Science.gov

Sample records for ukraine

  1. Compounding in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Zdoryk, Oleksandr A; Georgiyants, Victoriya A; Gryzodub, Oleksandr I; Schnatz, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding in modern Ukraine has a rich history and goes back to ancient times. Today in the Ukraine, there is a revival of compounding practice, the opening of private compounding pharmacies, updating of legislative framework and requirements of the State Pharmacopeia of Ukraine for compounding preparations, and the introduction of Good Pharmaceutical Practice.

  2. [Iridology in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Pokanevych, V V

    1998-05-01

    The paper focuses on the history of origination and development of iridology. The basic stages of formation of iridology as a science in Ukraine are analyzed. Due emphasis is given to the role of iridology as an easy-to-learn method of rapid diagnosis of high informative value. Efficiency is shown of iridodiagnosis as exemplified in Chernobyl accident victims. Iridology is claimed to be a science of much promise in Ukraine.

  3. Suicide in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kondrichin, Sergei V; Lester, David

    2002-01-01

    The suicide rates of the 24 provinces (oblasts) of the Ukraine were found to be strongly associated with indices of social disintegration (such as divorce and illegitimacy rates), with the Western provinces incorporated in the USSR later than other Ukrainian territories having lower suicide rates and lower levels of social disintegration.

  4. My Education in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiash, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Ukraine and other Newly Independent States were invaded by armies of consultants from Western donor organizations. Development agencies like the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development, Tacis, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the…

  5. Health lifestyles in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Abbott, Pamela; Haerpfer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have identified negative health lifestyles as a primary determinant of the mortality crisis in Europe's post-communist states, but little is known about Ukraine. In order to address this gap in the literature, this paper provides data on Ukrainian health lifestyles. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews in the households (N = 2 400) of a random sample of respondents in Ukraine in November, 2001. The sample was selected using multi-stage random sampling with stratification by region and area (urban/rural). Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Male gender was found to be the most powerful single predictor of negative health lifestyles as shown in the results for frequent drinking, heavy vodka use at one occasion, smoking, and diet. Males rated their health status better than females, but over one-third of the males and one-half of the females rated their health status as rather bad or bad. Gender and class differences in health lifestyle practices appear to be key variables, with working-class males showing the most negative practices. The results for health status suggest that the overall level of health in Ukraine is not good.

  6. Ukraine’s Defense Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-25

    Ukraine has made environmental issues a top priority in any national security equation. The Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is estimated to have...investment in Ukraine and in other former Soviet republics may be jeopardized by another environmental disaster of Chernobyl proportions. As an energy...adequate nuclear plants nor ailternative energy sources beyond coal to substitute for nuclear generated electricity. Some 16 Chernobyl -type graphite

  7. Ukrain’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    provided a report entitled “ A Science Profile of Ukraine,” which contained a great deal of background material on the Ukrainian S&T sector unavailable...direction.7 Ukraine is a republic, with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The country consists of 24 provinces (oblasti), one ... the Supreme Council (Verkhovna Rada), is a unicameral body with 450 seats. Supreme Council members, allocated on a proportional basis to those

  8. Ukraine: health system review.

    PubMed

    Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica

    2015-03-01

    This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3 % in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy practice in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Olekseev, Aleksey; Ungvari, Gabor S; Gazdag, Gábor

    2014-09-01

    Patterns of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use have recently been extensively surveyed in Central-Eastern Europe. However, data from post-USSR countries are limited. This study aimed to survey ECT practice in Ukraine. All psychiatric services in Ukraine were identified and contacted to obtain information on the use of ECT in 2011 using a 22-item questionnaire. Of the 146 psychiatric inpatient facilities, only 5 confirmed that they performed ECT in 2011. Three other services also performed ECT but refused to provide further information. In the only private psychiatric institute where ECT was offered, 14.28% of inpatients received this treatment in 2011, whereas the corresponding figure in the 6 public psychiatric facilities was a mere 0.4%. Three centers used unmodified ECT, and only 2 centers had equipment that monitored electroencephalogram. In 7 services, in line with international recommendations, affective disorders were the first indications for ECT in Ukraine, whereas uncommon indications such as anorexia or Parkinsonism were also reported. This was the first survey of ECT practice conducted in Ukraine. The provision of ECT in only 8 centers is clearly insufficient for a large country such as Ukraine, which is reflected in the low rate of inpatients treated with ECT. The very limited availability of this effective treatment modality should be addressed by the Ukrainian health authorities.

  10. Rediscovering Ukraine in the Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Alden W.

    2004-01-01

    Public school teachers are careful not to promote or celebrate any religious holiday, but the appearance of Easter on the calendar can be the springboard for exploring the culture and history of the people of a region of the world that was, for many years, hidden by the politics of the Cold War. Ukraine is the home of arguably the world's most…

  11. Embassy of Ukraine in the United States of America

    Science.gov Websites

    investment climate in Ukraine Exporters and investors council under the МFA of Ukraine Free trade agreements Relations Office of the National Investment Council of Ukraine Ukraine -United States Trade and Investment Proposals of Ukrainian Companies Ukraine Investment Promotion Office Business Ombudsman Council Scientific

  12. Experts Examine Ukraine Energy Security Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-07-01

    Russia's recent annexation of Crimea and the ongoing tensions between Russia and Ukraine have heightened concerns about how Ukraine will meet its continuing energy needs. Despite the current situation, Ukraine's long-term energy future looks promising if tensions diminish and other measures are taken, experts said during a 1 July panel on Russia, Ukraine, and energy held at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C. However, they said, a serious short-term concern is whether the country will make it through this coming winter with sufficient energy supplies.

  13. Ukraine nuclear power struggles for survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kramchenkov, V.M.; Launer, M.K.

    1996-07-01

    The breakup of the former Soviet Union left Ukraine`s nuclear power industry in the lurch. Rampant inflation and the consequent skyrocketing price of fossil fuels has given Ukrain`s nuclear industry a greater share of the energy pie, say Vladimir M. Kramchenkov, deputy head of the technical department at the Zaporozhe nuclear station in Energodar, Ukraine, and Michael K. Launer, professor of Russian at Florida State University in Tallahassee. But with the economy in a downward spiral, conditions in the nuclear industry are getting worse rather than better. {open_quotes}Manufacturers don`t pay transporters; and employers often don`t pay workers for several monthsmore » at a time,{close_quotes} the authors note. The authors conclude that while nuclear power will be vital to Ukrain`s industrial strength, {open_quotes}the economic woes currently plaguing Ukraine-including persistent, rampant inflation-will continue to affect every aspect of Ukrainian society, including the energy sector.{close_quotes}« less

  14. US UKRAINE ENVIRONMENTAL CAPACITY BUILDING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ukraine, when part of the former Soviet Union, was responsible for about 25% of its overall industrial production. This aging industrial infrastructure continues to emit enormous volumes of air and water pollution and wastes. Ukraine, according to UNDP, is ranked 11th in the wo...

  15. Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    government seized grain and food from people’s homes, causing a major famine. Whereas the Holodomor famine of 1921 caused over one million deaths due to...starvation, the ’manmade’ Holodomor famine of 1932-1933 resulted in between five million and seven and one-half million Ukrainian deaths from

  16. Space Radar Image of Dnieper River, Ukraine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the intensive agricultural development in central Ukraine, along the Dnieper River. The area shown lies about 320 kilometers 198 miles southeast of Kiev and about 360 kilometers 223 miles northeast of Odessa.

  17. Analysis of VET in Ukraine Since the Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational education and training (VET) in Ukraine has changed since the Soviet era; and to determine its structure, successes, and challenges. Design/methodology/approach: The author conducted interviews and tours at 15 vocational schools in seven cities in Ukraine. Findings: Ukraine is…

  18. 77 FR 65906 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From Brazil, China, and Ukraine Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...\\ and that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from China and Ukraine would be... contained in USITC Publication 4354 (October 2012), entitled Silicomanganese from Brazil, China, and Ukraine...

  19. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  20. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine: Investigation Nos. 731-TA- 340-E and 340-H (Third...

  1. CONFLICT IN EASTERN UKRAINE: STRATEGY FOR TUBERCULOSIS.

    PubMed

    Kuchuloria, T; Akhvlediani, T; Akhvlediani, N

    2016-09-01

    This root cause analysis concerns the conflict in the Eastern Ukraine and its impact on healthcare delivery in the context of treating internally displaced persons (IDPs). Inadequate treatment of tuberculosis (TB) was selected as a major topic for intervention planning in conflict areas in Ukraine. With respect to treating TB among IDPs, rapid diagnosis and adequate nutrition and shelter are important components of care and disease control. The DOT, supported by trained primary healthcare providers equipped with rapid MDR TB diagnostic capacities, need to provide appropriate shelter and nutrition to IDPs. In addition to active disease management, this paper discusses the important role of ongoing project monitoring and communicating evaluation findings with all the major stakeholders shaping the national TB strategy in Ukraine. A comprehensive strategy is essential for successful transitioning and re-structuring of TB healthcare delivery both during after conflict resolution.

  2. U.S. Policy in Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    the push for a NATO Membership Action Plan. The policy development needs to include a review of policy conducted together with the other countries in...the region and must be developed with an understanding of how Russia impacts Ukraine and the region. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Georgia, Crimea, Russia 16...integration, improved economic ties and a shift away from the push for a NATO Membership Action Plan. The policy development needs to include a review

  3. Epidemiology of smoking in Ukraine, 2000.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M; Telishevska, M; Rose, R

    2001-11-01

    A clear, up-to-date picture of smoking prevalence and its determinants is needed to inform the development of an effective tobacco control policy in Ukraine, particularly given the way in which the tobacco industry has targeted post-Soviet countries since transition. A nationally representative household survey was undertaken in Ukraine in February 2000. Data were available on 1,590 individuals (response rate 72%). Fifty-seven percent of men and 10% of women were current smokers and an additional 21 and 7%, respectively, were ex-smokers. Smoking behavior has changed considerably over successive generations, with an increase in the proportion of women smoking and a reduction in the mean age at first smoking. Factors associated with smoking include young age, urban residence (among women), and material hardship, particularly unemployment. Involvement in social networks appears to reduce the probability of smoking. Smoking commonly occurs in public places and smokers differ from nonsmokers in their health beliefs about smoking. Levels of smoking among men are already high and among young women are increasing rapidly. Unless an effective tobacco policy response is developed to address the issues identified, tobacco will continue to make an increasingly large contribution to premature morbidity and mortality in Ukraine. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  4. Drought Dynamics and Food Security in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, N. M.; Kogan, F.; Adamenko, T. I.; Skakun, S. V.; Kravchenko, O. M.; Kryvobok, O. A.; Shelestov, A. Y.; Kolotii, A. V.; Kussul, O. M.; Lavrenyuk, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years food security became a problem of great importance at global, national and regional scale. Ukraine is one of the most developed agriculture countries and one of the biggest crop producers in the world. According to the 2011 statistics provided by the USDA FAS, Ukraine was the 8th largest exporter and 10th largest producer of wheat in the world. Therefore, identifying current and projecting future trends in climate and agriculture parameters is a key element in providing support to policy makers in food security. This paper combines remote sensing, meteorological, and modeling data to investigate dynamics of extreme events, such as droughts, and its impact on agriculture production in Ukraine. Two main problems have been considered in the study: investigation of drought dynamics in Ukraine and its impact on crop production; and investigation of crop growth models for yield and production forecasting and its comparison with empirical models that use as a predictor satellite-derived parameters and meteorological observations. Large-scale weather disasters in Ukraine such as drought were assessed using vegetation health index (VHI) derived from satellite data. The method is based on estimation of green canopy stress/no stress from indices, characterizing moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation canopy. These conditions are derived from the reflectance/emission in the red, near infrared and infrared parts of solar spectrum measured by the AVHRR flown on the NOAA afternoon polar-orbiting satellites since 1981. Droughts were categorized into exceptional, extreme, severe and moderate. Drought area (DA, in % from total Ukrainian area) was calculated for each category. It was found that maximum DA over past 20 years was 10% for exceptional droughts, 20% for extreme droughts, 50% for severe droughts, and 80% for moderate droughts. Also, it was shown that in general the drought intensity and area did not increase considerably over past 10 years. Analysis

  5. The Emergence of Inclusion for Students with Disabilities in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    Since independence in 1991, Ukraine has struggled with restructuring its Soviet style educational system. The process has been sluggish and fraught with tension, resistance, and set backs, mirroring Ukraine's efforts to revamp its economy and regain productivity levels that characterized it prior to independence (Bureau of European and Eurasian…

  6. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-26

    The United States also pledged to continue to cooperate with Ukraine on nuclear safety issues, including the cleanup of the Chernobyl nuclear...Congressional Research Service 13 A significant portion of U.S. aid to Ukraine in the ESF account is dedicated to improving the safety of the Chernobyl nuclear

  7. OECD Reviews of Integrity in Education: Ukraine 2017

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Education in Ukraine is marked by integrity violations from early childhood education and care through postgraduate study. In the past decade policy makers and civic organisations have made progress in addressing these challenges. However, much remains to be done. "OECD Reviews of Integrity in Education: Ukraine 2017" aims to support…

  8. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-894 (Review)] Certain Ammonium Nitrate... certain ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Investigation No. 731-TA-894 (Second Review). By order of the Commission...

  9. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. University Museums of Ukraine: the revival stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, Liliya

    Young Section UMAC in Ukraine, which was created only in 2011, set a goal to change societal attitudes towards university collections for their conservation. To do this we are exploring the world experience to overcome the problems of volume, typology and current savings of academic heritage, the basic needs of museums. In addition, we pay much attention to promotion of university museums and their educational work, looking for partners for interdisciplinary research in the collections. By the beginning of 2012 a total of 495 museums and collections housed in 147 educational establishments in Ukraine had been mapped. Just 96 of these also cover the history of the educational establishments, and only 180 have their own websites. The museums are also trying to raise the level of education of employees who are dealing with collections. Unfortunately, because we are confronted with mistrust, we have to unite ourselves as many preserved collections have the sad experience from the past with the collections of regional museums being scattered and most valuable exhibits removed from regional museums to the central museums. We hope that we will overcome temporary difficulties in the future and the collections of unique national university will become more accessible, understandable and useful not only to the Ukrainian community, but also the world community. It is important for a museum or collection to be widely known and frequented and influential because a combination of these factors makes its status more secure. And we have much to be proud of - the history of education in Ukraine dates back over a thousand years. Contact with Estonia and the University of Tartu dates back at least two hundred years.

  11. "Experimental Оncology" is the Best Scientific Journal in Ukraine according to SCOPUS!

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    International scientific journal "Experimental Оncology" (Publishing House "MORION LLC", Kyiv, Ukraine - R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine) earned high global recognition, receiving the prestigious international award "SCOPUS Awards Ukraine" as a winner in the category "The Best Journal".

  12. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  13. Development of family medicine in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kolesnyk, Pavlo; Švab, Igor

    2013-12-01

    This article includes a personal history of a family physician working in Ukraine. In June 2012, Pavlo Kolesnyk, Ukrainian Assistant Professor and a Family Doctor was awarded the second Montegute Scholar grant and had the chance to attend the Wonca Europe Conference 2012 in Vienna. In many developed countries, family medicine is already well established. In Ukraine, which has the legacy of a socialist health care system the implementation of the discipline started only at the end of the last century. The changes in the health care system were of greater importance in primary care and family medicine. It gave greater decentralization of the health care system and supported investment in primary care. This article describes the development of family medicine in undergraduate and postgraduate education. Whilst family medicine is officially a priority of health care policy, there is still a long process ahead. Family medicine needs financial support from the government and doctor's wages have to be increased, to prevent this branch of medicine being unpopular among graduating medical students.

  14. Recent and future extreme precipitation over Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyshkvarkova, Olena; Voskresenskaya, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The aim of study is to analyze the parameters of precipitation extremes and inequality over Ukraine in recent climate epoch and their possible changes in the future. Data of observations from 28 hydrometeorological stations over Ukraine and output of GFDL-CM3 model (CMIP5) for XXI century were used in the study. The methods of concentration index (J. Martin-Vide, 2004) for the study of precipitation inequality while the extreme precipitation indices recommended by the ETCCDI - for the frequency of events. Results. Precipitation inequality on the annual and seasonal scales was studied using estimated CI series for 1951-2005. It was found that annual CI ranges vary from 0.58 to 0.64. They increase southward from the north-west (forest zone) and the north-east (forest steppe zone) of Ukraine. CI maxima are located in the coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Annual CI spatial distribution indicates that the contribution of extreme precipitation into annual totals is most significant at the boundary zone between steppe and marine regions. At the same time precipitation pattern at the foothill of Carpathian Mountains is more homogenous. The CI minima (0.54) are typical for the winter season in foothill of Ukrainian Carpathians. The CI maxima reach 0.71 in spring at the steppe zone closed to the Black Sea coast. It should be noted that the greatest ranges of CI maximum and CI minimum deviation are typical for spring. It is associated with patterns of cyclone trajectories in that season. The most territory is characterized by tendency to decrease the contribution of extreme precipitation into the total amount (CI linear trends are predominantly negative in all seasons). Decadal and interdecadal variability of precipitation inequality associated with global processes in ocean-atmosphere system are also studied. It was shown that precipitation inequality over Ukraine on 10 - 15 % stronger in negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and in positive phase

  15. A country divided? Regional variation in mortality in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrianna; Levchuk, Nataliia; Stickley, Andrew; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2013-12-01

    We set out to identify the contribution of various causes of death to regional differences in life expectancy in Ukraine. Mortality data by oblast (province) were obtained from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. The contribution of various causes of death to differences in life expectancy between East, West and South Ukraine was estimated using decomposition. In 2008, life expectancy for men in South (61.8 years) and East Ukraine (61.2 years) was lower than for men in West Ukraine (64.0 years). A similar pattern was observed among women. This was mostly due to deaths from infectious disease and external causes among young adults, and cardio- and cerebro-vascular deaths among older adults. Deaths from TB among young adults contribute most to differences in life expectancy. Deaths due to infectious disease, especially TB, play an important role in the gap in life expectancy between regions in Ukraine. These deaths are entirely preventable--further research is needed to identify what has 'protected' individuals in Western Ukraine from the burden of deaths experienced by their Southern and Eastern counterparts.

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit http://applied.ire.kharkov.ua/radar%20systems_their%20components%20and%20relevant%20technologies_e.html and http://viy.ua); (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, http://geophysics.ua). GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  17. Conceptual framework to ensure water security in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzalo, Yaroslav; Romashchenko, Mykhailo; Yatsiuk, Mykhailo

    2018-02-01

    As a result of global climate change against the background of natural water supply deterioration and river water content reductions, nowadays Ukraine is facing the problem of environmental degradation of river basins. In light of this, we suggest that achieving an acceptable level of water security in Ukraine should be defined as the strategic objective of national water policy. The state of national water security should be evaluated by its progress in certain sectors. The basic principles of the new water policy of Ukraine are supposed to be represented in Water Strategy of Ukraine. Integrated water management by the basin principle should serve as the main tool for achieving the objectives of water security.

  18. US-Ukraine Military Relations and the Value of Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    this did not continue for long due to the U.S. Congress’ disappointment in Ukraine’s failure to resolve specific disputes involving U.S. firms , and the...doctrinal and technological development with our key allies and to combined training events and exercises that contribute to interoperability...theoretical opportunities exist for future close military technical connections, given some of Ukraine’s unique technological capabilities in the fields of

  19. Suicidal behavior in the Ukraine, 1988-1998.

    PubMed

    Kryzhanovskaya, L; Pilyagina, G

    1999-01-01

    This report studies the available data concerning suicide rates in the Ukraine and points to the importance of appropriate monitoring of suicides and attempted suicides. It illustrates the necessity of collecting this information and of developing "The Ukrainian National Program on Suicide Prevention." Unfortunately, suicide research and publications about suicide rates were prohibited in the former Soviet Union, so some of the data about suicidal behavior in the Ukraine is incomplete. We used the official suicide death statistics of the Ukraine from the Center of Statistics (Ukrainian Ministry of Health) for the period 1988-1998. The overall rate of suicide in the Ukraine is relatively high. Official statistics in the Ukraine show that there were 29.6 suicides per 100,000 population in 1998. The frequency of completed suicide differs in the various regions of the country, suicides being more frequent in the industrially developed regions and in the rural areas of the country than in the cities. In the western part of the Ukraine the frequency of suicide is relatively low (11.1 per 100,000). Between 1988 and 1997 the suicide rate increased by 57%. In 1998 the suicide rate for women was approximately five times lower than that for men.

  20. Changes in smoking prevalence in Ukraine in 2001–5

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Tatiana I; Krasovsky, Konstantin S

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To analyse trends in smoking prevalence in Ukraine from three surveys conducted in 2001–5, and to explore correlates of observed changes, in order to estimate the stage of tobacco epidemic in Ukraine. Design Repeated national interview surveys in Ukraine in 2001, 2002 and 2005. Main outcome measure Prevalence of current smoking among the population aged ⩾15 years. Results The age‐standardised prevalence of current smoking in Ukrainian men was 54.8% in 2001 and 66.8% in 2005. Among Ukrainian women, prevalence increased from 11.5% in 2001 to 20.0% in 2005. ORs for yearly increase in prevalence were estimated as 1.164 (95% CI 1.111 to 1.220) for men and 1.187 (1.124 to 1.253) for women, which implies that, on average, 3–4% of men and 1.5–2% of women living in Ukraine join the smoking population each year. Conclusions In Ukraine, smoking prevalence is increasing in most population groups. Among men, the medium deprivation group with secondary education has the highest smoking prevalence. Among women, while the most educated, young and those living in larger cities are the leading group for tobacco use, other groups are also increasing their tobacco use. Tobacco promotion efforts appear to have been significantly more effective in Ukraine than smoking control efforts. The decrease in real cigarette prices in Ukraine in 2001–5 could be the main factor explaining the recent growth in smoking prevalence. PMID:17565141

  1. Late Pleistocene Environments of the Central Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Gerasimenko, Natalia; Matviischina, Zhanna; Kukla, George

    2001-11-01

    The Vyazivok loess sequence from the Dnieper Plain, Ukraine, documents regional environmental changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Pedological and palynological analyses and low-field magnetic susceptibility document changes from dense temperate forest during the last interglacial maximum to open, harsh, loess-steppe during the latest Pleistocene. The Vyazivok section overlies hillwash derived from a lower Pleistocene terrace and consists of two stratified soil complexes (Kaydaky and Pryluky; marine isotope stage [MIS] 5 equivalent) separated by a layer of eolian dust (Tyasmyn silt). The lower soils in both complexes formed within forest. These soils are overlain by the Uday (MIS4) and Bug (MIS2) loess units, which are separated by boreal soils of the Vytachiv (MIS3) complex. The coldest conditions within the record occurred in the youngest loess. Holocene soils cap the Bug loess. The Vyazivok section shows remarkable similarities with other classical loess sequences in western Europe, the Czech Republic, and Austria. The Kaydaky, Pryluky, and Vytachiv deposits, correlate with the PKIII, PKII, and PKI soil complexes, respectively, of the Czech Republic. The Tyasmyn and Prylyky silt layers correspond to marker horizons from central Europe.

  2. [Legal Bases Of Vaccination In Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Terzi, Olena O

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the extraordinary progress made in the field of vaccination, a large number of children in the last decade, 24 million children, or nearly 20% of children born every year, do not receive a full plan for vaccination during their first year of life. The aim: The purpose of the article is to analyze the legal framework of vaccination in Ukraine, comparing the approach of the domestic legislator to the vaccination with foreign experience. Materials and methods: Methods of research are selected based on the goal of the study. In order to establish the objectivity and validity of scientific statements and conclusions, during the conducted research a complex of general scientific and special scientific methods was used, in particular such as: the formal legal method; comparative legal method; the method of forecasting and modeling; historical-legal method. Review: In countries with epidemics, a state of emergency can be established and quarantine measures and vaccination to exercise the right to collective health, which may limit the right to individual health by limiting the right to consent to vaccination. Conclusions: It is concluded that in world practice there is no single approach to the recognition of the right to vaccination, as a human right, or as a duty to preserve the epidemiological security of the state. It has been proved that infectious diseases evolve, change their form, the only effective means of preventing pandemics, which may question the existence of man as a biological species, is the vaccination system.

  3. Use of telemedicine to improve burn care in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Knittel, Justin; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Global burn injuries have been described as the "forgotten public health crises" by the World Health Organization. Nearly 11 million people a year suffer burns severe enough to require medical attention; more people are burned each year than are infected with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tuberculosis combined. Telemedicine has the potential to link experts in specialized fields, such as burn care, to regions of the world that have limited or no access to such specialized care. A multilevel telemedicine program was developed between Massachusetts General Hospital/Shriners Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and City Hospital #8 in Lviv, Ukraine. The program should lead to a sustainable improvement in the care of burn victims in Ukraine. The authors helped establish a Learning Center at City Hospital #8 in Lviv, Ukraine, through which they were able to consult from Shriners Hospital in Boston, on a total of 14 acute burn patients in Ukraine. This article discusses two case reports with the use of telemedicine and how it has allowed the authors to provide not only acute care consultation on an international scale, but also to arrange for direct expert examination and international transport to their specialized burn center in the United States. The authors have established a program through doctors from Massachusetts General Hospital/Shriner's Hospital in Boston, which works with a hospital in Ukraine and has provided acute consultation, as well as patient transportation to the United States for treatment and direct assessment.

  4. 78 FR 45011 - Notice of Rescheduled Hearing in the Section 301 Investigation of Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Hearing in the Section 301 Investigation of Ukraine AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... property acts, policies, and practices of the Government of Ukraine that resulted in the identification of Ukraine as a priority foreign country is rescheduled for 10:30 a.m. on September 9, 2013. DATES: Persons...

  5. 76 FR 72212 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine; Notice of Commission determinations To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... From Brazil, China, and Ukraine; Notice of Commission determinations To Conduct Full Five-Year Reviews... on silicomanganese from Brazil, China, and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or... respondent interested party group responses with respect to Brazil and Ukraine were adequate, and decided to...

  6. 77 FR 59377 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty... duty order on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from Ukraine. The Department has conducted an... on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from Ukraine, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff...

  7. 78 FR 35258 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration... agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping... Order: Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine, 66 FR 47451 (September 12, 2001) (``the...

  8. Serological anthrax surveillance in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Skrypnyk, Artem; Rodina, Yana; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Nevolko, Oleg; Skrypnyk, Valeriy; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is an acute disease affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, although its impact on these populations is underappreciated. In Ukraine, surveillance is passive, and anthrax is often detected in livestock. However, wildlife is not subject to surveillance, although anthrax deaths (such as in wild boar, Sus scrofa) have been documented. The wild boar is a plentiful and widespread species in Ukraine and is frequently hunted. We initiated a screening study testing Ukrainian wild boar blood samples for antibodies to B. anthracis. We mapped results relative to known livestock anthrax hotspots. We discovered evidence of exposure in wild boar up to 35 km from livestock anthrax hotspots and over 400 km from previous anthrax reports in boars. We make recommendations about using wildlife species as biosentinels for anthrax in Ukraine.

  9. Suicide mortality at time of armed conflict in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Yur'yeva, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the dynamics of suicide mortality rates in Ukraine during an ongoing armed conflict between 2014 and 2015. Suicide mortality data were obtained by reviewing annual analytical releases from the State Service for Emergent Situations of Ukraine and annual release of Russian Federal Service of State Statistics. Suicide mortality in mainland Ukraine and in the Crimea region demonstrated a mild decrease, whereas suicide mortality in the regions directly involved in the armed conflict demonstrated a prominent decrease. The results of this review support Durkheim theory. The limitation of this review includes general concern about quality of data at time of armed conflict in the country. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROLOGICAL EDUCATION IN UKRAINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.

    2009-12-01

    In order to protect water from deterioration, improve water-environmental quality require the use of advanced science and technology, sufficient investment and appropriate management. All of these need effective and efficient education in different components of hydrology. The hydrological education is part of the national water - related activities in Ukraine. The needs in the quality of hydrological education will increase with introduction of new ideas and techniques into practices of water resources planners and managers. The environmentally oriented water resources development, the climate change impact on waters have to be tackled worldwide by well trained engineers and scientist relying on modern technology. Ukraine has more than 70 years of experience in the training of hydrologists. At the present hydrologists of B.Sc., M. Sc. and Ph D levels are trained at the Odesa State Environmental University (on the engineering basis) and at the Faculty of Geography of the Kyiv National University (on the geographical basis). The total duration of B.Sc. training is 4 years and M.Sc. - 5 years. The Geographical training of hydrologists at the Kyiv National University provides deeper understanding of natural processes in rivers, lakes and reservoirs, to view them in geographical complex with other physiogeographical phenomena. For this purpose students study geology, geomorphology, biology, meteorology, soil science, physical geography etc. The graduate hydrologists work in the organizations of the State Hydrometeorological Service, the State Committee for Water Management, the Academy of Sciences, others governmental and private organizations. The requirements for hydrologists of all these organizations are different in context and scope. This leads to the conclusion that a level of training of hydrologists should have a wide-scope in education. This is achieved by the university-wide fundamental and general geographic training at the first 2 years and orientation on

  11. [Epidemiologic situation in Ukraine, concerning malignant mesothelioma prevalence].

    PubMed

    Varivonchik, D V

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an "indicator" tumor for evaluating public exposure to asbestos (mostly amphibolitic). Over 2001-2011 in Ukraine a total of 2645 cases of malignant mesothelioma was registered (annual number is 240.5 +/- 29.0 cases). 1 case of malignant mesothelioma per 457.4 tons of asbestos consumed by industry. Median annual levels of malignant mesothelioma morbidity in Ukraine (world standard): males--0.60; females--0.31 per 100,000 of general population. These levels are lower than worldwide (males--1.11; females--0.30) and Europaen WHO ones (males--1.53; female--0.37). Medians of malignant mesothelioma morbidity age are not different between males and females in Ukraine (males 59.5 +/- 13.2 years; females 62.6 +/- 13.1 years; p > 0.05). Most frequent location of malignant mesothelioma is on pleura (males 95.3%; females 89.8%). Now Ukraine is among the countries with low level (< 0.8 per 100,000 general population) and moderate (19.0-0.1% per year) increase of malignant mesothelioma morbidity in European WHO region. Up to 2025, the prognosis is of increased malignant mesothelioma morbidity in Ukraine to 0.97 [0.70-1.18] per 100,000 general population, and in European WHO region--to 2.68. Over 1992-2011, in Ukraine 3 cases of occupational malignant mesothelioma were diagnosed (2 cases of them were connected with occupational exposure to asbestos dust).

  12. Tense and Shifting Balance: Bilingualism and Education in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilaniuk, Laada; Melnyk, Svitlana

    2008-01-01

    Language policy is a divisive issue in Ukraine, where the Ukrainian and Russian languages coexist in a tenuous balance. Many people see the choice between Russian and Ukrainian as symbolic of two polar political and cultural allegiances: with Russia, or with Europe and the West. Promotion of Ukrainian is meant to counteract its historical…

  13. Representations of Disability in Print News Media in Postsocialist Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the narrative discourses that shape representations of disability in newspapers in postsocialist Ukraine, arguing that narratives about disability are linked to a meta-discourse of "transition" that emphasizes disorder. Further, newspaper coverage prescribes competing and contradictory models of citizenship and…

  14. Predictors of Parental Use of Corporal Punishment in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Burlaka, Viktor; Ma, Julie; Lee, Shawna; Castillo, Berenice; Churakova, Iuliia

    2018-05-01

    Despite a great deal of evidence that corporal punishment is harmful, corporal punishment is still very prevalent worldwide. We examine predictors of different types of corporal punishment among Ukrainian mothers in 12 communities across Ukraine. Findings suggest that maternal spirituality, maternal coping styles, family communication, and some demographic characteristics are predictive of mothers' use of corporal punishment.

  15. Potential for Teacher Collaboration in Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to analyze the potential for collaborative relationships in schools in Ukraine. In this paper, I examine the nature of teacher collaboration in schools within a framework of postmodernism as a constructive social theory. To better grasp the deep meaning of collaborative interactions in schools, I use…

  16. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-27

    the region; and offered support for Russian civil society and democracy organizations . The legislation also urged the Administration to provide...North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) member states Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, Ukraine has played a prominent role in the...Intelligence Unit (EIU), “dismantling ingrained structures of corruption will continue to meet with considerable resistance from organized business-political

  17. Transforming University Governance in Ukraine: Collegiums, Bureaucracies, and Political Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2014-01-01

    The massification of higher education in Ukraine is a fact, while financing the system is still an issue. External pressures from the central government and the market require changes in university governance. Europeanization of the educational system and adherence to the principles laid down by the Bologna Declaration add to already existing…

  18. European experience of regulating distance selling of medicines for Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Hrekov, Yevhen; Hrekova, Maryna

    Some countries have already tried and tested mechanisms of regulating distance sales as form of distribution of medicines that have been used more or less effectively for a fairly long time. Herewith, so far, the approach of the competent authorities of some countries including Ukraine can be called prevailing in quantitative terms under which the official prohibition on distance sales of medicines is set. The aim of this study is a detailed examination of the nature of the prohibition of the medicines distance selling in Ukraine, namely the an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of this form of distribution of medicines and identification of appropriate ways for gradual repeal of the prohibition in terms of regulatory reform in Ukraine in the sphere of circulation of medicines due to the process of adaptation of statutory regulation in this area to the EU legislation. This study is based on Ukrainian regulation acts, Council Directives 97/7/EC, 2000/31/EC, 2001/83/EC, scientific works and opinions of progressiveminded people in this sphere. Such methods as dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive have been used in the article. Reception of the described experience of regulation in EU will allow a further review of the principles of regulation in Ukraine in the sphere of medicines with a shift in the main emphasis in the direction of ensuring adequate consumer rights in this area and preventing the risks of patients' and public health.

  19. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-24

    Ukrainian President takes office. However, the EU has said that it will allow Ukraine to benefit unilaterally from the DCFTA before the signature of the...Russia did not limit itself to verbal warnings. Starting in August 2013, Russia banned imports of Ukrainian chocolates from Roshen, a company owned

  20. Providing legal aid to members of vulnerable minorities in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Topolilo, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The rights of vulnerable groups--particularly injection drug users, people living with HIV/AIDS and sex workers--are routinely violated in Ukraine. In this article, which is based on a presentation from an abstract-driven session at the conference, Andrei Tolopilo describes a legal aid project undertaken to help people understand and defend their rights.

  1. Large Scale Crop Mapping in Ukraine Using Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelestov, A.; Lavreniuk, M. S.; Kussul, N.

    2016-12-01

    There are no globally available high resolution satellite-derived crop specific maps at present. Only coarse-resolution imagery (> 250 m spatial resolution) has been utilized to derive global cropland extent. In 2016 we are going to carry out a country level demonstration of Sentinel-2 use for crop classification in Ukraine within the ESA Sen2-Agri project. But optical imagery can be contaminated by cloud cover that makes it difficult to acquire imagery in an optimal time range to discriminate certain crops. Due to the Copernicus program since 2015, a lot of Sentinel-1 SAR data at high spatial resolution is available for free for Ukraine. It allows us to use the time series of SAR data for crop classification. Our experiment for one administrative region in 2015 showed much higher crop classification accuracy with SAR data than with optical only time series [1, 2]. Therefore, in 2016 within the Google Earth Engine Research Award we use SAR data together with optical ones for large area crop mapping (entire territory of Ukraine) using cloud computing capabilities available at Google Earth Engine (GEE). This study compares different classification methods for crop mapping for the whole territory of Ukraine using data and algorithms from GEE. Classification performance assessed using overall classification accuracy, Kappa coefficients, and user's and producer's accuracies. Also, crop areas from derived classification maps compared to the official statistics [3]. S. Skakun et al., "Efficiency assessment of multitemporal C-band Radarsat-2 intensity and Landsat-8 surface reflectance satellite imagery for crop classification in Ukraine," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observ. and Rem. Sens., 2015, DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2454297. N. Kussul, S. Skakun, A. Shelestov, O. Kussul, "The use of satellite SAR imagery to crop classification in Ukraine within JECAM project," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), pp.1497-1500, 13

  2. A Canada-Ukraine Collaborative Initiative for Introducing Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Ukraine: Participant Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim; McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Kolopayvea, Alla; Tarenchenko, Oksana; Mazin, Dymtro; Crocker, Cheryl; Petryshyn, Roman

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of Canadian and Ukrainian educators who collaborated on a 5-year Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) funded project to develop local capacity to implement inclusive education for children with disabilities in Ukraine. Ukrainian and Canadian educators and project coordinators engage in reflective…

  3. Formation and dynamics of hazardous convective weather events in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabukh, Vera; Malytska, Liudmyla; Bazalieieva, Iuliana

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation change observed from the middle of the 70s of the twentieth century in the Northern Hemisphere resulted in changes of weather events formation conditions in different regions. The degree of influence of various factors on the formation of weather events also has changed. This eventually led to an increase in number and intensity of weather events and their variations in time and space. Destructions and damages associated with these events have increased recently and the biggest damages are mainly results of complex convective weather events: showers, hail, squall. Therefore, one of the main tasks of climatology is to study the mechanisms of change repeatability and intensity of these events. The paper considers the conditions of formation of hazardous convective weather phenomena (strong showers, hail, squalls, tornadoes) in Ukraine and their spatial and temporal variability during 1981 - 2010. Research of convection processes was based on daily radiosonde data for the warm season (May-September 1981 - 2010s), reanalysis ERA-Interim ECMWF data for 1989 - 2010 years , daily observations at 187 meteorological stations in Ukraine, as well as observations of the natural phenomena in other regions (different from the meteorological stations). Indices of atmospheric instability, the magnitude of the Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), the moisture, the height of the condensation and equilibrium level was used to quantify the intensity of convection. The criteria for the intensity of convection for Ukrainian territory were refined on the basis of these data. Features of the development of convection for various hazardous convective weather events were investigated and identified the necessary conditions for the occurrence of showers, hail, tornadoes and squall in Ukraine. Spatio-temporal variability of convection intensity in Ukraine, its regional characteristics and dynamics for the past 30 year was analyzed. Significant tendency to an

  4. Political and economic transformations in Ukraine: The view from psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Yankovskyy, Shelly

    2016-10-01

    This article examines contemporary Ukrainian psychiatry through the voices of patients, practitioners, and advocates, focusing on shifting objects of knowledge, interventions, and institutional transitions. Currently, we are witnessing the reconfiguration of psychiatry on a global scale through neoliberal rhetoric combined with the call for global mental health. The goal of the movement for global mental health is to scale up psychiatric treatments through greater access to psychiatric drugs, justified through the framing of distress as an illness. Neoliberal rhetoric suggests that cutting social service expenditure through the privatization and decentralization of the health care system will stimulate economic growth and, in the long term, combat poverty. This paper traces how these dynamics are playing out in Ukraine, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a psychiatric hospital in south-central Ukraine from 2008-2010, while working with a non-governmental organization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Health lifestyles and political ideology in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return.

  6. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-08

    Ukrainian government committed to reforms. In May 2014, the Ukrainian government received the first installment of a $17 billion IMF loan. The European...sensitive position between Russia and NATO member states Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania adds to its geostrategic significance. Many Russian...continue their efforts at destabilization unhindered. After Ukraine re-launched an “anti-terrorist operation” on April 23 (after setbacks on a first

  7. The Russian-European Union Competition in Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    of Germany’s brief triumph during the Great War. The 1918 treaty of Brest -Litovsk created for the first time an independent Ukraine, designed to be a...6North Atlantic Treaty Organization, “Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation signed in Paris ...institution now known as the European Union originated as the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951. Interest in expanding economic cooperation

  8. Sen2-Agri country level demonstration for Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, N.; Kolotii, A.; Shelestov, A.; Lavreniuk, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Due to launch of Sentinel-2 mission European Space Agency (ESA) started Sentinel-2 for Agriculture (Sen2-Agri) project coordinated by Universite catholique de Louvain (UCL). Ukraine is selected as one of 3 country level demonstration sites for benchmarking Sentinel-2 data due to wide range of main crops (both winter and summer), big fields and high enough climate variability over the territory [1-2]. Within this county level demonstration main objectives are following: i) Sentinel's products quality assessment and their suitability estimation for the territory of Ukraine [2]; ii) demonstration in order to convince decision makers and state authorities; iii) assessment of the personnel and facilities required to run the Sen2-Agri system and creation of Sen-2 Agri products (crop type maps and such essential climatic variable as Leaf Area Index - LAI [3]). During this project ground data were collected for crop land mapping and crop type classification along the roads within main agro-climatic zones of Ukraine. For LAI estimation we used indirect non-destructive method which is based on DHP-images and VALERI protocol. Products created with use of Sen2-Agri system deployed during project execution and results of neural-network approach utilization will be compared. References Kussul, N., Lemoine, G., Gallego, F. J., Skakun, S. V., Lavreniuk, M., & Shelestov, A. Y. Parcel-Based Crop Classification in Ukraine Using Landsat-8 Data and Sentinel-1A Data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing , 9 (6), 2500-2508. Kussul, N., Skakun, S., Shelestov, A., Lavreniuk, M., Yailymov, B., & Kussul, O. (2015). Regional scale crop mapping using multi-temporal satellite imagery. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 40(7), 45-52. Shelestov, A., Kolotii, A., Camacho, F., Skakun, S., Kussul, O., Lavreniuk, M., & Kostetsky, O. (2015, July). Mapping of biophysical parameters based on high

  9. Higher Education Reform in Ukraine during the Transition Period: On the Path to Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandruk, Svitlana; Shatrova, Zhanna

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the challenges and factors impeding the education reforms in Ukraine despite the continuous efforts to modernize the higher education system. It considers the major provisions of the new Higher Education Law of Ukraine (HELU) and their alignment with the requirements of the Bologna Process for the country to integrate in the…

  10. The Ecology of Language in Classrooms at a University in Eastern Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnopolsky, Oleg B.; Goodman, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Using an ecology of language framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which English as a medium of instruction (EMI) at a private university in eastern Ukraine allows for the use of Ukrainian, the state language, or Russian, the predominantly spoken language, in large cities in eastern Ukraine. Uses of English and Russian…

  11. 78 FR 46672 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8401] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ukraine Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... prior year Acts with respect to Ukraine and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...

  12. 77 FR 66956 - Silicomanganese From the People's Republic of China and Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the People's Republic of China and Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... determinations by the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') that revocation of the antidumping duty (``AD..., and Ukraine Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on...

  13. 76 FR 78885 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia) and Ukraine... Russia and Ukraine,\\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 74685 (December 1, 2010); see also Solid Urea From Russia...

  14. Towards a Multilingual Future: The Ecology of Language at a University in Eastern Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Bridget Ann

    2013-01-01

    In Ukraine, the Russian and Ukrainian languages have historically alternated in policy and practice in their official status and social prestige. As in many areas of the world, English is emerging in Ukraine as a language of economic value, social prestige, and education though it is not a language of wider communication. The goal of the research…

  15. Forming the Future Lawyers' Communicative Competence: The Experience of Higher Education in Ukraine and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasilenko, Lyudmyla

    2014-01-01

    In the article the state of forming of communicative competence of future lawyers in higher education of Ukraine and Germany is analyzed. There is made the comparative description of preparation of the students of law faculty with an accent on forming of communicative competence on the example of the University of modern knowledge (Ukraine) and…

  16. Russia’s Energy Policies and Ukraine’s NATO Candidacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Government of Ukraine, “WTO protocol approved una voce nearly,” Web Portal of Ukrainian Government, April 10, 2008, http://www.kmu.gov.ua/control...with Eni into Libya fuels EU security fears.” Financial Times, April 3, 2008, 25. Government of Ukraine. “WTO protocol approved una voce nearly

  17. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine would be likely to lead to... with respect to Indonesia, Latvia, and Poland. Commissioner Daniel R. Pearson dissenting with respect...

  18. 75 FR 21384 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Glory of Ukraine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6975] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Glory of Ukraine: Sacred Images From the 11th to the 19th Centuries'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Glory of Ukraine: Sacred Images from the 11th to the 19th...

  19. 76 FR 19747 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia) and Ukraine... initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. Scope of the Orders The...

  20. 76 FR 23835 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to...

  1. Krokodile Injectors in Ukraine: Fueling the HIV Epidemic?

    PubMed

    Booth, Robert E; Davis, Jonathan M; Brewster, John T; Lisovska, Oksana; Dvoryak, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the characteristics of krokodile injectors, a recent phenomenon in Ukraine, and HIV-related risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID). In three Ukraine cities, Odessa, Donetsk and Nikolayev, 550 PWID were recruited between December 2012 and October 2013 using modified targeted sampling methods. The sample averaged 31 years of age and they had been injecting for over 12 years. Overall, 39 % tested positive for HIV, including 45 % of krokodile injectors. In the past 30 days, 25 % reported injecting krokodile. Those who injected krokodile injected more frequently (p < 0.001) and they injected more often with others (p = 0.005). Despite knowing their HIV status to be positive, krokodile users did not reduce their injection frequency, indeed, they injected as much as 85 % (p = 0.016) more frequently than those who did not know their HIV status or thought they were negative. This behavior was not seen in non-krokodile using PWID. Although only a small sample of knowledgeable HIV positive krokodile users was available (N = 12), this suggests that krokodile users may disregard their HIV status more so than nonkrokodile users. In spite of widespread knowledge of its harmful physical consequences, a growing number of PWID are turning to injecting krokodile in Ukraine. Given the recency of krokodile use the country, the associated higher frequency of injecting, a propensity to inject more often with others, and what could be a unique level of disregard of HIV among krokodile users, HIV incidence could increase in future years.

  2. Effectiveness of a vaccination program against mumps in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hrynash, Y; Nadraga, A; Dasho, M

    2008-12-01

    Medical records and incidence data were analyzed retrospectively to document the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of mumps in relation to vaccination status in the Lviv province of Ukraine over a 7.5-year period, beginning in 2000, when a second dose of mumps vaccine was introduced. Lviv, 1 of 27 provinces in western Ukraine, with a land area of 21,833 km(2), had a total population of about 2,555,834 in 2006. The initial success of the second dose introduction in 2000 in Ukraine was limited by a local outbreak of mumps in Lviv province in 2000-2002 due to a vaccine shortage; most cases were over the age of 7 years. The vaccine with the Leningrad-3 virus strain used before 2001 was then replaced by the triple vaccine "Priorix", with the RIT 4385 derivate of the Jeryl Lynn strain, Belgium. Orchitis and aseptic meningitis were associated with the Russian vaccine. Of the 10,894 reported cases, the most severe (367 cases, 3.4%) were hospitalized in the Lviv Hospital for Infectious Diseases. Admitted patients were predominantly male and over 14 years old. Of the 367 patients admitted to the Lviv Hospital for Infectious Diseases, 45.8% had been vaccinated (mostly by a first dose of Russian vaccine), 15.9% had not been vaccinated, and 38.1% had an unknown vaccination status. More mumps cases occurred in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. The clinical picture and complications (orchitis, pancreatitis, meningitis, and encephalitis) were typical of this disease. The vaccine shortage and an increase in the susceptible population among those who received the Russian vaccine contributed to the outbreak. The use of vaccine with a derivate of the Jeryl Lynn strain has resulted in a dramatic drop in mumps cases since 2002.

  3. Parasitic amoebae found in water bodies of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Patsyuk, Marina

    2017-12-01

    Two parasitic amoebian species are found in mollusks of the water bodies of Ukraine. Vahlkampfia sp. is found in hepatopankreas of Unio conus Spengler, 1793, and Acanthamoeba sp. is observed in mantle cavity of Viviparus viviparus Linnaeus, 1758. For these protist species, the mollusks are shown to be intermediate hosts where amoebae feed and reproduce. An experimental infection with Vahlkampfia sp. and Acanthamoeba sp. was not successful, no pathological changes in mollusks were observed. These amoebae are successfully cultured in fresh water and agar medium, hence we can safely consider them free-living. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Misclassification of men with reported HIV infection in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Čakalo, Jurja-Ivana; Božičević, Ivana; Vitek, Charles; Mandel, Jeffrey S; Salyuk, Tetyana; Rutherford, George W

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed data on reported mode of transmission in case reports of HIV-infections among men in Ukraine. The number of men who were reported to have acquired HIV through heterosexual transmission increased substantially in 2006-2011. However, we estimate that up to 40 % of reported cases of heterosexual transmission among men may actually represent misclassified men who have sex with men or persons who inject drugs. These findings indicate a need to improve the quality of data on reported mode of HIV transmission. Accurate information has important public health implications in planning prevention and treatment services.

  5. Successful model of suicide prevention in the Ukraine military environment.

    PubMed

    Rozanov, Vsevolod A; Mokhovikov, Alexander N; Stiliha, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of suicidal behavior in the Ukraine military environment and gives an example of the successful prevention approach. The model of prevention is based on (1) education of the responsible officers, (2) training of the representatives of the most vulnerable risk groups, and (3) follow-up procedures based on distribution of pocket books for soldiers, educational booklets, and sets of helpful materials for officers. One of the main conclusions is that the prevention activity must be organized as a continuum of actions, seminars, consultations, and materials distribution.

  6. Development of Mechanics in Support of Rocket Technology in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisnyakov, Vladimir

    2003-06-01

    The paper analyzes the advances of mechanics made in Ukraine in resolving various problems of space and rocket technology such as dynamics and strength of rockets and rocket engines, rockets of different purpose, electric rocket engines, and nonstationary processes in various systems of rockets accompanied by phase transitions of working media. Achievements in research on the effect of vibrations and gravitational fields on the behavior of space-rocket systems are also addressed. Results obtained in investigating the reliability and structural strength durability conditions for nuclear installations, solid- and liquid-propellant engines, and heat pipes are presented

  7. MODY in Ukraine: genes, clinical phenotypes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Globa, Evgenia; Zelinska, Nataliya; Elblova, Lenka; Dusatkova, Petra; Cinek, Ondrej; Lebl, Jan; Colclough, Kevin; Ellard, Sian; Pruhova, Stepanka

    2017-10-26

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has not been previously studied in Ukraine. We investigated the genetic etiology in a selected cohort of patients with diabetes diagnosed before 18 years of age, and in their family members. Genetic testing of the most prevalent MODY genes (GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B and INS) was undertaken for 36 families (39 affected individuals) by Sanger or targeted next generation sequencing. A genetic diagnosis of MODY was made in 15/39 affected individuals from 12/36 families (33%). HNF1A and HNF4A MODY were the most common subtypes, accounting for 9/15 of MODY cases. Eight patients with HNF1A or HNF4A MODY and inadequate glycemic control were successfully transferred to sulfonylureas. Median HbA1c decreased from 67 mmol/mol (range 58-69) to 47 mmol/mol (range 43-50) (8.3% [7.5-8.5] to 6.4% [6.1-6.7]) 3 months after transfer (p=0.006). Genetic testing identified pathogenic HNF1A and HNF4A variants as the most common cause of MODY in Ukraine. Transfer to sulfonylureas substantially improved the glycemic control of these patients.

  8. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  9. Ixodid ticks in the megapolis of Kyiv, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Nebogatkin, Igor V; Scoles, Glen A

    2017-01-01

    The Ixodidae include the most common tick species encountered in Europe. The ticks transmit a variety of bacterial and protozoan agents of medical and veterinary significance. The aim of the current work was to investigate distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Kyiv, the largest and most densely populated megapolis of Ukraine. Ticks were collected at various recreational areas by flagging during May, the month that showed the highest tick abundance in the past. Sex distribution among I. ricinus ticks was relatively equal, whereas females were collected in higher numbers for D. reticulatus. As opposed to western and central Europe where nymphal ticks had been more abundant, the nymph:adult ratio for I. ricinus was reversed. Also, this report documents detection of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) in Kyiv region, well outside of its historically documented distribution area. Previously thought to be restricted to the southern Ukraine, a single male specimen of R. sanguineus s.l. was collected just outside the city limits. Data on tick diversity over the past 30 years, however, indicates that this finding may only be incidental. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Neonatal diabetes in Ukraine: incidence, genetics, clinical phenotype and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Globa, Evgenia; Zelinska, Nataliya; Mackay, Deborah J.G.; Temple, Karen I.; Houghton, Jayne A.L.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Flanagan, Sarah E.; Ellard, Sian

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonatal diabetes has not been previously studied in Ukraine. We investigated the genetic etiology in patients with onset of diabetes during the first 9 months of life. Methods We established a Pediatric Diabetes Register to identify patients diagnosed with diabetes before 9 months of age. Genetic testing was undertaken for 42 patients with permanent or transient diabetes diagnosed within the first 6 months of life (n=22) or permanent diabetes diagnosed between 6 and 9 months (n=20). Results We determined the genetic etiology in 23 of 42 (55%) patients; 86% of the patients diagnosed before 6 months and 20% diagnosed between 6 and 9 months. The incidence of neonatal diabetes in Ukraine was calculated to be 1 in 126,397 live births. Conclusions Genetic testing for patients identified through the Ukrainian Pediatric Diabetes Register identified KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutations as the most common cause (52%) of neonatal diabetes. Transfer to sulfonylureas improved glycemic control in all 11 patients. PMID:26208381

  11. Nuclear power industry: Tendencies in the world and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenko, V. A.; Jenkovszky, L. L.; Pavlovych, V. N.

    2007-11-01

    This review deals with new trends in nuclear reactors physics. It opens by an easily understood introduction to nuclear fission energy physics, starting with some history, including the achievements of the Kharkov nuclear physics school. Attention has been given to the development of fission theory, the Strutinsky theory, and the possible use of "nonstandard" fissile elements. The evolution of the design of nuclear reactors, including the merits and demerits of various structures used worldwide, is given in detail. A detailed description of nuclear power plants operating in Ukraine and their (large!) contribution to Ukraine's total electricity production as compared with other countries is presented. A comparative evaluation of different energy sources influencing environment contamination and the pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident are presented. The lessons of the Chernobyl accident are summarized, including the features of the shelter ("Sarkofag") covering the remaining of the power plant fourth block and some examples of calculations of the radioactive evolution of the station's fuel-containing mass (by authors of the present review). The evolution of traditional nuclear reactors designs set forth under the separate heading of next-generation reactors including new projects such as subcritical assemblies controlled by an external beam of particles (neutrons and protons). The Feoktistov reactor operation and the possibility of its realization are discussed among the new ideas.

  12. Ukraine President Leonis Kuchma with P.S. Kadenyuk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, Fla. The president of the Ukraine, Leonid Kuchma, is flanked by Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk, at left, and backup Payload Specialist Yaroslav Pustovyi, at right, both of the National Space Agency of Ukraine, during pre-launch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 launch of STS-87. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Kadenyuk will pollinate Brassica rapa plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment, or CUE, aboard Columbia during its 16-day mission. The CUE experiment is a collection of 10 plant space biology experiments that will fly in Columbias middeck and features an educational component that involves evaluating the effects of microgravity on Brassica rapa seedlings. Students in Ukrainian and American schools will participate in the same experiment on the ground and have several live opportunities to discuss the experiment with Kadenyuk in Space. Kadenyuk will be flying his first Shuttle mission on STS- 87.

  13. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Yunakov, Nikolai; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Filimonov, Rostislav; Volovnik, Semyon

    2018-04-05

    The fauna of weevils Curculionoidea of Ukraine numbers 1453 species equivalent to 25.3% of European fauna. They belong to 10 families and 364 genera. A total of 51 species are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. Assessment of inventory completeness indicates that 62% of the area of Ukraine are covered by samples. Spatial join analysis has reveals strong collecting biases and shows maximal richness in cells which fall into well-sampled provinces. A total of 22 out of 33 studied model sites are well-sampled (C>0.5). In total, we estimate ca.1470 species of Curculionoidea living in Ukraine. Curculionidae comprise the majority (82%) of the fauna, with 1202 species and 266 genera, and with remarkably high proportion of the three largest subfamilies: Entiminae (26%), Curculioninae (19%), and Ceutorhynchinae (18%). Consolidated data analysis shows highest richness (678-822 spp.) in provinces which fall into the mountain areas. Aggregated species richness for each of five ecoregions uncovers highest values in Pontic steppe (665 species) and East European forest-steppe (593 species). Habitat distribution of weevils is strongly uneven. Most of the richness (565 spp.) is harboured in lowland broadleaf forests. Salt marshes, salt steppes and sands are extreme habitats with low richness but high proportion of habitat specialists. Only 141 dominant species representing 18% of the total fauna but make up to 63% of the total population of weevils in Ukraine. Endemic species comprise a small proportion of the fauna but are remarkably concentrated in the mountains of Crimea (24 species) and the Carpathians (25 species). Along with 'true' endemics, 210 species are narrowly-ranged non-endemics and also have higher concentration in Crimea and the Carpathians (105 and 38 spp.). A total of 82 species are qualified as widely-ranged with high concentration in Central European Mixed Forests and East European Forest Steppe (71 spp. on average per province).        The high

  14. The in-depth safety assessment (ISA) pilot projects in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C. A.

    1998-02-10

    Ukraine operates pressurized water reactors of the Soviet-designed type, VVER. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs). After approval of the SARS by the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, the plants will be granted longer-term operating licenses. In September 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine issued a new contents requirement for the safety analysis reports of VVERs in Ukraine. It contains requirements in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. Themore » DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), through the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), has initiated an assistance and technology transfer program to Ukraine to assist their nuclear power stations in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARS. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) have been initiated at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1. USDOE/INSP have structured the ISA program in such a way as to provide maximum assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine while encouraging and supporting the Ukrainian plants to take the responsibility and initiative and to perform the required assessments.« less

  15. [Comperative characteristics of different organizational approaches to the provision of dental care in Ukraine and Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Рогач, Іван; Слабкий, Генадій; Погоріляк, Рената; Ціцвакова, Марина; Шип, Денис; Данко, Дана

    Saving dental health is a priority, which is controlled by the European strategy for the World Health Organization to achieve ≪Health for All≫. To study and compare organizational approaches to the organization of dental care in Ukraine and Slovakia. In the course of the work we used statistical, bibliosemantic methods and the method of structural and logical analysis, the data of the statistical branch reporting of Ukraine, Slovakia and the data of the European database ≪Health for All≫ were used. It is established that the provision of the population with educational institutions for future dentists in Ukraine is one university for 2154566 people, and in Slovakia - one for 676 764 people. Obviously, access to dental education in the Slovak Republic is better than in Ukraine. In the course of the study, we found that the level of provision of dentists for 10 thousand people in Ukraine is 4.56, and in Slovakia-5.75, which is 26% more than in Ukraine. In Slovakia, the level of availability of dentists is 5.75, too, with a reliable difference in the profile of administrative territories Conclusion. Both countries are working to achieve international goals to ensure dental health for the period till 2025. Therefore, the exchange of good experience, which gained in Ukraine and Slovakia for the organization of dental care will improve the performance of dental services of both countries to achieve these goals.

  16. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  17. Silurian K-bentonites of the Dnestr Basin, Podolia, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.; Kolata, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    The Dnestr Basin of Podolia, Ukraine, is an epicratonic basin consisting of neritic carbonate and calcareous mudstone facies including a nearly complete Silurian sequence ranging from late Llandovery to late Pridoli in age. The Silurian section has served as a standard for regional and interregional studies as a consequence of its well-documented macro- and microfaunal assemblages. Approximately 24 mid- to Late Silurian K-bentonites are present in this succession, and their lateral persistence has aided in establishing regional correlations. The K-bentonites range from 1 to 40 cm in thickness and occur in the Bagovitsa (late Wenlock), Malinovtsy (Ludlow) and Skala (Pridoli) Formations. Discrimination diagrams based on immobile trace elements together with rare earth element data suggest the K-bentonites had a volcanic origin in a collision margin setting related to subduction. Thickness and stratigraphic distribution considerations are consistent with a source area in the Rheic Ocean.

