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Sample records for ulcerative interstitial cystitis

  1. A Case Control Study Reveals that Polyomaviruria Is Significantly Associated with Interstitial Cystitis and Vesical Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Benjamin J.; O'Connell, Helen E.; Bowden, Scott; Carey, Marcus; Eisen, Damon P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether polyomaviruses contribute to interstitial cystitis pathogenesis. Subjects and Methods A prospective study was performed with 50 interstitial cystitis cases compared with 50 age-matched, disease-free controls for the frequency of polyomaviruria. Associations between polyomaviruria and disease characteristics were analysed in cases. Polyomavirus in urine and bladder tissue was detected with species (JC virus vs. BK virus) specific, real-time PCR. Results Case patients were reflective of interstitial cystitis epidemiology with age range from 26–88 years (median 58) and female predominance (41/50 F). There was a significant increase in the frequency of polyomavirus shedding between cases and controls (p<0.02). Polyomavirus shedding, in particular BK viruria, was associated with vesical ulceration, a marker of disease severity, among interstitial cystitis cases after adjustment for age and sex (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.89–24.4). There was a significant association among cases between the presence of BK viruria and response to intravesical Clorpactin therapy (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.17–17.4). Conclusion The presence of polyomaviruria was found to be associated with the ulcerative form of interstitial cystitis. Clorpactin, which has anti-DNA virus activity, was more likely to improve symptoms in the presence of BK viruria. These data from this pilot study suggest associations between polyomaviruria and interstitial cystitis warranting further investigation. PMID:26325074

  2. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases -- www. ...

  3. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder. Doctors are not sure exactly why distension helps. It may make your bladder better able ... cystitis may have painful spasms of pelvic floor muscles. If you have muscle spasms, you can learn ...

  4. Pain in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: do characteristics differ in ulcerative and non-ulcerative subtypes?

    PubMed

    Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A; Peters, Kenneth M

    2013-08-01

    Key differences between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) subtypes (with and without Hunner's ulcer) have been noted. We hypothesized that pain characteristics in women grouped by IC/BPS subtype would differ. A survey was mailed to 749 women to assess IC/BPS pain and other characteristics. Cystoscopy/hydrodistention reports were reviewed for presence/absence of Hunner's ulcer. The McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form© (MPQ-SF), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indices (ICSI-PI) assessed symptoms. Data were analyzed with Pearson's chi-square, Fisher's exact, t tests, and Wilcoxon rank tests. Of the 214 women that returned a survey (36 ulcerative and 178 non-ulcerative IC/BPS), similar proportions in each group reported that certain foods, exercise, and/or stress triggered symptoms. Fewer ulcerative patients reported pain with vaginal penetration than non-ulcerative (5/33, 15.2 % vs 76/160, 47.5 %; p = 0.0006). On the BPI, the ulcerative and non-ulcerative groups reported similar numbers of painful areas (mean 4.1 ± 6.1 and 4.1 ± 3.8; p = 0.33), and lower abdominal/pelvic pain was reported most (13/35, 37 % vs 79/172, 46 %; p = 0.34) followed by lower back pain (12/35, 34 % vs 69/172, 40 %; p = 0.52). Even though ICSI-PI, MPQ-SF, and BPI scores/responses did not differ, on the MPQ-SF the three words most frequently used by ulcerative patients to describe their pain were sharp, stabbing, and hot burning, and in non-ulcerative were aching, cramping, and tender. These measures did not reveal any significant differences in pain between subtypes. More research is needed in larger samples to determine whether differences exist.

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation for ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Mitsuru; Inoue, Shougo; Kobayashi, Kanao; Ohara, Shinya; Teishima, Jun; Matsubara, Akio

    2014-04-01

    Narrow band imaging cystoscopy can increase the visualization and detection of Hunner's lesions. A single-center, prospective clinical trial was carried out aiming to show the effectiveness of narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation for ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. A total of 23 patients (19 women and 4 men) diagnosed as having ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome were included. All typical Hunner's lesions and suspected areas identified by narrow band imaging were electrocoagulated endoscopically after the biopsy of those lesions. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed prospectively by using visual analog scale score of pain, O'Leary-Sant's symptom index, O'Leary-Sant's problem index and overactive bladder symptom score. The mean follow-up period was 22 months. All patients (100%) experienced a substantial improvement in pain. The average visual analog scale pain scores significantly decreased from 7.3 preoperatively to 1.2 1 month postoperatively. A total of 21 patients (91.3%) who reported improvement had at least a 50% reduction in bladder pain, and five reported complete resolution. Daytime frequency was significantly decreased postoperatively. O'Leary-Sant's symptom index, O'Leary-Sant's problem index and overactive bladder symptom score were significantly decreased postoperatively. However, during the follow-up period, a total of six patients had recurrence, and repeat narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation of the recurrent lesions was carried out for five of the six patients, with good response in relieving bladder pain. Our results showed that narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation could be a valuable therapeutic alternative in patients with ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, with good efficacy and reduction of recurrence rate. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Interstitial cystitis intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a progressive bladder disorder that presents with symptoms of bladder urgency, frequency and pain. The aetiology of the disease remains uncertain, but it is postulated that there is an initial infective insult which damages the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer of the bladder urothelium. This defect allows an influx of ions, particularly potassium, which initiates an inflammatory reaction in the bladder wall, which incites the symptoms described above. Treatment initially involves behavioural and oral medication, with second line being intravesical instillation therapy. Treatment strategies focus on restoring lower urinary tract epithelial function, inhibiting neural activation, controlling allergies and relieving symptoms. In this review, current intravesical therapy will be discussed, as well as what lies on the horizon for intravesical therapy in IC. PMID:28791236

  7. [Alternative treatments for interstitial cystitis].

    PubMed

    Gamé, X; Bart, S; Castel-Lacanal, E; De Sèze, M; Karsenty, G; Labat, J-J; Rigaud, J; Scheiber-Nogueira, M C; Ruffion, A

    2009-06-01

    Interstitial cystitis is the first cause of bladder pain. In case of failure of the usual treatments, several other modalities have been proposed. These therapeutic modalities are posterior sacral root neuromodulation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, vanilloid agent intravesical instillation, intradetrusor botulinum toxin injections and surgery. A certain efficiency of each of these treatments in the interstitial cystitis has been reported. However, the evaluation of these treatments is limited and the level of evidence is too low to propose these treatments in routine.

  8. Urine Markers Do Not Predict Biopsy Findings or Presence of Bladder Ulcers in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Deborah R.; Tomaszewski, John E.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Stetter, Christina M.; Peters, Kenneth M.; Rovner, Eric S.; Demers, Laurence M.; Wheeler, Marcia A.; Keay, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To test for associations between urine markers, bladder biopsy features and bladder ulcers in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Materials and Methods Subjects were 72 patients with IC/PBS undergoing bladder distention and biopsy. Urine was collected before the procedure. Urine marker levels were correlated with biopsy and cystoscopic findings. Patients with no previous IC/PBS treatments (n=47) were analyzed separately from previously treated patients (n=25). Results For untreated patients, urine IL-6 and cGMP were associated with urothelial EGF receptor staining (for IL-6 r=0.29, 95% CI (0.07, 0.51), p=0.01; for cGMP r=0.34, 95% CI (0.13, 0.55), p=0.002). Urine IL-8 was negatively associated with urothelial HB-EGF staining (r=-0.34, 95% CI (-0.55, -0.12), p=0.002) and positively associated with lamina propria mast cell count (r=0.29, 95% CI (0.06, 0.52), p=0.01). The latter association also was seen in treated patients (r=0.46, 95% CI (0.20, 0.73), p<0.001). None of the urine markers was significantly different for ulcer vs. nonulcer patients. All of the ulcer patients had extensive inflammation on bladder biopsy: severe mononuclear cell infiltration, moderate or strong IL-6 staining in the urothelium and lamina propria, and LCA staining in >10% of the lamina propria. However, these features also were seen in 24-76% of the nonulcer patients. Conclusions Overall, urine markers did not associate robustly with biopsy findings. The strongest association was a positive association between urine IL-8 levels and bladder mast cell count. Ulcer patients consistently had bladder inflammation, but the cystoscopic finding of ulcers was not a sensitive indicator of inflammation on bladder biopsy. PMID:18353383

  9. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    intravesical botulinum toxin type A injec- tions plus hydrodistention with hydrodis- tention alone for the treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis/ painful ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent pelvic pain ...from an animal efficacy experiment conducted during the previous period. The project is ongoing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Interstitial cystitis/ painful

  10. Distribution of mast cell subtypes in interstitial cystitis: implications for novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies?

    PubMed

    Malik, Shabana T; Birch, Brian R; Voegeli, David; Fader, Mandy; Foria, Vipul; Cooper, Alan J; Walls, Andrew F; Lwaleed, Bashir A

    2018-05-15

    To identify the presence and geographical distribution of mast cell (MC) subtypes: MC T (tryptase positive-chymase negative) and MC TC (tryptase positive-chymase positive) in bladder tissue. Bladder tissue was obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (n=14) and normal histology from University Hospital Southampton tissue bank. Sequential tissue slices were immunohistochemically stained for MC subtypes using anti-MC tryptase (for MC T and MC TC ) and anti-MC chymase (for MC TC ). Stained sections were photographed, and positively stained MCs were quantified using ImageJ. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and individual paired t-tests. There was a significant difference in the density of MCs between each layer of the disease bladder, with the greatest accumulation within the detrusor (p<0.001). There was a significant increase in MC TC subtype in the lamina (p=0.009) in painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Our results suggest that mastocytosis is present within all layers of disease bladder, especially the muscle layer. The varying increase in MC subtypes in the lamina and mucosa may explain the variability in painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis symptoms. A high influx of MC TC in the mucosa of individuals who also had ulceration noted within their diagnostic notes may be of the Hunner's ulcer subclassification. These findings suggest a relationship between the pathogenesis of MC subtypes and the clinical presentation of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. A cohort study would further elucidate the diagnostic and/or therapeutic potential of MCs in patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Optical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis / painful bladder syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  13. Intravesical treatments of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo

    2012-12-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a disabling chronic condition that affects up to 7% of women in the USA. In men, BPS/IC seems to be less common, but might be underestimated because it can be confused with chronic prostatitis. The aetiology and pathophysiology of BPS/IC are not well understood. Consequently, diagnosis and treatment is challenging and most therapies used to date are off-label. These therapies include bladder instillation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and BCG, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Overall, botulinum neurotoxin A injection, intravesical sodium hyaluronate instillation and DMSO instillation seem to be the best-performing treatments, with response rates of 79%, 76% and 75%, respectively, and can be used effectively as second-line or third-line therapies for BPS/IC. However, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials are necessary to improve the available data.

