives, emotional impact and lack of teamwork. In conclusion, this study provides an insight and it increases our understanding of overseas nurses' perceptions of their nursing colleagues' caring attitudes in the NHS in the UK. This paper concludes by indicating that teamwork, being empathetic, understanding and reducing emotional labour for overseas nurses could lead to a more satisfied working environment for overseas nurses in the NHS in the UK.

  12. Science education reforms in the UK.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    As children return to school at the end of the summer in the UK, planned reforms aim to increase their science and maths literacy. A comprehensive foundation in these essential subjects is necessary to ensure that the UK remains at the forefront of science and technology for decades to come.

  13. Meta-Analysis of Dengue Severity during Infection by Different Dengue Virus Serotypes in Primary and Secondary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Bahariah; Ching, Siew-Mooi; Chee, Hui-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dengue virus (DENV) infection is currently a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world; it has become more common and virulent over the past half-century and has gained much attention. Thus, this review compared the percentage of severe cases of both primary and secondary infections with different serotypes of dengue virus. Methods Data related to the number of cases involving dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or severe dengue infections caused by different serotypes of dengue virus were obtained by using the SCOPUS, the PUBMED and the OVID search engines with the keywords “(dengue* OR dengue virus*) AND (severe dengue* OR severity of illness index* OR severity* OR DF* OR DHF* OR DSS*) AND (serotypes* OR serogroup*)”, according to the MESH terms suggested by PUBMED and OVID. Results Approximately 31 studies encompassing 15,741 cases reporting on the dengue serotypes together with their severity were obtained, and meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the data. This study found that DENV-3 from the Southeast Asia (SEA) region displayed the greatest percentage of severe cases in primary infection (95% confidence interval (CI), 31.22–53.67, 9 studies, n = 598, I2 = 71.53%), whereas DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 from the SEA region, as well as DENV-2 and DENV-3 from non-SEA regions, exhibited the greatest percentage of severe cases in secondary infection (95% CI, 11.64–80.89, 4–14 studies, n = 668–3,149, I2 = 14.77–96.20%). Moreover, DENV-2 and DENV-4 from the SEA region had been found to be more highly associated with dengue shock syndrome (DSS) (95% CI, 10.47–40.24, 5–8 studies, n = 642–2,530, I2 = 76.93–97.70%), while DENV-3 and DENV-4 from the SEA region were found to be more highly associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (95% CI, 31.86–54.58, 9 studies, n = 674–2,278, I2 = 55.74–88.47%), according to the 1997 WHO dengue classification. Finally, DENV-2 and DENV-4

  14. A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-12-01

    This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb

  15. Current status of kilovoltage (kV) radiotherapy in the UK: installed equipment, clinical workload, physics quality control and radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Antony L; Pearson, Michael; Whittard, Paul; McHugh, Katie E; Eaton, David J

    2016-12-01

    To assess the status and practice of kilovoltage (kV) radiotherapy in the UK. 96% of the radiotherapy centres in the UK responded to a comprehensive survey. An analysis of the installed equipment base, patient numbers, clinical treatment sites, quality control (QC) testing and radiation dosimetry processes were undertaken. 73% of UK centres have at least one kV treatment unit, with 58 units installed across the UK. Although 35% of units are over 10 years old, 39% units have been installed in the last 5 years. Approximately 6000 patients are treated with kV units in the UK each year, the most common site (44%) being basal cell carcinoma. A benchmark of QC practice in the UK is presented, against which individual centres can compare their procedures, frequency of testing and acceptable tolerance values. We propose the use of internal "notification" and "suspension" levels for analysis. All surveyed centres were using recommended Codes of Practice for kV dosimetry in the UK; approximately the same number using in-air and in-water methodologies for medium energy, with two-thirds of all centres citing "clinical relevance" as the reason for choice of code. 64% of centres had hosted an external dosimetry audit within the last 3 years, with only one centre never being independently audited. The majority of centres use locally measured applicator factors and published backscatter factors for treatments. Monitor unit calculations are performed using software in only 36% of centres. A comprehensive review of current kV practice in the UK is presented. Advances in knowledge: Data and discussion on contemporary kV radiotherapy in the UK, with a particular focus on physics aspects.

  16. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Michelle L; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-06-06

    Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008-2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson's policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler's health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon's multiples streams model of the policymaking process. The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK's international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support from the Prime Minister and from the

  17. Rotavirus vaccine impact and socioeconomic deprivation: an interrupted time-series analysis of gastrointestinal disease outcomes across primary and secondary care in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; Read, Jonathan M; Iturriza-Gόmara, Miren; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2018-01-29

    Rotavirus causes severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The UK introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in July 2013. Vaccination is free of charge to parents, with two doses delivered at 8 and 12 weeks of age. We evaluated vaccine impact across a health system in relation to socioeconomic deprivation. We used interrupted time-series analyses to assess changes in monthly health-care attendances in Merseyside, UK, for all ages, from July 2013 to June 2016, compared to predicted counterfactual attendances without vaccination spanning 3-11 years pre-vaccine. Outcome measures included laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalisations, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalisations, emergency department (ED) attendances for gastrointestinal conditions and consultations for infectious gastroenteritis at community walk-in centres (WIC) and general practices (GP). All analyses were stratified by age. Hospitalisations were additionally stratified by vaccine uptake and small-area-level socioeconomic deprivation. The uptake of the first and second doses of rotavirus vaccine was 91.4% (29,108/31,836) and 86.7% (27,594/31,836), respectively. Among children aged < 5 years, the incidence of gastrointestinal disease decreased across all outcomes post-vaccine introduction: 80% (95% confidence interval [CI] 70-87%; p < 0.001) for RVGE hospitalisation, 44% (95% CI 35-53%; p < 0.001) for AGE hospitalisations, 23% (95% CI 11-33%; p < 0.001) for ED, 32% (95% CI 7-50%; p = 0.02) for WIC and 13% (95% CI -3-26%; p = 0.10) for GP. The impact was greatest during the rotavirus season and for vaccine-eligible age groups. In adults aged 65+ years, AGE hospitalisations fell by 25% (95% CI 19-30%; p < 0.001). The pre-vaccine risk of AGE hospitalisation was highest in the most socioeconomically deprived communities (adjusted incident rate ratio 1.57; 95% CI 1.51-1.64; p < 0.001), as was the risk for non

  18. The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public.

    PubMed

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Fischer, Arnout R H; Walsh, Marianne C; Gallagher, Caroline; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Kuznesof, Sharon; Frewer, Lynn J; Gibney, Mike J; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2015-04-28

    Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the 'framework approach' described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK.

  19. Identifying the most hazardous synoptic meteorological conditions for Winter UK PM10 exceedences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Chris; Dacre, Helen; Collins, Bill; Masato, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    were all shown to increase UK [PM10] and to increase the probability of exceeding a UK [PM10] threshold, when they occurred within constrained regions. Further analysis highlighted that Omega Block events lead to the greatest probability of exceeding hazardous UK [PM10] limits. These events facilitated the advection of European PM10, while also providing stagnant conditions over the UK, facilitating PM10 accumulation. The Met Office UM was used and nudged to ERA-Interim Reanalysis wind and temperature fields, to replicate the relationships found using observed UK [PM10]. Inert tracers were implemented into the model to replicate UK PM10 source regions throughout Europe. The modelled tracers were seen to correlate well with observed [PM10] and Figure 1 highlights the correlations between a RWB metric and observed (a) and modelled (b) [PM10]. A further free running model simulation highlighted the deficiency of the Met Office UM in capturing RWB frequency, with a reduction over the Northwest Atlantic/ European region. A final time slice simulation was undertaken for the period 2050-2060, using Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, which attempted to determine the change in frequency of UK PM10 exceedance events, due to changing meteorology, in a future climate. Conclusions RWB has been shown to increase UK [PM10] and to lead to greater probabilities of exceeding a harmful [PM10] threshold. Omega block events have been determined the most hazardous RWB subset and this is due to a combination of European advection and UK stagnation. Simulations within the Met Office UM were undertaken and the relationships seen between observed UK [PM10] and RWB were replicated within the model, using inert tracers. Finally, time slice simulations were undertaken, determining the change in frequency of UK [PM10] exceedance events within a changing climate. References Masato, G., Hoskins, B. J., Woolings, T., 2013; Wave-breaking Characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Winter Blocking: A

  20. Campaign 1.7 Pu Aging. Development of Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Venhaus, Thomas J.

    2015-09-09

    The first application of Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to an aged plutonium surface has resulted in a rich set of surface chemistry data, as well as some unexpected results. FY15 was highlighted by not only the first mapping of hydrogen-containing features within the metal, but also a prove-in series of experiments using the system’s Sieverts Reaction Cell. These experiments involved successfully heating the sample to ~450 oC for nearly 24 hours while the sample was dosed several times with hydrogen, followed by an in situ ToF-SIMS analysis. During this year, the data allowed for better and more consistentmore » identification of the myriad peaks that result from the SIMS sputter process. In collaboration with the AWE (U.K), the system was also fully aligned for sputter depth profiling for future experiments.« less

  1. Content analysis of UK newspaper and online news representations of women's and men's 'binge' drinking: a challenge for communicating evidence-based messages about single-episodic drinking?

    PubMed

    Patterson, C; Emslie, C; Mason, O; Fergie, G; Hilton, S

    2016-12-27

    In the UK, men's alcohol-related morbidity and mortality still greatly exceeds women's, despite an increase in women's alcohol consumption in recent decades. New UK alcohol guidelines introduce gender-neutral low-risk alcohol consumption guidance. This study explores how UK newspaper and online news represent women's and men's 'binge' drinking to identify opportunities to better align reporting of harmful drinking with evidence. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 308 articles published in 7 UK national newspapers and the BBC News website between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Articles associated women with 'binge' drinking more frequently than men, and presented women's drinking as more problematic. Men were more frequently characterised as violent or disorderly, while women were characterised as out of control, putting themselves in danger, harming their physical appearance and burdening men. Descriptions of female 'binge' drinkers' clothing and appearance were typically moralistic. The UK news media's disproportionate focus on women's 'binge' drinking is at odds with epidemiological evidence, may reproduce harmful gender stereotypes and may obstruct public understandings of the gender-neutral weekly consumption limits in newly proposed alcohol guidelines. In order to better align reporting of harmful drinking with current evidence, public health advocates may engage with the media with a view to shifting media framing of 'binge' drinking away from specific groups (young people; women) and contexts (public drinking) and towards the health risks of specific drinking behaviours, which affect all groups regardless of context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. The future of learning disabilities nursing in the UK.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Anthony

    2014-07-02

    This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.

  3. Grade Inflation in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachan, Ray

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the continual increase in the proportion of "good" honour degrees awarded by UK universities since the mid-2000s. This trend has brought with it the charge of "grade inflation" that may reflect falling standards in UK higher education. This issue has been raised in the national press and in government which…

  4. The School-to-Work Transition of Canadian Post-Secondary Graduates: A Dynamic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, Ross

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an empirical analysis of the school-to-work transition of Canadian post-secondary graduates based on three waves of the National Graduates Surveys, representing those who successfully completed their programmes at Canadian colleges and universities in 1982, 1986, and 1990. Information was gathered during…

  5. Complete sequence of two tick-borne flaviviruses isolated from Siberia and the UK: analysis and significance of the 5' and 3'-UTRs.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, T S; Venugopal, K; Zanotto, P M; Mikhailov, M V; Sall, A A; Holmes, E C; Polkinghorne, I; Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    1997-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of two tick-transmitted flaviviruses, Vasilchenko (Vs) from Siberia and louping ill (LI) from the UK, have been determined. The genomes were respectively, 10928 and 10871 nucleotides (nt) in length. The coding strategy and functional protein sequence motifs of tick-borne flaviviruses are presented in both Vs and LI viruses. The phylogenies based on maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and distance analysis of the polyproteins, identified Vs virus as a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus subgroup within the tick-borne serocomplex, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Comparative alignment of the 3'-untranslated regions revealed deletions of different lengths essentially at the same position downstream of the stop codon for all tick-borne viruses. Two direct 27 nucleotide repeats at the 3'-end were found only for Vs and LI virus. Immediately following the deletions a region of 332-334 nt with relatively conserved primary structure (67-94% identity) was observed at the 3'-non-coding end of the virus genome. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequence data revealed similar levels of variation between the coding region, and the 5' and 3'-termini of the genome, implying an equivalent strong selective control for translated and untranslated regions. Indeed the predicted folding of the 5' and 3'-untranslated regions revealed patterns of stem and loop structures conserved for all tick-borne flaviviruses suggesting a purifying selection for preservation of essential RNA secondary structures which could be involved in translational control and replication. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Changes in quality of life and psychological need satisfaction following the transition to secondary school.

    PubMed

    Gillison, Fiona; Standage, Martyn; Skevington, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important area for research during adolescence, due to its associations with (1) physical and mental health and (2) the emergence of health risk behaviours. A time that poses a particular threat to QoL is the transition from primary to secondary school. This study aimed to investigate changes in QoL immediately following the transition to secondary school. Using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a conceptual foundation, the relationship between QoL and satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs advanced by SDT (autonomy, competence and relatedness) was explored. The sample comprised 63 Year 7 students (age 11-12 years) attending a UK coeducational secondary school. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires on three occasions over 10 weeks, starting on the second week of term. Change in need satisfaction was used to predict change in QoL, and the possible reciprocal relationship explored using regression analysis. A meaningful improvement in QoL was recorded for 21% of students. Improvements in QoL were predicted by satisfaction of the needs for autonomy and relatedness, but not by competence, explaining 36% of the variance. QoL showed a weaker, but reciprocal effect on need satisfaction. The findings suggest that support for the needs for autonomy and relatedness would provide the most likely route to the enhancement of student QoL over the transition to senior school.

  7. Household hazardous waste data for the UK by direct sampling.

    PubMed

    Slack, Rebecca J; Bonin, Michael; Gronow, Jan R; Van Santen, Anton; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-04-01

    The amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) requires assessment. This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 T of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 T if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 T per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicines, hence avoiding classification as hazardous waste under new UK waste regulations. The information can be used to set a baseline for the management of HHW and provides information for an environmental risk assessment of the disposal of such wastes to landfill.

  8. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Operational Space Weather Monitoring Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichas, Markos; Gibbs, Mark; Harrison, Richard; Green, Lucie; Eastwood, Jonathan; Bentley, Bob; Bisi, Mario; Bogdanova, Yulia; Davies, Jackie; D'Arrigo, Paolo; Eyles, Chris; Fazakerley, Andrew; Hapgood, Mike; Jackson, David; Kataria, Dhiren; Monchieri, Emanuele; Windred, Phil

    2015-06-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) has carried out a study to investigate the possibilities for an operational space weather mission, in collaboration with the Met Office, RAL, MSSL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for 24/7 operational forecasting needs. We have focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 (Earth trailing) offers the greatest benefit for the earliest possible warning on hazardous SWE events and the most accurate SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to cover all UK Met Office/NOAA's users priorities for L5 using instruments with extensive UK/US heritage, consisting of: heliospheric imager, coronograph, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform and subsystems are based on extensive re-use from past Airbus Defence and Space spacecraft to minimize the development cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could be achieved by 2020, assuming Phase A kick-off in 2015-2016. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  9. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation.

    PubMed

    Reap, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas from shale rock is a new, rapidly expanding industry in the United States (US). However, there is concern that these operations could be having large negative impacts such as groundwater contamination, increased air pollution and seismic events. The United Kingdom (UK) is looking at the potential for emulating the success of 'shale gas' in the US. Differences in population density and geological conditions mean that the public health impacts recorded in the US cannot be directly extrapolated to the UK. There is limited academic literature available but findings suggest that the UK government is not fully recognising the inherent risks of hydraulic fracturing exposed by this literature. Government reports suggest a reliance on engineering solutions and better practice to overcome problems found in the US when evidence suggests that there are inherent risks and impacts that cannot be eliminated. This study applies US results to approximate the impact of one exposure pathway, inhalation of hydrocarbons by the public from operational air emissions over the 30 year lifetime of a well and finds that 7.2 extra cancer cases from exposure to air contamination would be expected in the UK if all test sites, approved test sites and test sites awaiting approval as of January 2015 went on to extract gas. In conclusion, limited assessment of the public health implications of hydraulic fracturing operations is available but the UK government appears to not be applying the precautionary principle to potentially significant legislation.

  10. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  11. Analysis of UK and European NOx and VOC emission scenarios in the Defra model intercomparison exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derwent, Richard; Beevers, Sean; Chemel, Charles; Cooke, Sally; Francis, Xavier; Fraser, Andrea; Heal, Mathew R.; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Lingard, Justin; Redington, Alison; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    Simple emission scenarios have been implemented in eight United Kingdom air quality models with the aim of assessing how these models compared when addressing whether photochemical ozone formation in southern England was NOx- or VOC-sensitive and whether ozone precursor sources in the UK or in the Rest of Europe (RoE) were the most important during July 2006. The suite of models included three Eulerian-grid models (three implementations of one of these models), a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model and two moving box air parcel models. The assignments as to NOx- or VOC-sensitive and to UK- versus RoE-dominant, turned out to be highly variable and often contradictory between the individual models. However, when the assignments were filtered by model performance on each day, many of the contradictions could be eliminated. Nevertheless, no one model was found to be the 'best' model on all days, indicating that no single air quality model could currently be relied upon to inform policymakers robustly in terms of NOx- versus VOC-sensitivity and UK- versus RoE-dominance on each day. It is important to maintain a diversity in model approaches.