  18. [Optimization of education for laparoendoscopic technologies in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Lesovoĭ, V N; Savenkov, V I; Tomin, M S

    2014-09-01

    International experience of training of surgeons, including urologists, in laparoendoscopic technologies, was analyzed. Practical course "The Fundamentals of aparoscopic Surgery" (FLS) and the European program of education for basic laparoscopic urologic skills (E-BLUS), which are used in specialized centers, constitute a standard programs of development of basic endosurgical skills. Such centers in Ukraine are absent. The project of complex system of a simulating education, testing and certification of surgeons, who are trained in endovideosurgical technologies, is proposed. While performing surveying of Ukrainian surgeons there were revealed the problems in a process of their education and introduction of highly technological methods: insufficient equipment with modern apparatuses, absence of a standardized pro- gram of education. The staged program of education was elaborated, taking into account progressive international experience and adopted to our environment and con ditions.

  19. [Properties of pectolitic phytopathogenic bacteria isolates obtained in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, L A; Parkhomenko, N I; Moroz, S N; Gorb, T E

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria obtained from potato tubers having symptoms of soft rot and grown in different regions of Ukraine are identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. These bacteria strains are able to produce bacteriocines. Their killer activity in respect of P. carotovorum and Esherichia coli has been studied. The sensitivity to bactericines has been shown. Purified fractions of bacteriocines having high molecular weight (MCTV) have been obtained. The difference in composition of proteins from phage tails as compared to the ones in P. carotovorum J2 has been studied by the method of electrophoresis. It was found that the composition of MCTV major proteins of studied isolates mostly corresponds to P. carotovorum J2. The set of enzyme minor fractions has some different compositions as compared to P. carotovorum J2. It has been hypothesized that this difference is responsible for killer specificity.

  20. ASSESSING OF HERBIVOROUS AND BENEFICIAL INSECTS ON SWITCHGRASS IN UKRAINE.

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, T; Kucherovska, S; Pisdlisnyuk, V

    2014-01-01

    A perennial switchgrass, (Panicum virgatum L.), (C4) that is native to North America has good potential for biomass production because of its wide geographic distribution and adaptability to diverse environmental conditions. Insects can significantly impact the yield and quality of biofuel crops. If switchgrass are to be grown on marginally arable land or in monoculture, it are likely to be plagued with herbivore pests and plant diseases at a rate that exceeds what would be expected if the plants were not stressed in this manner. This biofuel crop has been under evaluation for commercial growing in Ukraine for eight years. However, insect diversity and the potential impact of pests on biomass production of this feedstock have not been accessed yet. The objective of our study, started in 2011, is a survey of switch grass insects by trophic groups and determine species that have pest status at two sites in the Central part of Ukraine (Kiev and Poltava regions). In Poltava site we investigated the effect of nine varieties of switchgrass (lowland and upland) to insects' diversity. We assessed changes over time in the densities of major insects' trophic groups, identifying potential pests and natural enemies. Obtained results indicates that different life stages of herbivorous insects from Hymenoptera, Homoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera orders were present on switchgrass during the growing season. Our study results suggests that choice of variety has an impact on trophic groups' structure and number of insects from different orders on swicthgrass. Herbivores and beneficial insects were the only groups that showed significant differences across sampling dates. The highest population of herbivores insects we recorded on 'Alamo' variety for studied years, although herbivore diversity tended to increase on 'Shelter', 'Alamo' and 'Cave-in-Rock' during 2012 and 2013. 'Dacotah', 'Nebraska', 'Sunburst', 'Forestburg' and 'Carthage' showed the highest level of beneficial insects

  1. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Healthy eating in Ukraine: attitudes, barriers and information sources.

    PubMed

    Biloukha, O; Utermohlen, V

    2001-04-01

    To identify the major perceived influences on food choice, to examine the use of and trust in information sources concerning healthy eating, and to assess attitudes towards and barriers to adopting healthy eating practices in a post-USSR country (Ukraine). A survey of an urban adult population. The questions were adopted from the Pan-European Union (EU) Survey of Consumer Attitudes to Food, Nutrition and Health (1995-1996). Lviv city, Ukraine. The survey included 296 adults (84 males, 212 females) aged 18-55 years; they were primarily college students and subjects with tertiary education--the groups most likely to be both interested in healthy eating and affected by current socioeconomic downturns. The major factors in food choice were: 'quality/freshness' (cited by 80%), 'price' (58%) and 'taste' (47%); only 34% cited 'trying to eat healthily'. More older people cited 'price' than 'quality/freshness', and men were more likely than women to cite 'taste'. Sources of healthy eating information included: 'relatives/friends' (cited by 65%, trusted by 85%) and health professionals (trusted by 92%, but used by only 35%); while advertising was the least trusted source (cited by 28%). Fifty-three per cent of respondents considered their diet to be healthy enough without further changes; 50% thought of the nutritional aspects of the food they ate; fewer women than men considered their diet healthy, and more women than men thought about nutrition. Barriers to healthy eating included: 'cost' (cited by 65%), 'lack of time' (55%), 'self-control' (54%), 'selection influences' (41%), 'lack of knowledge' (32%), 'unpleasant foods' and 'resistance to change' (both 30%). Strategies to encourage healthy eating in this population should involve word-of-mouth nutrition education concerning low-cost healthy alternatives.

  3. Impact craters at falling of large asteroids in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Catastrophes of different scale that are associated with the fall of celestial bodies to the Earth - occurred repeatedly in its history. But direct evidence of such catastrophes has been discovered recently. Thus, in the late 1970s studies of terrestrial rocks showed that in layers of the earth's crust that corresponded to the period of 65 million years before the present, marked by the mass extinction of some species of living creatures, and the beginning of the rapid development of others. It was then - a large body crashed to Earth in the Gulf of Mexico in Central America. The consequence of this is the Chicxulub crater with a diameter of ~170 km on Yucatan Peninsula. Modern Earth's surface retains many traces of collisions with large cosmic bodies. To indicate the craters with a diameter of more than 2 km using the name "astrobleme". Today, it found more than 230. The largest astroblems sizes exceeding 200 km. Ukraine also has some own astroblems. In Ukraine, been found nine large impact craters. Ukrainian crystalline shield, because of its stability for a long time (more than 1.5 billion years), has the highest density of large astroblems on the Earth's surface. The largest of the Ukrainian astroblems is Manevytska. It has a diameter of 45 km. There are also Ilyinetskyi (7 km), Boltysh (25 km), Obolon' (20 km), Ternivka (12-15 km), Bilylivskyi (6 km), Rotmystrivka (3 km) craters. Zelenohayska astrobleme founded near the village Zelenyi Gay in Kirovograd region and consists of two craters: larger with diameter 2.5-3.5 km and smaller - with diameter of 800 m. The presence of graphite, which was the basis for the research of the impact diamond in astroblems of this region. As a result, the diamonds have been found in rocks of Ilyinetskyi crater; later it have been found in rocks in the Bilylivska, Obolon' and other impact structures. The most detailed was studied the geological structure and the presence of diamonds in Bilylivska astrobleme

  4. [Analysis of final judgements in cases of medical negligence occurred in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Franchuk, Valentyn V; Trach Rosolovska, Svitlana V; Selskyy, Petro R; Mykolenko, Anna Z; Bodnar, Petro Ya

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The peculiarities of the disadvantages of providing medical care in Ukraine are not well-known abroad. The aim: To study the peculiarities of court decisions in cases of unfavorable consequences of medical activity. Materials and methods: The article analyzes the official data of the General Prosecutor's Office of Ukraine and the website of court decisions regarding criminal cases against medical practitioners. Review: Approximately 600 cases of alleged medical malpractice cases are registered annually in Ukraine. Only less than one percent of them are brought to the court. The guilt of medical practitioners was proven in majority (80,8%) of court decisions. Acquittals of defendants were pronounced in 5,9% of court verdicts. Obstetrics and gynecology, surgery, internal medicine and anesthesiology are in the top of high-risk medical specialties. Conclusions: Majority of medical malpractice litigations are sued in Ukraine baselessly. In cases of medical negligence majority of defendants are acquitted as usual.

  5. Prolonged fatigue in Ukraine and the United States: Prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, Fred; Tintle, Nathan; Clark, Jake; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged, severe, unalleviated fatigue may be disabling whether it occurs on its own or in conjunction with medical or psychiatric conditions. This paper compares the prevalence and correlates of prolonged fatigue in general population samples in Ukraine versus the U.S. Methods Population surveys were conducted in 2002 in both Ukraine (Ukraine World Mental Health [WMH] Survey) and the U.S. (National Comorbidity Survey-Replication; NCS-R). Both surveys administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), which contained modules assessing: neurasthenia (prolonged fatigue); mood, anxiety, and alcohol/drug use disorders; chronic medical conditions; and demographic characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine risk factors in each country. Results The lifetime prevalence of prolonged fatigue was higher in Ukraine (5.2%) than the U.S. (3.7%). In both countries, one-fifth of individuals with prolonged fatigue had no medical or DSM-IV psychiatric condition. Also in both settings, fatigue was significantly associated with sociodemographic characteristics (being female, not working, and married before) as well as early onset and adult episodes of mood/anxiety disorder. Fatigue prevalence in Ukraine increased with age, but decreased in the U.S. at age 70. Unique risk factors for fatigue in Ukraine included lower socio-economic status, Ukrainian vs Russian ethnicity, and cardiovascular disease. Unique risk factors in the U.S. were parental depression/anxiety, adult episodes of alcohol/drugs, pain conditions, and other health problems. Conclusions The lifetime prevalence of prolonged fatigue in Ukraine was 40% higher than that found in U.S. data. In addition, fatigue prevalence increased sharply with age in Ukraine perhaps due to limited social and medical resources and greater comorbidity. PMID:26807341

  6. Application of TREECS (trademark) to Strontium 90 for Borschi Watershed near Chernobyl, Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    near Chernobyl , Ukraine by Mark S. Dortch PURPOSE: The Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS™) (http... Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine. At this site, TREECS™ was used as a modeling tool to predict the fate of radionuclides. This application also...Web site noted above. Borschi watershed is located 3 km south of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Figure 1). Radio- strontium-90, 90Sr, which is a

  7. Explaining U.S. And German Foreign Policy Decisions Toward Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine, 2008 M.M., Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics , 2010 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the...Ukraine only through financial and limited military aid and economic sanctions against Russia;12 second, Germany’s active opposition to any military...response to Russia’s aggression and hesitation about imposing economic sanctions against the aggressor;13 and third, Germany’s active involvement in

  8. Monitoring the Ancient Countryside: Remote Sensing and GIS at the Chora of Chersonesos (Crimea, Ukraine)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trelogan, Jessica; Crawford, Melba; Carter, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    In 1998 the University of Texas Institute of Classical Archaeology, in collaboration with the University of Texas Center for Space Research and the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos (Ukraine), began a collaborative project, funded by NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program, to investigate the use of remotely sensed data for the study and protection of the ancient a cultural territory, or chora, of Chersonesos in Crimea, Ukraine.

  9. Survey of otolaryngology services in Ukraine and neighbouring Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, M M; Wagner, R; Fishchuk, R; Fagan, J J

    2017-11-01

    The present humanitarian crisis in Ukraine is putting strains on its healthcare system. This study aimed to assess services and training in otolaryngology, audiology and speech therapy in Ukraine and its geographical neighbours. Survey study of 327 otolaryngologists from 19 countries. Fifty-six otolaryngologists (17 per cent) from 15 countries responded. Numbers of otolaryngologists varied from 3.6 to 12.3 per 100 000 population (Ukraine = 7.8). Numbers of audiologists varied from 0, in Ukraine, to 2.8 per 100 000, in Slovakia, and numbers of speech therapists varied from 0, in Bulgaria, to 4.0 per 100 000, in Slovenia (Ukraine = 0.1). Ukraine lacks newborn and school hearing screening, good availability of otological drills and microscopes, and a cochlear implant programme. There is wide variation in otolaryngology services in Central and Eastern Europe. All countries surveyed had more otolaryngologists per capita than the UK, but availability of audiology and speech and language therapy is poor. Further research on otolaryngology health outcomes in the region will guide service improvement.

  10. Truth is the First Casualty of War: A Brief Examination of Russian Informational Conflict during the 2014 Crisis in Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-14

    Operations in relation to social media exploitation during the 2014 crisis in Ukraine (see: Seddon, M. (2014, July 30). Does this soldier’s Instagram ...account prove Russia is covertly operating in Ukraine? Buzzfeed. Retrieved from http://www.buzzfeed.com/maxseddon/does-this-soldiers- instagram -account...soldiers (on leave from the Russian military) were fighting in his units in eastern Ukraine. 51 Parfitt, T. (2014, July 31). Instagram pictures suggest

  11. Role of large-scale atmospheric processes in variability of droughts in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlov, Valeriy; Yermolenko, Nataliia

    2015-04-01

    We used the multiscalar drought index - standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) - to investigate the variability of droughts during the period of 1951-2010. The index allows considering the meteorological, agriculture and hydrological droughts. In this study, SPEI was calculated using the 0.5 degree grid data on the temperature and precipitation. The analysis was performed for the time series of four sites that are characteristic for the different parts of Ukraine - Chernihiv (Northern Ukraine), Odessa (Southern Ukraine), Uzhhorod (Western Ukraine), and Luhansk (Eastern Ukraine). The analysis revealed the periods with moistest and driest conditions. For the all sites, the moistest years were registered in the end of 1970s - start of 1980s. Moreover, both the number and intensity of droughts increase significantly since 1980, especially for the Southern Ukraine. During the 2006-2009, the most extreme and long drought was observed in the Odessa region. The analysis also showed that hydrological droughts begin with some delay from the meteorological ones, and have maximal duration. We used CUSUM method in order to detect specific years, when the significant change points occurred in the time series of droughts. This method also detected the start of 1980s as the years of transition from the moist to the dry conditions. The cross-wavelet transform was applied to reveal a connection between the droughts in Ukraine and teleconnection patterns in the North Atlantics. The analysis showed that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has a maximal effect on the droughts in Ukraine. The anti-phase relation is registered for the joint fluctuations with the periods 2-3 years and is most prominent in the Southern Ukraine. On the contrary, the NAO has a small impact on the Northern Ukraine. This fact can be explained by the orientation of main storm tracks for positive and negative phases of the NAO. The importance of long term planning of water management

  12. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  13. The impact of cigarette taxes and advertising on the demand for cigarettes in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Peng, Limin; Ross, Hana

    2009-06-01

    Cigarette consumption in Ukraine is increasing while the cigarettes are becoming more affordable due to low taxes and raising income. The impact of cigarette prices and taxes on cigarette consumption is unclear due to the limited research evidence using the local data. This study estimates the sensitivity of Ukraine population to cigarette prices and the affordability of cigarettes using the macro level data in order to predict the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy. Monthly time-series data available from 1997 to 2006 in Ukraine were used to estimate the generalized least square model with an AR(1) process to investigate the impact of cigarette price/tax, household income, the affordability of cigarettes and the volume of tobacco advertising on Ukraine domestic cigarette sales while controlling for other factors. Our analyses demonstrate a strong positive association between cigarette sales and household income as well as a strong positive association between cigarette sales and tobacco advertising activity. The population is found to have relatively low sensitivity to cigarette prices and cigarette taxes, but the impact of cigarettes' affordability is statistically significant, even though also of low magnitude. We speculate that the lower sensitivity to cigarette prices among Ukraine population is caused by wide price variation allowing smokers to avoid a price increase by brand substitution as well as by low costs of cigarettes, high social acceptance of smoking and limited effort to control tobacco use in Ukraine. Narrowing the cigarette price choices and increasing cigarette prices above the level of inflation and income growth by adopting the appropriate tax policy would likely increase the effectiveness of this tool for controlling the smoking rate in Ukraine as well as yield additional budget revenue gains. In addition, imposing advertising restriction may further help reducing the smoking prevalence.

  14. Blastopathies and microcephaly in a Chornobyl impacted region of Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalia; Wang, Bin; Sosyniuk, Zoriana; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Hobart, Holly H

    2014-01-01

    This population-based descriptive epidemiology study demonstrates that rates of conjoined twins, teratomas, neural tube defects, microcephaly, and microphthalmia in the Rivne province of Ukraine are among the highest in Europe. The province is 200 km distant from the Chornobyl site and its northern half, a region known as Polissia, is significantly polluted by ionizing radiation. The rates of neural tube defects, microcephaly and microphthalmia in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than in the rest of the province. A survey of at-birth head size showed that values were statistically smaller in males and females born in one Polissia county than among neonates born in the capital city. These observations provide clues for confirmatory and cause-effect prospective investigations. The strength of this study stems from a reliance on international standards prevalent in Europe and a decade-long population-based surveillance of congenital malformations in two distinct large populations. The limitations of this study, as those of other descriptive epidemiology investigations, is that identified cause-effect associations require further assessment by specific prospective investigations designed to address specific teratogenic factors. PMID:24666273

  15. Preferences for physician services in Ukraine: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Danyliv, Andriy; Pavlova, Milena; Gryga, Irena; Groot, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on preferences of Ukrainian consumers for healthcare improvements can help to design reforms that correspond to societal priorities. This study aims to elicit and to place monetary values on public preferences for out-patient physician services in Ukraine. The method of discrete choice experiment is used on a sample of 303 respondents, representative of the adult Ukrainian population. The random effect logit model with interactions provides the best fit for the data and is used to calculate the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for quality and access improvements. At a sample level, there is no clear preference to pay formally rather than informally or vice versa. We also do not find that visiting a general practitioner is preferred over direct access to a medical specialist. However, there are differences between population groups. Quality-related attributes of physician services appear important to respondents, especially the attitude of medical staff. Thus, interpersonal aspects of out-patient care should be given priority in decisions about investments in quality improvements. Other aspects, that is social quality and access, are important as well but their improvement brings fewer social gains. Measures should be taken to eradicate the informal payment channels and to strengthen the gate-keeping role of primary care. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Organochlorines in breast milk from two cities in Ukraine.

    PubMed Central

    Gladen, B C; Monaghan, S C; Lukyanova, E M; Hulchiy, O P; Shkyryak-Nyzhnyk, Z A; Sericano, J L; Little, R E

    1999-01-01

    Reports of environmental problems in the former Soviet Union, including excess use of pesticides, have led to concerns about high levels of contamination in humans, but little information is available to assess whether these concerns are warranted. Samples of breast milk from 197 women from two cities in Ukraine were analyzed for p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and results were compared to previous reports from Europe. The median ss-HCH concentration was 731 ng/g milk fat, which is higher than other reports from Europe but lower than reports from other parts of the world. The median DDE concentration was 2,457 ng/g milk fat, which is higher than most but not all other reports from Europe. Concentrations of other chemicals were comparable to or lower than other reports from Europe. Concentrations from the city of Kyiv were generally lower than those from Dniprodzerzhinsk, but the magnitudes of these differences were modest. PMID:10339445

  17. [The main directions of reforming the service of medical statistics in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Golubchykov, Mykhailo V; Orlova, Nataliia M; Bielikova, Inna V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of new methods of information support of managerial decision-making should ensure of the effective health system reform and create conditions for improving the quality of operational management, reasonable planning of medical care and increasing the efficiency of the use of system resources. Reforming of Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine should be considered only in the context of the reform of the entire health system. The aim: This work is an analysis of the current situation and justification of the main directions of reforming of Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine. Material and methods: In the work is used a range of methods: content analysis, bibliosemantic, systematic approach. The information base of the research became: WHO strategic and program documents, data of the Medical Statistics Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Review: The Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine has a completed and effective structure, headed by the State Institution "Medical Statistics Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine." This institution reports on behalf of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine to the State Statistical Service of Ukraine, the WHO European Office and other international organizations. An analysis of the current situation showed that to achieve this goal it is necessary: to improve the system of statistical indicators for an adequate assessment of the performance of health institutions, including in the economic aspect; creation of a developed medical and statistical base of administrative territories; change of existing technologies for the formation of information resources; strengthening the material-technical base of the structural units of Medical Statistics Service; improvement of the system of training and retraining of personnel for the service of medical statistics; development of international cooperation in the field of methodology and practice of medical statistics, implementation of internationally

  18. [The main directions of reforming the service of medical statistics in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Golubchykov, Mykhailo V; Orlova, Nataliia M; Bielikova, Inna V

    Introduction: Implementation of new methods of information support of managerial decision-making should ensure of the effective health system reform and create conditions for improving the quality of operational management, reasonable planning of medical care and increasing the efficiency of the use of system resources. Reforming of Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine should be considered only in the context of the reform of the entire health system. The aim: This work is an analysis of the current situation and justification of the main directions of reforming of Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine. Material and methods: In the work is used a range of methods: content analysis, bibliosemantic, systematic approach. The information base of the research became: WHO strategic and program documents, data of the Medical Statistics Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Review: The Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine has a completed and effective structure, headed by the State Institution "Medical Statistics Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine." This institution reports on behalf of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine to the State Statistical Service of Ukraine, the WHO European Office and other international organizations. An analysis of the current situation showed that to achieve this goal it is necessary: to improve the system of statistical indicators for an adequate assessment of the performance of health institutions, including in the economic aspect; creation of a developed medical and statistical base of administrative territories; change of existing technologies for the formation of information resources; strengthening the material-technical base of the structural units of Medical Statistics Service; improvement of the system of training and retraining of personnel for the service of medical statistics; development of international cooperation in the field of methodology and practice of medical statistics, implementation of internationally

  19. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Nidzvetska, Svitlana; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Tappis, Hannah; van Loenhout, Joris A F; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-09

    Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique. Contrary to the expectations, the perceived physical health of mothers and their children was found not to be affected by conflict and displacement, while psychological distress was often reported. A weak healthcare system, Ukraine's proneness to informal payments, and heavy bureaucracy to register as an IDP were reported in our study. A precarious social safety net to IDP mothers in Ukraine, poor dietary diversity, and a generalized rupture of vaccine stocks, with halted or delayed vaccinations in children were identified. Increasing social allowances and their timely delivery to IDP mothers might be the most efficient policy measure to improve health and nutrition security. Reestablishment and sustainability of vaccine stocks in Ukraine is urgent to avoid the risks of a public health crisis. Offering psychological support for IDP mothers is recommended.

  20. Gender differences between predictors of HIV status among PWID in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Corsi, K F; Dvoryak, S; Garver-Apgar, C; Davis, J M; Brewster, J T; Lisovska, O; Booth, R E

    2014-05-01

    The HIV epidemic in Ukraine is among the largest in Europe. While traditionally the epidemic has spread through injection risk behavior, sexual transmission is becoming more common. Previous research has found that women in Ukraine have higher rates of HIV and engage in more HIV risk behavior than men. This study extended that work by identifying risk factors that differentially predict men and women's HIV status among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. From July 2010 to July 2013, 2480 sexually active PWID with unknown HIV status were recruited from three cities in Ukraine through street outreach. The average age was 31 years old. Women, who made up twenty-eight percent of the sample, had higher safe sex self-efficacy (p<.01) and HIV knowledge (p<.001) than men, but scored higher on both the risky injection (p<.001) and risky sex (p<.001) composite scores than men. Risky sex behaviors were associated with women's HIV status more than men's. We also report results identifying predictors of risky injection and sex behaviors. Gender-specific interventions could address problem of HIV risk among women who inject drugs in a country with a growing HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest specific ways in which intervention efforts might focus on groups and individuals who are at the highest risk of contracting HIV (or who are already HIV positive) to halt the spread of HIV in Ukraine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender differences between predictors of HIV status among PWID in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, K.F.; Dvoryak, S.; Garver-Apgar, C.; Davis, J.M.; Brewster, J.T.; Lisovska, O.; Booth, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Ukraine is among the largest in Europe. While traditionally the epidemic has spread through injection risk behavior, sexual transmission is becoming more common. Previous research has found that women in Ukraine have higher rates of HIV and engage in more HIV risk behavior than men. This study extended that work by identifying risk factors that differentially predict men and women’s HIV status among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. Methods From July 2010 through July 2013, 2480 sexually active PWID with unknown HIV status were recruited from three cities in Ukraine through street outreach. The average age was 31 years old. Results Women, who made up twenty-eight percent of the sample, had higher safe sex self-efficacy (p<0.01) and HIV knowledge (p<0.001) than men, but scored higher on both the risky injection (p<0.001) and risky sex (p<0.001) composite scores than men. Risky sex behaviors were associated with women’s HIV status more than men’s. We also report results identifying predictors of risky injection and sex behaviors. Conclusions Gender-specific interventions could address problem of HIV risk among women who inject drugs in a country with a growing HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest specific ways in which intervention efforts might focus on groups and individuals who are at the highest risk of contracting HIV (or who are already HIV positive) to halt the spread of HIV in Ukraine. PMID:24613219

  2. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

  3. The role of PRA in the safety assessment of VVER Nuclear Power Plants in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.

    1999-05-10

    Ukraine operates thirteen (13) Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors, VVERS. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs), in accordance with new SAR content requirements issued in September 1995, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine. The requirements are in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new, and the DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The US Departmentmore » of Energy (USDOE), as part of its Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety activities, is providing assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine to support their nuclear power plants (NPPs) in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARs. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) are in progress at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1, and a follow-on study has been initiated at Khmenytskyy Unit 1. The ISA projects encompass most areas of plant safety evaluation, but the initial emphasis is on performing a detailed, plant-specific Level 1 Internal Events PRA. This allows the early definition of the plant risk profile, the identification of risk significant accident sequences and plant vulnerabilities and provides guidance for the remainder of the safety assessments.« less

  4. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  5. Contributions to nuclear safety and radiation technologies in Ukraine by the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, L.; Janouch, F.; Owsiacki, L.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) activities devoted to furthering nuclear and radiation safety, which is a prioritized STCU area. The STCU, an intergovernmental organization with the principle objective of non-proliferation, administers financial support from the USA, Canada, and the EU to Ukrainian projects in various scientific and technological areas; coordinates projects; and promotes the integration of Ukrainian scientists into the international scientific community, including involving western collaborators. The paper focuses on STCU's largest project to date "Program Supporting Y2K Readiness at Ukrainian NPPs" initiated in April 1999 and designed to address possible Y2K readiness problems at 14 Ukrainian nuclear reactors. Other presented projects demonstrate a wide diversity of supported directions in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety, including reactor material improvement ("Improved Zirconium-Based Elements for Nuclear Reactors"), information technologies for nuclear industries ("Ukrainian Nuclear Data Bank in Slavutich"), and radiation health science ("Diagnostics and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Injuries of Human Biopolymers").

  6. Educational Thought of Ukraine and Poland within Renaissance Culture: From the History of Intellectual Discourse of XVI-XVII Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruk, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the peculiarities of formation of pedagogical thought in Ukraine and Poland during the propagation of Renaissance ideas into pedagogical culture of 16th-17th centuries. It has been emphasized that founders of humanistic pedagogical culture in Ukraine were such outstanding scientists as Grygoriy Sanotskyi, Yuriy Drogobych,…

  7. Ukraine's Participation in the Bologna Process: Has It Resulted in More Transparency in Ukrainian Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filiatreau, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, Ukraine finds itself in a complex position as it continues with the post-Soviet transition. The country faces tasks of national identity formation and nation building. Due to its location at the geopolitical crossroads between Russia to the East and the European Union to the West, Ukraine is also faced with…

  8. Family Formation in Post-Soviet Ukraine: Changing Effects of Education in a Period of Rapid Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perelli-Harris, Brienna

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on post-Soviet Ukraine, this paper examines how social transformations changed family formation, leading to the world's lowest fertility rate. The findings show that before Ukraine gained independence, highly educated women had higher first birth rates after controlling for school enrollment and marriage. After independence, highly…

  9. 78 FR 33886 - Identification of Ukraine as a Priority Foreign Country and Initiation of Section 301 Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Representative) identified Ukraine as a priority foreign country due to Ukraine's denial of adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights and its denial of fair and equitable market access to... system for collecting societies, which are responsible for collecting and distributing royalties to U.S...

  10. 78 FR 46570 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration... (Ilyich), are in compliance with the agreement suspending the antidumping investigation of certain cut-to...: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine, 73 FR 57602 (October 3, 2008) (Agreement), Appendix...

  11. 78 FR 67334 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) published the preliminary results of an administrative review of the suspension agreement on certain cut-to... Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Administrative Review, 78 FR 46570...

  12. [THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN-PATIENTS IN THE PROVISION OF MEDICAL CARE IN UKRAINE].

    PubMed

    Vilenskyi, A B

    2015-01-01

    The author found that legal regulation of medical care of children in Ukraine need to improve the effectiveness. The key of efficiency of this process is the establishing the principle of providing of the rights of children-patients in the provision of medical care in Ukraine with the special attention to the best interests of the child.

  13. 77 FR 65015 - Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-894 (Second Review)] Ammonium Nitrate... Full Five-year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine AGENCY... antidumping duty order on ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  14. Proapoptotic activity of Ukrain is based on Chelidonium majus L. alkaloids and mediated via a mitochondrial death pathway

    PubMed Central

    Habermehl, Daniel; Kammerer, Bernd; Handrick, René; Eldh, Therese; Gruber, Charlotte; Cordes, Nils; Daniel, Peter T; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Bamberg, Michael; Belka, Claus; Jendrossek, Verena

    2006-01-01

    Background The anticancer drug Ukrain (NSC-631570) which has been specified by the manufacturer as semisynthetic derivative of the Chelidonium majus L. alkaloid chelidonine and the alkylans thiotepa was reported to exert selective cytotoxic effects on human tumour cell lines in vitro. Few clinical trials suggest beneficial effects in the treatment of human cancer. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of apoptosis induction for the antineoplastic activity of Ukrain, to define the molecular mechanism of its cytotoxic effects and to identify its active constituents by mass spectrometry. Methods Apoptosis induction was analysed in a Jurkat T-lymphoma cell model by fluorescence microscopy (chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation), flow cytometry (cellular shrinkage, depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-activation) and Western blot analysis (caspase-activation). Composition of Ukrain was analysed by mass spectrometry and LC-MS coupling. Results Ukrain turned out to be a potent inducer of apoptosis. Mechanistic analyses revealed that Ukrain induced depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases. Lack of caspase-8, expression of cFLIP-L and resistance to death receptor ligand-induced apoptosis failed to inhibit Ukrain-induced apoptosis while lack of FADD caused a delay but not abrogation of Ukrain-induced apoptosis pointing to a death receptor independent signalling pathway. In contrast, the broad spectrum caspase-inhibitor zVAD-fmk blocked Ukrain-induced cell death. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL and expression of dominant negative caspase-9 partially reduced Ukrain-induced apoptosis pointing to Bcl-2 controlled mitochondrial signalling events. However, mass spectrometric analysis of Ukrain failed to detect the suggested trimeric chelidonine thiophosphortriamide or putative dimeric or monomeric chelidonine thiophosphortriamide intermediates from chemical synthesis

  15. Environmental Hydrological Education in Ukraine: Present State and New Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, Viacheslav

    2010-05-01

    In order to protect waters from damages, improve water-environmental quality and mitigate water-related disasters need the advanced science and technology, sufficient investment and appropriate management. All of these need an effective education and training in the hydrology as the part of water - related sciences. The education in the hydrology is the part of national water-related activity in Ukraine. The needs in the quality of hydrological education will increase as the introduction of new ideas and techniques into practice of water resources planners and managers become comparative. Environmentally oriented water resources development, inherent challenges of man-made and climate change impact on waters have to be tackled worldwide by well trained engineers and scientist relying on modern technology. Ukraine has more than 70 years of experience in the training of hydrologists. At the present hydrologists of B.Sc., M. Sc. and Ph D levels are trained at the Odesa State Environmental University (on the engineering basis) and at the Faculty of Geography of the Kyiv National University (on the geographical basis). The Geographical training of hydrologists at the Kyiv National University provides deeper understanding of natural processes in rivers, lakes and reservoirs, to view them in geographical complex with other physiogeographical phenomena. For this purpose students study geology, geomorphology, biology, meteorology, soil science, physical geography etc. The graduate hydrologists work in the organizations of the State Hydrometeorological Service, the State Committee for Water Management, the Academy of Sciences, others governmental and private organizations. The requirements for hydrologists of these organizations are different in context and scope. This leads to the conclusion that a level of training of hydrologists should have a wide-scope in education. This is achieved by the university-wide fundamental and general geographic training during first and

  16. Biomarkers of mercury exposure in two eastern Ukraine cities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibb, H.; Haver, C.; Kozlov, K.; Centeno, J.A.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.M.; Landa, E.R.; Xu, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of mercury exposure among residents of Horlivka, a city in eastern Ukraine located in an area with geologic and industrial sources of environmental mercury, and residents of Artemivsk, a nearby comparison city outside the mercury-enriched area. Samples of urine, blood, hair, and nails were collected from study participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in mines. Median biomarker mercury concentrations in Artemivsk were 0.26 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 0.92 ??g/L (blood), 0.42 ??g/g (hair), 0.11 ??g/g (toenails), and 0.09 ??g/g (fingernails); median concentrations in Horlivka were 0.15 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 1.01 ??g/L (blood), 0.14 ??g/g (hair), 0.31 ??g/g (toenails), and 0.31 ??g/g (fingernails). Biomarkers of mercury exposure for study participants from Horlivka and Artemivsk are low in comparison with occupationally exposed workers at a mercury recycling facility in Horlivka and in comparison with exposures known to be associated with clinical effects. Blood and urinary mercury did not suggest a higher mercury exposure among Horlivka residents as compared with Artemivsk; however, three individuals living in the immediate vicinity of the mercury mines had elevated blood and urinary mercury, relative to overall results for either city. For a limited number of residents from Horlivka (N = 7) and Artemivsk (N = 4), environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, dust wipes, soil) were collected from their residences. Mercury concentrations in vacuum cleaner dust and soil were good predictors of blood and urinary mercury. Copyright ?? 2011 JOEH, LLC.

  17. Factors that motivate young pharmacists to work in rural communities in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Anzenberger, Peter; Popov, Sergey B; Ostermann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    A number of identified factors can influence clinicians' location of practice decisions; however, little is known about the location decisions of pharmacists. In general, males are more likely to work in rural and remote regions, and students with a rural background are more likely to work in rural communities after graduation. In the Ukraine, pharmaceutical health care is important because a patient's first visit is often to the pharmacy, rather than to a GP. This study sought to understand what motivates Ukraine pharmacy students to practice in rural areas. The first part of the study used a quantitative design with questionnaires based on Füglistaller's model for measuring the motivation of entrepreneurs, because working in a rural Ukraine pharmacy means, in most cases, operating a privately owned pharmacy. The second part was qualitative to verify these results. The students' motivation to work in rural areas after graduation depended on their sex and place of birth, but this was not decisive. More influential were the factors that motivate operating a privately owned pharmacy. Within the group that considered working in a privately owned pharmacy in a rural community, motivation was more intrinsic (eg enjoys helping people), while negative factors were more external (eg financial risk). Students from the National University of Pharmacy in Kharkiv comprise the majority of pharmacists in the Ukraine. They are interested in working in a rural area as long as opportunities align with their individual expectations. The two main factors found that would supply more young graduates to rural areas were: (1) improving rural living conditions; and (2) fostering the mental attitude required for operating a private pharmacy. In addition, decreasing related bureaucracy, and increasing financial and fiscal grants may enhance medical and pharmaceutical health care in rural communities of the Ukraine.Key words: graduate pharmacists, living conditions, motivation, privately

  18. Developing risk-based priorities for reducing air pollution in urban settings in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Brody, Michael; Caldwell, Jane; Golub, Alexander

    2007-02-01

    Ukraine, when part of the former Soviet Union, was responsible for about 25% of its overall industrial production. This aging industrial infrastructure continues to emit enormous volumes of air and water pollution and wastes. The National Report on the State of Environment in Ukraine 1999 (Ukraine Ministry of Environmental Protection [MEP], 2000) shows significant air pollution. There are numerous emissions that have been associated with developmental effects, chronic long-term health effects, and cancer. Ukraine also has been identified as a major source of transboundary air pollution for the eastern Mediterranean region. Ukraine's Environment Ministry is not currently able to strategically target high-priority emissions and lacks the resources to address all these problems. For these reasons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set up a partnership with Ukraine's Ministry of Environmental Protection to strengthen its capacity to set environmental priorities through the use of comparative environmental risk assessment and economic analysis--the Capacity Building Project. The project is also addressing improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of the use of its National Environmental Protection Fund. The project consists of a series of workshops with Ukrainian MEP officials in comparative risk assessment of air pollutant emissions in several heavily industrialized oblasts; cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis; and environmental finance. Pilot risk assessment analyses have been completed. At the end of the Capacity Building Project it is expected that the use of the National Environmental Protection fund and the regional level oblast environmental protection funds will begin to target and identify the highest health and environmental risk emissions.

  19. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nidzvetska, Svitlana; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Tappis, Hannah; van Loenhout, Joris A. F.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-01

    Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique. Contrary to the expectations, the perceived physical health of mothers and their children was found not to be affected by conflict and displacement, while psychological distress was often reported. A weak healthcare system, Ukraine’s proneness to informal payments, and heavy bureaucracy to register as an IDP were reported in our study. A precarious social safety net to IDP mothers in Ukraine, poor dietary diversity, and a generalized rupture of vaccine stocks, with halted or delayed vaccinations in children were identified. Increasing social allowances and their timely delivery to IDP mothers might be the most efficient policy measure to improve health and nutrition security. Reestablishment and sustainability of vaccine stocks in Ukraine is urgent to avoid the risks of a public health crisis. Offering psychological support for IDP mothers is recommended. PMID:28075363

  20. [Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

    2014-01-01

    Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory.

  1. The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Ukraine: The Cross-Cultural Validation of the Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamkovenko, Bogdan V.; Holton, Elwood, III; Bates, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to expand cross-cultural research and validate the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Ukraine. The researchers seek to translate the LTSI into Ukrainian and investigate the internal structure of this translated version of the questionnaire. Design/methodology/approach: The LTSI is translated into…

  2. Immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus Region: Differential Drug Use, Infectious Disease, and Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Rawson, Richard A.; Hasson, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This study examined drug use patterns, HIV/AIDS, and related outcomes among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus mountain region in Israel who reported heroin use. A total of 253 FSU heroin users were interviewed from 2002 to 2007 as part of a large drug use surveillance study in Israel. Individuals were…

  3. The New Religious Situation in the Higher Educational Institutions of Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobruskin, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the new religious situation in the higher educational institutions of Ukraine. In this article, the author discusses the results of surveys undertaken by the problems scientific research laboratory of higher education at Khar'kov State Technical University of Radio Electronics. The author sketches the context of the shaping…

  4. Training of Masters in Philology in Ukraine and Abroad: Search for Educational Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenog, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines the modernization experience of philology Master programs in Ukraine, the USA, Poland and Russia. It has been proved that the Masters' training is on the search educational strategies phase, which allows to form a single educational space on the principles of internationalization, institutionalization, integration, cultural…

  5. Comparative Analysis of Future Cooks' Training in Vocational Institutions in Ukraine and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankovsky, Ihor; Krasylnykova, Hanna; Drozich, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with comparative analysis of conceptual approaches and content of cooks' training in Ukraine, European countries, the USA and Eastern Partnership countries. It has been found out that national vocational education is grounded on education standards and activity-based approach to forming the training content, subject-based…

  6. Combining Identity and Integration: Comparative Analysis of Schools for Two Minority Groups in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulyk, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses school systems for two of Ukraine's minorities, the Hungarians and the Crimean Tatars with the aim of assessing their success in promoting ethnocultural identity and social integration of the minority youth. I demonstrate that the exclusive instruction in Hungarian ensures the reproduction of group language knowledge and…

  7. Basin-centered gas evaluated in Dnieper-Donets basin, Donbas foldbelt, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Ulmishek, G.F.; Clayton, J.L.; Kabyshev, B.P.; Pashova, N.T.; Krivosheya, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    An evaluation of thermal maturity, pore pressures, source rocks, reservoir quality, present-day temperatures, and fluid recovery data indicates the presence of a large basin-centered gas accumulation in the Dnieper-Donets basin (DDB) and Donbas foldbelt (DF) of eastern Ukraine (Fig. 1).

  8. Reworking of School Principals' Roles in the Context of Educational Privatization: A View from Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalchuk, Serhiy; Shchudlo, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    Educational privatization created new arrangements for funding, provision, and regulation of educational systems and their various stakeholders worldwide. This qualitative study examines the driving forces of privatization in the public education of Ukraine, focusing specifically on the professional roles of school principals who have been…

  9. One for all: workplace social context and drinking among railway workers in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrianna; Roberts, Bayard; McGowan, Catherine; Kizilova, Kseniya; Kizilov, Alexiy; Rhodes, Tim; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in countries of the former Soviet Union, but little is known about its social determinants. Recent research has suggested that workplace contexts may play a role. Using qualitative methods, we investigate the relationship between workplace social contexts and drinking in Ukraine. We conducted 24 individual semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions in Lviv and Kharkiv, Ukraine, with male railway employees aged 18+ years. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Men in our sample expressed strong feelings of interdependence and trust towards their co-workers which we defined as 'social solidarity'. Drinking with co-workers was often seen as obligatory and an integral part of co-worker social occasions. Engagement in sport or family obligations seemed to act as a deterrent to drinking among some workers. A strong sense of solidarity exists between railway co-workers in Ukraine, perhaps a remnant of the Soviet era when individuals relied on informal networks for support. Alcohol may be used as a means of expressing this solidarity. Our findings point to factors, namely engagement in sports and family, which may offer opportunities for interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among workers in Ukraine.

  10. Flawed Implementation or Inconsistent Logics? Lessons from Higher Education Reform in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates two competing explanations of why reforms associated with the Bologna process brought disappointing results in Ukraine. The lack of anticipated benefits from the reforms may stem either from a flawed implementation of the Bologna process, or from more fundamental differences between the models of higher education…

  11. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  12. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Academic Staff in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2012-01-01

    Academic staff in Ukraine face a convergence of institutional and professional pressures precipitated by a national economic crisis, projected declines in enrolment and dramatic changes to institutional procedures as institutions implement the Bologna Process. This article examines the extent to which these pressures are reshaping the way academic…

  13. Formation of Practical Activity Competence of Future Professionals in Higher Educational Establishments of Ukraine and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritchenko, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses topical issues of implementation competency-based approach in the modern educational system of Ukraine and Germany. A comparative characterization of competency models in these countries is given. The essence of "organizational pedagogical conditions" concept is enlightened. Its author's interpretation is presented.…

  14. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  15. Peculiarities of Future Finance and Economics Specialists' Training in Western European Countries and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homoniuk, Olena; Pokudina, Larysa

    2016-01-01

    The article touches on the peculiarities of future finance and economics specialists' training in educational establishments of Western Europe and Ukraine. The problem of higher economic education has been considered. The experience of higher economic education organization in developed European countries has been generalized. The peculiarities of…

  16. First Reports, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Longidorus caespiticola and Longidorus poessneckensis (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Susulovska, Solomia; Castillo, Pablo; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Seven needle nematode species of the genus Longidorus have been reported in Ukraine. Nematological surveys for needle nematodes were carried out in Ukraine between 2016 and 2017 and two nematode species of Longidorus (L. caespiticola and L. poessneckensis) were collected from natural and anthropogenically altered habitats on the territory of Opillia and Zakarpattia in Ukraine. Nematodes were extracted from 500 cm3 of soil by modified sieving and decanting method. Extracted specimens were processed to glycerol and mounted on permanent slides and subsequently identified morphologically and molecularly. Nematode DNA was extracted from single individuals and PCR assays were conducted as previously described for D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA. Sequence alignments for D2–D3 from L. caespiticola showed 97%–99% similarity to other sequences of L. caespiticola deposited in GenBank from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Russia, Slovenia, and Scotland. Similarly, D2–D3 sequence alignments from L. poessneckensis, showed 99% to other sequences of L. poessneckensis deposited in GenBank from Slovakia and Czech Republic. Morphology, morphometry, and molecular data obtained from these samples were consistent with L. caespiticola and L. poessneckensis identification. To our knowledge, these are the first reports of L. caespiticola and L. poessneckensis in Ukraine, extending the geographical distribution of these species. PMID:29353928

  17. 78 FR 72141 - Notice of Determination to Extend Section 301 Investigation of Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Determination to Extend Section 301 Investigation of Ukraine AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... determined to extend for three months the ongoing Section 301 investigation of certain acts, policies, and... Representative may extend this type of investigation for an additional three months upon a determination that the...

  18. Employment for Young People with Cognitive Impairments: Current Inclusive Situation in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omelianovych, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The present paper contains a research into the issue of employment and legal safeguarding of social protection of young individuals suffering from cognitive disorders in Ukraine. The importance of legislative guarantees of equal rights and possibilities for such category of individuals, in comparison with all other members of the society, in…

  19. [Current problems in the laboratory control of louse-borne typhus infection in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Klymchuk, M D

    1996-01-01

    Surveys designed to study spread of typhus infection (persistent form and Brill's disease), and state of laboratory diagnosis in Ukraine showed an important role the laboratory diagnosis plays in the system of epidemiological surveillance aimed at preventing epidemic typhus. Main trends of activities on perfection of the system of laboratory control of the infection under present-day conditions are outlined.

  20. Organization of Higher Environmental Education in Universities of Ukraine and France: Comparative Pedagogical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasova, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the organization of higher environmental education in France and Ukraine. The main elements of the pedagogical comparison between the two countries have been defined. Scientific and educational literature analysis devoted to the study of specific aspects of environmental education in universities of both countries has been…

  1. Citizenship Education in Ukraine and Russia: Reconciling Nation-Building and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the discourses framing citizenship education in Ukraine and Russia from "perestroika" to the present and assesses the role of the Council of Europe in promoting democratic citizenship in both countries. We argue that there is a tension between the discourses of active citizenship, strongly disseminated by…

  2. Comparative Pedagogical Studies on Models of Education Systems Management in the EU and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desiatov, Tymofii

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the peculiarities of models of education systems management in the EU and Ukraine. It has been proved that effectiveness of the education process is determined by managerial culture, which characterizes a manager's professional image. Special attention has been paid to finding the right balance between centralization and…

  3. "Bomzhi" and Their Subculture: An Anthropological Study of the Street Children Subculture in Makeevka, Eastern Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naterer, Andrej; Godina, Vesna V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to outline key elements of the street children subculture in Makeevka, Ukraine, with an emphasis on the functions of a subculture and its manifestations of collectivity. The research was based on qualitative and quantitative data and was conducted from 2000 to 2009. Data analysis suggests that collectivity functions on…

  4. Forming Professional Mobility in the Process of Future Master Philologists' Training in Ukraine and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenog, Olena

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of scientific research, the experience of higher education institutions in Ukraine and abroad (the USA, the Swiss Confederation) concerning the forming of future philologists' professional mobility in the process of Master training has been generalized. It has been overviewed, that professional mobility is an essential indicator of…

  5. 78 FR 24435 - Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... 906-908 (Second Review)] Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and... products from India, Indonesia, and Thailand and antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel products from China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine. AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  6. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants Discharging into the Dnieper River, Kyiv, Ukraine.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dnieper River runs through the center of Ukraine from Belarus and Russia in the north and heads south emptying into the Black Sea. Along the way, the Dnieper River passes by several large Ukrainian cities including Chornobyl, the capital Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Kherson, an...

  7. [Incidence and severity of the digestive system diseases in the armed forces of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Rozhkov, H S

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the level and structure of morbidity Armed Forces of Ukraine diseases of the digestive system. The highest rates of total incidence of disease in the class XI 2008-2011, recorded among conscripts, the lowest--in the military under the contract.

  8. Higher Education Corruption in Ukraine as Reflected in the Nation's Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers corruption in higher education in Ukraine as reflected in the national media, including such aspects as corruption in admissions to higher education institutions and corruption in administering the newly introduced standardized test. The major focus is on the opinions of the leading figures of the education reform on…

  9. The Introduction of Standardized External Testing in Ukraine: Challenges and Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalchuk, Serhiy; Koroliuk, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Standardized external testing (SET) began to be implemented in Ukraine in 2008 as an instrument for combating corruption in higher education and ensuring fair university admission. This article examines the conditions and processes that led to the introduction of SET, overviews its implementation over three years (2008-10), analyzes SET and…

  10. Adolescents' Hopes for Personal, Local, and Global Future: Insights from Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolayenko, Olena

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescents' hopes for personal, local, and global future in postcommunist Ukraine. The research is based on a survey of 200 sixth-graders in the cities of Donetsk and Lviv in fall 2005. The analysis identifies six domains related to personal aspirations of adolescents: education, career, self-actualization, personal…

  11. THREE STAGE COMBUSTION (REBURNING) TEST RESULTS FROM A 300 MW BOILER IN THE UKRAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a program to design, install, and test a natural gas three-stage combustion (reburn) system on a 300-MWe, opposed-wall, wetbottom (slagging) coal-fired utility boiler operating in the Ukraine. The U. S. EPA sponsored this-program in support of a working...

  12. German Support Program for Retrieval and Safe Storage of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Ukraine - 13194

    SciTech Connect

    Pretzsch, Gunter; Salewski, Peter; Sogalla, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) on behalf of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany supports the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine (SNRIU) in enhancement of nuclear safety and radiation protection and strengthening of the physical protection. One of the main objectives of the agreement concluded by these parties in 2008 was the retrieval and safe interim storage of disused orphan high radioactive sealed sources in Ukraine. At present, the Ukrainian National Registry does not account all high active radiation sources but only for about 70 - 80 %. GRSmore » in charge of BMU to execute the program since 2008 concluded subcontracts with the waste management and interim storage facilities RADON at different regions in Ukraine as well with the waste management and interim storage facility IZOTOP at Kiev. Below selected examples of removal of high active Co-60 and Cs-137 sources from irradiation facilities at research institutes are described. By end of 2012 removal and safe interim storage of 12.000 disused radioactive sealed sources with a total activity of more than 5,7.10{sup 14} Bq was achieved within the frame of this program. The German support program will be continued up to the end of 2013 with the aim to remove and safely store almost all disused radioactive sealed sources in Ukraine. (authors)« less

  13. "Reports from an Absurdist"--An Analysis of Artistic Features of Ukraine Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With 13 published novels and 5 children's literature books, which have been translated into 25 languages, Andrey Kurkov has been recognized as one of the most renowned Ukrainian writers in the world of literature, and "Ukraine Diaries" is his first non-fiction literary work. This paper attempts to focus on Kurkov's unique literary…

  14. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants Discharging into the Dnieper River, Kyiv, Ukraine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dnieper River runs through the center of Ukraine from Belarus and Russia in the north and empties into the Black Sea in the south. En-route, the Dnieper River passes through several large Ukrainian cities including Chornobyl, the capital Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Kherson, an...

  15. Translators and Interpreters Certification in Australia, Canada, the USA and Ukraine: Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyba, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the certification process by which potential translators and interpreters demonstrate minimum standards of performance to warrant official or professional recognition of their ability to translate or interpret and to practice professionally in Australia, Canada, the USA and Ukraine. The aim of the study is to…

  16. Demographic and health situation of children in conditions of economic destabilization in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2014-01-01

    In new conditions of socio-economic development in the Ukraine, the health of the population of children is considered as the most reliable indicator of socio-economic development of the country. The primary goal of the study was analysis of the effect of contemporary socio-economic transformations, their scope, and strength of effect on the demographic and social situation of children in various regions of the Ukraine. The methodological objectives of the study were as follows: development of a synthetic measure of the state of health of the population of children, based on the Hellwig's method, and selection of districts in the Ukraine according to the present health-demographic situation of children. The study was based on statistical data from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, Centre of Medical Statistics in Kiev, Ukrainian Ministry of Defence, as well as Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine. The following research methods were used: analysis of literature and Internet sources, selection and analysis of statistical materials, cartographic and statistical methods. Basic indices of the demographic and health situation of the population of children were analyzed, as well as factors of a socio-economic nature which affect this situation. A set of variables was developed for the synthetic evaluation of the state of health of the population of children. The typology of the Ukrainian districts was performed according to the state of health of the child population, based on the Hellwig's taxonomic method. Deterioration was observed of selected quality parameters, as well as a change in the strength and directions of effect of factors of organizational-institutional, socioeconomic, historical and cultural nature on the population of children potential.

  17. Risk factors for poor multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Aibana, Omowunmi; Bachmaha, Mariya; Krasiuk, Viatcheslav; Rybak, Natasha; Flanigan, Timothy P; Petrenko, Vasyl; Murray, Megan B

    2017-02-07

    Ukraine is among ten countries with the highest burden of multidrug- resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Treatment success rates for MDR-TB in Ukraine remain below global success rates as reported by the World Health Organization. Few studies have evaluated predictors of poor MDR-TB outcomes in Ukraine. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients initiated on MDR-TB treatment in the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine between January 01, 2012 and March 31st, 2015. We defined good treatment outcomes as cure or completion and categorized poor outcomes among those who died, failed treatment or defaulted. We used logistic regression analyses to identify baseline patient characteristics associated with poor MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Among 360 patients, 65 (18.1%) achieved treatment cure or completion while 131 (36.4%) died, 115 (31.9%) defaulted, and 37 (10.3%) failed treatment. In the multivariate analysis, the strongest baseline predictors of poor outcomes were HIV infection without anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation (aOR 10.07; 95% CI 1.20-84.45; p 0.03) and presence of extensively-drug resistant TB (aOR 9.19; 95% CI 1.17-72.06; p 0.03). HIV-positive patients initiated on ART were not at increased risk of poor outcomes (aOR 1.43; 95% CI 0.58-3.54; p 0.44). There was no statistically significant difference in risk of poor outcomes among patients who received baseline molecular testing with Gene Xpert compared to those who were not tested (aOR 1.31; 95% CI 0.63-2.73). Rigorous compliance with national guidelines recommending prompt initiation of ART among HIV/TB co-infected patients and use of drug susceptibility testing results to construct treatment regimens can have a major impact on improving MDR-TB treatment outcomes in Ukraine.

  18. Magnetic properties of soils in boreal regions. Case study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of soil magnetism is a part of the general soil researching for solving soil science and agronomy tasks. Soils are rather magnetic and sometimes they are the main near-surface object, which generates local magnetic anomalies. Soils have been studied within the main soil-climatic zones of Ukraine: Polesie, Forest Steppe, Steppe, Dry Steppe, Crimean and Carpathian mountains. The investigated soils types are: soddy-podsolic, gray forest, chestnut, chernozems leached, typical, ordinary, southern, and meadow, turf, bog soils, brawn and mountains soils. A part of Ukraine soils are from boreal regions. Among them are chernozems of Polesie soil-climatic zone. This territory was under influence of ice age. Another part of Ukraine boreal region is Carpathian maintains with special type of climate, landscapes and soils. The comprehensive analyze of Ukraine soils from the boreal territories and other parts is presented. Soil magnetism increases from North to South in the transition between the soil-climatic zones of Ukraine. The most magnetic are ordinary and south chernozems. The least magnetic are soddy-podzolic, meadaw and bog soils. The maximal values of the magnetic parameters are fixed in the watersheds, plateaus of the landscapes, minimal values are fixed in the floods, ravines, bor terraces. Magnetic susceptibility mapping is useful for agricultural mapping of lands, investigation of erosion, soil fertility, the necessity for mineral and organic fertilizers. Magnetic methods of investigations are high speed, effective and low-cost. Moreover, the magnetic methods a very important if the dangerous soil processes could not be fixed with visual image. In the same time, these hazards effect on the conditioning and the productivity of agricultural land. We have marked the decreasing of the magnetic susceptibility values within the risk of erosion sections of the catena.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  20. The Importance of Community Consultations for Generating Evidence for Health Reform in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hankivsky, Olena; Vorobyova, Anna; Salnykova, Anastasiya; Rouhani, Setareh

    2016-08-17

    The paper presents the results of community consultations about the health needs and healthcare experiences of the population of Ukraine. The objective of community consultations is to engage a community in which a research project is studying, and to gauge feedback, criticism and suggestions. It is designed to seek advice or information from participants directly affected by the study subject of interest. The purpose of this study was to collect first-hand perceptions about daily life, health concerns and experiences with the healthcare system. This study provides policy-makers with additional evidence to ensure that health reforms would include a focus not only on health system changes but also social determinants of health (SDH). The data collection consisted of the 21 community consultations conducted in 2012 in eleven regions of Ukraine in a mix of urban and rural settings. The qualitative data was coded in MAXQDA 11 software and thematic analysis was used as a method of summarizing and interpreting the results. The key findings of this study point out the importance of the SDH in the lives of Ukrainians and how the residents of Ukraine perceive that health inequities and premature mortality are shaped by the circumstances of their daily lives, such as: political and economic instability, environmental pollution, low wages, poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and unsatisfactory state of public services. Study participants repeatedly discussed these conditions as the reasons for the perceived health crisis in Ukraine. The dilapidated state of the healthcare system was discussed as well; high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments and lack of trust in doctors appeared as significant barriers in accessing healthcare services. Additionally, the consultations highlighted the economic and health gaps between residents of rural and urban areas, naming rural populations among the most vulnerable social groups in Ukraine. The study concludes that any meaningful reforms of

  1. The Importance of Community Consultations for Generating Evidence for Health Reform in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Hankivsky, Olena; Vorobyova, Anna; Salnykova, Anastasiya; Rouhani, Setareh

    2017-01-01

    Background: The paper presents the results of community consultations about the health needs and healthcare experiences of the population of Ukraine. The objective of community consultations is to engage a community in which a research project is studying, and to gauge feedback, criticism and suggestions. It is designed to seek advice or information from participants directly affected by the study subject of interest. The purpose of this study was to collect first-hand perceptions about daily life, health concerns and experiences with the healthcare system. This study provides policy-makers with additional evidence to ensure that health reforms would include a focus not only on health system changes but also social determinants of health (SDH). Methods: The data collection consisted of the 21 community consultations conducted in 2012 in eleven regions of Ukraine in a mix of urban and rural settings. The qualitative data was coded in MAXQDA 11 software and thematic analysis was used as a method of summarizing and interpreting the results. Results: The key findings of this study point out the importance of the SDH in the lives of Ukrainians and how the residents of Ukraine perceive that health inequities and premature mortality are shaped by the circumstances of their daily lives, such as: political and economic instability, environmental pollution, low wages, poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and unsatisfactory state of public services. Study participants repeatedly discussed these conditions as the reasons for the perceived health crisis in Ukraine. The dilapidated state of the healthcare system was discussed as well; high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments and lack of trust in doctors appeared as significant barriers in accessing healthcare services. Additionally, the consultations highlighted the economic and health gaps between residents of rural and urban areas, naming rural populations among the most vulnerable social groups in Ukraine. Conclusion: The

  2. Seismicity in the platform regions of Ukraine in the zones of anomalous electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, A. N.; Kulik, S. N.; Burakhovich, T. K.

    2013-05-01

    It is established for the first time that there are several regions in Ukraine, in which the earthquakes occurring within platform territory are correlated to the anomalous conductive structures in the Earth's crust and upper mantle. These regions are identified as (1) Donbass and the eastern part of the Dnieper-Donetsk Depression (DDD); (2) eastern margin of the Ingulets-Krivoi Rog suture zone in the area of the Krivoi Rog-Kremenchug fault zone; (3) the western part of the Cis-Azov megablock; (4) the western boundary of the Ukrainian Shield and its slope; (5) North Dobruja and Pre-Dobrujan Depression. The reconstructed tree-dimensional (3D) geoelectrical models of the Earth's crust and upper mantle feature anomalously low values of electric resistivity. The earthquake sources in the platform areas of Ukraine are localized above the top and in the upper parts of the crustal anomalies of electrical conductivity.