  14. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a sense of urgency.

    PubMed

    Hanno, Philip M; Chapple, Chris R; Cardozo, Linda D

    2009-12-01

    A classic triad of symptoms (bladder pain, urinary frequency, and urgency) has served to define bladder pain syndrome/painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/PBS/IC) syndrome. BPS/PBS/IC is a distinct condition and it is likely that the urgency experienced by these patients differs from that experienced by those with overactive bladder syndrome. It is unclear how best to define urgency in the BPS/PBS/IC setting. Differences in the other primary symptoms associated with these conditions probably influence how urgency is perceived. Advances in research into the pathophysiology of urgency and underlying disease processes will help to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment of BPS/PBS/IC.

  15. Incidence and clinical characteristics of interstitial cystitis in the community.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ronak; Calhoun, Elizabeth A; Meenan, Richard T; O'Keeffe Rosetti, Maureen C; Kimes, Terry; Clemens, J Quentin

    2008-08-01

    We utilized physician-coded diagnoses and chart reviews to estimate the incidence of interstitial cystitis (IC) in women. A computer search of the Kaiser Permanente database was performed to identify newly coded diagnoses of IC (ICD-9 code 595.1) between May 2002 and May 2005. Chart reviews were performed and patient demographics, diagnosing physicians, and symptom characteristics were recorded. The IC incidence rate was 15 per 100,000 women per year. The mean age of the patients was 51 years (range 31-81 years). The most common presenting symptoms were frequency (70%), dysuria (52%), urgency (50%), suprapubic pain (50%), nocturia (35%), and dyspareunia (13%). Cases diagnosed by primary care physicians had a shorter median symptom duration (9 months) compared with those diagnosed by urologists (1 year) and gynecologists (3 years). IC is an uncommon diagnosis in the community setting, with an incidence rate of 15 per 100,000 women per year.

  16. Assessing urgency in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Diggs, Christina; Meyer, Walter A; Langenberg, Patricia; Greenberg, Patty; Horne, Linda; Warren, John W

    2007-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) at present is a symptom-based diagnosis. The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI), also known as the O'Leary-Sant Symptom Index, is a widely used scale that assesses the four cardinal symptoms of IC/PBS (ie, bladder pain, urgency, frequency, and nocturia), by asking how often each is experienced. In an ongoing case-control study of recent-onset IC/PBS, we compared the ICSI with a series of questions that addressed the severity of these symptoms. Recruiting nationally, we enrolled women with IC/PBS symptoms of 12 months' duration or less. We assessed the severity of pain, frequency, and urgency using Likert and categorical scales, and how often these symptoms were experienced using the ICSI. We compared these scales by frequency distributions and interscale correlations. In 138 women with recent-onset IC/PBS, the scores for frequency were correlated and, for pain, appeared to be complementary. However, for urgency, the ICSI question of "the strong need to urinate with little or no warning" consistently yielded lower scores than the severity question of "the compelling urge to urinate that is difficult to postpone." Some patients denied urgency to the ICSI question yet reported intense urgency to the severity question. Compared with the severity question, the ICSI underestimated the prevalence and degree of urgency. This observation is consistent with the views of others that sudden urgency does not define the sensation experienced by many patients with IC/PBS. Clarifying this symptom description may assist in developing a usable case definition for IC/PBS.

  17. Alterations of microbiota in urine from women with interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community present in the urine from IC female patients by 454 high throughput sequencing of the 16S variable regions V1V2 and V6. The taxonomical composition, richness and diversity of the IC microbiota were determined and compared to the microbial profile of asymptomatic healthy female (HF) urine. Results The composition and distribution of bacterial sequences differed between the urine microbiota of IC patients and HFs. Reduced sequence richness and diversity were found in IC patient urine, and a significant difference in the community structure of IC urine in relation to HF urine was observed. More than 90% of the IC sequence reads were identified as belonging to the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, a marked increase compared to 60% in HF urine. Conclusion The 16S rDNA sequence data demonstrates a shift in the composition of the bacterial community in IC urine. The reduced microbial diversity and richness is accompanied by a higher abundance of the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, compared to HF urine. This study demonstrates that high throughput sequencing analysis of urine microbiota in IC patients is a powerful tool towards a better understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:22974186

  18. MMPI-2-RF characteristics of individuals with interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Rachel L; Wunderlich, Ted; Wilson, Nicolas; Akeson, Steven

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the psychological functioning of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients utilizing MMPI-2-RF scoring. The MMPI-2 was administered to 60 individuals who reported a diagnosis of IC. Responses were scored in the MMPI-2-RF format. Fifty-one protocols were deemed valid. Elevations were discovered on scales FBS-r (symptom validity), RC1 (somatic complaints), and MLS (malaise). Participants were split into two groups based on extreme elevations on RC1; the high RC1 group produced higher scores on 39 scales including clinically significant elevations on 17 scales. Over 25% of this sample had an emotional component to their physical concerns. This knowledge about the psychological characteristics of IC patients may have clinical utility for physicians and other treatment providers. The results argue strongly for psychological evaluation as a component of IC diagnosis and treatment. Those with significant emotional overlay to their somatic complaints may be best managed through psychological interventions and minimally invasive treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  20. [Experience in the treatment of interstitial cystitis: review of 17 cases].

    PubMed

    Flores-Carreras, Oscar; Martínez-Espinoza, Claudia J; González-Ruiz, María Isabel

    2011-03-01

    The Interstitial Cystitis (IC) has been considered in the past an uncommon pathology, however it has received a special attention during the last 20 years, (1678 scientific articles published since 1984 to 2009). There are many therapeutic options not at all satisfactory because there isn't consensus about diagnostic and treatment. To share our experiences in the treatment of interstitial cystitis, additionally, to comment on the therapeutic response of treatment used. Observational, retrospective an analytic study of 17 treated patients from 22 with diagnosis of IC and Bladder Painful Syndrome (IC/BPS) were managed in Urodifem de Occidente, S.C. a private Urogynecologic unit between January 2001 and April 2010. The diagnosis was done in agreement with the concepts of Interstitial Cystitis group from clinical and cystoscopic characteristics. The treatment was: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DIMSO) and Pentosan Polysulfate. The evaluation was measured by Interstitial Cystitis Symptomatic Index (ICSI) and Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI) both validated evaluation instruments, 82% of the patients had a significative improvement of symptomatology and quality of live The ICSI pre and post treatment was of 17.0 and 4.5 and the ICPI was of 14.8 and 4.1 respectively. We recommend the use of combine treatment of DIMSO and PPS in cases of I.C.

  1. Case-control study of medical comorbidities in women with interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J Quentin; Meenan, Richard T; O'Keeffe Rosetti, Maureen C; Kimes, Teresa A; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2008-06-01

    We used physician assigned diagnoses in an electronic medical record to assess comorbidities associated with interstitial cystitis. A computer search of the administrative database at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, Oregon was performed for May 1, 1998 to April 30, 2003. All women with a medical record diagnosis of interstitial cystitis (ICD-9 code 595.1) were identified. These cases were then matched with 3 controls each based on age and duration in the health plan. The medical diagnoses (using ICD-9 codes restricted to 3 digits) assigned to these 2 groups were compared using the OR. A total of 239 cases and 717 matched controls were analyzed. There were 23 diagnoses that were significantly more common in cases than in controls (p < or = 0.005). Seven of these 23 diagnoses were other urological or gynecological codes used to describe pelvic symptoms. Additional specific conditions associated with interstitial cystitis were gastritis (OR 12.2), child abuse (OR 9.3), fibromyalgia (OR 3.0), anxiety disorder (OR 2.8), headache (OR 2.5), esophageal reflux (OR 2.2), unspecified back disorder (OR 2.2) and depression (OR 2.0). A diagnosis of interstitial cystitis was associated with multiple other unexplained physical symptoms and certain psychiatric conditions. Studies to explore the possible biological explanations for these associations are needed. Interstitial cystitis was also associated with a history of child abuse, although 96% of patients with IC did not have this diagnosis.