  12. Analysis of uncertainties in the estimates of nitrous oxide and methane emissions in the UK's greenhouse gas inventory for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Alice E.; Glendining, Margaret J.; Bellamy, Pat; Misselbrook, Tom; Gilhespy, Sarah; Rivas Casado, Monica; Hulin, Adele; van Oijen, Marcel; Whitmore, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's greenhouse gas inventory for agriculture uses a model based on the IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods to estimate the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from agriculture. The inventory calculations are disaggregated at country level (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland). Before now, no detailed assessment of the uncertainties in the estimates of emissions had been done. We used Monte Carlo simulation to do such an analysis. We collated information on the uncertainties of each of the model inputs. The uncertainties propagate through the model and result in uncertainties in the estimated emissions. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that in England and Scotland the uncertainty in the emission factor for emissions from N inputs (EF1) affected uncertainty the most, but that in Wales and Northern Ireland, the emission factor for N leaching and runoff (EF5) had greater influence. We showed that if the uncertainty in any one of these emission factors is reduced by 50%, the uncertainty in emissions of nitrous oxide reduces by 10%. The uncertainty in the estimate for the emissions of methane emission factors for enteric fermentation in cows and sheep most affected the uncertainty in methane emissions. When inventories are disaggregated (as that for the UK is) correlation between separate instances of each emission factor will affect the uncertainty in emissions. As more countries move towards inventory models with disaggregation, it is important that the IPCC give firm guidance on this topic.

  13. The Impact of Guided Notes on Post-Secondary Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of using of guided notes in the post-secondary classroom is not fully appreciated or understood. In an effort to add to the existing research about this phenomenon, the current investigation expands on previously published research and one previously published meta-analysis that examined the impact of guided notes on…

  14. Why geriatric medicine? A survey of UK specialist trainees in geriatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James Michael; Garside, Mark J; Brock, Peter; Gibson, Vicky; Hunt, Kelly; Briggs, Sally; Gordon, Adam Lee

    2017-07-01

    there is concern that there are insufficient numbers of geriatricians to meet the needs of the ageing population. A 2005 survey described factors that influenced why UK geriatricians had chosen to specialise in the field-in the decade since, UK postgraduate training has undergone a fundamental restructure. to explore whether the reasons for choosing a career in geriatric medicine in the UK had changed over time, with the goal of using this knowledge to inform recruitment and training initiatives. an online survey was sent to all UK higher medical trainees in geriatric medicine. survey questions that produced categorical data were analysed with simple descriptive statistics. For the survey questions that produced free-text responses, an inductive, iterative approach to analysis, in keeping with the principles of framework analysis, was employed. two hundred and sixty-nine responses were received out of 641 eligible respondents. Compared with the previous survey, a substantially larger number of respondents regarded geriatric medicine to be their first-choice specialty and a smaller number regretted their career decision. A greater number chose geriatric medicine early in their medical careers. Commitments to the general medical rota and the burden of service provision were considered important downsides to the specialty. there are reasons to be optimistic about recruitment to geriatric medicine. Future attempts to drive up recruitment might legitimately focus on the role of the medical registrar and perceptions that geriatricians shoulder a disproportionate burden of service commitments and obligations to the acute medical take. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Undergraduate Regional Migration in the UK: Perspectives on Local Markets and Trends for Gender and International Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert J.; Gandy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of degree course acceptances for UK undergraduate students in 2002 and 2008. It examines student mobility between the UK regions, and the trends in their movement within local markets. Data shows a growing trend for students to study within local regions, especially women. Increases in acceptances of over 10% are…

  16. An observational study of Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation: DEVELOP-UK.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew; Andreasson, Anders; Chrysos, Alexandros; Lally, Joanne; Mamasoula, Chrysovalanto; Exley, Catherine; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Qian, Jessica; Watson, Gillian; Lewington, Oli; Chadwick, Thomas; McColl, Elaine; Pearce, Mark; Mann, Kay; McMeekin, Nicola; Vale, Luke; Tsui, Steven; Yonan, Nizar; Simon, Andre; Marczin, Nandor; Mascaro, Jorge; Dark, John

    2016-11-01

    Many patients awaiting lung transplantation die before a donor organ becomes available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows initially unusable donor lungs to be assessed and reconditioned for clinical use. The objective of the Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVLP in increasing UK lung transplant activity. A multicentre, unblinded, non-randomised, non-inferiority observational study to compare transplant outcomes between EVLP-assessed and standard donor lungs. Multicentre study involving all five UK officially designated NHS adult lung transplant centres. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with advanced lung disease accepted onto the lung transplant waiting list. The study intervention was EVLP assessment of donor lungs before determining suitability for transplantation. The primary outcome measure was survival during the first 12 months following lung transplantation. Secondary outcome measures were patient-centred outcomes that are influenced by the effectiveness of lung transplantation and that contribute to the health-care costs. Lungs from 53 donors unsuitable for standard transplant were assessed with EVLP, of which 18 (34%) were subsequently transplanted. A total of 184 participants received standard donor lungs. Owing to the early closure of the study, a non-inferiority analysis was not conducted. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival at 12 months was 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.83] for the EVLP arm and 0.80 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.85) for the standard arm. The hazard ratio for overall 12-month survival in the EVLP arm relative to the standard arm was 1.96 (95% CI 0.83 to 4.67). Patients in the EVLP arm required ventilation for a longer period and stayed longer in an intensive therapy unit (ITU) than patients in the standard arm, but duration of overall hospital stay was similar in both groups. There was a higher rate of very early grade 3 primary graft

  17. Current status of kilovoltage (kV) radiotherapy in the UK: installed equipment, clinical workload, physics quality control and radiation dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Michael; Whittard, Paul; McHugh, Katie E; Eaton, David J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the status and practice of kilovoltage (kV) radiotherapy in the UK. Methods: 96% of the radiotherapy centres in the UK responded to a comprehensive survey. An analysis of the installed equipment base, patient numbers, clinical treatment sites, quality control (QC) testing and radiation dosimetry processes were undertaken. Results: 73% of UK centres have at least one kV treatment unit, with 58 units installed across the UK. Although 35% of units are over 10 years old, 39% units have been installed in the last 5 years. Approximately 6000 patients are treated with kV units in the UK each year, the most common site (44%) being basal cell carcinoma. A benchmark of QC practice in the UK is presented, against which individual centres can compare their procedures, frequency of testing and acceptable tolerance values. We propose the use of internal “notification” and “suspension” levels for analysis. All surveyed centres were using recommended Codes of Practice for kV dosimetry in the UK; approximately the same number using in-air and in-water methodologies for medium energy, with two-thirds of all centres citing “clinical relevance” as the reason for choice of code. 64% of centres had hosted an external dosimetry audit within the last 3 years, with only one centre never being independently audited. The majority of centres use locally measured applicator factors and published backscatter factors for treatments. Monitor unit calculations are performed using software in only 36% of centres. Conclusion: A comprehensive review of current kV practice in the UK is presented. Advances in knowledge: Data and discussion on contemporary kV radiotherapy in the UK, with a particular focus on physics aspects. PMID:27730839

  18. A Smooth Trajectory: Developing Continuity and Progression between Primary and Secondary Science Education through a Jointly-Planned Projectiles Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; McMahon, Kendra

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a two-year project--'Improving Science Together'--undertaken in 20 primary and four secondary schools in and around Bristol, UK. The project was funded by the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca PLC as part of their national Science Teaching Trust initiative, and had as one of its aims the development of…

  19. Behavioural Difficulties That Co‐occur With Specific Word Reading Difficulties: A UK Population‐ Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Denise; Norwich, Brahm; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between specific word reading difficulties (SWRD) identified at age 7 years using a discrepancy approach and subsequent dimensional measures of behavioural difficulties reported by teachers and parents at age 11 years. Behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Secondary analysis of a UK representative population‐based sample of children (n = 12 631) was conducted using linear regression models. There were 284 children (2.2%) identified with SWRD at age 7 years. Children with SWRD had significantly higher scores on all measures of behavioural difficulties in unadjusted analysis. SWRD was associated with elevated behavioural difficulties at age 11 years according to parent report, and with greater emotional problems, hyperactivity and conduct issues according to teachers, even after having controlled for baseline difficulties. These results were replicated for children with low reading attainment, but no cognitive ability discrepancy. Categories of special educational need into which children with SWRD were classed at school were varied. Given high rates of co‐occurring behavioural difficulties, assessment that identifies each individual child's specific functional, rather than categorical, difficulties is likely to be the most effective way of providing classroom support. © 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25693052

  20. Investigation of the chamber correction factor (k(ch)) for the UK secondary standard ionization chamber (NE2561/NE2611) using medium-energy x-rays.

    PubMed

    Rosser, K E

    1998-11-01

    This paper evaluates the characteristics of ionization chambers for the measurement of absorbed dose to water for medium-energy x-rays. The values of the chamber correction factor, k(ch), used in the IPEMB code of practice for the UK secondary standard (NE2561/NE2611) ionization chamber are derived and their constituent factors examined. The comparison of the chambers' responses in air revealed that of the chambers tested only the NE2561, NE2571 and NE2505 exhibit a flat (within 5%) energy response in air. Under no circumstances should the NACP, Sanders electron chamber, or any chamber that has a wall made of high atomic number material, be used for medium-energy x-ray dosimetry. The measurements in water reveal that a chamber that has a substantial housing, such as the PTW Grenz chamber, should not be used to measure absorbed dose to water in this energy range. The value of k(ch) for an NE2561 chamber was determined by measuring the absorbed dose to water and comparing it with that for an NE2571 chamber, for which k(ch) data have been published. The chamber correction factor varies from 1.023 +/- 0.03 to 1.018 +/- 0.001 for x-ray beams with HVL between 0.15 and 4 mm Cu. The values agree with that for an NE2571 chamber within the experimental uncertainty. The corrections due to the stem, waterproof sleeve and replacement of the phantom material by the chamber for an NE2561 chamber are described.

  1. Predicting adolescent breakfast consumption in the UK and Australia using an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Barbara; Wong, Cara; Kothe, Emily

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the addition of risk awareness could predict breakfast consumption in a sample of adolescents from the UK and Australia. It was hypothesised that the TPB variables of attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (PBC) would significantly predict intentions, and that inclusion of risk perception would increase the proportion of variance explained. Secondly it was hypothesised that intention and PBC would predict behaviour. Participants were recruited from secondary schools in Australia and the UK. A total of 613 participants completed the study (448 females, 165 males; mean=14years ±1.1). The TPB predicted 42.2% of the variance in intentions to eat breakfast. All variables significantly predicted intention with PBC as the strongest component. The addition of risk made a small but significant contribution to the prediction of intention. Together intention and PBC predicted 57.8% of the variance in breakfast consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of the UK Engagement Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiko Howson, Camille; Buckley, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Student engagement has become a key feature of UK higher education, but until recently there has been a lack of data to track, benchmark and drive enhancement. In 2015 the first full administration ran in the UK a range of survey items drawn from the US-based National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This is the latest example of international…

  3. Atmospheric, Orbital and Secondary Eclipse Analysis of HAT-P-30-WASP-51b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Andrew S.; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan; Foster, Austin James; Garland, Justin

    2016-01-01

    HAT-P-30-WASP-51b is a hot-Jupiter planet that orbits an F star every 2.8106 days at a distance of 0.0419 AU. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2012 (Spitzer Program Number 70084) we observed two secondary eclipses of the planet, one in the 3.6 μm channel on 3 January and one in the 4.5 μm channel on 17 January. We present eclipse-depth measurements of 0.00163±0.0001 and 0.00146±0.00013 and we esitmate the infrared brightness temperatures to be 1900±50 and 1600±60 for these two channels, respectively, from an analysis using our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits (POET) pipeline. We also refine its orbit using our own secondary-eclipse measurements in combination with radial-velocity and transit observations from both professional and amateur observers. The most notable result from this orbital analysis is a detection of eccentricity in the planet's orbit. Using only the phase of our secondary eclipses, we can constrain ecosw to a minimum of 0.0084±0.0004, a 20 sigma detection of one component of the orbit's eccentricity that is independent of the effects that stellar tides have on radial velocity data. We then characterize its atmosphere's temperature- pressure profile and molecular abundances using our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer code (BART). Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship.

  4. A Secondary Analysis of the Impact of School Management Practices on School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a secondary analysis of the impact of school management practices on school performance utilizing a survey design of School and Staffing (SASS) data collected by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the U.S. Department of Education, 1999-2000. The study identifies those school management…

  5. The identification of incident cancers in UK primary care databases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rañopa, Michael; Douglas, Ian; van Staa, Tjeerd; Smeeth, Liam; Klungel, Olaf; Reynolds, Robert; Bhaskaran, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    UK primary care databases are frequently used in observational studies with cancer outcomes. We aimed to systematically review methods used by such studies to identify and validate incident cancers of the breast, colorectum, and prostate. Medline and Embase (1980-2013) were searched for UK primary care database studies with incident breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer outcomes. Data on the methods used for case ascertainment were extracted and summarised. Questionnaires were sent to corresponding authors to obtain details about case ascertainment. Eighty-four studies of breast (n = 51), colorectal (n = 54), and prostate cancer (n = 31) were identified; 30 examined >1 cancer type. Among the 84 studies, 57 defined cancers using only diagnosis codes, while 27 required further evidence such as chemotherapy. Few studies described methods used to create cancer code lists (n = 5); or made lists available directly (n = 5). Twenty-eight code lists were received on request from study authors. All included malignant neoplasm diagnosis codes, but there was considerable variation in the specific codes included which was not explained by coding dictionary changes. Code lists also varied in terms of other types of codes included, such as in-situ, cancer morphology, history of cancer, and secondary/suspected/borderline cancer codes. In UK primary care database studies, methods for identifying breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers were often unclear. Code lists were often unavailable, and where provided, we observed variation in the individual codes and types of codes included. Clearer reporting of methods and publication of code lists would improve transparency and reproducibility of studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Patient and public attitudes towards informed consent models and levels of awareness of Electronic Health Records in the UK.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Fiona; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E; Marston, Cicely; Bell, Derek; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-04-01

    The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) forms an integral part of the information strategy for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, with the aim of facilitating health information exchange for patient care and secondary use, including research and healthcare planning. Implementing EHR systems requires an understanding of patient expectations for consent mechanisms and consideration of public awareness towards information sharing as might be made possible through integrated EHRs across primary and secondary health providers. To explore levels of public awareness about EHRs and to examine attitudes towards different consent models with respect to sharing identifiable and de-identified records for healthcare provision, research and planning. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to adult patients and members of the public in primary and secondary care clinics in West London, UK in 2011. In total, 5331 individuals participated in the survey, and 3157 were included in the final analysis. The majority (91%) of respondents expected to be explicitly asked for consent for their identifiable records to be accessed for health provision, research or planning. Half the respondents (49%) did not expect to be asked for consent before their de-identified records were accessed. Compared with White British respondents, those from all other ethnic groups were more likely to anticipate their permission would be obtained before their de-identified records were used. Of the study population, 59% reported already being aware of EHRs before the survey. Older respondents and individuals with complex patterns of interaction with healthcare services were more likely to report prior awareness of EHRs. Individuals self-identifying as belonging to ethnic groups other than White British, and those with lower educational qualifications were less likely to report being aware of EHRs than White British respondents and respondents with degree-level education

  7. Patient and public attitudes towards informed consent models and levels of awareness of Electronic Health Records in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Fiona; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E.; Marston, Cicely; Bell, Derek; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) forms an integral part of the information strategy for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, with the aim of facilitating health information exchange for patient care and secondary use, including research and healthcare planning. Implementing EHR systems requires an understanding of patient expectations for consent mechanisms and consideration of public awareness towards information sharing as might be made possible through integrated EHRs across primary and secondary health providers. Objectives To explore levels of public awareness about EHRs and to examine attitudes towards different consent models with respect to sharing identifiable and de-identified records for healthcare provision, research and planning. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to adult patients and members of the public in primary and secondary care clinics in West London, UK in 2011. In total, 5331 individuals participated in the survey, and 3157 were included in the final analysis. Results The majority (91%) of respondents expected to be explicitly asked for consent for their identifiable records to be accessed for health provision, research or planning. Half the respondents (49%) did not expect to be asked for consent before their de-identified records were accessed. Compared with White British respondents, those from all other ethnic groups were more likely to anticipate their permission would be obtained before their de-identified records were used. Of the study population, 59% reported already being aware of EHRs before the survey. Older respondents and individuals with complex patterns of interaction with healthcare services were more likely to report prior awareness of EHRs. Individuals self-identifying as belonging to ethnic groups other than White British, and those with lower educational qualifications were less likely to report being aware of EHRs than White British respondents and