  3. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  4. Correlates of HIV and Inconsistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Iakunchykova, Olena P; Burlaka, Viktor

    2017-08-01

    While female sex workers (FSWs) carry one of the highest risks of HIV transmission, little is known about predictors of HIV and risky behavior of FSWs in Ukraine. In this study of 4806 Ukrainian FSWs, the prevalence of HIV was 5.6 %. FSWs had higher odds to be HIV infected if they had lower income, were older, injected drugs, experienced violence, and solicited clients on highways. Inconsistent condom use with clients was reported by 34.5 % of FSWs. FSWs who solicited clients at railway stations, via media, through previous clients and other FSWs, and on highways reported lower consistency of condom use. Furthermore, inconsistent condom use was related to younger age, alcohol use, having fewer clients, not being covered with HIV prevention, and experiences of violence. The present study expands on the rather limited knowledge of correlates of the HIV and inconsistent condom use among FSWs in Ukraine.

  5. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009.

    PubMed

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. [EMPLOYMENT OF THE ELDERLY PEOPLE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND UKRAINE: REALITIES, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS].

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, N A

    2016-01-01

    The study focuses on the issue of older people employment in the European Union and Ukraine. We analyzed the relationship of employment for older people and their income, of employment and of the value of index of social capital, life expectancy and income after retirement. It is shown that the employment rate of older people increased even during the economic crisis. The author has outlined the main causes of employment and the fields of activity of retirees. The basic reasons of employment are financial motives. However, motivation does not come from financial necessity, but because of work satisfaction in countries such as Denmark, Austria, Sweden. The main scope of employment of retirees in Ukraine is the industrial sector, but in the EU working retirees 65+ are engaged in agriculture, forestry and fishing sector, self-employment widespread among retirees. The author has outlined the basic directions of pension policy.

  7. Metrological assurance and traceability for Industry 4.0 and additive manufacturing in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skliarov, Volodymyr; Neyezhmakov, Pavel; Prokopov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The national measurement standards from the point of view of traceability of the results of measurement in additive manufacturing in Ukraine are considered in the paper. The metrological characteristics of the national primary measurement standards in the field of geometric, temperature, optical-physical and time-frequency measurements, which took part in international comparisons within COOMET projects, are presented. The accurate geometric, temperature, optical-physical and time-frequency measurements are the key ones in controlling the quality of additive manufacturing. The use of advanced CAD/CAE/CAM systems allows to simulate the process of additive manufacturing at each stage. In accordance with the areas of the technology of additive manufacturing, the ways of improving the national measurement standards of Ukraine for the growing needs of metrology of additive manufacturing are considered.

  8. HIV Prevention and Rehabilitation Models for Women Who Inject Drugs in Russia and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Skipalska, Halyna; Suvorova, Svetlana; Sukovatova, Olga; Zakharov, Konstantin; Hodgdon, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Women who inject drugs require gender-specific approaches to drug rehabilitation, modification of risk behaviors, and psychosocial adaptation. Improved outcomes have been demonstrated when the specific needs of women's subpopulations have been addressed. Special services for women include prenatal care, child care, women-only programs, supplemental workshops on women-focused topics, mental health services, and comprehensive programs that include several of the above components. To address the special needs of women injecting drug user (IDU) subpopulations, such as HIV-positive pregnant women and women with young children, recently released female prisoners, and street-involved girls and young women, HealthRight International and its local partners in Russia and Ukraine have developed innovative service models. This paper presents each of these models and discusses their effectiveness and implementation challenges specific to local contexts in Russia and Ukraine. PMID:23304535

  9. Efficiency assessment of using satellite data for crop area estimation in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Francisco Javier; Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Kravchenko, Oleksii; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the crop area is a key element for the estimation of the total crop production of a country and, therefore, the management of agricultural commodities markets. Satellite data and derived products can be effectively used for stratification purposes and a-posteriori correction of area estimates from ground observations. This paper presents the main results and conclusions of the study conducted in 2010 to explore feasibility and efficiency of crop area estimation in Ukraine assisted by optical satellite remote sensing images. The study was carried out on three oblasts in Ukraine with a total area of 78,500 km2. The efficiency of using images acquired by several satellite sensors (MODIS, Landsat-5/TM, AWiFS, LISS-III, and RapidEye) combined with a field survey on a stratified sample of square segments for crop area estimation in Ukraine is assessed. The main criteria used for efficiency analysis are as follows: (i) relative efficiency that shows how much time the error of area estimates can be reduced with satellite images, and (ii) cost-efficiency that shows how much time the costs of ground surveys for crop area estimation can be reduced with satellite images. These criteria are applied to each satellite image type separately, i.e., no integration of images acquired by different sensors is made, to select the optimal dataset. The study found that only MODIS and Landsat-5/TM reached cost-efficiency thresholds while AWiFS, LISS-III, and RapidEye images, due to its high price, were not cost-efficient for crop area estimation in Ukraine at oblast level.

  10. Has Ukraine’s Path to Democracy Improved from Independence to the Orange Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    ineffective. "Even with dozens of amendments, it failed to define either the separation of powers between the legislature and the executive branches or...Providing for a complete separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches of government, it allowed the president "…to issue decrees...complete separation of powers between president and parliament and clearly defined presidential powers. . Ultimately, Ukraine seemed to be sliding

  11. Epidemiology of hip fracture and the development of FRAX in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Povoroznyuk, V V; Grygorieva, N V; Kanis, J A; Ev, McCloskey; Johansson, H; Harvey, N C; Korzh, M O; Strafun, S S; Vaida, V M; Klymovytsky, F V; Vlasenko, R O; Forosenko, V S

    2017-12-01

    A country-specific FRAX model has been developed for the Ukraine to replace the Austrian model hitherto used. Comparison of the Austrian and Ukrainian models indicated that the former markedly overestimated fracture probability whilst correctly stratifying risk. FRAX has been used to estimate osteoporotic fracture risk since 2009. Rather than using a surrogate model, the Austrian version of FRAX was adopted for clinical practice. Since then, data have become available on hip fracture incidence in the Ukraine. The incidence of hip fracture was computed from three regional estimates and used to construct a country-specific FRAX model for the Ukraine. The model characteristics were compared with those of the Austrian FRAX model, previously used in Ukraine by using all combinations of six risk factors and eight values of BMD (total number of combinations =512). The relationship between the probabilities of a major fracture derived from the two versions of FRAX indicated a close correlation between the two estimates (r > 0.95). The Ukrainian version, however, gave markedly lower probabilities than the Austrian model at all ages. For a major osteoporotic fracture, the median probability was lower by 25% at age 50 years and the difference increased with age. At the age of 60, 70 and 80 years, the median value was lower by 30, 53 and 65%, respectively. Similar findings were observed for men and for hip fracture. The Ukrainian FRAX model should enhance accuracy of determining fracture probability among the Ukrainian population and help to guide decisions about treatment. The study also indicates that the use of surrogate FRAX models or models from other countries, whilst correctly stratifying risk, may markedly over or underestimate the absolute fracture probability.

  12. The Crimea and the Donbass in Flames: The Influence of Russian Propaganda and the Ukraine Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    RUSSIAN PROPAGANDA AND THE UKRAINE CRISIS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James T. Hough 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...establish a new norm or gives new significance to an old one. F. THESIS OVERVIEW AND DRAFT CHAPTER OUTLINE This thesis is organized into four

  13. Converting Energy Subsidies to Investments: Scaling-Up Deep Energy Retrofit in Residential Sector of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denysenko, Artur

    After collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited vast and inefficient infrastructure. Combination of historical lack of transparency, decades without reforms, chronical underinvestment and harmful cross-subsidization resulted in accumulation of energy problems, which possess significant threat to economic prosperity and national security. High energy intensity leads to excessive use of energy and heavy reliance on energy import to meet domestic demand. Energy import, in turn, results in high account balance deficit and heavy burden on the state finances. A residential sector, which accounts for one third of energy consumption and is the highest consumer of natural gas, is particularly challenging to reform. This thesis explores energy consumption of the residential sector of Ukraine. Using energy decomposition method, recent changes in energy use is analyzed. Energy intensity of space heating in the residential sector of Ukraine is compared with selected EU member states with similar climates. Energy efficiency potential is evaluated for whole residential sector in general and for multistory apartment buildings connected to the district heating in particular. Specifically, investments in thermal modernization of multistory residential buildings will result in almost 45TWh, or 3.81 Mtoe, of annual savings. Required investments for deep energy retrofit of multistory buildings is estimated as much as $19 billion in 2015 prices. Experience of energy subsidy reforms as well as lessons from energy retrofit policy from selected countries is analyzed. Policy recommendations to turn energy subsidies into investments in deep energy retrofit of residential sector of Ukraine are suggested. Regional dimension of existing energy subsidies and capital subsidies required for energy retrofit is presented.

  14. [The structure of financial planning of public health in Ukraine during the transitional period].

    PubMed

    Koretskiy, V L

    1995-01-01

    Based on the newly developed concept of multilevel functional system of primary health care which is to replace the current multicomponent system, the author discusses the computer-aided realization of the system for estimation and analysis of the integral model of outpatient and inpatient medical care of the population of the Ukraine. This system is intended to solve the problems associated with intensification of the resources of the public health system of the Republic (district).

  15. Divergent Trends in Abortion and Birth Control Practices in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Boris P.; Sakevich, Victoria I.; Jasilioniene, Aiva

    2012-01-01

    Context The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. Methods Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. Results The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. Conclusion Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia. PMID:23349656

  16. A Fragmented Ukraine: Part of the West or Apart from the West?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Harasymiw, Ivan L. Rudnytsky, Alxander J. Motyl, Peter J. Potichnyj, et al. 4 and Ukraine share common Slavic roots, extensive cultural cross- pollination ...cannot be constructed, but rather nations and national identities are like plants that spring up, keeping with in their own specific divine laws.18...how a state defines itself and interacts with other state actors remains in an embryonic state as the scholars who study each components rarely cross

  17. Ukraine’s Search for its Place in Europe: The East or the West?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Slovakia, Poland and Romania . European national histories show that states have not always been continuous, administrative boundaries change...process of state-building in Ukraine has lacked the necessary spiritual foundation, that is one United Ukrainian Orthodox Church…the development of...communities are Christian.55 About half are in the Orthodox tradition. The other half is divided among Catholics and Protestants. There are three major

  18. Utilization of coal-water fuel in heat power industry and by public utilities of Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Papayani, F.A.; Switly, Y.G.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major problems of the fuel and energy balance of Ukraine is acute shortage of its own resources of organic fuel. At present the steam coal output in Ukraine approaches 100 mln t, oil production makes up about 5 min t and that of gas reaches 22 bln. m{sup 3}, which in terms of equivalent fuel (e.f ) totals 94 min t, the annual demand being approximately 300 mln t e.f. To make up for fuel deficiency Ukraine has to annually import 120 bln. m{sup 3} of gas, 50 mln t of oil and about 10 mln tmore » of coal, their approximate cost being U.S.$ 15.6 bln. At the same time coal reserves in developed fields only make up 10 bln. t, the total reserves of this fuel being 100 bln. t. Thus the whole burden of meeting the requirements of Ukraine in power resources when nuclear power plants capacities are being reduced and expected to be reducing in the nearest future falls on coal. Under wasting conditions a problem of today is to develop and introduce new technologies of coal mining and utilization with due regard for technical, economic and ecological aspects which are particularly important for densely populated industrial regions. Ecological problems associated with a dramatic increase in the volume of coal combustion can be solved by developing new methods and means for flue gas cleaning in the first place and by wide-scale introduction of coal-water fuel (CWF) in the second place. Investigations have shown that the second way is more preferable since it is based on the integrated technology for original coal demineralization and CWT production, advantages of each process being used in full measure. Thus demineralization of coal is among major requirements to development of a CWT production technology.« less

  19. Driving anger in Ukraine: Appraisals, not trait driving anger, predict anger intensity while driving.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Hill, T; Sullman, M J M

    2016-03-01

    Trait driving anger is often, but not always, found to predict both the intensity of anger while driving and subsequent crash-related behaviours. However, a number of studies have not found support for a direct relationship between one's tendency to become angry and anger reported while driving, suggesting that other factors may mediate this relationship. The present self-report study investigated whether, in anger provoking driving situations, the appraisals made by drivers influence the relationship between trait and state anger. A sample of 339 drivers from Ukraine completed the 33-item version of the Driver Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher et al., 1994) and eight questions about their most recent experience of driving anger. A structural equation model found that the intensity of anger experienced was predicted by the negative evaluations of the situation, which was in turn predicted by trait driving anger. However, trait driving anger itself did not predict anger intensity; supporting the hypothesis that evaluations of the driving situation mediate the relationship between trait and state anger. Further, the unique structure of the DAS required to fit the data from the Ukrainian sample, may indicate that the anger inducing situations in Ukraine are different to those of a more developed country. Future research is needed to investigate driving anger in Ukraine in a broader sample and also to confirm the role of the appraisal process in the development of driving anger in both developed and undeveloped countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patients' webs of relations in the medical landscapes of Central Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona

    2016-08-01

    Village dwellers in Central Ukraine have access to various types of therapy that comprise diverse medical landscapes. Patients' movements within these landscapes are possible thanks to each person's web of relations. Medical landscapes are not fixed, but vary and dynamically change for each person, depending on their fluid and interchanging, hierarchical webs of mutual relations with other people, personal bodies, institutions, discourses, political powers, other non-human organisms, or objects such as medicines. This paper was inspired by the medicoscape concept (Hörbst and Krause 2004 ) as well as Ingold's idea of meshwork analyses of relations between various actors: in this case, patients, healers, a weak state, official healthcare providers, pharmacists and medicinal plants, in the context of patients' therapeutic choices. Self-medication based on herbal remedies is a very important feature of people's medical landscapes in Central Ukraine and usually the first therapy choice for most interlocutors. That is why this paper is focused on the presentation of the means through which people acquire knowledge about medicinal plants, and the ways they interact with plants and plants interact with them. In this way, showing the complexity of villagers' webs of relations is possible. The analysis is based on ethnographic research conducted between 2009 and 2013 in the Vinnytsia region (Central Ukraine).

  1. Suicide in the Ukraine: epidemiology, knowledge, and attitudes of the population.

    PubMed

    Mokhovikov, A; Donets, O

    1996-01-01

    For several decades suicidology could not be discussed in the Ukraine, and so this is one of the first papers on suicide in this country. After a brief discussion of the epidemiology of suicide in the Ukraine, the authors present the results of research investigations on caregivers' knowledge about suicide, as well as an investigation of attitudes towards suicide. The principal conclusions are: 1. The frequency of suicide in the Ukraine is relatively high (24 per 100,000). The rate of suicide is much higher in rural areas than in the cities. The frequency of completed suicide is not the same in different regions of the country. 2. Sociopsychological processes in the post-totalitarian society have resulted in the development of the "Soviet syndrome" in the population. 3. Suicidal behavior in the post-totalitarian society exists in a special social, psychological, and cultural context that creates obstacles for its effective prevention. 4. Research on the level of suicide knowledge revealed a high prevalence of mythical ideas, even in those groups of the population or professional groups that should be directly involved in education and participate in suicide prevention. 5. An assessment of the attitude of the respondents toward suicide revealed an ambivalence of their feelings and attitudes that could have a negative influence on their practical involvement in helping to deal with suicidal clients.

  2. Tobacco use, cessation advice to patients and attitudes to tobacco control among physicians in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Squier, Christopher; Hesli, Vicki; Lowe, John; Ponamorenko, Victor; Medvedovskaya, Natalia

    2006-10-01

    To examine the relationship between physicians' smoking behaviors and their attitudes toward tobacco use by their patients and tobacco control in the Ukraine, a 70-item questionnaire was administered to 799 general practitioners (287 men and 512 women) working in both rural (278 physicians) and urban (521 physicians) areas of three regions of Ukraine. In all, 13.9% of physicians were current smokers and 21.6% reported being past smokers, with significantly (P<0.001) more men than women being current or past smokers. Odds ratios from logistic regression analysis reveal that physicians who are heavy smokers are 26% less likely to record tobacco use by patients than medium smokers. Heavy smokers devote significantly less effort to providing cessation information to patients and are 36% less likely to support the complete prohibition of smoking in the physician's workplace. Older physicians, female physicians and physicians working in urban areas are significantly more likely than younger, male and rural physicians to advise their patients on smoking. The provision of smoking cessation to patients by general practitioners in Ukraine is influenced by several factors, a major one being the smoking status of the physician. If smoking among physicians declines, this will encourage the patient to consider a serious quit attempt in several ways, most notably: (1) physicians act as societal role models and can promote non-smoking as a norm and (2) the likelihood that a patient will be provided smoking cessation counseling increases.

  3. Histologic verification of leukemia, myelodysplasia, and multiple myeloma diagnoses in patients in Ukraine, 1987-1998.

    PubMed

    Dyagil, Irina; Adam, Mircea; Beebe, Gilbert W; Burch, J David; Gaidukova, Svetlana N; Gluzman, Daniel; Gudzenko, Natalia; Klimenko, Victor; Peterson, LoAnn; Reiss, Robert F; Finch, Stuart C

    2002-07-01

    In preparation for a possible large epidemiological study of radiation-related leukemia in Chernobyl clean-up workers of Ukraine, histologic evaluation of 62 cases of leukemia and related disorders was conducted by a panel of expert hematologists and hematopathologists from the United States, France, and Ukraine. All cases were randomly selected from a surrogate population of men in the general population of 6 regions of Ukraine who were between the ages of 20 and 60 years in 1986 and were reported to have developed leukemia, myelodysplasia, or multiple myeloma between the years 1987 and 1998. The hematologists and hematopathologists on the panel were in agreement with one another and with the previously reported diagnoses and classifications of about 90% of the cases of acute and chronic leukemia in the study. These results suggest that strong reliance can be placed on the clinical diagnoses of acute and chronic forms of leukemia and multiple myeloma that have occurred in Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers providing that the diagnoses are supported by records of the patients having had adequate histologic bone marrow studies. The number of cases in this study with the diagnosis of myelodysplasia, however, was too small to draw firm conclusions.

  4. Economic and public health impact of 2007-2010 tobacco tax increases in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Stoklosa, Michal; Krasovsky, Konstantin

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the dynamic 2007-2010 tobacco tax policy in Ukraine on cigarette prices, cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenue and the tobacco industry's price strategy. Using data on cigarette sales, cigarette prices, income and tobacco control policies, price elasticities of cigarette demand in Ukraine were estimated using two methods. Annual data were used to generate point price elasticity estimates, while monthly data were used in a two-step Engle-Granger procedure. The point price elasticity estimate is data sensitive and ranges from -0.11 to -0.62, centring around -0.32. The regression model estimates a long-run price elasticity of -0.28. Cigarette consumption fell by 13% in 2009 and 15% in 2010 while the tax revenue increased by US$700 million and by US$500 million in 2009 and 2010, respectively, compared to the previous year. Tax increases have changed the tobacco industry's price strategy from one of shielding consumers from the impact of smaller tax hikes in 2007-2008, to one of increasing industry net-of-tax prices, after recent, larger tax increases. The higher real tobacco excise taxes of 2009 and 2010 have significantly reduced tobacco consumption in Ukraine, resulting in encouraging public health and fiscal gains. It will be important for cigarette prices/taxes to keep pace with inflation and income growth for this impact to be sustained.

  5. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2014-08-01

    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthrax in a backyard domestic dog in Ukraine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Skrypnyk, Artem; Bagamian, Karoun H; Nikolich, Mikeljon P; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Skrypnyk, Valeriy

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax has been reported in domestic and wild dogs throughout much of the world. Generally, canids are considered resistant to anthrax, although there are several reports of anthrax deaths in both wild and domestic canid populations. Prior to 2012, anthrax had not been reported in dogs in Ukraine, despite a long history in livestock and wildlife. An outbreak involving at least one cow and one dog was reported from a backyard setting in southern Ukraine in August of 2012. Laboratory results and epizootic data were compiled from official investigation reports of regional and state veterinary services involved in the case response. A single dog died after being fed meat and bones from an illegally slaughtered heifer that died of anthrax 5 days earlier. On the evening of the dog's death, the dog refused food or water; however, there were no other clinical signs. Laboratory tests of dog tissue included traditional bacteriology for Bacillus anthracis, a small rodent bioassay for virulence, and immunoprecipitation tests (IPT). IPT was positive, viable B. anthracis colonies were cultured, and a bioassay confirmed virulence. This was the first confirmed case of canid anthrax in Ukraine. This case report serves to remind veterinary officials that anthrax can affect a wide number of species. We advise surveillance systems remain flexible and include animals that might not otherwise be tested.

  7. Responding to a cVDPV1 outbreak in Ukraine: Implications, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Perehinets, Ihor; Nitzan, Dorit; Popovic, Dragoslav; Moran, Thomas; Allahverdiyeva, Vusala; Huseynov, Shahin; Gavrilin, Eugene; Slobodianyk, Liudmyla; Izhyk, Olha; Sukhodolska, Anna; Hegazi, Sahar; Bulavinova, Katerina; Platov, Sergei; O'Connor, Patrick

    2017-08-24

    The European Region, certified polio-free in 2002, remains at risk of wild poliovirus reintroduction and emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) until global polio eradication is achieved, as demonstrated by the cVDPV1 outbreak in Ukraine in 2015. We reviewed epidemiologic, clinical and virology data on cVDPV cases, surveillance and immunization coverage data, and reports of outbreak-related surveys, country missions, and expert group meetings. In Ukraine, 3-dose polio vaccine coverage declined from 91% in 2008 to 15% by mid-2015. In summer, 2015, two unrelated children from Zakarpattya province were paralyzed by a highly divergent cVDPV1. The isolates were 20 and 26 nucleotide divergent from prototype Sabin strain (with 18 identical mutations) consistent with their common origin and ∼2-year evolution. Outbreak response recommendations developed with international partner support included conducting three nationwide supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) with tOPV, strengthening surveillance and implementing communication interventions. SIAs were conducted during October 2015-February 2016 (officially reported coverage, round 1-64.4%, round 2-71.7%, and round 3-80.7%). Substantial challenges to outbreak response included lack of high-level support, resistance to OPV use, low perceived risk of polio, widespread vaccine hesitancy, anti-vaccine media environment, economic crisis and military conflict. Communication activities improved caregiver awareness of polio and confidence in vaccination. Surveillance was enhanced but did not consistently meet applicable performance standards. Post-outbreak assessments concluded that cVDPV1 transmission in Ukraine has likely stopped following the response, but significant gaps in population immunity and surveillance remained. Chronic under-vaccination in Ukraine resulted in the accumulation of children susceptible to polioviruses and created favorable conditions for VDPV1 emergence and circulation

  8. Post-socialist forest disturbance in the Carpathian border region of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick; Radeloff, Volker C; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Kruhlov, Ivan

    2007-07-01

    Forests provide important ecosystem services, and protected areas around the world are intended to reduce human disturbance on forests. The question is how forest cover is changing in different parts of the world, why some areas are more frequently disturbed, and if protected areas are effective in limiting anthropogenic forest disturbance. The Carpathians are Eastern Europe's largest contiguous forest ecosystem and are a hotspot of biodiversity. Eastern Europe has undergone dramatic changes in political and socioeconomic structures since 1990, when socialistic state economies transitioned toward market economies. However, the effects of the political and economic transition on Carpathian forests remain largely unknown. Our goals were to compare post-socialist forest disturbance and to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in the border triangle of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine, to better understand the role of broadscale political and socioeconomic factors. Forest disturbances were assessed using the forest disturbance index derived from Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images from 1978 to 2000. Our results showed increased harvesting in all three countries (up to 1.8 times) in 1988-1994, right after the system change. Forest disturbance rates differed markedly among countries (disturbance rates in Ukraine were 4.5 times higher than in Poland, and those in Slovakia were 4.3 times higher than in Poland), and in Ukraine, harvests tended to occur at higher elevations. Forest fragmentation increased in all three countries but experienced a stronger increase in Slovakia and Ukraine (approximately 5% decrease in core forest) than in Poland. Protected areas were most effective in Poland and in Slovakia, where harvesting rates dropped markedly (by nearly an order of magnitude in Slovakia) after protected areas were designated. In Ukraine, harvesting rates inside and outside protected areas did not differ appreciably, and harvests were widespread immediately before the

  9. Aerosol Seasonal Variations over Urban-Industrial Regions in Ukraine According to AERONET and POLDER Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Miatselskaya, N.; Mishchenko, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban-industrial regions in Ukraine. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2013 data from two urban ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Lugansk) as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban-industrial areas in Ukraine. We also analyzed the data from one AERONET site in Belarus (Minsk) in order to compare with the Ukrainian sites. Aerosol amount and optical depth (AOD) values in the atmosphere columns over the large urbanized areas like Kyiv and Minsk have maximum values in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are observed in late autumn. The results show that fine-mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The analysis of the seasonal AOD variations over the urban-industrial areas in the eastern and central parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the similar traits. The seasonal variation similarity in the regions denotes the resemblance in basic aerosol sources that are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. The behavior of basic aerosol parameters in the western part of Ukraine is different from eastern and central regions and shows an earlier appearance of the spring and summer AOD maxima. Spectral single-scattering albedo, complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere column over Kyiv have different behavior for warm (April-October) and cold seasons. The seasonal features of fine and coarse aerosol particle behavior over the Kyiv site were analyzed. A prevailing influence of the fine-mode particles on the optical properties of the aerosol layer over the region has been established. The back-trajectory and cluster analysis techniques were applied to study the seasonal back trajectories and prevailing

  10. Validation of Global EO Biophysical Products at JECAM Test Site in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Kravchenko, Oleksiy; Basarab, Ruslan; Ostapenko, Vadym; Yailymov, Bohdan; Shelestov, Andrii; Kolotii, Andrii; Mironov, Andrii

    Efficient global agriculture monitoring requires appropriate validation of Earth observation (EO) products for different regions and cropping system. This problem is addressed within the Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) initiative which aims to develop monitoring and reporting protocols and best practices for a variety of global agricultural systems. Ukraine is actively involved into JECAM, and a JECAM Ukraine test site was officially established in 2011. The following problems are being solved within JECAM Ukraine: (i) crop identification and crop area estimation [1]; (ii) crop yield forecasting [2]; (iii) EO products validation. The following case study regions were selected for these purposes: (i) the whole Kyiv oblast (28,000 sq. km) indented for crop mapping and acreage estimation; (ii) intensive observation sub-site in Pshenichne which is a research farm from the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine and indented for crop biophysical parameters estimation; (iii) Lviv region for rape-seed identification and crop rotation control; (iv) Crimea region for crop damage assessment due to droughts, and illegial field detection. In 2013, Ukrainian JECAM test site was selected as one of the “Champion User” for the ESA Sentinel-2 for Agriculture project. The test site was observed with SPOT-4 and RapidEye satellites every 5 days. The collected images are then used to simulate Sentinel-2 images for agriculture purposes. JECAM Ukraine is responsible for collecting ground observation data for validation purposes, and is involved in providing user requirements for Sentinel-2 agriculture related products. In particular, three field campaigns to characterize the vegetation biophysical parameters at the Pshenichne test site were carried out: First campaign - 14th to 17th of May 2013; second campaign - 12th to 15th of June 2013; third campaign - 14th to 17th of July 2013. Digital Hemispheric Photographs (DHP) images were

  11. Influence of risk factors on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and legislative foundations for copd medical care in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Mykhalchuk, Vasyl M; Vasyliev, Averian G

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Out of all respiratory diseases COPD is the leading cause of death and is characterized with diffuse non-reversible airway obstruction. Many various components play role in development and progression of this disease, while COPD risk factors play the most prominent role. Further progress in healthcare system development around COPD in Ukraine requires analysis of legislation, regulating pulmonological medical service in Ukraine. The aim: To analyze the influence of major risk factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to determine key legislative aspects of the organization of medical care for COPD patients in Ukraine. Materials and methods: 50 medical literature sources were systematically reviewed as the material for the research of COPD risk factors and their impact on studies disease. Also, an analysis of existing legislative acts regulating the pulmonological medical care in Ukraine, specifically, in patients with COPD, was conducted. Conclusions: There is a need to develop and implement a set of organizational and medical measures aiming at addressing the priorities of public healthcare, and specifically improvement of the quality of medical care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Ukraine.

  12. What Are We Educating Our Youth for? The Role of Education in the Era of Vocational Schools for "Dummies" and Diploma Mill Universities in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korzh, Alla

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multisite case study contextualized in the political economy of Ukraine examines orphanage youth's conceptualization of the role of vocational and higher education in the neoliberal era and highlights educational transformations in Ukraine. Drawing on Bourdieu's forms of capital (cultural, social, and economic), this research…

  13. Problems of Technical Standards Teaching in the Context of the Globalization and Euro-Integration in Higher Education System of Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornuta, Olena; Pryhorovska, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and Ukraine association with EU imply including Ukrainian universities into the world scientific space. The aim of this article is to analyze the problem of drawing standards teaching, based on the experience of Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas (Ukraine) and to summarize the experience of post Soviet…

  14. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    PubMed

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  15. Evolution of Monitoring and Evaluation of AIDS Response in Ukraine: Laying the Groundwork for Evidence-Based Health Care.

    PubMed

    Dumchev, Kostyantyn; Varetska, Olga; Kuzin, Ihor

    2017-07-01

    Once facing the most severe HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe, Ukraine has built an elaborate Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system to track the response to AIDS. This system was developed using recommendations and input from multiple international expert organizations and donors and, at the current stage, serves as a best practice model in many areas. The present paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the evolution of the M&E system in Ukraine since its inception. Notable achievements and challenges are described and illustrated by epidemiological data and the recommendations for future development are discussed. Unique experiences and advances in M&E in Ukraine may be useful to other countries facing similar epidemiological, structural or methodological issues.

  16. Greater self-enhancement in Western than Eastern Ukraine, but failure to replicate the Muhammad Ali effect.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-02-01

    Based on the cross-cultural research linking individualism-collectivism and self-enhancement, this research examines regional pattern of self-enhancement in Ukraine. Broadly speaking, the western part of Ukraine is mainly Ukrainian speaking and historically oriented towards Europe, whereas Eastern Ukraine is mainly Russian speaking and historically oriented towards the Russian cultural sphere. We found self-enhancement on a "better than average" task to be higher in a Western Ukrainian sample compared to an Eastern Ukrainian sample, with differences in independent self-construals supporting assumed regional variation in individualism. However, the Muhammad Ali effect, the finding that self-enhancement is greater in the domain of morality than intelligence, was not replicated. The discussion focuses on the specific sources of this regional difference in self-enhancement, and reasons for why the Muhammad Ali effect was not found. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Partial Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Ticks of Southern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Oksana O; Dubina, Dmytro O; Vynograd, Nataliya O; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2017-08-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988-1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle. A total of 15,243 tick imagoes and nymphs were collected from nine species, including Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. rossicus, and R. sanguineus, pooled in 282 monospecific samples. Supernatant of grinded pool was used for inoculation to suckling mice for virus isolation. Eight TBEV isolates were identified from ticks among six study sites. Ticks showed a minimum infection rate from 0.11% to 0.81%. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein gene of seven isolates, assigned all to the European subtype (TBEV-Eu) showing a maximum identity of 97.17% to the "Pan" TBEV-Eu reference strain. Compared to 104 TBEV-Eu isolates they clustered within the same clade as the Pan reference strain and distinguished from other TBEV-Eu isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the South Ukrainian TBEV-Eu isolates revealed the presence of four amino acid substitutions 67 (N), 266 (R), 306 (V), and 407 (R), in the ectodomains II and III and in the stem-anchor region of the E protein gene. This study confirmed TBEV-Eu subtype distribution in the southern region of Ukraine, which eventually overlaps with TBEV-FE (Far Eastern subtype) and TBEV-Sib (Siberian subtype) domains, showing the heterogeneity of TBEV circulating in

  18. [Morbidity rate of obesity in children in ukraine. Overweight as noncontagious disease risk factor].

    PubMed

    Заболотна, Ірина Е

    The upsurge of prevalence rate of obesity and overweight that in the majority of cases traces back to childhood is a risk factor of the most common noncontagious diseases in adults. The aim was to analyze prevalence of obesity in children in Ukraine and to conduct the pilot study of medical condition of overweight children. Official state statistics of prevalence rate of obesity in kids and screening data of anthropometric characteristics, arterial tension levels, physical performance decrement and medical condition of children (boys - 50, girls - 90, average age - 15,1±0,1 years) was used in research. Data calculation performed by Statistica v. 6.0 software. Over the past few decades, the morbidity rate of obesity in children in Ukraine has greatly increased, especially in year class 15-17. Insufficient diagnosis of obesity in children is the consequence of the inadequacy of the existing system of preventive care and monitoring survey of decease risk factors. Children with body mass index (BMI) above normal have a risk of work decrement in 5,2 times (odds ratio, OR=5,2, CI95%: 1,7-10,6). Such children have higher risk of development of the diseases of the respiratory system (OR=8,1; CI95%: 3,9-13,6) and allergic dermatitis (OR=7,7; CI95%: 3,7-12,9). The odds ratio of arterial hypertension in such children is equal to 3,46±0,3 (95%CI: 2,0-5,9). According to prediction calculations, the situation with the increase of prevalence rate of obesity in children in Ukraine is unfavorable. The introduction of measures aimed at finding children with obesity, their registration and monitoring of patients' health with due regard to decease risk factors at the primary care level would conduce to improving prevention of obesity and prevention of alimentary diseases progression.

  19. Building Healthcare Capacity in Pediatric Neurosurgery and Psychiatry in a Post-Soviet System: Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Rutka, James T

    2018-03-01

    Many academic centers in North America are initiating global partnerships to build physician capacity in resource-poor countries. An opportunity arose to develop a pediatric program (Ukraine Paediatric Fellowship Program, UPFP) in Ukraine, a large European country in transition from a Soviet/communist political and social system. This entailed dealing with a centralized and rigid healthcare system based on the Semashko model of the former Soviet Union. Our capacity-building model has several key features: endowed philanthropic funding for sustainability, bilateral exchange of knowledge, a focus primarily on pediatric brain disorders, and team building. Centers for partnering are selected on the basis of need, receptivity to change, and participants' fluency in English. Ukrainian physicians attend month-long observerships in Toronto, and biannual teaching visits are conducted by Canadian clinicians. Over 5 years, 7 teaching visits have taken place, and 20 physicians have trained at SickKids Hospital in Toronto. Six Ukrainian children's hospitals are now collaborating with UPFP. New surgical procedures have been introduced, such as endoscopic ventriculostomy and corpus callosotomy. Patient referrals to regional institutions have increased, and new projects that affect fetal and infant neurodevelopment have been initiated (e.g., treatment of perinatal maternal depression and folic acid fortification of flour). Ukrainian participants rate the program highly in their evaluations. In a short time, UPFP has had considerable success in increasing physician capacity for improved pediatric care in regions of Ukraine. The keys to success have included focusing locally, selecting trustable partners, building incrementally, and creating interspecialty synergies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Alcohol Consumption in Two Regions of Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Christina D.; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Korzhynskyy, Yuriy; Ostapchuk, Lyubov; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Chan, Priscilla H.; Xu, Ronghui; Wertelecki, Wladimir

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are thought to be a leading cause of developmental disabilities worldwide. However, data are lacking on alcohol use among pregnant women in many countries.. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by pregnant women in Ukraine. Methods Cross sectional screening of pregnant women was conducted in two regions of Ukraine during the recruitment phase of an ongoing clinical study that is part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD). Women attending a routine prenatal visit at one of two participating regional centers were asked about alcohol consumption. Quantity and frequency of alcoholic beverages consumed in the month around conception and in the most recent month of pregnancy were measured using a standard interview instrument. Results Between 2007 and 2012, 11,909 pregnant women were screened on average in the second trimester of pregnancy. Of these, 92.7% reported being ever-drinkers. Among ever-drinkers, 54.8% reported drinking alcohol in the month around conception, and 12.9% consumed at least three drinks on at least one day in that time period. In the most recent month of pregnancy, 46.3% continued to report alcohol use and 9.2% consumed at least three drinks per day. Significant predictors of average number of drinks or heavier drinking per day in either time period in pregnancy included lower gravidity, being single, unmarried/living with a partner, or separated, lower maternal education, smoking, younger age at initiation of drinking and higher score on the TWEAK screening test for harmful drinking. Conclusions These findings support the need for education/intervention in women of childbearing age in Ukraine, and can help inform targeted interventions for women at risk of an alcohol exposed pregnancy. The initiation of a standard screening protocol in pregnancy is a step in the right direction. PMID:24834525

  1. Partial Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Ticks of Southern Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Dubina, Dmytro O.; Vynograd, Nataliya O.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988–1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle. A total of 15,243 tick imagoes and nymphs were collected from nine species, including Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. rossicus, and R. sanguineus, pooled in 282 monospecific samples. Supernatant of grinded pool was used for inoculation to suckling mice for virus isolation. Eight TBEV isolates were identified from ticks among six study sites. Ticks showed a minimum infection rate from 0.11% to 0.81%. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein gene of seven isolates, assigned all to the European subtype (TBEV-Eu) showing a maximum identity of 97.17% to the “Pan” TBEV-Eu reference strain. Compared to 104 TBEV-Eu isolates they clustered within the same clade as the Pan reference strain and distinguished from other TBEV-Eu isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the South Ukrainian TBEV-Eu isolates revealed the presence of four amino acid substitutions 67 (N), 266 (R), 306 (V), and 407 (R), in the ectodomains II and III and in the stem-anchor region of the E protein gene. This study confirmed TBEV-Eu subtype distribution in the southern region of Ukraine, which eventually overlaps with TBEV-FE (Far Eastern subtype) and TBEV-Sib (Siberian subtype) domains, showing the heterogeneity of TBEV

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substances and time to pregnancy in couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristian T; Specht, Ina O; Lenters, Virissa; Bach, Cathrine C; Rylander, Lars; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H; Giwercman, Aleksander; Heederik, Dick; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-12-22

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are suggested to affect human fecundity through longer time to pregnancy (TTP). We studied the relationship between four abundant PFAS and TTP in pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine representing varying PFAS exposures and pregnancy planning behaviors. We measured serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 938 women from Greenland (448 women), Poland (203 women) and Ukraine (287 women). PFAS exposure was assessed on a continuous logarithm transformed scale and in country-specific tertiles. We used Cox discrete-time models and logistic regression to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and infertility (TTP >13 months) odds ratios (ORs), respectively, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to PFAS levels. Adjusted analyses of the association between PFAS and TTP were done for each study population and in a pooled sample. Higher PFNA levels were associated with longer TTP in the pooled sample (log-scale FR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.94) and specifically in women from Greenland (log-scale FR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.58-0.89). ORs for infertility were also increased in the pooled sample (log-scale OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.08-2.15) and in women from Greenland (log-scale OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.22-3.19). However, in a sensitivity analysis of primiparous women these associations could not be replicated. Associations with PFNA were weaker for women from Poland and Ukraine. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were not consistently associated with TTP. Findings do not provide consistent evidence that environmental exposure to PFAS is impairing female fecundity by delaying time taken to conceive.

  3. Prognosis of Thyroid Nodules in Individuals Living in the Zhitomir Region of Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Naomi; Sekitani, Yui; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kozlovsky, Alexander A.; Gutevych, Oleksandr K.; Saiko, Aleksey S.; Nirova, Nina V.; Petrova, Anjela A.; Rafalskiy, Ruslan M.; Chorny, Sergey A.; Daniliuk, Valery V.; Anami, Masanobu; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Objective After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. Patients and Methods Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group) and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group) intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Results Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy), was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine. PMID:23209797

  4. Evaluation of data quality at the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Anton; Bray, Freddie; Ferlay, Jacques; Fedorenko, Zoya; Goulak, Liudmyla; Gorokh, Yevgeniy; Soumkina, Olena; Znaor, Ariana

    2018-04-01

    Cancer notification has been mandatory in Ukraine since 1953, with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine (NCRU) established in 1996. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the data quality at the NCRU. Qualitative and semi-quantitative methods were used to assess the comparability, completeness, validity and timeliness of cancer incidence data from the NCRU for the period 2002-2012. Cancer registration procedures at the NCRU are in accordance with international standards and recommendations. Semi-quantitative methods suggested the NCRU's data was reasonably complete, although decreases in age-specific incidence and mortality rates in the elderly indicated some missing cases at older ages. The proportion of microscopically-verified cases increased from 73.6% in 2002 to 82.3% in 2012, with death-certificate-only (DCO) proportions stable at around 0.1% and unknown stage recorded in 9.6% of male and 7.5% of female solid tumours. Timeliness was considered acceptable, with reporting >99% complete within a turn-around time of 15 months. While timely reporting of national data reflects the advantages of a mandatory data collection system, a low DCO% and observed age-specific declines suggest possible underreporting of incidence and mortality data, particularly at older ages. Overall, the evaluation indicates that the data are reasonably comparable and thus may be used to describe the magnitude of the cancer burden in Ukraine. Given its central role in monitoring and evaluation of cancer control activities, ensuring the sustainability of NCRU operations throughout the process of healthcare system reform is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Power politics: National energy strategies of the nuclear newly independent states of Armenia, Lithuania and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabonis-Chafee, Theresa Marie

    The successor states of Armenia, Lithuania and Ukraine arrived at independence facing extraordinary challenges in their energy sectors. Each state was a net importer, heavily dependent on cheap energy supplies, mostly from Russia. Each state also inherited a nuclear power complex over which it had not previously exercised full control. In the time period 1991--1996, each state attempted to impose coherence on the energy sector, selecting a new course for the pieces it had inherited from a much larger, highly integrated energy structure. Each state attempted to craft national energy policies in the midst of severe supply shocks and price shocks. Each state developed institutions to govern its nuclear power sector. The states' challenges were made even greater by the fact that they had few political or economic structures necessary for energy management, and sought to create those structures at the same time. This dissertation is a systematic, non-quantitative examination of how each state's energy policies developed during the 1991--1996 time period. The theoretical premise of the analysis (drawn from Statist realism) is that systemic variables---regional climate and energy vulnerability---provide the best explanations for the resulting energy policy decisions. The dependent variable is defined as creation and reform of energy institutions. The independent variables include domestic climate, regional climate, energy vulnerability and transnational assistance. All three states adopted rhetoric and legislation declaring energy a strategic sector. The evidence suggests that two of the states, Armenia and Lithuania, which faced tense regional climates and high levels of energy vulnerability, succeeded in actually treating energy strategically, approaching energy as a matter of national security or "high politics." The third state, Ukraine, failed to do so. The evidence presented suggests that the systemic variables (regional climate and energy vulnerability) provided a

  6. Incentives for methane mitigation and energy-efficiency improvements in the case of Ukraine's natural gas transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of anthropogenic methane emissions into the atmosphere in Ukraine. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine's natural gas transmission company, Ukrtransgaz. The company's investments into system upgrades, along with a 34% fall in throughput, resulted in reduction of Ukrtransgaz system's own consumption of natural gas by 68% in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine's transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine's natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of the most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of several factors has created conditions for successful reductions in methane emissions and combustion. These factors include: an eightfold increase in the price of imported natural gas; comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, such as the Laws of Ukraine on Protecting the Natural Environment and on Air Protection; policies aimed at integration with European Union's energy market and accession to the Energy Community Treaty; and the country's participation in international cooperation on environment, such

  7. Convolutional Neural Network for Multi-Source Deep Learning Crop Classification in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavreniuk, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Land cover and crop type maps are one of the most essential inputs when dealing with environmental and agriculture monitoring tasks [1]. During long time neural network (NN) approach was one of the most efficient and popular approach for most applications, including crop classification using remote sensing data, with high an overall accuracy (OA) [2]. In the last years the most popular and efficient method for multi-sensor and multi-temporal land cover classification is convolution neural networks (CNNs). Taking into account presence clouds in optical data, self-organizing Kohonen maps (SOMs) are used to restore missing pixel values in a time series of optical imagery from Landsat-8 satellite. After missing data restoration, optical data from Landsat-8 was merged with Sentinel-1A radar data for better crop types discrimination [3]. An ensemble of CNNs is proposed for multi-temporal satellite images supervised classification. Each CNN in the corresponding ensemble is a 1-d CNN with 4 layers implemented using the Google's library TensorFlow. The efficiency of the proposed approach was tested on a time-series of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1A images over the JECAM test site (Kyiv region) in Ukraine in 2015. Overall classification accuracy for ensemble of CNNs was 93.5% that outperformed an ensemble of multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) by +0.8% and allowed us to better discriminate summer crops, in particular maize and soybeans. For 2016 we would like to validate this method using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data for Ukraine territory within ESA project on country level demonstration Sen2Agri. 1. A. Kolotii et al., "Comparison of biophysical and satellite predictors for wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine," The Int. Arch. of Photogram., Rem. Sens. and Spatial Inform. Scie., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 39-44, 2015. 2. F. Waldner et al., "Towards a set of agrosystem-specific cropland mapping methods to address the global cropland diversity," Int. Journal of Rem. Sens. vol. 37, no. 14, pp

  8. [The marketing analysis of assortment of market of pharmaceuticals applied in treatment of psoriasis in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Kotvitskaya, A A; Karlo, V V

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of assortment of pharmaceuticals for treatment of psoriasis recommended by Minzdrav of Ukraine and present at the national pharmaceutical market is made. The characteristics of distribution of national and foreign producers of antihistamine and anti-psoriatic pharmaceuticals are established The availability of particular medicinal forms of various producers is analyzed too. The characteristics and tendencies in consumption of these groups of pharmaceuticals in natural and monetary units are analyzed including dynamics of changes of mean wholesale prices during the analyzed period.

  9. New record of Steinernema arenarium (Artyukhovsky) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) from Ukraine and a note on its distribution.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Yegor; Nermut, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A; Mráček, Zdeněk

    2017-06-01

    During a survey of the biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Ukraine, a population of Steinernema arenarium, strain Ch, was recovered in the sensitive Chornobyl Exclusion Zone. In the present work, this strain was morphologically and molecularly characterised using light microscopy and the sequences of the ITS and D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA. In addition, we sequenced the ITS and D2-D3 regions of four populations of S. arenarium from a laboratory collection. Phylogenetic analyses were performed and the phylogenetic structure and geographic distribution of S. arenarium are discussed.

  10. Determination of frequencies of alleles, associated with the pseudodeficiency of lysosomal hydrolases, in population of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, N V; Gorovenko, N G

    2016-01-01

    The pseudodeficiency of lysosomal hydrolases described as a significant reduction in enzyme activi­ty in vitro in clinically healthy individuals, can lead to diagnostic errors in the process of biochemical analysis of lysosomal storage disease in case of its combination with pathology of another origin. Pseudodeficiency is mostly caused by some non-pathogenic changes in the corresponding gene. These changes lead to the in vitro lability of the enzyme molecule, whereas in vivo the enzyme retains its functional activity. To assess the prevalence of the most common lysosomal hydrolases pseudodeficiency alleles in Ukraine, we have determined the frequency of alleles c.1055A>G and c.* 96A>G in the ARSA gene, substitutions c.739C>T (R247W) and c.745C>T (R249W) in the HEXA gene, c.1726G>A (G576S) and c.2065G>A (E689K) in the GAA gene, c.937G>T (D313Y) in the GLA1 gene and c.898G>A (A300T) in the IDUA gene in a group of 117 healthy individuals from different regions of the country and 14 heterozygous carriers of pathogenic mutations in the HEXA gene (parents of children with confirmed diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease). The total frequency of haplotypes, associated with arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency, in healthy people in Ukraine (c.1055G/c.*96G and c.1055G/c.*96A haplotypes) was 10.3%. The frequency of c.739C>T (R247W) allele, associated with hexo­saminidase A pseudodeficiency, among Tay-Sachs carriers from Ukraine was 7.1%. The total frequency of α-glucosidase pseudodeficiency haplotypes in healthy individuals in Ukraine (c.1726A/c.2065A and c.1726G/c.2065A haplotypes) was 2.6%. No person among examined individuals with the substitution c.937G>T (D313Y) in the GLA1 gene and c.898G>A (A300T) in the IDUA gene was found. The differential diagnostics of lysosomal storage diseases requires obligatory determination of the presence of the pseudodeficiency alleles, particularly the ones with high incidence in the total population. Ignoring phenomenon of pseudodeficiency may

  11. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011-13 in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Feshchenko, Y; Dzyublik, A; Pertseva, T; Bratus, E; Dzyublik, Y; Gladka, G; Morrissey, I; Torumkuney, D

    2016-05-01

    To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 2011-13 from Ukraine. MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. A total of 134 isolates of S. pneumoniae and 67 of H. influenzae were collected from eight sites in Ukraine. Overall, 87.3% of S. pneumoniae were penicillin susceptible by CLSI oral breakpoints and 99.3% by CLSI iv breakpoints. Susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin was 100% by CLSI and PK/PD breakpoints. Cephalosporin and macrolide susceptibility was ≥95.5% and 88.1%, respectively using CLSI breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was essentially inactive against pneumococci. Of the 67 H. influenzae tested, 4.5% were β-lactamase positive and all H. influenzae were fully susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, cefixime and levofloxacin (all breakpoints). Cefuroxime susceptibility was 100% by CLSI but 73.1% by EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints. A discrepancy was found in macrolide susceptibility between CLSI (∼100% susceptible), EUCAST (22%-43% susceptible) and PK/PD (0%-22% susceptible) breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was poorly active (59.7% susceptible). Generally, antibiotic resistance was low in respiratory pathogens from Ukraine. However, only amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin were fully active against both species. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was the least active, particularly against S. pneumoniae. Some susceptibility differences were apparent between CLSI, EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints, especially with macrolides against H. influenzae. These data suggest that further efforts are required to harmonize these international breakpoints. Future studies are warranted to monitor continued low resistance levels in Ukraine

  12. Current challenges and problems in teaching pathophysiology in Ukraine - another reaction to Churilov's paper.

    PubMed

    Ataman, Oleksandr V

    2017-12-01

    Pathophysiology in Ukraine has rich traditions and achievements in the scientific areas, as well as in teaching academic discipline. Its history, the main Ukrainian scientific schools and their famous representatives are briefly described. The content of existing study program, the main approaches to teaching, and some methodological and organizational problems needed to be solved are characterized. The necessity and usefulness of developing and implementing the three separate courses of discipline (Essential, Clinical and Advanced Pathophysiology) are substantiated. The place of Pathophysiology in the training of physicians with different kinds of their future activity is discussed. Relation of teaching Pathophysiology to Translational and Personalized Medicine is tried to be shown.

  13. A situational picture of HIV/AIDS and injection drug use in Vinnitsya, Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Barcal, Katerina; Schumacher, Joseph E; Dumchev, Kostyantyn; Moroz, Larisa Vasiliyevna

    2005-01-01

    Background New and explosive HIV epidemics are being witnessed in certain countries of Eastern Europe, including Ukraine, as well as a rapid and dramatic increase in the supply, use, and negative public health consequences of illicit drugs. A majority of registered HIV cases in Ukraine occur among injection drug users (IDUs), large numbers of whom report HIV risk behaviors such as needle sharing. The purpose of this study was to apply the World Health Organization's Rapid Assessment and Response on Injection Drug Use (IDU-RAR) guide to create a situational picture in the Vinnitsya Oblast, Ukraine, a region with very scarce information about the HIV/AIDS and injection drug use (IDU) epidemics. Methods The IDU-RAR uses a combination of qualitative data collection techniques commonly employed in social science and evaluation research to quickly depict the extent and nature of the given health problem and propose locally relevant recommendations for improvement. The investigators focused their assessment on the contextual factors, drug use, and intervention and policy components of the IDU-RAR. A combination of network and block sampling techniques was used. Data collection methods included direct observation, review of existing data, structured and unstructured interviews, and focus group discussions. Key informants and locations were visited until no new information was being generated. Results The number of registered HIV cases in Vinnitsya has increased from 3 (1987–1995) to 860 (1999–10/2004), 57 of whom have already died. Ten percent of annual admissions to the area's Regional Narcological Dispensary were for opiate disorders, and the number of registered IDUs rose by 20% from 1999 to 2000. The level of HIV/AIDS awareness is generally poor among the general population but high among high-risk populations. Both HIV/AIDS and injection drug use carry a strong stigma in the community, even among medical professionals. There was very little evidence of primary HIV

  14. [Psychiatric care act of Ukraine and issues concerning reformation of the mental health protection service].

    PubMed

    Moskalenko, V F; Gorban', E N; Tabachnikov, S I; Syropiatov, O G; Shtengelov, V V

    2000-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the conception and content of a new Psychiatric Care Act by making a comparison with data from published literature and the present-day status of the mental health protection service. The main features of the crisis of psychiatry in Ukraine are characterized together with possible ways of resolving it. Main trends in reformation of the psychiatric service are identified that are to be secured by relevant acts of departmental and interdepartmental character based on law. Priority is emphasized to defence of the patients' rights and liberties together with a need for a guarantee of a highly skilled medical care to be provided for mental patients.

  15. [Comparative analysis of the genetic structure of Red Polish cattle in Poland and the Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Oblap, R V; Zvezhkhovski, L; Ivanchenko, E V; Glazko, V I

    2002-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genetic structure of two groups of Red Polish cattle, which reproduce in Poland and Ukraine, was made. Six molecular-genetic markers (kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, leptin, myostatin, growth hormone, and pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-I) were tested by PCR-RFLP. No significant differences between the considered intrabreed groups were found. High frequency of some alleles (Csn kappa B, Blg B, and Gh L) related to the important productivity traits were observed. The rare alleles in some genes were revealed. The obtained results are evidence of the unique characteristics of the investigated breed.

  16. Basic Principles and Practices of Integrated Dosimetric Passportization of the Settlements in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Likhtarov, I A; Kovgan, L M; Masiuk, S V; Ivanova, O M; Chepurny, M I; Boyko, Z N; Gerasymenko, V B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the review is to demonstrate the results of dosimetric passportization (performed in 1991-2014) for the settlements of Ukraine which suffered from radioactive contamination caused by the Chornobyl accident. The dosimetric passportization played a key role in the National program on the liquidation of aftermath of the Chornobyl accident directed on recovery through all stages of the current radiation situation control and decision support touching upon various types of interventions and social benefits to the population of radioactively contaminated areas. The works being performed under dosimetric passportization did not have analogues among the researches which took place after other large-scale industrial and municipal accidents as well their scales as the duration of both radio-ecological and dosimetric monitoring.The new methodological approaches to the assessment of so-called passport doses of a settlement as well as to the definition of the concept of annual dose being the dose used to make decisions for providing both direct and indirect emergency countermeasures for the settlements of Ukraine became pioneering ones. During all the post-accident period there were issued sixteen collections of general dosimetric passportization data which accumulate the results of hundreds of thousands spectrometric, radiochemical and radiation levels measurements and WBC measurements carried out in 1991-2014.The annual passport doses calculated on the basis of these measurements (including their components) are unique information that quantifies the level and time dynamics of the radiation situation for each of the 2161 settlements of 74 raions in 12 oblasts during all the post-accident period. Thanks to the works of dosimetric passportization of the settlements of Ukraine there were created databases to be unique in their structure and content with quantitative characteristics of the territorial and temporal distribution, the dynamics of changes of a number

  17. Increased aerosol content in the atmosphere over Ukraine during summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galytska, Evgenia; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Hommel, René; Burrows, John P.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we assessed the influence of biomass burning during forest fires throughout summer (1 June-31 August) 2010 on aerosol abundance, dynamics, and its properties over Ukraine. We also considered influences and effects over neighboring countries: European Russia, Estonia, Belarus, Poland, Moldova, and Romania. We used MODIS satellite instrument data to study fire distribution. We also used ground-based remote measurements from the international sun photometer network AERONET plus MODIS and CALIOP satellite instrument data to determine the aerosol content and optical properties in the atmosphere over Eastern Europe. We applied the HYSPLIT model to investigate atmospheric dynamics and model pathways of particle transport. As with previous studies, we found that the highest aerosol content was observed over Moscow in the first half of August 2010 due to the proximity of the most active fires. Large temporal variability of the aerosol content with pronounced pollution peaks during 7-17 August was observed at the Ukrainian (Kyiv and Sevastopol), Belarusian (Minsk), Estonian (Toravere), and Romanian (Bucharest) AERONET sites. We analyzed aerosol spatiotemporal distribution over Ukraine using MODIS AOD 550 nm and further compared with the Kyiv AERONET site sun photometer measurements; we also compared CALIOP AOD 532 nm with MODIS AOD data. We analyzed vertical distribution of aerosol extinction at 532 nm, retrieved from CALIOP measurements, for the territory of Ukraine at locations where high AOD values were observed during intense fires. We estimated the influence of fires on the spectral single scattering albedo, size distribution, and complex refractive indices using Kyiv AERONET measurements performed during summer 2010. In this study we showed that the maximum AOD in the atmosphere over Ukraine recorded in summer 2010 was caused by particle transport from the forest fires in Russia. Those fires caused the highest AOD 500 nm over the Kyiv site, which in

  18. Ukrain, a plant derived semi-synthetic compound, exerts antitumor effects against murine and human breast cancer and induce protective antitumor immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, E N; Srivatsan, S; Mohammadi, H; Daniels, D; Shashidharamurthy, R; Selvaraj, P

    2012-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in anti-cancer therapies, breast cancer accounts for the highest percentage of estimated new cases among female cancer patients. The anti-cancer drug Ukrain, a plant-derived semi-synthetic compound, has been shown to be effective in a variety of tumor models including colon, brain, ovarian, melanoma and lymphoma. However, the direct cytotoxic effects of Ukrain have yet to be investigated in breast cancer models. Herein, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity of Ukrain using murine (4T07 and TUBO) and human (SKBR-3) breast cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of Ukrain for up to 72 h and analyzed for viability by trypan blue exclusion, apoptosis by intracellular caspase 3 and Annexin V staining, and proliferative potential by a clonogenic assay. Female BALB/c mice were challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) with 4T07-RG cells and administered 5 mg/kg or 12.5 mg/kg body weight Ukrain intravenously (i.v.) on the same day and 3 days later. Protective immune responses were determined following re-challenge of tumor-free mice 35 days post primary challenge. Ukrain exposure induced apoptosis in a dose and time-dependent manner with 50 µg/mL Ukrain leading to >50% cell death after 48 h exposure for all three breast cancer cell lines. Ukrain administration (12.5 mg/kg) led to significant inhibition of 4T07 tumor growth in vivo and sustained protective anti-tumor immunity following secondary challenge. Our findings demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic effects of Ukrain on breast cancer cells and may provide insight into designing Ukrain-based therapies for breast cancer patients.