  2. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  3. Long-term results of amitriptyline treatment for interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    van Ophoven, Arndt; Hertle, Lothar

    2005-11-01

    We performed a prospective, open label study to examine the safety and efficacy of the long-term administration of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline in patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). A total of 94 patients were stratified into 2 groups, namely a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) group of those who fulfilled NIDDK criteria for IC and a nonNIDDK group of those who presented with characteristic IC symptoms but met at least 1 NIDDK exclusion criterion. Amitriptyline was received strictly at bedtime following an established self-titration protocol without a limitation of the maximum daily dose. Patients reporting improvement in a global response assessment questionnaire were considered treatment responders. Further efficacy measures were changes in pain and urgency, functional bladder capacity and frequency. Changes in the O'Leary-Sant IC index and rating of overall satisfaction with the therapeutic outcome were also reported. Mean study followup +/- SD was 19.0 +/- 12.5 months. The response rate was 64% (60 patients). The overall mean dose was 55 mg (range 12.5 to 150). Side effects occurred in 79 patients (84%), including dry mouth in 79% and weight gain in 59%. Patient overall satisfaction with the therapeutic result was excellent or good in 43 (46%). The dropout rate was 31% (29 patients) after a mean treatment period of 6 weeks at a mean dose of 70 mg. Nonresponse to treatment was the primary reason for dropout in all cases, while side effects contributed to dropout in 25 (86%). Improvement in the various IC symptoms was statistically significant compared with baseline. Long-term administration of amitriptyline is a feasible, safe and effective treatment for IC, provided that the drug is used judiciously to minimize adverse effects. The therapeutic response to amitriptyline was uniformly observed in patients fulfilling NIDDK criteria and in those with the pure clinical diagnosis of IC.

  4. Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis Is Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Design Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Results Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Conclusions Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population. PMID:23991081

  5. Costs of interstitial cystitis in a managed care population.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J Quentin; Meenan, Richard T; Rosetti, Maureen C O'Keeffe; Kimes, Terry; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2008-05-01

    To assess the direct medical costs, medication, and procedure use associated with interstitial cystitis (IC) in women in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) managed care population. The KPNW electronic medical record was used to identify women diagnosed with IC (n = 239). Each of these patients was matched with three controls according to age and duration in the health plan. Health plan cost accounting data were used to determine the inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy costs for 1998 to 2003. An analysis of the prescription medication use and cystoscopic and urodynamic procedures commonly associated with IC was also performed. To evaluate for co-morbidities, an automated risk-adjustment model linked to 28 chronic medical conditions was applied to the administrative data sets from both groups. The mean duration from the date of IC diagnosis to the end of the study period was 36.6 months (range 1.4 to 60). The mean yearly costs were 2.4-fold greater for the patients than for the controls ($7100 versus $2994), and the median yearly costs were 3.8-fold greater ($5000 versus $1304). These cost differences were predominantly due to outpatient and pharmacy expenses. Medication and procedure use were significantly greater for the patients than for the controls. These findings were consistent across risk-adjustment model categories, which suggest that the observed cost differences are IC specific. The direct per-person costs of IC are high, with average yearly costs approximately $4000 greater than for the age-matched controls. This cost differential is an underestimate, because the costs preceding the diagnosis, the use of alternative therapies, indirect costs, and the costs of those with IC that is not diagnosed were not included.

  6. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. Fluorescein angiography of the bladder: technique and relevance to bladder cancer and interstitial cystitis patients.

    PubMed

    Zimmern, P E; Laub, D; Leach, G E

    1995-07-01

    Fluorescein angiography has been used in the study of bleeding vessels, neovascularity, tumors and ischemic tissues in a variety of disorders. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the feasibility, safety and relevance of this interesting technology for the evaluation of bladder wall vessels in patients with interstitial cystitis and bladder cancer. Five patients with National Institutes of Health defined interstitial cystitis symptoms and 10 with bladder cancer were studied during cytoscopy while they were under general anesthesia. A yellow-green barrier filter (520 nm.) was placed over the cystoscope eyepiece and a blue exciter filter (465 nm.) was attached to the light source. Patients received a 5 ml. bolus of 10% fluorescein intravenously. After hydrodistension, glomerulations in interstitial cystitis patients were more prominent with fluorescein angiography and occurred in the venule phase. Areas of papillary transitional cell tumor and carcinoma in situ developed a brilliant yellow-green fluorescence. Adjacent normal urothelium was nonfluorescent and provided a contrasting dark background facilitating the detection of all lesions. No allergic reaction or other adverse effect related to the fluorescein injection was observed. These unique observations in a limited number of patients suggest that fluorescein angiography of the bladder is a safe and simple procedure. This preliminary report underscores the relevance of fluorescein angiography in the detection of bladder tumor and offers a new approach to the evaluation of bladder wall vessels in interstitial cystitis patients.

  8. [Treatment of interstitial cystitis by intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid: A prospective study on 31 patients].

    PubMed

    Van Agt, S; Gobet, F; Sibert, L; Leroi, A-M; Grise, P

    2011-03-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of hyaluronate acid instillation for treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). From March 2008 to May 2009, a prospective study included 31 patients. We used the new definition of IC established by the ICS in 2002. Patients have a urinalysis, a cystoscopy, a hydrodistension test and bladder biopsies. The urodynamic evaluation was not systematic. Patients received weekly six instillations of 40mg (50ml) intravesical hyaluronate acid. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of treatment with two specific questionnaires of interstitial cystitis filled before and after 6 weeks of treatment: the O'Leary-Sant and Pelvic pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF). Four groups were defined: good response, partial response, poor response and no response. They were composed by 14 patients (45%), two (7%), seven (22%) and eight patients (26%). We obtained 52% positive response (good response and partial response) after 6 weeks of treatment. Patients with cystoscopy and histology abnormal had a response rate of 60%. No serious side effects were observed. Hyaluronate acid has a place in the treatment of interstitial cystitis with an efficiency comparable to other treatments and good tolerance. The response rate to treatment can be improved by better selection of patients, particularly those having a cystoscopy and histology abnormal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence and overlap of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: results of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology male study.

    PubMed

    Suskind, Anne M; Berry, Sandra H; Ewing, Brett A; Elliott, Marc N; Suttorp, Marika J; Clemens, J Quentin

    2013-01-01

    As part of the RICE (RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology) study, we developed validated case definitions to identify interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome in women and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men. Using population based screening methods, we applied these case definitions to determine the prevalence of these conditions in men. A total of 6,072 households were contacted by telephone to screen for men who had symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. An initial 296 men screened positive, of whom 149 met the inclusionary criteria and completed the telephone interview. For interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome 2 case definitions were applied (1 with high sensitivity and 1 with high specificity), while for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome a single case definition (with high sensitivity and specificity) was used. These case definitions were used to classify subjects into groups based on diagnosis. The interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome weighted prevalence estimates for the high sensitivity and high specificity definitions were 4.2% (3.1-5.3) and 1.9% (1.1-2.7), respectively. The chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome weighted prevalence estimate was 1.8% (0.9-2.7). These values equate to 1,986,972 (95% CI 966,042-2,996,924) men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and 2,107,727 (95% CI 1,240,485-2,974,969) men with the high specificity definition of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome in the United States. The overlap between men who met the high specificity interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome case definition or the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome case definition was 17%. Symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome are widespread among men in the United States. The prevalence of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain

  10. Viruses and interstitial cystitis: adenovirus genomes cannot be demonstrated in urinary bladder biopsies.

    PubMed

    Hukkanen, V; Haarala, M; Nurmi, M; Klemi, P; Kiilholma, P

    1996-01-01

    Microbes may be involved in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis (IC). Adenoviruses and BK virus (BKV) can infect epithelial cells in urinary bladder and they are causative agents for hemorrhagic cystitis. We therefore studied the presence of adenovirus and BKV genomes in urinary bladder tissue specimens of patients with IC using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Controls were specimens from cases with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Nucleic acids were extracted from paraffin sections of the bladder tissue for PCR. Primers detecting all adenovirus types were used. In situ hybridization was carried out for the paraffin sections using digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes for adenovirus and BKV. The adenovirus DNA PCR was able to detect one to two infected cells/specimen. All the seven IC cases studied and six controls were negative for adenovirus DNA by PCR and ISH. The ISH test for BKV genomes was also considered negative in IC cases and controls. The specimens which were negative in PCR tests yielded a signal with beta-globin primers, thus being amplifiable. We conclude that adenovirus and BKV do not play a major pathogenetic role in interstitial cystitis.

  11. Comparison of Bladder Directed and Pelvic Floor Therapy in Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    PROJECT NUMBER Kenneth M. Peters 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0307 TITLE: Comparison of Bladder-Directed and Pelvic Floor Therapy in Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain...Pelvic Floor Therapy in Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  12. [Psychosocial aspects of interstitial cystitis. Do biographical factors have a relevant impact on the disease course?].

    PubMed

    Oemler, M; Grabhorn, R; Vahlensieck, W; Jonas, D; Bickeböller, R

    2006-06-01

    The present study explores the influence of psychosocial adversities on the etiology and progress of interstitial cystitis (IC). A systematic survey of the childhood risk factors was carried out using a specially developed, structured interview for pain patients (MSBA-Mainzer Strukturierte Biographische Anamnese) and additionally the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Essentially a descriptive evaluation was performed. Thirty IC patients who fulfilled the current diagnostic criteria participated in the study. The investigation showed higher values for relevant childhood adversities in IC patients. A poor emotional relationship with both parents, chronic diseases of the parents, and physical maltreatment were frequently reported. In the cumulative adverse childhood experience score IC patients showed higher levels than published data of healthy control groups. The contemporary social history did not show relevant psychosocial adversities. The quality of life is extremely reduced because of IC symptoms. The BSI showed high levels especially in the dimensions somatization, anxiety, and phobic anxiety. The results of this study argue for a participatory role of psychosomatic factors in the assumed multifactorial etiology of interstitial cystitis.