  8. A multi-criteria analysis of options for energy recovery from municipal solid waste in India and the UK.

    PubMed

    Yap, H Y; Nixon, J D

    2015-12-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste plays a key role in sustainable waste management and energy security. However, there are numerous technologies that vary in suitability for different economic and social climates. This study sets out to develop and apply a multi-criteria decision making methodology that can be used to evaluate the trade-offs between the benefits, opportunities, costs and risks of alternative energy from waste technologies in both developed and developing countries. The technologies considered are mass burn incineration, refuse derived fuel incineration, gasification, anaerobic digestion and landfill gas recovery. By incorporating qualitative and quantitative assessments, a preference ranking of the alternative technologies is produced. The effect of variations in decision criteria weightings are analysed in a sensitivity analysis. The methodology is applied principally to compare and assess energy recovery from waste options in the UK and India. These two countries have been selected as they could both benefit from further development of their waste-to-energy strategies, but have different technical and socio-economic challenges to consider. It is concluded that gasification is the preferred technology for the UK, whereas anaerobic digestion is the preferred technology for India. We believe that the presented methodology will be of particular value for waste-to-energy decision-makers in both developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke: a qualitative interview study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jamison, James; Graffy, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky; Mant, Jonathan; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Medications are highly effective at reducing risk of recurrent stroke, but success is influenced by adherence to treatment. Among survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA), adherence to medication is known to be suboptimal. To identify and report barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke/TIA. A qualitative interview study was conducted within general practice surgeries in the East of England, UK. Patients were approached by letter and invited to take part in a qualitative research study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with survivors of stroke, caregivers, and GPs to explore their perspectives and views around secondary prevention and perceived barriers to medication adherence. Key themes were identified using a grounded theory approach. Verbatim quotes describing the themes are presented here. In total, 28 survivors of stroke, including 14 accompanying caregivers and five GPs, were interviewed. Two key themes were identified. Patient level barriers included ability to self-care, the importance people attach to a stroke event, and knowledge of stroke and medication. Medication level barriers included beliefs about medication and beliefs about how pills work, medication routines, changing medications, and regimen complexity and burden of treatment. Patients who have had a stroke are faced with multiple barriers to taking secondary prevention medications in UK general practice. This research suggests that a collaborative approach between caregivers, survivors, and healthcare professionals is needed to address these barriers and facilitate medication-taking behaviour. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  10. Transient Thermal Analysis of a Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Macosko, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    A secondary concentrator is an optical device that accepts solar energy from a primary concentrator and further intensifies and directs the solar flux. The refractive secondary is one such device; fabricated from an optically clear solid material that can efficiently transmit the solar energy by way of refraction and total internal reflection. When combined with a large state-of-the-art rigid or inflatable primary concentrator, the refractive secondary enables solar concentration ratios of 10,000 to 1. In support of potential space solar thermal power and propulsion applications, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a single-crystal refractive secondary concentrator for use at temperatures exceeding 2000K. Candidate optically clear single-crystal materials like sapphire and zirconia are being evaluated for this application. To support this evaluation, a three-dimensional transient thermal model of a refractive secondary concentrator in a typical solar thermal propulsion application was developed. This paper describes the model and presents thermal predictions for both sapphire and zirconia prototypes. These predictions are then used to establish parameters for analyzing and testing the materials for their ability to survive thermal shock and stress.

  11. WorldSkills UK Training Managers: Midas Touch or Fool's Gold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Stephanie; Relly, Susan James

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of training managers (TMs) in UK participation in WorldSkills Competitions (WSC). The TM role is outlined, according to the perceptions of the TMs, and there is analysis of the benefits to them of participation, as well as the barriers they face, and the benefits and barriers available to participating further…

  12. "Always paracetamol, they give them paracetamol for everything": a qualitative study examining Eastern European migrants' experiences of the UK health service.

    PubMed

    Madden, Hannah; Harris, Jane; Blickem, Christian; Harrison, Rebecca; Timpson, Hannah

    2017-08-29

    The enlargement of the European Union since 2004 has led to an increase in the number of Eastern European migrants living in the UK. The health of this group is under-researched though some mixed evidence shows they are at higher risk of certain physical health conditions such as heart attacks, strokes, HIV and alcohol use and have poorer mental health. This is compounded by poor or insecure housing, low pay, isolation and prejudice. We aimed to understand the health needs and health service experiences of the Eastern European population in a town in Northern England. Five semi structured one-to-one and small group interviews and five focus groups were conducted with 42 Eastern European participants between June and September 2014. The majority of participants were Polish and other participants were from Belarus, Hungary, Latvia, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine. The data were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Key findings included a good understanding the UK health service structure and high registration and use of general practice/primary care services. However, overall, there were high levels of dissatisfaction, frustration and distrust in General Practitioners (GP). The majority of participants viewed the GP as unhelpful and dismissive; a barrier to secondary/acute care; reluctant to prescribe antibiotics; and that GPs too often advised them to take paracetamol (acetaminophen) and rest. Overwhelmingly participants had strong opinions about access to primary care and the role of the general practitioners. Although the design of the UK health service was well understood, participants were unhappy with the system of GP as gatekeeper and felt it inferior to the consumer-focused health systems in their country of origin. More work is needed to promote the importance of self-care, reduce antibiotic and medication use, and to increase trust in the GP.

  13. The UK DNA banking network: a "fair access" biobank.

    PubMed

    Yuille, Martin; Dixon, Katherine; Platt, Andrew; Pullum, Simon; Lewis, David; Hall, Alistair; Ollier, William

    2010-08-01

    The UK DNA Banking Network (UDBN) is a secondary biobank: it aggregates and manages resources (samples and data) originated by others. The network comprises, on the one hand, investigator groups led by clinicians each with a distinct disease specialism and, on the other hand, a research infrastructure to manage samples and data. The infrastructure addresses the problem of providing secure quality-assured accrual, storage, replenishment and distribution capacities for samples and of facilitating access to DNA aliquots and data for new peer-reviewed studies in genetic epidemiology. 'Fair access' principles and practices have been pragmatically developed that, unlike open access policies in this area, are not cumbersome but, rather, are fit for the purpose of expediting new study designs and their implementation. UDBN has so far distributed >60,000 samples for major genotyping studies yielding >10 billion genotypes. It provides a working model that can inform progress in biobanking nationally, across Europe and internationally.

  14. How do stroke survivors and their carers use practitioners' advice on secondary prevention medications? Qualitative study of an online forum.

    PubMed

    Izuka, Nkeonye J; Alexander, Matthew A W; Balasooriya-Smeekens, Chantal; Mant, Jonathan; De Simoni, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Secondary prevention medications reduce risk of stroke recurrence, yet many people do not receive recommended treatment, nor take medications optimally. Exploring how patients report making use of practitioners' advice on secondary prevention medicines on an online forum and what feedback was received from other participants. Thematic analysis of the archive of Talkstroke (2004-2011), UK. Posts including any secondary prevention medication terms, General Practitioner (GP) and their replies were identified. Fifity participants talked about practitioners' advice on secondary prevention medications in 43 discussion threads. Patients consulted practitioners for reassurance and dealing with side effects. Practitioners' advice varied from altering to maintaining current treatment. Three main themes emerged from the use of practitioners' advice: patients following advice (reassured, happy when side effects made tolerable, or still retaining anxiety about treatment); patients not following advice (admitting adherence on-off or stopping medications as side effects still not tolerable); asking other participants for feedback on advice received. Practitioners' advice was disregarded mainly when related to dealing with statin side effects, after one or two consultations. Themes for feedback involved sharing experience, directing back to practitioners, or to external evidence. Side effects of secondary prevention medications and statins in particular, cause anxiety and resentment in some patients, and their concerns are not always addressed by practitioners. Practitioners could consider more proactive strategies to manage such side effects. Forum feedback was appropriate and supportive of the practitioners' advice received. Our findings from peer-to-peer online conversations confirm and widen previous research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. An analysis of suicide and undetermined deaths in 17 predominantly Islamic countries contrasted with the UK.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Colin; Amanullah, S

    2007-03-01

    Suicide is expressly condemned in the Qu'ran, and traditionally few Islamic countries have reported suicide. Undetermined deaths are classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Other Violent Deaths (OVD) in ICD-9, or Other External Causes (OEC) in ICD-10. It has been suggested that to avoid under-reporting of suicides, both formal suicide verdicts and OVD should be considered together because OVD may contain 'hidden' suicides. The latest WHO mortality data, by age and gender, were analysed and tested by chi2 tests. Levels of suicide and OVD in 17 Islamic countries were examined and contextually compared with UK rates. The regional Islamic cultural differences in Middle Eastern, South Asian, European Islam countries and those of the former Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (FUSSR) were analysed separately to test the hypotheses that there would be no difference between regional suicide and OVD rates per million (pm) and 17 Islamic countries and UK rates. Suicide rates were higher for males than females, and 'older' (65+) higher than 'younger' (15-34) rates in every country reviewed. The rate for Middle Eastern males was 0-36 pm, South Asian 0-12 pm, European 53-177 pm and FUSSR 30-506 pm, with three countries exceeding the UK rate of 116 pm. The Western male average OVD rate was 22 pm; the UK 55 pm rate was highest. Middle Eastern OVD was 1-420 pm, South Asian 0-166 pm, European 1-66 pm and FUSSR 11-361 pm. OVD rates in 10 Islamic countries were considerably higher than the Western average and eight had OVD rates considerably higher than their suicide rates. Islamic suicide rates varied widely and the high OVD rates, especially the Middle Eastern, may be a repository for hiding culturally unacceptable suicides.

  16. Disciplinary Disjunctures in the Transition from Secondary School to Higher Education Study of Modern Foreign Languages: A Case Study from the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Brett, Angela; Canning, John

    2011-01-01

    Discussions of student transition from the study of languages in UK high schools to the study of languages at university usually focus on the vertical transition, comparing the differences in curricula and approach to languages taken in each sector. Whilst acknowledging that this aspect of the student transition is important, this article explores…

  17. Biofortification of UK food crops with selenium.

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J; Bryson, Rosie J; Meacham, Mark C; Bowen, Helen C; Johnson, Sarah E; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Breward, Neil; Harriman, Miles; Tucker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    Se is an essential element for animals. In man low dietary Se intakes are associated with health disorders including oxidative stress-related conditions, reduced fertility and immune functions and an increased risk of cancers. Although the reference nutrient intakes for adult females and males in the UK are 60 and 75 microg Se/d respectively, dietary Se intakes in the UK have declined from >60 microg Se/d in the 1970s to 35 microg Se/d in the 1990s, with a concomitant decline in human Se status. This decline in Se intake and status has been attributed primarily to the replacement of milling wheat having high levels of grain Se and grown on high-Se soils in North America with UK-sourced wheat having low levels of grain Se and grown on low-Se soils. An immediate solution to low dietary Se intake and status is to enrich UK-grown food crops using Se fertilisers (agronomic biofortification). Such a strategy has been adopted with success in Finland. It may also be possible to enrich food crops in the longer term by selecting or breeding crop varieties with enhanced Se-accumulation characteristics (genetic biofortification). The present paper will review the potential for biofortification of UK food crops with Se.

  18. Mathematical Interventions for Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities and Mathematics Difficulties: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Lein, Amy E.; Im, Soo-hyun; Alghamdi, Ahmed A.; Hefte, Scott B.; Mouanoutoua, John

    2018-01-01

    This meta-analysis is the first to provide a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of mathematical intervention programs implemented in secondary schools for students with learning disabilities and mathematics difficulties. Included studies used a treatment-control group design. A total of 19 experimental and quasi-experimental studies…

  19. Development of UK recommendations on treatment for post-surgical erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, M G; White, I D; Butcher, J; Challacombe, B; Coe, J; Grover, L; Hegarty, P; Jackson, G; Lowndes, A; Payne, H; Rees, J; Sangar, V; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Aim To develop a management strategy (rehabilitation programme) for postsurgical erectile dysfunction (ED) among men experiencing ED associated with treatment of prostate, bladder or rectal cancer that is suitable for use in a UK NHS healthcare context. Methods PubMed literature searches of ED management together with a survey of 13 experts in the management of ED from across the UK were conducted. Results Data from 37 articles and completed questionnaires were collated. The results discussed in this study demonstrate improved objective and subjective clinical outcomes for physical parameters, sexual satisfaction, and rates of both spontaneous erections and those associated with ED treatment strategies. Conclusion Based on the literature and survey analysis, recommendations are proposed for the standardisation of management strategies employed for postsurgical ED. PMID:24188207

  20. antiSMASH: rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Medema, Marnix H; Blin, Kai; Cimermancic, Peter; de Jager, Victor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Fischbach, Michael A; Weber, Tilmann; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide variety of microbes. However, rapidly and reliably pinpointing all the potential gene clusters for secondary metabolites in dozens of newly sequenced genomes has been extremely challenging, due to their biochemical heterogeneity, the presence of unknown enzymes and the dispersed nature of the necessary specialized bioinformatics tools and resources. Here, we present antiSMASH (antibiotics & Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell), the first comprehensive pipeline capable of identifying biosynthetic loci covering the whole range of known secondary metabolite compound classes (polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, aminoglycosides, aminocoumarins, indolocarbazoles, lantibiotics, bacteriocins, nucleosides, beta-lactams, butyrolactones, siderophores, melanins and others). It aligns the identified regions at the gene cluster level to their nearest relatives from a database containing all other known gene clusters, and integrates or cross-links all previously available secondary-metabolite specific gene analysis methods in one interactive view. antiSMASH is available at http://antismash.secondarymetabolites.org.

  1. Monocular and binocular visual impairment in the UK Biobank study: prevalence, associations and diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Farragher, Tracey M; Shickle, Darren

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of, associations with and diagnoses leading to mild visual impairment or worse (logMAR >0.3) in middle-aged adults in the UK Biobank study. Methods and analysis Prevalence estimates for monocular and binocular visual impairment were determined for the UK Biobank participants with fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. Associations with socioeconomic, biometric, lifestyle and medical variables were investigated for cases with visual impairment and matched controls, using multinomial logistic regression models. Self-reported eye history and image grading results were used to identify the primary diagnoses leading to visual impairment for a sample of 25% of cases. Results For the 65 033 UK Biobank participants, aged 40–69 years and with fundus images, 6682 (10.3%) and 1677 (2.6%) had mild visual impairment or worse in one or both eyes, respectively. Increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity were independently associated with both monocular and binocular visual impairment. No primary diagnosis for the recorded level of visual impairment could be identified for 49.8% of eyes. The most common identifiable diagnoses leading to visual impairment were cataract, amblyopia, uncorrected refractive error and vitreoretinal interface abnormalities. Conclusions The prevalence of visual impairment in the UK Biobank study cohort is lower than for population-based studies from other industrialised countries. Monocular and binocular visual impairment are associated with increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity. The UK Biobank dataset does not allow confident identification of the causes of visual impairment, and the results may not be applicable to the wider UK population. PMID:29657974

  2. New insights on historic droughts in the UK: Analysis of 200 river flow reconstructions for 1890-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Simon; Barker, Lucy; Hannaford, Jamie; Prudhomme, Christel; Smith, Katie; Svensson, Cecilia; Tanguy, Maliko

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological droughts of the last 50 years in the UK have been well characterised owing to a relatively dense hydrometric network. Prior to this, observed river flow data were generally limited in their spatial coverage and often subject to considerable uncertainty. Whilst qualitative records indicate the occurrence of severe droughts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including scenarios which may cause substantial impacts to contemporary water supply systems, existing observations are not sufficient to describe their spatio-temporal characteristics. As such, insights on drought in the UK are constrained and a range of stakeholders including water companies and regulators would benefit from a more thorough assessment of historic drought characteristics and their variability. The multi-disciplinary Historic Droughts project aims to rigorously characterise droughts in the UK to inform improved drought management and communication. Driven by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration data that have been extended using recovered records, lumped catchment hydrological models are used to reconstruct daily river flows from 1890 to 2015 for more than 200 catchments across the UK. The reconstructions are derived within a state-of-the-art modelling framework which allows a comprehensive assessment of model, structure and parameter uncertainty. Standardised and threshold-based indicators are applied to the river flow reconstructions to identify and characterise hydrological drought events. The reconstructions are most beneficial in comprehensively describing well known but poorly quantified late 19th and early 20th century droughts, placing the spatial and temporal footprint of these often extreme events within the context of modern episodes for the first time. Oscillations between drought-rich and drought-poor periods are shown not to be limited to the recent observational past, providing an increased sample size of events against which to test a range of airflow and

  3. Mapping pneumonia research: A systematic analysis of UK investments and published outputs 1997-2013.

    PubMed

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Newell, Marie-Louise; Scott, J Anthony G; Harris, Jennifer N; Clarke, Stuart C; Atun, Rifat

    2015-09-01

    The burden of pneumonia continues to be substantial, particularly among the poorest in global society. We describe here the trends for UK pneumonia R&D investment and published outputs, and correlate with 2013 global mortality. Data related to awards to UK institutions for pneumonia research from 1997 to 2013 were systematically sourced and categorised by disease area and type of science. Investment was compared to mortality figures in 2010 and 2013 for pneumonia, tuberculosis and influenza. Investment was also compared to publication data. Of all infectious disease research between 2011 and 2013 (£917.0 million), £28.8 million (3.1%) was for pneumonia. This was an absolute and proportionate increase from previous time periods. Translational pneumonia research (33.3%) received increased funding compared with 1997-2010 where funding was almost entirely preclinical (87.5%, here 30.9%), but high-burden areas such as paediatrics, elderly care and antimicrobial resistance received little investment. Annual investment remains volatile; publication temporal trends show a consistent increase. When comparing investment to global burden with a novel 'investment by mortality observed' metric, tuberculosis (£48.36) and influenza (£484.21) receive relatively more funding than pneumonia (£43.08), despite investment for pneumonia greatly increasing in 2013 compared to 2010 (£7.39). Limitations include a lack of private sector data and the need for careful interpretation of the comparisons with burden, plus categorisation is subjective. There has been a welcome increase for pneumonia funding awarded to UK institutions in 2011-2013 compared with 1997-2010, along with increases for more translational research. Published outputs relating to pneumonia rose steadily from 1997 to 2013. Investment relative to mortality for pneumonia has increased, but it remains low compared to other respiratory infections and clear inequities remain. Analyses that measure investments in pneumonia

  4. Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12).