  19. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short Report

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium – heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well-established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were <18 years of age at the time of the accident. The report is based on Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of 43 non-thyroid cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid; leukemia; and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored. PMID:25794878

  20. Chornobyl 30 years later: Radiation, pregnancies, and developmental anomalies in Rivne, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Chambers, Christina D; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Sosyniuk, Zoriana; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Ievtushok, Bogdana; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Komov, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    In the 30 years since the Chornobyl nuclear power plant disaster, there is evidence of persistent levels of incorporated ionizing radiation in adults, children and pregnant women in the surrounding area. Measured levels of Cesium-137 vary by region, and may be influenced by dietary and water sources as well as proximity to nuclear power plants. Since 2000, comprehensive, population-based birth defects monitoring has been performed in selected regions of Ukraine to evaluate trends and to generate hypotheses regarding potential causes of unexplained variations in defect rates. Significantly higher rates of microcephaly, neural tube defects, and microphthalmia have been identified in selected regions of Ukraine collectively known as Polissia compared to adjacent regions collectively termed non-Polissia, and these significantly higher rates were evident particularly in the years 2000-2009. The Polissia regions have also demonstrated higher mean whole body counts of Cesium-137 compared to values in individuals residing in other non-Polissia regions. The potential causal relationship between persistent ionizing radiation pollution and selected congenital anomaly rates supports the need for a more thorough, targeted investigation of the sources of persistent ionizing radiation and the biological plausibility of a potential teratogenic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of eneolithic trypillians from Ukraine reveals neolithic farming genetic roots.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Potekhina, Inna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Reich, David; Lillie, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    The agricultural revolution in Eastern Europe began in the Eneolithic with the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture complex. In Ukraine, the Trypillian culture (TC) existed for over two millennia (ca. 5,400-2,700 BCE) and left a wealth of artifacts. Yet, their burial rituals remain a mystery and to date almost nothing is known about the genetic composition of the TC population. One of the very few TC sites where human remains can be found is a cave called Verteba in western Ukraine. This report presents four partial and four complete mitochondrial genomes from nine TC individuals uncovered in the cave. The results of this analysis, combined with the data from previous reports, indicate that the Trypillian population at Verteba carried, for the most part, a typical Neolithic farmer package of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages traced to Anatolian farmers and Neolithic farming groups of central Europe. At the same time, the find of two specimens belonging to haplogroup U8b1 at Verteba can be viewed as a connection of TC with the Upper Paleolithic European populations. At the level of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies, the TC population from Verteba demonstrates a close genetic relationship with population groups of the Funnel Beaker/ Trichterbecker cultural complex from central and northern Europe (ca. 3,950-2,500 BCE).

  2. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short report.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were <18 years of age at the time of the accident. The report is based on standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analysis of 43 non-thyroid cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The State of the Environmental Awareness of Students from Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine - Selected Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynk, Karolina

    2017-03-01

    In the article was presented results of international researches about environmental consciousness. The project was realized in 2015. The main purpose of this article is to describe the level of environmental knowledge, values and attitudes among university students from Central Eastern Europe. In introduction of article was defined concept of environmental awareness. The research problem is question: What are differences in the state of environmental awareness between respondents living in the Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine? In the first part text was presented methodology of the conducted research. The second part of the article concerns the analysis of the collected data. On the basis of the conducted research it can maintain that the students of Central and Eastern Europe generally declared interest the state of the environment. The overall outcome of the research leads to the conclusion that the highest proportion of the respondents who declared interest in the environmental protection came from Slovakia. The fact that in their opinion it should care about the environment more than the students from Poland and Ukraine may result from the higher level of the environmental awareness.

  4. Store-and-forward teledermatology for the most common skin neoplasms in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Kira; Vasylenko, Olga; Dranyk, Zhanna; Bogomolets, Olga

    2018-06-01

    Among all malignancies in Ukraine in 2016, the group of non-melanoma skin cancers headed the list in men and made up 21.6%. This group was second in women and made up 17.6%. The diagnostics of skin tumors are becoming increasingly relevant. The store-and-forward (SAF) method was used. The study included patients that were remotely diagnosed with melanocytic nevi, seborrheic keratoses, skin cancer, and skin melanoma. Patients signed up for remote diagnostics, were examined in person by dermatologists, and had tumors excised with a subsequent histological examination. Using telemedicine, 108 melanocytic nevi, 97 seborrheic keratoses, 62 skin cancers, and 47 skin melanomas were diagnosed and selected. The accuracy of teledermatological examination and teledermoscopy compared to clinical examination and dermoscopy was 90.3 to 100.0%. The accuracy of teledermatological examination and teledermoscopy compared to histopathological diagnoses was 85.1 to 98.9%. Teledermatological diagnosis showed a high ability for detecting skin neoplasms in Ukraine.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of eneolithic trypillians from Ukraine reveals neolithic farming genetic roots

    PubMed Central

    Potekhina, Inna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Reich, David; Lillie, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    The agricultural revolution in Eastern Europe began in the Eneolithic with the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture complex. In Ukraine, the Trypillian culture (TC) existed for over two millennia (ca. 5,400–2,700 BCE) and left a wealth of artifacts. Yet, their burial rituals remain a mystery and to date almost nothing is known about the genetic composition of the TC population. One of the very few TC sites where human remains can be found is a cave called Verteba in western Ukraine. This report presents four partial and four complete mitochondrial genomes from nine TC individuals uncovered in the cave. The results of this analysis, combined with the data from previous reports, indicate that the Trypillian population at Verteba carried, for the most part, a typical Neolithic farmer package of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages traced to Anatolian farmers and Neolithic farming groups of central Europe. At the same time, the find of two specimens belonging to haplogroup U8b1 at Verteba can be viewed as a connection of TC with the Upper Paleolithic European populations. At the level of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies, the TC population from Verteba demonstrates a close genetic relationship with population groups of the Funnel Beaker/ Trichterbecker cultural complex from central and northern Europe (ca. 3,950–2,500 BCE). PMID:28235025

  6. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets Basin, Ukraine).

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Abels, Hemmo A; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; van der Meer, Douwe G; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A

    2015-03-20

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of the basin's stratigraphy. Here, we provide detailed sedimentological data from 13 sections that cover 1.5 of the total of 5 km of the Bashkirian and Moscovian stages and assess the paleoenvironment and paleo-current directions. Middle Carboniferous deposition occurred in a shelf environment, with coal deposition, subordinate fluvial facies, and abundant lower and middle shoreface facies, comprising an intercalated package of potential source and reservoir rocks. Sedimentary facies indicate a paleodepth range from below storm wave base to near-coastal swamp environments. Sedimentation and subsidence were hence in pace, with subtle facies changes likely representing relative sea-level changes. Paleocurrent directions are remarkably consistently southeastward in time and space in the different sedimentary facies across the Donbas Fold Belt, illustrating a dominant sedimentary infill along the basin axis, with little basin margin influence. This suggests that the middle Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Dniepr-Donets basin to the northwest probably contains significant amounts of fluvial sandstones, important for assessing hydrocarbon reservoir potential.

  7. An analysis of gender mainstreaming and education in atmospheric sciences in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godunova, V.

    2009-04-01

    As a participant in the international science community, Ukraine is constantly updating its understanding of worldwide trends in science and education. There is a growing demand to establish new starting points for young generations in order that they could better understand and improve our changing world. This means a renovation of school curricula. School disciplines must provide people with much more in depth information on global climate changes, their causes and effects. Scientists' involvement in the educational process could become an important factor in enhancement of educational attainments in environmental sciences. A professional scientist who is able to bring difficult research topics to the middle school students' level can be a valuable source of information. A radical political and economic transformation in the early 1990s created in Ukraine new opportunities for women and increased their interest in graduate and post-graduate studies in the sciences. The stable growth of female students has been observed. For instance, girls make up more than 70 % of university meteorology students, a percentage that is held for the last decade. In high schools and universities women make up 50 % of teachers and lectors in meteorology. Moreover, the number of female PhD scientists has been rising rather than that of male scientists. Nevertheless, the fraction of women in leading posts is considerable lower than it should be. This phenomenon is the outcome of a process that is influenced by many forces. In this paper a few suggestions and some findings from a statistics review will be presented.

  8. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets basin, Ukraine)

    PubMed Central

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; van der Meer, Douwe G.; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of the basin's stratigraphy. Here, we provide detailed sedimentological data from 13 sections that cover 1.5 of the total of 5 km of the Bashkirian and Moscovian stages and assess the paleoenvironment and paleo-current directions. Middle Carboniferous deposition occurred in a shelf environment, with coal deposition, subordinate fluvial facies, and abundant lower and middle shoreface facies, comprising an intercalated package of potential source and reservoir rocks. Sedimentary facies indicate a paleodepth range from below storm wave base to near-coastal swamp environments. Sedimentation and subsidence were hence in pace, with subtle facies changes likely representing relative sea-level changes. Paleocurrent directions are remarkably consistently southeastward in time and space in the different sedimentary facies across the Donbas Fold Belt, illustrating a dominant sedimentary infill along the basin axis, with little basin margin influence. This suggests that the middle Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Dniepr-Donets basin to the northwest probably contains significant amounts of fluvial sandstones, important for assessing hydrocarbon reservoir potential. PMID:25791400

  9. The importance of magnetic methods for soil mapping and process modelling. Case study in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2016-04-01

    The correct planning of agriculture areas is fundamental for a sustainable future in Ukraine. After the recent political problems in Ukraine, new challenges emerged regarding sustainability questions. At the same time the soil mapping and modelling are intensively developing all over the world (Pereira et al., 2015; Brevik et al., in press). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) methods are low cost and accurate for the developing maps of agricultural areas, fundamental for Ukrain's economy.This allow to colleact a great amount of soil data, usefull for a better understading of the spatial distribution of soil properties. Recently, this method have been applied in other works in Ukraine and elsewhere (Jordanova et al., 2011; Menshov et al., 2015). The objective of this work is to study the spatial distribution of MS and humus content on the topsoils (0-5 cm) in two different areas. The first is located in Poltava region and the second in Kharkiv region. The results showed that MS depends of soil type, topography and anthropogenic influence. For the interpretation of MS spatial distribution in top soil we consider the frequency and time after the last tillage, tilth depth, fertilizing, and the puddling regarding the vehicle model. On average the soil MS of the top soil of these two cases is about 30-70×10-8 m3/kg. In Poltava region not disturbed soil has on average MS values of 40-50×10-8 m3/kg, for Kharkiv region 50-60×10-8 m3/kg. The tilled soil of Poltava region has on average an MS of 60×10-8 m3/kg, and 70×10-8 m3/kg in Kharkiv region. MS is higher in non-tilled soils than in the tilled ones. The correlation between MS and soil humus content is very high ( up to 0.90) in both cases. Breivik, E., Baumgarten, A., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Jordán, A. Soil mapping, classification, and modelling: history and future directions. Geoderma (in press), doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.05.017 Jordanova D., Jordanova N., Atanasova A., Tsacheva T., Petrov P

  10. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

    2012-12-01

    Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard

  11. Global change and landscape structure in Ukraine: Ecological and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Lakyda, Petro; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Marchuk, Yuiry

    2013-04-01

    The current land cover of Ukraine is very heterogeneous. While on average forest covers 15.9% of its land, substantial part of the country is basically forestless. The agricultural potential of Ukraine is high. However, in spite of the fact that 68% of the arable land in Ukraine consists of the famous Ukrainian black soils (chernozems), the quality of the country's arable land (69.5% of the total land) is not satisfactory. The country has the highest over the globe share of the tilled land (~80% of the agricultural land in the country) and processes of soil erosion impact about one third of arable land. Air pollution, soil and water contamination are widespread. Substantial problems are generated by the Chernobyl disaster. Overall, about half of the country is in the critical and pre-critical ecological situation. Climatic predictions suppose that the country will live in much warmer and drier climate by end of this century. Taking into account that major pat of Ukraine lies in the xeric belt, the expected climatic change generates divers risks for both environment and vegetation ecosystems of the country, particularly for forests and agriculture. The presentation considers the role of forests and trees outside of forests in transition to integrated ecosystem management and sustainable structure of landscapes within two scenarios of socio-economic development for the next 20 yeas. The "business-as-usual" scenario prolongs tendencies of dynamics of the land-use and forest sectors during the last 20 years. This scenario leads to further deterioration of quality of land and environment in Ukraine. The "progressive" scenario is considered as a crucial initial step of adaptation to climatic change and includes a system of pressing measures which are needed to decrease destructive processes that are observed at the landscape level. It is shown that it would require development of 1.62 M ha of protective forests including 0.62 M ha on unstable elements of landscapes

  12. Slow Fires Still Burn: Results of a Preservation Assessment of Libraries in L'viv, Ukraine and Sofia, Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Brian J.; Schaffner, Bradley L.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the threat of disintegration of library collections in East Central Europe focuses on a study of collection condition surveys and preservation operations of three major academic libraries in L'viv, Ukraine and Sofia, Bulgaria. Considers inferior materials used to produce most Slavic publications and inadequate facilities to house the…

  13. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 avian influenza viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine, with an overall virus isolation frequency of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from thr...

  14. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  15. Fire evolution in the radioactive forests of Ukraine and Belarus: future risks for the population and the environment

    Treesearch

    N. Evangeliou; Y. Balkanski; A. Cozic; WeiMin Hao; F. Mouillot; K. Thonicke; R. Paugam; S. Zibtsev; T. A. Mousseau; R. Wang; B. Poulter; A. Petkov; C. Yue; P. Cadule; B. Koffi; J. W. Kaiser; A. P. Moller

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the current and future status of forests in Ukraine and Belarus that were contaminated after the nuclear disaster in 1986. Using several models, together with remote-sensing data and observations, we studied how climate change in these forests may affect fire regimes. We investigated the possibility of 137Cs displacement over Europe...

  16. Teacher Collaboration in Times of Uncertainty and Societal Change: The Case Study of Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The work of teachers is subject to changing not only policies and reforms but also the complexities and contradictions of societal transformations. This paper examines teachers' perceptions of the impact of post-Soviet transformations on teacher collaboration amid the changing education policies and reforms in Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative…

  17. 78 FR 11901 - Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... 906-908 (Second Review)] Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and..., Indonesia, and Thailand and the revocation of the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel products from China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  18. 76 FR 73587 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, the People's Republic of China, and Ukraine: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...] Silicomanganese From Brazil, the People's Republic of China, and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Third...'') initiated the third sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from Brazil, [[Page... Brazil, 59 FR 66003 (December 22, 1994), Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Silicomanganese From the...

  19. 77 FR 22344 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-671-673 (Third Review)] Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on silicomanganese from Brazil...

  20. Variations in physical activity of male and female students from the Ukraine in health-promoting life style.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Bergier, Barbara; Tsos, Anatolii

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction. [/b]A large-scale research was performed concerning issues relating to physical activity as an important factor in a healthy lifestyle and involved observing the differences among males and females as future elites of the Ukraine. [b]Objective. [/b]The objective of the research is to assess the physical activity of students from the Ukraine, considering such factors as: gender, leisure time, time spent sitting, sports performed or intended to be performed, and the BMI. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The extended version of the IPAQ, supplemented with 3 original questions by the authors, was applied to a 2,125-strong student group from 12 majors of the University of Luck, Ukraine. [b]Results. [/b]Students from Ukraine portrayed a positive picture of physical activity with significantly higher values in male students of both total activity and its fields, i.e. sports activity and work (studying). The male students performed better in their fitness (condition) self-assessment and the amount of time spent sitting, whereas the female students had better BMI results. Both genders differed considerably in their choice of sport-recreational activities. [b]Conclusions. [/b]Females more than males demonstrated lower indices of participation in physical activity, which did not permit the formulation of a positive assessment of their lifestyle. A positive phenomenon is the normal BMI and trace values of overweight in women, exactly the reverse to males.

  1. [Scientific and practical activity of the Department of Muscle Biochemistry of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Vynogradova, R P; Danilova, V M; Yurasova, S P

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on scientific and practical activity of the Department of Muscle Biochemistry of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of its foundation and development. Main findings and practical achievements in the area of muscle biochemistry are summarized and discussed.

  2. Structure and Financing of Higher Education in Russia, Ukraine and the EU. Higher Education Policy Series 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Paul G., Ed.

    The papers in this book discuss the goals and constraints facing institutions of higher education in Russia, Ukraine, and the European Union countries. In the European Union countries budgetary pressures and the increasing number of students attending institutions of higher education have resulted in serious financial difficulties for many…

  3. Cultivation of Special Needs Students' Citizenship as the Basis in the Aspiration of Ukraine to European Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorova, Yevhenia

    2014-01-01

    The prospects for the cultivation of special needs students' citizenship as a prerequisite for the entry of Ukraine into the European Community have been described. The priority of compliance of European democratic sociocultural standards and humanistic values, among which the most important are the changes of attitude towards the disabled people,…

  4. User experience analysis of e-TB Manager, a nationwide electronic tuberculosis recording and reporting system in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Kelly; Nizova, Nataliya

    2017-01-01

    Ukraine has successfully implemented e-TB Manager nationwide as its mandatory national tuberculosis registry after first introducing it in 2009. Our objective was to perform an end-of-programme evaluation after formal handover of the registry administration to Ukraine's Centre for Disease Control in 2015. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional, anonymous, 18-point user experience survey, and stratified the registry's transaction statistics to demonstrate usability. Contrary to initial implementation experience, older users (aged >50 years), often with limited or no computer proficiency prior to using the registry, had significantly better user experience scores for at least six of the 12 measures compared to younger users (aged 18–29 years). Using the registry for >3 years was associated with significantly higher scores for having capacity, adequacy of training received and satisfaction with the registry. Of the 5.9 million transactions over a 4-year period, nine out of 24 oblasts (regions) and Kiev city accounted for 62.5% of all transactions, and corresponded to 59% of Ukraine's tuberculosis burden. There were 437 unique active users in 486 rayons (districts) of Ukraine, demonstrating extensive reach. Our key findings complement the World Health Organization and European Respiratory Society's agenda for action on digital health to help implement the End TB Strategy. PMID:28512634

  5. Ukraine Against Herself: To Be Euro-Atlantic, Eurasian, or Neutral? (Strategic Forum, Number 238, February 2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be...Socialist Party, Moroz instead opted to enter a Yanukovych-led “anti-crisis” gov- ernment, along with Petro Symonenko’s Communist Party of Ukraine (KPU

  6. Using a polarizing film in the manufacture of panoramic Stokes polarimeters at the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syniavskyi, I.; Ivanov, Yu.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Sergeev, A.

    2015-08-01

    The construction of an imaging Stokes-polarimeter in the MAO NAS of Ukraine is proposed. It allows measuring the three components of the Stokes vector simultaneously in large FOV without restrictions on the relative aperture of the system. Moreover, the polarimeter can be converted to a low resolution spectropolarimeter by placement into optical axis of the transparence diffraction grating.

  7. The New Approaches to Organization of Students' Individual Work in Foreign Language Learning in Ukraine and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysak, Halyna; Martynyuk, Olena

    2017-01-01

    Different approaches to organization of students' individual work using information technologies in Ukraine and abroad have been presented in the paper. The authors have analyzed the concept and role of students' individual work in the language learning process. It has been revealed that students' individual work is a rather flexible process and…

  8. User experience analysis of e-TB Manager, a nationwide electronic tuberculosis recording and reporting system in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Konduri, Niranjan; Sawyer, Kelly; Nizova, Nataliya

    2017-04-01

    Ukraine has successfully implemented e-TB Manager nationwide as its mandatory national tuberculosis registry after first introducing it in 2009. Our objective was to perform an end-of-programme evaluation after formal handover of the registry administration to Ukraine's Centre for Disease Control in 2015. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional, anonymous, 18-point user experience survey, and stratified the registry's transaction statistics to demonstrate usability. Contrary to initial implementation experience, older users (aged >50 years), often with limited or no computer proficiency prior to using the registry, had significantly better user experience scores for at least six of the 12 measures compared to younger users (aged 18-29 years). Using the registry for >3 years was associated with significantly higher scores for having capacity, adequacy of training received and satisfaction with the registry. Of the 5.9 million transactions over a 4-year period, nine out of 24 oblasts (regions) and Kiev city accounted for 62.5% of all transactions, and corresponded to 59% of Ukraine's tuberculosis burden. There were 437 unique active users in 486 rayons (districts) of Ukraine, demonstrating extensive reach. Our key findings complement the World Health Organization and European Respiratory Society's agenda for action on digital health to help implement the End TB Strategy.

  9. Exposure to bioaerosols in the selected agricultural facilities of the Ukraine and Poland - a review.

    PubMed

    Tsapko, Valentin G; Chudnovets, Alla J; Sterenbogen, Marina J; Papach, Vladimir V; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Skórska, Czesława; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Golec, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to review the studies on bioaerosols which were carried out in the years 1972-2009 in following branches of agricultural industry in the Ukraine and Poland: animal farms for cows and pigs, animal feed facilities, production of biofuel from rape, herb farms and herb processing facilities. In all facilities were determined: concentration of dust and microorganisms in the air and species composition of microflora. Moreover, in Polish animal farms, herb farms and herb processing facilities, as well as in the Ukrainian animal feed facilities, was determined the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air. Dust concentrations in animal farms located in the Ukraine and Poland ranged from 6-200 mg/m(3) and from 0.25-14.05 mg/m(3), respectively, while in animal feed facilities they ranged from 35-306 mg/m(3) and from 3.8-405 mg/m(3), respectively. Dust concentrations in the facilities producing biofuel from rape in the Ukraine were in the range 3.6-28 mg/m(3), whereas on herb farms and in herb processing facilities in Poland they were in the range 0.8- 1,319.6 mg/m(3), and 2.2-946 mg/m(3), respectively. The determined values exceeded in most cases the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) which in the Ukraine and Poland is equal to 4 mg/m(3). The concentrations of microorganisms on animal farms located in the Ukraine and Poland ranged from 5.5 x 10(4)- 1.9 x 10(7) cfu/m(3) and from 4.7 x 10(4)-1.5 x 10(6) cfu/m(3), respectively, while in animal feed facilities they ranged from 2.7 x 10(4)-2.6 x 10(9) cfu/m(3) and from 1.7 x 10(3)-2.0 x 10(6) cfu/m(3), respectively. Concentrations of microorganisms in the facilities producing biofuel from rape in the Ukraine were in the range 1.5 x 10(3)-5.7 x 10(6) cfu/m(3), whereas on herb farms and in herb processing facilities in Poland they were in the ranges of 8.8 x 10(2)-8.0 x 10(6) cfu/m(3), and 9.7 x 10(3)-6.3 x 10(5) cfu/m(3), respectively. The determined values exceeded in most cases the maximal

  10. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region's fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine's fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as amongst other actors. Hence, the Ukraine

  11. Willingness to pay for opioid agonist treatment among opioid dependent people who inject drugs in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Makarenko, Iuliia; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J; Madden, Lynn; Filippovich, Sergii; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-07-01

    In the context of decreasing external and limited Ukrainian governmental funding for opioid agonist treatments (OAT) for opioid dependent people who inject drugs in Ukraine, information on sustainable financial models is needed. Data on 855 opioid dependent people who inject drugs (PWID) were drawn from a cross-sectional nationwide survey of 1613 PWID. They comprised 434 participants who were receiving OAT and 421 who were on OAT in the past or have never been on OAT and were interested in receiving the treatment. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with willingness-to-pay (WTP) for OAT, stratified by OAT experience. Variation in the price which respondents were willing to pay for OAT and its effect on their monthly income among PWID with different OAT experience were assessed as a continuous variable using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test. Overall, 378 (44%) expressed WTP for OAT. Factors independently associated with WTP differed by OAT experience. Among those using OAT, independent predictors of WTP included: city (Dnipro - aOR=1.9; 95%CI=1.1-4.8 and Lviv - (aOR=2.2; 95%CI=1.1-4.8) compared to those elsewhere in Ukraine), higher income (aOR=1.8; 95%CI=1.2-2.7) and receiving psychosocial counseling (aOR=1.8; 95%CI=1.2-2.7). Among those who had previously been on OAT, positive attitude towards OAT (aOR=1.3; 95%CI=1.1-1.6) and family support of OAT (aOR=2.5; 95%CI=1.1-5.7) were independently associated with WTP. Among PWID who had never been on OAT, being male (aOR=2.2; 95%CI=1.1-4.2), younger age (aOR=1.9; 95%CI=1.2-3.2), higher income (aOR=2.0; 95%CI=1.2-3.4) and previous unsuccessful attempts to enter OAT (aOR=2.3; 95%CI=1.1-4.7) were independently associated with WTP. PWID were willing to commit a large percentage of their monthly income for OAT, which, however, varied significantly based on OAT experience: current OAT: 37% of monthly income, previous OAT: 53%, and never OAT: 60% (p-value=0.0009). WTP for OAT was

  12. Molecular surveillance of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in horses from Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Slivinska, Kateryna; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Wróblewski, Zbigniew; Peťko, Branislav; Ragač, Ondrej; Demeshkant, Vitaliy; Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-15

    A survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in some regions of Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia. Using a specific PCR assays, blood samples from 215 horses were tested. The prevalence of T. equi and A. phagocytophilum infection was 13.95% and 1.4%, respectively. BLAST analysis showed the isolates closest to the T. equi 18S rRNA and A. phagocytophilum msp4 gene sequences in GenBank with a similarity of ≥99%. No significant association was found between the T. equi PCR positivity and the age or sex of the horses. There was a significant association between the origin of horses and T. equi-PCR positivity. No significant association was found between the A. phagocytophilum-PCR positivity and the age, sex or origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Grain production trends in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan: New opportunities in an increasingly unstable world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioubimtseva, Elena; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2012-06-01

    Grain production in the countries of the former USSR sharply declined during the past two decades and has only recently started to recover. In the context of the current economic and food-price crisis, Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan might be presented with a window of opportunity to reemerge on the global agricultural market, if they succeed in increasing their productivity. The future of their agriculture, however, is highly sensitive to a combination of internal and external factors, such as institutional changes, land-use changes, climate variability and change, and global economic trends. The future of this region's grain production is likely to have a significant impact on the global and regional food security over the next decades.

  14. Observations on the geology and geohydrology of the Chernobyl' nuclear accident site, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.; Percious, D.J.; Rachlin, J.; Marples, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The most highly contaminated surface areas from cesium-137 fallout from the April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power station in Ukraine occur within the 30-km radius evacuation zone set up around the station, and an 80-km lobe extending to the west-southwest. Lower levels of contamination extend 300 km to the west of the power station. The geology, the presence of surface water, a shallow water table, and leaky aquifers at depth make this an unfavorable environment for the long-term containment and storage of the radioactive debris. An understanding of the general geology and hydrology of the area is important to assess the environmental impact of this unintended waste storage site, and to evaluate the potential for radionuclide migration through the soil and rock and into subsurface aquifers and nearby rivers. -from Authors

  15. [Management of military medical service in Ukraine: origin, trends, and mechanism of development (1992-2004)].

    PubMed

    Radysh, Ia F

    2005-01-01

    Three periods of the development of military medical service management in Ukraine can be outlined according to the findings of the conducted study, they are the following: formation (1992-1994), consolidation and development (the end of 1994-2003), functional and structural transformation (2004). Leading tendencies of the formation of the management of medical military service in the period are shown in the article to be democratization and structural order of units of the system of the management of military service, integration of efforts and resources of medical military service in one medically covered area of the state, introduction and intensive expansion in army prophylactic and treatment institutions of wide spectrum of requiring payment medical service, rendering out-patient medical service to armed forces personnel and pensioner of Ministry of Defense by family physicians, orientation toward effective management.

  16. The numerical-statistical approach for hazard prediction of landslides and its application in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimchuk, O.; Kaliukh, Iu.

    2012-04-01

    More than 90% of the territory of Ukraine has complex ground conditions. Unpredictable changes of natural geological and man-made factors governing ground conditions, may lead to dangerous deformation processes resulting in accidents and disasters. Among them, landslides are the first by the amount of the inflicted damage in Ukraine and the second only to earthquakes in the world. Totally about 23 000 landslides were identified in the territory of Ukraine. The standard deterministic procedure of assessment of the slope stability, especially with the lack of reference engineering geological data, results in obtaining estimated values of stability coefficients differing from the real ones in many cases. Application of a probabilistic approach will allow to take into account the changeable properties of soils and to determine danger and risk of landslide dislocations. The matter of choice of landslide protection measures is directly connected with a risk: expensively but reliably or cheaper but with a great probability of accidents. The risk determines the consequences either economic, social or others, of a potential landslide dislocation on the slope both during construction of a retaining structure on it and in the process of its further maintenance. The quintessence of risk determination consists in the following: study and extrapolation of the past events for each specific occurrence. Expected conclusions and probable damages as a result of a calculated and accepted risk can be determined only with a certain level of uncertainty. Considering this fact improvement of the accuracy of numerical and analytical estimates when calculating the risk magnitude makes it possible to reduce the uncertainty. Calculations of the Chernivtsi shear landslides (Ukraine) were made with an application of Plaxis software and due account of a risk of its displacement was performed for the typical distribution diagram of the landslide-prone slope. The calculations showed that seismic

  17. Two astroblems in Ukraine - witnesses of the last days of dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    Moor then 65 million years ago an asteroid with a few kilometers in size with mass of 1 trillion tons created a crater Chicxulub with a diameter of 170 km on the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Then the dinosaurs died out. The largest of Ukrainian astroblems is Manevichska, located in Volyn region. It has a diameter of 45 km and occurred about 65 million years ago too. In the central part of Ukraine on the border of Kirovograd and Cherkassy regions, there is Boltyshka astrobleme. The crater has diameter 25 km and depth of more than 1 km. Boltyshka crater also appeared more than 65 million years ago. These dating of the occurrence of astroblems indicates the close age of these two craters with formation of Chicxulub. If almost coinciding formation time of two or more impact structures, it is significantly increases the effect of impact on the environment and living beings.

  18. [Volodymyr Petrovych Vendt--a founder of sceintific trends in photobiochemistry and biotechnology in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Professor Volodymyr Petrovych Vendt (30.11.1906, Kremenchug, Ukraine-22.11.1997, Kyiv, Ukraine), Doctor of science (biol.), Laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine graduated from the Odessa Physico-Pharmaceutical Institute (1930) in speciality chemist-analyst and was assigned to work at the Ukrainian Institute of Pathology and Labour Hygiene in Kharkiv. He was soon taken on as a scientific worker at the Ukrainian Institute of Experimental Medicine. He defended his thesis for the Candidate's degree and acquired the academic status of the senior scientific worker in 1939, and that of docent (assistant professor) in 1940. In 1938-1941 Volodymyr Petrovych read lectures at the Department of Chemistry of the Academy of Service Corps of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army. At that time his scientific interests were connected with development of simple express-methods for detecting various substances, including chemical weed- and pest-killers which were used in agriculture. In 1944-1946 V. P. Vendt took part in military operations at the 1st Ukrainian Front, and after the release he was taken on as the senior scientific worker at the Institute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, where he worked during 47 years. In 1961, after defending the thesis for the Doctor's degree Volodymyr Petrovych acquired the academic status of professor. In 1963 V. P. Vendt became a head of the Laboratory and then (1966) - of the Deaprtment of Photobiochemistry and from 1976 to 1983 - the Department of Sterol Biochemistry. He was the first to make the broad-scale investigations of sterol biochemistry, first of all group D vitamins, and came close to finding out the action mechanism of vitamin D3 - cholecalciferol. V. P. Vendt was one of the first to show a possibility of formation of sterene complexes with proteins and to find out the nature of chemical relations between them. That made it possible to develop the methods of obtaining artificial protein

  19. Supervised Machine Learning for Regionalization of Environmental Data: Distribution of Uranium in Groundwater in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorov, Michael; Gienko, Gennady; Putrenko, Viktor

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, several supervised machine learning algorithms were explored to define homogeneous regions of con-centration of uranium in surface waters in Ukraine using multiple environmental parameters. The previous study was focused on finding the primary environmental parameters related to uranium in ground waters using several methods of spatial statistics and unsupervised classification. At this step, we refined the regionalization using Artifi-cial Neural Networks (ANN) techniques including Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Radial Basis Function (RBF), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The study is focused on building local ANN models which may significantly improve the prediction results of machine learning algorithms by taking into considerations non-stationarity and autocorrelation in spatial data.

  20. Mycelial actinobacteria in salt-affected soils of arid territories of Ukraine and Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.; Zenova, G. M.; Kozhevin, P. A.; Dubrova, M. S.; Lubsanova, D. A.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    A high population density (up to hundreds of thousands or millions CFU/g soil) of mycelial bacteria (actinomycetes) is determined in salt-affected soils of arid territories of Ukraine, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Of all the studied soils, the lowest amounts of actinomycetes (thousands and tens of thousands CFU/g soil) are isolated from sor (playa) and soda solonchaks developed on the bottoms of drying salt lakes in Buryatia and in the Amu Darya Delta. Actinomycetes of the Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Nocardiopsis genera were recorded in the studied soils. It is found that conditions of preincubation greatly affect the activity of substrate consumption by the cultures of actinomycetes. This could be attributed to changes in the metabolism of actinomycetes as a mechanism of their adaptation to the increased osmotic pressure of the medium. The alkali tolerance of halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from the salt-affected soils is experimentally proved.

  1. Health care in the CIS countries : the case of hospitals in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Pilyavsky, Anatoly; Staat, Matthias

    2006-09-01

    The study analyses the technical efficiency of community hospitals in Ukraine during 1997-2001. Hospital cost amount to two-thirds of Ukrainian spending on health care. Data are available on the number of beds, physicians and nurses employed, surgical procedures performed, and admissions and patient days. We employ data envelopment analysis to calculate the efficiency of hospitals and to assess productivity changes over time. The scores calculated with an output-oriented model assuming constant returns to scale range from 150% to 110%. Average relative inefficiency of the hospitals is initially above 30% and later drops to 15% or below. The average productivity change is positive but below 1%; a Malmquist index decomposition reveals that negative technological progress is overcompensated by positive catching-up.

  2. Determinants of and inequalities in self-perceived health in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B C; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard

    2002-12-01

    Ukraine is the second most populous of the former Soviet Republics and since transition its economy has fared even more poorly than Russia. Although the impact of the collapse of the former Soviet Union on health in Russia has been investigated, little is known of its impact in other post-Soviet republics. We report a cross-sectional study undertaken in Ukraine in March 2000. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used and 1600 interviews completed (72% response rate) with a representative national sample of Ukrainian adults. We investigated socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of self-perceived health, which has been shown to be a valid and reliable measure of overall health and predictive of mortality. Odds ratios for less than good physical health were calculated using logistic regression. The self-rated health of Ukrainians was poor, 25% of men and 43% of women rated their health as poor or very poor. This is worse than levels recorded in Russia and considerably worse than levels seen in western Europe. Marked gender, geographical and socioeconomic inequalities in health were recorded. Women are at increased risk of poor self-rated health compared with men (OR 3.58, 2.50-5.14) as are women living in villages compared with those in cities (OR 3.24, 1.30-8.07). Socioeconomic factors including poor material situation (OR 1.64, 1.01-2.67), and psychosocial factors including low control over life (OR 1.89, 1.15-3.11) were identified as independent health determinants. Control over life was found to account for the negative impact of low social position on health. Good family relations protected against poor health. The findings suggest that a decrease in control, arising from an increasingly uncertain political and economic environment, a reduction in material wealth and the stress of change may all have contributed to the decline in life expectancy seen with transition. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training

  4. Allergenic weed pollen forecast under the mathematical modeling method implementation in ukraine.

    PubMed

    Motruk, Irina I; Antomonov, Michael Yu; Rodinkova, Victoria V; Aleksandrova, Olena E; Yermishev, Oleh V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Allergies are the most common reason of the chronic diseases in developed countries and represent an important medical, social and economic issue, the relevance of which is growing both in these countries and in Ukraine. The most famous of these allergens group is the pollen of ambrosia and pollen of poaceae, which are ubiquitously distributed in the subtropical and temperate climate. The aim: The objective of our study was to develop the mathematical models, which will be able to indicate the probability of the pollen circulation, and thus these models can simplify the forecast of symptoms risk and improve the prophylaxis of pollinosis. Materials and methods: The research was conducted on the basis of the research center of National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsia in the years 2012-2014. A volumetric sampler of the Hirst type was used for the air sampling. The observation was conducted from the first of April to the thirty-first of October. For the initial preparation of the tables and intermediate calculations, Excel software package was used. The software STATISTICA 10.0 was applied to calculate the average coefficients values and their statistical characteristics (beta-values, errors of the mean values, Student's t-test, veracity and the factors percentage contribution into the function variation). Results: Statistically significant correlation between pollen concentrations of herbaceous plants and individual meteorological factors was found; classificational functions were designed by which it is possible to calculate the probability of presence or absence of Artemisia pollen in the atmosphere; the risks of increasing of the Artemisia pollen concentration are determined under exceeding of the critical temperature of 18°С, relative humidity of 67% and atmospheric pressure of 980 Pa. Conclusions. The results of the research can be used to predict the emission of potentially hazardous concentrations of weed pollen grains in the

  5. [The forensic medical aspects of the inappropriate medical care in the modern-day Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Franchuk, V V

    2018-01-01

    Despite the fact that the ever growing relevance of the problem of the inappropriate medical care was long ago brought to the worldwide attention, it has not been practically addressed in the Ukraine since the country gained independence in 1991. The objective of the present study was to consider the specific features of expert examination of the cases of inappropriate medical care as exemplified by the materials of the legal actions and lawsuits instituted against healthcare specialists violating their occupational duties. The results of forensic medical examination by the local Bureaux of forensic medical expertise concerning the 350 so-called malpractice suits instituted in the Ternopol, Zhitomir, and Chernovtsy regions during the period from 207 to 2016 were available for the analysis. The facts of inadequate and inappropriate medical care were documented in 245 (72.0%) cases. The frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic errors amounted to 29.7% and 26.9% respectively while the improper formulation of the medical documentation was recorded in 21.3% of the cases. The cases of poor organization of the diagnostic and treatment process accounted for 14.6% of the total whereas the improper behaviour of the medical personnel was reported in 7.5% of all the known cases of provision of the healthcare services. It is concluded that in the majority of the cases, the citizens of the modern-day Ukraine receive the inappropriate (insufficient and untimely) medical care. Over 80% of the cases of the inappropriate medical care currently provided in the country can be accounted for by the objective reasons, with each fifths case being due to the violation of professional responsibilities by the healthcare providers.

  6. Cancer incidence and nuclear facilities in Ukraine: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D A; Prysyazhnyuk, A Ye; Romanenko, A Ye; Fedorenko, Z P; Gudzenko, N A; Fuzik, M M; Khukhrianska, O M; Trotsyuk, N K; Gulak, L O; Goroch, Ye L; Sumkina, Ye V

    2012-07-01

    The study goal was to investigate malignant tumors incidence in 5 Ukrainian cities with nuclear hazardous enterprises: extractive, processing enterprises of uranium ore (Zhovti Wody and Dniprodzerzhynsk of Dnipropetrovsk region) and nuclear power stations (Energodar of Zaporizhska region, Pivdennoukrainsk of Mykolayivska region, Netishyn of Khmelnytska region). average annual population of the cities under study in 2003-2008 was 439 600 persons. Total and specific cancer incidence was investigated. Site specific incidence was analyzed for malignancies proved to be radiosensitive in previous studies: trachea, bronchus and lung, breast, kidney, thyroid cancer and leukemia. Data on cancer cases were received in National Cancer Registry of Ukraine (National Cancer Institute). There was used the data of the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on the size of the studied population by gender - age groups. Standardized incidence ratio of cancer at a whole and for each of five specific forms of malignancies were calculated for the population of each city and group of cities depending on the nature of industrial activity. During the observed period there were registered 9 381 cancer cases in inhabitants of Ukrainian cities with radiation hazardous facilities. There was stated that cancer incidence rate in population of 5 cities significantly exceeded national and regional levels. Among specific forms of malignancy there were observed excess of lung, trachea, bronchus, breast, kidney cancer and leukemia in population of extractive, processing uranium ore cities. No excess of thyroid cancer was identified. In cities with nuclear power station there were registered excess of kidney cancer. Results of the study suggest the necessity to explore the role of various factors in forming the identified cancer incidence features in the Ukrainian population living near the nuclear power facilities.

  7. Quality of water types in Ukraine evaluated by WaterTox bioassays.

    PubMed

    Arkhipchuk, V V; Malinovskaya, M V

    2002-01-01

    The quality of river, ground-, and tap water was analyzed using the basic set of WaterTox bioassays [Daphnia (Daphnia magna), Hydra (Hydra attenuata), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa)] as well as two additional bioassays, onion (Allium cepa) and microalga (Selenastrum gracile). Samples of these waters were also concentrated fivefold using a solid-phase procedure. The results of the Daphnia and Hydra bioassays showed that the winter and spring concentrated and nonconcentrated samples from the Dnieper and Desna rivers, the main water supply sources for Kiev, were nontoxic. In spring, after concentration, the two river samples brought about the same relative decrease in the lettuce root length (by 35%, p < 0.001), where the Desna River sample considerably reduced (by 79.1%, p < 0.001) the number of microalga cells. Samples of groundwater from countryside wells studied in autumn in several villages of the Kiev region were toxic mainly to Hydra (sublethal effects were found in 11%-78%) and lettuce (the root length decreased 15%-56%). Studies of tap water samples from two of the largest cities of Ukraine, Kiev and Kharkiv, were found to be nontoxic to both plants, lettuce and onion, but showed increased sublethal and lethal effects on both animals, Daphnia and Hydra, as well as a reduced number of microalgae. Different bioassays were sensitive to varying degrees to different water types. This reinforces the necessity of using sets of bioassays in toxicity evaluation. In general, all the tested water samples demonstrated some toxicity. These data suggest that drinking water quality in Ukraine needs improvement. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Boltushka: A Homemade Amphetamine-Type Stimulant and HIV Risk in Odessa, Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Chintalova-Dallas, Repsina; Case, Patricia; Kitsenko, Nataliya; Lazzarini, Zita

    2009-01-01

    Background Homemade amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) have been reported in Russia and Eastern Europe for decades. Recipes differ geographically and over time producing differing active ingredients. Vint and jeff (active ingredients methamphetamine and methcathinone, respectively) are two such homemade ATSs originally produced from over-the-counter cold medications and household chemicals. Methods During a Rapid Policy Assessment and Responses (RPAR) project in Odessa, Ukraine, researchers found use of boltushka, a novel homemade ATS. Fourteen supplemental qualitative interviews were conducted, including ten interviews with boltushka injectors and four interviews with pharmacists. We report patterns of boltushka use among local injection drug users (IDUs) as well as the role of laws, regulations, and current pharmacy practices. Results Legal restrictions on over-the-counter cold medicines in Ukraine led to products containing phenypropanolamine (PPA), which oxidized with KMnO4 (potassium permanganate), produces a weak ATS, cathinone, called boltushka. Boltushka’s ingredients are easily available in pharmacies or on the black market. IDUs reported a mean age at first use of 16 years old (range 12–21). While published data are scant, anecdotal evidence reported here include amphetamine-like effects on energy and appetite, binging patterns of use, and some reports of shaking and other neurological damage consistent with earlier reports from exposure to KMnO4. Users reported sharing syringes and other non-sterile injection practices. No users reported specific treatment or prevention programs for boltushka users. Conclusions Although Ukrainian government regulations have limited access to precursor chemicals, IDUs have continued to make and use boltushka. The actual extent and demographics of boltushka use are unknown. Besides risk of bloodborne disease, the health effects of injected homemade ATSs and their constituent chemicals are poorly documented

  9. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment.

    PubMed

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

    2015-01-01

    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  10. [Conceptual assumptions to create a system for preparation of healthcare human resources in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Грузєва, Тетяна С; Пельо, Ігор М; Сміянов, Владислав А; Галієнко, Людмила І

    in modern conditions of social development become very important the issues of reorganization of public health services and their staffing. This is due to the significant spread of numerous challenges and threats to health of the population and the leading rule of public health service in preventing many diseases, reducing their negative impact and promotion the health of the population. One of the operational functions of public healthis providing the public health service with professional personnel,sufficientin numbers and of good quality. Itsrealization shouldinclude a thoroughunderstanding and evaluation of needs inex perts of public heal thinaccording to the national context, the wording of there quirements totheirknowledge and practicals kills, professional competences, supporting of educational training programs and the irimplementation to higher education system. to justify the approaches to formation of educational programs for training specialists in public health sphere into account of contemporary needs, international experience and WHO recommendations. the research was founded on the analysis of the integral indicators of the population health of Ukraine, existing problems in fieldof public health, the study of educational programs for training of public health specialists of leading world and European universities, domestic and international experience on an investigated problem. There were used biblio-semantic and medical-statistical methods. The information base are: statistical data from database "HFA" for 2000-2014, Center for health statistics of the MOH of Ukraine for 2000-2015, electronic resources of universities, strategic and policy documents of the WHO, WHO Regional Office for Europe Results: for Ukraine as for other countries it is extremely important the provision of public health service with a sufficient number of specialists of adequate quality. The need to create such a service and its staffing was caused by low health indicators

  11. Rock magnetism and magnetostratigraphy of the loess-sol series of Ukraine (Roksolany, Boyanychi, and Korshev sections)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmutov, V. G.; Kazanskii, A. Yu.; Matasova, G. G.; Glavatskii, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the rock magnetic and paleomagnetic studies for the Quaternary loess-sol deposits of Ukraine are reported. The magnetic properties of the rocks composing the sections in the Pre-Black-Sea Depression (Roksolany) and Volyn Upland (Boyanychi and Korshev) are compared. Based on the highly precise measurements by modern instruments, the primary magnetization component is isolated in the rocks and its polarity is reliably determined in both the loess and soil horizons. The position of the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary in the Roksolany section is determined at a depth of 46.6 m at the contact of the Lubenskii and Martonoshskii soil horizons. This is consistent with the present-day notions of the group of Ukrainian scientists about the Quaternary stratigraphy of the south of Ukraine and inconsistent with the previous results that placed this boundary at a depth of 34 m in loesses above the PK7 level.

  12. Several aspects of descriptive epidemiology of hematological malignancies in adult population of Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation after Chornobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Guslitser, N; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Gluzman, D F

    2016-12-01

    Chornobyl impact on the health of adult population in Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation was a subject of several studies. However, the studies of the effects of Chornobyl on leukemia in adult populations in post-Soviet countries are scarce and the results are contradictory up to present. The results of the epidemiological studies of the oncohematological consequences of Chornobyl accident are briefly reviewed with particular focus on pre-Chornobyl and post-Chornobyl trends in leukemia incidence in Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation as well as in small territories of these countries with various levels of radionuclide contamination. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  13. [PREDICTING OF RISK OF SOIL CONTAMINATION BY DIFFERENT CLASSES OF FUNGICIDES IN SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF UKRAINE].

    PubMed

    Korshun, M; Dema, O; Kucherenko, O; Ruda, T; Korshun, O; Gorbachevskyi, R; Pelio, I; Antonenko, A

    2016-07-01

    Application of pesticides in modern agriculture is a powerful permanent risk factor for public health and the natural environment. The aim of the study was a comparative hygienic assessment of soil pollution hazards by the most widely used herbicides of different chemical classes (sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoates, semicarbazones). Hygienic field experiment for studying of the dynamics of residual amounts of the test substances in the soil under different climatic zones of Ukraine was conducted. Half life periods (DT50) or herbicides in soil were calculated using the method of mathematical modeling. Ecotoxicological risk of herbicides on ecosystems and ecological communities was determined. It was established that bispyribac-sodium (pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoates) and imidazolinones are persist the longest time in soil and most rapidly degradable is diflufenzopyr (semicarbazone); ecotoxicological risk of the studied herbicides for terrestrial biocenoses of Ukraine by 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than dihlordifeniltrihlormetilmetan (DDT).

  14. [Inventive activity of the Department of Metabolism Regulation of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Danilova, V M; Vynogradova, R P; Chernysh, I G; Petrenko, T M

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the inventive activity of the Department of Metabolism Regulation of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of the history of its inception, development and the research activities of its founder, academician of NAS of Ukraine M. F. Guly as well as his students and followers. It briefly tells about practical achievements of M. F. Guly which were as significant, immense and diverse as his scientific accomplishments. The paper analyses in detail the practical results of scientific research of his students and followers aimed to solve practical problems of medicine, food-processing, agriculture, and which are essentially a continuation of the ideas and projects of M. F. Guly.

  15. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) claim they wish to develop and secure excise systems that benefit both governments and the profitability of the companies themselves. The objective of the paper is to use the case of Ukraine, with its inconsistent history of excise tax changes in 1992-2008, to explore tobacco industry taxation strategies and tactics, and their implications for governmental revenues. Methods Details of tobacco industry policy on tobacco taxation in Ukraine were obtained by searching tobacco industry internal documents and various published reports. Results Even before entering the market in Ukraine, TTCs had made efforts to change the excise system in the country. In 1993-1994, TTCs lobbied the Ukrainian Government, and succeeded in achieving a lowering in tobacco tax. This, however, did not produce revenue increase they promised the Government. In 1996-1998, Ukrainian authorities increased excise several times, ignoring the wishes of TTCs, caused significant growth in revenue. Due to TTCs lobbying activities in 1999-2007 the tax increases were very moderate and it resulted in increased tobacco consumption in Ukraine. In 2008, despite the TTCs position, excise rates were increased twice and it was very beneficial for revenues. Conclusions The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes provisions both on tobacco taxation policy and on protection of public health policy from vested interests of tobacco industry. This paper provides arguments why tobacco taxation policy should also be protected from vested interests of tobacco industry. TTCs taxation strategy appears to be consistent: keep excise as low as possible. Apparent conflicts between TTCs concerning tax structures often hide their real aim to change tax structures for competing interests without increasing total tax incidence. Governments, that aim to reduce levels of tobacco use, should not allow

  16. Impact of expanded access to combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: results from a cohort study in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the scale-up of antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Ukraine since this became part of the national policy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data on 3535 HIV-positive pregnant women who were enrolled into the Ukraine European Collaborative Study in 2008-2010 were analysed. Factors associated with receipt of zidovudine monotherapy (AZTm) - rather than cART - and rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV were investigated. cART coverage increased significantly, from 22% of deliveries in 2008 to 61% of those in 2010. After adjusting for possible confounders, initiation of antenatal AZTm - rather than cART - was associated with cohabiting (versus being married; adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR: 1.09; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.02-1.16), at least two previous live births (versus none; aPR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.11-1.35) and a diagnosis of HIV infection during the first or second trimester (versus before pregnancy; aPR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). The overall MTCT rate was 4.1% (95% CI: 3.4-4.9); 42% (49/116) of the transmissions were from the 8% (n = 238) of women without antenatal ART. Compared with AZTm, cART was associated with a 70% greater reduction in the risk of MTCT (adjusted odds ratio: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.16-0.56). Between 2008 and 2010, access to antenatal cART improved substantially in Ukraine, but implementation of the World Health Organization's Option-B policy was slow. For MTCT to be eliminated in Ukraine, improvements in the retention of women in HIV care and further roll-out of Option B are urgently needed.

  17. [Strategic patient safety action plan for the anesthesiology and intensive care service of Ukraine: basic modules and their components].

    PubMed

    Федосюк, Роман Н

    In recent years, the problem of patient safety has become top-priority in further improvement of national healthcare systems in all developed countries. To develop a modular structure and a component composition of the strategic patient safety action plan for the anesthesiology and intensive care service of Ukraine as a part of the National Action Plan. Major domestic priorities, substantiated and made public by the author in previous works, are taken as the basis for the modular structuring of the action plan. Existing foreign prototypes, evaluated for the patient safety effectiveness and the potential for the adaptation to domestic conditions, as well as author's own innovations are offered for a component filling-up of each module. Eight modules - infectious safety, surgical safety, pharmaceutical safety, infrastructural safety, incident monitoring and reporting, education and training, research and awards - have been proposed. Individual components for each of the modules are selected from a variety of foreign prototypes and author's own developments. Inter-modular stratification of the components into short-term perspective tools and long-term perspective tools, depending on the amount of resources needed for their implementation, is carried out. The strategic patient safety action plan for the anesthesiology and intensive care service of Ukraine is the embodiment, within a particular specialty, of the wider National Action Plan developed by the First National Congress on Patient Safety (Kiev, 2012) on the initiative of the Council of Europe and aimed at the fulfillment of international obligations of Ukraine in the healthcare sector. Its implementation will contribute to enhancing the safety of anesthesia and intensive care services in Ukraine and further development of the specialty.

  18. [Inventive activity of the Department of Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Danilova, V M; Vynogradova, R P; Torkhova, S G

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the inventive activity of the Department of Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of the history of its inception, development and in the context of scholarly and organizational activities of Sergii Vasyl’ovych Komisarenko. This autumn marks 50th anniversary since young Sergii Komisarenko (now – Academician of NAS and NAMS of Ukraine, Dr. Biol. Sci., Professor) has joined the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, has completed all stages of the academic carrier from PhD student to Head of the Institute. He is the first in Ukraine who started the new branch of research – molecular immunology, created a strong scientific school, which earned worldwide acclaim and made significant contribution to finding solutions to current problems in human health sciences. S.V. Komisarenko was among those, who were first in the USSR to use immunoenzyme and flow cytofluometric assays, hybridoma technology for producing monoclonal antibodies and immunochemical assay of proteins, which became the basis for development of highly sensitive and highly specific immunodiagnostic systems, which are of high necessity in medicine, veterinary, development of immunotechnologies, environment monitoring, etc. Under his leadership the Department has made a series of important discoveries and developments including relating to antitumour immunotoxins, effects of low dose radiation on the immune system of Chernobyl liquidators, immunochemical structure of neurotoxin apamine, cytochrom c, fibrinogen and fibrin molecules at different stages of polymerization, diphtheria toxin and its receptor, tuberculosis causing micobacterium, roles of protease-activated receptors (PARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of lymphocytes, nature of polyreactive immunoglobulins (PRIGs), among other important scientific contributions. S.V. Komisarenko and his colleagues also hold numerous (more than 80) author’s certificates

  19. Antioxidant Effect of Ukrain Versus N-Acetylcysteine Against Acute Biliary Pancreatitis in An Experimental Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Zeren, Sezgin; Bayhan, Zulfu; Koçak, Cengiz; Koçak, Fatma Emel; Metineren, Mehmet Huseyin; Savran, Bircan; Kocak, Havva; Algin, Mustafa Cem; Kahraman, Cuneyt; Kocak, Ahmet; Cosgun, Suleyman

    2017-04-01

    Purpose/Aim: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). We compared the therapeutic effects of Ukrain (NSC 631570) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in rats with AP. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: controls; AP; AP with NAC; and AP with Ukrain. AP was induced via the ligation of the bile-pancreatic duct; drugs were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 30 min and 12 h after AP induction. Twenty-four hours after AP induction, animals were sacrificed and the pancreas was excised. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and activity levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in tissue samples. Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and total bilirubin, as well as activity levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), amylase and lipase were measured in serum samples. Pancreatic tissue histopathology was also evaluated. Test drugs reduced levels of MDA, NO, TNF-α, total bilirubin, AST, ALT, TOS and MPO, amylase and lipase activities (P < 0.001), and increased TAS (P < 0.001). Rats treated with test drugs attenuated AP-induced morphologic changes and decreased pancreatic damage scores compared with the AP group (P < 0.05). Both test drugs attenuated pancreatic damage, but the therapeutic effect was more pronounced in rats that received Ukrain than in those receiving NAC. These results suggest that treatment with Ukrain or NAC can reduce pancreatic damage via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  20. Childhood asthma prevalence and risk factors in three Eastern European countries--the Belarus, Ukraine, Poland Asthma Study (BUPAS): an international prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Grzegorz; Lawson, Joshua; Shpakou, Andrei; Fedortsiv, Olga; Hryshchuk, Leonid; Rennie, Donna; Zejda, Jan

    2016-01-14

    The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases among children living in Eastern is not well described. Our objective was to estimate and compare the prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms and allergic diseases in children in Belarus, Ukraine, and Poland as well as to identify risk factors for these conditions. We also sought to profile and compare children with asthma between locations. Data were collected as a part of an international, multicenter, cross-sectional study of childhood asthma: The Belarus Ukraine Poland Asthma Study (BUPAS). Subjects were children aged 7-13 years attending primary and secondary schools in the urban and surrounding rural area of Grodno (Belarus), Ternopil (Ukraine) and Silesia Region (Poland). Physician-diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms as well as allergic diseases were ascertained using the ISAAC questionnaire completed by the parents. In total there were 4019 children from Belarus (rural: 2018, urban: 2001), 4493 from Ukraine (1972; 2521), and 4036 from Poland (2002, 2034). The overall response rate was 76.7%. Groups were similar in case of gender and age (p > 0.05). Almost all analyzed respiratory and allergic conditions differed significantly between countries including asthma [Poland (rural, urban): 3.5%, 4.1%; Ukraine: 1.4%, 2.1%; Belarus: 1.4%, 1.5%], spastic bronchitis (Poland: 2.7%, 3.2%; Ukraine: 7.5%, 6.5%; Belarus: 6.4%, 7.9%), and chest wheeze in the last year (Poland: 4.8%, 5.2%; Ukraine: 11.5%, 13.0%; Belarus: 10.7%, 10.0%). These differences remained after adjustment for potential confounders. Risk factor associations were generally similar between outcomes. Symptom characteristics of children with asthma between countries were not consistent. The ratio of current wheeze:diagnosis of asthma differed by country: (Rural areas: Belarus: 10.9:1, Ukraine: 17.3:1, Poland: 2.4:1; Urban areas: Belarus: 8.1:1, Ukraine: 7.3:1 Poland: 1.9:1). The findings show large between-country differences and

  1. [Comparative analysis of dynamics of health status indexes among school age children of Ukraine in modern conditions].

    PubMed

    Саргош, Оксана; Четверикова, Оксана; Беликова, Инна; Катрушов, Александр

    In the last time, there is a negative dynamics of indicators of the health of the child population in Ukraine in connection with socio-economic problems. The analysis of the data of the incidence and the prevalence of diseases among the children of the Poltava region in comparison with those of Ukraine for the period 2011-2015. In our work are used data of State statistics of incidence and prevalence of diseases among the child population of Ukraine. Analysis of the health status of children in the Poltava region and the country as a whole shows that due last 5 years there has been a destabilization of children's health - the incidence and prevalence of diseases, despite the positive trend, remain high. In the Poltava region for the period of 2011-2015 years there is a steady natural declining of the population (especially among rural residents), which is due to a decreasing in the birth rate and the increase in mortality. The incidence among children in rural areas of the Poltava region is 1000.8 per 1,000 children, which is lower than the average regional rate (1200.4) and significantly lower than the incidence of children in urban areas (1304.7).

  2. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. "Bureaucracy & Beliefs": Assessing the Barriers to Accessing Opioid Substitution Therapy by People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bojko, Martha J; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Makarenko, Iuliia; Marcus, Ruthanne; Dvoriak, Sergii; Islam, Zahedul; Altice, Frederick L

    Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based HIV prevention strategy for people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Yet, only 2.7% of Ukraine's estimated 310,000 PWIDs receive it despite free treatment since 2004. The multi-level barriers to entering OST among opioid dependent PWIDs have not been examined in Ukraine. A multi-year mixed methods implementation science project included focus group discussions with 199 PWIDs in 5 major Ukrainian cities in 2013 covering drug treatment attitudes and beliefs and knowledge of and experiences with OST. Data were transcribed, translated into English and coded. Coded segments related to OST access, entry, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes were analyzed among 41 PWIDs who were eligible for but had never received OST. A number of programmatic and structural barriers were mentioned by participants as barriers to entry to OST, including compulsory drug user registration, waiting lists, and limited number of treatment slots. Participants also voiced strong negative attitudes and beliefs about OST, especially methadone. Their perceptions about methadone's side effects as well as the stigma of being a methadone client were expressed as obstacles to treatment. Despite expressed interest in treatment, Ukrainian OST-naïve PWIDs evade OST for reasons that can be addressed through changes in program-level and governmental policies and social-marketing campaigns. Voiced OST barriers can effectively inform public health and policy directives related to HIV prevention and treatment in Ukraine to improve evidence-based treatment access and availability.