  13. Innovative Approach for Interstitial Cystitis: Vaginal Pessaries Loaded Diazepam—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Capra, P.; Perugini, P.; Bleve, M.; Pavanetto, P.; Musitelli, G.; Rovereto, B.; Porru, D.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder pain is a characteristic disorder of interstitial cystitis. Diazepam is well known for its antispasmodic activity in the treatment of muscular hypertonus. The aim of this work was to develop and characterize vaginal pessaries as an intravaginal delivery system of diazepam for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. In particular, the performance of two types of formulations, with and without beta-glucan, was compared. In particular, the preparation of pessaries, according to the modified Pharmacopeia protocol, the setup of the analytical method to determine diazepam, pH evaluation, dissolution profile, and photostability assay were reported. Results showed that the modified protocol permitted obtaining optimal vaginal pessaries, without air bubbles, with good consistency and handling and with good pH profiles. In order to determine the diazepam amount, calibration curves with good correlation coefficients were obtained, by the spectrophotometric method, using placebo pessaries as matrix with the addition of diazepam standard solution. This method was demonstrated sensible and accurate to determine the amount of drug in batches. Dissolution profiles showed a complete diazepam release just after 15 minutes, even if beta-glucan pessaries released drug more gradually. Finally, a possible drug photodegradation after exacerbated UV-visible exposition was evaluated. PMID:26555976

  14. A Feasibility Study to Determine Whether Clinical Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging can Detect Increased Bladder Permeability in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Towner, Rheal A; Wisniewski, Amy B; Wu, Dee H; Van Gordon, Samuel B; Smith, Nataliya; North, Justin C; McElhaney, Rayburt; Aston, Christopher E; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Kropp, Bradley P; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Hurst, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is a bladder pain disorder associated with voiding symptomatology and other systemic chronic pain disorders. Currently diagnosing interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is complicated as patients present with a wide range of symptoms, physical examination findings and clinical test responses. One hypothesis is that interstitial cystitis symptoms arise from increased bladder permeability to urine solutes. This study establishes the feasibility of using contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to quantify bladder permeability in patients with interstitial cystitis. Permeability alterations in bladder urothelium were assessed by intravesical administration of the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Gd-DTPA (Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) in a small cohort of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity in patient and control bladders was compared regionally and for entire bladders. Quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity indicated a significant increase in signal intensity in anterior bladder regions compared to posterior regions in patients with interstitial cystitis (p <0.01) and significant increases in signal intensity in anterior bladder regions (p <0.001). Kurtosis (shape of probability distribution) and skewness (measure of probability distribution asymmetry) were associated with contrast enhancement in total bladders in patients with interstitial cystitis vs controls (p <0.05). Regarding symptomatology interstitial cystitis cases differed significantly from controls on the SF-36®, PUF (Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency) and ICPI (Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index) questionnaires with no overlap in the score range in each group. ICSI (Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index) differed significantly but with a slight overlap in the range of scores. Data suggest that contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging provides an objective, quantifiable measurement

  15. Interstitial cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms get better. Reduce or stop consuming caffeine, chocolate, carbonated beverages, citrus drinks, and foods with a ... pelvic floor muscle spasms. MEDICINE AND PROCEDURES Combination therapy may include medicines such as: Pentosan polysulfate sodium, ...

  16. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC) is a condition that causes discomfort or pain in the bladder and a need to urinate ... from person to person. Some people may have pain without urgency or frequency. Others have urgency and ...

  17. Consequences of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain symptoms on women's work participation and income: results from a national household sample.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Megan K; Elliott, Marc N; Clemens, J Quentin; Ewing, Brett; Berry, Sandra H

    2014-01-01

    We describe differences in work participation and income by bladder symptom impact and comorbidities among women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Cross-sectional data from 2,767 respondents younger than 65 years identified with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome symptoms were analyzed. The data were taken from the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology (RICE) survey, and included retrospective self-reports of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome impact, severity, years since onset, related comorbidities (depressive symptomatology, number of conditions), work participation and income, and personal characteristics. Multiple regressions predicted 5 current work outcomes of works now, kept from working by pain, missed work days, days worked when bothered by symptoms and real income change since symptom onset. Controlling for work status at symptom onset and personal characteristics, greater bladder symptom impact predicted a greater likelihood of not now working, kept more days from working by pain, missed more work days and working more days with symptoms. More depressive symptomatology and greater number of comorbidities predicted reduced work participation. Women experienced no growth in real income since symptom onset. Measures of symptom severity were not associated with any of the economic outcomes. Greater interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome symptom impact, depressive symptomatology and count of comorbidities (but not symptom severity) were each associated with less work participation and leveling of women's long-term earnings. Management of bladder symptom impact on nonwork related activities and depressive symptomatology may improve women's work outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ran; Ali, Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS.

  19. Designing a Mobile Health Application Prototype for the Management of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Janessa

    2017-01-01

    The design of an early mobile health application (app) prototype to manage interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent pain/discomfort in the bladder and pelvic floor, is described. The purpose of this app prototype is to help people who have IC/PBS manage and learn what triggers their symptoms. Another aim of this research was to provide an example of how sex and gender could be included into the design of a health information system. Based on a literature search of common symptoms and challenges faced by people living with IC/PBS, the researcher created an app prototype design including many features: resources for relaxation, mental health, intimacy, pregnancy, and daily life; reminders for appointments, and medication; logs for diet, activity, sleep, pain, menstruation; and a link to a public washroom locator. This prototype will later undergo usability and content evaluation.

  20. Complementary and alternative medical therapies for interstitial cystitis: an update from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, Megan Danielle; Shah, Nima M.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has shifted from organ-specific to a multifactorial, multidisciplinary and individualized approach. Patients with refractory and debilitating symptoms may respond to complementary and alternative medical treatments (CAM). Through CAM therapies, practitioners assist the patient to be at the center of their care, empowering them to be emotionally and physically involved. Multi-disciplinary care, including urology, gynecology, gastroenterology, neurology, psychology, physiotherapy and pain medicine, is also identified to be the crux of adequate management of patients with chronic pelvic pain because of its variable etiology. The purpose of this review is to emphasize these changes and discuss management strategies. PMID:26816868

  1. Kenalog Injection into Hunner's Lesions as a Treatment for Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rittenberg, Lauren; Morrissey, Darlene; El-Khawand, Dominique; Whitmore, Kristene

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of kenalog injection into Hunner's lesions. Materials and Methods All patients had cystoscopy and bladder hydrodistention with corticosteroid injection into Hunner's lesions over a 2.5-year period. Data include patient characteristics and pre- and post-operative validated questionnaires. Spearman Correlation and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for analysis. Results One hundred patients were reviewed retrospectively. There was a 1.1 point decrease in pain at 12 weeks post-operation (p = 0.435). Urinary frequency decreased from a mean of 11.7 to 9.1 daily episodes (p = 0.05), and nocturia from a mean of 3 to 1.6 nightly episodes (p = 0.008). Conclusion The use of a corticosteroid may be beneficial to symptom control and improvement in the quality of life of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome patients. Patients had improved frequency and nocturia 12 weeks post injection. PMID:28878600

  2. Complementary and alternative medical therapies for interstitial cystitis: an update from the United States.

    PubMed

    Atchley, Megan Danielle; Shah, Nima M; Whitmore, Kristene E

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has shifted from organ-specific to a multifactorial, multidisciplinary and individualized approach. Patients with refractory and debilitating symptoms may respond to complementary and alternative medical treatments (CAM). Through CAM therapies, practitioners assist the patient to be at the center of their care, empowering them to be emotionally and physically involved. Multi-disciplinary care, including urology, gynecology, gastroenterology, neurology, psychology, physiotherapy and pain medicine, is also identified to be the crux of adequate management of patients with chronic pelvic pain because of its variable etiology. The purpose of this review is to emphasize these changes and discuss management strategies.

  3. Kenalog Injection into Hunner's Lesions as a Treatment for Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rittenberg, Lauren; Morrissey, Darlene; El-Khawand, Dominique; Whitmore, Kristene

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of kenalog injection into Hunner's lesions. All patients had cystoscopy and bladder hydrodistention with corticosteroid injection into Hunner's lesions over a 2.5-year period. Data include patient characteristics and pre- and post-operative validated questionnaires. Spearman Correlation and Wilcoxon t -tests were used for analysis. One hundred patients were reviewed retrospectively. There was a 1.1 point decrease in pain at 12 weeks post-operation (p = 0.435). Urinary frequency decreased from a mean of 11.7 to 9.1 daily episodes (p = 0.05), and nocturia from a mean of 3 to 1.6 nightly episodes (p = 0.008). The use of a corticosteroid may be beneficial to symptom control and improvement in the quality of life of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome patients. Patients had improved frequency and nocturia 12 weeks post injection.

  4. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  5. Interstitial cystitis patients' use and rating of complementary and alternative medicine therapies.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Peter Gregory; Hoffmann, Amy Rejba; Allen, Penny; Gordon, Barbara; Salin, Linda; Whitmore, Kristene

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies among interstitial cystitis (IC) patients, patients' perception of CAM therapies' effectiveness, and the association of time since diagnosis with perceived effectiveness of these therapies. In April 2009, the Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) initiated an Internet-based survey on CAM. Respondents indicated whether they received an IC diagnosis and how long ago, whether they tried CAM, and who recommended it. On a 5-point scale, respondents rated 49 therapies. For respondents confirming a diagnosis, we used a chi-square goodness-of-fit test to assess which therapies were rated positively or negatively by a majority of patients who tried them. Using separate one-way analyses of variance, we assessed differences in mean perceived effectiveness among groups based on time since diagnosis and conducted post hoc tests, if necessary. Using chi-square tests, we explored the association of time since diagnosis with the use of CAM and the number of therapies tried. A total of 2,101 subjects responded to the survey; 1,982 confirmed an IC diagnosis. Most (84.2 %) had tried CAM, and 55 % said physicians had recommended CAM. Of those trying CAM, 82.8 % had tried diet or physical therapy and 69.2 % other therapies. Of the therapies, 22 were rated positively and 20 negatively; 7 were inconclusive. Therapies patients perceived to be helpful included dietary management and pain management adjuncts such as physical therapy, heat and cold, meditation and relaxation, acupuncture, stress reduction, exercise, and sleep hygiene. Many therapies worked better for those diagnosed recently than for those diagnosed long before. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to demonstrate which therapies may indeed control IC symptoms and help send research in new and productive directions.