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-12-18

    Food processing alters food from its natural state for safety, convenience, taste or palatability. Previous research suggests that industrially processed foods, and diets high in these products, tend to be less healthful. However, most previous work is based on household, rather than individual-level, data. Little has been reported on the relationship between processed food consumption and markers of health; or on socio-demographic correlates of processed food consumption. Our objective was to describe: the nutritional content of foods classified according to degree of processing; the nutritional content of diets with different relative intakes of processed foods; the socio-demographic characteristics of individuals with different relative intakes of processed foods; and the association between intake of processed foods and body weight. Secondary analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12), a large national cross-sectional study of diet. Dietary information was collected using four-day, unweighed, food-diaries. Foods were classified as: unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF; foods with no processing or mostly physical processes applied to single whole foods), processed ingredients (PI; extracted and purified components of single whole foods), or ultra-processed food products (UPF; products produced from industrial combining of MPF and PI). Two thousand one hundred seventy four adults were included. MPF and diets high in these foods, had the most healthful nutritional profile. UPF did not necessarily have the least healthful nutritional profile, but diets high in these foods did. Women, and older adults consumed more energy from MPF, and less from UPF. Those living in lower occupation social class households consumed less energy from MPF, but no more from UPF. Only higher intake of PI was consistently, inversely, associated with body weight. This is the first study to explore correlates of processed food consumption, using individual

  5. Food and beverage cues in UK and Irish children-television programming.

    PubMed

    Scully, Paul; Reid, Orlaith; Macken, Alan; Healy, Mark; Saunders, Jean; Leddin, Des; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum; O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2014-11-01

    Increased time in which children spend watching television is a well-described contributor to paediatric obesity. This study investigated the frequency and type of food and beverage placement in children-specific television broadcasts and compared data from UK (UK) and Irish television stations. Content analysis, totalling 82.5 h, reflecting 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on UK and Irish television channels was performed. To allow comparison between UK and Irish food and beverage cues, only broadcasts between 06.00 and 11.30 were analysed. Data were coded separately by two analysts and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage cues were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use, motivation, outcome and characters involved. A total of 1155 food and beverage cues were recorded. Sweet snacks were the most frequent food cue (13.3%), followed by sweets/candy (11.4%). Tea/coffee was the most frequent beverage cue (13.5%), followed by sugar-sweetened beverages (13.0%). The outcome of the cue was positive in 32.6%, negative in 19.8%, and neutral in 47.5% of cases. The most common motivating factor associated with each cue was celebratory/social (25.2%), followed by hunger/thirst (25.0%). Comparison of UK and Irish placements showed both to portray high levels of unhealthy food cues. However, placements for sugar-sweetened beverages were relatively low on both channels. This study provides further evidence of the prominence of unhealthy foods in children's programming. These data may provide guidance for healthcare professionals, regulators and programme makers in planning for a healthier portrayal of food and beverage in children's television. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  7. Summer 2015 measurements of total OH reactivity at a UK coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward-Massey, R.; Cryer, D. R.; Whalley, L. K.; Ingham, T.; Crilley, L.; Kramer, L. J.; Reeves, C.; Forster, G.; Oram, D.; Bandy, B.; Reed, C.; Lee, J. D.; Bloss, W.; Heard, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays a central role in the day time oxidative removal of pollutants and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is essential that all production and loss pathways of OH are understood and included in computer models in order to accurately predict OH concentrations for a range of environments, and in turn the rate of production of secondary products, for example ozone and organic aerosol. Direct measurement of total OH reactivity, the pseudo first order rate coefficient for OH loss by reaction with its sinks, is a very useful tool to test how complete our knowledge is of OH loss pathways. Comparison with values of total OH reactivity calculated by computer models using concentrations of simultaneously measured OH 'sinks' and unmeasured intermediates enables environments to be identified where there are unidentified 'missing' OH sinks. Total OH reactivity was measured using the laser flash photolysis combined with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique during the ICOZA (Integrated Chemistry of OZone in the Atmosphere) campaign in July 2015 at the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory (WAO), Norfolk, UK. Air masses sampled ranged from polluted air from the UK or Europe containing processed urban emissions to very clean air of marine origin. Data for measured and calculated OH reactivity will be presented in addition to a discussion of the magnitude of the 'missing' OH sink determined for each type of air mass.

  8. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children with sleep-related breathing disorders: consensus statement of a UK multidisciplinary working party.

    PubMed

    Robb, P J; Bew, S; Kubba, H; Murphy, N; Primhak, R; Rollin, A-M; Tremlett, M

    2009-07-01

    During 2008, ENT-UK received a number of professional enquiries from colleagues about the management of children with upper airway obstruction and uncomplicated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). These children with sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) are usually referred to paediatricians and ENT surgeons. In some district general hospitals, (DGHs) where paediatric intensive care (PICU) facilities to ventilate children were not available, paediatrician and anaesthetist colleagues were expressing concern about children with a clinical diagnosis of OSA having routine tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy. As BAPO President, I was asked by the ENT-UK President, Professor Richard Ramsden, to investigate the issues and rapidly develop a working consensus statement to support safe but local treatment of these children. The Royal Colleges of Anaesthetists and Paediatrics and Child Health and the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists nominated expert members from both secondary and tertiary care to contribute and develop a consensus statement based on the limited evidence base available. Our terms of reference were to produce a statement that was brief, with a limited number of references, to inform decision-making at the present time. With patient safety as the first priority, the working party wished to support practice that facilitated referral to a tertiary centre of those children who could be expected, on clinical assessment alone, potentially to require PICU facilities. In contrast, the majority of children who could be safely managed in a secondary care setting should be managed closer to home in a DGH. BAPO, ENT-UK, APA, RCS-CSF and RCoA have endorsed the consensus statement; the RCPCH has no mechanism for endorsing consensus statements, but the RCPCH Clinical Effectiveness Committee reviewed the statement, concluding it was a 'concise, accurate and helpful document'. The consensus statement is an interim working tool, based on level-five evidence. It

  9. The cost of pressure ulcers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gerry; Dealey, Carol; Posnett, John

    2004-05-01

    To estimate the annual cost of treating pressure ulcers in the UK. Costs were derived from a bottom-up methodology, based on the daily resources required to deliver protocols of care reflecting good clinical practice. Health and social care system in the UK. Patients developing a pressure ulcer. A bottom-up costing approach is used to estimate treatment cost per episode of care and per patient for ulcers of different grades and level of complications. Also, total treatment cost to the health and social care system in the UK. The cost of treating a pressure ulcer varies from pound 1,064 (Grade 1) to pound 10,551 (Grade 4). Costs increase with ulcer grade because the time to heal is longer and because the incidence of complications is higher in more severe cases. The total cost in the UK is pound 1.4- pound 2.1 billion annually (4% of total NHS expenditure). Most of this cost is nurse time. Pressure ulcers represent a very significant cost burden in the UK. Without concerted effort this cost is likely to increase in the future as the population ages. To the extent that pressure ulcers are avoidable, pressure damage may be indicative of clinical negligence and there is evidence that litigation could soon become a significant threat to healthcare providers in the UK, as it is in the USA.

  10. Informing the Public? UK Newspaper Reporting of Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive survey of five leading UK newspapers reveals wide-ranging variation in coverage, from a tendency to rely on medical establishment sources in some to an apparently pro-choice, anti-establishment campaign in others but, generally, a neglect of the perspective of articulate autistics themselves. Based on an enhanced content analysis of…

  11. Stakeholder consultation on tracking in UK veterinary degrees: part 1.

    PubMed

    Crowther, E; Hughes, K; Handel, I; Whittington, R; Pryce, M; Warman, S; Rhind, S; Baillie, S

    2014-07-26

    There is on-going debate regarding whether veterinary students should focus on one (or a small number of) species during their undergraduate training (ie, track). The aims of this study were to: evaluate UK stakeholders' opinion on partial tracking (whereby students continue to qualify able to practise in all species) and full tracking (students qualify in a limited number of species necessitating restricted registration); and evaluate students' career aspirations in relation to the UK veterinary profession's employment profile. This paper presents the quantitative results of surveys completed by practitioners, students and university staff. The majority of respondents (69.4 per cent) disagreed or strongly disagreed with full tracking, however, there was widespread support for partial tracking (79.0 per cent agreed or strongly agreed). Students favoured partial tracking more so than practitioners (P<0.001). Univariate analysis of demographic factors did not identify differences in opinion regarding tracking within stakeholder groups. Students' knowledge of the UK veterinary employment profile appeared accurate. However, their career aspiration changed with year of the course, and only final year students' intentions were aligned with the profession's current profile. Qualitative data from these surveys are presented in a second paper and include the advantages, disadvantages and implications of partial and full tracking. British Veterinary Association.

  12. The Effectiveness of Trace DNA Profiling-A Comparison Between a U.S. and a U.K. Law Enforcement Jurisdiction.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W; Weart, Jocelyn R

    2017-05-01

    Recovery, profiling, and speculative searching of trace DNA (not attributable to a body fluid/cell type) over a twelve-month period in a U.S. Crime Laboratory and U.K. police force are compared. Results show greater numbers of U.S. firearm-related items submitted for analysis compared with the U.K., where greatest numbers were submitted from burglary or vehicle offenses. U.S. multiple recovery techniques (double swabbing) occurred mainly during laboratory examination, whereas the majority of U.K. multiple recovery techniques occurred at the scene. No statistical difference was observed for useful profiles from single or multiple recovery. Database loading of interpretable profiles was most successful for U.K. items related to burglary or vehicle offenses. Database associations (matches) represented 7.0% of all U.S. items and 13.1% of all U.K. items. The U.K. strategy for burglary and vehicle examination demonstrated that careful selection of both items and sampling techniques is crucial to obtaining the observed results. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. The effect of a transition into poverty on child and maternal mental health: a longitudinal analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Whitehead, Margaret; Taylor-Robinson, David; Barr, Ben

    2017-03-01

    Whether or not relative measures of income poverty effectively reflect children's life chances has been the focus of policy debates in the UK. Although poverty is associated with poor child and maternal mental health, few studies have assessed the effect of moving into poverty on mental health. To inform policy, we explore the association between transitions into poverty and subsequent mental health among children and their mothers. In this longtitudinal analysis, we used data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative cohort of children born in the UK between Sept 1, 2000, and Jan 11, 2002, who participated in five survey waves as they progressed from 9 months of age to 11 years of age. Our analysis included all children and mothers who were free from mental health problems and not in poverty when the children were aged 3 years. We only included singletons (ie, not twins or other multiple pregnancies) and children for whom the mother was the main respondent to the study. The main outcomes were child socioemotional behavioural problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 5 years, 7 years, and 11 years and maternal psychological distress (Kessler 6 scale). Using discrete time-hazard models, we followed up families without mental health problems at baseline and estimated odds ratios for subsequent onset of maternal and child mental health problems associated with first transition into poverty, while adjusting for confounders, including employment transitions. We further assessed whether or not change in maternal mental health explained any effect on child mental health. Of the 6063 families in the UK Millennium Cohort study at 3 years who met our inclusion criteria, 844 (14%) had a new transition into poverty compared with 5219 (86%) who remained out of poverty. After adjustment for confounders, transition into poverty increased the odds of socioemotional behavioural problems in children (odds ratio 1·41 [95% CI 1·02-1·93

  14. Widening access to medical education for under-represented socioeconomic groups: population based cross sectional analysis of UK data, 2002-6.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Jonathan; Sitch, Alice; Marsh, Jennifer L; Parry, Jayne

    2011-02-22

    To determine whether new programmes developed to widen access to medicine in the United Kingdom have produced more diverse student populations. Population based cross sectional analysis. 31 UK universities that offer medical degrees. 34,407 UK medical students admitted to university in 2002-6. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity of students admitted to traditional courses and newer courses (graduate entry courses (GEC) and foundation) designed to widen access and increase diversity. The demographics of students admitted to foundation courses were markedly different from traditional, graduate entry, and pre-medical courses. They were less likely to be white and to define their background as higher managerial and professional. Students on the graduate entry programme were older than students on traditional courses (25.5 v 19.2 years) and more likely to be white (odds ratio 3.74, 95% confidence interval 3.27 to 4.28; P<0.001) than those on traditional courses, but there was no difference in the ratio of men. Students on traditional courses at newer schools were significantly older by an average of 2.53 (2.41 to 2.65; P<0.001) years, more likely to be white (1.55, 1.41 to 1.71; P<0.001), and significantly less likely to have higher managerial and professional backgrounds than those at established schools (0.67, 0.61 to 0.73; P<0.001). There were marked differences in demographics across individual established schools offering both graduate entry and traditional courses. The graduate entry programmes do not seem to have led to significant changes to the socioeconomic profile of the UK medical student population. Foundation programmes have increased the proportion of students from under-represented groups but numbers entering these courses are small.

  15. Equine uveitis: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Lowe, R C

    2010-03-01

    Uveitis in the equine population of the UK does not appear to be as prevalent or disastrous as seen across regions of Europe and the USA. Some cases perceived to be recurrent uveitis may be poorly resolved single episodes of uveitis and care should be taken not to make the diagnosis of recurrence without ensuring effective control of the initial episode. Leptospira spp. appear to play only a minor role ERU in the UK which is probably the main reason for the prevalence of the disease being much lower compared to the USA and mainland Europe. Actual data are relatively few on the ground as far as disease surveillance in concerned. This has 2 implications. Firstly unless we are able to effectively monitor the levels of uveitic disease, it will be difficult to pick up early changes in the trend which may allow quicker intervention. Secondly, it is difficult to secure funding for further research if the prevalence of the problem is poorly defined. This may leave the UK equine population at risk should the disease profile suddenly alter for the worse.

  16. Characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis and its association with major comorbid conditions: cross-sectional study of 502 649 UK Biobank participants

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Stefan; Lyall, Donald M; Mackay, Daniel F; Porter, Duncan; McInnes, Iain B; Sattar, Naveed; Pell, Jill P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To characterise the detailed phenotypic and comorbid characteristics of participants with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the large population-based UK Biobank, thereby enabling future longitudinal analyses. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the unique UK Biobank resource (n=502 649). RA was based on self-report, and type of medication was used as a proxy measure of valid diagnosis. Participants with and without RA were compared in terms of sociodemographic, lifestyle and other disease-related risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether participants with RA were more likely to report comorbid conditions, and whether this varied by RA severity. The models were adjusted for potential confounders and lifestyle risk factors. Results At baseline, 5657 (1.13%) eligible UK Biobank participants reported RA of whom 2849 (0.57%) had medically treated RA (median duration=10 years). Prevalence was significantly higher among female, South Asian and socioeconomically deprived participants. Participants with RA were significantly more likely to report diabetes (covariate-adjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.32, p<0.01), hypertension (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.27, p<0.001) and cardiovascular disease (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.67, p<0.001). Conclusions UK Biobank provides extensive data concerning RA population-level comorbidity and risk factors. The frequency, distribution and characteristics of participants reporting RA in UK Biobank are largely consistent with other studies. It provides a unique opportunity to interrogate biomarkers, genetic data, detailed imaging and linkage to clinical records at the population level across primary and secondary care. PMID:27403335

  17. Bone and joint diseases around the world. The UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Palferman, Tom G

    2003-08-01

    Rheumatology is a discipline that has evolved through the influence of physical medicine, with the aid of advances in immunology and epidemiology. An ageing population has seen osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, among other rheumatic diseases, flourish. Health provision relies on the National Health Service (NHS), funded largely, but no longer exclusively, through direct taxation. Access to specialist rheumatology services (secondary care) is achieved by referral through a general practitioner (primary care). Increasingly, primary care is charged with planning clinical services supported by budgets devolved from central government. Rheumatology is a popular discipline for trainee specialists, but consultant numbers are inadequate. One rheumatologist per 85,000 population is deemed desirable, whereas in practice the number is less than one per 120,000. These figures belie the uneven distribution of services. The National Institute for Clinical Effectiveness assesses all new therapies according to their clinical- and cost-effectiveness. Those approved should, in theory, be funded, but this system remains imperfect. A unique initiative in the UK is the central register for those taking biologic agents. Regrettably, the NHS has been underfunded and steps are under way to reverse this in order to match the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health care by other major European economies. The delivery of medical services will have to change to accommodate increasing numbers of women graduates, now exceeding 50%, by increasing job sharing and part-time posts. UK rheumatology has close links with Europe and the US, while increasingly its horizons are broadening, to great advantage.