  4. Retrospection of Chernobyl nuclear accident for decision analysis concerning remedial actions in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Georgievskiy, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    It is considered the efficacy of decisions concerning remedial actions when of-site radiological monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases was absent or was not informative. There are examples of such situations in the former Soviet Union where many people have been exposed: releases of radioactive materials from 'Krasnoyarsk-26' into Enisey River, releases of radioactive materials from 'Chelabinsk-65' (the Kishtim accident), nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the Chernobyl nuclear accident etc. If monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases is absent the decisions concerning remedial actions are usually developed on the basemore » of permanent monitoring. However decisions of this kind may be essentially erroneous. For these cases it is proposed to make retrospection of radiological data of the early and intermediate phases of nuclear accident and to project decisions concerning remedial actions on the base of both retrospective data and permanent monitoring data. In this Report the indicated problem is considered by the example of the Chernobyl accident for Ukraine. Their of-site radiological monitoring in the early and intermediate phases was unsatisfactory. In particular, the pasture-cow-milk monitoring had not been made. All official decisions concerning dose estimations had been made on the base of measurements of {sup 137}Cs in body (40 measurements in 135 days and 55 measurements in 229 days after the Chernobyl accident). For the retrospection of radiological data of the Chernobyl accident dynamic model has been developed. This model has structure similar to the structure of Pathway model and Farmland model. Parameters of the developed model have been identified for agricultural conditions of Russia and Ukraine. By means of this model dynamics of 20 radionuclides in pathways and dynamics of doses have been estimated for the early, intermediate and late phases of the Chernobyl accident. The main results are

  5. Phenological features for winter rapeseed identification in Ukraine using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Oleksiy

    2014-05-01

    Winter rapeseed is one of the major oilseed crops in Ukraine that is characterized by high profitability and often grown with violations of the crop rotation requirements leading to soil degradation. Therefore, rapeseed identification using satellite data is a promising direction for operational estimation of the crop acreage and rotation control. Crop acreage of rapeseed is about 0.5-3% of total area of Ukraine, which poses a major problem for identification using satellite data [1]. While winter rapeseed could be classified using biomass features observed during autumn vegetation, these features are quite unstable due to field to field differences in planting dates as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in soil moisture availability. Due to this fact autumn biomass level features could be used only locally (at NUTS-3 level) and are not suitable for large-scale country wide crop identification. We propose to use crop parameters at flowering phenological stage for crop identification and present a method for parameters estimation using time-series of moderate resolution data. Rapeseed flowering could be observed as a bell-shaped peak in red reflectance time series. However the duration of the flowering period that is observable by satellite data is about only two weeks, which is quite short period taking into account inevitable cloud coverage issues. Thus we need daily time series to resolve the flowering peak and due to this we are limited to moderate resolution data. We used daily atmospherically corrected MODIS data coming from Terra and Aqua satellites within 90-160 DOY period to perform features calculations. Empirical BRDF correction is used to minimize angular effects. We used Gaussian Processes Regression (GPR) for temporal interpolation to minimize errors due to residual could coverage, atmospheric correction and a mixed pixel problems. We estimate 12 parameters for each time series. They are red and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and the timing at

  6. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. Discussion On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region’s fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine’s fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. Conclusions In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as

  7. Cervical Screening within HIV Care: Findings from an HIV-Positive Cohort in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather; Thorne, Claire; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Tereschenko, Rostislav; Adeyanova, Irina; Kulakovskaya, Elena; Ostrovskaya, Lyudmila; Kvasha, Liliana; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Townsend, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe. Methods Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored. Results Overall, 30% (337/1120) of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum), a third (115/334) of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before) their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.75 p<0.01 for 1st/2nd trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28–0.63 p<0.01 for 3rd trimester/intrapartum diagnosis). Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up), 21% (68/325) had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07–3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11–5.76 respectively). Conclusions In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme for HIV

  8. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Ukraine: antibacterial resistance and virulence factor encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Netsvyetayeva, Irina; Fraczek, Mariusz; Piskorska, Katarzyna; Golas, Marlena; Sikora, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Andrzej; Swoboda-Kopec, Ewa; Marusza, Wojciech; Palmieri, Beniamino; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2014-03-05

    The number of studies regarding the incidence of multidrug resistant strains and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors, which have colonized the post-Soviet states, is considerably limited. The aim of the study was (1) to assess the Staphylococcus (S.) aureus nasal carriage rate, including Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in adult Ukrainian population, (2) to determine antibiotic resistant pattern and (3) the occurrence of Panton Valentine Leukocidine (PVL)-, Fibronectin-Binding Protein A (FnBPA)- and Exfoliative Toxin (ET)-encoding genes. Nasal samples for S. aureus culture were obtained from 245 adults. The susceptibility pattern for several classes of antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines. The virulence factor encoding genes, mecA, lukS-lukF, eta, etb, etd, fnbA, were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The S. aureus nasal carriage rate was 40%. The prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in adults was 3.7%. LukS-lukF genes were detected in over 58% of the strains. ET-encoding genes were detected in over 39% of the strains and the most prevalent was etd. The fnbA gene was detected in over 59% of the strains. All MRSA isolates tested were positive for the mecA gene. LukS-lukF genes and the etd gene were commonly co-present in MRSA, while lukS-lukF genes and the fnbA gene were commonly co-present in Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. No significant difference was detected between the occurrence of lukS-lukF genes (P > 0.05) and the etd gene (P > 0.05) when comparing MRSA and MSSA. The occurrence of the fnbA gene was significantly more frequent in MSSA strains (P < 0.05). In Ukraine, S. aureus is a common cause of infection. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in our cohort of patients from Ukraine was 40.4%. We found that 9.1% of the strains were classified as MRSA and all MRSA isolates tested

  9. Hepatitis c and human rights: comparison of legal experience of Ukraine and Georgia.

    PubMed

    Senyuta, Iryna Y

    2018-01-01

    A comparative legal research of human rights provision in Ukraine and Georgia, in the aspect of combating viral HCV, was conducted. Ukrainian advocacy experience and Georgian strategic litigation experience with regard to human rights and HCV was analyzed. Key international instruments, which lay the conceptual foundations as well as outline the measures, which are directed at human rights in patient care provision and fighting viral hepatitis, were elucidated. Attention was paid to the Global health sector strategy. Viral hepatitis, 2016 - 2021 [1], which, for the first time, defined a global strategy on fighting viral hepatitis, in particular HCV and envisaged the advocacy vectors. The frames of interaction of the human rights in patient care concept and public health, which consists in realization of certain human rights were elucidated and the necessity to embody the human rights in patient care concept into the state policy in the field of public health was determined. It was found out that a common international problem in combating HCV is a deficiency of financial resources, which are necessary for effective fighting the epidemics and guarantee equal access to treatment for every person. The international community outlined five most important spheres, which require investments and will catalyze the measures, which need to be taken in order to fight hepatitis. Analysis of the Ukrainian experience was focused on the issue of donated blood safety and successful advocacy campaigns, which were carried out in order to promote the adoption of programs on prophylactics, diagnostics and treatment of HCV both on national and regional levels. Examples of ensuring the rights of the marginalized groups during HCV treatment, in particular of the people who inject drugs, people living with HIV, participants of the antiterrorist operation were provided. Interesting and important is the experience of Georgia concerning human rights protection in the ECtHR, which has a legal

  10. Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Tatiana I; Krasovsky, Konstantin S; Semenova, Daria S

    2007-01-01

    Background Aim: To estimate the impact of smoking restrictions in homes and schools, and tobacco advertising and information on smoking initiation by young people in Ukraine. Methods Data of 609 young people aged 15–29 was taken from the national representative survey conducted in June 2005. Outcome measures: The reported age of cigarette initiation was used to characterize the start of smoking experimentation, and the reported age of daily smoking initiation was considered to be a characteristic of established smoking. Analysis: survival analysis Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Age of smoking initiation was reported by 87% of young men and 61% of young women, the beginning of daily smoking by 71% and 33% respectively. Being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke and having no household smoking restrictions was associated with a higher risk of earlier smoking initiation both for men and women. For women, this risk was associated with age, HR = 0.95, (95% CI 0.91–0.98), that is, younger girls were more likely to smoke their first cigarette earlier in their lifetime. Those women had a higher risk of early smoking initiation who reported to receive tobacco-related information from magazines, HR = 1.40 (1.01–1.92), and outdoor tobacco advertising, HR = 1.99 (1.45–2.75). With both men and women, the risk of establishing daily smoking was higher in those with lower levels of tobacco-related knowledge and less household smoking restrictions. For women, the risk was higher in those who live in larger cities HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.86), and who received information about tobacco smoking from colleagues or friends HR = 1.83 (1.13–2.95). Conclusion Encouraging people to eliminate their homes of tobacco smoke and tobacco advertising bans can be effective measures in preventing the initiation of smoking among young people. Young female smoking initiation is of special concern in Ukraine, since they are more responsive to tobacco marketing and

  11. Assessing the vulnerability of the transportation industry of Ukraine to future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, Inna

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will affect transportation primarily through increases in several types of weather and climate extremes. The impacts will vary by mode of transportation and region of the country, but they will be widespread and costly in both human and economic terms and will require significant changes in the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of transportation systems. In the study impact of climate change on operation of road transport are analysed on the basis of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Data contains series of daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature, daily liquid (or mixed) and solid precipitation, daily mean relative humidity and daily mean and maximum wind speed, obtained for the period of 2011 to 2050 for 28 cities distributed evenly across Ukraine. Spatial and temporal distributions of meteorological variables are obtained. The statistic characteristics obtained were compared with the correspondent climate normals and highway-related temporal changeability is determined. Frequency of freezing rain, wet snow, very hot days, droughts, fogs, ice-covered ground, slippery wet ground, ice and snow slippery coat are investigated. Climate and economic risks to the road transport network are assessed. Maps of spatial distribution of risk assessment are obtained. The results obtained show typical weather pattern is changed and climate and weather extreme influencing on operation of road transport are more frequent for the both scenarios, but for the RCP 8.5 scenario hazard weather occurs more often. During the period of 2011-2050 significant climate warming (by 2-3°C) is registered. Extreme temperatures are observed more frequently. High temperatures bring on growth in frequency of wildfires and heat waves. Annual precipitation amount decreases, except the western mountain and northern regions, where precipitation amount increase on 35%. Increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation can produce droughts in southern, eastern

  12. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  13. Safety and Security of Radioactive Sealed and Disused/Orphan Sources in Ukraine - German Contribution - 13359

    SciTech Connect

    Brasser, Thomas; Hertes, Uwe; Meyer, Thorsten

    2013-07-01

    Within the scope of 'Nuclear Security of Radioactive Sources', the German government implemented the modernization of Ukrainian State Production Company's transport and storage facility for radioactive sources (TSF) in Kiev. The overall management of optimizing the physical protection of the storage facility (including the construction of a hot cell for handling the radioactive sources) is currently carried out by the German Federal Foreign Office (AA). AA jointly have assigned Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Germany's leading expert institution in the area of nuclear safety and waste management, to implement the project and to ensure transparency by financial andmore » technical monitoring. Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research. Their life cycle starts with the production and finally ends with the interim/long-term storage of the disused sources. In Ukraine, IZOTOP is responsible for all radioactive sources throughout their life cycle. IZOTOP's transport and storage facility (TSF) is the only Ukrainian storage facility for factory-fresh radioactive sources up to an activity of about 1 million Ci (3.7 1016 Bq). The TSF is specially designed for the storage and handling of radioactive sources. Storage began in 1968, and is licensed by the Ukrainian state authorities. Beside the outdated state of TSF's physical protection and the vulnerability of the facility linked with it, the lack of a hot cell for handling and repacking radioactive sources on the site itself represents an additional potential hazard. The project, financed by the German Federal Foreign Office, aims to significantly improve the security of radioactive sources during their storage and handling at the TSF site. Main tasks of the project are a) the modernization of the physical protection of the TSF itself in order to prevent any unauthorized access to radioactive sources as well as b) the construction of a hot cell to reduce the

  14. Impact of climate change on river discharge in the Teteriv River basin (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didovets, Iulii; Lobanova, Anastasia; Krysanova, Valentina; Snizhko, Sergiy; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    The problem of water resources availability in the climate change context arises now in many countries. Ukraine is characterized by a relatively low availability of water resources compared to other countries. It is the 111th among 152 countries by the amount of domestic water resources available per capita. To ensure socio-economic development of the region and to adapt to climate change, a comprehensive assessment of potential changes in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of water resources in the region is needed. The focus of our study is the Teteriv River basin located in northern Ukraine within three administrative districts covering the area of 15,300 km2. The Teteriv is the right largest tributary of the Dnipro River, which is the fourth longest river in Europe. The water resources in the region are intensively used in industry, communal infrastructure, and agriculture. This is evidenced by a large number of dams and industrial objects which have been constructed from the early 20th century. For success of the study, it was necessary to apply a comprehensive hydrological model, tested in similar natural conditions. Therefore, an eco-hydrological model SWIM with the daily time step was applied, as this model was used previously for climate impact assessment in many similar river basins on the European territory. The model was set up, calibrated and validated for the gauge Ivankiv located close to the outlet of the Teteriv River. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient for the calibration period is 0.79 (0.86), and percent bias is 4,9% (-3.6%) with the daily (monthly) time step. The future climate scenarios were selected from the IMPRESSIONS (Impacts and Risks from High-End Scenarios: Strategies for Innovative Solutions, www.impressions-project.eu) project, which developed 7 climate scenarios under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 based on GCMs and downscaled using RCMs. The results of climate impact assessment for the Teteriv River basin will be presented.

  15. Serum Phthalate Levels and Time to Pregnancy in Couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Jørgensen, Kristian T.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that have been associated with altered reproductive function in rodents. Several human studies have reported an inverse association between male testosterone and phthalate levels. Our aim was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) according to serum levels of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites in both partners. In 2002-2004 we enrolled 938 pregnant women and 401 male spouses from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Six oxidized metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were summarized for each of the two parent compounds to provide proxies of the internal exposure. We used Cox discrete-time models to estimate fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for men and women according to their proxy-DEHP or -DiNP serum levels adjusted for a fixed set of covariates. The FR was slightly elevated among women with high levels of DEHP (FR=1.14, 95% CI 1.00;1.30) suggesting a shorter TTP in these women. The FR was unrelated to DiNP in women, whereas the results for men were inconsistent pointing in opposite directions. First-time pregnant women from Greenland with high serum DiNP levels had a longer TTP. This study spanning large contrast in environmental exposure does not indicate adverse effects of phthalates on couple fecundity. The shorter TTP in women with high levels of DEHP metabolites is unexplained and needs further investigation. PMID:25786246

  16. Atmospheric dispersion of radon around uranium mill tailings of the former Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kovalets, Ivan V; Asker, Christian; Khalchenkov, Alexander V; Persson, Christer; Lavrova, Tatyana V

    2017-06-01

    Simulations of atmospheric dispersion of radon around the uranium mill tailings of the former Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant (PChP) in Ukraine were carried out with the aid of two atmospheric dispersion models: the Airviro Grid Model and the CALMET/CALPUFF model chain. The available measurement data of radon emission rates taken in the territories and the close vicinity of tailings were used in simulations. The results of simulations were compared to the yearly averaged measurements of concentration data. Both models were able to reasonably reproduce average radon concentration at the Sukhachivske site using averaged measured emission rates as input together with the measured meteorological data. At the same time, both models significantly underestimated concentrations as compared to measurements collected at the PChP industrial site. According to the results of both dispersion models, it was shown that only addition of significant radon emission rate from the whole territory of PChP in addition to emission rates from the tailings could explain the observed concentration measurements. With the aid of the uncertainty analysis, the radon emission rate from the whole territory of PChP was estimated to be between 1.5 and 3.5 Bq·m -2 s -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual and Network Interventions With Injection Drug Users in 5 Ukraine Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Wayne E. K.; Latkin, Carl A.; Dvoryak, Sergey; Brewster, John T.; Royer, Mark S.; Sinitsyna, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of an individual intervention versus a network intervention on HIV-related injection and sexual risk behaviors among street-recruited opiate injection drug users in 5 Ukraine cities. Methods. Between 2004 and 2006, 722 opiate injection drug users were recruited to participate in interventions that were either individually based or based on a social network model in which peer educators intervened with their network members. Audio computer-assisted self-interview techniques were used to interview participants at baseline and follow-up. Results. Multiple logistic analyses controlling for baseline injection and sexual risks revealed that both peer educators and network members in the network intervention reduced injection-related risk behaviors significantly more than did those in the individually based intervention and that peer educators increased condom use significantly more than did those in the individual intervention. Individual intervention participants, however, showed significantly greater improvements than did network members with respect to reductions in sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions. Social network interventions may be more effective than individually based interventions in changing injection risk behaviors among both peer educators and network members. The effectiveness of network interventions in changing sexual risk behaviors is less clear, probably owing to network composition and inhibitions regarding discussing sexual risk behaviors. PMID:20395584

  18. Umbilical cord blood banking in the worldwide hematopoietic stem cell transplantation system: perspectives for Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kalynychenko, T O

    2017-09-01

    Significant progress in the promotion of procedural technologies associated with the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells caused a rapid increase in activity. The exchange of hematopoietic stem cells for unrelated donor transplantations is now much easier due to the relevant international professional structures and organizations established to support cooperation and standard setting, as well as rules for the functioning of both national donor registries and cord blood banks. These processes are increasing every year and are contributing to the outpacing rates of development in this area. Products within their country should be regulated by the competent government authorities. This study analyzes the work of international and national levels of support for transplantation activity in the field of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the standardization order of technologies, as well as data that justify the need to create a network of donated umbilical cord blood banks in Ukraine as a factor in the development of allogeneic transplantation. This will promote the accessibility of international standards for the treatment of serious diseases for Ukrainian citizens.

  19. Work ability, age and its perception, and other related concerns of Ukraine health care workers.

    PubMed

    Bobko, Natalia A; Barishpolets, Alexey T

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 250 health care workers aged 18 to 68 (mean = 32.5 years) completed the Survey of Health Care Professionals. Self-ratings of their social skills, mental capacity, and physical capability corresponded to their ratings of work demands. Physical tiredness and tension were rated higher than mental tiredness. Worker age did not affect self-ratings of work performance, but physical and mental tiredness increased with increases in the age that one felt. The younger participants felt compared to their calendar ages, the better the level of current work ability they reported. The main concerns of workers were connected with off-the-job factors, most likely caused by the economic crisis and unfavorable ecological conditions in Ukraine. More than half of the participants were quite a bit or extremely concerned with changes in the cost of living, water quality, food safety, and radiation. The variable most closely related to these concerns is the discrepancy between calendar age and how old one feels. Coping strategies of workers can be related to sleeping, entertainment, and other off-the-job activities. These behaviors are related to the discrepancy between calendar age and how old one looks and feels, as well as felt age.

  20. [Cliniko-laboratory indicators of efficiency fermento-substitution therapy of Gaucher disease in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Ol'khovych, N V; Gryshchenko, O M; Pichkur, N O; Nedoboĭ, A M; Trofimova, N S; Ivanova, T P; Gorovenko, N G

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of efficiency of treatment of 17 patients with Gaucher disease (GD) in Ukraine who had received fermento-substitution therapy for 2 years and more was conducted on the basis of clinical and laboratory monitoring data. Regular infusions of recombinant glucocerebroside reduced signs of hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, reduced a bone pain and a bone crisis at the majority of patients with GD I type that led to considerable improvement of health state and improvement of patients life quality. Efficiency of treatment depended on regularity of drug administration, dosage and severity level of the disease at the start of the therapy. Adult patients were not seen to have corrections of bones and neurologic disorders after the treatment that confirmed necessity of an early initiation of the treatment, before formation of irreversible changes in these organs and systems. Chitiotriodase activity in blood plasma is the most complex laboratory indicator which displays activity of pathological process in patients with GD, therefore it is necessary to use it for an estimation of treatment efficiency to correct a recombinant glucocerebroside dosage.

  1. Psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. These countries have been subjected to highly stressful and extensive social change associated with the transition out of communism. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (n = 10,406) in November 2001. Distress was measured by 12 psychological distress symptoms. Health lifestyles focused on measures of alcohol consumption, smoking and diet. We found that females carried a much heavier burden of psychological distress than males, but this distress did not translate into greater alcohol consumption and smoking for these women or for men. The greatest influence of distress on health lifestyle practices was on daily diets in that both less distressed females and males consumed a more balanced diet than more distressed persons. Our findings suggest that it is the normative demands of a particular lifestyle, rather than distress, that principally shapes the pattern of heavy male drinking. This is an important finding as some sources indicate heavy drinking is largely responsible for the health crisis in the former socialist states.

  2. PREVALENCE OF DISEASES AMONG ADOLESCENT POPULATION IN DNEPROPETROVSK REGION (UKRAINE), CORRELATED WITH DRINKING WATER QUALITY DETERIORATION.

    PubMed

    Hryhorenko, L; Shchudro, S; Shevchenko, A; Rublevska, N; Zaitsev, V

    2017-11-01

    Purpose of research was to study dynamics prevalence of diseases among children' population in the separate rural tacsons of Dnepropetrovsk region; to carry out correlation analysis between some indicators of drinking water quality and prevalence of diseases. Research indicators of prevalence of diseases was carried out in the 6 types of tacsons of Dnipropetrovsk region (Ukraine) during 2008 - 2013 years (totally 522720 indicators). It was proved that (I, II, III, XI, XIII, XIV) classes of diseases takes the first place by the prevalence of diseases in the majority of rural tacsons. Correlation between higher salt content of the potable water taking from decentralized sources and content of some heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn) and some substances (pH, F, Al, nitrogen ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, oxidability) and the prevalence of diseases among children: tumors (r=0.87); diseases of blood and hematopoetic organs (r=0.74-0.95); anemia (r=0.79-0.87); diseases of genitourinary system (r=0.79-0.82); congenital anomalies (r=0.87), including circulatory system (r=0.74-0.95) was revealed in the separate tacsons of Dnepropetrovsk region (p<0.001).

  3. Web-GIS platform for forest fire danger prediction in Ukraine: prospects of RS technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskiy, N. V.; Zharikova, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    There are many different statistical and empirical methods of forest fire danger use at present time. All systems have not physical basis. Last decade deterministic-probabilistic method is rapidly developed in Tomsk Polytechnic University. Forest sites classification is one way to estimate forest fire danger. We used this method in present work. Forest fire danger estimation depends on forest vegetation condition, forest fire retrospective, precipitation and air temperature. In fact, we use modified Nesterov Criterion. Lightning activity is under consideration as a high temperature source in present work. We use Web-GIS platform for program realization of this method. The program realization of the fire danger assessment system is the Web-oriented geoinformation system developed by the Django platform in the programming language Python. The GeoDjango framework was used for realization of cartographic functions. We suggest using of Terra/Aqua MODIS products for hot spot monitoring. Typical territory for forest fire danger estimation is Proletarskoe forestry of Kherson region (Ukraine).

  4. A qualitative study of the use of Skype for psychotherapy consultations in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Edirippulige, Sisira; Levandovskaya, Marina; Prishutova, Anna

    2013-10-01

    There has been rather limited use of Skype for health and medical purposes. We investigated the use of Skype for delivering psychotherapy services in the Ukraine. A provider questionnaire was distributed to all delegates (n = 50) at the Annual Symposium of Psychotherapists. One copy of a client questionnaire was also given to each service provider and they were instructed to request their next client to complete the survey. In total, 29 providers and 23 clients responded to the questionnaire. The majority of clients (61%) and providers (72%) had used Skype for a range of services. The services they provided were related to a wide range of paradigms including psycho-analysis, psycho-drama, Gestalt therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy and existential therapy. A key reason for using Skype was to allow practitioners to contact clients who were not easily accessible, e.g. those who lived in other countries. Most practitioners (n = 24) thought their clients considered the services received on Skype were good or excellent. All 26 practitioners charged for Skype consultations. The majority of clients and providers showed high satisfaction with the use of Skype for psychotherapy services.

  5. Law Enforcement Practices Associated with HIV Infection Among Injection Drug Users in Odessa, Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Dvoryak, Sergey; Sung-Joon, Min; Brewster, John T.; Wendt, William W.; Corsi, Karen F.; Semerik, Oleg Y.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite HIV prevention efforts over the past 10 years in Odessa, Ukraine, HIV rates among injection drug users (IDUs) remain high. We explored whether IDUs’ experiences with the police and court system in Odessa were associated with HIV serostatus, after controlling for other factors. Qualitative methods, including semi-structured interviews with the police and members of court (N = 19), and focus groups with IDUs (N = 42), were employed to aid in developing a survey instrument for a larger quantitative phase and to assist in interpreting the findings from the quantitative phase, which included 200 participants who were interviewed and tested for HIV. Overall, 55 % tested positive for HIV. Negative experiences with the police were noted by 86 % and included having preloaded syringes taken (66 %), rushed injections due to fear of the police (57 %), police planting drugs (18 %), paying police to avoid arrest (61 %) and threatened by the police to inform on other IDUs (23 %). HIV positive participants were more likely than those who were negative to report these experiences. In a multiple logistic regression, the most significant correlate of HIV infection was rushed injections due to fear of the police. Police actions in Odessa may be contributing to the continued escalation of HIV among IDUs, underscoring the need for structural interventions. PMID:23754613

  6. Engagement in sex work does not increase HIV risk for women who inject drugs in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Vasylyeva, Tetyana I; Friedman, Samuel R; Gensburg, Lenore; Smyrnov, Pavlo

    2017-09-01

    We studied the association between sex in exchange for money, drugs or goods and HIV for women who inject drugs (WWID) in Ukraine, as previous data on this association from the post-USSR region are contradictory. Data come from the Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey of Ukrainian people who inject drugs collected in 2011 using respondent-driven sampling. Participants were interviewed and tested with rapid HIV tests. The sample included 2465 WWID (24% HIV positive); 214 (8.7%) of which reported having had exchange sex during the last 90 days. Crude analysis showed no association between exchange sex and HIV (OR = 0.644; 95% CI 0.385-1.077). No confounders were found to alter this result in a multivariable analysis. Further modeling showed that exchange sex modifies association between HIV and alcohol use: no association between HIV and daily alcohol use was found for those women who exchanged sex (OR = 1.699, 95% CI 0.737-3.956); while not engaging in sex work and daily using alcohol reduced odds to be HIV infected (OR = 0.586, 95% CI 0.389-0.885). Exchange sex may have less impact on the HIV status of WWID who are exposed to injecting risks. The finding that daily alcohol use appears protective against HIV among WWID who do not exchange sex requires more research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  7. Sex, drugs and prisons: HIV prevention strategies for over 190 000 clients in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Denisiuk, O; Smyrnov, P; Kumar, A M V; Achanta, S; Boyko, K; Khogali, M; Naik, B; Zachariah, R

    2014-06-21

    One hundred and forty non-governmental organisations implementing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programmes among clients, including people who inject drugs, prisoners, female sex workers, men who have sex with men and street children in Ukraine, 2010-2011. Among enrolled clients, to assess factors associated with HIV testing, HIV retesting within a year of initial testing and HIV seroconversion. Retrospective cohort study involving record reviews. Of 192 487 clients, 42 109 (22%) underwent an initial HIV test (22% were positive). Among HIV-negative clients at baseline, 10 858 (27%) were retested within a year: 317 (3%) of these were HIV-positive. HIV testing and retesting rates were lower among prisoners (0.3%) and others (street children and partners of those in risk groups, 6%), and those who did not receive counselling or services such as condom and needle distribution. Individuals who were not counselled were more likely to seroconvert. In this large cohort of high-risk groups from Eastern Europe, HIV testing was low and HIV sero-conversion was high. This is of public health concern, bringing into question the overall quality of counselling and how well it is tailored to the specific needs of various risk groups. Qualitative studies to understand the reasons for non-testing are urgently required for designing client-specific interventions.

  8. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  9. Badenian (Middle Miocene) echinoids and starfish from western Ukraine, and their biogeographic and stratigraphic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwański, Andrzej; Górka, Marcin; Wysocka, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Echinoderms from the Badenian (Middle Miocene) of the Fore-Carpathian Basin of western Ukraine are facies restricted. The Mykolaiv Beds, stratigraphically older, yielded the starfish Astropecten forbesi (complete skeletons), two genera of sand dollars (Parascutella, Parmulechinus), and numerous other echinoids of the genera Psammechinus , Echinocyamus, Spatangus, Hemipatagus, Echinocardium, Clypeaster, Echinolampas, and Conolampas. The stratigraphically younger, calcareous Ternopil Beds yielded Eucidaris (complete coronae, isolated spines), Arbacina , Brissus, and Rhabdobrissus. Sixteen species of echinoids are distinguished and/or commented. A new brissid, Rhabdobrissus tarnopolensis sp. nov., is established. A mass occurrence of some species (Psammechinus dubius and Hemipatagus ocellatus) contrasts with that of mass aggregations (sand dollars and Echinocardium leopolitanum) by dynamic events in selected layers of proximal tempestites. Of special note is the occurrence of very small specimens, interpreted as juveniles (`babies') having been swept out of their restricted biotopes (`nurseries'). Some species hitherto regarded as of Early Miocene age, and the problem of their persistence beyond the Fore-Carpathian Basin and/or migration into that basin during the Middle Miocene transgression are discussed.

  10. Sinkhole formation and hydrogeological situation at the salt mining area of Solotvyno, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckl, L.; Banks, V.

    2017-12-01

    In Solotvyno, Ukraine, several salt mines were unexpectedly flooded in the recent past. As a result, dozens of sinkholes formed and are still forming with diameters up to 250 m. A one month advisory mission by the European Commission was launched in fall 2016 to conduct a risk assessment. The former mining area is situated in close vicinity to the river Theiss, which is the largest contributory of the largest river in Europe: the Danube. As river contamination by the release of large quantities of saltwater would lead to an international disaster, hydrogeological measurements were taken on-site to study the system. Saturated (hyper-saline) water as well as fresh surface and groundwater were encountered in different locations of the former mining area. Water samples were analyzed for chemistry and stable isotopes at BGR revealing insight into groundwater flow dynamics. Satellite imaging and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were applied to study ground movements and evaluate the risk of further collapses. A resulting conceptual model explains the processes of sinkhole formation as well as the natural restoration of the salt dome prior to mining operations. This study shows the advantage of an interdisciplinary approach to conduct a risk assessment in the case of large mine collapses.

  11. Premenstrual Syndrome: Symptomatic and Diagnosed Prevalence, Dualistic Treatment Approach - A Cross-Sectional Study in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Crow, Edith Meszaros; Jeannot, Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosing and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) still pose a challenge in the routine medical practice which usually focuses on single pharmacological therapy. Recent research suggests that the combination of treatments including complementary alternative medicine (CAM) therapies may be more beneficial. The objective of this study was to assess the percentage of diagnosed and nondiagnosed PMS/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) based on the presence of adequate symptoms and to compare population using hormonal or pharmaceutical agents versus CAM therapies. This is a cross-sectional study targeting sample population of 160 females of potentially reproductive age done in Ukraine between May 2014 and April 2015. According to declared symptoms, 29% females versus 26% previously diagnosed by a medical professional qualify for "moderate/severe PMS," P > 0.05. In 30% persons using pharmacological agents, major side effects, namely, nausea, insomnia, headache was caused by painkillers, contraceptives, and antidepressants. Only 37.5% of study population has been using CAM therapy methods to deal with the symptoms of PMS. Of these, 22% have achieved moderate degree in relief of the symptoms long term. We have concluded that when dealing with the burden of PMS/PMDD, the affected treatment-seeking women should have choice and access to the variety of therapies within integrative medicine (both conventional and nonconventional).

  12. Possible distinct molecular carcinogenic pathways for bladder cancer in Ukraine, before and after the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Morimura, Keiichirou; Romanenko, Alina; Min, Wei; Salim, Elsayed I; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2004-04-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the incidence of urinary bladder cancers in the Ukraine increased gradually from 26.2 to 43.3 per 100,000 people between 1986 and 2001. In the areas of low level but persistent cesium-137 (137Cs) radio-contamination, a unique atypical radiation-related urinary bladder cystitis named 'Chernobyl cystitis', a possible pre-neoplastic condition in humans, has been detected. We have previously documented high incidences of bladder lesions, including severe dysplasias and/or carcinoma in situ, in association with this cystitis and correlating with oxidative DNA damage. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying bladder carcinogenesis with this specific etiology, mutation analysis of p53 gene (exon 5-8) was performed for 11 and 18 paraffin-embedded bladder cancers in Ukrainians, respectively collected before and after the Chernobyl disaster. DNAs were extracted and subjected to nested PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by direct DNA sequencing, as well as p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC). The incidences of p53 gene mutation were 54.5 and 16.7% for before and after the Chernobyl disaster, respectively, the difference being statistically significant. Also a tendency for higher p53 IHC score was apparent in the earlier group of lesions. No significant difference was noted for the proportions of historical types. These results point to possible distinct molecular carcinogenic pathways of bladder cancer formation, before and after the Chernobyl disaster, on the basis of variation in p53 gene alteration.

  13. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg−1 As and 8800 mg kg−1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg−1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg−1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  14. Some little-known facts and events from the history of gravitational wave research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.,; Vavilova, I. B.; Romanets, O. A.; Savchuk, V. S.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the history of gravitational wave research in Ukraine and describes two little-known facts and events. The first one is concerning with a short period of Dr. Nathan Rosen's life in Kyiv and his scientific activity at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR in 1936-1938 years. At that time, he has published several papers, which promoted the first steps in the creation of modern theories in the fields of gravity and quantum physics. These papers, including "Plane-polarized waves in the General Theory of Relativity", have been issued in the "Ukrainian Physical Notes" ("Ukrainski Fizychni Zapysky"), which was not widely accessed. We quote also some parts from correspondence of N. Rosen and A. Einstein in this period. The second comment is related to the history of gravitational wave experimental research in Kyiv, which were initiated in 1970s by Prof. Aleksey Z. Petrov at the Institute of Theoretical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR. We describe briefly the development of the detector of high-frequency gravitational waves (the Weber type antenna) as well as results obtained by K.A. Piragas's group.

  15. Different routes of demographic changes in former Eastern bloc states at the turn of the 21st century based on the examples of Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaga, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The article concerns the most important demographic processes that took place in two post-communist countries, Poland and Ukraine, after 1990. These countries differ in terms of economic changes that they have gone through so far. In case of Poland we may consider it as a success in reforming the economy, despite the fact that it caused certain negative social phenomena, e.g. large unemployment. On the other hand, in Ukraine, economic crisis was not stopped, but it is also deepening and its results have become significant modifiers of population processes. The changes in population number, natural growth and migration in both countries are the subjects of detailed analyses. They were presented in the context of the "secondary demographic transition", which Poland and Ukraine entered rapidly at the beginning of 1990, along with economic transformation and social changes.

  16. Ecological bases of land reclamation in the mining regions of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharytonov, Mykola; Gumentyk, Myhailo; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    The mining production is situated in the several provinces of Ukraine. Specification of the problem coal and mixed sulfide mining activities in Ukraine have resulted in the generation of hundreds of millions of tons of hazardous wastes consisting of rest of manganese and iron oxides, traces of rare elements, sulphur bearing minerals, such as pyrite. These wastes have been / are still deposited, throughout the years, in huge stockpiles and dams. Land restoration in the mining region takes several forms. One of the ways is land reclamation. This way includes forest, recreation and agricultural reclamation. Land reclamation in industrial regions is conducted in one technological cycle with the process of ore mining. The soil mass is taken off, piled up and heaped onto the land after the rock has been replaced. The ecohydrogeological background of reclaimed lands forming and exploration was worked out. It foresee an environment restoration of disturbed lands to manage flow down, atmospheric precipitations taking aside, the process of the reclaimed profile biogenetic horizons formation and promotion with total depth 1.0-1.2 m and involvement of more suitable rocks and artificial drainage building. The effectiveness of different models of land reclamation and heavy metals migration through the rock-soil-plant system was investigated. Field experiments were carried out to study the adaptive potential of plants having different requirements for substrate fertility, with the main task to assess the prospects of land management for the rocks of the Nikopol manganese basin. The rocks exposed to the surface after manganese ore mining, first technical stage of landscape restoration, and plant melioration stages pass into other geochemical conditions and change their physical-chemical properties. During long-term melioration crops have dramatically improved some processes as following: bioweathering of rocks, phytomeliorated rocks fertility growth, etc. Meantime some rocks

  17. Determinants of Willingness to Enroll in Opioid Agonist Treatment among Opioid Dependent People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Makarenko, Iuliia; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Polonsky, Maxim; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J.; Filippovich, Sergii; Springer, Sandra; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Coverage with opioid agonist treatments (OAT) is low (N=8,400, 2.7%) for the 310,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. In the context of widespread negative attitudes toward OAT in the region, patient-level interventions targeting the barriers and willingness to initiate OAT are urgently needed. Methods A sample of 1,179 opioid dependent PWID not currently on OAT from five regions in Ukraine was assessed using multivariable logistic regression for independent factors related to willingness to initiate OAT, stratified by their past OAT experience. Results Overall, 421 (36%) PWID were willing to initiate OAT. Significant adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for covariates associated with the willingness to initiate OAT common for both groups included: higher injection frequency (previously on OAT: aOR=2.7; never on OAT: aOR=1.8), social and family support (previously on OAT: aOR=2.0; never on OAT: aOR=2.0), positive attitude towards OAT (previously on OAT: aOR=1.3; never on OAT: aOR=1.4). Among participants previously on OAT, significant correlates also included: HIV-negative status (aOR=2.6) and depression (aOR=2.7). Among participants never on OAT, however, living in Kyiv (aOR=4.8) or Lviv (aOR=2.7), previous imprisonment (aOR=1.5), registration at a Narcology service (aOR=1.5) and recent overdose (aOR=2.6) were significantly correlated with willingness to initiate OAT. Conclusions These findings emphasize the need for developing interventions aimed to eliminate existing negative preconceptions regarding OAT among opioid dependent PWID in Ukraine, which should be tailored to the needs of specific characteristics of PWID in geographically distinct setting, higher injection frequency, prior incarceration, and psychiatric and HIV status. PMID:27370527

  18. Patient and provider perspectives on quality and health system effectiveness in a transition economy: evidence from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Luck, J; Peabody, J W; DeMaria, L M; Alvarado, C S; Menon, R

    2014-08-01

    Facing a severe population health crisis due to noncommunicable diseases, Ukraine and other former Soviet republics and Eastern European countries have a pressing need for more effective health systems. Policies to enhance health system effectiveness should consider the perspectives of different stakeholder groups, including providers as well as patients. In addition, policies that directly target the quality of clinical care should be based on objective performance measures. In 2009 and 2010 we conducted a coordinated series of household and facility-level surveys to capture the perspectives of Ukrainian household members, outpatient clinic patients, and physicians regarding the country's health system overall, as well as the quality, access, and affordability of health care. We objectively measured the quality of care for heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using CPV(®) vignettes. There was broad agreement among household respondents (79%) and physicians (95%) that Ukraine's health system should be reformed. CPV(®) results indicate that the quality of care for common noncommunicable diseases is poor in all regions of the country and in hospitals as well as polyclinics. However, perspectives about the quality of care differ, with household respondents seeing quality as a serious concern, clinic patients having more positive perceptions, and physicians not viewing quality as a reform priority. All stakeholder groups viewed affordability as a problem. These findings have several implications for policies to enhance health system effectiveness. The shared desire for health system reform among all stakeholder groups provides a basis for action in Ukraine. Improving quality, strengthening primary care, and enhancing affordability should be major goals of new health policies. Policies to improve quality directly, such as pay-for-performance, would be mutually reinforcing with purchasing reforms such as transparent payment mechanisms. Such policies

  19. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Gudzenko, N., E-mail: gudznat@gmail.com; Hatch, M., E-mail: hatchm@mail.nih.gov; Bazyka, D., E-mail: Bazyka@yahoo.com

    Background: Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. Methods: In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and othermore » potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. Results: After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions: These data – the first from a working population in Ukraine – add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. - Highlights: • A unique population – a cohort of 110,645 Chernobyl clean-up workers from Ukraine. • Followed 1986–2006 for leukemia, interviewed about non-radiation risk factors. • Petroleum exposure increased risk for non-CLL leukemias, particularly CML. • No risk factor other than radiation was found for CLL.« less

  20. HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among hanka injection drug users in central Ukraine: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Dumchev, Kostyantyn V; Soldyshev, Ruslan; Qian, Han-Zhu; Zezyulin, Olexandr O; Chandler, Susan D; Slobodyanyuk, Pavel; Moroz, Larisa; Schumacher, Joseph E

    2009-08-23

    Ukraine has experienced an increase in injection drug use since the 1990s. An increase in HIV and hepatitis C virus infections has followed, but not measures of prevalence and risk factors. The purposes of this study are to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HCV, and co-infection among injection drug users (IDUs) in central Ukraine and to describe risk factors for HIV and HCV. A sample of 315 IDUs was recruited using snowball sampling for a structured risk interview and HIV/HCV testing (81.9% male, 42% single, average age 28.9 years [range = 18 to 55]). HIV and HCV antibodies were detected in 14.0% and 73.0%, respectively, and 12.1% were seropositive for both infections. The most commonly used drug was hanka, home-made from poppy straw and often mixed with other substances including dimedrol, diazepines, and hypnotics. The average period of injecting was 8.5 years; 62.5% reported past-year sharing needles or injection equipment, and 8.0% shared with a known HIV-positive person. More than half (51.1%) reported multiple sexual partners, 12.9% buying or selling sex, and 10.5% exchanging sex and drugs in the past year. Those who shared with HIV positive partners were 3.4 times more likely to be HIV positive than those who did not. Those who front- or back-loaded were 4 times more likely to be HCV positive than those who did not. Harm reduction, addiction treatment and HIV prevention programs should address risk factors to stop further spread of both HIV and HCV among IDUs and to the general population in central Ukraine.

  1. Elevated congenital anomaly rates and incorporated cesium-137 in the Polissia region of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Koerblein, Alfred; Ievtushok, Bogdana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Nataliya; Komov, Oleksandr; Kuznietsov, Illia; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Sosyniuk, Zoriana

    2016-03-01

    Investigations soon after the 1986 Chornobyl (Chernobyl in Russian) accident of exposed populations residing elsewhere in Europe led government and international agencies to conclude that exposures to cesium-137 (Cs-137) were not teratogenic. Our observations of elevated population rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) and microcephaly and microphthalmia (M/M) in the Rivne Province in Ukraine, which were among the highest in Europe, prompted this follow-up investigation inclusive of whole-body counts (WBCs) of Cs-137 among ambulatory patients and pregnant women residing in Polissia, the most polluted region in Rivne. Yearly (2000-2012) population rates of NTDs and M/M and WBC patterns of ambulatory patients (2001-2010) and pregnant women (2011-2013) in Polissia and non-Polissia regions of Rivne were analyzed. The NTD and M/M population rates in Rivne remain elevated and are statistically significantly higher in Polissia than in non-Polissia. The WBCs among residents in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than among those from non-Polissia. NTD and M/M rates are highest in the Polissia region of Rivne and are among the highest in Europe. In Polissia, the WBCs of Cs-137 are above officially set permissible upper limits. The results are based on aggregate data of NTDs and M/Ms and average WBC values. Further investigations of causality of the high rates of NTDs and M/Ms are needed and urgent strengthening policies and implementations to reduce exposures to teratogens, in particular radioactive nuclides and alcohol, and consumption of folic acid supplements are indicated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibb, H.J.; Kozlov, K.; Buckley, J.P.; Centeno, J.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.; Landa, E.; Panov, B.; Panov, Y.; Xu, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 ??g/L (blood), 3.95 ??g/g (hair), and 1.16 ??g/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with both blood and urinary mercury concentrations but not with hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility. Copyright ?? 2008 JOEH, LLC.

  3. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Herman Jones; Kozlov, Kostj; Buckley, Jessie Poulin; Centeno, Jose; Jurgenson, Vera; Kolker, Allan; Conko, Kathryn; Landa, Edward; Panov, Boris; Panov, Yuri; Xu, Hanna

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 microg/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 microg/L (blood), 3.95 microg/g (hair), and 1.16 microg/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with both blood and urinary mercury concentrations but not with hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility.

  4. Cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) from the Eastern Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridogenesis (hemiclonal inheritance) is a kind of clonal reproduction in which hybrids between parental species are reproduced by crossing with one of the parental species. European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) represent an appropriate model for studying interspecies hybridization, processes of hemiclonal inheritance and polyploidization. P. esculentus complex consists of two parental species, P. ridibundus (the lake frog) and P. lessonae (the pool frog), and their hybridogenetic hybrid – P. esculentus (the edible frog). Parental and hybrid frogs can reproduce syntopically and form hemiclonal population systems. For studying mechanisms underlying the maintenance of water frog population systems it is required to characterize the karyotypes transmitted in gametes of parental and different hybrid animals of both sexes. Results In order to obtain an instrument for characterization of oocyte karyotypes in hybrid female frogs, we constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes from oocytes of both parental species originating in Eastern Ukraine. We further identified certain molecular components of chromosomal marker structures and mapped coilin-rich spheres and granules, chromosome associated nucleoli and special loops accumulating splicing factors. We recorded the dissimilarities between P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes in the length of orthologous chromosomes, number and location of marker structures and interstitial (TTAGGG)n-repeat sites as well as activity of nucleolus organizer. Satellite repeat RrS1 was mapped in centromere regions of lampbrush chromosomes of the both species. Additionally, we discovered transcripts of RrS1 repeat in oocytes of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae. Moreover, G-rich transcripts of telomere repeat were revealed in association with terminal regions of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes. Conclusions The constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of P

  5. I-131 Dose Response for Incident Thyroid Cancers in Ukraine Related to the Chornobyl Accident

    PubMed Central

    Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; Oliynik, Valery A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zamotaeva, Galina A.; O’Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C.; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V.; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P.; Shpak, Victor M.; Ron, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case–control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. Objective: To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose–response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. Methods: The cohort consists of individuals < 18 years of age on 26 April 1986 who resided in three contaminated oblasts (states) of Ukraine and underwent up to four thyroid screening examinations between 1998 and 2007 (n = 12,514). Thyroid doses of I-131 were estimated based on individual radioactivity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident, environmental transport models, and interview data. Excess radiation risks were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results: Sixty-five incident thyroid cancers were diagnosed during the second through fourth screenings and 73,004 person-years (PY) of observation. The dose–response relationship was consistent with linearity on relative and absolute scales, although the excess relative risk (ERR) model described data better than did the excess absolute risk (EAR) model. The ERR per gray was 1.91 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43–6.34], and the EAR per 104 PY/Gy was 2.21 (95% CI, 0.04–5.78). The ERR per gray varied significantly by oblast of residence but not by time since exposure, use of iodine prophylaxis, iodine status, sex, age, or tumor size. Conclusions: I-131–related thyroid cancer risks persisted for two decades after exposure, with no evidence of decrease during the observation period. The radiation risks, although smaller, are compatible with those of retrospective and ecological post-Chornobyl studies. PMID:21406336

  6. Primary healthcare-based integrated care with opioid agonist treatment: First experience from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Olga; Dvoriak, Sergey; Pykalo, Iryna; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Ukraine's HIV epidemic is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), however, coverage with opioid agonist therapies (OATs) available mostly at specialty addiction clinics is extremely low. OAT integrated into primary healthcare clinics (PHCs) provides an opportunity for integrating comprehensive healthcare services and scaling up OAT. A pilot study of PHC-based integrated care for drug users conducted in two Ukrainian cities between 2014 and 2016 included three sub-studies: 1) cross-sectional treatment site preference assessment among current OAT patients (N=755); 2) observational cohort of 107 PWID who continued the standard of care versus transition of stabilized and newly enrolled PWID into PHC-based integrated care; and 3) pre/post analysis of attitudes toward PWID and HIV patients by PHC staff (N=26). Among 755 OAT patients, 53.5% preferred receiving OAT at PHCs, which was independently correlated with convenience, trust in physician, and treatment with methadone (vs. buprenorphine). In 107 PWID observed over 6 months, retention in treatment was high: 89% in PWID continuing OAT in specialty addiction treatment settings (standard of care) vs 94% in PWID transitioning to PHCs; and 80% among PWID newly initiating OAT in PHCs. Overall, satisfaction with treatment, subjective self-perception of well-being, and trust in physician significantly increased in patients prescribed OAT in PHCs. Among PHC staff, attitudes towards PWID and HIV patients significantly improved over time. OAT can be successfully integrated into primary care in low and middle-income countries and improves outcomes in both patients and clinicians while potentially scaling-up OAT for PWID. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HIV Testing and Diagnosis Rates in Kiev, Ukraine: April 2013 - March 2014

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Ruth; Malyuta, Ruslan; Medoeva, Antonia; Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander; Copas, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective Data from Ukraine on risk factors for HIV acquisition are limited. We describe the characteristics of individuals testing for HIV in the main testing centres of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, including HIV risk factors, testing rates, and positivity rates. Methods As part of a larger study to estimate HIV incidence within Kiev City, we included questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history to existing systems in 4 infectious disease clinics. Data were provided by the person requesting an HIV test using a handheld electronic tablet. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April 2013–March 2014 were included. Rates per 100,000 were calculated using region-specific denominators for Kiev. Results During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV, equivalent to a testing rate of 293.2 per 100,000. Of these, 467 (7.8%) were HIV-positive, with the highest proportion positive among 31–35 year olds (11.2%), males (9.4%), people who inject drugs (PWID) (17.9%) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (24.1%). Using published population size estimates of MSM, diagnosis rates for MSM ranged from 490.6to 1548.3/100,000. A higher proportion of heterosexual women compared to heterosexual men reported contact with PWID, (16% vs. 4.7%) suggesting a bridging in risk between PWID and their sexual partners. Conclusion Collection of HIV risk factor information in Kiev, essential for the purposes of developing effective HIV prevention and response tools, is feasible. The high percentage of MSM among those testing positive for HIV, may indicate a significant level of undisclosed sex between men in national figures. PMID:26322977

  8. ALCOHOL USE, DEPRESSION, AND HIGH RISK OCCUPATIONS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN THE UKRAINE

    PubMed Central

    Polshkova, S.; Chaban, O; Walton, MA

    2016-01-01

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18–25) (N=192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped based on drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n=132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n=60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7 % of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1–2 days, 37.9% 3–7 days, 25% 8–21 days, and 12.1% 22–30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems. PMID:27144438

  9. HIV Testing and Diagnosis Rates in Kiev, Ukraine: April 2013-March 2014.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Ruth; Malyuta, Ruslan; Chentsova, Nelli; Medoeva, Antonia; Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander; Copas, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud

    2015-01-01

    Data from Ukraine on risk factors for HIV acquisition are limited. We describe the characteristics of individuals testing for HIV in the main testing centres of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, including HIV risk factors, testing rates, and positivity rates. As part of a larger study to estimate HIV incidence within Kiev City, we included questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history to existing systems in 4 infectious disease clinics. Data were provided by the person requesting an HIV test using a handheld electronic tablet. All persons (≥16 yrs) presenting for an HIV test April 2013-March 2014 were included. Rates per 100,000 were calculated using region-specific denominators for Kiev. During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV, equivalent to a testing rate of 293.2 per 100,000. Of these, 467 (7.8%) were HIV-positive, with the highest proportion positive among 31-35 year olds (11.2%), males (9.4%), people who inject drugs (PWID) (17.9%) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (24.1%). Using published population size estimates of MSM, diagnosis rates for MSM ranged from 490.6 to 1548.3/100,000. A higher proportion of heterosexual women compared to heterosexual men reported contact with PWID, (16% vs. 4.7%) suggesting a bridging in risk between PWID and their sexual partners. Collection of HIV risk factor information in Kiev, essential for the purposes of developing effective HIV prevention and response tools, is feasible. The high percentage of MSM among those testing positive for HIV, may indicate a significant level of undisclosed sex between men in national figures.

  10. Alcohol Use, Depression, and High-Risk Occupations Among Young Adults in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Polshkova, Svitlana; Chaban, Oleg; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-06-06

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18-25) (N = 192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped on the basis of drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n = 132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n = 60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7% of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1-2 days, 37.9% 3-7 days, 25% 8-21 days, and 12.1% 22-30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems.

  11. Magnetic soil mapping and modelling for sustainable land use management in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural activities need to be monitored in order to observe if they respect the sustainability principles. During the last 15 years we have been using the magnetic susceptibility measurements for the identification of soil properties and degradation risks. This method can be used to measure soil fertility. We observed a decrease of soil magnetic susceptibility values in the areas with high erosion risk. Magnetic susceptibility can be used as an indicator in identifying rates and depths of soil erosion. Compared to other conventional methods, this one, have a low cost and is time saving. This opens new possibilities to have a better cover of the studied area, collect more samples, hence, a better spatial and temporal resolution. Another field of the soil magnetic properties study is the land use change a result of the urban sprawl and technogenic pollution. The increased risk of the soil degradation is connected to soil pollution and the high concentrations of heavy metals and other dangerous chemical elements and compounds to the environment. The main sources of the anthropogenic pollution are the vehicle circulation, power plants, cement and chemical industry. The components released by these sources contain magnetic properties, which can be identified in soils. In this way we can identify the negative impacts of these activities on the ecosystems sustainability and services and promote measures to recover it. We obtained new results on an example of the urban and industry developed sites of Ukraine. The interpretation of soil magnetic parameter measurements depends on knowledge of a reference value. It is influenced by the type of soils and landscape topography. Magnetic methods are an effective method for temporal and spatial soil mapping and modeling. The results of the soils magnetic studies are valuable to sustainable land use management.

  12. Land Use and Land Cover Changes 1977 to 2000 in the Steppe Region of Ukraine, and Preliminary Results of Evaluating its Ecological and Land Form Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. J.; Prydatko, V.; Luhmann, E. P.

    2001-05-01

    Ukraine's history as agro-economic region dates back hundreds of years, being the most productive portion of the "black earth region" for the now defunct Soviet Union. This incredible level of agricultural production brought tremendous changes to the landscape matrix, largely eliminating forests and prairie systems from the southern steppe regions of Ukraine. The age of industrialization has had far less significant impacts to the land use patterns as large farms were operated and managed under Soviet Era cooperatives. The recent, 1992, independence of Ukraine has brought new pressures to the landscape. These pressures are initiated by economic needs of Ukraine seeking to be resolved through increased farm production and rapid land and industrial privatization. This study examines land cover changes between 1977, 1988 and 2000 within a representative region of southern Ukraine and northern Crimea. The region covers prototypical landscapes of the steppe region of agriculture at various scales and crops. The study area also allows an examination of changes along coastal areas in the Azov and Black Seas, specifically barrier systems. Additionally, areas of rapid privatization of industries and introduction of western industries exist within this region. The years selected for documentation were chosen as being one near the height of Soviet autonomy, near separation of the Soviet Union and independence of Ukraine and current times. The study looks at ways of documenting land cover change using satellite imagery with ancillary ground based information. The study evaluates effects of these land cover changes through associated losses of hydrologic characteristics in the landscape such as stream, as well as landform changes especially in coastal barrier systems. These changes are correlated to landscape changes and ecological parameters recorded during this nearly 30 year period. Preliminary conclusions are presented as to alternative land use practices and actions for

  13. Geographic variability in HIV and injection drug use in Ukraine: Implications for integration and expansion of drug treatment and HIV care

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Nickolas; Mazhnaya, Alonya; Larney, Sarah; Islam, Zahed; Shost, Alyona; Prokhorova, Tatiana; Rybak, Natasha; Flanigan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Background Ukraine has the highest HIV burden of any European country with much of the current HIV epidemic concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and their sexual partners. Opiate substitution therapy (OST) is limited in Ukraine and expansion of OST is urgently needed to help stem the tide of the HIV epidemic. Methods We accessed publicly available data in Ukraine in order to explore geographic variability with respect to prevalence of HIV, PWIDs and OST programmes. Results The regions of Ukraine with the largest number of opioid dependent persons (the south and eastern portions of the country) correspond to the regions with the highest HIV prevalence and HIV incidence. The number of opioid PWIDs per 100,000 population as well as the number of all OST treatment slots per 100,000 varied significantly across the three HIV prevalence categories. Overall, the proportion of individuals receiving either methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) was quite low: average across categories: 7.3% and 0.4%, respectively. Additionally, less than half of OST patients receiving MMT or BMT were HIV positive patients. Conclusion There is significant geographic variability in both numbers of HIV positive individuals and numbers of PWIDs across Ukraine, however, there may be a more concentrated epidemic among PWIDs in many regions of the country. Scale up of addiction treatment for PWID, especially OST, can have a significant impact on preventing injection related morbidity, such as HIV and HCV infection. Ukraine can learn from the mistakes other nations have made in denying critical treatment opportunities to PWID. PMID:25304049

  14. Geographic variability in HIV and injection drug use in Ukraine: implications for integration and expansion of drug treatment and HIV care.

    PubMed

    Zaller, Nickolas; Mazhnaya, Alonya; Larney, Sarah; Islam, Zahed; Shost, Alyona; Prokhorova, Tatiana; Rybak, Natasha; Flanigan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Ukraine has the highest HIV burden of any European country with much of the current HIV epidemic concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and their sexual partners. Opiate substitution therapy (OST) is limited in Ukraine and expansion of OST is urgently needed to help stem the tide of the HIV epidemic. We accessed publicly available data in Ukraine in order to explore geographic variability with respect to prevalence of HIV, PWIDs and OST programmes. The regions of Ukraine with the largest number of opioid dependent persons (the south and eastern portions of the country) correspond to the regions with the highest HIV prevalence and HIV incidence. The number of opioid PWIDs per 100,000 population as well as the number of all OST treatment slots per 100,000 varied significantly across the three HIV prevalence categories. Overall, the proportion of individuals receiving either methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) was quite low: average across categories: 7.3% and 0.4%, respectively. Additionally, less than half of OST patients receiving MMT or BMT were HIV positive patients. There is significant geographic variability in both numbers of HIV positive individuals and numbers of PWIDs across Ukraine, however, there may be a more concentrated epidemic among PWIDs in many regions of the country. Scale up of addiction treatment for PWID, especially OST, can have a significant impact on preventing injection related morbidity, such as HIV and HCV infection. Ukraine can learn from the mistakes other nations have made in denying critical treatment opportunities to PWID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges of NGO-to-state Referral in the Delivery of HIV Prevention Programs in Ukraine Supported by the Global Fund

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ukraine has one of the world’s fastest growing HIV rates and was one of the largest recipients of funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GF). The objective of this study was to close the gaps in the literature on the delivery of HIV prevention services by NGOs and the perceptions of NGO delivered services, using as an example HIV prevention programs in Ukraine funded by the GF. Methods: The aim of this qualitative study was to determine how NGO-based services were implemented in the context of a state-owned healthcare system of Ukraine. An ethnographic study, which included 50 participant interviews, was conducted in three oblasts in Ukraine and in the capital, Kyiv, between 2011 and 2013. This article presents some of the findings that emerged from the analysis. Results: Participants reported that NGOs were focused more on reporting numbers of rapid tests, and less on motivating clients to continue onto treatment. The role division between NGOs and the state in HIV services was largely perceived by participants as unclear and challenging. Overall, lack of clarity on the role of government healthcare providers and NGOs in providing HIV services compromised the process of finding, referring, and retaining HIV patients in care. Conclusions: Gaps in linking HIV patients to the HIV care continuum have been identified as a potentially problematic issue in delivery of HIV prevention services by GF funded NGOs. With an anticipated GF exit from Ukraine, the lack of clearly defined NGO-to-state referrals of HIV patients complicates the transition of NGO run services into state funding. Further steps to improve referral systems are necessary to ensure a smooth transition and enable Ukraine to fight its HIV epidemic effectively. PMID:29138720

  16. Spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility in an agricultural field located in Eastern Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been used to characterize soil properties. It gives an indirect information about heavy metals content and degree of human impacts on soil contamination derived from atmospheric pollution (Girault et al., 2011). This method is inexpensive in relation to chemical analysis and very useful to track soil pollution, since several toxic components deposited on soil surface are rich in particulates produced by oxidation processes (Boyko et al., 2004; Morton-Bernea et al., 2009). Thus, identify the spatial distribution of MS is of major importance, since can give an indirect information of high metals content (Dankoub et al., 2012). This allows also to distinguish the pedogenic and technogenic origin magnetic signal. For example Ukraine chernozems contain fine-grained oxidized magnetite and maghemite of pedogenic origin formed by weathering of the parent material (Jeleńska et al., 2004). However, to a correct understanding of variables distribution, the identification of the most accurate interpolation method is fundamental for a better interpretation of map information (Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this work is to study the spatial variability of soil MS in an agricultural fields located in the Tcherkascy Tishki area (50.11°N, 36.43 °E, 162 m a.s.l), Ukraine. Soil MS was measured in 77 sampling points in a north facing slope. To estimate the best interpolation method, several interpolation methods were tested, as inverse distance to a weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2, Global Polynomial (GP), radial basis functions - spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquatratic (MTQ), inverse multiquatratic (IMTQ), and thin plate spline (TPS) - and some geostatistical methods as, ordinary kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK), used in previous works (Pereira et al., 2014). On average, the soil MS of the studied plot had 686

  17. From economic survival to recreation: contemporary uses of wild food and medicine in rural Sweden, Ukraine and NW Russia.