  6. Cytokine expression in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis ESSIC type 3C.

    PubMed

    Logadottir, Yr; Delbro, Dick; Fall, Magnus; Gjertsson, Inger; Jirholt, Pernilla; Lindholm, Catharina; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Bladder wall nitric oxide production in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C is increased compared to undetectable nitric oxide in patients with nonHunner bladder pain syndrome and healthy controls. However, the underlying mechanism/s of the increased nitric oxide production is largely unknown. We compared mRNA expression of a select group of cytokines in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis type 3C and in pain-free controls. Cold cup biopsies from 7 patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C and 6 healthy subjects were analyzed. mRNA expression of IL-4, 6, 10 and 17A, iNOS, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-17 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Mast cells were labeled with tryptase to evaluate cell appearance and count. IL-6, 10 and 17A, and iNOS mRNA levels as well as the number of mast cells infiltrating the bladder mucosa were significantly increased in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C compared to healthy controls. TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ mRNA levels were similar in patients and controls. IL-17A expression at the protein level was up-regulated and localized to inflammatory cells and urothelium in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C. Patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had increased mRNA levels of IL-17A, 10 and 6, and iNOS. IL-17A might be important in the inflammatory process. To our knowledge the increase in IL-17A is a novel finding that may have new treatment implications. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling in the Bladder and Urethra in Feline Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, F. Aura; McDonnell, Bronagh M.; Wolf-Johnston, Amanda S.; Lynn, Andrew M.; Getchell, Samuel E.; Ruiz, Wily G.; Zabbarova, Irina V.; Ikeda, Youko; Kanai, Anthony J.; Roppolo, James R.; Bastacky, Sheldon I.; Apodaca, Gerard; Buffington, C. A. Tony; Birder, Lori A.

    2018-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown etiology. A naturally occurring disease termed feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) reproduces many features of IC/BPS patients. To gain insights into mechanisms underlying IC/BPS, we investigated pathological changes in the lamina propria (LP) of the bladder and proximal urethra in cats with FIC, using histological and molecular methods. Compared to control cat tissue, we found an increased number of de-granulated mast cells, accumulation of leukocytes, increased cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 expression in the bladder LP, and increased COX-2 expression in the urethra LP from cats with FIC. We also found increased suburothelial proliferation, evidenced by mucosal von Brunn’s nests, neovascularization and alterations in elastin content. Scanning electron microscopy revealed normal appearance of the superficial urethral epithelium, including the neuroendocrine cells (termed paraneurons), in FIC urethrae. Together, these histological findings suggest the presence of chronic inflammation of unknown origin leading to tissue remodeling. Since the mucosa functions as part of a “sensory network” and urothelial cells, nerves and other cells in the LP are influenced by the composition of the underlying tissues including the vasculature, the changes observed in the present study may alter the communication of sensory information between different cellular components. This type of mucosal signaling can also extend to the urethra, where recent evidence has revealed that the urethral epithelium is likely to be part of a signaling system involving paraneurons and sensory nerves. Taken together, our data suggest a more prominent role for chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling than previously thought, which may result in alterations in mucosal signaling within the urinary bladder and proximal urethra that may contribute to altered sensations and pain in cats and humans with this

  8. Novel Potential Interacting Partners of Fibronectin in Spontaneous Animal Model of Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Treutlein, Gudrun; Dorsch, Roswitha; Euler, Kerstin N.; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Amann, Barbara; Hartmann, Katrin; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2012-01-01

    Feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) is the only spontaneous animal model for human interstitial cystitis (IC), as both possess a distinctive chronical and relapsing character. Underlying pathomechanisms of both diseases are not clearly established yet. We recently detected increased urine fibronectin levels in FIC cases. The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the pathogenesis by assessing interacting partners of fibronectin in urine of FIC affected cats. Several candidate proteins were identified via immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Considerable changes in FIC conditions compared to physiological expression of co-purified proteins were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Compared to controls, complement C4a and thioredoxin were present in higher levels in urine of FIC patients whereas loss of signal intensity was detected in FIC affected tissue. Galectin-7 was exclusively detected in urine of FIC cats, pointing to an important role of this molecule in FIC pathogenesis. Moderate physiological signal intensity of galectin-7 in transitional epithelium shifted to distinct expression in transitional epithelium under pathophysiological conditions. I-FABP expression was reduced in urine and urinary bladder tissue of FIC cats. Additionally, transduction molecules of thioredoxin, NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK, were examined. In FIC affected tissue, colocalization of thioredoxin and NF-κB p65 could be demonstrated compared to absent coexpression of thioredoxin and p38 MAPK. These considerable changes in expression level and pattern point to an important role for co-purified proteins of fibronectin and thioredoxin-regulated signal transduction pathways in FIC pathogenesis. These results could provide a promising starting point for novel therapeutic approaches in the future. PMID:23236492

  9. Alexithymia and anesthetic bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chui-De; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Wei-Chih; Ho, Hoi Lam; Wu, Huei-Ching

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to the inconsistent results of organic causes, it has been found that psychological risk factors are reliably related to functional somatic syndromes (FSSs), including interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Compared to patients with acute cystitis, a subgroup of IC/BPS patients with a history of childhood relational trauma reported intensified unregulated affective states (i.e., anxiety and depression) and trauma-related psychopathology (i.e., dissociation). Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether psychosocial risk factors can be separated from bladder-centric factors. This study aimed to verify whether psychosocial factors such as alexithymia, which is a key psychological factor of FSSs, are less likely to be linked to a low bladder capacity in patients with IC/BPS. Ninety-four female IC/BPS patients were recruited from the outpatient departments of urology, obstetrics, and gynecology. Anxiety, depression, dissociation, childhood relational trauma, and alexithymia were assessed using standardized scales, and anesthetic bladder capacity was examined by cystoscopic hydrodistention. Positive correlations were found between anesthetic bladder capacity and the psychosocial variables, including alexithymia. An increased bladder capacity was associated with anxiety, dissociation, and childhood relational trauma, and a combination of high cognitive and low affective alexithymia mediated the correlations between bladder capacity and the psychosocial variables. Psychosocial variables that are associated with an aversive childhood relational environment and affect dysregulation may constitute a pathogenic trajectory that differs from bladder-centric defects such as a lower bladder capacity. The findings of this study support the notion that IC/BPS in some patients may be due to an FSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder mimicking interstitial cystitis and voiding dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Prudnick, Colton; Morley, Chad; Shapiro, Robert; Zaslau, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder is a relatively uncommon cause of bladder cancer accounting for <5% of bladder tumors in the western countries. SCC has a slight male predominance and tends to occur in the seventh decade of life. The main presenting symptom of SCC is hematuria, and development of this tumor in the western world is associated most closely with chronic indwelling catheters and spinal cord injuries. A 39-year-old Caucasian female presented with bladder and lower abdominal pain, urinary frequency, and nocturia which was originally believed to be interstitial cystitis (IC) but was later diagnosed as SCC of the bladder. Presentation of SCC without hematuria is an uncommon presentation, but the absence of this symptom should not lead a practitioner to exclude the diagnosis of SCC. This case is being reported in an attempt to explain the delay and difficulty of diagnosis. Background on the risk factors for SCC of the bladder and the typical presenting symptoms of bladder SCC and IC are also reviewed.

  11. Bladder pain in an LL-37 interstitial cystitis and painful bladder syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wanjian; Schults, Austin J; Jensen, Mark Martin; Ye, Xiangyang; Alt, Jeremiah A; Prestwich, Glenn D; Oottamasathien, Siam

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the pain response in an LL-37 induced murine model for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). In particular, we sought to characterize the dose dependence, time-course, and relationship of LL-37 induced bladder inflammation and pain. The IC/PBS model was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by instilling 50 μL of LL-37, an immunomodulatory human cathelicidin (anti-microbial peptide), in the bladder for 1 hr. Pain responses were measured using von Frey filaments (0.04 gm to 4.0 gm) before and after LL-37 instillation. Inflammation was evaluated using tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, gross inspection, and microscopic histologic examination. The dose response experiment demonstrated a graded pain response, with higher concentrations of LL-37 challenge yielding higher pain responses across all stimuli tested. Statistical significance was seen when comparing 1.0 gm von Frey filament results at 320 μM (68 ± 8% response) vs. 0 μM (38 ± 6% response). Interestingly, pain responses did not attenuate across time but increased significantly after 5 (p=0.0012) and 7 days (p=0.0096). Comparison with MPO data suggested that pain responses could be independent of inflammation. We demonstrated within our LL-37 induced IC/PBS model pain occurs in a dose-dependent fashion, pain responses persist beyond the initial point of insult, and our dose response and time course experiments demonstrated that pain was independent of inflammation.

  12. Stool-based biomarkers of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braundmeier-Fleming, A; Russell, Nathan T; Yang, Wenbin; Nas, Megan Y; Yaggie, Ryan E; Berry, Matthew; Bachrach, Laurie; Flury, Sarah C; Marko, Darlene S; Bushell, Colleen B; Welge, Michael E; White, Bryan A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Klumpp, David J

    2016-05-18

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC) is associated with significant morbidity, yet underlying mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers remain unknown. Pelvic organs exhibit neural crosstalk by convergence of visceral sensory pathways, and rodent studies demonstrate distinct bacterial pain phenotypes, suggesting that the microbiome modulates pelvic pain in IC. Stool samples were obtained from female IC patients and healthy controls, and symptom severity was determined by questionnaire. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by16S rDNA sequence analysis. Machine learning by Extended Random Forest (ERF) identified OTUs associated with symptom scores. Quantitative PCR of stool DNA with species-specific primer pairs demonstrated significantly reduced levels of E. sinensis, C. aerofaciens, F. prausnitzii, O. splanchnicus, and L. longoviformis in microbiota of IC patients. These species, deficient in IC pelvic pain (DIPP), were further evaluated by Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, and DIPP species emerged as potential IC biomarkers. Stool metabolomic studies identified glyceraldehyde as significantly elevated in IC. Metabolomic pathway analysis identified lipid pathways, consistent with predicted metagenome functionality. Together, these findings suggest that DIPP species and metabolites may serve as candidates for novel IC biomarkers in stool. Functional changes in the IC microbiome may also serve as therapeutic targets for treating chronic pelvic pain.