  18. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  19. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  20. Pedagogical Applications from Real Analysis for Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas; Weber, Keith

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we consider the potential influences of the study of proofs in advanced mathematics on secondary mathematics teaching. Thus far, the literature has highlighted the benefits of applying the conclusions of particular proofs to secondary content and of developing a more general sense of disciplinary practices in mathematics in…

  1. Building partnership capacity for the collaborative management of marine protected areas in the UK: a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J S; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2005-11-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary analysis of 15 case studies of inshore marine protected areas in the UK. It draws on the common-pool resource (CPR) literature and is premised on the thesis that building partnership capacity amongst relevant authorities and resource users provides a critical basis for overcoming collective action problems (CAPs), through the development of incentive structures and social capital, in order to achieve strategic objectives. Particular attention is paid to the influence of statutory marine biodiversity conservation obligations to the European Commission for marine special areas of conservation (MSACs), as these are an important external contextual factor. The risks of imposition and parochialism are outlined and the challenges of taking a balanced approach are discussed. The challenges posed by the attributes of the marine environment are considered, as are those posed by the policy framework for MSACs. The findings are discussed in relation to three questions: (i) which partnership models appear to have the potential to overcome the CAPs posed by inshore MSACs? (ii) what CAPs had to be addressed during the early phase of development of the MSAC co-management regimes? (iii) what are the likely future CAPs for the collaborative management of MSACs that each partnership will need to address? These preliminary findings will form the basis for future studies to analyse the outcomes of these 15 initiatives, in order to assess the strengths, in various contexts, of different approaches for building resilient and balanced, thereby effective, institutions for the co-management of MSACs in the UK.

  2. Developing Learning at St Mary's Secondary School, UK: Improving the Motivation and Well-Being of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Clive

    2014-01-01

    This article summarises the actions taken by a Catholic secondary school in England to improve the learning, motivation and well-being of its students. It describes the theories of mindset, as proposed by Dweck (2006); aspects of self-determination, as described by Kasser and Ryan (1993); and intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, as detailed by…

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of the Signalling Networks in Coronatine-Induced Secondary Laticifer Differentiation from Vascular Cambia in Rubber Trees

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaohua; Zhang, Shixin; Chao, Jinquan; Deng, Xiaomin; Chen, Yueyi; Shi, Minjing; Tian, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    The secondary laticifer in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) is a specific tissue within the secondary phloem. This tissue differentiates from the vascular cambia, and its function is natural rubber biosynthesis and storage. Given that jasmonates play a pivotal role in secondary laticifer differentiation, we established an experimental system with jasmonate (JA) mimic coronatine (COR) for studying the secondary laticifer differentiation: in this system, differentiation occurs within five days of the treatment of epicormic shoots with COR. In the present study, the experimental system was used to perform transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analysis. A total of 67,873 unigenes were assembled, and 50,548 unigenes were mapped at least in one public database. Of these being annotated unigenes, 15,780 unigenes were differentially expressed early after COR treatment, and 19,824 unigenes were differentially expressed late after COR treatment. At the early stage, 8,646 unigenes were up-regulated, while 7,134 unigenes were down-regulated. At the late stage, the numbers of up- and down-regulated unigenes were 7,711 and 12,113, respectively. The annotation data and gene expression analysis of the differentially expressed unigenes suggest that JA-mediated signalling, Ca2+ signal transduction and the CLAVATA-MAPK-WOX signalling pathway may be involved in regulating secondary laticifer differentiation in rubber trees. PMID:27808245

  4. Potential impacts of the Alberta fetal alcohol spectrum disorder service networks on secondary disabilities: a cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Moffatt, Jessica; Jacobs, Philip; Chuck, Anderson W; Jonsson, Egon

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the break-even effectiveness of the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Service Networks in reducing occurrences of secondary disabilities associated with FASD. The secondary disabilities addressed within this study include crime, homelessness, mental health problems, and school disruption (for children) or unemployment (for adults). We used a cost-benefit analysis approach where benefits of the service networks were the cost difference between the two approaches: having the 12 service networks and having no service network in place, across Alberta. We used a threshold analysis to estimate the break-even effectiveness (i.e. the effectiveness level at which the service networks became cost-saving). If no network was in place throughout the province, the secondary disabilities would cost $22.85 million (including $8.62 million for adults and $14.24 million for children) per year. Given the cost of network was $6.12 million per year, the break-even effectiveness was estimated at 28% (range: 25% to 32%). Although not all benefits associated with the service networks are included, such as the exclusion of the primary benefit to those experiencing FASD, the benefits to FASD caregivers, and the preventative benefits, the economic and social burden associated with secondary disabilities will "pay-off" if the effectiveness of the program in reducing secondary disabilities is 28%.

  5. School Safety, Severe Disciplinary Actions, and School Characteristics: A Secondary Analysis of the School Survey on Crime and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seunghee; Akiba, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of a secondary analysis of survey data collected from 1,872 secondary school principals in the 2005-2006 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we examined the frequency of and reasons for severe disciplinary actions and the relationship between school characteristics and severe disciplinary actions. We found that severe disciplinary…

  6. Development of a parent version of the Manchester-Minneapolis quality of life survey for use by parents and carers of UK children: MMQL-UK (PF)

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Hayley A; Upton, Penney; Cheung, Wai-Yee; Maddocks, Alison; Eiser, Christine; Williams, John G; Russell, Ian T; Jackson, Sonia; Jenney, Meriel EM

    2008-01-01

    Background Although it is now widely endorsed that children should as far as possible rate their own health related quality of life (HRQL), there are situations where proxy information on child HRQL may be useful, especially where a child is too ill or young to provide their own HRQL assessment. There is limited availability of generic HRQL scales that have a parallel child and parent version and that are reliable, valid, brief, comprehensible and suitable for use in UK populations. The aims of this study were therefore to develop and validate a parent version of the anglicised Manchester-Minneapolis Quality of Life child form (MMQL-UK (CF)) and to determine the level of association between the child and parent versions of this form. Methods This study was undertaken concurrently with the anglicisation and validation of the MMQL, a measure of HRQL developed for use with children in North America. At that time, no parent version existed, so the MMQL form for children (MMQL-UK (CF)) was used as the basis for the development of the MMQL-UK parent form (PF). The sample included a control group of healthy children and their parents and five exemplar groups; children diagnosed with asthma, diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease and their parents, children in remission from cancer and their parents and children in public care and their carers. Consistency of the MMQL-UK (PF) components were assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha. Validation of the parent questionnaire was undertaken by comparing MMQL-UK (PF) component scores with comparable components on the proxy PedsQL™ quality of life scales, comparing MMQL-UK (PF) component scores between parents of healthy and chronic disease children and by comparison of component scores from children and their parents or carers. Reproducibility and responsiveness were assessed by retesting parents by follow-up questionnaires. Results A total of 874 children (completing MMQL-UK (CF)) and 572 parents or carers (completing MMQL-UK

  7. Artistry and Analysis: Student Experiences of UK Practice-Based Doctorates in Art and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Jacquelyn Allen

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, doctoral education has been the focus of much international academic attention. This period has also witnessed the rapid growth of practice-based research degrees in art and design in the UK. To date, however, there has been no extensive empirical research on the subjective experiences of students undertaking this form of…

  8. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    PubMed

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Clinical and imaging services for TIA and minor stroke: results of two surveys of practice across the UK

    PubMed Central

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Shuler, Kirsten; Quayyum, Zahid; Hadley, Donald; Muir, Keith; McNamee, Paul; De Wilde, Janet; Dennis, Martin; Sandercock, Peter; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is a medical emergency requiring rapid access to effective, organised, stroke prevention. There are about 90 000 TIAs per year in the UK. We assessed whether stroke-prevention services in the UK meet Government targets. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting All UK clinical and imaging stroke-prevention services. Intervention Electronic structured survey delivered over the web with automatic recording of responses into a database; reminders to non-respondents. The survey sought information on clinic frequency, staff, case-mix, details of brain and carotid artery imaging, medical and surgical treatments. Results 114 stroke clinical and 146 imaging surveys were completed (both response rates 45%). Stroke-prevention services were available in most (97%) centres but only 31% operated 7 days/week. Half of the clinic referrals were TIA mimics, most patients (75%) were prescribed secondary prevention prior to clinic referral, and nurses performed the medical assessment in 28% of centres. CT was the most common and fastest first-line investigation; MR, used in 51% of centres, mostly after CT, was delayed up to 2 weeks in 26%; 51% of centres omitted blood-sensitive (GRE/T2*) MR sequences. Carotid imaging was with ultrasound in 95% of centres and 59% performed endarterectomy within 1 week of deciding to operate. Conclusions Stroke-prevention services are widely available in the UK. Delays to MRI, its use in addition to CT while omitting key sequences to diagnose haemorrhage, limit the potential benefit of MRI in stroke prevention, but inflate costs. Assessing TIA mimics requires clinical neurology expertise yet nurses run 28% of clinics. Further improvements are still required for optimal stroke prevention. PMID:23929917

  10. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  11. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  12. Adolescent accounts of the UK National Lottery and scratchcards: an analysis using Q-sorts.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2002-01-01

    The study examined adolescents' accounts of the UK National Lottery and scratchcards. Q-sorts were used to examine the views of 62 participants aged between 11 and 15 years of age. Findings identified four distinct accounts in relation to the National Lottery (Moral Opposition, Luck Seeking, Rationalist, & Uncertainty), and four distinct accounts in relation to scratchcards (Scepticism, Thrill-Seeking, Rationalist, & Libertarian). Some of the accounts identified described the UK National Lottery and scratchcards as bona fide forms of gambling. Reports indicated that adolescents were pessimistic about the chances of winning large sums of money, while other accounts demonstrated gambling misperceptions particularly in relation to their belief in luck and the laws of probability. It is argued that to fully understand why adolescents take part in these activities it is important to consider the diverse ways that adolescents represent these activities. These differing representations will have consequences for measures aimed at reducing, preventing, or treating adolescent problem gambling. The utility of Q-sorts as a technique for examining the views of problem and non-problem gamblers is also discussed.

  13. Accelerated technology transfer: the UK quantum initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Simon D.

    2016-10-01

    A new generation of quantum technology based systems, exploiting effects such as superposition and entanglement, will enable widespread, highly disruptive applications which are expected to be of great economic significance. However, the technology is only just emerging from the physics laboratory and generally remains at low TRLs. The question is: where, and when, will this impact be first manifest? The UK, with substantial Government backing, has embarked on an ambitious national program to accelerate the process of technology transfer with the objective of seizing a significant and sustainable share of the future economic benefit for the UK. Many challenges and uncertainties remain but the combined and co-ordinated efforts of Government, Industry and Academia are making great progress. The level of collaboration is unusually high and the goal of embedding a "QT Ecosystem" in the UK looks to be attainable. This paper describes the UK national programme, its key players, and their respective roles. It will illustrate some of the likely first commercial applications and provide a status update. Some of the challenges that might prevent realisation of the goal will be highlighted.

  14. A comparative analysis of drug safety withdrawals in the UK and the US (1971-1992): implications for current regulatory thinking and policy.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Davis, Courtney

    2005-09-01

    By going beyond individual case studies and solely quantitative surveys, this paper systematically examines why there were over twice as many new prescription drugs withdrawn from the market on grounds of safety in the UK as there were in the US between 1971 and 1992. Drawing on interviews with regulators, industry scientists and others involved, and on regulatory data never before accessed outside governments and companies, five key hypotheses which might explain this difference in drug safety withdrawals are analysed. These are: (1) simply because the UK approved more new drugs than the US; (2) because of an industrial corporate strategy to seek approval of 'less safe' drugs in the UK earlier; (3) because British regulators were more vigilant at spotting post-marketing safety problems than their US counterparts; (4) because the slowness of the US in approving new drugs enabled regulators there to learn from, and avoid, safety problems that had already emerged in the UK or European market; and (5) because more stringent regulation in the US meant that they approved fewer unsafe drugs on to the market in the first place. It is concluded that the main explanation for fewer drug safety withdrawals in the US is that the regulatory agency there applied more stringent pre-market review and/or standards, which took longer than UK regulatory checks, but prevented unsafe drugs marketed in the UK from entering the US market. Contrary to the claims frequently made by the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies on both sides of the Atlantic, these results imply that it is likely that acceleration of regulatory review times in the US and the UK since the early 1990s is compromising drug safety.

  15. bpRNA: large-scale automated annotation and analysis of RNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Danaee, Padideh; Rouches, Mason; Wiley, Michelle; Deng, Dezhong; Huang, Liang; Hendrix, David

    2018-05-09

    While RNA secondary structure prediction from sequence data has made remarkable progress, there is a need for improved strategies for annotating the features of RNA secondary structures. Here, we present bpRNA, a novel annotation tool capable of parsing RNA structures, including complex pseudoknot-containing RNAs, to yield an objective, precise, compact, unambiguous, easily-interpretable description of all loops, stems, and pseudoknots, along with the positions, sequence, and flanking base pairs of each such structural feature. We also introduce several new informative representations of RNA structure types to improve structure visualization and interpretation. We have further used bpRNA to generate a web-accessible meta-database, 'bpRNA-1m', of over 100 000 single-molecule, known secondary structures; this is both more fully and accurately annotated and over 20-times larger than existing databases. We use a subset of the database with highly similar (≥90% identical) sequences filtered out to report on statistical trends in sequence, flanking base pairs, and length. Both the bpRNA method and the bpRNA-1m database will be valuable resources both for specific analysis of individual RNA molecules and large-scale analyses such as are useful for updating RNA energy parameters for computational thermodynamic predictions, improving machine learning models for structure prediction, and for benchmarking structure-prediction algorithms.

  16. JABAWS 2.2 distributed web services for Bioinformatics: protein disorder, conservation and RNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Troshin, Peter V; Procter, James B; Sherstnev, Alexander; Barton, Daniel L; Madeira, Fábio; Barton, Geoffrey J

    2018-06-01

    JABAWS 2.2 is a computational framework that simplifies the deployment of web services for Bioinformatics. In addition to the five multiple sequence alignment (MSA) algorithms in JABAWS 1.0, JABAWS 2.2 includes three additional MSA programs (Clustal Omega, MSAprobs, GLprobs), four protein disorder prediction methods (DisEMBL, IUPred, Ronn, GlobPlot), 18 measures of protein conservation as implemented in AACon, and RNA secondary structure prediction by the RNAalifold program. JABAWS 2.2 can be deployed on a variety of in-house or hosted systems. JABAWS 2.2 web services may be accessed from the Jalview multiple sequence analysis workbench (Version 2.8 and later), as well as directly via the JABAWS command line interface (CLI) client. JABAWS 2.2 can be deployed on a local virtual server as a Virtual Appliance (VA) or simply as a Web Application Archive (WAR) for private use. Improvements in JABAWS 2.2 also include simplified installation and a range of utility tools for usage statistics collection, and web services querying and monitoring. The JABAWS CLI client has been updated to support all the new services and allow integration of JABAWS 2.2 services into conventional scripts. A public JABAWS 2 server has been in production since December 2011 and served over 800 000 analyses for users worldwide. JABAWS 2.2 is made freely available under the Apache 2 license and can be obtained from: http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/jabaws. g.j.barton@dundee.ac.uk.

  17. Effects of ecological factors on secondary metabolites and inorganic elements of Scutellaria baicalensis and analysis of geoherblism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lanping; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Ji; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Manxi; Ma, Weifeng; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Xuan; Han, Bangxing; Chen, Naifu; Huang, Luqi

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzed the effects of ecological factors on secondary metabolites of Scutellaria baicalensis using two sources: 92 individual roots of S. baicalensis from all over China, and secondary metabolites, medicinal materials and inorganic element contents obtained from the testing of 92 S. baicalensis rhizosphere soil samples. The study used environmental data from the Genuine Medicinal Material Spatial Analysis Database. Most of the chemical constituents of S. baicalensis were negatively correlated to latitude and positively correlated to temperature; generally, the contents of 21 chemical constituents were higher at low latitudes than that at high latitudes. By gradual regression analysis, it was found that the content of baicalin in S. baicalensis was negatively correlated to latitude and generally the content of inorganic elements in soil was excessively high (excluding Mg and Ca), which has a negative effect on the accumulation of chemical constituents in S. baicalensis. Based on the cluster analysis of 21 constituents, S. baicalensis from different places of origin was divided into two groups, and S. baicalensis was not genuine only in a specific small region. Within the zone from Chifeng, Inner Mongolia to Taibai, Shaanxi is suitable for accumulation of secondary metabolites of S. baicalensis and such a zone represents a suitable distribution and potential genuine producing area.