    PubMed

    Stryamets, Nataliya; Elbakidze, Marine; Ceuterick, Melissa; Angelstam, Per; Axelsson, Robert

    2015-06-16

    There are many ethnobotanical studies on the use of wild plants and mushrooms for food and medicinal treatment in Europe. However, there is a lack of comparative ethnobotanical research on the role of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) as wild food and medicine in local livelihoods in countries with different socio-economic conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the present use of wild food and medicine in three places representing different stages of socio-economic development in Europe. Specifically we explore which plant and fungi species people use for food and medicine in three selected rural regions of Sweden, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. We studied the current use of NWFPs for food and medicine in three rural areas that represent a gradient in economic development (as indicated by the World Bank), i.e., Småland high plain (south Sweden), Roztochya (western Ukraine), and Kortkeros (Komi Republic in North West Russia). All areas were characterised by (a) predominating rural residency, (b) high forest coverage, and (c) free access to NWFPs. A total of 205 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents in the three study areas. The collected NWFPs data included (1) the species that are used; (2) the amount harvested, (3) uses and practices (4) changes over time, (5) sources of knowledge regarding the use of NWFPs as wild food and medicine and (6) traditional recipes. In Sweden 11 species of wild plant and fungi species were used as food, and no plant species were used for medicinal purposes. In Ukraine the present use of NWFPs included 26 wild foods and 60 medicinal species, while in Russia 36 food and 44 medicinal species were reported. In the economically less developed rural areas of Ukraine and Russia, the use of NWFPs continues to be an important part of livelihoods, both as a source of income and for domestic use as food and medicine. In Sweden the collection of wild food has become mainly a recreational activity

  18. Impact of expanded access to combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: results from a cohort study in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the scale-up of antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Ukraine since this became part of the national policy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods Data on 3535 HIV-positive pregnant women who were enrolled into the Ukraine European Collaborative Study in 2008–2010 were analysed. Factors associated with receipt of zidovudine monotherapy (AZTm) – rather than cART – and rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV were investigated. Findings cART coverage increased significantly, from 22% of deliveries in 2008 to 61% of those in 2010. After adjusting for possible confounders, initiation of antenatal AZTm – rather than cART – was associated with cohabiting (versus being married; adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR: 1.09; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.02–1.16), at least two previous live births (versus none; aPR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.11–1.35) and a diagnosis of HIV infection during the first or second trimester (versus before pregnancy; aPR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03–1.20). The overall MTCT rate was 4.1% (95% CI: 3.4–4.9); 42% (49/116) of the transmissions were from the 8% (n = 238) of women without antenatal ART. Compared with AZTm, cART was associated with a 70% greater reduction in the risk of MTCT (adjusted odds ratio: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.16–0.56). Conclusion Between 2008 and 2010, access to antenatal cART improved substantially in Ukraine, but implementation of the World Health Organization’s Option-B policy was slow. For MTCT to be eliminated in Ukraine, improvements in the retention of women in HIV care and further roll-out of Option B are urgently needed. PMID:23825876

  19. Fischer's Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of Ukraine and Poland.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Typek, Joanna

    2015-12-24

    Historical ethnobotanical studies are important, even if they are only descriptive, because they help to throw light on the missing chains needed for diachronic analysis. However, the documentation of traditional uses of plants in some countries, e.g. Ukraine, is still fragmentary. The aim of this contribution is to fill the gap and present a portion of the data set, from western Ukraine, which was collected by Adam Fischer, a Polish ethnographer from Lviv, in the 1930s. These data were originally gathered to be published in the first part of the Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs, dedicated to plant uses in traditional Slavonic culture. The idea of writing the Lexicon arose in 1929 during the I Congress of Slavic Philologists in Prague and was intended to be a joint international enterprise, but has never actually been fulfilled. In this article we used information from south-eastern Poland at that time - nowadays western Ukraine, collected in four provinces, 11 counties and 28 localities by Fischer's collaborators. The majority of the information was accompanied by voucher specimens, which were determined by botanists at the Jan Kazimierz University. These data are still unpublished and stored on filecards in the archives of the Polish Ethnological Society in Wrocław, Poland. In our analysis we applied two indices: one to measure general plant versatility - Use Value, and another regarding medicinal plants - Relative Importance Value. In total, 179 plant taxa used in peasant culture in the western Ukraine in the 1930s were registered. The species which achieved the highest Use Values were: Achillea millefolium, Allium sativum, Vinca minor, Hypericum sp. and Juniperus communis. Among the collected plant names, Polish names dominate (59%) over clearly Ukrainian and Ruthenian ones (31%). The remaining 10% of names were of unclear origin or could have been used by both groups. The most salient use categories were medicinal, followed by ritual - chiefly plants

  20. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Gudzenko, N; Hatch, M; Bazyka, D; Dyagil, I; Reiss, R F; Brenner, A; Chumak, V; Babkina, N; Zablotska, L B; Mabuchi, K

    2015-10-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. These data - the first from a working population in Ukraine - add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trials and tribulations of conducting bio-behavioral surveys in prisons: implementation science and lessons from Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Azbel, Lyuba; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Chernova, Olena; Dvoryak, Sergey; Polonsky, Maxim; Altice, Frederick L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ukraine is home to Europe's worst HIV epidemic, overwhelmingly fueled by people who inject drugs who face harsh prison sentences. In Ukraine, HIV and other infectious diseases are concentrated in prisons, yet the magnitude of this problem had not been quantified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the systematic health survey of prisoners in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were carried out with research and prison administrative staff to assess the barriers and facilitators to conducting a bio-behavioral survey in Ukrainian prisons. Findings Crucial barriers at the institutional, staff, and participant level require addressing by: first, ensuring Prison Department involvement at every stage; second, tackling pre-conceived attitudes about drug addiction and treatment among staff; and third, guaranteeing confidentiality for participants. Originality/value The burden of many diseases is higher than expected and much higher than in the community. Notwithstanding the challenges, scientifically rigorous bio-behavioral surveys are attainable in criminal justice systems in the FSU with collaboration and careful consideration of this specific context. PMID:27219905

  2. Trials and tribulations of conducting bio-behavioral surveys in prisons: implementation science and lessons from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Azbel, Lyuba; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Chernova, Olena; Dvoryak, Sergey; Polonsky, Maxim; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Ukraine is home to Europe's worst HIV epidemic, overwhelmingly fueled by people who inject drugs who face harsh prison sentences. In Ukraine, HIV and other infectious diseases are concentrated in prisons, yet the magnitude of this problem had not been quantified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the systematic health survey of prisoners in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative interviews were carried out with research and prison administrative staff to assess the barriers and facilitators to conducting a bio-behavioral survey in Ukrainian prisons. Findings - Crucial barriers at the institutional, staff, and participant level require addressing by: first, ensuring Prison Department involvement at every stage; second, tackling pre-conceived attitudes about drug addiction and treatment among staff; and third, guaranteeing confidentiality for participants. Originality/value - The burden of many diseases is higher than expected and much higher than in the community. Notwithstanding the challenges, scientifically rigorous bio-behavioral surveys are attainable in criminal justice systems in the FSU with collaboration and careful consideration of this specific context.

  3. The impact of cigarette excise taxes on smoking cessation rates from 1994 to 2010 in Poland, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Kostova, Deliana; Stoklosa, Michal; Leon, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We studied the impact of cigarette excise taxes on the rates of smoking cessation with data from 3 neighboring Eastern European countries (Russia, Poland, and Ukraine) during the post-transitional period of the 1990s and 2000s. Using Global Adult Tobacco Survey data from 11,106 former and current smokers, we estimated the impact of cigarette taxes on the smokers' likelihood of quitting over time. We first transformed the survey's cross-sectional data into a pseudo-longitudinal format in which the average observation period for individual subjects was 12 years and then employed duration analysis. We estimated that a 10% increase in cigarette taxes during the observation period increased the probability of smoking cessation among smokers in these countries by 1.6% to 2.3%. Cigarette tax increases have played a significant role in driving smoking cessation in Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. Further increases in cigarette excise taxes are likely to encourage further cessation and thus impact the prevalence of smoking in the region.

  4. Non-Radiation Risk Factors for Leukemia: A case-control study among Chornobyl Cleanup Workers in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Gudzenko, Nataliya; Hatch, Maureen; Bazyka, Dimitry; Dyagil, Irina; Reiss, Robert F; Brenner, Alina; Chumak, Vadim; Babkina, Natalie; Zablotska, Lydia B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. Methods In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. Results After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions These data – the first from a working population in Ukraine – add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. PMID:26117815

  5. Tapping the Potential for Energy Efficiency: The Role of ESCOs in the Czech Republic, Ukraine and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd

    2000-12-31

    Energy service companies have played a significant role in stimulating energy efficiency in many industrialized countries, including the United States. Many policymakers and development experts consider energy performance contracting an important mechanism for boosting energy efficiency in other countries as well. The experience of ESCOs in transition economies, however, is decidedly mixed. The Czech Republic has been able to foster a thriving ESCO industry with numerous players competing for business, although ESCOs have encountered problems along the way. In Russia and Ukraine, ESCOs have developed slowly, and few true performance contracts exist. This paper reviews the experience of ESCOs inmore » the Czech Republic, Ukraine and Russia and then explores the factors shaping the diverse trends in these countries. The paper draws on the experience of the national energy efficiency centers, development banks, bilateral assistance organizations and individual ESCOs in promoting ESCO industries. Factors that have influenced ESCOs to date include the economy, the price of energy, the financial situation of potential clients, the legislative basis for ESCO activities, the business experience of ESCO staff and access to information about the ESCO concept. Financing has also proven to be a critical factor in developing ESCOs. Lack of project financing and guarantees, for example, is a major problem in the former Soviet Union. The paper concludes by drawing recommendations for policymakers and industry on promoting ESCOs.« less

  6. THE UKRAINIAN-AMERICAN STUDY OF LEUKEMIA AND RELATED DISORDERS AMONG CHORNOBYL CLEANUP WORKERS FROM UKRAINE: III. RADIATION RISKS

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, A.Ye.; Finch, S.; Hatch, M.; Lubin, J.; Bebeshko, V.G.; Bazyka, D.A.; Gudzenko, N.; Dyagil, I.S.; Reiss, R.; Bouville, A.; Chumak, V.V.; Trotsiuk, N.K.; Babkina, N.G.; Belayev, Y.; Masnyk; Ron, E.; Howe, G.R.; Zablotska, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia is one of the cancers most susceptible to induction by ionizing radiation, but the effects of lower doses delivered over time have not been adequately quantified. Following the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident in Ukraine in April 1986, several hundred thousand workers who were involved in cleaning up the site and its surroundings received fractionated exposure, primarily from external gamma radiation. To increase our understanding of the role of protracted low-dose radiation exposure in the etiology of leukemia, we conducted a nested case-control study of leukemia in a cohort of cleanup workers identified from the Chornobyl State Registry of Ukraine. The analysis is based on 71 cases of histologically confirmed leukemia diagnosed in 1986–2000 and 501 age- and residence-matched controls selected from the same cohort. Study subjects or their proxies were interviewed about their cleanup activities and other relevant factors. Individual bone marrow radiation doses were estimated by the RADRUE dose reconstruction method (mean dose=76.4 (SD=213.4) milligray (mGy)). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate leukemia risks. The excess relative risk of total leukemia was 3.44 per Gy (95% confidence interval 0.47–9.78, p<0.01). The dose-response was linear and did not significantly differ by calendar period of first work in the 30-km Chornobyl zone, duration or type of work. We found a similar dose-response relationship for chronic and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:19138038

  7. Prediction of winter wheat high yield from remote sensing based model: application in United States and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and timely crop yield forecasts are critical for making informed agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. In Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) and Franch et al. (2015) we developed an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat yield. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season and the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. These methods were applied to MODIS CMG data in Ukraine, the US and China with errors around 10%. However, the NDVI is saturated for yield values higher than 4 MT/ha. As a consequence, the model had to be re-calibrated in each country and the validation of the national yields showed low correlation coefficients. In this study we present a new model based on the extrapolation of the pure wheat signal (100% of wheat within the pixel) from MODIS data at 1km resolution and using the Difference Vegetation Index (DVI). The model has been applied to monitor the national yield of winter wheat in the United States and Ukraine from 2001 to 2016.

  8. Responding to the World Health Organization Gobal Disability Action Plan in Ukraine: Developing a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan.

    PubMed

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Tederko, Piotr; Grabljevec, Klemen; Nugraha, Boya

    2018-04-18

    In order to support the development of a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan (NDHRP) for Ukraine, a technical consultation was carried out by a Rehabilitation Advisory Team (RAT) of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) in 2015. The consultation was based on assessment of the situation of persons with disabilities and the rehabilitation system in Ukraine. Recommendations for activities and projects to improve rehabilitation services within the healthcare system were developed and proposed. In order to reach consensus on the recommendations, dialogues were held with different stakeholders, including the Ministry of Public Health. The recommendations included: coordination of disability and rehabilitation policies within the Ministry of Public Health and among other involved ministries; translation and adaptation of international definitions of functioning, disability, and assessment tools into Ukrainian; data collection on the epidemiology of disability and the need for rehabilitation; implementation of health-related rehabilitation services; and implementation of international definitions and curricula of rehabilitation professions. The mission was regarded as successful and one year later a few changes had been adopted by the Ukrainian government. Further action based on this research is necessary. It will be important to track the changes and evaluate the results after an appropriate period of time.

  9. First ancient DNA sequences from the Late Pleistocene red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Crimea, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanković, Ana; Nadachowski, Adam; Doan, Karolina; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Baca, Mateusz; Socha, Paweł; Wegleński, Piotr; Ridush, Bogdan

    2010-05-01

    The Late Pleistocene has been a period of significant population and species turnover and extinctions among the large mammal fauna. Massive climatic and environmental changes during Pleistocene significantly influenced the distribution and also genetic diversity of plants and animals. The model of glacial refugia and habitat contraction to southern peninsulas in Europe as areas for the survival of temperate animal species during unfavourable Pleistocene glaciations is at present widely accepted. However, both molecular data and the fossil record indicate the presence of northern and perhaps north-eastern refugia in Europe. In recent years, much new palaeontological data have been obtained in the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine, following extensive investigations. The red deer (Cervus elaphus) samples for aDNA studies were collected in Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave, situated on the north edge of Lower Plateau of the Chatyrdag Massif (Crimean Mountains). The cave is a vertical shaft, which functioned as a huge mega-trap over a long period of time (probably most of the Pleistocene). The bone assemblages provided about 5000 bones belonging to more than 40 species. The C. elaphus bones were collected from three different stratigraphical levels, radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method. The bone fragments of four specimens of red deer were used for the DNA isolation and analysis. The mtDNA (Cytochome b) was successfully isolated from three bone fragments and the cytochrome b sequences were amplified by multiplex PCR. The sequences obtained so far allowed for the reconstruction of only preliminary phylogenetic trees. A fragment of metatarsus from level dated to ca. 48,500±2,000 years BP, yielded a sequence of 513 bp, allowing to locate the specimen on the phylogenetic tree within modern C. elaphus specimens from southern and middle Europe. The second bone fragment, a fragment of mandible, collected from level dated approximately to ca. 33,500±400 years BP

  10. HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine: results from a clustered randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jonathan M.; Dvoryak, Sergey; Brewster, John T.; Lisovska, Oksana; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background In this study, we sought to assess whether a social network intervention was superior to HIV testing and counseling in impacting HIV incidence among PWID. Although this was not a primary study aim, it is associated with reducing drug and sex risk behaviors, which were primary aims. Methods PWID were recruited from street settings in Odessa, Donetsk, and Nikolayev, Ukraine for a clustered randomized clinical trial (RCT). “Index” or peer leaders, along with two of their network members, were randomly assigned to testing and counseling block (N=589) or testing and counseling plus a social network intervention block (N=611). Participants in the network intervention received 5-sessions to train their network members in risk reduction. Those assigned testing and counseling received no further intervention following counseling. Employing an intent to treat analyses, the primary outcome was HIV sero-conversion using Cox regression and incorporating a gamma frailty term to account for clustering. No stratification or minimization was utilized. The trail was registered with ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01159704. Findings Between July 12, 2010 and November 23, 2012, 2,304 PWID were recruited, 1,200 of whom were HIV negative and included in the present study. At baseline, there were no significant differences between groups. Of the 1,200 HIV negative participants, 1,085 (90.4%) were retained at 12 months. Incidence density revealed 18.45 (95% CI 14.87 – 22.03, 102 events in 553.0 py) per 100 person years (py) for those in the intervention group and 31.78 (95% CI 26.83–36.74, 158 events in 497.1 py) per 100 py among control arm participants. This corresponded to a reduced hazard in the intervention group, HR= 0.53 (95% CI 0.38, 0.76, p =0.0003). There were no study-related adverse events. Interpretation These data provide strong support for integrating peer education into comprehensive HIV prevention programs for PWID and suggest the value in developing and

  11. Large Scale Crop Classification in Ukraine using Multi-temporal Landsat-8 Images with Missing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, N.; Skakun, S.; Shelestov, A.; Lavreniuk, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    At present, there are no globally available Earth observation (EO) derived products on crop maps. This issue is being addressed within the Sentinel-2 for Agriculture initiative where a number of test sites (including from JECAM) participate to provide coherent protocols and best practices for various global agriculture systems, and subsequently crop maps from Sentinel-2. One of the problems in dealing with optical images for large territories (more than 10,000 sq. km) is the presence of clouds and shadows that result in having missing values in data sets. In this abstract, a new approach to classification of multi-temporal optical satellite imagery with missing data due to clouds and shadows is proposed. First, self-organizing Kohonen maps (SOMs) are used to restore missing pixel values in a time series of satellite imagery. SOMs are trained for each spectral band separately using non-missing values. Missing values are restored through a special procedure that substitutes input sample's missing components with neuron's weight coefficients. After missing data restoration, a supervised classification is performed for multi-temporal satellite images. For this, an ensemble of neural networks, in particular multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), is proposed. Ensembling of neural networks is done by the technique of average committee, i.e. to calculate the average class probability over classifiers and select the class with the highest average posterior probability for the given input sample. The proposed approach is applied for large scale crop classification using multi temporal Landsat-8 images for the JECAM test site in Ukraine [1-2]. It is shown that ensemble of MLPs provides better performance than a single neural network in terms of overall classification accuracy and kappa coefficient. The obtained classification map is also validated through estimated crop and forest areas and comparison to official statistics. 1. A.Yu. Shelestov et al., "Geospatial information system

  12. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  13. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (‘‘113RQKR;F117’’), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values rang...

  14. Wild bird surveillance for avian paramyxoviruses in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2006 to 2011) reveals epidemiological connections with Europe and Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveillance for infection with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) of 6,735 wild birds representing 86 species and 8 different orders was conducted during 2006-2011 in seven regions of Ukraine through different seasons of the year. A total of 20 viruses were isolated and subsequently identified as APMV-1...

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine (2006-2011)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in a region of Ukraine known as being intercontinental (North-South and East-West) flyways. A total of 6,281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and 11 orders. From these samples, 69 ...

  16. Situational Methodology as Multifaceted Pedagogical Tool of Influence on the Formation of Socio-Ethical Values of Future Managers-Economists in Higher Schools of Ukraine and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikaliuk, Anzhela

    2014-01-01

    The role and importance of situational methodology as one of the pedagogical tools of influence on the formation of socio-ethical values of future managers in higher schools of Ukraine and Germany have been theoretically substantiated. The possibilities of situational methodology influence on the formation of socio-ethical values of…

  17. National Identity of High-School Adolescents in an Era of Socio-Economic Change: Russia and Ukraine in the Post-Perestroika Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the national identity of high-school adolescents in Russia and Ukraine in the post-perestroika period. Adolescents studying in public high schools in 12 medium-size and large cities completed questionnaires in 1999 (n = 468) and 2007 (n = 646). Russian adolescents consistently reported a more positive attitude towards their…

  18. A Comparative Leadership Development Study within Student Collegiate Clubs and Organizations at an Agrarian University in Ukraine and a University within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelling, Erik; Hoover, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore leadership development within student collegiate clubs and organizations at an agrarian university in Ukraine. The data were then compared to a College of Agricultural Sciences at a university within the United States. The information collected in the study will serve as a basis for understanding leadership…

  19. Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics at the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology', National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: origins, events, facts, comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan'shina, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    The titled institute is the only historical example in Ukraine of a scientific school maintaining research continuity for over 80 years already. Today, it seems appropriate to remember the origins, to reflect on where this longevity came from, and to take a look at numerous behind-the-scenes legends and fiction stories that have grown around the institute.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Models of Bachelors of Arts' Professional Training in Applied Linguistics at the Universities of Ukraine and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korniienko, Vita

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of scientists' researches from different countries dealing with different aspects of training in the educational systems of developed countries was carried out. The models of Bachelors of Arts in Applied Linguistics professional training in Ukraine were considered. It was analyzed a professional training of Bachelor of Arts in Applied…

  2. Socio-Economic Forces and the Rise of the World-Class Research University in the Post-Soviet Higher Education Space: The Case of Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    Mixed data analysis from 14 national research universities in Ukraine provides insights into the challenges faced by higher education reformers, as they push academic science to a higher position in the emerging knowledge economy, but are halted by deeply entrenched economic and political legacies. This paper examines competing forces that…

  3. Standard of care and direct medical costs of the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among the adult population in Ukraine, Russia, and Kazakhstan: data from the LEUKOSPECT study

    PubMed Central

    Vasylyev, Averyan; Molostvova, Valentina; Rebrov, Boris A; Makarova, Janina; Zaritskey, Andrey; Ptushkin, Vadim; Ramazanova, Raigul; Popovych, Yuriy; Tsyapka, Orest; Pashanov, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The LEUKOSPECT study aimed to describe health service utilization and to estimate the direct medical costs (DMCs) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in 2013 in the adult population of three post-Soviet countries – Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. As oncologic medical care is provided by federal state-owned, specialized medical institutions, the cost estimation in this study primarily informs from a state budget perspective. Patients’ contributions to medical costs were not included in the cost evaluation. Patients and methods This was a multinational, multicenter, retrospective study conducted in eight specialized centers (four in Russia, three in Ukraine, and one in Kazakhstan). The investigators captured data from the medical documents of all adult patients with an established CLL diagnosis before December 31, 2013, and who made at least one visit to their respective center between January 1 and December 31, 2013. Results A total of 319 adult CLL patients were enrolled (124 in Kazakhstan, 106 in Russia, and 89 in Ukraine). In 2013, the DMCs of CLL management (without CLL therapy) were €215.40 in Kazakhstan, €1,342.20 in Russia, and €13,260.70 in Ukraine. Hospitalizations formed the largest proportion of total cost: 18.1%, 23.1%, and 40.4%, respectively. The mean cost of CLL medical treatment was €13,580.60 (Russia), €399.40 (Kazakhstan), and €7,453.00 (Ukraine). Conclusion CLL treatment standards varied across the selected countries; higher usage of biologic therapy was noted in Russia. Future research is needed to assess DMCs which include CLL treatment, which is another essential factor contributing to CLL DMCs. PMID:28919818

  4. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postnatal HIV-positive women in Ukraine: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather; Malyuta, Ruslan; Semenenko, Igor; Townsend, Claire L; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire

    2016-03-22

    Perinatal depression among HIV-positive women has negative implications for HIV-related and other maternal and infant outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and correlates of perinatal depression among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, a lower middle income country with one of the largest HIV-positive populations in Europe. Cross-sectional surveys nested within the Ukraine European Collaborative Study were conducted of HIV-positive women at delivery and between 1 and 12 months postpartum. Depressive symptoms in the previous month were assessed using a self-report screening tool. Other data collected included demographics, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related self-efficacy, and perceptions of risks/benefits of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Characteristics of women with and without a positive depression screening test result were compared using Fisher's exact test and χ2 test for categorical variables. A quarter (27% (49/180) antenatally and 25% (57/228) postnatally) of participants screened positive for depressive symptoms. Antenatal risk factors were living alone (58% (7/12) vs. 25% (42/167) p = 0.02), being somewhat/terribly bothered by ART side effects (40% (17/43) vs. 23% (30/129) not /only slightly bothered, p = 0.05) and having lower ART-related self-efficacy (43% (12/28) vs. 23% (25/110) with higher self-efficacy, p = 0.05). Postnatally, single mothers were more likely to screen positive (44% (20/45) vs. 21% (18/84) of cohabiting and 19% (19/99) of married women, p < 0.01) as were those unsure of the effectiveness of neonatal prophylaxis (40% (20/45) vs. 18% (28/154) sure of effectiveness, p < 0.01), those worried that neonatal prophylaxis could harm the baby (30% (44/146) vs. 14% (10/73) not worried p < 0.01) and those not confident to ask for help with taking ART (48% (11/23) vs. 27% (10/37) fairly confident and 15 % (4/26) confident that they could do this). Of women who reported

  5. Determinants of willingness to enroll in opioid agonist treatment among opioid dependent people who inject drugs in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Makarenko, Iuliia; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Polonsky, Maxim; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J; Filippovych, Sergii; Springer, Sandra; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-08-01

    Coverage with opioid agonist treatments (OAT) that include methadone and buprenorphine is low (N=8400, 2.7%) for the 310,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. In the context of widespread negative attitudes toward OAT in the region, patient-level interventions targeting the barriers and willingness to initiate OAT are urgently needed. A sample of 1179 PWID with opioid use disorder not currently on OAT from five regions in Ukraine was assessed using multivariable logistic regression for independent factors related to willingness to initiate OAT, stratified by their past OAT experience. Overall, 421 (36%) PWID were willing to initiate OAT. Significant adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for covariates associated with the willingness to initiate OAT common for both groups included: higher injection frequency (previously on OAT: aOR=2.7; never on OAT: aOR=1.8), social and family support (previously on OAT: aOR=2.0; never on OAT: aOR=2.0), and positive attitude towards OAT (previously on OAT: aOR=1.3; never on OAT: aOR=1.4). Among participants previously on OAT, significant correlates also included: HIV-negative status (aOR=2.6) and depression (aOR=2.7). Among participants never on OAT, however, living in Kyiv (aOR=4.8) or Lviv (aOR=2.7), previous imprisonment (aOR=1.5), registration at a Narcology service (aOR=1.5) and recent overdose (aOR=2.6) were significantly correlated with willingness to initiate OAT. These findings emphasize the need for developing interventions aimed to eliminate existing negative preconceptions regarding OAT among PWID with opioid use disorder in Ukraine, which should be tailored to meet the needs of specific characteristics of PWID in geographically distinct setting based upon injection frequency, prior incarceration, and psychiatric and HIV status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between type 2 diabetes and prenatal exposure to the Ukraine famine of 1932-33: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lumey, L H; Khalangot, Mykola D; Vaiserman, Alexander M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of fetal and early childhood living conditions on adult health has long been debated, but empirical assessment in human beings remains a challenge. We used data from during the man-made Ukrainian famine of 1932-33 to examine the association between restricted nutrition in early gestation and type 2 diabetes in offspring in later life. We included all patients with type 2 diabetes diagnosed at age 40 years or older in the Ukraine national diabetes register 2000-08, and used all individuals born between 1930 and 1938 from the 2001 Ukraine national census as the reference population. This study population includes individuals born before and after the famine period as controls, and those from regions that experienced extreme, severe, or no famine. We used prevalence odds ratios (ORs) as the measure of association between type 2 diabetes and early famine exposure, with stratification by region, date of birth, and sex for comparisons of diabetes prevalence in specific subgroups. Using these two datasets, we compared the odds of type 2 diabetes by date and region of birth in 43,150 patients with diabetes and 1,421,024 individuals born between 1930 and 1938. With adjustment for season of birth, the OR for developing type 2 diabetes was 1·47 (95% CI 1·37-1·58) in individuals born in the first half of 1934 in regions with extreme famine, 1·26 (1·14-1·39) in individuals born in regions with severe famine, and there was no increase (OR 1·00, 0·91-1·09) in individuals born in regions with no famine, compared with births in other time periods. Multivariable analyses confirmed these results. The associations between type 2 diabetes and famine around the time of birth were similar in men and women. These results show a dose-response relation between famine severity during prenatal development and odds of type 2 diabetes in later life. Our findings suggest that early gestation is a critical time window of development; therefore, further studies of biological

  7. Iodine-129 in soils from Northern Ukraine and the retrospective dosimetry of the iodine-131 exposure after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Michel, R; Handl, J; Ernst, T; Botsch, W; Szidat, S; Schmidt, A; Jakob, D; Beltz, D; Romantschuk, L D; Synal, H-A; Schnabel, C; López-Gutiérrez, J M

    2005-03-20

    Forty-eight soil profiles down to a depth of 40 cm were taken in Russia and Ukraine in 1995 and 1997, respectively, in order to investigate the feasibility of retrospective dosimetry of the 131I exposure after the Chernobyl accident via the long-lived 129I. The sampling sites covered areas almost not affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident such as Moscow/Russia and the Zhitomir district in Ukraine as well as the highly contaminated Korosten and Narodici districts in Ukraine. 129I was analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 127I was measured for some profiles by RNAA or ion chromatography (IC). The results for 127I demonstrated large differences in the capabilities of the soils to store iodine over long time spans. The depth profiles of 129I and of 137Cs showed large differences in the migration behavior between the two nuclides but also for each nuclide among the different sampling sites. Though it cannot be quantified how much 129I and 137Cs was lost out of the soil columns into deeper depths, the inventories in the columns were taken as proxies for the total inventories. For 129I, these inventories were at least three orders of magnitude higher than a pre-nuclear value of 0.084+/-0.017 mBq m(-2) derived from a soil profile taken in 1939 in Lutovinovo/Russia. From the samples from Moscow and Zhitomir, a pre-Chernobyl 129I inventory of (44+/-24) mBq m(-2) was determined, limiting the feasibility of 129I retrospective dosimetry to areas where the 129I inventories exceed 100 mBq m(-2). Higher average 129I inventories in the Korosten and Narodici districts of 130 and 848 mBq m(-2), respectively, allowed determination of the 129I fallout due to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the total 129I inventories and on literature data for the atomic ratio of 129I/131I=13.6+/-2.8 for the Chernobyl emissions and on aggregated dose coefficients for 131I, the thyroid exposure due to 131I after the Chernobyl

  8. Anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins of brood horses in Ukraine and influence of anthelmintic treatments on strongylid community structure.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetyana A; Kharchenko, Vitaliy O

    2008-07-04

    In 2004-2006, 322 brood horses from 11 horse farms were examined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) to determine the presence and distribution of anthelmintic resistance in strongylids in Ukraine. The anthelmintic drugs "Albendazole-7.5" (7.5mg of albenazole, Ukraine) at a dose of 5mg per kg body weight and "Univerm" (0.2% aversectin C, Russia) at a dose of 0.5mg per kg body weight were used. Seventy-one horses from six farms were examined in vivo to investigate the influence of anthelmintic treatment on the gastrointestinal strongylid community structure. Horses were treated with anthelmintics; faecal sampling (200 g in each sample) for strongylid expulsion was performed 24, 36, 48 and 60 h after treatment; and all strongylids expelled (25,292 specimens) were collected and identified. Fourteen horses from the Dubrovsky horse farm were also examined to determine the benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomin species; 5208 specimens of benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomins were collected and identified. According to the FECRT data, benzimidazole resistance in strongylids was observed only at the Dubrovsky horse farm (FECRT=68.7%). No resistance to macrocyclic lactones in strongylids or in Parascaris equorum was observed. Twenty-nine strongylid species were found in horses from six horse farms. The number of species per horse ranged from 4-9 (5.8+/-1.5) to 10-20 (14.4+/-2.9) and depended on horse anthelmintic treatment strategies. From 4 to 13 strongylid species predominated (prevalence>66.7%) in the strongylid community. Eleven cyathostomin species (Cylicocyclus nassatus, C. ashworthi, C. leptostomum, Cyathostomum catinatum, C. pateratum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, C. longibursatus, C. goldi, C. minutus, Coronocyclus coronatus and C. labiatus) were found to be resistant to benzimidazoles at the Dubrovsky horse farm. Ten of these were the dominant species in the strongylid community; only C. labiatus was a rare species (prevalence 29.4%). Species richness

  9. Cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Mandrik, Olena; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Knies, Saskia; Al, Maiwenn; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness, from a health care perspective, of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide scheme (FCR versus FC) for treatment-naïve and refractory/relapsed Ukrainian patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A decision-analytic Markov cohort model with three health states and 1-month cycle time was developed and run within a life time horizon. Data from two multinational, prospective, open-label Phase 3 studies were used to assess patients' survival. While utilities were generalized from UK data, local resource utilization and disease-associated treatment, hospitalization, and side effect costs were applied. The alternative scenario was performed to assess the impact of lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for treatment-naïve patients. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. The ICER (in US dollars) of treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with FCR versus FC is US$8,704 per quality-adjusted life year gained for treatment-naïve patients and US$11,056 for refractory/relapsed patients. When survival data were modified to the lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine, the ICER for treatment-naïve patients was higher than US$13,000. This value is higher than three times the current gross domestic product per capita in Ukraine. Sensitivity analyses have shown a high impact of rituximab costs and a moderate impact of differences in utilities on the ICER. Furthermore, probabilistic sensitivity analyses have shown that for refractory/relapsed patients the probability of FCR being cost-effective is higher than for treatment-naïve patients and is close to one if the threshold is higher than US$15,000. State coverage of rituximab treatment may be considered a cost-effective treatment for the Ukrainian population under conditions of economic

  10. Applying U.S. EOP Analytical Justification Experience for VVER Plants in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, Paul A.; Julian, Harold V.; Chapman, James R.

    2002-07-01

    The foundation for new Emergency Operating Instructions (EOIs) being developed at several plants in the Ukraine is the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) developed in the U.S. The ERGs were chosen as a base for the new EOIs for several reasons. First the overall structure and format was adaptable to VVER Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs. Second, the ERGs have served as a base for many plant EOIs in both the U.S. and internationally. Third, key information supporting the ERGs was available. This paper describes the method used at one of the Ukrainian plants to provide anmore » analytical justification for their EOIs. The method being employed by a second plant is very similar, differing only slightly in how it is implemented. The WOG ERG development program, which started shortly after the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2, used many sources of technical information on plant and system transient response, which were available in support of the plant design and licensing efforts. In addition, operating experience from many operating PWR plants in the U.S. and around the world was used. For example, design basis accident (DBA) analyses, documented in a plant's Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and other design documents, had been performed by Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) vendors, utilities, or the Architect/Engineer. All relevant sources were considered in the development of the ERGs. Limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) analyses were available during that time period. When a technical basis for a recovery strategy and associated operator actions was not available, an analysis was defined and performed. In general, these analyses were performed on a generic basis, and addressed the different categories of design (e.g., number of reactor coolant loops and/or low/high pressure safety injection system design). U.S. Nuclear Power plants that were in the WOG program were responsible for implementing the generic ERGs

  11. Petroleum geology and resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Dnieper-Donets basin is almost entirely in Ukraine, and it is the principal producer of hydrocarbons in that country. A small southeastern part of the basin is in Russia. The basin is bounded by the Voronezh high of the Russian craton to the northeast and by the Ukrainian shield to the southwest. The basin is principally a Late Devonian rift that is overlain by a Carboniferous to Early Permian postrift sag. The Devonian rift structure extends northwestward into the Pripyat basin of Belarus; the two basins are separated by the Bragin-Loev uplift, which is a Devonian volcanic center. Southeastward, the Dnieper-Donets basin has a gradational boundary with the Donbas foldbelt, which is a structurally inverted and deformed part of the basin. The sedimentary succession of the basin consists of four tectono-stratigraphic sequences. The prerift platform sequence includes Middle Devonian to lower Frasnian, mainly clastic, rocks that were deposited in an extensive intracratonic basin. 1 The Upper Devonian synrift sequence probably is as thick as 4?5 kilometers. It is composed of marine carbonate, clastic, and volcanic rocks and two salt formations, of Frasnian and Famennian age, that are deformed into salt domes and plugs. The postrift sag sequence consists of Carboniferous and Lower Permian clastic marine and alluvial deltaic rocks that are as thick as 11 kilometers in the southeastern part of the basin. The Lower Permian interval includes a salt formation that is an important regional seal for oil and gas fields. The basin was affected by strong compression in Artinskian (Early Permian) time, when southeastern basin areas were uplifted and deeply eroded and the Donbas foldbelt was formed. The postrift platform sequence includes Triassic through Tertiary rocks that were deposited in a shallow platform depression that extended far beyond the Dnieper-Donets basin boundaries. A single total petroleum system encompassing the entire sedimentary succession is identified in

  12. Air born soil pollution assessment and mitigation in the south of ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Olga; Kharytonov, Mykola; Moschner, Christin; Khlopova, Valentina M.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric emissions made by mining and metallurgy industry account for 54 % of total air pollutions of the Dnipropetrovsk Region. As it has been shown previously, the range of pollutants depends on the number and types of the industrial enterprises located within the each urban area. In Dnipropetrovsk and surrounding cities the dominant emissions come from the waste of metallurgical and chemical industries, which is heavily developed in this area. The multipollution exposure assessment was made for the several cities in Dnipropetrovsk industrial region in the south of Ukraine. In this connection the monitoring of atmospheric air pollution in the environment of the Dnepropetrovsk megalopolis area was carried out in several industrial cities: Dnipropetrovsk, Dneprodzerzhynsk, Kryvyy Ryg and Pavlograd with use of the network of stationary monitoring stations at the Dnepropetrovsk Regional Center of Hydrometeorology. The initial evaluation of technogenic atmospheric pollution with toxic substances was performed with due to the limit values of so-called maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for harmful emissions in the atmosphere as set out in the Ukrainian Air Quality Standards. The main sources of air pollution in industrial cities are stationary. Meantime increasing road transport is a growing source of pollution. The maximum excess of MPC content of NO2 in the atmosphere of the cities has reached twice. Over the last 5 years in the atmosphere of industrial cities in the region there was an increased level of nitrogen dioxide (excess of MPC in 1, 5-2, 5 times). Number of inorganic aerosols (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other) has an effect of summation. In the presence of diffuse sources are superimposed individual emissions and formed the total torch actually located over the whole of the industrial agglomeration. Spatial structure of such a torch is very complicated, instant concentrations of impurities at various points in the city are substantially

  13. Application of TREECS Modeling System to Strontium-90 for Borschi Watershed near Chernobyl, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Billy E; Dortch, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    The Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS™) (http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/treecs/) is being developed by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) for the U.S. Army to forecast the fate of munitions constituents (MC) (such as high explosives (HE) and metals) found on firing/training ranges, as well as those subsequently transported to surface water and groundwater. The overall purpose of TREECS™ is to provide environmental specialists with tools to assess the potential for MC migration into surface water and groundwater systems and to assess range management strategies to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The multimedia fate/transport models within TREECS™ are mathematical models of reduced form (e.g., reduced dimensionality) that allow rapid application with less input data requirements compared with more complicated models. Although TREECS™ was developed for the fate of MC from military ranges, it has general applicability to many other situations requiring prediction of contaminant (including radionuclide) fate in multi-media environmental systems. TREECS™ was applied to the Borschi watershed near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine. At this site, TREECS™ demonstrated its use as a modeling tool to predict the fate of strontium 90 ((90)Sr). The most sensitive and uncertain input for this application was the soil-water partitioning distribution coefficient (Kd) for (90)Sr. The TREECS™ soil model provided reasonable estimates of the surface water export flux of (90)Sr from the Borschi watershed when using a Kd for (90)Sr of 200 L/kg. The computed export for the year 2000 was 0.18% of the watershed inventory of (90)Sr compared to the estimated export flux of 0.14% based on field data collected during 1999-2001. The model indicated that assumptions regarding the form of the inventory, whether dissolved or in solid phase form, did not appreciably affect export rates

  14. Lake sedimentological and plant ecological development across the Early Danian hyperthermal, Boltysh Impact Crater, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David; Andrews, Steven; Kemp, David

    2017-04-01

    Past hyperthermals and associated negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) are inferred to have had significant impact on marine environments; however the formation and changes of terrestrial ecosystems across hyperthermals are less well constrained due to the lack of complete and high-resolution data. The Boltysh impact crater, Ukraine, which formed at the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary at the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean, contains a >400 m thick unique and detailed lacustrine rock record of the Early Danian Dan-C2 hyperthermal. Based on a borehole (hole 42/11) drilled in the central part of the crater, we use a combination of sedimentological, palynological and carbon isotope data to 1) characterise and reconstruct lake formation and associated plant ecosystems, and 2) to assess lake sedimentological and ecological response to climatic variabilities during warming. Based on detailed facies analysis, 3 major gradual stages of lake formation are identified, indicating a strong relationship to carbon isotope shifts and associated climatic trends. Initial pre-excursion sedimentation was controlled by crater morphology and crater rim erosion transporting high amount of sediment into a shallow fresh water lake. During the negative excursion, sediment supply was increasingly characterised by inflow-evaporation ratio variabilities which affected seasonal stratification patterns and longer-term lake levels. An inferred increase in atmospheric pCO2 during the CIE, together with increasing mean annual temperatures, was likely responsible for periodic increases in bioproductivity. Palynological analyses demonstrate a gradual shift from mesic humid dominated vegetation to winterwet savannah-type vegetation at this stage, associated with an increase in mean annual temperatures and decrease in moisture availability. The positive excursion (recovery) and post-excursion stage is characterised by increased abundance of temperate mesic humid taxa. This cooling trend

  15. Contemporary attitudes and their ideological representation in Flanders (Belgium), Poland, and the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hiel, Alain Van; Kossowska, Malgorzata

    2007-02-01

    The present research tests the validity of a two-dimensional cultural and economic right-wing model of ideology, as well as the relationships between these dimensions and attitudes toward recent political issues. Opinions about environmentalism, war on terror, and European Union enlargement were selected as representative contemporary attitudes. The present research questions were investigated in a Flemish (N = 176), Polish (N = 93), and Ukrainian (N = 93) sample. The results revealed that two dimensions underlie the ideological spectrum in all samples, one referring to cultural conservatism and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and one referring to economic conservatism and social dominance orientation (SDO). Although the validity of differentiating between these ideological dimensions has been amply illustrated in studies on Western samples, the replication of these dimensions in former communist countries add to their validity and generality, because these countries have a specific political culture and history. However, important cross-cultural differences with respect to the representation of the contemporary attitudes in this two-dimensional ideological space were obtained as well. Whereas the war on terror attitude was meaningfully related to the cultural right-wing dimension in all samples, the relationships for the environmentalism and EU enlargement attitudes were sample dependent. These cross-cultural differences were explained in terms of saliency of the issue (nonsignificant versus significant relationships in the case of environmentalism) and pragmatic concerns in terms of profits and costs (in the case of EU enlargement). In the discussion it is also argued that the closer correspondence between the ideological representation of these attitudes in Polish and Western society may be caused by the fact that communism was less successful in penetrating political mentality in Poland than in the Ukraine. La présente recherche teste la validité d

  16. The Ukrainian-American Study of Leukemia and Related Disorders Among Chornobyl Cleanup Workers from Ukraine: I. STUDY METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, A.; Bebeshko, V; Hatch, M; Bazyka, D; Finch, S.; Dyagil, I; Reiss, R.; Chumak, V; Bouville, A; Gudzenko, N; Zablotska, L; Pilinskaya, M.; Lyubarets, T.; Bakhanova, E.; Babkina, N.; Trotsiuk, N.; Ledoschuk, B.; Belayev, Y.; Dybsky, S.S.; Ron, E.; Howe, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thus far there are relatively few data on the risk of leukemia among those who were exposed to external radiation during cleanup operations following the Chornobyl nuclear accident, and results have not been consistent. To investigate this issue further, we assembled a cohort of 110,645 male cleanup workers from Ukraine and identified cases of leukemia occurring during the period 1986 to 2000. Detailed interviews were conducted and individual bone marrow doses were estimated using a new time-and-motion method known as RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimate). See companion paper II for a detailed description of the dosimetry. For the initial analyses we used a nested case-control approach with a minimum of five controls per case, matched for year of birth, oblast (region) of registration and residence. All identified cases were reviewed by an international panel of experts. The dose-response analysis and results are given in companion paper III. PMID:19138036

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Integrating HIV Counseling and Testing into Primary Health Care in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Johns, Benjamin; Doroshenko, Olena; Tarantino, Lisa; Cowley, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We estimate the number of HIV cases diagnosed, costs, and cost per HIV case detected associated with integrating HIV counseling and testing (HCT) into primary health care facilities in Ukraine. The study uses a difference-in-difference design with four districts implementing the intervention compared to 20 districts where HCT were offered only at specialized HIV clinics. There was a 2.01 (95 % CI: 1.12-3.61) times increase in the number of HIV cases detected per capita in intervention districts compared to other districts. The incremental cost of the intervention was $21,017 and the incremental cost per HIV case detected was $369. The average cost per HIV case detected before the intervention was $558. Engaging primary health care facilities to provide HCT is likely desirable from an efficiency point-of-view. However, the affordability of the intervention needs to be assessed because expansion will require additional investment.

  18. Determination of dominant sources of nitrate contamination in transboundary (Russian Federation/Ukraine) catchment with heterogeneous land use.

    PubMed

    Vystavna, Y; Diadin, D; Grynenko, V; Yakovlev, V; Vergeles, Y; Huneau, F; Rossi, P M; Hejzlar, J; Knöller, K

    2017-09-18

    Nitrate contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater was studied in transboundary (Russia/Ukraine) catchment with heterogeneous land use. Dominant sources of nitrate contamination were determined by applying a dual δ 15 N-NO 3 and δ 18 O-NO 3 isotope approach, multivariate statistics, and land use analysis. Nitrate concentration was highly variable from 0.25 to 22 mg L -1 in surface water and from 0.5 to 100 mg L -1 in groundwater. The applied method indicated that sewage to surface water and sewage and manure to groundwater were dominant sources of nitrate contamination. Nitrate/chloride molar ratio was added to support the dual isotope signature and indicated the contribution of fertilizers to the nitrate content in groundwater. Groundwater temperature was found to be an additional indicator of manure and sewerage leaks in the shallow aquifer which has limited protection and is vulnerable to groundwater pollution.

  19. The Role of the George Kuzmycz Training Center in Improving the Nuclear Material Management Culture in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrylyuk, V. I.; Scherbachenko, A. M.; Bazavov, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The George Kuzmycz Training Center for Physical Protection, Control and Accounting (GKTC) was established in 1998 in a collaborative endeavor of the State Nuclear Regulatory Administration of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Department of Energy. Located at the Institute for Nuclear Research in Kyiv, the GKTC provides theoretical and practical training in physical protection, control, and accounting techniques and systems that are employed to reduce the risk of unauthorized use, theft, or diversion of weapons-usable nuclear material. Participants in GKTC workshops and courses include nuclear facility specialists as well as officials of the State's regulatory authorities.more » Recently, the training scope has been broadened to include students from other nations in the region.« less

  20. Anomic Strain and External Constraints: A Reassessment of Merton's Anomie/Strain Theory Using Data From Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Antonaccio, Olena; Smith, William R; Gostjev, Feodor A

    2015-09-01

    This study provides a new assessment of Merton's anomie/strain theory and fills in several gaps in the literature. First, using the data from the sample of adolescents in an especially suitable and interesting setting, post-Soviet Ukraine, it investigates the applicability of the theory to this context and reveals that predictive powers of anomic strain may be influenced by larger sociocultural environments. Second, it evaluates the possibility of theoretical elaboration of Merton's theory through identifying contingencies such as external constraints on behavior and finds limited support for moderating effects of perceptions of risks of sanctioning and social bonds on anomic strain-delinquency relationships. Finally, it confirms that additional clarifications of the concept of anomic strain may be promising. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Realization of Vilnius UPXYZVS photometric system for AltaU42 CCD camera at the MAO NAS of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vid'Machenko, A. P.; Andruk, V. M.; Samoylov, V. S.; Delets, O. S.; Nevodovsky, P. V.; Ivashchenko, Yu. M.; Kovalchuk, G. U.

    2005-06-01

    The description of two-inch glass filters of the Vilnius UPXYZVS photometric system, which are made at the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine for AltaU42 CCD camera with format of 2048×2048 pixels, is presented in the paper. Reaction curves of instrumental system are shown. Estimations of minimal star's magnitudes for each filter's band in comparison with the visual V one are obtained. New software for automation of CCD frames processing is developed in program shell of LINUX/MIDAS/ROMAFOT. It is planned to carry out observations with the purpose to create the catalogue of primary UPXYZVS CCD standards in selected field of the sky for some radio-sources, globular and open clusters, etc. Numerical estimations of astrometric and photometric accuracy are obtained.

  2. Perceptions of Health-Related Community Reentry Challenges among Incarcerated Drug Users in Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Rozanova, Julia; Morozova, Olga; Azbel, Lyuba; Bachireddy, Chethan; Izenberg, Jacob M; Kiriazova, Tetiana; Dvoryak, Sergiy; Altice, Frederick L

    2018-05-04

    Facing competing demands with limited resources following release from prison, people who inject drugs (PWID) may neglect health needs, with grave implications including relapse, overdose, and non-continuous care. We examined the relative importance of health-related tasks after release compared to tasks of everyday life among a total sample of 577 drug users incarcerated in Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Kyrgyzstan. A proxy measure of whether participants identified a task as applicable (easy or hard) versus not applicable was used to determine the importance of each task. Correlates of the importance of health-related reentry tasks were analyzed using logistic regression, with a parsimonious model being derived using Bayesian lasso method. Despite all participants having substance use disorders and high prevalence of comorbidities, participants in all three countries prioritized finding a source of income, reconnecting with family, and staying out of prison over receiving treatment for substance use disorders, general health conditions, and initiating methadone treatment. Participants with poorer general health were more likely to prioritize treatment for substance use disorders. While prior drug injection and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) correlated with any interest in methadone in all countries, only in Ukraine did a small number of participants prioritize getting methadone as the most important post-release task. While community-based OAT is available in all three countries and prison-based OAT only in Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz prisoners were less likely to choose help staying off drugs and getting methadone. Overall, prisoners consider methadone treatment inapplicable to their pre-release planning. Future studies that involve patient decision-making and scale-up of OAT within prison settings are needed to better improve individual and public health.

  3. Patient preferences and extended-release naltrexone: A new opportunity to treat opioid use disorders in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Ruthanne; Makarenko, Iuliia; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zelenev, Alexei; Polonsky, Maxim; Madden, Lynn; Filippovych, Sergii; Dvoriak, Sergii; Springer, Sandra A; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-10-01

    Scaling up HIV prevention for people who inject drugs (PWID) using opioid agonist therapies (OAT) in Ukraine has been restricted by individual and structural factors. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), however, provides new opportunities for treating opioid use disorders (OUDs) in this region, where both HIV incidence and mortality continue to increase. Survey results from 1613 randomly selected PWID from 5 regions in Ukraine who were currently, previously or never on OAT were analyzed for their preference of pharmacological therapies for treating OUDs. For those preferring XR-NTX, independent correlates of their willingness to initiate XR-NTX were examined. Among the 1613 PWID, 449 (27.8%) were interested in initiating XR-NTX. Independent correlates associated with interest in XR-NTX included: being from Mykolaiv (AOR=3.7, 95% CI=2.3-6.1) or Dnipro (AOR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.9); never having been on OAT (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=2.1-5.4); shorter-term injectors (AOR=0.9, 95% CI 0.9-0.98); and inversely for both positive (AOR=0.8, CI=0.8-0.9), and negative attitudes toward OAT (AOR=1.3, CI=1.2-1.4), respectively. In the context of Eastern Europe and Central Asia where HIV is concentrated in PWID and where HIV prevention with OAT is under-scaled, new options for treating OUDs are urgently needed. here suggest that XR-NTX could become an option for addiction treatment and HIV prevention especially for PWID who have shorter duration of injection and who harbor negative attitudes to OAT. Decision aids that inform patient preferences with accurate information about the various treatment options are likely to guide patients toward better, patient-centered treatments and improve treatment entry and retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Slowing of the HIV Epidemic in Ukraine: Evidence from Case Reporting and Key Population Surveys, 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Vitek, Charles R.; Čakalo, Jurja-Ivana; Kruglov, Yuri V.; Dumchev, Konstantin V.; Salyuk, Tetyana O.; Božičević, Ivana; Baughman, Andrew L.; Spindler, Hilary H.; Martsynovska, Violetta A.; Kobyshcha, Yuri V.; Abdul-Quader, Abu S.; Rutherford, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ukraine developed Europe's most severe HIV epidemic due to widespread transmission among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Since 2004, prevention has focused on key populations; antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage has increased. Recent data show increases in reported HIV cases through 2011, especially attributed to sexual transmission, but also signs of potential epidemic slowing. We conducted a data triangulation exercise to better analyze available data and inform program implementation. Methods and Findings We reviewed data for 2005 to 2012 from multiple sources, primarily national HIV case reporting and integrated biobehavioral surveillance (IBBS) studies among key populations. Annually reported HIV cases increased at a progressively slower rate through 2011 with recent increases only among older, more immunosuppressed individuals; cases decreased 2.7% in 2012. Among women <25 years of age, cases attributed to heterosexual transmission and HIV prevalence in antenatal screening declined after 2008. Reported cases among young PWID declined by three-fourths. In 2011, integrated biobehavioral surveillance demonstrated decreased HIV prevalence among young members of key populations compared with 2009. HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW) remains strongly associated with a personal history of injecting drug use (IDU). Conclusions This analysis suggests that Ukraine's HIV epidemic has slowed, with decreasing reported cases and older cases predominating among those diagnosed. Recent decreases in cases and in prevalence support decreased incidence among young PWID and women. Trends among heterosexual men and men who have sex with men (MSM) are less clear; further study and enhanced MSM prevention are needed. FSW appear to have stable prevalence with risk strongly associated with IDU. Current trends suggest the Ukrainian epidemic can be contained with enhanced prevention among key populations and increased treatment access. PMID:25251080

  5. The Associations between Self-Reported Exposure to the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Zone and Mental Health Disorders in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Matthew A; Helming, Luralyn M; Tintle, Nathan L

    2018-01-01

    In 1986, Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant near Pripyat, Ukraine exploded, releasing highly-radioactive materials into the surrounding environment. Although the physical effects of the disaster have been well-documented, a limited amount of research has been conducted on association of the disaster with long-term, clinically-diagnosable mental health disorders. According to the diathesis-stress model, the stress of potential and unknown exposure to radioactive materials and the ensuing changes to ones life or environment due to the disaster might lead those with previous vulnerabilities to fall into a poor state of mental health. Previous studies of this disaster have found elevated symptoms of stress, substance abuse, anxiety, and depression in exposed populations, though often at a subclinical level. With data from The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a cross-sectional large mental health survey conducted in Ukraine by the World Health Organization, the mental health of Ukrainians was modeled with multivariable logistic regression techniques to determine if any long-term mental health disorders were association with reporting having lived in the zone affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Common classes of psychiatric disorders were examined as well as self-report ratings of physical and mental health. Reporting that one lived in the Chernobyl-affected disaster zone was associated with a higher rate of alcohol disorders among men and higher rates of intermittent explosive disorders among women in a prevalence model. Subjects who lived in the disaster zone also had lower ratings of personal physical and mental health when compared to controls. Stress resulting from disaster exposure, whether or not such exposure actually occurred or was merely feared, and ensuing changes in life circumstances is associated with increased rates of mental health disorders. Professionals assisting populations that are coping with the

  6. Patterns of informal patient payments in Bulgaria, Hungary and Ukraine: a comparison across countries, years and type of services.

    PubMed

    Stepurko, Tetiana; Pavlova, Milena; Gryga, Irena; Gaál, Péter; Groot, Wim

    2017-05-01

    Informal payments for health care are a well-known phenomenon in many health care systems around the world. While informal payments could be an important source of health care financing, they have an adverse impact on efficiency and access to care, and are a major impediment to ongoing health care reforms. This paper aims to study the scale and patterns of informal patient payments for out-patient and in-patient services in three former-socialist countries: Bulgaria, Hungary and Ukraine. The data are collected in 2010 and 2011 based on national representative samples and are analysed in pooled models to explain variations in payments. The results of the cross-country comparison suggest a relatively higher prevalence of informal patient payments in Ukraine and Hungary than in Bulgaria, where patients also have to pay formal user charges in the public sector. Nevertheless, informal payments for hospitalization in Bulgaria are quite extensive. We observe some differences in informal payments across the years. Variations in payment size are mainly explained by the nature, type and need for services, fee awareness and, on some occasions, by household income. Interpreted within the context of structural differences (e.g. reform paths, regulations, funding, user fees, anti-corruption policies), the findings of our study have implications on how to address informal payments for health care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Social inequalities in self-rated health in Ukraine in 2007: the role of psychosocial, material and behavioural factors.

    PubMed

    Platts, Loretta G; Gerry, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Despite Ukraine's large population, few studies have examined social inequalities in health. This study describes Ukrainian educational inequalities in self-rated health and assesses how far psychosocial, material and behavioural factors account for the education gradient in health. Data were analyzed from the 2007 wave of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Education was categorized as: lower secondary or less, upper secondary and tertiary. In logistic regressions of 5451 complete cases, stratified by gender, declaring less than average health was regressed on education, before and after adjusting for psychosocial, material and behavioural factors. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, compared with those educated up to lower secondary level, tertiary education was associated with lower risk of less than average health for both men and women. Including material factors (income quintiles, housing assets, labour market status) reduced the association between education and health by 55-64% in men and 35-47% in women. Inclusion of health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) reduced the associations by 27-30% in men and 19-27% in women; in most cases including psychosocial factors (marital status, living alone, trust in family and friends) did not reduce the size of the associations. Including all potential explanatory factors reduced the associations by 68-84% in men and 43-60% in women. The education gradient in self-rated health in Ukraine was partly accounted for by material and behavioural factors. In addition to health behaviours, policymakers should consider upstream determinants of health inequalities, such as joblessness and poverty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Historical distribution and host-vector diversity of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hightower, Jake; Kracalik, Ian T; Vydayko, Nataliya; Goodin, Douglas; Glass, Gregory; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-10-16

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a zoonotic agent that remains across much of the northern hemisphere, where it exists in enzootic cycles. In Ukraine, tularemia has a long history that suggests a need for sustained surveillance in natural foci. To better characterize the host-vector diversity and spatial distribution of tularemia, we analyzed historical data from field collections carried out from 1941 to 2008. We analyzed the spatial-temporal distribution of bacterial isolates collected from field samples. Isolates were characterized by source and dominant land cover type. To identify environmental persistence and spatial variation in the source of isolation, we used the space-time permutation and multinomial models in SaTScan. A total of 3,086 positive isolates were taken from 1,084 geographic locations. Isolation of F. tularensis was more frequent among arthropods [n = 2,045 (66.3%)] followed by mammals [n = 619 (20.1%)], water [n = 393 (12.7%)], and farm produce [n = 29 (0.94%)], respectively. Four areas of persistent bacterial isolation were identified. Water and farm produce as sources of bacterial isolation were clustered. Our findings confirm the presence of long-standing natural foci of F. tularensis in Ukraine. Given the history of tularemia as well as its environmental persistence there exists a possibility of (re)emergence in human populations. Heterogeneity in the distribution of tularemia isolate recovery related to land cover type supports the theory of natural nidality and clusters identify areas to target potential sources of the pathogen and improve surveillance.