  13. New Aspects in the Differential Diagnosis and Therapy of Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Alexander, Henry; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is presently based on mainly clinical symptoms. BPS/IC can be considered as a worst-case scenario of bladder overactivity of unknown origin, including bladder pain. Usually, patients are partially or completely resistant to anticholinergic therapy, and therapeutical options are especially restricted in case of BPS/IC. Therefore, early detection of patients prone to develop BPS/IC symptoms is essential for successful therapy. We propose extended diagnostics including molecular markers. Differential diagnosis should be based on three diagnostical “columns”: (i) clinical diagnostics, (ii) histopathology, and (iii) molecular diagnostics. Analysis of molecular alterations of receptor expression in detrusor smooth muscle cells and urothelial integrity is necessary to develop patient-tailored therapeutical concepts. Although more research is needed to elucidate the pathomechanisms involved, extended BPS/IC diagnostics could already be integrated into routine patient care, allowing evidence-based pharmacotherapy of patients with idiopathic bladder overactivity and BPS/IC. PMID:22028706

  14. New aspects in the differential diagnosis and therapy of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Alexander, Henry; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is presently based on mainly clinical symptoms. BPS/IC can be considered as a worst-case scenario of bladder overactivity of unknown origin, including bladder pain. Usually, patients are partially or completely resistant to anticholinergic therapy, and therapeutical options are especially restricted in case of BPS/IC. Therefore, early detection of patients prone to develop BPS/IC symptoms is essential for successful therapy. We propose extended diagnostics including molecular markers. Differential diagnosis should be based on three diagnostical "columns": (i) clinical diagnostics, (ii) histopathology, and (iii) molecular diagnostics. Analysis of molecular alterations of receptor expression in detrusor smooth muscle cells and urothelial integrity is necessary to develop patient-tailored therapeutical concepts. Although more research is needed to elucidate the pathomechanisms involved, extended BPS/IC diagnostics could already be integrated into routine patient care, allowing evidence-based pharmacotherapy of patients with idiopathic bladder overactivity and BPS/IC.

  15. Keratin expression profiling of transitional epithelium in the painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Pilar; Smedts, Frank; Nordling, Jörgen; Horn, Thomas; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Hopman, Anton; de la Rosette, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a severely debilitating condition. Its cause is poorly understood; therapy is symptomatic and often unsuccessful. To study urothelial involvement, we characterized the keratin phenotype of bladder urothelium in 18 patients with PBS/IC using a panel of 11 keratin antibodies recognizing simple keratins found in columnar epithelia (keratins 7, 8, 18, and 20) and keratins associated with basal cell compartments of squamous epithelia (keratins 5, 13, 14, and 17). We also tested 2 antibodies recognizing more than 1 keratin also directed against basal cell compartments of squamous epithelia (D5/16 B4 and 34betaE12). Bladder urothelium in PBS/IC showed distinct differences in the profiles of keratins 7, 8, 14, 17, 18, and 20 compared with literature reports for normal bladder urothelium. These were characterized by a shift from the normal bladder urothelial keratin phenotype to a more squamous keratin profile, despite the lack of morphologic evidence of squamous epithelial differentiation and a loss of compartmentalization of keratin expression. The severity of these changes varied between biopsy specimens. Whether these changes are primary or secondary to another underlying condition remains to be determined.

  16. Understanding pain and coping in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laura; Tripp, Dean A; Carr, Lesley K; Mayer, Robert; Moldwin, Robert M; Nickel, J Curtis

    2017-08-01

    To examine a self-regulation and coping model for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) that may help us understand the pain experience of patients with chronic IC/BPS. The model tested illness perceptions, illness-focused coping, emotional regulation, mental health and disability in a stepwise method using factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Step 1, explored the underlying constructs. Step 2, confirmed the measurement models to determine the structure/composition of the main constructs. Step 3, evaluated the model fit and specified pathways in the proposed IC/BPS self-regulation model. In all, 217 female patients with urologist diagnosed IC/BPS were recruited and diagnosed across tertiary care centres in North America. The data were collected through self-report questionnaires. An IC/BPS self-regulation model was supported. Physical disability was worsened by patient's negative perception of their illness, attempts to cope using illness-focused coping and poorer emotional regulation. Mental health was supported by perceptions that individuals could do something about their illness, using wellness-focused behavioural strategies and adaptive emotion regulation. The results clarify the complex and unique process of self-regulation in women with IC/BPS, implicating cognitive and coping targets, and highlighting emotional regulation. This knowledge should help clinicians understand and manage these patients' distress and disability. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Voiding diary might serve as a useful tool to understand differences between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Oh, Shin Ah; Oh, Seung-June

    2014-02-01

    To identify the voiding characteristics of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder. Between September 2005 and June 2010, 3-day voiding diaries of 49 consecutive bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients and 301 overactive bladder patients were prospectively collected at an outpatient clinic and retrospectively analyzed. The characteristics of the two groups were not significantly different. However, all voiding variables including volume and frequency were significantly different except for the total voided volume: patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis showed significantly higher voiding frequencies, smaller maximal and mean voided volume, and more constant and narrower ranges of voided volume compared with overactive bladder patients (P < 0.005). Furthermore, mean intervals between voiding in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis were shorter and more consistent during the day and night (P < 0.001), although mean night-time variances were greater than daytime variances. Logistic regression analysis showed that total night-time frequency, maximal night-time voided volume and mean variance of daytime voiding intervals most significantly differentiated the two groups. Some voiding characteristics of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder patients differ significantly according to 3-day voiding diary records. These findings provide additional information regarding the differences between these two diseases in the outpatient clinical setting. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. CHANGES IN URINE MARKERS AND SYMPTOMS AFTER BLADDER DISTENTION FOR INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Deborah R.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Bentley, Christina M.; Peters, Kenneth M.; Rovner, Eric S.; Demers, Laurence M.; Wheeler, Marcia A.; Keay, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate changes in urine markers and symptom scores after bladder distention in interstitial cystitis (IC) patients. Materials and Methods Subjects were 33 new patients with no prior IC treatments. Urine specimens were taken before and one month after bladder distention. University of Wisconsin (UW) symptom scores were done the same day as the urine specimen collection. Urine marker levels and symptom scores before and after distention were compared. Changes in markers were tested for associations with changes in symptom scores and other markers. Pre-distention markers and specific pre-distention symptoms were tested for their association with post-distention symptom improvement. Results After distention, the median total UW score decreased significantly (28.5 before, 10 after, p<0.001). Twelve patients (36%) had at least 30% improvement in UW score, and eight patients (24%) had at least 50% improvement. No pre-distention markers or symptoms predicted which patients would have a good response. Two of the urine markers improved significantly after distention: anti-proliferative factor (APF) activity (median −96% before, −17% after, p< 0.001) and heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) levels (median 0.34 ng/mg creatinine before, 4.1 after, p<0.001). None of the changes in urine markers associated with changes in symptom scores. Conclusions The median symptom score for newly diagnosed IC patients decreased after distention, but only a minority of patients had at least 30% symptom improvement. Bladder distention altered urine APF activity and HB-EGF levels towards normal, but the mechanism of symptom relief after distention is still unknown. PMID:17222633

  19. Perceptions of "urgency" in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J Quentin; Bogart, Laura M; Liu, Karin; Pham, Chau; Suttorp, Marika; Berry, Sandra H

    2011-03-01

    To compare urgency symptoms in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and overactive bladder (OAB). Women with diagnoses of IC/BPS (n=194) and OAB (n=85) were recruited from the clinical practices of Urologists (n=8) and Gynecologists (n=16) with recognized expertise in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. Subjects completed a comprehensive telephone survey about their current symptoms. The questionnaire included 11 questions about urinary urgency. Responses were compared between the two groups. Urgency was commonly reported as a symptom by women with both conditions (81% IC/BPS and 91% OAB). Compared with IC/BPS, urgency in OAB more often resulted in leakage, and was perceived to be more of a problem. In IC/BPS, the urgency was primarily reported as due to pain, pressure, or discomfort, while in OAB the urgency was more commonly due to fear of leakage. However, approximately 40% of women with OAB also report urgency due to pain, pressure, or discomfort. Similar proportions of both groups (∼ 60%) indicated that the urgency occurred "suddenly" instead of more gradually over a period of minutes or hours. Urgency symptoms differed in women diagnosed with IC/BPS versus those diagnosed with OAB, but there was significant overlap. This suggests that "urgency" is not a well-defined and commonly understood symptom that can be utilized to clearly discriminate between IC/BPS and OAB. These findings reinforce the clinical observation that it is often challenging to differentiate between these two conditions. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Alkalinized lidocaine and heparin provide immediate relief of pain and urgency in patients with interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C Lowell; Zupkas, Paul; Proctor, Jeffrey; Koziol, James; Franklin, Amie; Giesing, Dennis; Davis, Edward; Lakin, Charles M; Kahn, Bruce S; Garner, William J