  18. Obtaining antibiotics online from within the UK: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Sara Elizabeth; Moore, Luke Stephen Prockter; Gilchrist, Mark; Costelloe, Ceire; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Holmes, Alison Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improved antibiotic stewardship (AS) and reduced prescribing in primary care, with a parallel increase in personal internet use, could lead citizens to obtain antibiotics from alternative sources online. Objectives: A cross-sectional analysis was performed to: (i) determine the quality and legality of online pharmacies selling antibiotics to the UK public; (ii) describe processes for obtaining antibiotics online from within the UK; and (iii) identify resulting AS and patient safety issues. Methods: Searches were conducted for ‘buy antibiotics online’ using Google and Yahoo. For each search engine, data from the first 10 web sites with unique URL addresses were reviewed. Analysis was conducted on evidence of appropriate pharmacy registration, prescription requirement, whether antibiotic choice was ‘prescriber-driven’ or ‘consumer-driven’, and whether specific information was required (allergies, comorbidities, pregnancy) or given (adverse effects) prior to purchase. Results: Twenty unique URL addresses were analysed in detail. Online pharmacies evidencing their location in the UK (n = 5; 25%) required a prescription before antibiotic purchase, and were appropriately registered. Online pharmacies unclear about the location they were operating from (n = 10; 50%) had variable prescription requirements, and no evidence of appropriate registration. Nine (45%) online pharmacies did not require a prescription prior to purchase. For 16 (80%) online pharmacies, decisions were initially consumer-driven for antibiotic choice, dose and quantity. Conclusions: Wide variation exists among online pharmacies in relation to antibiotic practices, highlighting considerable patient safety and AS issues. Improved education, legislation, regulation and new best practice stewardship guidelines are urgently needed for online antibiotic suppliers. PMID:28333179

  19. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  20. Foundation Year 2 doctors' reasons for leaving UK medicine: an in-depth analysis of decision-making using semistructured interviews.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samantha E; Tallentire, Victoria R; Pope, Lindsey M; Laidlaw, Anita H; Morrison, Jill

    2018-03-02

    To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. All four regions of Scotland. Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. Semistructured interviews were coded using template analysis. Six perspectives, described by Feldman and Ng, were used as the initial coding template. The codes were then configured to form a framework that explores the interplay of factors influencing Foundation Year 2 (F2) doctors' decisions to leave UK medicine. Seventeen participants were interviewed. Six perspectives were explored. Structural influences (countrywide and worldwide issues) included visas, economic and political considerations, structure of healthcare systems and availability of junior doctor jobs worldwide. Organisational influences (the National Health Service (NHS) and other healthcare providers) included staffing and compensation policies, the working environment and the learning environment. Occupational influences (specific to being a junior doctor) comprised the junior doctor contract, role and workload, pursuit of career interests and the structure of training. Work group influences (relationships with colleagues) included support at work, task interdependence and use of locums. Personal life influences consisted of work-life balance, and support in resolving work-life conflict. The underlying theme of 'taking a break' recurred through multiple narratives. F2s give reasons similar to those given by any professional considering a change in their job. However, working within the NHS as an F2 doctor brought specific challenges, such as a need to make a choice of specialty within the F2 year, exposure to workplace bullying and difficulties in raising concerns. Despite these challenges, most F2s did not view their decision to leave as a permanent job

  1. Microelectronics Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the THAAD Weapon System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Technical Report 5-20448 & 5- 20449 Contract No. DAAH01-98-D-R001 Delivery Order No. 34 Microelectronics Status Analysis and Secondary Part...Procureability Assessment of the THAAD Weapon System. (5-20448 & 5- 20449 ) Final Technical Report for Period 21 January 1999 through 30 September 1999...Huntsville Huntsville, AL 35899 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 5-20448 & 5- 20449 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY

  2. Gas-fired power in the UK: Bridging supply gaps and implications of domestic shale gas exploitation for UK climate change targets.

    PubMed

    Turk, Jeremy K; Reay, David S; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2018-03-01

    There is a projected shortcoming in the fourth carbon budget of 7.5%. This shortfall may be increased if the UK pursues a domestic shale gas industry to offset projected decreases in traditional gas supply. Here we estimate that, if the project domestic gas supply gap for power generation were to be met by UK shale gas with low fugitive emissions (0.08%), an additional 20.4MtCO 2 e 1 would need to be accommodated during carbon budget periods 3-6. We find that a modest fugitive emissions rate (1%) for UK shale gas would increase global emissions compared to importing an equal quantity of Qatari liquefied natural gas. Additionally, we estimate that natural gas electricity generation would emit 420-466MtCO 2 e (460 central estimate) during the same time period within the traded EU emissions cap. We conclude that domestic shale gas production with even a modest 1% fugitive emissions rate would risk exceedance of UK carbon budgets. We also highlight that, under the current production-based greenhouse gas accounting system, the UK is incentivized to import natural gas rather than produce it domestically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Motivation Types and Mental Health of UK Hospitality Workers.

    PubMed

    Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William

    2018-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to (i) assess levels of different types of work motivation in a sample of UK hospitality workers and make a cross-cultural comparison with Chinese counterparts and (ii) identify how work motivation and shame-based attitudes towards mental health explain the variance in mental health problems in UK hospitality workers. One hundred three UK hospitality workers completed self-report measures, and correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify significant relationships. Findings demonstrate that internal and external motivation levels were higher in UK versus Chinese hospitality workers. Furthermore, external motivation was more significantly associated with shame and mental health problems compared to internal motivation. Motivation accounted for 34-50% of mental health problems. This is the first study to explore the relationship between motivation, shame, and mental health in UK hospitality workers. Findings suggest that augmenting internal motivation may be a novel means of addressing mental health problems in this worker population.

  4. Interval between onset of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis comparing the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink with a hospital-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Tillett, William; Charlton, Rachel; Nightingale, Alison; Snowball, Julia; Green, Amelia; Smith, Catherine; Shaddick, Gavin; McHugh, Neil

    2017-12-01

    To describe the time interval between the onset of psoriasis and PsA in the UK primary care setting and compare with a large, well-classified secondary care cohort. Patients with PsA and/or psoriasis were identified in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The secondary care cohort comprised patients from the Bath PsA longitudinal observational cohort study. For incident PsA patients in the CPRD who also had a record of psoriasis, the time interval between PsA diagnosis and first psoriasis record was calculated. Comparisons were made with the time interval between diagnoses in the Bath cohort. There were 5272 eligible PsA patients in the CPRD and 815 in the Bath cohort. In both cohorts, the majority of patients (82.3 and 61.3%, respectively) had psoriasis before their PsA diagnosis or within the same calendar year (10.5 and 23.8%), with only a minority receiving their PsA diagnosis first (7.1 and 14.8%). Excluding those who presented with arthritis before psoriasis, the median time between diagnoses was 8 years [interquartile range (IQR) 2-15] in the CPRD and 7 years (IQR 0-20) in the Bath cohort. In the CPRD, 60.1 and 75.1% received their PsA diagnosis within 10 and 15 years of their psoriasis diagnosis, respectively; this was comparable with 57.2 and 67.7% in the Bath cohort. A similar distribution for the time interval between psoriasis and arthritis was observed in the CPRD and secondary care cohort. These data can inform screening strategies and support the validity of data from each cohort. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. The UK DNA banking network: a “fair access” biobank

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Katherine; Platt, Andrew; Pullum, Simon; Lewis, David; Hall, Alistair; Ollier, William

    2009-01-01

    The UK DNA Banking Network (UDBN) is a secondary biobank: it aggregates and manages resources (samples and data) originated by others. The network comprises, on the one hand, investigator groups led by clinicians each with a distinct disease specialism and, on the other hand, a research infrastructure to manage samples and data. The infrastructure addresses the problem of providing secure quality-assured accrual, storage, replenishment and distribution capacities for samples and of facilitating access to DNA aliquots and data for new peer-reviewed studies in genetic epidemiology. ‘Fair access’ principles and practices have been pragmatically developed that, unlike open access policies in this area, are not cumbersome but, rather, are fit for the purpose of expediting new study designs and their implementation. UDBN has so far distributed >60,000 samples for major genotyping studies yielding >10 billion genotypes. It provides a working model that can inform progress in biobanking nationally, across Europe and internationally. PMID:19672698

  6. Globalisation of Researcher Mobility within the UK Higher Education: Explaining the Presence of Overseas Academics in the UK Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil; Fenton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the power structure that lies within the UK elite universities dictates a division of labour through which the inflows of overseas academics into the UK academic labour markets are skewed towards these elite academic institutions where they are employed primarily in research-only posts. These posts, are less valued and…

  7. Discrimination in relation to parenthood reported by community psychiatric service users in the UK: a framework analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Debra; Clement, Sarah; Corker, Elizabeth; Howard, Louise M; Murray, Joanna; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-04-20

    Experienced discrimination refers to an individual's perception that they have been treated unfairly due to an attribute and is an important recent focus within stigma research. A significant proportion of mental health service users report experiencing mental illness-based discrimination in relation to parenthood. Existing studies in this area have not gone beyond prevalence, therefore little is known about the nature of experienced discrimination in relation to parenthood, and how is it constituted. This study aims to generate a typology of community psychiatric service users' reports of mental illness-based discrimination in relation to becoming or being a parent. A secondary aim is to assess the prevalence of these types of experienced discrimination. In a telephone survey 2026 community psychiatric service users in ten UK Mental Health service provider organisations (Trusts) were asked about discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC). The sample were asked if, due to their mental health problem, they had been treated unfairly in starting a family, or in their role as a parent, and gave examples of this. Prevalence is reported and the examples of experienced discrimination in relation to parenthood were analysed using the framework method of qualitative analysis. Three hundred and four participants (73% female) reported experienced discrimination, with prevalences of 22.5% and 28.3% for starting a family and for the parenting role respectively. Participants gave 89 examples of discrimination about starting a family and 228 about parenting, and these occurred in social and professional contexts. Ten themes were identified. These related to being seen as an unfit parent; people not being understanding; being stopped from having children; not being allowed to see their children; not getting the support needed; children being affected; children avoiding their parents; children's difficulties being blamed

  8. Corporatisation, Competitiveness, Commercialisation: New Logics in the Globalising of UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the changing form and scope of higher education in the UK with a specific focus on contemporary "globalising" developments within the sector and beyond. Situated within an analysis of transformations under way in the wider global and regional economy, and drawing on Jessop's strategic relational approach (SRA), I…

  9. An Analysis of Access Barriers to Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Post-Secondary Education (PSE) in Ontario and in Canada has expanded on both the demand and supply sides in the last couple of decades. As of 2007, 50% of the population aged 18 to 24 was enrolled in post-secondary institutions. Enrolment in Ontario universities grew from 10,000 in 1960 to approximately 400,000 in 2007 (Clark, Moran, Skolnik,…

  10. Food advertising during children's television in Canada and the UK.

    PubMed

    Adams, J; Hennessy-Priest, K; Ingimarsdóttir, S; Sheeshka, J; Ostbye, T; White, M

    2009-09-01

    Television advertisements for less healthy foods are thought to contribute to overweight and obesity in children. In the UK, new regulations on television food advertising to children came into effect in April 2007. These prohibit advertisements for "less healthy" foods during or around programmes "of particular appeal to" (OPAT) children. In Canada, self-regulated codes of practice on television food advertising to children were recently strengthened. To document the nutritional content of food advertised and number of advertisements OPAT children broadcast in the UK and central Canada before the introduction of the new UK regulations. All food advertisements broadcast on four popular channels in Canada and the three terrestrial commercial channels in the UK during 1 week in 2006 were identified and linked to relevant nutritional data. Food advertisements OPAT children and for "less healthy" products were identified using the criteria in the UK regulations. 2315 food related advertisements broadcast in Canada and 1365 broadcast in the UK were included. 52-61% were for "less healthy" products; 5-11% were OPAT children. Around 5% of food advertisements would have been prohibited under the new UK regulations. There were few differences in the nutritional content of food described in advertisements that were and were not OPAT children. There was little evidence that food described in advertisements OPAT children were any less healthy than those that were not. Few food advertisements are likely to be prohibited by the new UK regulations.

  11. Non-disclosed men who have sex with men in UK HIV transmission networks: phylogenetic analysis of surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon; Hué, Stéphane; Hodcroft, Emma B; Tostevin, Anna; Dunn, David; Fawcett, Tracy; Pozniak, Anton; Brown, Alison E; Delpech, Valerie; Brown, Andrew J Leigh

    2018-06-01

    Patients who do not disclose their sexuality, including men who do not disclose same-sex behaviour, are difficult to characterise through traditional epidemiological approaches such as interviews. Using a recently developed method to detect large networks of viral sequences from time-resolved trees, we localised non-disclosed men who have sex with men (MSM) in UK transmission networks, gaining crucial insight into the behaviour of this group. For this phylogenetic analysis, we obtained HIV pol sequences from the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database (UKRDB), a central repository for resistance tests done as part of routine clinical care throughout the UK. Sequence data are linked to demographic and clinical data held by the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study and the national HIV/AIDS reporting system database. Initially, we reconstructed maximum likelihood phylogenies from these sequences, then sequences were selected for time-resolved analysis in BEAST if they were clustered with at least one other sequence at a genetic distance of 4·5% or less with support of at least 90%. We used time-resolved phylogenies to create networks by linking together nodes if sequences shared a common ancestor within the previous 5 years. We identified potential non-disclosed MSM (pnMSM), defined as self-reported heterosexual men who clustered only with men. We measured the network position of pnMSM, including betweenness (a measure of connectedness and importance) and assortativity (the propensity for nodes sharing attributes to link). 14 405 individuals were in the network, including 8452 MSM, 1743 heterosexual women and 1341 heterosexual men. 249 pnMSM were identified (18·6% of all clustered heterosexual men) in the network. pnMSM were more likely to be black African (p<0·0001), less likely to be infected with subtype B (p=0·006), and were slightly older (p=0·002) than the MSM they clustered with. Mean betweenness centrality was lower for pnMSM than for MSM (1·31, 95% CI 0·48-2

  12. Analysis of Coupled Seals, Secondary and Powerstream Flow Fields in Aircraft and Aerospace Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athavale, M. M.; Ho, Y. H.; Prezekwas, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    Higher power, high efficiency gas turbine engines require optimization of the seals and secondary flow systems as well as their impact on the powerstream. This work focuses on two aspects: 1. To apply the present day CFD tools (SCISEAL) to different real-life secondary flow applications from different original equipment manufacturers (OEM s) to provide feedback data and 2. Develop a computational methodology for coupled time-accurate simulation of the powerstream and secondary flow with emphasis on the interaction between the disk-cavity and rim seals flows with the powerstream (SCISEAL-MS-TURBO). One OEM simulation was of the Allison Engine Company T-56 turbine drum cavities including conjugate heat transfer with good agreement with data and provided design feedback information. Another was the GE aspirating seal where the 3-D CFD simulations played a major role in analysis and modification of that seal configuration. The second major objective, development of a coupled flow simulation capability was achieved by using two codes MS-TURBO for the powerstream and SCISEAL for the secondary flows with an interface coupling algorithm. The coupled code was tested against data from three differed configurations: 1. bladeless-rotor-stator-cavity turbine test rig, 2. UTRC high pressure turbine test rig, and, 3. the NASA Low-Speed-Air Compressor rig (LSAC) with results and limitations discussed herein.