  9. “Bureaucracy & Beliefs”: Assessing the Barriers to Accessing Opioid Substitution Therapy by People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Bojko, Martha J.; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Makarenko, Iuliia; Marcus, Ruthanne; Dvoriak, Sergii; Islam, Zahedul; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based HIV prevention strategy for people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Yet, only 2.7% of Ukraine’s estimated 310,000 PWIDs receive it despite free treatment since 2004. The multi-level barriers to entering OST among opioid dependent PWIDs have not been examined in Ukraine. Methods A multi-year mixed methods implementation science project included focus group discussions with 199 PWIDs in 5 major Ukrainian cities in 2013 covering drug treatment attitudes and beliefs and knowledge of and experiences with OST. Data were transcribed, translated into English and coded. Coded segments related to OST access, entry, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes were analyzed among 41 PWIDs who were eligible for but had never received OST. Findings A number of programmatic and structural barriers were mentioned by participants as barriers to entry to OST, including compulsory drug user registration, waiting lists, and limited number of treatment slots. Participants also voiced strong negative attitudes and beliefs about OST, especially methadone. Their perceptions about methadone’s side effects as well as the stigma of being a methadone client were expressed as obstacles to treatment. Conclusions Despite expressed interest in treatment, Ukrainian OST-naïve PWIDs evade OST for reasons that can be addressed through changes in program-level and governmental policies and social-marketing campaigns. Voiced OST barriers can effectively inform public health and policy directives related to HIV prevention and treatment in Ukraine to improve evidence-based treatment access and availability. PMID:27087758

  10. Willingness to pay for physician services at a primary contact in Ukraine: results of a contingent valuation study.

    PubMed

    Danyliv, Andriy; Pavlova, Milena; Gryga, Irena; Groot, Wim

    2013-06-08

    The existence of quasi-formal and informal payments in the Ukrainian health care system jeopardizes equity and creates barriers to access to proper care. Patient payment policies that better match patient preferences are necessary. We analyze the potential and feasibility of official patient charges for public health care services in Ukraine by studying the patterns of fee acceptability, ability and willingness to pay (WTP) for public health care among population groups. We use contingent valuation data collected from 303 respondents representative of the adult Ukrainian population. Three decision points were separated: objection to pay, inability to pay, and level of positive non-zero WTP. These decisions were studied for relations with quality profiles of the services, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and their households. The likelihood to object to pay is mostly determined by the quality characteristics of the services. Objection to pay is not related to corresponding behavior in real life. The likelihood of being unable to pay is associated with older age, lower income, and a larger share of household members with no income. The level of positive WTP is positively related to income (+7% per 1000 UAH increase in income) and is lower for people who visited a doctor but did not pay (-22%). Rather substantial WTP levels (between 0.9% and 1.9% of household income) for one visit to physician indicate a potential for official patient charges in Ukraine. User fees may cover a substantial share of personnel cost in the out-patient sector. The patterns of inability to pay support well designed exemption criteria based on age, income, and other aspects of economic status. The WTP patterns highlight the necessity for payments that are proportional to income. Other methodological and policy implications are discussed.

  11. Willingness to pay for physician services at a primary contact in Ukraine: results of a contingent valuation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The existence of quasi-formal and informal payments in the Ukrainian health care system jeopardizes equity and creates barriers to access to proper care. Patient payment policies that better match patient preferences are necessary. We analyze the potential and feasibility of official patient charges for public health care services in Ukraine by studying the patterns of fee acceptability, ability and willingness to pay (WTP) for public health care among population groups. Methods We use contingent valuation data collected from 303 respondents representative of the adult Ukrainian population. Three decision points were separated: objection to pay, inability to pay, and level of positive non-zero WTP. These decisions were studied for relations with quality profiles of the services, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and their households. Results The likelihood to object to pay is mostly determined by the quality characteristics of the services. Objection to pay is not related to corresponding behavior in real life. The likelihood of being unable to pay is associated with older age, lower income, and a larger share of household members with no income. The level of positive WTP is positively related to income (+7% per 1000 UAH increase in income) and is lower for people who visited a doctor but did not pay (−22%). Conclusions Rather substantial WTP levels (between 0.9% and 1.9% of household income) for one visit to physician indicate a potential for official patient charges in Ukraine. User fees may cover a substantial share of personnel cost in the out-patient sector. The patterns of inability to pay support well designed exemption criteria based on age, income, and other aspects of economic status. The WTP patterns highlight the necessity for payments that are proportional to income. Other methodological and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23758839

  12. On the level of coverage and citation of publications by mechanicians of the national academy of sciences of Ukraine in the Scopus database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, A. N.; Rushchitsky, J. J.

    2009-11-01

    The paper analyzes the level of coverage and citation of publications by mechanicians of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU) in the Scopus database. Two groups of mechanicians are considered. One group includes 66 doctors of sciences of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics as representatives of the oldest institute of the NASU. The other group includes 34 members (academicians and corresponding members) of the Division of Mechanics of the NASU as representatives of the authoritative community of mechanicians in Ukraine. The results are presented for each scientist in the form of two indices—the total number of publications accessible in the database as the level of coverage of the scientist's publications in this database and the h-index as the citation level of these publications. This paper may be considered to continue the papers [6-12] published in Prikladnaya Mekhanika (International Applied Mechanics) in 2005-2009

  13. Karawajew's ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the National Museum of Natural History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Martynov, Alexander V; Radchenko, Alexander G

    2016-03-30

    The collection of W.A. Karawajew is one of the richest and most famous ant collections of the World. Much of this collection consists of dry mounted specimens, including types of about 550 taxa, housed in the Shmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev). Nevertheless, we located a considerable part of Karawajew's collection, containing about 25,000 specimens in alcohol, that is preserved in the National Museum of Natural History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev). The latter material was recently examined and we found types of 24 taxa. This type material was partly mounted, re-ordered and catalogued. In this paper we present a catalogue of these type specimens housed in the National Museum of Natural History.

  14. Hydrodynamic rupture of liver in combat patient: a case of successful application of "damage control" tactic in area of the hybrid war in East Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Khomenko, Igor; Shapovalov, Vitalii; Tsema, Ievgen; Makarov, Georgii; Palytsia, Roman; Zavodovskyi, Ievgen; Ishchenko, Ivan; Dinets, Andrii; Mishalov, Vladimir

    2017-08-15

    The hybrid war of Russia against Ukraine has been started in certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts within the Donbas area in 2014. We report a clinical case of a combat patient who was injured after the multiple launcher rocket system "Grad" shelling, diagnosed with hydrodynamic liver rupture followed by medical management with application of damage control (DC) tactic in conditions of hybrid war. The patient underwent relaparatomy, liver resection, endoscopic papillosphincterotomy, endoscopic retrograde cholecystopancreatography, stenting of the common bile duct, and VAC-therapy. Applied treatment modalities were effective; the patient was discharged on the 49th day after injury. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a successful application of DC tactic in the hybrid war in East Ukraine. From this case, we suggest that application of DC tactic at all levels of combat medical care could save more lives.

  15. Lidar derived properties of air-masses advected from Ukraine, Sahara and Carpathian mountains to Warsaw, Poland on 9 - 11 August 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Szczepanik, Dominika; Borek, Karolina; Heese, Birgit; Stachlewska, Iwona S.

    2018-04-01

    The aerosol layers of different origin, suspended in the atmosphere on 9-11 August 2015 were observed with the PollyXT-UW lidar in Warsaw, Poland. The HYSPLIT ensemble backward trajectories indicate that the observed air-masses attribute to a few different sources, among others, possible transport paths from Ukraine, Slovakia, and Africa. In this paper, we attempt to analyse and discuss the properties of aerosol particles of different origin that were suspended over Warsaw during this event.

  16. Mortality and its predictors among highly active antiretroviral therapy naive hiv-infected individuals: data from prospective cohort study in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Zhyvytsia, D

    2014-01-01

    There is little information from Ukraine about the effect of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on survival of HIV-infected patients. Our objective was to identify predictors of mortality in HIV-infected patients initiating HAART at the Zaporizhzhya AIDS Center, Ukraine. Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients from January 2005 to December 2008 in a Zaporizhzhya AIDS Center, and were tracked for 60 months after start HAART. Unvaried and multivariate analysis and constructed Kaplan-Meier curves to assess predictors. To identify predictors of mortality were used to build a regression Cox proportional hazards model.Two hundred and seventy two patients were studied (mean age 34 years, 42% female, median CD4 count 120 cell/μL). In 60 months of HAART 36 patients died. The probability of survival was 87%. In the univariate analysis, mortality was strongly associated with male gender (HR 6,28; 95% CI 2,22-17,78), IDU route of HIV transmission (HR 2,90; 95% CI 1,32-6,36), WHO clinical stage 4 (HR 3,45 95% CI 1,7-7,0). Mortality was also strongly associated with anemia (HR 2,24 95% CI 1,02-4,92) and HBsAg seropositivity (HR 6,26 95% CI 3,01-13,02). In the multivariate analysis independent factors associated with mortality were WHO clinical stage 4 (HR 2,66 95% CI 1,26-5,58) and HBsAg seropositivity (HR 4,35 95% CI 2,05-9,23). HAART significantly increased probability of survival and reduced the risk of death for HIV-infected patients in Ukraine. Simple clinical and laboratory data independently predict mortality and allow for risk stratification in HIV-infected patients in Ukraine.

  17. Koncepcja i zasady tworzenia geoparków na zachodzie Ukrainy / Conception and rules of creation of geoparks in Western Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogucki, Andriy; Brusak, Witaliy; Krawczuk, Jaroslaw; Moskaluk, Kateryna; Sirenko, Inna; Tomeniuk, Olena; Szewczuk, Oksana; Zińko, Jurij

    2012-12-01

    The issue of protecting and popularizing the geoheritage in Ukraine requires the improvement of nature-protecting legislation as well as introduction of international programmes of geo-protection (Geosites, Geoparks). At the moment, here in Ukraine, there remains a dominant individual category of protection in the shape of geological monuments or within large areas of protection sites. The improvements in the policy of geoprotection necessitate the broadening of conservation categories (reserves, documentation centers) as well as the introduction of novel nature-protection forms, such as geoparks. Since 2010, the Ivan Franko National University in Lviv has been carrying out a project "Conceptual and Methodological Foundations of setting up a network of geoparks in Ukraine", which envisages laying grounds for the creation of a network of geoparks in accordance with the criteria and requirements of the UNESCO Programme for Geoparks (1999, 2010). While choosing the possible areas for geoparks, first of all there will be taken into account the scientific and educational value of geological and geomorphological formations, tourism attraction, as well as the nature-protecting status of the areas. Reasons are given for the choice of the activities to be carried out in order to form four geoparks in the West of Ukraine. The following geoparks have been selected: "Rocky Beskydy" having unique rocky formations and a rich cultural-archaeological heritage based on the national park "Skolivsky Beskydy"and Polyanitsky regional landscape park; "Excavated Barrier Reef" having escavated reef structures of Baden and Sarmat age based on the national park "Podilsky Tovtry" and the reserve "Medobory", "Dnistrovskyi Canyon"with a set of various shapes (forms) and unique stratigraphical formations of Palaeozoic based on the national park bearing the same name; "Fossilized forest in Roztochya" with conservation of geological peelings of Neogene as well as the exposition of fossilized

  18. International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET 2000), Volume 1 Held in Kharkov, Ukraine on September 12-15, 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Minsk, 1987 ). [13] K. S. Miller and B. Ross, An Introduction to the Fractional Calculus and Fractional Differential Equations, John Wiley & Sons, New...arbitrary cross-section", IEE Proceedings, vol. 133, Pt. H, pp. 115-121, Apr. 1986. [5] S. Eisler and Y. Leviatan, "Analysis of electromagnetic scattering...the open two-mirror resonator," Dokl. Akad. nauk URSR, Ser. A, n. 8, pp. 51-54, 1987 . Kharkov, Ukraine, VIII-th International Conference on

  19. Estimating the impact of reducing violence against female sex workers on HIV epidemics in Kenya and Ukraine: a policy modeling exercise.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Wirtz, Andrea L; Pretorius, Carel; Sherman, Susan G; Sweat, Michael D; Baral, Stefan D; Beyrer, Chris; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2013-02-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) worldwide suffer disproportionate burdens of HIV and gender-based violence. Despite evidence linking these threats, little is known about the potential HIV epidemic impact of reducing abuse. The Goals model approximated the impact of reducing violence against FSWs on HIV epidemics in Ukraine and Kenya, measured by reductions in new infections among FSWs and adults. Cumulative infections averted over a 5-year period, in which violence declined was calculated, relative to a status quo with no reduction. Projections held HIV interventions constant at baseline levels; subsequently, scenarios adjusted for planned expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage. An approximate 25% reduction in incident HIV infections among FSWs was observed when physical or sexual violence was reduced; cumulative infections averted were 21,200 and 4700 in Kenya and Ukraine, respectively. Similar percent reductions were observed assuming ART coverage expansion, with approximately 18,200 and 4400 infections averted among FSWs in Kenya and Ukraine. New infections were also averted in the general population. Reducing violence against FSWs appears to impart significant reductions in new infections among FSWs and in the general adult population in both generalized and concentrated epidemics. Limitations provide direction to improve the precision of future estimates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Long-term care policy for the elderly in the Zaporozhye region of Ukraine: a case study of social development following the collapse of Communism.

    PubMed

    Palley, Howard A; Romanenkova, Lyudmyla A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we review the status of social policy for the elderly in Ukraine since the fall of Communism and the breakup of the Soviet Union. We specifically address the problem of "rebuilding" an income and services policy for the at-risk elderly after the unraveling of the system that existed prior to the fall of Communism. Also, we address some existing problems faced by the elderly in the health care system. Within this context, we present a case study of the current status of long-term care policy for the elderly in one province of Ukraine, the eastern province of Zaporozhye, encompassing the industrial city of Zaporozhye on the Dnieper River. This case study particularly pays attention to current attempts to promote a social development process of long-term care services for the elderly. It examines recent developments with respect to public sector organizations and voluntary sector organizations that are trying to provide necessary services to the needy elderly. With respect to the voluntary sector, the paper pays particular attention to the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) model of a largely externally funded NGO that provides comprehensive and integrated social supports, while emphasizing local empowerment and the use of volunteers, for the needy Jewish population in the province of Zaporozhye. Based on our findings, we make some proposals regarding the improvement of income and services policy with respect to the elderly in Zaporozhye and Ukraine.

  1. Prevalence and cumulative 5-year incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the adult population in the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Data from the LEUKOSPECT study.

    PubMed

    Vasylyev, Averyan; Loginov, Alexander; Molostvova, Valentina; Rebrov, Boris; Pereira, Marcelo Horacio S; Melo, Caroline Wirtzbiki A; Makarova, Janina; Pashanov, Evgeny D; Mysnik, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    LEUKOSPECT was a retrospective, multicenter, epidemiologic study carried out in Russia and Ukraine, aiming to assess the prevalence and cumulative 5-year incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in the adult population. All data were collected manually from patient medical records at each of the study sites and from official censuses. CLL prevalence and incidence were determined from a count of CLL cases (previously diagnosed and new cases) in the population who made at least one clinic visit for CLL during the period from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013. The recorded cumulative 5-year incidence of CLL during the study ranged from 1.46 per 100 000 persons (95% CI: 0.85-2.34) in Yekaterinburg, Russia, to 4.34 per 100 000 persons (95% CI: 2.48-7.04) in Luhansk, Ukraine. In 2013, the lowest prevalence of CLL was also recorded in Yekaterinburg: 7.11 per 100 000 persons (95% CI: 5.67-8.81). This was approximately 3.1 times lower than in Luhansk (21.92 per 100 000 population; 95% CI: 17.38-27.28). The results of this study show diverse CLL incidence and prevalence patterns in the adult population of the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Authors propose a more comprehensive study with large region involvement to provide a more precise description of the incidence and prevalence of CLL in Eastern European countries and to better understand disparities reported versus the USA and other Western countries.

  2. In Their Own Voices: Breaking the Vicious Cycle of Addiction, Treatment and Criminal Justice Among People who Inject Drugs in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Mazhnaya, Alyona; Bojko, Martha J.; Marcus, Ruthanne; Filippovych, Sergii; Islam, Zahedsul; Dvoriak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To understand how perceived law enforcement policies and practices contribute to the low rates of utilization of opioid agonist therapies (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Ukraine. Methods Qualitative data from 25 focus groups (FGs) with 199 opioid-dependent PWIDs in Ukraine examined domains related to lived or learned experiences with OAT, police, arrest, incarceration, and criminal activity were analyzed using grounded theory principles. Findings Most participants were male (66%), in their late 30s, and previously incarcerated (85%) mainly for drug-related activities. When imprisoned, PWIDs perceived themselves as being “addiction-free”. After prison-release, the confluence of police surveillance, societal stress contributed to participants' drug use relapse, perpetuating a cycle of searching for money and drugs, followed by re-arrest and re-incarceration. Fear of police and arrest both facilitated OAT entry and simultaneously contributed to avoiding OAT since system-level requirements identified OAT clients as targets for police harassment. OAT represents an evidence-based option to ‘break the cycle’, however, law enforcement practices still thwart OAT capacity to improve individual and public health. Conclusion In the absence of structural changes in law enforcement policies and practices in Ukraine, PWIDs will continue to avoid OAT and perpetuate the addiction cycle with high imprisonment rates. PMID:27458326

  3. In Their Own Voices: Breaking the Vicious Cycle of Addiction, Treatment and Criminal Justice Among People who Inject Drugs in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Mazhnaya, Alyona; Bojko, Martha J; Marcus, Ruthanne; Filippovych, Sergii; Islam, Zahedsul; Dvoriak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L

    To understand how perceived law enforcement policies and practices contribute to the low rates of utilization of opioid agonist therapies (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Ukraine. Qualitative data from 25 focus groups (FGs) with 199 opioid-dependent PWIDs in Ukraine examined domains related to lived or learned experiences with OAT, police, arrest, incarceration, and criminal activity were analyzed using grounded theory principles. Most participants were male (66%), in their late 30s, and previously incarcerated (85%) mainly for drug-related activities. When imprisoned, PWIDs perceived themselves as being "addiction-free". After prison-release, the confluence of police surveillance, societal stress contributed to participants' drug use relapse, perpetuating a cycle of searching for money and drugs, followed by re-arrest and re-incarceration. Fear of police and arrest both facilitated OAT entry and simultaneously contributed to avoiding OAT since system-level requirements identified OAT clients as targets for police harassment. OAT represents an evidence-based option to 'break the cycle', however, law enforcement practices still thwart OAT capacity to improve individual and public health. In the absence of structural changes in law enforcement policies and practices in Ukraine, PWIDs will continue to avoid OAT and perpetuate the addiction cycle with high imprisonment rates.

  4. An episode of extremely high PM concentrations over Central Europe caused by dust emitted over the southern Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmili, W.; Schepanski, K.; Ansmann, A.; Spindler, G.; Tegen, I.; Wehner, B.; Nowak, A.; Reimer, E.; Mattis, I.; Müller, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Althausen, D.; Schladitz, A.; Tuch, T.; Löschau, G.

    2007-08-01

    On 24 March 2007, the atmosphere over Central Europe was affected by an episode of exceptionally high mass concentrations of aerosol particles, most likely caused by a dust storm in the Southern Ukraine on the preceding day. At ground-based measurement stations in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany PM10 mass concentrations rose to values between 200 and 1400 μg m-3. An evaluation of PM10 measurements from 360 monitoring stations showed that the dust cloud advanced along a narrow corridor at speeds of up to 70 km h-1. According to lidar observations over Leipzig, Germany, the high aerosol concentrations were confined to a homogeneous boundary layer of 1800 m height. The wavelength dependence of light extinction using both lidar and sun photometer measurements suggested the dominance of coarse particles during the main event. At a wavelength of 532 nm, relatively high volume extinction coefficients (300-400 Mm-1) and a particle optical depth of 0.65 was observed. In-situ measurements with an aerodynamic particle sizer at Melpitz, Germany, confirmed the presence of a coarse particle mode with a mode diameter >2 μm, whose maximum concentration coincided with that of PM10. A chemical particle analysis confirmed the dominance of non-volatile and insoluble matter in the coarse mode as well as high enrichments of Ti and Fe, which are characteristic of soil dust. A combination of back trajectory calculations and satellite images allowed to identify the dust source with confidence: On 23 March 2007, large amounts of dust were emitted from dried-out farmlands in the southern Ukraine, facilitated by wind gusts up to 100 km h-1. The unusual vertical stability and confined height of this dust layer as well as the rapid transport under dry conditions led to the conservation of high aerosol mass concentrations along the transect and thus to the extraordinary high aerosol concentrations over Central Europe. Our observations demonstrate the capacity of a combined

  5. Development and manufacturing of panoramic Stokes polarimeter using the polarization films in the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Syniavskyi, I. I.; Sergeev, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    In the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine is proposed and implemented the concept of the imaging Stokes polarimeter [1-5]. This device allows carrying out measurements of the four Stokes vector components at the same time, in a wide field, and without any restrictions on the relative aperture of the optical system. Its scheme is developed so that only by turning wheel with replaceable elements, photopolarimeter could be transformed into a low resolution spectropolarimeter. The device has four film's polarizers with positional angles 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°. The device uses a system of special deflecting prisms in each channel. These prisms were achromatizing in the spectral range of 420-850 nm [2], the distortion of the polarimeter optical system is less than 0.65%. In manufacturing version of spectropolarimeter provided for the possibility of using working on passing the diffraction grating with a frequency up to 100 lines/mm. Has begun the laboratory testing of instrument. References. 1. Sinyavskii I.I., Ivanov Yu. S., Vidmachenko Anatoliy P., Karpov N.V. Panoramic Stokes-polarimeter // Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. - 2013. - V. 3, No 4. - P. 123-127. 2. Sinyavskii I. I., Ivanov Yu. S., Vil'machenko A. P. Concept of the construction, of the optical setup of a panoramic Stokes polarimeter for small telescopes // Journal of Optical Technology. - 2013. - V. 80, Issue 9. - P. 545-548. 3. Vidmachenko A. P., Ivanov Yu. S., Morozhenko A. V., Nevodovsky E. P., Syniavskyi I. I., Sosonkin M. G. Spectropolarimeter of ground-based accompanying for the space experiment "Planetary Monitoring" // Kosmichna Nauka i Tekhnologiya. - 2007. - V. 13, No. 1, p. 63 - 70. 4. Yatskiv Ya. S., Vidmachenko A. P., Morozhenko A. V., Sosonkin M. G., Ivanov Yu. S., Syniavskyi I. I. Spectropolarimetric device for overatmospheric investigations of Solar System bodies // Kosmichna Nauka i Tekhnologiya. - 2008. - V. 14, No. 2. - P. 56

  6. Fallout radioactivity in soil and food samples in the Ukraine: Measurements of iodine, plutonium, cesium, and strontium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawamura, Hisao

    1994-08-01

    To estimate the level and distribution of fallout attributable to the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine, the authors sampled several kinds of substances at Korosten, Zhitomir and at Katyuzhanka, Vishgorod, Kiev in the Ukraine, and measured {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 129}I, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and the density of {sup 127}I (stable). The substances investigated were soil, dry milk, wheat, rye, drinking water, and mushrooms. Except for the mushrooms collected, which were sampled at Katyuzhanka, Vishgorod, and at Kiev, all substances were at Korosten, Zhitomir. The activity of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, andmore » {sup 239,240}Pu were all higher in soil and mushrooms than in the other four substances. The activity of {sup 137}Cs was 960 and 1,210 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in the two soil samples and 6,110 of Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in the mushrooms. The activity of {sup 134}Cs was {approximately} 15% of {sup 137}Cs in the two soil samples while <3% of {sup 137}Cs in the mushrooms. The activity concentration level of {sup 90}Sr as compared to {sup 137}Cs concentration was 15-31% in food samples other than mushrooms but only 1.9% in mushrooms and 1.4 and 1.2% in the two soil samples. The radioactivity ratios, {sup 238}Pu:{sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu:{sup 137}Cs, suggested that the proportion of cesium radioisotopes and {sup 239,240}Pu in the soil attributable to the Chernobyl accident was {approximately}100% and 10-20%, respectively, while {approximately} 100% of {sup 239,240}Pu in the mushrooms was attributable to the accident. The activity of {sup 129}I was small but the ratio of {sup 129}I:{sup 127}I in the two soil samples was 4.3x10{sup {minus}8} and 1.0x10{sup {minus}7}, which is {approximately} 10 times larger than that in the global fallout. These results suggest that the areas where the soil was sampled are iodine-deficient and were contaminated slightly by the Chernobyl accident. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

  7. Iodine Intake through Processed Food: Case Studies from Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 2010–2015

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Jacky; Shehata, Magdy; Gerasimov, Gregory; Bimo, Bimo; Cavenagh, Bettina; Maramag, Cherry C.; Otico, Edward; Izwardy, Doddy; Spohrer, Rebecca; Garrett, Greg S.

    2017-01-01

    The current performance indicator for universal salt iodisation (USI) is the percentage of households using adequately iodised salt. However, the proportion of dietary salt from household salt is decreasing with the increase in consumption of processed foods and condiments globally. This paper reports on case studies supported by the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN)-UNICEF USI Partnership Project to investigate processed food industry use of adequately iodised salt in contrasting national contexts. Studies were conducted in Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. In all cases, the potential iodine intake from iodised salt in selected food products was modelled according to the formula: quantity of salt per unit of food product × minimum regulated iodine level of salt at production × average daily per capita consumption of the product. The percent of adult recommended nutrient intake for iodine potentially provided by the average daily intake of bread and frequently consumed foods and condiments was from 10% to 80% at the individual product level. The potential contribution to iodine intake from the use of iodised salt in the processed food industry is of growing significance. National USI strategies should encourage co-operative industry engagement and include regulatory monitoring of iodised salt use in the food industry in order to achieve optimal population iodine status. PMID:28933750

  8. Factors Associated with Delayed Enrollment in HIV Medical Care among HIV-Positive Individuals in Odessa Region, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Neduzhko, Oleksandr; Postnov, Oleksandr; Perehinets, Ihor; DeHovitz, Jack; Joseph, Michael; Odegaard, David; Kaplan, Robert; Kiriazova, Tetiana

    In Ukraine, about one-third of identified HIV-positive individuals are not connected to care. We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 200) among patients registered at Odessa AIDS centers in October to December 2011. Factors associated with delayed enrollment in HIV care (>3 months since positive HIV test) were evaluated using logistic regression. Among study participants (mean age 35 ± 8.2 years, 47.5% female, 42.5% reported history of injecting drugs), 55% delayed HIV care enrollment. Odds of delayed enrollment were higher for those with lower educational attainment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-6.76), not feeling ill (aOR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.50-5.93), or not having time to go to the AIDS center (aOR: 3.89, 95% CI: 1.39-10.89); injection drug use was not associated with delayed enrollment. Programs linking HIV-positive individuals to specialized care should address enrollment barriers and include education on HIV care benefits and case management for direct linkage to care. HIV testing and treatment should be coupled to ensure a continuum of care.

  9. Factors Associated with Non-disclosure of HIV Status in a Cohort of Childbearing HIV-Positive Women in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jane V; Bailey, Heather; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Thorne, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine has one of the largest populations of persons living with HIV in Europe. Data on 2019 HIV-positive married or cohabiting women enrolled in a postnatal cohort from 2007 to 2012 were analysed to investigate prevalence and factors associated with self-reported non-disclosure of HIV status. Median age at enrolment was 27.5 years, with two-thirds diagnosed during their most recent pregnancy. Almost all had received antenatal antiretroviral therapy and 24 % were taking it currently. One-tenth (n = 198) had not disclosed their HIV status to their partner and 1 in 20 (n = 93) had disclosed to no-one. Factors associated with non-disclosure were: unmarried status (AOR 2.99 (95 % CI 1.51-5.92), younger age at leaving full-time education (AOR 0.41 (95 % CI 0.19-0.88) for ≥19 years vs ≤16 years) and lack of knowledge of partner's HIV status (AOR 2.01 (95 % CI 1.09-3.66). Further work is needed to support disclosure in some groups and to explore relationships between disclosure and psychological factors in this setting, including depression, lack of support and perception of stigma.

  10. Living in "survival mode:" Intergenerational transmission of trauma from the Holodomor genocide of 1932-1933 in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bezo, Brent; Maggi, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative methodology was used to investigate the intergenerational impact of the 1932-1933 Holodomor genocide on three generations in 15 Ukrainian families. Each family, residing in Ukraine, consisted of a first generation survivor, a second generation adult child and a third generation adult grandchild of the same line. The findings show that the Holodomor, a genocide that claimed millions of lives by forced starvation, still exerts substantial effects on generations born decades later. Specifically, thematic analysis of the 45 semi-structured, in-depth interviews, done between July and November 2010, revealed that a constellation of emotions, inner states and trauma-based coping strategies emerged in the survivors during the genocide period and were subsequently transmitted into the second and third generations. This constellation, summarized by participants as living in "survival mode," included horror, fear, mistrust, sadness, shame, anger, stress and anxiety, decreased self-worth, stockpiling of food, reverence for food, overemphasis on food and overeating, inability to discard unneeded items, an indifference toward others, social hostility and risky health behaviours. Since both the family and community-society were found to be involved in trauma transmission, the findings highlight the importance of multi-framework approaches for studying and healing collective trauma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Richard E.; Skrypnyk, Artem; Zavgorodniy, Andriy

    2009-02-01

    The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests.more » Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.« less

  12. Phenolics occurrence in surface water of the Dniester river basin (West Ukraine): natural background and industrial pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprynskyy, M.; Lebedynets, M.; Namieśnik, J.; Buszewski, B.

    2007-09-01

    Phenolics’ occurrence in surface water of the Dniester river basin (West Ukraine) with the definition of the natural background is studied. The main attention is given to the Upper Dniester basin and its tributary Stryj as the parts of the Sub-Carpathian oil- and gas province with the numerous objects of oil industry. The total amount of phenolics in water is studied. Phenolics’ concentrations from the first micrograms to the first milligrams per litre have been found in the surface water of the region. The natural background is defined as 0.012 mg l-1 for the areas out of the industrial influence. The anthropogenic part of phenolics is caused mainly by oil industry. The oil-producing objects provide the main phenolics’ releases in the region, due to the low protection level of mechanical facilities as well as to breach of technological norms on the oil-extracting objects. A man-made pollution of the basin water has a regional character and the natural self-purification processes seem to be insufficient for its neutralisation on the plains in particular.

  13. The long road to improving the water quality of the Western Bug River (Ukraine) - A multi-scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, N.; Blumensaat, F.; Tavares Wahren, F.; Trümper, J.; Burmeister, C.; Moynihan, R.; Scheifhacken, N.

    2014-11-01

    River basin management (RMB) was introduced to combat high levels of water pollution across Ukraine. The Western Bug River provides an example of how water quality is impacted by industrial and domestic wastewater discharges as well as pollution from agriculture and mining activities. The paper draws from a broader interdisciplinary study which aims to outline the sources of pollution within the upper Western Bug River catchment and identify the driving institutional forces behind this enduring environmental problem. The results of this study show that the administrative and spatial scales concerning river catchment management in the Western Bug River basin are not aligned. Furthermore, the temporal scale is often conflicting with the two above mentioned scales. The current political and financial situation of the State, as well as outdated administrative structures hinders effective water governance and results in low water quality. Despite these findings, there is also some evidence that in the longer term the RBM approach could succeed in the Western Bug River, especially if political and legal reforms are properly implemented and enforced.

  14. [Drinking water regulations in Ukraine and infectious morbidity rate with water pathway of transmission of causative agents].

    PubMed

    Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I; Mikhienkova, A I; Nikonova, N A; Rosada, M A

    2013-01-01

    These are presented drinking water regulations in Ukraine on microbiological indices in the new state document "Hygienic Drinking water regulations intended for human consumption" (State sanitary regulations and standards (GsanPiN) 2.2.4-171-10). There is reported an analysis of both the open waterbodies water quality and water for centralized water supply in 2007-2011 and 1992-1996 also on sanitary-bacteriological indices for performance of comparative retrospective analysis. There has been shown water quality degradation for open waterbodies, the main sources of water supply for population. Against this background, a marked improvement of drinking water quality has been noted, the number of non-standard samples decreased to 3.6 % compared with 8.8% in the preceding 15 years. This index correlates with a decrease in the number of outbreaks of infections transmitted by water. There was noted unsatisfactory registration of viral infections with water pathway of transmission and the increase in morbidity rate of gastroenterocolitides of unknown etiology that may include acute viral intestinal infections. Expediency to keep "fermentation of glucose" test in bacteriological examination of water in the identification scheme of general coliforms has been substantiated.

  15. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  16. [Conceptual foundations of creation of branch database of technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical educational institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Horban', A Ie

    2013-09-01

    The question of implementation of the state policy in the field of technology transfer in the medical branch to implement the law of Ukraine of 02.10.2012 No 5407-VI "On Amendments to the law of Ukraine" "On state regulation of activity in the field of technology transfers", namely to ensure the formation of branch database on technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical education institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine and established by budget are considered. Analysis of international and domestic experience in the processing of information about intellectual property rights and systems implementation support transfer of new technologies are made. The main conceptual principles of creation of this branch database of technology transfer and branch technology transfer network are defined.

  17. Menstrual cycle characteristics in fertile women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine exposed to perfluorinated chemicals: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lyngsø, J; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Høyer, B B; Støvring, H; Bonde, J P; Jönsson, B A G; Lindh, C H; Pedersen, H S; Ludwicki, J K; Zviezdai, V; Toft, G

    2014-02-01

    Does perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanate (PFOA) exposure disrupt the menstrual cyclicity? The female reproductive system may be sensitive to PFOA exposure, with longer menstrual cycle length at higher exposure. PFOS and PFOA are persistent man-made chemicals. Experimental animal studies suggest they are reproductive toxicants but epidemiological findings are inconsistent. A cross-sectional study including 1623 pregnant women from the INUENDO cohort enrolled during antenatal care visits between June 2002 and May 2004 in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Information on menstrual cycle characteristics was obtained by questionnaires together with a blood sample from each pregnant woman. Serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple imputations were performed to account for missing data. The association between PFOS/PFOA and menstrual cycle length (short cycle: ≤24 days, long cycle: ≥32 days) and irregularities (≥7 days in difference between cycles) was analyzed using logistic regression with tertiles of exposure. Estimates are given as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Higher exposure levels of PFOA were associated with longer menstrual cycles in pooled estimates of all three countries. Compared with women in the lowest exposure tertile, the adjusted OR of long cycles was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.0; 3.3) among women in the highest tertile of PFOA exposure. No significant associations were observed between PFOS exposure and menstrual cycle characteristics. However, we observed a tendency toward more irregular cycles with higher exposure to PFOS [OR 1.7 (95% CI: 0.8; 3.5)]. The overall response rate was 45.3% with considerable variation between countries (91.3% in Greenland, 69.1% in Poland and 26.3% in Ukraine). Possible limitations in our study include varying participation rates across countries; a selected study group overrepresenting the most fertile part of

  18. Molecular Characteristics, Clinical and Immunologic Manifestations of 11 Children with Omenn Syndrome in East Slavs (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine).

    PubMed

    Sharapova, Svetlana O; Guryanova, Irina E; Pashchenko, Olga E; Kondratenko, Irina V; Kostyuchenko, Larisa V; Rodina, Yulia A; Varlamova, Tatjana V; Bondarenko, Anastasiia V; Chernyshova, Liudmyla I; Gyseva, Marina N; Belevtsev, Mikhail V; Minakovskaya, Nina V; Aleinikova, Olga V

    2016-01-01

    Omenn syndrome [Mendelian Inheritance (OMIM 603554)] is a genetic disease of the immune system, characterized by the presence of fatal generalized severe erythroderma, lymphoadenopathy, eosinophilia and profound immunodeficiency. We studied clinical and immunologic presentation of the disease manifestation among East Slavs population with genetically confirmed Omenn syndrome. We collected clinical and immunologic data of 11 patients (1 from Belarus, 5--Ukraine, 5--Russia): 6 females, 5 males. The age of Omenn syndrome manifestation varied from the 1st day of life to 1 year and 1 month, the age of diagnosis--20 days to 1 year and 10 months. Nine out of 11 patients had classic immunologic phenotype T(+/-)B-NK+, 1 pt had TlowB + NK+ with CD3 + TCRgd + expansion and 1 had TlowB+/-NK+ phenotype. Eight out of 11 pts had mutation in RAG1 gene, 4 out of 8 had c.368-369delAA (p.K86fsX118) in homozygous state or heterozygous compound. In our cohort of patients, we also described two new mutations in RAG genes (p.E722Q in RAG1 and p.M459R in RAG2). At present, 7/11 were transplanted and 5 out of the transplanted are alive. This study demonstrates that the most popular genetic abnormality in East Slavs children with Omenn syndrome is c.368-369delAA (p.K86fs118) in RAG1 gene, which may be connected with more favorable prognosis because 4/4 patients survived after hematopoietic stem cells transplantation.

  19. Prevalence of dental erosion among 18-year-old adolescents in the borderland districts of Lviv (Ukraine) and Lublin (Poland).

    PubMed

    Bachanek, Teresa; Hendzel, Barbara; Wolańska, Ewa; Szybinsky, Volodymir; Ogonovsky, Roman; Hrynovets, Volodymir; Samborski, Dariusz; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Chałas, Renata

    2018-03-14

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between dental erosion occurrence and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits in both developed and developing countries, and now affects different regions of the world. Furthermore, in current literature, studies have shown that the prevalence of erosive tooth wear has increased particularly among the younger population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and severity of erosive tooth wear among 18-year-old adolescents in the districts of Lviv (Ukraine) and Lublin (Poland). College students (254 subjects) aged 18, living in the Lviv and Lublin districts were examined. Erosive lesions presented in the teeth were assessed on the basis of the BEWE (Basic Erosive Wear Examination) index. Among the 137 patients living in the Lublin district, 70 were females and 67 were males, while in the Lviv district, 60 women and 57 men were examined. In both districts, the following numbers of rural patients were examined: 66 in Lublin district and 56 in Lviv district; for urban inhabitants, the numbers were 71 in Lublin and 61 in Lviv. Analysing the BEWE values, it was noted that higher BEWE values, and resulting from them significant differences were observed in both male and female groups living in Lublin, compared with Lviv inhabitants. Based on clinical examination and statistical analysis, the occurrence of lesions of an erosive character in at least one sextant were observed in 59.85% of patients from Lublin district, and in 42.74% of patients from Lviv district. On the basis of the conducted study in the Polish and Ukrainian groups of 18-year-old adolescents living on the borderland, it can be stated that dental erosion is a problem noticeable in both groups of cohorts, but with higher prevalence in the Lublin district.

  20. High Rates of Police Detention Among Recently Released HIV-infected Prisoners in Ukraine: Implications for Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Izenberg, Jacob M.; Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael; Kiryazova, Tetiana; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ukraine’s HIV epidemic, primarily affecting people who inject drugs (PWID), is expanding and transitioning despite free opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), two effective ways to reduce HIV transmission. Police detention not resulting in imprisonment, defined as police harassment, of PWID is common, but its prevalence and impact on health is not known. Method HIV-infected individuals (N=97) released from prison within one year were recruited and surveyed in two HIV-endemic Ukrainian cities about post-release police detention experiences. Data on the frequency of police detention, related adverse events, and impact on OST and ART continuity were collected, and correlates of detention were examined using logistic regression. Results Detention responses were available for 94 (96.9%) participants, of which 55 (58.5%) reported police detentions (mean=9.4 per person-year). For those detained while prescribed OST (N=28) and ART (N=27), medication interruption was common (67.9% and 70.4%, respectively); 23 of 27 participants prescribed OST (85.2%) were detained en route to/from OST treatment. Significant independent correlates of detention without charges included post-release ART prescription (AOR 4.98, p=0.021), current high-risk injection practices (AOR 5.03, p=0.011), male gender (AOR 10.88, p=0.010), and lower lifetime months of imprisonment (AOR 0.99, p=0.031). Conclusions HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison in Ukraine experience frequent police detentions, resulting in withdrawal symptoms, confiscation of syringes, and interruptions of essential medications, including ART and OST. Structural changes are urgently needed to reduce police detentions in order to control HIV transmission and improve both individual and public health. PMID:23769160

  1. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Method Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April’13–March’14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. Results During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5%) recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65–29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. Conclusion A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion. PMID:27276170

  2. Retention in medication-assisted treatment programs in Ukraine-Identifying factors contributing to a continuing HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dumchev, Kostyantyn; Dvoryak, Sergii; Chernova, Olena; Morozova, Olga; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-10-01

    Opioid agonist treatments (OAT) are widely-used, evidence-based strategies for treating opioid dependence and reducing HIV transmission. The positive benefits of OAT are strongly correlated with time spent in treatment, making retention a key indicator for program quality. This study assessed patient retention and associated factors in Ukraine, where OAT was first introduced in 2004. Data from clinical records of 2916 patients enrolled in OAT at thirteen sites from 2005 to 2012 were entered into an electronic monitoring system. Survival analysis methods were used to determine the probability of retention and its correlates. Twelve-month retention was 65.8%, improving from 27.7% in 2005, to 70.9% in 2011. In multivariable analyses, the correlates of retention were receiving medium and high doses of medication (compared to low doses, dropout aHR=0.57 for both medium and high doses), having not been tested for HIV and tuberculosis (compared to not being tested, dropout aHR=4.44 and 3.34, respectively), and among those who were tested-a negative TB test result (compared to receiving a positive test result, dropout aHR=0.67). Retention in Ukrainian OAT programs, especially in recent years, is comparable to other countries. The results confirm the importance of adequate OAT dosing (≥60mg of methadone, ≥8mg of buprenorphine). Higher dosing, however, will require interventions that address negative attitudes toward OAT by patients and providers. Interruption of OAT, in the case developing tuberculosis, should incorporate continuity of OAT for TB patients through integrated care delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Ruth; Malyuta, Ruslan; Chentsova, Nelli; Karnets, Iryna; Murphy, Gary; Medoeva, Antonia; Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander; Copas, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud

    2016-01-01

    To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5%) recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65-29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion.

  4. Radiocesium body burdens in immigrants to Israel from areas of the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia near Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Quastel, M.R.; Polyak, S.; Kramer, G.H.

    1995-07-01

    Of the 500,000 immigrants from the former Soviet Union who came to Israel during 1990-1993, about 100,000 are estimated to have come from radiocontaminated areas near Chernobyl. These people were subject to chronic uptake of environmental radiocesium over protracted periods. During October-November 1991, a joint Israeli-Canadian investigation measured radiocesium body burdens in immigrants to Israel from the Ukraine, Belarus, and the southern Russian republic in order to provide factual information on radiocesium levels to concerned immigrants and to relate the body burdens to the geographic area of residence before coming to Israel. Assessments were made of {sup 137}Cs body burdensmore » in 1,228 volunteer men, women, and children. These measurements were accompanied by medical assessments based on clinical histories and examinations. Radiocesium levels were strongly dependent on the duration of residence in Israel, with the highest levels being found in the most recent immigrants. The maximum level, extrapolated back to the time of leaving the former Soviet Union, was estimated to be about 0.83 kBq (10.3 Bp kg{sup -1}). Of the most recent immigrant from the Kiev region (<101 days in Israel), only 15% had back extrapolated body burdens >50 Bq, whereas 53% of those coming from Gomel and other towns in the contaminated zones (>3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq km{sup -2} of radiocesium) had detectable levels >50 Bq. People coming from the latter region had significantly higher body burdens as compared to those from the former, in accordance with the higher degree of ground radiocesium contamination reported for the latter region. Women and children showed considerably lower total radiocesium content in comparison to men. All radiocesium body burdens at the time of measurement were too low to be of health concern. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  5. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  6. Contamination of the environment by strongylid (Nematoda: Strongylidae) infective larvae at horse farms of various types in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of the influence of horse-keeping conditions by contamination of the environment (pastures, paddocks, and stalls) by the strongylid infective larvae (L(3)) was carried out at various types of horse farms, hippodromes, and riding clubs in Ukraine. A total of 1,237 horses from three types of horse-keeping conditions were examined. Epidemiological studies of stall and grazing area (pasture and paddocks) contamination by L(3) were performed at hippodrome (stalled horse-keeping) and horse farms with stall/paddock-keeping and stall/pasture-keeping conditions. Grass and stall litter samples were examined by the Baermann procedure. It was found that horses of stall-keeping conditions had the lowest level of strongylid infection (prevalence 46.4-77.8%, average infection 25.6-92.9 eggs per gram of feces (EPG)) and lowest proportion of large strongyle L(3) in coprocultures (1.6-11.3%). Horses of stall/pasture-keeping conditions were the most infected (prevalence 95.1-100%, average infection 198.2-453.7 EPG), and the proportion of large strongyle L(3) was 17.3-24.7%. Strongyle L(3) were found in litter of all parts of individual stalls; areas at the stall center, "toilet", and entrance were the most contaminated. The highest L(3) number in stall litter was registered in summer. Contamination of permanent pasture grass by L(3) was notably lower than grass in paddocks (86.3-161.4 L(3)/kg compared with 305.9-409.1 L(3)/kg). The highest level of pasture grass contamination was observed in the middle of summer (July)--up 970.7 L(3)/kg. The results obtained confirmed importance of environmental contamination in epidemiology of horse strongylidosis at various types of horse-keeping conditions.

  7. An Extended Paleozoic Apparent Polar Wander Path for Baltica: new Permo-Carboniferous Paleopoles From the Donbas Region (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, M. F.; Meijers, M. J.; van Hinsbergen, D. J.; van der Meer, D. G.; Langereis, C. G.; Stephenson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    An improved Paleozoic apparent polar wander (APW) path for Baltica is presented here on the basis of six new paleopoles that have been determined from samples collected in the Donbas region in the Dniepr-Donets basin in south-eastern Ukraine. Constructing APW paths allows improving paleogeographic reconstructions that reach further back in time than 200 Ma, where the use of oceanic isochrons and hotspot track has limited applicability. The absence of penetrative regional deformation and the subparallel trending bedding attitudes across the basin suggest that our sites did not suffer from local rotations and their results are interpreted as representative for Baltica. The data presented here improve the paleogeographic reconstruction of Baltica within the collage of the supercontinent Pangea. The six new paleopoles cover a time span from earliest Carboniferous (~356 Ma) to early Permian (~295 Ma). In our reconstruction, Baltica was located at a constant latitude of ~5°N during a major part of the Carboniferous, while at ~310 Ma it started to move gradually northward, reaching a paleolatitude of ~13°N at 295 Ma. From ~355 Ma to 295 Ma Baltica experienced a net ~20° clockwise rotation. Our new data differ with the APW path from Torsvik et al. (submitted) in the time span from ~320-300 Ma, wherein they propose a northward movement from more southerly latitudes. From 300 Ma onwards, our path fits the reference path from Torsvik et al. A possible Permian remagnetization of our sites is not likely, considering the rotational differences in the various time spans, and rockmagnetic analyses that have been performed. We also discuss the usage of the TK03 model (Tauxe and Kent (2004), Geoph. Mon. 145, pp 101-116) that allows for the correction of inclination error caused by compaction during burial, which is insignificant for most sites. This suggest that the NRM has been acquired after compaction.

  8. Photographic Observations of Major Planets and Their Moons During 1961-1990 at the MAO NAS of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhakevych, O. M.; Andruk, V. M.; Pakuliak, L. K.

    We present the results of photographic observations' processing of Saturn's moons, Uranus, Neptune and their moons on the basis of MAO NAS of Ukraine photographic observational archive. The analysis of the results is given. Observations were obtained using 4 telescopes: Double Long-Focus Astrograph (DLFA, D/F = 400/5500), Zeiss Double Astrograph (DAZ, D/F= 400/3000), Reflector Zeiss-600 (D/F= 600/7500), Wideangle Astrograph, (DWA, D/F= 400/2000). Observations were carried out during 1961 - 1990 (http://gua.db.ukrvo. org). Digitizing of plates has been done by EPSON EXPRESSION 10000XL (EE) flatbed scanner in 16-bit gray color range with resolution 1200dpi.(Andruk et al.: 2005, 2012; Golovnja et al.: 2010;. Protsyuk et al. 2014a, 2014b). The reduction of plates was made using the software developed in MAO NASU in the enhanced LINUX-MIDAS software kit. (Andruk V. et al.: 2016a, 2016b). Tycho2 was used as a reference system. The internal accuracy of the reduction for the first three instruments is ±0.08 - ±0.13 arcsec for both coordinates. For the wide angle astrograph DWA, RMS errors appeared 2 - 2.5 times higher. The total amount of processed plates with images of Saturn's moons is 209 (511 frames), 33 plates contain the images of Uranus and U1,U2,U3,U4 moons, 29 plates have images of Neptune and N1 moon (Yizhakevych et al., 2015, 2016, 2017; Protsyuk et al., 2015). The online comparison of calculated positions of objects with IMCCE ephemeris data was made (http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/nss/nssephmf.htm).

  9. The lacustrine record of the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event of the Boltysh Impact Crater, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation response to rapid climate change in the geological record is a fundamental element in our understanding of ancient environments; however, the relationships between climate change, plant ecosystems and geological processes are still not fully understood. The filling of the K/Pg Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine, comprise a complete terrestrial sedimentological, palynological and δ13C record of the negative carbon isotope excursion of the early Danian hyperthermal episode. The meteorite impact formed a crater of c. 24 km in diameter at c. 65.2 Ma, which was filled with more than 500 m of organic- and fossil-rich claystones, siltstones and marls, interbedded with sandstones and less frequently gravelly sandstones. The sedimentary succession indicates a deep lake setting that was characterised by fluvial input of reworked basement material via a marginal delta system. Palynological investigations indicate a post-impact early- to mid-successional flora followed by a barren zone which coincides with the age of the Chicxulub impact and therefore argues for a series of impact events at the K/Pg boundary. This barren zone was succeeded by a fern spike marking an initial plant re-colonization. The following palynoflora suggests moisture availability oscillations (MAOs) reflecting 41 k.y. obliquity cycles, which can be correlated with lithological fluctuations during lake evolution. The aim is to conduct a detailed, complete facies analysis, and to correlate lake evolutionary aspects with climatic oscillations and vegetation change within the catchment area. This study will be compared with records of similar hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Western Interior in North America. This integrated approach will help to better understand the controlling factors of global warming events, and their effects on ancient sedimentary environments and ecosystems.

  10. The economic burden of chronic disease care faced by households in Ukraine: a cross-sectional matching study of angina patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and their prevalence in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is on the rise. The burden of chronic health expenditure born by patient households in these countries may be very high, particularly where out-of-pocket payments for health care are common. One such country where out-of-pocket payments are especially high is Ukraine. The financial impact of NCDs on households in this country has not been researched. Methods We set out to explore the burden of NCD care in Ukraine with a study of angina patients. Using data from the Ukraine World Health Survey of 2003 we employed the novel Coarsened Exact Matching approach to estimate the difference in out-of-pocket payment (OPP) for health care between households with a stable angina pectoris (a chronic form of IHD) patient and those without. The likelihood of engaging in catastrophic spending and using various distress financing mechanisms (e.g. sale of assets, borrowing) among angina households compared with non-angina households was also explored. Results Among angina patient households (n = 203), OPP occupied an average of 32% of household effective income. After matching, angina households experienced significantly higher monthly per capita OPP for health care (B = $2.84) and medicines (B = $2.94), but were not at significantly higher odds of engaging in catastrophic spending. Odds of engaging in ‘sale of assets’ (OR = 2.71) and ‘borrowing’ (OR = 1.68) to finance OPP were significantly higher among angina households. Conclusions The cost of chronic care in Ukraine places a burden on individual patient households. Households of angina patients are more likely to engage in distress financing to cover the cost of treatment, and a high proportion of patients do not acquire prescribed medicines because they cannot afford them. This warrants further research on the burden of NCD care in

  11. Standard medical care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in large specialised centres: data from the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan (ESSENCE)

    PubMed Central

    Nasonov, E; Soloviev, S; Davidson, J E; Lila, A; Togizbayev, G; Ivanova, R; Baimukhamedov, Ch; Omarbekova, Zh; Iaremenko, O; Gnylorybov, A; Shevchuk, S; Vasylyev, A; Pereira, M H S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe disease characteristics and treatment regimens for adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with autoantibody positive disease in three countries (the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan). Methods The ESSENCE study was a 1-year, retrospective, multicentre, observational study. Data included patients’ characteristics, disease activity and severity, and healthcare resource use in 2010. Results Twelve centres enrolled 436 eligible patients: 232 in Russia, 110 in Kazakhstan and 94 in Ukraine. Mean age ranged from 36 to 42 years and median SLE duration from 3 to 6.8 years. According to study definitions, 69.2% of patients in Russia, 72.7% in Kazakhstan and 55.4% in Ukraine had severe disease at diagnosis. SLE activity (Nasonova classification, 1972) decreased from diagnosis to the last visit in 2010 in all countries. At the last visit, mean (SD) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment–Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index score was 13.8 (10.5) in Russia, 19.4 (16.9) in Kazakhstan and 7.2 (6.8) in Ukraine, and Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index was 2.0 (2.2), 3.3 (3.2) and 2.2 (2.0), respectively. Treatment regimens included predominantly glucocorticoids (96.7–99.1%), immunosuppressants or cytotoxic drugs, for example, azathioprine and cyclophosphamide (20.7–53.2%), and antimalarial drugs (18.3–40.8%). Conclusions The study provides reliable insight into the SLE clinical profiles in the referenced countries. Patients were 4–10 years younger in the study and had 3–7 years shorter SLE duration than in Western European countries and both SLE activity and severity were higher with higher rate of hospitalisations, but decreased during treatment. Local and international scales demonstrated correlation in SLE activity and organ damage evaluation. There were differences in clinical characteristics and

  12. Legal regulation of the production and trade of medical devices and medical equipment in the EU and US: experience for Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Kotvitska, Alla; Harkusha, Andrii

    2017-01-01

    The need for effective legal regulation of production and sale of medical products in Ukraine due to its social effect is obvious and requires a high level of clarity. The experience of more advanced countries in this area, given the way chosen by Ukraine to harmonize our laws with EU legislation, is certainly could be a useful source of information. The urgency of issues need further intensification of national legal reforms. Some key points on concept of legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study. Legislation of Ukraine, European Union, United States of America, Guidelines, developed by European Commission & Food and Drug Administration's (FDA), recommendations represented by international voluntary group and scientific works. This article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. This study provide a possibility to state that main difference of regulatory systems in EU and US is that the legal framework of the EU is more flexible. This flexibility is grounded on main principle that only basic quality requirements for medical devices is defined by legislative acts however more detailed requirements are defined in standards, technical regulations, specifications, which are discretionary in nature. Contractors are free to choose any technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements, they can choose among different conformity assessment procedures and between accredited conformity assessment bodies to which they want to apply. The contractors themselves is interested to pass the conformity assessment procedure and have the right to put a conformity mark on their medical device because it will give them a real competitive advantage. In contrast, US State regulatory system provides strict control over business entities and law act establishes the quality requirements of medical products. The only body that can authorize the introduction of medical products and perform

  13. For the 100TH Anniversary of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    This article is devoted to the forthcoming (11/30/2018) 100th anniversary of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU). The recognition of the scientific results of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics by the world's scientific community is discussed. The historical stages of the institute development are considered. The staff, new books (monographs, textbooks, and tutorials), training achievements (new Doctors of Sciences and PhD), publications in scientific journals, etc. are briefly reviewed. The main scientific awards of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics are listed.

  14. [The gene pool of Belgorod oblast population: study of biochemical gene markers in populations of Ukraine and Belarus and the position of the Belgorod population in the Eastern Slavic gene pool system].

    PubMed

    Lependina, I N; Churnosov, M I; Artamentova, L A; Ishchuk, M A; Tegako, O V; Balanovskaia, E V

    2008-04-01

    The characteristics of the gene pools of indigenous populations of Ukraine and Belarus have been studied using 28 alleles of 10 loci of biochemical gene markers (HP, GC, TF, PI, C'3, ACP1, GLO1, PGM1, ESD, and 6-PGD). The gene pools of the Russian and Ukrainian indigenous populations of Belgorod oblast (Russia) and the indigenous populations of Ukraine and Belarus have been compared. Cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, and factor analysis of the obtained data have been used to determine the position of the Belgorod population gene pool in the Eastern Slavic gene pool system.

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine introduction against radiologically-confirmed hospitalized pneumonia in young children in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Pilishvili, Tamara; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Bondarenko, Anastasia; Lapiy, Fedir; Sychova, Irina; Cohen, Adam; Flannery, Brendan; Hajjeh, Rana

    2013-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was included into the national vaccination schedule of Ukraine in 2006. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccine against radiologically-confirmed hospitalized pneumonia in children. Children <2 years old with radiologically confirmed pneumonia admitted to 11 participating hospitals in Kiev and Dnepropetrovsk between April 2007 and June 2009 were included in a case-control evaluation. Four controls were matched to each case by date of birth (within 14 days) and outpatient clinic. We estimated ORs for vaccination and vaccine effectiveness ((1 - OR)*100%) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for comorbid conditions and contraindications for vaccination. We enrolled 188 case-children and 735 controls. Median age was 16 months (range 4-24 months). Fifty-one percent of cases and 67% of controls received ≥1 doses of Hib conjugate vaccine; 26% of cases and 37% of controls received ≥3 doses. The effectiveness of ≥1 dose Hib conjugate vaccine was estimated at 45% (95% CI 18%-63%). Our study showed that Hib infections are important causes of hospitalized radiologically confirmed pneumonia in young children in Ukraine. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. 'Pure' drug users, commercial sex workers and 'ordinary girls': gendered narratives of HIV risk and prevention in post-Soviet Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D; Cho, Woojeong

    2018-02-08

    International best practices call for a gender-responsive approach to HIV prevention for women, including those who use drugs and those who engage in sex work. This paper draws on multiple qualitative data sources collected over five years in Ukraine to explore the notions of gender, women and family that buttress HIV-related programmes for women. Our analysis reveals that service providers often cast women as hapless victims of unfortunate family circumstances and troubled personal relationships that produce sudden poverty, or social strivers who seek access to wealth and privilege at the expense of their health. Women are portrayed as most vulnerable to HIV when they lack a male 'protector'. We argue that the programmes constituted around these stereotypes of women and their vulnerabilities reflect new forms of institutional power that deflect attention away from gendered socio-economic processes that contribute to women's HIV vulnerability, including job insecurity and unemployment, workplace discrimination, unreliable social benefits and power imbalances within their relationships. We explore how to transform HIV prevention efforts to better address the causes of women's increased vulnerability to HIV in Ukraine and in Eastern Europe more generally.