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported in an open-label study that the combination of alkalinized lidocaine and heparin can immediately relieve the symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, and pain associated with interstitial cystitis (IC). This combination has also been reported to relieve pain associated with sex in patients with IC. The aim of this study was to corroborate these findings in a multicenter setting. The study design was a multicenter prospective, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Each participant met all of the clinical National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases criteria (excluding cystoscopy) for IC. Each patient received drug and control, in random order, within 48 hours of enrolling in the study. The primary outcome measure was percent change in pain score (11-point analog pain scale) 12 hours after receiving the drug or control. Secondary measures were the global assessment response (GAR) of symptoms and 12-hour average urgency reduction determined from 11-point urgency scales. Eighteen (18) patients completed the trial. The average reduction of pain over 12 hours was 21% for control and 42% for active drug (P = 0.0363). GAR was 13% for control and 50% for drug (P = 0.0137). Average urgency reduction was 13% for control and 35% for drug (P = 0.0328). The combination of alkalinized lidocaine and heparin provides up to 12 hours of relief from urgency and pain associated with IC. This combination provides significant immediate relief of symptoms for patients with IC. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis as a functional somatic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warren, John W

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has the characteristics of a functional somatic syndrome (FSS). There is no accepted definition of an FSS. Consequently, this paper reviewed the literature for common FSS characteristics and for reports that BPS/IC has these characteristics. Eleven articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria and yielded 18 FSS characteristics. BPS/IC patients manifest all but two: the exceptions were normal light microscopic anatomy (after hydrodistention under anesthesia, some BPS/IC bladders have Hunner's lesions and most have petechial hemorrhages) and normal laboratory tests (many BPS/IC patients have hematuria). Petechial hemorrhages and hematuria are probably related and may appear during naturally-occurring bladder distention. Without such distention, then, the 90% of BPS/IC patients without a Hunner's lesion have all the characteristics of an FSS. Comparisons in the opposite direction were consistent: several additional features of BPS/IC were found in FSSs. This systematic but untested method is consistent with but does not test the hypothesis that BPS/IC in some patients might best be understood as an FSS. Like most conditions, BPS/IC is probably heterogeneous; hence only a proportion of BPS/IC cases are likely to be manifestations of an FSS. This hypothesis has several implications. Explorations of processes that connect the FSSs might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of BPS/IC. Patients with FSSs are at risk for BPS/IC and may benefit from future preventive strategies. Therapies that are useful in FSSs also may be useful in some cases of BPS/IC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Characteristic Picture and Impact of Symptoms on Quality of Life of Interstitial Cystitis Patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Huei; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Chen, Yung-Fu

    2014-01-01

    No clinical characteristic picture and impact of symptoms on quality of life (QOL) of interstitial cystitis (IC) patients in Taiwan had been reported. This paper is intended to provide preliminary descriptive results of IC research in Taiwan. A total of 319 patients, based on National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) criteria, were enrolled in the study from February 2004 through March 2006. Evaluation data included baseline demographic information, patient and family medical history, dietary effects, pregnancy data, sexual relationships with symptoms, and impact of symptoms on quality of life. The main responsibility of the hospitals discussed was patient care and data collection. Taichung Hospital presents the results. The Interstitial Cystitis Database (ICDB) patients were predominantly female, that is, 86% of the total, with an average enrollment age of 46. The analysis of various symptoms indicates the following distribution: (i) 94% frequency; (ii) 80% pain; (iii) 53% nocturia; (iv) 43% urgency; and (v) 10% associated incontinence. Approximately 83% reported pain over the bladder while in full stage, and 74% reported pain relief after voiding. The predominant characteristic of pain was full sensation (54%) with the predominant position on low abdominal area (52%). Moreover, 80% reported sleeping disturbance due to disease, and 66% reported difficulty in performing daily work. Interstitial cystitis patients in Taiwan have lower economic status but lower impact on QOL than Western patients. However, the sexual-related pain and sleeping disorder were higher than previously thought and deserve our attention. Accordingly, this research provides a foundation for further investigations of baseline associations and longitudinal trends. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Childhood bladder and bowel dysfunction predicts irritable bowel syndrome phenotype in adult interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Doiron, R Christopher; Kogan, Barry A; Tolls, Victoria; Irvine-Bird, Karen; Nickel, J Curtis

    2017-08-01

    Many clinicians have suggested that a history of bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) in childhood predisposes to the development of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adulthood. We hypothesized that BBD symptoms in childhood would predict the IBS-associated phenotype in adult IC/BPS patients. Consecutive female patients (n=190) with a diagnosis of IC/BPS were administered a modified form of a clinical BBD questionnaire (BBDQ) to capture childhood BBD-like symptoms, as well as Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index (ICSI), Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI), Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) questionnaires and UPOINT categorization. Patients were stratified to IBS-positive or IBS-negative according to clinical assessment of IBS-like symptoms. The 127 patients (67%) identified with IBS-like symptoms recalled significantly higher BBDQ scores than the 63 patients (33%) who were IBS-negative (2.8 vs. 2.3; p=0.05). The IBS-positive patients also reported a higher number of UPOINT domains than their non-IBS counterparts (3.8 vs. 2.9; p=0.0001), while their PUF total scores were significantly higher (13.6 vs. 12.3; p=0.04). IBS-positive patients more often recalled that in childhood they did not have a daily bowel movement (BM) (p=0.04) and had "to push for a BM" (p=0.009). In childhood, they "urinated only once or twice per day" (p=0.03) and recalled "painful urination" more than those without IBS (p=0.03). There were no significant differences between the groups in answers to the other five questions of the BBDQ. Our symptom recollection survey was able to predict the IBS phenotype of IC/BPS based on a childhood BBDQ. Further prospective studies are needed to further evaluate these novel findings.

  4. Cystitis - noninfectious

    MedlinePlus

    Abacterial cystitis; Radiation cystitis; Chemical cystitis; Urethral syndrome - acute; Bladder pain syndrome; Painful bladder disease complex; Dysuria - noninfectious cystitis; Frequent urination - noninfectious cystitis; Painful urination - noninfectious

  5. Results of endovesical hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Porru, D; Cervigni, M; Nasta, L; Natale, F; Lo Voi, R; Tinelli, C; Gardella, B; Anghileri, A; Spinillo, A; Rovereto, B

    2008-05-01

    The aim of our study was to test the effect of a more viscous compound than existent hyaluronic acid formulation in helping to restore a defective glycosaminoglycan layer, and therefore in improving Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS) symptoms when administered intravesically in IC/PBS patients. A total of 23 female patients completed the study. Patients received endovesical administration of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate in normal saline, 40 ml, weekly for 12 weeks and then bi-weekly for 6 months, if there was initial response. After 12 weeks treatment both Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Index (ICSI/ICPI), pelvic pain and Urgency/Frequency Symptom Scale (PUF) showed a mean significant improvement, which was maintained thereafter. The average number of voidings and mean voiding volumes revealed significant improvement after the 12 weeks' treatment period, with a significant reduction and increase, respectively. Mean voiding volume increased from 143 ml to 191, which apparently was not reflected in a corresponding reduction of number of daily voids (from 15,5 to 14). VAS values decreased from 5,4 to 3,6 (pain) and from 6,0 to 3,5 (urgency) after the treatment cycle, showing a significant improvement. In our preliminary experience, the administration of intravesical hyaluronic acid plus chondroitine sulphate appears to be a safe and efficacious method of treatment in IC/PBS.

  6. Role of Bladder Hydrodistention and Intravesical Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Yi; Wei, Wei; Lan, Yu-Long; Liu, Jun-Qiang; Wang, Hai-Bo; Li, Shao

    2015-12-23

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of bladder hydrodistention and intravesical sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). Twenty-one patients with IC received intravesical sodium hyaluronate therapy under nerve block or intravenous anesthesia. Bladders were perfused with 100 cmH2O perfusion pressure and expanded for 10 min and were later injected with 40 mg/50 mL sodium hyaluronate through the catheter. After 1 h, the perfusion fluid was released. Perfusion was applied once per week, 4 to 6 times as a course of treatment. Under anesthesia, the average bladder capacity was 191.62 ± 88.67 mL, and after bladder expansion, the bladder capacity reached 425.33 ± 79.83 mL (P = .000). There were 2 suspected bladder ruptures after bladder expansion at 6.5 min and 7.2 min. After 10 min of bladder expansion, there were 19 cases of significantly gross hematuria. After treatment, the catheters of 17 patients were removed at 24 h; for the 2 cases of hematuria, catheters were removed at 72 h and for the 2 cases of suspected bladder rupture, catheters were removed after 4 days. After catheter removal, the pain threshold significantly decreased, and the maximum urinary output increased slightly. Compared with values before treatment, the day before the second injection of sodium hyaluronate, the frequency of urination decreased significantly (32.8 vs. 18.5 times/24 h), the maximum urinary output increased significantly (86.7 vs. 151.9 mL), the pain decreased significantly (8.7 vs. 3.0), and the O'Leary-Sant IC score and quality of life score were significantly decreased (30.0 vs. 17.0 and 5.9 vs. 2.4, respectively) (P = .000). Bladder hydrodistention under anesthesia for patients with severe intractable IC produces immediate effectiveness; sodium hyaluronic infusion can alleviate frequent urination and pain, and the efficacy was positively correlated with the duration of treatment.