  13. Silicon concentrations in UK surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Colin; Neal, Margaret; Reynolds, Brian; Maberly, Stephen C.; May, Linda; Ferrier, Robert C.; Smith, Jennifer; Parker, Julie E.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the variations in silicon concentrations in UK waters for a wide range of catchment systems (near pristine, rural, and agricultural and urban impacted systems). The paper largely concerns silicon levels in streams, rivers and lakes based on extensive data collected as part of several research and monitoring initiatives of national and international standing. For a detailed study of an upland catchment in mid-Wales, information on atmospheric inputs and groundwater chemistries is provided to supply background information to cross link to the surface water chemistry. Several hundred streams/rivers and lakes are dealt with within the study, dealing with the main types of freshwater riverine and lacustrine environments. The streams/rivers vary from small ephemeral runoff to the major rivers of the UK. The geographical location of sites vary from local sites in mid-Wales, to regional studies across Scotland, to the major eastern UK rivers entering the North Sea and to acid sensitive upland sites across Wales, the English Lake District, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The surface waters range in silicon concentration from 0 to 19 mg-Si l -1 (average for individual sites vary between 0.7 and 7.6 mg-Si l -1) and there are some clear variations which link to two primary processes (1) the relative inputs of groundwaters enriched in silicon and near surface waters more depleted in silicon and (2) plankton uptake of silicon during the summer months under baseflow conditions. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that the waters are approximately saturated with respect to either quartz or chalcedony except for two circumstances when undersaturation occurs. Firstly, undersaturation occurs at pH less than 5.5 in the upland areas and this is because the waters are mainly sourced from the acidic organic soils which are depleted in inorganic minerals. Secondly, undersaturation occurs in the lowland rivers when biological activity is at its highest and this leads to

  14. UK Renal Registry 16th annual report: chapter 9 adequacy of haemodialysis in UK adult patients in 2012: national and centre-specific analyses.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Catriona; Steenkamp, Retha; Davenport, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes in patients treated with haemodialysis (HD) are influenced by the delivered dose of dialysis. The UK Renal Association (RA) publishes clinical practice guidelines which include recommendations for dialysis dose. The urea reduction ratio (URR) is a widely used measure of dialysis dose and has historically been the measure of adequacy reported by the UKRR. This chapter aims to determine the extent to which patients achieved the recommended UK target. All 71 UK renal centres submitted data to the UK Renal Registry (UKRR). Two groups of patients were included in the analyses: the prevalent HD patient population on 30st September 2012 and the incident HD patient population for 2011. Centres returning data on <50% of their patient population or centres with <20 patients were excluded from centrespecific comparisons. Data regarding URR were available from 63 renal centres in the UK. Forty nine centres provided URR data on more than 90% of prevalent HD patients. The proportion of patients in the UK who met the UK clinical practice guideline for URR (>65%) increased from 69% in 2000 to 88% in 2012. There was persistent variation observed between centres, with 21 centres attaining the RA clinical practice guideline in >90% of patients, 38 centres attaining the guideline in 70-90% of patients and one centre in less than 70% of patients. The overall proportion of prevalent HD patients with a URR >65% has continued to improve over time. The delivered dose of HD, as measured by URR for patients with established renal failure, has increased over the last decade. Whilst the majority of UK patients achieved the target URR there was considerable variation between centres in the percentage of patients achieving the current guideline. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  16. The clinical profile of employees with mental health problems working in social firms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Milton, Alyssa; Parsons, Nicholas; Morant, Nicola; Gilbert, Eleanor; Johnson, Sonia; Fisher, Adrian; Singh, Swaran; Cunliffe, Di; Marwaha, Steven

    2015-08-01

    UK social firms are under-researched but are a potentially important vocational option for people with mental health problems. To describe the clinical profile, satisfaction levels and experiences of social firms employees with mental health problems. Clinical, work and service use characteristics were collected from social firms' employees with mental health problems in England and Wales. Workplace experience and satisfaction were explored qualitatively. Predominantly, social firms' employees (N = 80) report that they have a diagnosis of depression (56%) and anxiety (41%). People with schizophrenia (20%) or bipolar disorder (5%) were a minority. Respondents had low symptom and disability levels, high quality of life and job satisfaction and experienced reductions in secondary mental health service use over time. High-workplace satisfaction was related to flexibility, manager and colleague support and workplace accommodations. The clinical profile, quality of life and job satisfaction level of employees with mental health problems suggest social firms could be a useful addition to UK vocational services for some people. Current employees mainly have common mental disorders, and social firms will need to shift their focus if they are to form a substantial pathway for the vocational recovery of people currently using community mental health teams.

  17. Bioinformatics approaches for structural and functional analysis of proteins in secondary metabolism in Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Sanchita; Singh, Swati; Sharma, Ashok

    2014-11-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an affluent storehouse of large number of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites known as withanolides. These secondary metabolites are produced by withanolide biosynthetic pathway. Very less information is available on structural and functional aspects of enzymes involved in withanolides biosynthetic pathways of Withiana somnifera. We therefore performed a bioinformatics analysis to look at functional and structural properties of these important enzymes. The pathway enzymes taken for this study were 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, squalene synthase, squalene epoxidase, and cycloartenol synthase. The prediction of secondary structure was performed for basic structural information. Three-dimensional structures for these enzymes were predicted. The physico-chemical properties such as pI, AI, GRAVY and instability index were also studied. The current information will provide a platform to know the structural attributes responsible for the function of these protein until experimental structures become available.

  18. Dominance of international 'high-risk clones' among metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wright, Laura L; Turton, Jane F; Livermore, David M; Hopkins, Katie L; Woodford, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are increasingly reported worldwide and often belong to particular 'high-risk clones'. This study aimed to characterize a comprehensive collection of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates referred to the UK national reference laboratory from multiple UK laboratories over a 10 year period. Isolates were referred to the UK national reference laboratory between 2003 and 2012 for investigation of resistance mechanisms and/or outbreaks. MBL genes were detected by PCR. Typing was carried out by nine-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis and MLST. MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates were referred from 267 source patients and 89 UK laboratories. The most common isolation sites were urine (24%), respiratory (18%), wounds (17%) and blood (13%). VIM-type MBLs predominated (91% of all MBLs found), but a few IMP- and NDM-type enzymes were also identified. Diverse VNTR types were seen, but 86% of isolates belonged to six major complexes. MLST of representative isolates from each complex showed that they corresponded to STs 111, 233, 235, 357, 654 and 773, respectively. Isolates belonging to these complexes were received from between 9 and 25 UK referring laboratories each. The incidence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa is increasing in the UK. The majority of these isolates belong to several 'high-risk clones', which have been previously reported internationally as host clones of MBLs. © Crown copyright 2014.

  19. UK newspapers' representations of the 2009-10 outbreak of swine flu: one health scare not over-hyped by the media?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate

    2011-10-01

    A/H1N1, more commonly referred to as swine flu, emerged in Mexico in spring 2009. It rapidly spread across the world and was classed as a global pandemic on 11 June 2009. To analyse UK newsprint coverage of the swine flu pandemic. Content analysis of 2374 newsprint articles published in eight UK national newspapers between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Newsprint coverage of the swine flu epidemic was immense. The threat from swine flu was portrayed as greatest in the spring and summer of 2009 when scientific uncertainties about the impact on the UK and global population were at their height and when swine flu cases in the UK first peaked. Thereafter the number of news articles waned, failing to mirror the October peak in flu cases as the virus failed to be as virulent as first feared. Content analysis found little evidence of the media 'over-hyping' the swine flu pandemic. The news media's role as a disseminator of scientific information is particularly important in areas of risk perception. Despite a succession of health scares in recent years in which the media has been accused of exaggerating the risks and contributing to public misunderstandings of the issues, this analysis suggests that the UK newsprint reporting of swine flu in the 2009-10 outbreak was largely measured. The news media's role as disseminators of factual health information on swine flu is to be welcomed, particularly in relation to their handling and responsible reporting on scientific uncertainty.

  20. The Cost of Ankylosing Spondylitis in the UK Using Linked Routine and Patient-Reported Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, Roxanne; Husain, Muhammad J; Brophy, Sinead; Davies, Helen; Rahman, Muhammad A; Atkinson, Mark D; Phillips, Ceri J; Siebert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis which typically begins in early adulthood and impacts on healthcare resource utilisation and the ability to work. Previous studies examining the cost of AS have relied on patient-reported questionnaires based on recall. This study uses a combination of patient-reported and linked-routine data to examine the cost of AS in Wales, UK. Participants in an existing AS cohort study (n = 570) completed questionnaires regarding work status, out-of-pocket expenses, visits to health professionals and disease severity. Participants gave consent for their data to be linked to routine primary and secondary care clinical datasets. Health resource costs were calculated using a bottom-up micro-costing approach. Human capital costs methods were used to estimate work productivity loss costs, particularly relating to work and early retirement. Regression analyses were used to account for age, gender, disease activity. The total cost of AS in the UK is estimated at £19016 per patient per year, calculated to include GP attendance, administration costs and hospital costs derived from routine data records, plus patient-reported non-NHS costs, out-of-pocket AS-related expenses, early retirement, absenteeism, presenteeism and unpaid assistance costs. The majority of the cost (>80%) was as a result of work-related costs. The major cost of AS is as a result of loss of working hours, early retirement and unpaid carer's time. Therefore, much of AS costs are hidden and not easy to quantify. Functional impairment is the main factor associated with increased cost of AS. Interventions which keep people in work to retirement age and reduce functional impairment would have the greatest impact on reducing costs of AS. The combination of patient-reported and linked routine data significantly enhanced the health economic analysis and this methodology that can be applied to other chronic conditions.

  1. Assisted dying - should the UK change its stance?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel; Raphael, Claire E; Vassiliou, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    Along with an increasing interest in assisted dying by many European and North American countries, some of which have already modified their existing laws to accommodate this, the interest in assisted dying in the UK has increased once again following Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. Drawing on examples from countries where similar assisted dying laws are already in place, this article analyses and contextualises the proposed bill and discusses its potential pitfalls and benefits for the UK. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  3. Managing Food Allergens in the U.K. Retail Supply Chain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael J; Gowland, M Hazel; Points, John

    2018-01-01

    The U.K. food and grocery market is highly significant financially and dominated by 10 retailers within a regulated and extremely economically competitive environment. We summarize the approach of U.K. retailers to allergen risk assessment (RA) and risk management (RM) within the U.K. legal framework and explore public visibility of retailers' allergen policies. RA and RM of allergens appear effective in curtailing retail-triggered severe food allergy reactions. However, allergen recalls remain high, precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) remains an area of confusion, and there is no consistent Web-based provision of information for consumers who have allergies. Resolution of PAL awaits an agreed-on threshold framework, but a key challenge is to engage with patients and gain their trust rather than thrust education at them. It would be helpful for retailers to publish their allergen RA and RM policies. A target should be agreed on between government and retailers for a reduction in the proliferation of PAL wording variants by a given date within the next 3 years. A further hurdle is potentially flawed allergen analysis-development of reference methods and reference materials are acknowledged needs. Laboratories should report allergen results in an informative manner, communicating uncertainty and caveats. Ideally a laboratory representative would be included on any incident control team. Efforts must continue to standardize preparedness for protecting and defending food and drink from deliberate attack.

  4. Determination of secondary flow morphologies by wavelet analysis in a curved artery model with physiological inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Hussain, Shadman; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-11-01

    Secondary flow vortical patterns in arterial curvatures have the potential to affect several cardiovascular phenomena, e.g., progression of atherosclerosis by altering wall shear stresses, carotid atheromatous disease, thoracic aortic aneurysms and Marfan's syndrome. Temporal characteristics of secondary flow structures vis-à-vis physiological (pulsatile) inflow waveform were explored by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of phase-locked, two-component, two-dimensional particle image velocimeter data. Measurements were made in a 180° curved artery test section upstream of the curvature and at the 90° cross-sectional plane. Streamwise, upstream flow rate measurements were analyzed using a one-dimensional antisymmetric wavelet. Cross-stream measurements at the 90° location of the curved artery revealed interesting multi-scale, multi-strength coherent secondary flow structures. An automated process for coherent structure detection and vortical feature quantification was applied to large ensembles of PIV data. Metrics such as the number of secondary flow structures, their sizes and strengths were generated at every discrete time instance of the physiological inflow waveform. An autonomous data post-processing method incorporating two-dimensional CWT for coherent structure detection was implemented. Loss of coherence in secondary flow structures during the systolic deceleration phase is observed in accordance with previous research. The algorithmic approach presented herein further elucidated the sensitivity and dependence of morphological changes in secondary flow structures on quasiperiodicity and magnitude of temporal gradients in physiological inflow conditions.

  5. The Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that academic attainment by ethnic minority graduates at UK institutions of higher education is lower than that by White graduates. This was confirmed using a database of all UK-domiciled graduates from UK higher education institutions in 2004-05. The trend was greater in older students than in younger students, in…

  6. Prediction of primary vs secondary hypertension in children.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Rossana; Kapur, Gaurav; Mattoo, Tej; Jain, Amrish; Valentini, Rudolph; Ahmed, Maheen; Thomas, Ronald

    2012-05-01

    Despite current guidelines, variability exists in the workup of hypertensive children due to physician preferences. The study evaluates primary vs secondary hypertension diagnosis from investigations routinely performed in hypertensive children. This retrospective study included children 5 to 19 years with primary and secondary hypertension. The proportions of abnormal laboratory and imaging tests were compared between primary and secondary hypertension groups. Risk factors for primary vs secondary hypertension were evaluated by logistic regression and likelihood function analysis. Patients with secondary hypertension were younger (5-12 years) and had a higher proportion of abnormal creatinine, renal ultrasound, and echocardiogram findings. There was no significant difference in abnormal results of thyroid function, urine catecholamines, plasma renin, and aldosterone. Abnormal renal ultrasound findings and age were predictors of secondary hypertension by regression and likelihood function analysis. Children aged 5 to 12 years with abnormal renal ultrasound findings and high diastolic blood pressures are at higher risk for secondary hypertension that requires detailed evaluation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long-term evidence for the effect of pay-for-performance in primary care on mortality in the UK: a population study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Andrew M; Krinsky, Sam; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Doran, Tim

    2016-07-16

    Introduced in 2004, the UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is the world's largest primary care pay-for-performance programme. We tested whether the QOF was associated with reduced population mortality. We used population-level mortality statistics between 1994 and 2010 for the UK and other high-income countries that were not exposed to pay-for-performance. The primary outcome was age-adjusted and sex-adjusted mortality per 100,000 people for a composite outcome of chronic disorders that were targeted by the QOF. Secondary outcomes were age-adjusted and sex-adjusted mortality for ischaemic heart disease, cancer, and a composite of all non-targeted conditions. For each study outcome, we created a so-called synthetic UK as a weighted combination of comparison countries. We then estimated difference-in-differences models to test whether mortality fell more in the UK than in the synthetic UK after the QOF. Introduction of the QOF was not significantly associated with changes in population mortality for the composite outcome (-3.68 per 100,000 population [95% CI -8.16 to 0.80]; p=0.107), ischaemic heart disease (-2.21 per 100,000 [-6.86 to 2.44]; p=0.357), cancer (0.28 per 100,000 [-0.99 to 1.55]; p=0.679), or all non-targeted conditions (11.60 per 100,000 [-3.91 to 27.11]; p=0.143). Although we noted small mortality reductions for a composite outcome of targeted disorders, the QOF was not associated with significant changes in mortality. Our findings have implications for the probable effects of similar programmes on population health outcomes. The relation between incentives and mortality needs to be assessed in specific disease domains. None. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seismic texture and amplitude analysis of large scale fluid escape pipes using time lapses seismic surveys: examples from the Loyal Field (Scotland, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Jihad, Ali; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Fluid escape pipes are key features of primary interest for the analysis of vertical fluid flow and secondary hydrocarbon migration in sedimentary basin. Identified worldwide (Løset et al., 2009), they acquired more and more importance as they represent critical pathways for supply of methane and potential structure for leakage into the storage reservoir (Cartwright & Santamarina, 2015). Therefore, understanding their genesis, internal characteristics and seismic expression, is of great significance for the exploration industry. Here we propose a detailed characterization of the internal seismic texture of some seal bypass system (e.g fluid escape pipes) from a 4D seismic survey (released by the BP) recently acquired in the Loyal Field. The seal by pass structure are characterized by big-scale fluid escape pipes affecting the Upper Paleogene/Neogene stratigraphic succession in the Loyal Field, Scotland (UK). The Loyal field, is located on the edge of the Faroe-Shetland Channel slope, about 130 km west of Shetland (Quadrants 204/205 of the UKCS) and has been recently re-appraised and re developed by a consortium led by BP. The 3D detailed mapping analysis of the full and partial stack survey (processed using amplitude preservation workflows) shows a complex system of fluid pipe structure rooted in the pre Lista formation and developed across the paleogene and Neogene Units. Geometrical analysis show that pipes got diameter varying between 100-300 m and a length of 500 m to 2 km. Most pipes seem to terminate abruptly at discrete subsurface horizons or in diffuse termination suggesting multiple overpressured events and lateral fluid migration (through Darcy flows) across the overburden units. The internal texture analysis of the large pipes, (across both the root and main conduit zones), using near, medium and far offset stack dataset (processed through an amplitude preserved PSTM workflow) shows a tendency of up-bending of reflection (rather than pulls up artefacts

  9. Patient engagement with infection management in secondary care: a qualitative investigation of current experiences

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Timothy M; Moore, Luke S P; Hernandez, Bernard; Castro-Sanchez, Enrique; Charani, Esmita; Georgiou, Pantelis; Ahmad, Raheelah; Holmes, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand patient engagement with decision-making for infection management in secondary care and the consequences associated with current practices. Design A qualitative investigation using in-depth focus groups. Participants Fourteen members of the public who had received antimicrobials from secondary care in the preceding 12 months in the UK were identified for recruitment. Ten agreed to participate. All participants had experience of infection management in secondary care pathways across a variety of South-East England healthcare institutes. Study findings were subsequently tested through follow-up focus groups with 20 newly recruited citizens. Results Participants reported feelings of disempowerment during episodes of infection in secondary care. Information is communicated in a unilateral manner with individuals ‘told’ that they have an infection and will receive an antimicrobial (often unnamed), leading to loss of ownership, frustration, anxiety and ultimately distancing them from engaging with decision-making. This poor communication drives individuals to seek information from alternative sources, including online, which is associated with concerns over reliability and individualisation. Failures in communication and information provision by clinicians in secondary care influence individuals’ future ideas about infections and their management. This alters their future actions towards antimicrobials and can drive prescription non-adherence and loss to follow-up. Conclusions Current infection management and antimicrobial prescribing practices in secondary care fail to engage patients with the decision-making process. Secondary care physicians must not view infection management episodes as discrete events, but as cumulative experiences which have the potential to shape future patient behaviour and understanding of antimicrobial use. PMID:27799238

  10. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Urban Secondary School Student Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2007-01-01

    A meta-analysis is undertaken, including 52 studies, to determine the influence of parental involvement on the educational outcomes of urban secondary school children. Statistical analyses are done to determine the overall impact of parental involvement as well as specific components of parental involvement. Four different measures of educational…

  11. Epidemiology of non-B clade forms of HIV-1 in men who have sex with men in the UK.

    PubMed

    Fox, Julie; Castro, Hannah; Kaye, Steve; McClure, Myra; Weber, Jonathan N; Fidler, Sarah

    2010-09-24

    To describe the frequency and risk factors of non-B HIV-1 subtypes in men who have sex with men (MSM) in the UK. Observational study. MSM diagnosed with HIV-1 infection from 1980-2007, with HIV genotype held in the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database were identified. Protease and reverse transcriptase sequences were collected and viral clade determined using the REGA algorithm. Associations between demographic variables and subtype were analysed using logistic regression. The prevalence of non-B HIV-1 infection amongst MSM in the UK was 5.4% (437/8058). In the UK this increased with year of diagnosis from pre1996 to 2002, and has subsequently remained relatively stable at around 7-9% after 2002, with a recent increase in 2007 to 13%. Multivariate analysis showed that acquisition of non-B HIV-1 infection was independently associated with later year of HIV diagnosis (P < 0.001), black ethnicity (P < 0.001) and non-European country of birth (P = 0.01). Age was also associated with subtype with individuals aged 25-39 years being less likely to have non-B virus than those aged less than 25 years (P = 0.01). Restricting the analysis to white men born in the UK, the association between subtype and year of diagnosis remained statistically significant (P < 0.001), as did the association with age (P < 0.001). The number of MSM in the UK infected with non-B clade HIV-1 is increasing, suggesting that the sociodemographic boundaries between HIV-1 viral subtypes globally are diminishing. Should viral subtypes be relevant to clinical disease progression or vaccine design, the changing pattern of distribution will need to be taken into account.