  17. The Future of Opioid Agonist Therapies in Ukraine: a Qualitative Assessment of Multilevel Barriers and Ways Forward to Promote Retention in Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bojko, Martha J.; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Marcus, Ruthanne; Makarenko, Iuliia; Islam, Zahedul; Filippovych, Sergey; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) to treat opioid addiction in people who inject drugs (PWID) began in Ukraine in 2004. Scale-up of OAT, however, has been hampered by both low enrollment and high attrition. To better understand the factors influencing OAT retention among PWID in Ukraine, qualitative data from 199 PWIDs were collected during 25 focus groups conducted in five Ukrainian cities from February-April 2013. The experiences of PWID who were currently or previously on OAT or currently trying to access OAT were analyzed to identify entry and retention barriers encountered. Transcribed data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Individual beliefs about OAT, particularly misaligned treatment goals between clients and providers, influenced PWID's treatment seeking behaviors. Multiple programmatic and structural issues, including inconvenient hours and treatment site locations, complicated dosing regimens, inflexible medication dispensing guidelines, and mistreatment by clinic and medical staff also strongly influenced OAT retention. Findings suggest the need for both programmatic and policy-level structural changes such as revising legal regulations covering OAT dispensing, formalizing prescription dosing policies and making OAT more available through other sites, including primary care settings as a way to improve treatment retention. Quality improvement interventions that target treatment settings could also be deployed to overcome healthcare delivery barriers. Additional patient education and medical professional development around establishing realistic treatment goals as well as community awareness campaigns that address the myths and fears associated with OAT can be leveraged to overcome individual, family and community-level barriers. PMID:27211995

  18. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Bolotin, Vitaliy; Muzyka, Denys; Goraichuk, Iryna V; Solodiankin, Olexii; Gerilovych, Anton; Stegniy, Borys; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V; Silko, Nikita Y; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (" 113 RQKR↓F 117 "), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values ranging from 1.61 to 1.96. These isolates are most closely related to viruses circulating in Eastern Europe, followed by viruses isolated in Asia during the same period of time. Interestingly, the majority of the viruses were isolated from backyard poultry, suggesting the possibility of a "domestic" or "urban" cycle of maintenance. The molecular characterization of the nucleotide sequence of the complete fusion protein gene of the studied viruses suggests continued circulation of virulent NDV of sub-genotype VIId in Eastern Europe, with occasional introductions from Asia. Furthermore, the high level of genetic similarity among those isolates suggests that the NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIId from Bulgaria and Ukraine may have been part of a broader epizootic process in Eastern Europe rather than separate introductions from Asia or Africa. The continuous monitoring of backyard poultry flocks for the presence of circulating virulent NDV strains will allow early identification of Newcastle disease outbreaks.

  19. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants and trace metals in surface waters in the Seversky Donets River basin (Eastern Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diadin, Dmytro; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Steinmann, Marc; Loup, Christophe; Crini, Nadia; Vystavna, Yuliya; Vergeles, Yuri; Huneau, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    The paper is focused on surface water of the Seversky Donets River Basin in Eastern Ukraine which undergoes significant anthropogenic pressure due to municipal and industrial wastewater discharge, polluted runoff from both urban and agricultural areas, leakages at oil-gas extraction sites located in the region. In these conditions the Seversky Donets River is used for drinking water supply of the city of Kharkiv with 1.5 million inhabitants as well as other smaller settlements in the basin. The diversity of water pollution sources makes it reasonable to use complex indicators and assessment approaches such as combination of organic and inorganic pollutants. We have studied the distribution of major ions, metals and persistent organic compounds (PAHs and PCBs) in water of the Seversky Donets River and its tributaries. In total 20 sites have been sampled on the river catchment area as of 4.5 thousands km2. PAHs and PCBs were measured in surface water for the first time in the region. The most distinctive transformations of water composition have been found downstream wastewater treatment plants in the city of Kharkiv where treated mixture of municipal and industrial wastewater is discharged to the river. Such metals as Ni, Zn, Cr in combination with phosphates and nitrates has shown significant positive correlation indicating the common source of their input. Ten of sixteen total PAHs were detected in measurable concentrations in at least one sample of river water. Sum of PAHs ranged from 15.3 to 117.2 ng/L with mean of 43.8 ng/L. The ratios of PAHs have indicated rather pyrogenic than petrogenic inputs on all the studied sites. Elevated concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs in water were found close to a coal-burning power station and a coke chemical plant also confirming their origin from coal combustion and subsequent atmospheric deposition. PCBs distribution has appeared to be relatively uniform on the territory despite the vast area of the basin researched

  20. The mobility of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in agricultural soils in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Salbu, B.; Oughton, D.H.; Ratnikov, A.V.

    1994-11-01

    Results are presented from studies concerning the behavior of the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in soil-plant agricultural systems in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia during 1991. The sites, representing ploughed and natural pastures, were located at varying distances between 50 and 650 km and varying directions from the Chernobyl reactor site. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the upper 0-5 cm soil layer ranged from 25-1,000 kBq m{sup {minus}2} and were higher in natural pastures as compared to ploughed pastures. For {sup 90}Sr, activity levels ranged from 1.4-40 kBq m{sup {minus}2}, and the highest {sup 90}Sr depositionmore » was observed in the Gomel Region, Belarus. The highest {sup 90}Sr:{sup 137}Cs ratio was also observed in the Gomel soils, i.e., 15% as compared to between 0.72 and 7.4% in the other soils. The mobility of radionuclides was studied by means of sequential extraction. For all soils, between 60 and 95% of the {sup 137}Cs was found to be strongly bound to soil components. In the Russian and Ukrainian soils, between 40 and 98% of the {sup 90}Sr was found in the easily extractable fractions, and the distribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr followed that of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of cesium and strontium. However, in the Gomel soils, between 20 and 50% of the {sup 90}Sr was easily extractable and the distribution of {sup 90}Sr within the extraction fractions did not follow that observed for stable strontium. These results are though to reflect the association of {sup 90}Sr with fuel particles deposited in the Gomel Region. The mobility of {sup 90}Sr is expected to increase with time (as the particles weather) in these soils. 24 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  1. Integration of Health Services Improves Multiple Healthcare Outcomes Among HIV-infected People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael C.; Izenberg, Jacob M.; Dvoryak, Sergey; Dumchev, Konstantin; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs (PWID) experience poor outcomes and fuel HIV epidemics in middle-income countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. We assess integrated/co-located (ICL) healthcare for HIV-infected PWID, which despite international recommendations, is neither widely available nor empirically examined. Methods A 2010 cross-sectional study randomly sampled 296 HIV-infected opioid-dependent PWID from two representative HIV-endemic regions in Ukraine where ICL, non-co-located (NCL) and harm reduction/outreach (HRO) settings are available. ICL settings provide onsite HIV, addiction, and tuberculosis services, NCLs only treat addiction, and HROs provide counseling, needles/syringes, and referrals, but no opioid substitution therapy (OST). The primary outcome was receipt of quality healthcare, measured using a quality healthcare indicator (QHI) composite score representing percentage of eight guidelines-based recommended indicators met for HIV, addiction and tuberculosis treatment. The secondary outcomes were individual QHIs and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Results On average, ICL-participants had significantly higher QHI composite scores compared to NCL- and HRO-participants (71.9% versus 54.8% versus 37.0%, p<0.001) even after controlling for potential confounders. Compared to NCL-participants, ICL-participants were significantly more likely to receive antiretroviral therapy (49.5% versus 19.2%, p<0.001), especially if CD4≤200 (93.8% versus 62.5% p<0.05); guideline-recommended OST dosage (57.3% versus 41.4%, p<0.05); and isoniazid preventive therapy (42.3% versus 11.2%, p<0.001). Subjects receiving OST had significantly higher HRQoL than those not receiving it (p<0.001); however, HRQoL did not differ significantly between ICL- and NCL-participants. Conclusions These findings suggest that OST alone improves quality-of-life, while receiving care in integrated settings collectively and individually improves healthcare quality for PWID

  2. Integration of health services improves multiple healthcare outcomes among HIV-infected people who inject drugs in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael C; Izenberg, Jacob M; Dvoryak, Sergey; Dumchev, Konstantin; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) experience poor outcomes and fuel HIV epidemics in middle-income countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. We assess integrated/co-located (ICL) healthcare for HIV-infected PWID, which despite international recommendations, is neither widely available nor empirically examined. A 2010 cross-sectional study randomly sampled 296 HIV-infected opioid-dependent PWID from two representative HIV-endemic regions in Ukraine where ICL, non-co-located (NCL) and harm reduction/outreach (HRO) settings are available. ICL settings provide onsite HIV, addiction, and tuberculosis services, NCLs only treat addiction, and HROs provide counseling, needles/syringes, and referrals, but no opioid substitution therapy (OST). The primary outcome was receipt of quality healthcare, measured using a quality healthcare indicator (QHI) composite score representing percentage of eight guidelines-based recommended indicators met for HIV, addiction and tuberculosis treatment. The secondary outcomes were individual QHIs and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). On average, ICL-participants had significantly higher QHI composite scores compared to NCL- and HRO-participants (71.9% versus 54.8% versus 37.0%, p<0.001) even after controlling for potential confounders. Compared to NCL-participants, ICL-participants were significantly more likely to receive antiretroviral therapy (49.5% versus 19.2%, p<0.001), especially if CD4 ≤ 200 (93.8% versus 62.5% p<0.05); guideline-recommended OST dosage (57.3% versus 41.4%, p<0.05); and isoniazid preventive therapy (42.3% versus 11.2%, p<0.001). Subjects receiving OST had significantly higher HRQoL than those not receiving it (p<0.001); however, HRQoL did not differ significantly between ICL- and NCL-participants. These findings suggest that OST alone improves quality-of-life, while receiving care in integrated settings collectively and individually improves healthcare quality indicators for PWID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  3. Heavy metals accumulation in wood tissues of the forest-forming species growed in the Steppe technogenic landscapes in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovinska, Viktoriia; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Territory of Steppe in Ukraine is affected by significant anthropogenic impact caused with mining, metallurgical, chemicalplants and heat power stations. The priority pollutants of the region emissions of these enterprises are presented such heavy metals as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn. The regional forest ecosystems can be considered as potential concentrators of pollutants borned with different technogenic impact. It is necessary to study an ability of forests wood to accumulate heavy metals because accumulated toxins are eliminated from biogeochemical cycle in forest ecosystem for a long time. This study goal is to determine the accumulation properties of forest-forming species - Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) difference age group in relation to heavy metals. It was considerable also to assess the heavy metal distribution in the wood tissue of referred species.Heavy metals content were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer using. Scots pine and black locust are the main forest-forming species of natural and artificial forests within Northern Steppe.They can be seen as transformers of the heavy metals cycle and selective concentrators of toxic elements, under the conditions of their excessive concentrations in the environment.It was established that wood tissue of Scots pine and black locust accumulated cadmium in high concentrations according to the age in both species. Indexes of zinc accumulation in the wood of Scots pine exceeded the maximal value in the wood tissue of black locust. The results of our research demonstrated antagonistic interaction of cadmium and zinc. The highest copper concentrations was found for the trees at the age of 45 years. Lead has been identified in wood sample of all ages. Accumulation maximum was fixed in the oldest samples. The trend of concentration increasing of metal didn't find for both species. As for nickel there was established the opposite tendention for both studied species

  4. [The questions of improving the information-analytical component in the reform of the health care system in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Беликова, Инна В; Руденко, Леся А

    2016-01-01

    A priority task of the development strategy of the Ukrainian health care system is the saving and improving of public health. With the development of new economic relations, health care restructuring, the introduction of new financing mechanisms to policy-makers have an important task of the organization of operational management on the basis of timely quality information. According to many authors, the ability to improve the quality of the received information is possible due to the intercalation of information technologies. The main aim of our study is to determine the main directions of modernization of information-analytical component during the health care reform. The medical institutions reporting forms (f.20, f.12, f.17, f.47) were analyzed to achieve the goal, were conducted a survey of primary care physicians. The survey was attended by 265 family doctors, 80 of whom are family doctors of family medicine clinic of the regional center, 185 - medical centers of primary health care district centers. The analysis of the sociological research indicates that the work of the family doctor is accompanied by filling a large number of records, so according to the survey, an average of doctors per day filled about 15.74 +2.2 registration forms, on average per month 333,7+ 30 a month. The necessity of reform of the information-analytical component of the health care system have noted by 94% 1.4. Do not have a automated workstation 34.5% + 5.3 physicians of the regional center and 68% + 3.4 countryside. Possession of the computer at user level observed by 92% + 1.6, which is a good basis for the introduction of information in healthcare system. The data of the sociological survey confirm the necession of structural-functional procuring of the system of information-analytical supporting of the healthcare system of Ukraine. Annual health statistics reports are still relevant, but they need to improve and adapt to the new conditions of functioning of healthcare system and

  5. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Pripyat and Dnieper-Donets Basins, Belarus and Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocker, Mark D.; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Steve; Ryan, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław; Spanski, Gregory T.; Wynn, Jeff; Yang, Chao

    2017-08-03

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Pripyat Basin, Belarus, and Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine, were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Pripyat Basin (in Belarus) and the Dnieper-Donets Basin (in Ukraine and southern Belarus) host stratabound and halokinetic Upper Devonian (Frasnian and Famennian) and Permian (Cisuralian) potash-bearing salt. The evaporite basins formed in the Donbass-Pripyat Rift, a Neoproterozoic continental rift structure that was reactivated during the Late Devonian and was flooded by seawater. Though the rift was divided, in part by volcanic deposits, into the separate Pripyat and Dnieper-Donets Basins, both basins contain similar potash‑bearing evaporite sequences. An Early Permian (Cisuralian) sag basin formed over the rift structure and was also inundated by seawater resulting in another sequence of evaporite deposition. Halokinetic activity initiated by basement faulting during the Devonian continued at least into the Permian and influenced potash salt deposition and structural evolution of potash-bearing salt in both basins.Within these basins, four areas (permissive tracts) that permit the presence of undiscovered potash deposits were defined by using geological criteria. Three tracts are permissive for stratabound potash-bearing deposits and include Famennian (Upper Devonian) salt in the Pripyat Basin, and Famennian and Cisuralian (lower Permian) salt in the Dnieper-Donets Basin. In addition, a tract was delineated for halokinetic potash-bearing Famennian salt in the Dnieper-Donets Basin.The Pripyat Basin is the third largest source of potash in the world, producing 6.4 million metric tons of potassium chloride (KCl) (the equivalent of about 4.0 million metric tons of potassium oxide or K2O) in 2012. Potash production began in 1963 in the Starobin #1 mine, near the town of Starobin, Belarus, in the northwestern corner of the basin. Potash is currently produced from

  6. Trends in Injection Risk Behaviors among People Who Inject Drugs and the Impact of Harm Reduction Programs in Ukraine, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Makarenko, Iuliia; Ompad, D C; Sazonova, Y; Saliuk, T; DeHovitz, J; Gensburg, L

    2017-02-01

    The study examined trends in injection risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and assessed the impact of harm reduction programs in Ukraine during 2007-2013. We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected in serial cross-sectional bio-behavioral surveillance surveys administered with PWIDs in Ukraine in 2007, 2008, 2011, and 2013. Using data from 14 Ukrainian cities, we assessed short-term trends in injection risk behaviors with the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, region, marital status, education level, occupation, age at injection drug use initiation, experience of overdose, and self-reported HIV status. The overall test for trend indicated a statistically significant decrease over time for sharing needle/syringe during the last injection (p < 0.0001), sharing needle/syringe at least once in the last 30 days (p < 0.0001), and using a common container for drug preparation (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of injecting drugs from pre-loaded syringes was high (61.0%) and did not change over the study period. After adjusting for all significant confounders and comparing to 2007, the prevalence of sharing needle/syringe during the last injection was unchanged in 2008 (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.92, 1.21), and declined in 2011 (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.22) and 2013 (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.14, 0.21). Sharing needles/syringes in the last 30 days significantly decreased when compared to that in 2007 (2008: OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.89; 2011: OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.38, 0.47; and 2013: OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.35). The prevalence of using common instruments for drug preparation also decreased compared to that in 2007 (2008: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85, 0.91; 2011: OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.85, 0.90; and 2013: OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.71, 0.76). The observed reduction in the prevalence of injection risk behavior

  7. Implementing and scaling up HCV treatment services for people who inject drugs and other high risk groups in Ukraine: An evaluation of programmatic and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mazhnaya, Alyona; Meteliuk, Anna; Barnard, Tetiana; Zelenev, Alexei; Filippovych, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-09-01

    HCV prevalence estimates among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine is high (60-90%), yet barriers to HCV treatment and care remain substantial including limited access to direct acting antiviral (DAA) medications. A feasibility scale-up project implemented HCV treatment in community-based settings to improve access to DAA treatment for key populations in this context. Using program-level data and verified medical records, we describe the development, implementation processes and outcomes for HCV treatment for PWID and other risks groups. Most participants (76%) received a combination of sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin for 12 weeks. Treatment enrollment started in June 2015; the first two waves are reported. Data on demographics, HIV characteristics, HCV genotype and RNA levels, including sustained virologic response (SVR) were obtained from verified medical records. We used logistic regression to examine the independent correlates of achieving a SVR. The project was implemented in 19 healthcare institutions from 16 regions of Ukraine, mainly within AIDS specialty centers. Our analytical sample included 1126 participants who were mostly men (73%) and the majority were HIV co-infected (79%). Treatment retention was 97.7%; the proportions of participants who achieved SVR for the overall sample and for those with complete data (N=1029) were 86.2% (95% CI 84.08-88.19%) and 94.3% (95% CI 92.8-95.7%) respectively. The analysis of data restricted to only those with SVR data available showed that PWID who were currently injecting had comparable SVR rates (89.2%, 95% CI 81.5-94.5%) to PWID not injecting (94.4%, 95% CI 92.4-96.1), PWID on methadone (94.4%, 95%CI 92.4-96.1), and 'other' risk groups (95.2%, 95% CI 91.3-97.7). Independent factors associated with achieving a SVR were female sex (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI 1.45-8.14), HCV genotype 3 (AOR: 4.57, 95% CI 1.97-10.59) compared to genotype 1. SVR rates in PWID actively injecting did not differ significantly

  8. Factors associated with physical and sexual violence by police among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: implications for retention on opioid agonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Kutsa, Oksana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J; Zelenev, Alexei; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Dvoriak, Sergii; Filippovych, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine's volatile HIV epidemic, one of the largest in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, remains concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence is high (21.3% to 41.8%) among the estimated 310,000 PWID. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy there, yet OAT services are hampered by negative attitudes and frequent harassment of OAT clients and site personnel by law enforcement. This paper examines the various types of police violence that Ukrainian PWID experience and factors associated with the different types of violence, as well as the possible implications of police harassment on OAT retention. In 2014 to 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in five Ukrainian cities with 1613 PWID currently, previously and never on OAT, using a combination of respondent-driven sampling, as well as random sampling. We analysed correlates of police violence by multiple factors, including by gender, and their effects on duration of OAT retention. Self-reported physical and sexual violence by police were the two primary outcomes, while retention on OAT was used as a secondary outcome. Overall, 1033 (64.0%) PWID reported being physically assaulted by police, which was positively correlated with currently or previously being on OAT (69.1% vs. 60.2%; p<0.01). HIV prevalence rates were higher in those receiving OAT than those not on OAT (47.6% vs. 36.1%; p<0.01). Police violence experiences differed by sex, with men experiencing significantly more physical violence, while women experienced more sexual violence (65.9% vs. 42.6%; p<0.01). For PWID who had successfully accessed OAT, longer OAT retention was significantly correlated both with sexual assault by police and fewer non-fatal overdoses. Police violence is a frequent experience among PWID in Ukraine, particularly for those accessing OAT, an evidence-based primary and secondary HIV prevention strategy. Police violence experiences, however, were different for men and

  9. Factors associated with physical and sexual violence by police among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: implications for retention on opioid agonist therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kutsa, Oksana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J; Zelenev, Alexei; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Dvoriak, Sergii; Filippovych, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ukraine's volatile HIV epidemic, one of the largest in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, remains concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence is high (21.3% to 41.8%) among the estimated 310,000 PWID. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy there, yet OAT services are hampered by negative attitudes and frequent harassment of OAT clients and site personnel by law enforcement. This paper examines the various types of police violence that Ukrainian PWID experience and factors associated with the different types of violence, as well as the possible implications of police harassment on OAT retention. Methods In 2014 to 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in five Ukrainian cities with 1613 PWID currently, previously and never on OAT, using a combination of respondent-driven sampling, as well as random sampling. We analysed correlates of police violence by multiple factors, including by gender, and their effects on duration of OAT retention. Self-reported physical and sexual violence by police were the two primary outcomes, while retention on OAT was used as a secondary outcome. Results Overall, 1033 (64.0%) PWID reported being physically assaulted by police, which was positively correlated with currently or previously being on OAT (69.1% vs. 60.2%; p<0.01). HIV prevalence rates were higher in those receiving OAT than those not on OAT (47.6% vs. 36.1%; p<0.01). Police violence experiences differed by sex, with men experiencing significantly more physical violence, while women experienced more sexual violence (65.9% vs. 42.6%; p<0.01). For PWID who had successfully accessed OAT, longer OAT retention was significantly correlated both with sexual assault by police and fewer non-fatal overdoses. Conclusions Police violence is a frequent experience among PWID in Ukraine, particularly for those accessing OAT, an evidence-based primary and secondary HIV prevention strategy. Police violence experiences

  10. Palaeoecological caracterisation of the mammoth steppe at Final Pleistocene in Central Ukraine from zooarchaeology, stable isotope analyses and direct radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péan, Stéphane; Drucker, Dorothée.; Bocherens, Hervé; Haesaerts, Paul; Valladas, Hélène; Stupak, Dmytro; Nuzhnyi, Dmytro

    2010-05-01

    In the Central Ukraine area of the Middle Dnipro Basin, including the Desna river valley, there are exceptional Upper Palaeolithic open air sites with mammoth bone dwelling structures. Mezhyrich is one of these settlements, which are attributed to the Epigravettian cultural facies and occurred in a periglacial environment, during Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 2. Mammoth bone buildings are surrounded by pits, which are filled with archaeological material (tools, hunting weapons, ivory and bone ornaments) and bones of mammoth and other large mammals such as hare, fox, wolf, horse. A new site Buzhanka 2 has yielded a pit which could be related to an expected dwelling structure. These Final Pleistocene sites are particularly appropriate to shed new light upon the relation between man and environment at the time of the mammoth steppe disappearance. Multidisciplinar studies have been carried on, to cross results from zooarchaeology of the pit contents, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope (13C and 15N) analyses of bone collagen, direct 14C dates on mammal bones and microstratigraphic analyses of the loessic sediment. With almost twenty 14C dates available, from mammoth and wolf bones and from charcoals, Mezhyrich is the best dated Epigravettian mammoth bone dwelling site: around 14 500 years BP. Mammoth treatment is zooarchaeologically evidenced in Buzhanka 2, but limited excavated areas do not allow to interpret their procurement yet. In Mezhyrich, consumption of mammoth meat is evidenced from the pit contents, coming from a few juveniles and young adults, probably hunted. The bones used in the dwelling structure no. 4, which are attributed to at least 37 individuals, have two different origins: mostly isolated elements gathered from other deposits, natural accumulations or previous kill sites; a few skeletal portions in anatomical position taken from at least one quite freshly dead mammoth body, for instance a hunted individual. From the stable isotope analyses, it appears

  11. Ukraine Support Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-39

    2014-03-21

    Senate - 04/02/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2183, which became Public Law 113-96 on 4/3/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Lithospheric structure along wide-angle seismic profile GEORIFT 2013 in Pripyat-Dnieper-Donets Basin (Belarus and Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Yegorova, T.; Czuba, W.; Środa, P.; Lysynchuk, D.; Aizberg, R.; Garetsky, R.; Karataev, G.; Gribik, Y.; Farfuliak, L.; Kolomiyets, K.; Omelchenko, V.; Komminaho, K.; Tiira, T.; Gryn, D.; Guterch, A.; Legostaeva, O.; Thybo, H.; Tolkunov, A.

    2018-03-01

    The GEORIFT 2013 (GR'13) WARR (wide-angle reflection and refraction) experiment was carried out in 2013 in the territory of Belarus and Ukraine with broad international co-operation. The aim of the work is to study basin architecture and deep structure of the Pripyat-Dnieper-Donets Basin (PDDB), which is the deepest and best studied Palaeozoic rift basin in Europe. The PDDB is located in the southern part of the East European Craton (EEC) and crosses Sarmatia—one of the three segments of the EEC. The PDDB was formed by Late Devonian rifting associated with domal basement uplift and magmatism. The GR'13 extends in NW-SE direction along the PDDB strike and crosses the Pripyat Trough (PT) and Dnieper Graben (DG) separated by the Bragin Uplift (BU) of the basement. The field acquisition along the GR'13 (of 670 km total length) involved 14 shots and recorders deployed every ˜2.2 km for several shot points. The good quality of the data, with first arrivals visible up to 670 km for several shot points, allowed for construction of a velocity model extending to 80 km depth using ray-tracing modelling. The thickness of the sediments (Vp < 6.0 km s-1) varies from 1-4 km in the PT, to ˜5 km in the NW part of the DG, to 10-13 km in the SE part of the profile. Below the DG, at ˜330-530 km distance, we observed an upwarping of the lower crust (with Vp of ˜7.1 km s-1) to ˜25 km depth that represents a rift pillow or mantle underplate. The Moho shallows southeastwards from ˜47 km in the PT to 40-38 km in the DG with mantle velocities of 8.35 and ˜8.25 km s-1 in the PT and DG, respectively. A near-horizontal mantle discontinuity was found beneath BU (a transition zone from the PT to the DG) at the depth of 50-47 km. It dips to the depth of ˜60 km at distances of 360-405 km, similar to the intersecting EUROBRIDGE'97 profile. The crust and upper mantle structure on the GR'13 may reflect varying intensity of rifting in the PDDB from a passive stage in the PT to active rifting

  13. The type-specimens of Caraboidea beetles (Coleoptera, Adephaga) deposited in the collections of the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Putshkov, Alexander V; Martynov, Alexander V

    2017-03-01

    A catalogue of type specimens of species and subspecies of caraboid beetles, tiger-beetles here treated as family Cicindelidae, and ground-beetles (Carabidae) of suborder Adephaga deposited in the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine is provided. For all type-specimens original photos of each specimen (with label) and label data are given in the original spelling (translated to English if the original label was in Cyrillic alphabet). In some cases data concerning the current status of taxons are discussed. Nominal taxa names are alphabethically listed within each family. Altogether, 372 type specimens of 133 taxa names (species and subspecies) are included in the catalogue: 15 holotypes, 344 paratypes (120 species and subspecies) and 13 specimens (9 taxa) with other type status.

  14. [Scientific approaches to modernization of the regulatory framework in the field of hygiene of planning and building of settlements in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Makhnyuk, V M

    2014-01-01

    In the paper there are investigated and analyzed the new laws and regulations of sanitary and town planning legislation, introduced in 2011-2012 which concern issues of planning and building of settlements. It is established that the functions of the State for Sanitary and Epidemiological Oversight have been given up and the necessity of incorporation in the Law of Ukraine "On ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population" alterations which touch upon the implementation of a new approach to the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Oversight of the objects, namely for the placement of objects with low and moderate epidemic risk accordingly to hygienic declarations, objects with high risk--using an approach directed to the risk assessment of the impact of such facilities on public health.

  15. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women in Ukraine, 2000-12 (European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord): an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Thorne, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Women living with HIV are potentially at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, due to a range of factors, including immunosuppression, use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and injecting drug use. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ukraine have declined to around 2-4%, but little is known about other pregnancy outcomes in this setting. We used data from an observational prospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women in Ukraine. The European Collaborative Study (ECS) in EuroCoord is a continuing cohort study, established in Ukraine in 2000. Eligible women are those with a diagnosis of HIV infection before or during pregnancy (including intrapartum) who deliver liveborn babies at seven sites. Maternal sociodemographic, HIV-related, and delivery (mother and infant) data were collected with study-specific questionnaires. We used Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with preterm delivery (before 37 weeks' gestation) and small weight for gestational age (less than the tenth percentile of weight for gestational age), based on complete cases. Between January, 2000, and July, 2012, data were collected on 8884 HIV-positive mother and liveborn infant pairs. Median maternal age was 26·5 years (IQR 23·1-30·3). 832 (11%) women had WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV and 1474 (17%) had a history of injecting drug use. 7348 (83%) had received antenatal ART. Among 7435 for whom ART type was available, 4396 (50%) had received zidovudine monotherapy and 2949 (33%) combination ART. Preterm delivery was seen in 780 (9%, 95% CI 8-9) of 8860 births overall and in 77 (9%, 7-11) of 889 babies with small size for gestational age. Factors associated with preterm delivery were history of injecting drug use (adjusted risk ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·38-1·95), no ART (2·94, 2·43-3·57 vs zidovudine monotherapy), antenatal combination ART (1·40, 1·14-1·73 vs zidovudine monotherapy), WHO stage 4 HIV (2·42, 1·71-3·41 vs

  16. Patterns of harm reduction service utilization and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: A two-part latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Wang, Jiayu; Dumchev, Konstantin; Barska, Julia; Samko, Maria; Zeziulin, Oleksandr; Saliuk, Tetiana; Varetska, Olga; DeHovitz, Jack

    2017-05-01

    Program utilization patterns are described within a large network of harm reduction service providers in Ukraine. The relationship between utilization patterns and HIV incidence is determined among people who inject drugs (PWID) controlling for oblast-level HIV incidence and treatment/syringe coverage. Data were extracted from the network's monitoring and evaluation database (January 2011-September 2014, n=327,758 clients). Latent profile analysis was used to determine harm reduction utilization patterns using the number of HIV tests received annually and the number of condoms, syringes, and services (i.e., information and counseling sessions) received monthly over a year. Cox proportional hazards regression determined the relations between HIV seroconversion and utilization class membership. In the final 4-class model, class 1 (34.0% of clients) received 0.1 HIV tests, 1.3 syringes, 0.6 condom and minimal counseling and information sessions per month; class 2 (33.6%) received 8.6 syringes, 3.2 condoms, and 0.5 HIV tests and counseling and information sessions; class 3 (19.1%) received 1 HIV test, 11.9 syringes, 4.3 condoms, and 0.7 information and counseling sessions; class 4 (13.3%) received 1 HIV test, 26.1 syringes, 10.3 condoms, and 1.8 information and 1.9 counseling sessions. Class 4 clients had significantly decreased risk for HIV seroconversion as compared to those in class 1 after controlling for oblast-level characteristics. Injection drug use continues to be a major mode of HIV transmission in Ukraine, making evaluation of harm reduction efforts in reducing HIV incidence among PWID critical. These analyses suggest that receiving more syringes and condoms decreased risk of HIV. Scaling up HIV testing and harm reduction services is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. 'We keep her status to ourselves': experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Cloete, Allanise; Metcalf, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In HIV-discordant relationships, the HIV-negative partner also carries the burden of a stigmatised disease. For this reason, couples often hide their HIV-discordant status from family, friends and community members. This perpetuates the silence around HIV-discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. This article reports on experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. During 2008, HIV-discordant couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year were recruited purposively through health-care providers and civil society organisations in the three countries. Participants completed a brief self-administered questionnaire, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with each partner separately and with both partners together. Interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Fifty-one couples were recruited: 26 from South Africa, 10 from Tanzania, and 15 from Ukraine. Although most participants had disclosed their HIV status to someone other than their partner, few were living openly with HIV discordance. Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name-calling, and HIV-negative partners being labelled as HIV-positive. Perpetrators of discrimination included family members and health workers. Stigma and discrimination present unique and complex challenges to couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships in these three diverse countries. Addressing stigmatisation of HIV-discordant couples requires a holistic human rights approach and specific programme efforts to address discrimination in the health system.

  18. The Future of Opioid Agonist Therapies in Ukraine: A Qualitative Assessment of Multilevel Barriers and Ways Forward to Promote Retention in Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bojko, Martha J; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Marcus, Ruthanne; Makarenko, Iuliia; Islam, Zahedul; Filippovych, Sergey; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-07-01

    Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) to treat opioid addiction in people who inject drugs (PWID) began in Ukraine in 2004. Scale-up of OAT, however, has been hampered by both low enrollment and high attrition. To better understand the factors influencing OAT retention among PWID in Ukraine, qualitative data from 199 PWIDs were collected during 25 focus groups conducted in five Ukrainian cities from February to April 2013. The experiences of PWID who were currently or previously on OAT or currently trying to access OAT were analyzed to identify entry and retention barriers encountered. Transcribed data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Individual beliefs about OAT, particularly misaligned treatment goals between clients and providers, influenced PWID's treatment seeking behaviors. Multiple programmatic and structural issues, including inconvenient hours and treatment site locations, complicated dosing regimens, inflexible medication dispensing guidelines, and mistreatment by clinic and medical staff also strongly influenced OAT retention. Findings suggest the need for both programmatic and policy-level structural changes such as revising legal regulations covering OAT dispensing, formalizing prescription dosing policies and making OAT more available through other sites, including primary care settings as a way to improve treatment retention. Quality improvement interventions that target treatment settings could also be deployed to overcome healthcare delivery barriers. Additional patient education and medical professional development around establishing realistic treatment goals as well as community awareness campaigns that address the myths and fears associated with OAT can be leveraged to overcome individual, family and community-level barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001) and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003). In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure. PMID:26402065

  20. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001) and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003). In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  1. Efficacy evaluation of managed population shift in Ukraine from zone of obligate (compulsory) resettlement as a measure of public radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Gunko, N V

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of efficacy of the managed population transmigration from zone of obligate (compulsory) resettlement as a measure of civil protection after the Chernobyl NPP accident from the perspective of radiation biology. Legislative and statutory tutorial documents that regulate the managed population shift from radiologically contaminated territories of Ukraine and data from the Ukrainian State Service of Statistics on time limits and scopes of population transmigration from contaminated settlements were the informational back ground of the study. Data on retrospective and expected/anticipated radiation doses in population of settlements exposed to radiological contamination in Ukraine after the Chernobyl disaster summarized for the 1986-1997 peri od and up to 2055 were the information source for calculation of averted doses due to population shift. Battery of basic research empirical evidence review methods was applied under the calculation, systemic, and biomedical approach. Population shift from zone of obligate (compulsore) resettlement (hereafter referred to as Zone 2) to stop the radiation exposure as a tool of civil protection from emergency ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident was scientifically substantiated and expedient from the perspective of radiation biology. Estimability of a managed population shift from "dose effect" perspective and "benefit/harm" principle is worse because of data absence on individual radiation doses to migrants in the country. Public shift in 1990 and 1991 was most effective from the viewpoint of level of averted lifetime dose. Due to transmigration the averted lifetime dose to the most vulnerable group of the Chernobyl disaster survivors i.e. children aged 0 years varied from 11.2 to 28.8 mSv (calculated for the Perejizdiv village council of Zhytomyr province). Since 2000 there was almost no public shift being not accomplished in the scheduled scope. Delay and incompleteness of transmigration have diminished the

  2. Overview of the cooperation between the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory in Slavutych, Ukraine, and U.S. research centers between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Labone, Elizabeth D

    2011-10-01

    The International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) located in Slavutych, Ukraine, was created in 1999 under the initiative of the United States Government and the Government of Ukraine in the framework of international cooperation on evaluation and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Since the time the IRL was founded, it has participated in a large number of projects, including the following: 1) study of radionuclide accumulation, distribution, and migration in components of various ecological systems of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); 2) radiation dose assessments; 3) study of the effects of radiation influence on biological systems; 4) expert analysis of isotopic and quantitative composition of radioactive contaminants; 5) development of new methods and technologies intended for radioecological research; 6) evaluation of future developments and pathways for potential remediation of the ChEZ areas; 7) assistance in provision of physical protection systems for ionizing irradiation sources at Ukrainian enterprises; 8) reviews of open Russian language publications on issues associated with consequences of the ChNPP accident, radioactive waste management, radioecological monitoring, and ChNPP decommissioning; 9) conduct of training courses on problems of radioecology, radiation safety, radioecological characterization of test sites and environmental media, and research methods; 10) conduct of on-site scientific conferences and workshops on the ChEZ and radioecology problems; participation in off-site scientific conferences and meetings; and 11) preparation of scientific and popular science publications and interactions with mass media representatives. This article provides a brief overview of the major achievements resulting from this cooperation between the IRL and U.S. research centers.

  3. ‘We keep her status to ourselves’: Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Cloete, Allanise; Metcalf, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In HIV-discordant relationships, the HIV-negative partner also carries the burden of a stigmatised disease. For this reason, couples often hide their HIV-discordant status from family, friends and community members. This perpetuates the silence around HIV-discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. This article reports on experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. During 2008, HIV-discordant couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year were recruited purposively through health-care providers and civil society organisations in the three countries. Participants completed a brief self-administered questionnaire, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with each partner separately and with both partners together. Interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Fifty-one couples were recruited: 26 from South Africa, 10 from Tanzania, and 15 from Ukraine. Although most participants had disclosed their HIV status to someone other than their partner, few were living openly with HIV discordance. Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name-calling, and HIV-negative partners being labelled as HIV-positive. Perpetrators of discrimination included family members and health workers. Stigma and discrimination present unique and complex challenges to couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships in these three diverse countries. Addressing stigmatisation of HIV-discordant couples requires a holistic human rights approach and specific programme efforts to address discrimination in the health system. PMID:25778765

  4. OVERVIEW OF THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE CHERNOBYL CENTER'S INTERNATIONAL RADIOECOLOGY LABORATORY IN SLAVUTYCH, UKRAINE AND U.S. RESEARCH CENTERS BETWEEN 2000-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    The International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) located in Slavutych, Ukraine was created in 1999 under the initiative of the United States Government and the Government of Ukraine in the framework of international cooperation on evaluation and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Since the time the IRL was founded, it has participated in a large number of projects, including the following: (1) study of radionuclide accumulation, distribution, and migration in components of various ecological systems of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); (2) radiation dose assessments; (3) study of the effects of radiation influence on biological systems;more » (4) expert analysis of isotopic and quantitative composition of radioactive contaminants; (5) development of new methods and technologies intended for radioecological research; (6) evaluation of future developments and pathways for potential remediation of the ChEZ areas; (7) assistance in provision of physical protection systems for ionizing irradiation sources at Ukrainian enterprises; (8) reviews of open Russian language publications on issues associated with consequences of the ChNPP accident, radioactive waste management, radioecological monitoring, and ChNPP decommissioning; (9) conduct of training courses on problems of radioecology, radiation safety, radioecological characterization of test sites and environmental media, and on research methods; (10) conduct of on-site scientific conferences and workshops on the ChEZ and radioecology problems; participation in off-site scientific conferences and meetings; and (11) preparation of scientific and popular science publications, and interactions with mass media representatives. This article provides a brief overview of the major achievements resulting from this cooperation between the IRL and U.S. research centers.« less

  5. Disabled children and their families in Ukraine: health and mental health issues for families caring for their disabled child at home.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    In the Eastern European countries included in the communist system of the USSR, parents of disabled children were encouraged to commit their disabled child to institutional care. There were strict legal regulations excluding them from schools. Medical assessments were used for care decisions. Nevertheless many parents decided to care for their disabled child at home within the family. Ukraine became an independent country in 1991, when communism was replaced by liberal democracy within a free market system. Western solutions have been sought for many social problems existing, but 'hidden,' under the old regime. For more of the parents of disabled children, this has meant embracing ideas of caring for their disabled children in the community, and providing for their social, educational, and medical needs, which have previously been denied. The issue of disability is a serious one for Ukraine where the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in 1986 caused extensive radiation poisoning. This almost certainly led to an increase in the number of disabled children being born and an increase in the incidence of various forms of cancer. This paper is based on a series of observation visits to some of the many self-help groups established by parents, usually mothers, for their disabled children. It draws attention to the emotional stress experienced both by parents and their disabled children in the process of attempting to come to terms with the disabling conditions, and the denial of the normal rights of childhood resulting from prejudice, poor resources, ignorance, and restrictive legislation. Attempts have been made to identify the possible role and tasks of professional social workers within this context. International comparisons show that many parents and their children do not benefit from the medical model of disability, and that serious consequences include the development of depressive illness among those who find that little help is available from public services.

  6. Age and gender patterns of thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine depending on thyroid radiation doses from radioactive iodine exposure after the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Fuzik, M M; Prysyazhnyuk, A Y; Shibata, Y; Romanenko, A Y; Fedorenko, Z P; Gudzenko, N A; Gulak, L O; Trotsyuk, N K; Goroh, Y L; Khukhrianska, O M; Sumkina, O V; Saenko, V A; Yamashita, S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the thyroid cancer incidence in a whole territory of Ukraine and to clear up its age and gender patterns depending on average regional (oblast) thyroid doses from radioactive iodine due to the Chornobyl accident. MATERIALS AND METHODS. On the basis of average accumulated thyroid doses from radioactive iodine the geographical regions of Ukraine with low and high average thyroid doses were identified for a comparative analysis performance. Methods of descriptive epidemiology were used. The level and dynamics of thyroid cancer incidence were analyzed in different gender and age groups (both for attained age and age at the moment of the Chornobyl accident). Results of this study confirmed the radiation excess of thyroid cancer in individuals who were children and adolescents in 1986. Some excess was observed in elder age groups too. Especial situation was observed in female age group 40-49 at the moment of the Chornobyl accident i.e. the age-specific thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in "high exposure" regions comparing with "low exposure" ones during all years of observation within 1989-2009. A probable radiation excess of thyroid cancer was suggested not only in children and adolescents but also in adult age groups. In elder age groups this excess was less expressed and manifested after a longer period of time. The origin of the phenomenon in female age group of 40-49 is unclear now. Hypothesis of combined effect of radiation and natural changing of hormonal status in this age should be checked in the future studies. Fuzik M. M, Prysyazhnyuk A. Ye, Shibata Y., Romanenko A. Yu., Fedorenko Z. P., Gudzenko N. A., Gulak L. O., Trotsyuk N. K., Goroh Ye. L., Khukhrianska O. M., Sumkina O. V., Saenko V. A., Yamashita Sh., 2013.

  7. [Inventive activity of the Departments of Protein Structure and Function, and Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine. Part II. National breakthrough in the study and diagnostics of human hemostasis system].

    PubMed

    Lugovska, N E

    2016-01-01

    The scientists of Protein Structure and Function, and Molecular Immunology Departments of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry (NAS of Ukraine) under the supervision of member of NASU and NAMSU, prof. S. V. Komisarenko and corresponding member of NASU prof. E. V. Lugovskoy have made the real breakthrough in the field of research of the mechanisms of fibrin polymerization and formation of fibrin framework of thrombi. The immunodiagnostic test-systems for the evaluation of the risk of thrombus formation were developed for the first time. Researches have obtained the monoclonal antibodies to fibrinogen, fibrin, D-dimer and their fragments. These monoclonal antibodies were used as molecular probes for the localization of newly detected fibrin polymerization sites. Obtained antibodies with high affinity interact with fibrinogen, D-dimer and soluble fibrin – main markers of the risk of thrombus formation. They were used for the development of the immunodiagnostic test-systems to quantify these markers in human blood plasma for the evaluation of the state of haemostasis system, detection of prethrombotic states, disseminated intravascular coagulation, detection of thrombosis and monitoring of antithrombotic and fibrinolytic therapy. The successful trial of developed test-systems was carried out in clinics of Ukraine, and the State registration was obtained for the implementation of them into the clinical practice. Presented works were awarded State prize of Ukraine in Science and technology.

  8. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women using injecting drugs in Ukraine, 2000–10

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Claire; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Aims To compare clinical status, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates, use of prevention of (PMTCT) interventions and pregnancy outcomes between HIV-infected injecting drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs. Design and setting Prospective cohort study conducted in seven human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Centres in Ukraine, 2000–10. Participants Pregnant HIV-infected women, identified before/during pregnancy or intrapartum, and their live-born infants (n = 6200); 1028 women followed post-partum. Measurements Maternal and delivery characteristics, PMTCT prophylaxis, MTCT rates, preterm delivery (PTD) and low birth weight (LBW). Findings Of 6200 women, 1111 (18%) reported current/previous IDU. The proportion of IDUs diagnosed with HIV before conception increased from 31% in 2000/01 to 60% in 2008/09 (P < 0.01). Among women with undiagnosed HIV at conception, 20% of IDUs were diagnosed intrapartum versus 4% of non-IDUs (P < 0.01). At enrolment, 14% of IDUs had severe/advanced HIV symptoms versus 6% of non-IDUs (P < 0.001). IDUs had higher rates of PTD and LBW infants than non-IDUs, respectively, 16% versus 7% and 22% versus 10% (P < 0.001). IDUs were more likely to receive no neonatal or intrapartum PMTCT prophylaxis compared with non-IDUs (OR 2.81, p < 0.001). MTCT rates were 10.8% in IDUs versus 5.9% in non-IDUs; IDUs had increased MTCT risk (adjusted odds ratio 1.32, P = 0.049). Fewer IDUs with treatment indications received HAART compared with non-IDUs (58% versus 68%, P = 0.03). Conclusions Pregnant human immunodeficiency virus-infected injecting drug users in Ukraine have worse clinical status, poorer access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy, more adverse pregnancy outcomes and higher risk of mother-to-child transmission than non-injecting drug user women. PMID:21819473

  9. Current radiological situation in areas of Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: Part 1. Human dietary exposure to Caesium-137 and possible mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Labunska, I; Kashparov, V; Levchuk, S; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Polishchuk, S; Lazarev, N; Khomutinin, Y

    2018-08-01

    This study reports for the first time temporal trends for the period of 2011-2016 in 137 Cs content in cow's milk originating from private farms and households of 14 settlements located in the territories of the Rivne region, Ukraine. These areas are still radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in 1986. In 2016, the average 137 Cs activity concentration in milk exceeded the Ukrainian Permissible Level (PL) for adults of 100 Bq/l in samples from 6 settlements and the PL for children of 40 Bq/l in 8 settlements, reaching activity concentration of around 500 Bq/l in some samples. Estimated annual effective doses calculated utilizing two different methodologies were in the range of 1.4-2.6 mSv/year and 1.2-1.8 mSv/year, respectively. The estimated effective period of milk semi-purification (T 1/2 _ eff ) from 137 Cs in these settlements was in the range from 8 to 17 years. The estimated ecological period of milk semi-purification (T 1/2 _ eco ) from 137 Cs was in the range from 11 to 36 years. The optimization of the remedial actions strategy for investigated settlements exposed to an effective dose above 1 mSv/year (as estimated in 2016) has shown that a diversity of measures can decrease effective dose for a representative person to below 1 mSv/year. Such measures include application of Ferrocyn to cows, mineral fertilization of potato fields, information campaigns on consumption of wild mushrooms and other forestry products, and feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder. The total costs of such measures are estimated to be about 71,000 Euro per year for the combined population (8336 inhabitants) of the six villages investigated in this study that showed the highest median residual 137 Cs activity concentrations in milk, with a subsequent decrease in cost in the future. This would result in an averted collective dose of 11 man-Sv, at an average cost of 6.5 kEuro/man-Sv averted. In the

  10. [Theoretical grounds of a structural and functional model for quality assurance of radiation diagnostics under conditions of development of the modern health care system in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Korop, Oleg A; Lenskykh, Sergiy V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Modern changes in the health care system of Ukraine are focused on financial support in providing medical and diagnostic care to the population and are based on deep and consistent structural and functional transformations. They are aimed at providing adequate quality care, which is the main target function and a principal criterion for operation of health care system. The urgency of this problem is increasing in the context of reforming the health care system and global changes in the governmental financial guarantees for the provision of medical services to the population. The aim of the work is to provide theoretical grounds for a structural and functional model of quality assurance of radiation diagnostics at all levels of medical care given to the population under the current health care reform in Ukraine. Materials and methods: The object of the study is organizing the operation of the radiation diagnostic service; the information is based on the actual data on the characteristics of radiation diagnosis at different levels of medical care provision. Methods of systematic approach, system analysis and structural and functional analysis of the operating system of radiation diagnostics are used. Review: The basis of the quality assurance model is the cyclical process, which includes the stages of the problem identifition, planning of its solution, organization of the system for implementation of decisions, monitoring the quality management process of the radiation diagnostics, and factors influencing the quality of the radiation diagnostics service. These factors include the quality of the structure, process, results, organization of management and control of current processes and the results of radiation diagnostics management. Conclusions: The advantages of the proposed model for ensuring the quality of the radiation diagnostics service are its systemacy and complexity, elimination of identified defects and deficiencies, and achievement of

  11. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infection positivity rates determined by nucleic acid amplification test in patients of hospitals in the northeastern region of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Belozorov, Alexei; Fedets, Olga; Chastii, Tatjana; Milutina, Elena; Sokol, Oksana; Grigorova, Ritsa; Unuchko, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    There are no accurate data regarding the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ukraine. This study aims to estimate the prevalence in the northeastern region of the country through reviewing nucleic acid amplification test results in patients of medical institutions in the Kharkov region during 2014-2016. Samples from 6920 patients (5028 women and 1892 men) aged 12-76 years were tested. The overall positivity rate was 4.5% (95% CI 4.0-5.0): 3.9% (95% CI 3.4-4.5) in women and 6.1% (95% CI 5.1-7.3) in men. The highest prevalence was found in the 16-20 (8.5%, CI 6.3-11.4) and 21-25 (8.0%, CI 6.7-9.4) year age groups. The prevalence in men was higher than in women in all investigated groups. The results show the need for more attention to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chlamydial infection in these age groups of women and men in this region.

  13. Application of EU tissue and cell directive screening protocols to anonymous oocyte donors in western Ukraine: data from an Irish IVF programme.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A P H; Omar, A B; Collins, G S; Murray, G U; Walsh, D J; Salma, U; Sills, E Scott

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous oocyte donation in the EU proceeds only after rigorous screening designed to ensure gamete safety. If anonymous donor gametes originating from outside EU territory are used by EU patients, donor testing must conform to the same standards as if gamete procurement had occurred in the EU. In Ireland, IVF recipients can be matched to anonymous donors in the Ukraine (a non-EU country). This investigation describes the evolution of anonymous oocyte donor screening methods during this period and associated results. Data were reviewed for all participants in an anonymous donor oocyte IVF programme from 2006 to 2009, when testing consistent with contemporary EU screening requirements was performed on all Ukrainian oocyte donors. HIV and hepatitis tests were aggregated from 314 anonymous oocyte donors and 265 recipients. The results included 5,524 Ukrainian women who were interviewed and 314 of these entered the programme (5.7% accession rate). Mean age of anonymous oocyte donors was 27.9 years; all had achieved at least one delivery. No case of hepatitis or HIV was detected at initial screening or at oocyte procurement. This is the first study of HIV and hepatitis incidence specifically among Ukrainian oocyte donors. We find anonymous oocyte donors to be a low-risk group, despite a high background HIV rate. Following full disclosure of the donation process, most Ukrainian women wishing to volunteer as anonymous oocyte donors do not participate. Current EU screening requirements appear adequate to maintain patient safety in the context of anonymous donor oocyte IVF.

  14. Defining a stable water isotope framework for isotope hydrology application in a large trans-boundary watershed (Russian Federation/Ukraine).

    PubMed

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Diadin, Dmytro; Huneau, Frédéric

    2018-05-01

    Stable isotopes of hydrogen ( 2 H) and oxygen ( 18 O) of the water molecule were used to assess the relationship between precipitation, surface water and groundwater in a large Russia/Ukraine trans-boundary river basin. Precipitation was sampled from November 2013 to February 2015, and surface water and groundwater were sampled during high and low flow in 2014. A local meteoric water line was defined for the Ukrainian part of the basin. The isotopic seasonality in precipitation was evident with depletion in heavy isotopes in November-March and an enrichment in April-October, indicating continental and temperature effects. Surface water was enriched in stable water isotopes from upstream to downstream sites due to progressive evaporation. Stable water isotopes in groundwater indicated that recharge occurs mainly during winter and spring. A one-year data set is probably not sufficient to report the seasonality of groundwater recharge, but this survey can be used to identify the stable water isotopes framework in a weakly gauged basin for further hydrological and geochemical studies.

  15. Improving Timeliness of Winter Wheat Production Forecast in United States of America, Ukraine and China Using MODIS Data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Claverie, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobrino, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop traded on international markets and winter wheat constitutes approximately 80% of global wheat production. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production. Their approach combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. In this study, we include the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts while conserving the accuracy of the original model. We apply this modified model to three major wheat-producing countries: United States of America, Ukraine and China from 2001 to 2012. We show that a reliable forecast can be made between one month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (meaning two months to two and a half months prior to harvest) while conserving an accuracy of 10% in the production forecast.

  16. Emergence of tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ricketsia raoultii and Babesia microti) in the Kyiv urban parks, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Didyk, Yuliya M; Blaňárová, Lucia; Pogrebnyak, Svyatoslav; Akimov, Igor; Peťko, Branislav; Víchová, Bronislava

    2017-02-01

    To date, only limited data about the presence of ticks and circulation of tick-borne pathogens in urban parks of Kyiv in northern Ukraine are available. In total, 767 ticks (696 Ixodes ricinus and 69 Dermacentor reticulatus) collected in seven urban parks and one suburban oak wood park in Kyiv were individually analyzed by the PCR assays. Tick-borne pathogens, namely spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, were detected in 11.1% of tested I. ricinus ticks. In total, 4% of I. ricinus ticks tested positive for the presence of B. burdorferi s.l. (Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii), 5.2% for A. phagocytophilum, and Ba. microti was confirmed in 1.9% of examined ticks. Mixed infections were recorded in four DNA samples, representing the prevalence of 0.6%. One female and two I. ricinus nymphs were simultaneously infected with B. afzelii and A. phagocytophilum, and one female carried B. afzelii and Ba. microti. In addition, 10.1% of D. reticulatus ticks tested positive for Rickettsia raoultii. Identification of infectious agents and their diversity, assessment of the relative epidemiological importance and determination of the prevalence in questing ticks from central parts of the cities are crucial steps towards the tick-borne diseases surveillance in urban environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional Warming and Emerging Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dirofilariosis in the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and Other Post-Soviet States from 1981 to 2011 and Projection by 2030

    PubMed Central

    Afonin, Alexandr; González-Miguel, Javier; Sepúlveda, Rosa; Simón, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We analyze through a climatic model the influence of regional warming on the geographical spreading and potential risk of infection of human dirofilariosis in Russia, Ukraine, and other post-Soviet states from 1981 to 2011 and estimate the situation by 2030. The model correctly predicts the spatiotemporal location of 97.10% of 2154 clinical cases reported in the area during the studied period, identified by a retrospective review of the literature. There exists also a significant correlation between annual predicted Dirofilaria generations and calculated morbidity. The model states the progressive increase of 14.8% in the potential transmission area, up to latitude 64°N, and 14.7% in population exposure. By 2030 an increase of 18.5% in transmission area and 10.8% in population exposure is expected. These findings strongly suggest the influence of global warming in both geographical spreading and increase in the number of Dirofilaria generations. The results should alert about the epidemiological behavior of dirofilariosis and other mosquito-borne diseases in these and other countries with similar climatic characteristics. PMID:25045709

  18. Twenty five years of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine - progress and priorities for future of radiation medicine and biology.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D

    2017-12-01

    After the creation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in 1993 the Research Center for Radiation Medicine was among the first institutions to join the Academy (fig. 1). Estab lishing the Academy was among the first steps of the independent Ukrainian government and aimed to provide a high level health care for population. It was extremely needed for the minimization of Chornobyl medical consequences. This choice was related to a growing recognition of the scientific research in fulfilling the Сenter's mission - study of the effects of low dose radiation on human body and radiation protection of the exposed population.The Center entered the Academy as a potent insti tution. Director General Dr. Anatoly Romanenko and his first deputy prof. Oles Pyatak were lucky to concentrate in three institutes of the Center a talent ed workforce including director of the Institute of Clinical Radiology prof Volodymyr Bebeshko, director of the Institute of Epidemiology and Prophylaxis of radiation Injuries prof. Volodymyr Buzunov, director of the Institute of Experimental Radiology prof. Mikhail Rudnev. Drs. T. Azaren kova, S. Galkina, V. Boer, T. Treskunova were appointed as scientific secretaries. Dosimetry divi sion was headed by brilliant prof Ilya Likhtarev and his staff Drs. I. Los, V. Korzun, V. Repin, O. Pere voznikov, O. Bondarenko, V. Chumak and others.The Center met creation of the Academy with expe rienced research and clinical staff encountering 1587 members, including 272 research staff, 28 doctors of science and 98 PhDs, modern diagnostic and labo ratory equipment, 300 beds in clinical departments and construction of hospital and out patient hospi tal in Svyatoshin. Scientific staff included experi enced prof. I. Khomaziuk, prof. B. Prevarsky, prof. V. Zamostian, prof. P. Chayalo, prof. M. Omelya nets, prof. A. Prysyazhnyuk. Dr. A. Niagu, Dr. E. Stepanova, Dr. A.Chumak, Dr. V. Klymenko, Dr. D. Komarenko, M. Pilinska, L.Ovsiannikova, O. Pi rogova. were among

  19. HCV co-infection and markers of liver injury and fibrosis among HIV-positive childbearing women in Ukraine: results from a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather; Nizova, Nataliya; Martsynovska, Violeta; Volokha, Alla; Malyuta, Ruslan; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire

    2016-12-12

    Ukraine's injecting drug use-driven HIV epidemic is among the most severe in Europe with high burden of HCV co-infection. HIV/HCV co-infected individuals are at elevated risk of HCV-related morbidity, but little is known about burden of liver disease and associated factors in the HIV-positive population in Ukraine, particularly among women. Characteristics of 2050 HIV-positive women enrolled into the Ukrainian Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women were described by HCV serostatus. Aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio (APRI) and FIB-4 scores were calculated and exact logistic regression models fitted to investigate factors associated with significant fibrosis (APRI >1.5) among 762 women with an APRI score available. Of 2050 HIV-positive women (median age 27.7 years, IQR 24.6-31.3), 33% were HCV co-infected (79% of those with a history of injecting drug use vs 23% without) and 17% HBsAg positive. A quarter were on antiretroviral therapy at postnatal cohort enrolment. 1% of the HIV/HCV co-infected group had ever received treatment for HCV. Overall, 24% had an alanine aminotransferase level >41 U/L and 34% an elevated AST (53% and 61% among HIV/HCV co-infected). Prevalence of significant fibrosis was 4.5%; 2.5% among 445 HIV mono-infected and 12.3% among 171 HIV/HCV co-infected women. 1.2% had a FIB-4 score >3.25 indicating advanced fibrosis. HCV RNA testing in a sub-group of 56 HIV/HCV co-infected women indicated a likely spontaneous clearance rate of 18% and predominance of HCV genotype 1, with one-third having genotype 3 infection. Factors associated with significant fibrosis were HCV co-infection (AOR 2.53 95%CI 1.03-6.23), history of injecting drug use (AOR 3.51 95%CI 1.39-8.89), WHO stage 3-4 HIV disease (AOR 3.47 95%CI 1.51-7.99 vs stage 1-2 HIV disease) and not being on combination antiretroviral therapy (AOR 3.08 95%CI 1.23-7.74), adjusted additionally for HBV co-infection, smoking and age. Most HIV/HCV co-infected women had elevated liver

  20. Performance of an Early Infant Diagnostic Test, AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT, Using Dried Blood Spots Collected from Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Mothers in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Azarskova, Marianna; Nguyen, Shon; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zhang, Guoqing; Osmanov, Saladin; Ellenberger, Dennis; Yang, Chunfu; Vitek, Charles; Liulchuk, Maria; Nizova, Natalya

    2015-01-01

    An accurate accessible test for early infant diagnosis (EID) is crucial for identifying HIV-infected infants and linking them to treatment. To improve EID services in