  12. Consequences of Decontamination Procedures in Forensic Hair Analysis Using Metal-Assisted Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Flinders, Bryn; Boone, Carolien M; Bosman, Ingrid J; Lusthof, Klaas J; Van Asten, Arian C; Tytgat, Jan; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-03-15

    Today, hair testing is considered to be the standard method for the detection of chronic drug abuse. Nevertheless, the differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination remains a major challenge in the forensic interpretation of hair analysis. Nowadays, it is still impossible to directly show the difference between external contamination and use-related incorporation. Although the effects of washing procedures on the distribution of (incorporated) drugs in hair remain unknown, these decontamination procedures prior to hair analysis are considered to be indispensable in order to exclude external contamination. However, insights into the effect of decontamination protocols on levels and distribution of drugs incorporated in hair are essential to draw the correct forensic conclusions from hair analysis; we studied the consequences of these procedures on the spatial distribution of cocaine in hair using imaging mass spectrometry. Additionally, using metal-assisted secondary ion mass spectrometry, we are the first to directly show the difference between cocaine-contaminated and user hair without any prior washing procedure.

  13. Mapping pneumonia research: A systematic analysis of UK investments and published outputs 1997–2013

    PubMed Central

    Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Newell, Marie-Louise; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Harris, Jennifer N.; Clarke, Stuart C.; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of pneumonia continues to be substantial, particularly among the poorest in global society. We describe here the trends for UK pneumonia R&D investment and published outputs, and correlate with 2013 global mortality. Methods Data related to awards to UK institutions for pneumonia research from 1997 to 2013 were systematically sourced and categorised by disease area and type of science. Investment was compared to mortality figures in 2010 and 2013 for pneumonia, tuberculosis and influenza. Investment was also compared to publication data. Results Of all infectious disease research between 2011 and 2013 (£917.0 million), £28.8 million (3.1%) was for pneumonia. This was an absolute and proportionate increase from previous time periods. Translational pneumonia research (33.3%) received increased funding compared with 1997–2010 where funding was almost entirely preclinical (87.5%, here 30.9%), but high-burden areas such as paediatrics, elderly care and antimicrobial resistance received little investment. Annual investment remains volatile; publication temporal trends show a consistent increase. When comparing investment to global burden with a novel ‘investment by mortality observed’ metric, tuberculosis (£48.36) and influenza (£484.21) receive relatively more funding than pneumonia (£43.08), despite investment for pneumonia greatly increasing in 2013 compared to 2010 (£7.39). Limitations include a lack of private sector data and the need for careful interpretation of the comparisons with burden, plus categorisation is subjective. Conclusions There has been a welcome increase for pneumonia funding awarded to UK institutions in 2011–2013 compared with 1997–2010, along with increases for more translational research. Published outputs relating to pneumonia rose steadily from 1997 to 2013. Investment relative to mortality for pneumonia has increased, but it remains low compared to other respiratory infections and clear inequities remain

  14. Observation and Analysis of Secondary Eclipses of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered in 2010 by Maxted et al, this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 Mj, a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 Rj, an equilibrium temperature of 1560 ± 50 K, and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 µm and 4.5 µm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 µm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 µm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 µm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  15. Secondary Eclipse Observations and Orbital Analysis of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2016-01-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 MJ a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 RJ and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 μm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 μm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 μm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  16. History of UK contribution to astronautics: Politics and government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks CB, Colin

    2009-12-01

    In all developed countries, once it emerged from the amateur era, Space (and especially rocketry) moved on the public agenda because of its potential significance for both the civil and military policies of governments (coupled with its appetite for new money). In the UK the policy treatment of Space broadly paralleled that in other countries until the post-Empire trauma, the burn-out of the White-Hot Technological revolution of Harold Wilson, and the financial crises of the 1970s exhausted the public appetite for large scale publicly funded projects in high technology. The culmination for Space of these pressures came in 1986-1987 when the UK rejected the emerging international consensus and, almost alone, stayed outside the manned space commitments which developed into the International Space Station. In this paper, Colin Hicks will review the UK political developments which led up to the 1986-1987 decision and how the politics and organisation of UK space activity have developed since then to the point where in 2008 a major government review of the UK involvement in manned space was commissioned.

  17. Hot spot of structural ambivalence in prion protein revealed by secondary structure principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norifumi

    2014-08-21

    The conformational conversion of proteins into an aggregation-prone form is a common feature of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Parkinson's, and prion diseases. In the early stage of prion diseases, secondary structure conversion in prion protein (PrP) causing β-sheet expansion facilitates the formation of a pathogenic isoform with a high content of β-sheets and strong aggregation tendency to form amyloid fibrils. Herein, we propose a straightforward method to extract essential information regarding the secondary structure conversion of proteins from molecular simulations, named secondary structure principal component analysis (SSPCA). The definite existence of a PrP isoform with an increased β-sheet structure was confirmed in a free-energy landscape constructed by mapping protein structural data into a reduced space according to the principal components determined by the SSPCA. We suggest a "spot" of structural ambivalence in PrP-the C-terminal part of helix 2-that lacks a strong intrinsic secondary structure, thus promoting a partial α-helix-to-β-sheet conversion. This result is important to understand how the pathogenic conformational conversion of PrP is initiated in prion diseases. The SSPCA has great potential to solve various challenges in studying highly flexible molecular systems, such as intrinsically disordered proteins, structurally ambivalent peptides, and chameleon sequences.

  18. Primary and secondary organics in the tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: chiral analysis of 2-methyltetraols.

    PubMed

    González, N J D; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Artaxo, P; Guenther, A; Krejci, R; Nozière, B; Noone, K

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the application of a new method to facilitate the distinction between biologically produced (primary) and atmospherically produced (secondary) organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chirality. The compounds chosen for this analysis were the stereomers of 2-methyltetraols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)-methylerythritol, (l- and d-form, respectively), and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)-methylthreitol (l- and d-form), shown previously to display some enantiomeric excesses in atmospheric aerosols, thus to have at least a partial biological origin. In this work PM10 aerosol fractions were collected in a remote tropical rainforest environment near Manaus, Brazil, between June 2008 and June 2009 and analysed. Both 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol displayed a net excess of one enantiomer (either the l- or the d-form) in 60 to 72% of these samples. These net enantiomeric excesses corresponded to compounds entirely biological but accounted for only about 5% of the total 2-methyltetrol mass in all the samples. Further analysis showed that, in addition, a large mass of the racemic fractions (equal mixtures of d- and l-forms) was also biological. Estimating the contribution of secondary reactions from the isomeric ratios measured in the samples (=ratios 2-methylthreitol over 2-methylerythritol), the mass fraction of secondary methyltetrols in these samples was estimated to a maximum of 31% and their primary fraction to a minimum of 69%. Such large primary fractions could have been expected in PM10 aerosols, largely influenced by biological emissions, and would now need to be investigated in finer aerosols. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of chiral and isomeric analyses as the first direct tool to assess the primary and secondary fractions of organic aerosols.

  19. A statistical intercomparison between "urban" and "rural" precipitation chemistry data from greater Manchester and two nearby secondary national network sites in the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David S.; Longhurst, James W. S.

    Precipitation chemistry data from a dense urban monitoring network in Greater Manchester, northwest England, were compared with interpolated values from the U.K. secondary national acid deposition monitoring network for the year 1988. Differences were found to be small. However, when data from individual sites from the Greater Manchester network were compared with data from the two nearest secondary national network sites, significant differences were found using simple and complex statistical analyses. Precipitation chemistry at rural sites could be similar to that at urban sites, but the sources of some ions were thought to be different. The synoptic-scale gradients of precipitation chemistry, as shown by the secondary national network, also accounted for some of the differences.

  20. Lost in a Giant Database: The Potentials and Pitfalls of Secondary Analysis for Deaf Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluwin, T. N.; Morris, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary research or archival research is the analysis of data collected by another person or agency. It offers several advantages, including reduced cost, a less time-consuming research process, and access to larger populations and thus greater generalizability. At the same time, it offers several limitations, including the fact that the…

  1. Influence of the Scandinavian climate pattern on the UK asthma mortality: a time series and geospatial study.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Haris; Moore, G W K

    2018-04-13

    It is well known that climate variability and trends have an impact on human morbidity and mortality, especially during the winter. However, there are only a handful of studies that have undertaken quantitative investigations into this impact. We evaluate the association between the UK winter asthma mortality data to a well-established feature of the climate system, the Scandinavian (SCA) pattern. Time series analysis of monthly asthma mortality through the period of January 2001 to December 2015 was conducted, where the data were acquired from the UK's Office for National Statistics. The correlations between indices of important modes of climate variability impacting the UK such as the North Atlantic Oscillation as well as the SCA and the asthma mortality time series were computed. A grid point correlation analysis was also conducted with the asthma data with sea level pressure, surface wind and temperature data acquired from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. We find that sea level pressure and temperature fluctuations associated with the SCA explain ~20% (>95% CL) of variance in the UK asthma mortality through a period of 2001-2015. Furthermore, the highest winter peak in asthma mortality occurred in the year 2015, during which there were strong northwesterly winds over the UK that were the result of a sea level pressure pattern similar to that associated with the SCA. Our study emphasises the importance of incorporating large-scale geospatial analyses into future research of understanding diseases and its environmental impact on human health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. 'Why not you?' Discourses of widening access on UK medical school websites.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kirsty; Fahey Palma, Tania; Nicholson, Sandra; Cleland, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    In the UK, applications to medicine from those in lower socio-economic groups remain low despite significant investments of time, interest and resources in widening access (WA) to medicine. This suggests that medical schools' core messages about WA may be working to embed or further reinforce marginalisation, rather than to combat this. Our objective was to investigate how the value of WA is communicated by UK medical schools through their websites, and how this may create expectations regarding who is 'suitable' for medicine. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of the webpages of UK medical schools in relation to WA. Our conceptual framework was underpinned by a Foucauldian understanding of discourse. Analysis followed an adapted version of Hyatt's analytical framework. This involved contextualising the data by identifying drivers, levers and warrants for WA, before undertaking a systematic investigation of linguistic features to reveal the discourses in use, and their assumptions. Discourses of 'social mobility for the individual' justified WA as an initiative to support individuals with academic ability and commitment to medicine, but who were disadvantaged by their background in the application process. This meritocratic discourse communicated the benefits of WA as flowing one way, with medical schools providing opportunities to applicants. Conversely, discourses justifying WA as an initiative to benefit patient care were marginalised and largely excluded. Alternative strengths typically attributed to students from lower socio-economic groups were not mentioned, which implies that these were not valued. Current discourses of WA on UK medical school websites do not present non-traditional applicants as bringing gains to medicine through their diversity. This may work as a barrier to attracting larger numbers of diverse applicants. Medical schools should reflect upon their website discourses, critically evaluate current approaches to encouraging

  3. Infectious disease research investments: systematic analysis of immunology and vaccine research funding in the UK.

    PubMed

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat

    2013-12-05

    Financing for global health is a critical element of research and development. Innovations in new vaccines are critically dependent on research funding given the large sums required, however estimates of global research investments are lacking. We evaluate infectious disease research investments, focusing on immunology and vaccine research by UK research funding organisations. In 1997-2010, £2.6 billion were spent by public and philanthropic organisations, with £590 million allocated to immunology and vaccine research. Preclinical studies received the largest funding amount £505 million accounting for 85.6% of total investment. In terms of specific infection, "the big three" infections dominated funding: HIV received £127 million (21.5% of total), malaria received £59 million (10.0% of total) and tuberculosis received £36 million (6.0% of total). We excluded industry funding from our analysis, as open-access data were unavailable. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding and guide allocation of scarce resources. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor Development Demonstrates That Onset of Secondary Metabolism Coincides with Hypha Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus; Jung, Hye R.; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N.

    2010-01-01

    Streptomyces species produce many clinically important secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and antitumorals. They have a complex developmental cycle, including programmed cell death phenomena, that makes this bacterium a multicellular prokaryotic model. There are two differentiated mycelial stages: an early compartmentalized vegetative mycelium (first mycelium) and a multinucleated reproductive mycelium (second mycelium) arising after programmed cell death processes. In the present study, we made a detailed proteomics analysis of the distinct developmental stages of solid confluent Streptomyces coelicolor cultures using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) labeling and LC-MS/MS. A new experimental approach was developed to obtain homogeneous samples at each developmental stage (temporal protein analysis) and also to obtain membrane and cytosolic protein fractions (spatial protein analysis). A total of 345 proteins were quantified in two biological replicates. Comparative bioinformatics analyses revealed the switch from primary to secondary metabolism between the initial compartmentalized mycelium and the multinucleated hyphae. PMID:20224110

  5. Investments in respiratory infectious disease research 1997-2010: a systematic analysis of UK funding.

    PubMed

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Hayward, Andrew C; Lipman, Marc C; Atun, Rifat

    2014-03-26

    Respiratory infections are responsible for a large global burden of disease. We assessed the public and philanthropic investments awarded to UK institutions for respiratory infectious disease research to identify areas of underinvestment. We aimed to identify projects and categorise them by pathogen, disease and position along the research and development value chain. The UK. Institutions that host and carry out infectious disease research. The total amount spent and number of studies with a focus on several different respiratory pathogens or diseases, and to correlate these against the global burden of disease; also the total amount spent and number of studies relating to the type of science, the predominant funder in each category and the mean and median award size. We identified 6165 infectious disease studies with a total investment of £2·6 billion. Respiratory research received £419 million (16.1%) across 1192 (19.3%) studies. The Wellcome Trust provided greatest investment (£135.2 million; 32.3%). Tuberculosis received £155 million (37.1%), influenza £80 million (19.1%) and pneumonia £27.8 million (6.6%). Despite high burden, there was relatively little investment in vaccine-preventable diseases including diphtheria (£0.1 million, 0.03%), measles (£5.0 million, 1.2%) and drug-resistant tuberculosis. There were 802 preclinical studies (67.3%) receiving £273 million (65.2%), while implementation research received £81 million (19.3%) across 274 studies (23%). There were comparatively few phase I-IV trials or product development studies. Global health research received £68.3 million (16.3%). Relative investment was strongly correlated with 2010 disease burden. The UK predominantly funds preclinical science. Tuberculosis is the most studied respiratory disease. The high global burden of pneumonia-related disease warrants greater investment than it has historically received. Other priority areas include antimicrobial resistance (particularly within

  6. What's in a name? Nominative determinism in the UK dental workforce.

    PubMed

    Sleigh, J

    2016-12-16

    Background Nominative determinism describes the theory that people are more likely to pursue careers that are connected to their names. Compelling research has been carried out across the medical professions that provides strong evidence for this phenomenon, but as yet its applicability to the UK dental workforce remains unknown.Aim The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of dentally-related surnames in the UK dental workforce (dentists and dental care professionals) and compare this to the UK population.Results Dentistry may provide a surprising counter-example to prevailing theories of nominative determinism, as UK dentists are significantly less likely than the UK general population to have dentally-related surnames. This new phenomenon of 'nominative antideterminism' was not observed in the dental care professional (DCP) cohort, for whom the prevalence of dentally-related surnames was similar to that in the wider UK population.

  7. UK medical selection: lottery or meritocracy?

    PubMed

    Harris, Benjamin H L; Walsh, Jason L; Lammy, Simon

    2015-02-01

    From senior school through to consultancy, a plethora of assessments shape medical careers. Multiple methods of assessment are used to discriminate between applicants. Medical selection in the UK appears to be moving increasingly towards non-knowledge-based testing at all career stages. We review the evidence for non-knowledge-based tests and discuss their perceived benefits. We raise the question: is the current use of non-knowledge-based tests within the UK at risk of undermining more robust measures of medical school and postgraduate performance? © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  8. Patterns and Trends in UK Higher Education 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2016

    2016-01-01