  7. Correlation Between Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Hung, Peir-Haur; Chung, Chi-Jung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been investigated in Western countries and identified to be associated with chronic pelvic pain and inflammation. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a complex syndrome that is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. Chronic pelvic pain is a main symptom of BPS/IC, and chronic inflammation is a major etiology of BPS/IC. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between BPS/IC and PID using a population-based dataset. We constructed a case–control study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program. The case cohort comprised 449 patients with BPS/IC, and 1796 randomly selected subjects (about 1:4 matching) were used as controls. A Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to estimate the association between BPS/IC and PID. Of the 2245 sampled subjects, a significant difference was observed in the prevalence of PID between BPS/IC cases and controls (41.7% vs 15.4%, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for PID among cases was 3.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.89–4.71). Furthermore, the ORs for PID among BPS/IC cases were 4.52 (95% CI: 2.55–8.01), 4.31 (95% CI: 2.91–6.38), 3.00 (95% CI: 1.82–4.94), and 5.35 (95% CI: 1.88–15.20) in the <35, 35–49, 50–64, and >65 years age groups, respectively, after adjusting for geographic region, irritable bowel syndrome, and hypertension. Joint effect was also noted, specifically when patients had both PID and irritable bowel disease with OR of 10.5 (95% CI: 4.88–22.50). This study demonstrated a correlation between PID and BPS/IC. Clinicians treating women with PID should be alert to BPS/IC-related symptoms in the population. PMID:26579800

  8. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC.

  9. [Methods of traditional chinese medicine in the treatment of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ignashov, A Yu; Deng, B; Kuzmin, I V; Slesarevskaya, M N

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in alternative (complementary) treatments of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). This is due both to the high incidence of IC/BPS and to a lack of effectiveness of conventional treatments. One of the directions of alternative therapies is a traditional Chinese medicine using a special diet, various animal and plant-derived medicines, breathing exercises and acupuncture. This review analyzes the accumulated experience in using traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of patients with IC/BPS. The presented data indicate that these methods appear to be promising, since they are effective in a significant number of patients, lead to an improvement in their quality of life, are non-invasive and well tolerated. However, due to the lack of clinical studies, the efficacy of this treatment modalities needs to be confirmed.

  10. Sacral Neuromodulation for Refractory Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis: a Global Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junpeng; Chen, Yang; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Guihao; Wu, Peng

    2017-09-08

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a common debilitating disease and there has not been consistently effective treatment. We aimed to evaluate all available literature regarding the efficacy and safety of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) for refractory BPS/IC. A comprehensive search of Pubmed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library through May 2016 was conducted. A total of 17 studies enrolling 583 patients were identified. Pooled analyses demonstrated that SNM was associated with great reduction in pelvic pain (weighted mean difference [WMD] -3.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] -5.22 to -2.76; p < 0.00001), Interstitial Cystitis Problem and Symptom Index scores (WMD -6.34; 95% CI -9.57 to -3.10; p = 0.0001; and WMD -7.17; 95% CI -9.90 to -4.45; p < 0.00001, respectively), daytime frequency (WMD -7.45; 95% CI -9.68 to -5.22; p < 0.00001), nocturia (WMD -3.01; 95% CI -3.56 to -2.45; p < 0.00001), voids per 24 hours (WMD -9.32; 95% CI -10.90 to -7.74; p < 0.00001) and urgency (WMD -1.08; 95% CI -1.79 to -0.37; p = 0.003) as well as significant improvement in average voided volume (WMD 95.16 ml; 95% CI 63.64 to 126.69; p < 0.0001). The pooled treatment success rate was 84% (95% CI 76% to 91%). SNM-related adverse events were minimal. Current evidence indicates that SNM might be effective and safe for treating refractory BPS/IC.

  11. Elevated Urine Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Inflammatory Bladder Conditions: A Potential Biomarker for a Subgroup of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Vera, Pedro L; Preston, David M; Moldwin, Robert M; Erickson, Deborah R; Mowlazadeh, Behzad; Ma, Fei; Kouzoukas, Dimitrios E; Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Fall, Magnus

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether urinary levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) are elevated in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) patients with Hunner lesions and also whether urine MIF is elevated in other forms of inflammatory cystitis. Urine samples were assayed for MIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urine samples from 3 female groups were examined: IC/BPS patients without (N = 55) and with Hunner lesions (N = 43), and non-IC/BPS patients (N = 100; control group; no history of IC/BPS; cancer or recent bacterial cystitis). Urine samples from 3 male groups were examined: patients with bacterial cystitis (N = 50), radiation cystitis (N = 18) and noncystitis patients (N = 119; control group; negative for bacterial cystitis). Urine MIF (mean MIF pg/mL ±  standard error of the mean) was increased in female IC/BPS patients with Hunner lesions (2159 ± 435.3) compared with IC/BPS patients without Hunner lesions (460 ± 114.5) or non-IC/BPS patients (414 ± 47.6). Receiver operating curve analyses showed that urine MIF levels discriminated between the 2 IC groups (area under the curve = 72%; confidence interval 61%-82%). Male patients with bacterial and radiation cystitis had elevated urine MIF levels (2839 ± 757.1 and 4404 ± 1548.1, respectively) compared with noncystitis patients (681 ± 75.2). Urine MIF is elevated in IC/BPS patients with Hunner lesions and also in patients with other bladder inflammatory and painful conditions. MIF may also serve as a noninvasive biomarker to select IC/BPS patients more accurately for endoscopic evaluation and possible anti-inflammatory treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term outcomes of intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide/heparin/hydrocortisone therapy for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yik N; Dwyer, Peter; Murray, Christine; Karmakar, Debjyoti; Rosamilia, Anna; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    For decades, intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) cocktail therapy has been used for the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), but little is known about its long-term efficacy. We aimed to assess the long-term efficacy of intravesical DMSO/heparin/hydrocortisone/bupivacaine therapy in patients with IC/BPS. Patients with IC/BPS from our institutions who underwent this therapy with >2 years follow-up were surveyed with O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis symptom and problem index questionnaires before and after therapy. Chart reviews and telephone surveys were then conducted to determine their posttherapy course. Of 68 eligible women, 55 (80.0%) with a median follow-up of 60 months (range 24-142) were surveyed. Their mean age at therapy onset was 44.8 years and their mean body mass index was 26.2 kg/m 2 . There were statistically significant improvements in O'Leary-Sant and pain scores of 23-47% at both 6 weeks and the end of the follow-up period. At the end of the follow-up period, 19 of the 55 women (34.5%) were cured (requiring no further treatment) and 12 (21.8%) were significantly improved (requiring only ongoing oral medication). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that DMSO treatment failure was more likely in patients with pretreatment day-time urinary frequency more than 15 episodes per day (OR 1.41), nocturia more than two episodes per night (OR 2.47), maximum bladder diary voided volume <200 ml (OR 1.39) and bladder capacity under anaesthesia <500 ml (OR 1.6). At a median follow-up of 60 months, intravesical DMSO cocktail therapy appeared moderately effective for the treatment of IC/BPS. Treatment failure was more frequent in patients with pretreatment symptoms of reduced bladder capacity.

  13. Ketamine-snorting associated cystitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Yi-Chang; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2011-12-01

    Ketamine hydrochloride, commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic agent, is an N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acid receptor antagonist with rapid onset and short duration of action. It produces a cataleptic-like state where the patient is dissociated from the surrounding environment by direct action on the cortex and limbic system. It has emerged as an increasingly popular choice among young drug users, especially within dance club venues. Cases of bladder dysfunction among recreational ketamine users were reported since Shahani et al first reported nine cases of ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis in 2007. We report on four patients who had history of ketamine abuse, presenting with dysuria, fluctuating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), lower abdominal or perineal pain, and impaired functional bladder capacities. Urinalysis showed pyuria and microhematuria. Urine culture was sterile. Bladder ulceration with severe diffuse hemorrhage and low bladder capacity were noted under anesthetized cystoscopic examination. Transurethral bladder mucosa biopsy was consistent with chronic cystitis. Cessation of ketamine abuse was the milestone of treatment, followed by the administration of mucosal protective agents, such as pentosan polysulphate or hyaluronic acid. Suprapubic pain was improved in three patients during follow-up. However, the outcome of treatment depends on the severity of the disease process, similar to that of interstitial cystitis (IC). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Intravesical treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: from the conventional regimens to the novel botulinum toxin injections.

    PubMed

    Dellis, Athanasios; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

    2014-06-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) includes interstitial cystitis (IC) and is often used as a synonym of it (i.e., BPS/IC). It is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms as well as with negative cognitive, behavioral, sexual and/or emotional consequences. Unfortunately, none of the numerous existing oral and intravesical treatments have been effective for all of the BPS subtypes and therefore relevant research is ongoing. In this review, the authors analyze the existing literature for the intravesical treatment of BPS/IC with focus on the novel administration of botulinum toxin (BTX). Several intravesical drugs have been studied in the past, including lidocaine, heparin, pentosan polysulfate sodium, dimethyl sulfoxide, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid as well as investigational drugs such as GM-0111. Recently, intravesical submucosal injections of BTX have been studied in patients with BPS/IC. Most of the recent studies use BTX-A with no serious adverse effects and with satisfactory results in patients who do not respond to oral or standard intravesical therapy. Nevertheless, there is no consensus regarding the best dosage scheme of BTX, the injection sites and the treatment intervals. BTX intravesical administration in patients with BPS/IC is a safe and efficient treatment option; yet the level of evidence of the initial studies is not high. There is still the need for large randomized controlled studies so that a consensus can be reached for the ideal BTX dosage, injection sites and intervals between treatments.

  15. Effect of Sacral Neuromodulation on Outcome Measures and Urine Chemokines in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kenneth M; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Bui, Don; Killinger, Kim; Chancellor, Michael; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-05-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may improve interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/BPS) symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency and perhaps even pain, but objective measures of improvement are lacking. We evaluated the potential for urinary chemokines to serve as measures of treatment response over time to SNM. Women with IC/BPS undergoing SNM consented for this study. Three-day bladder/pain diaries were collected at baseline and validated Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Problem Index (ICSPI) scores and mid-stream urine specimens were collected at baseline and at 24 weeks after successful implant. Collected urine was screened for infection by dipstick and analyzed for chemokines by luminex xMAP analysis. At baseline (n = 16), urine levels of CXCL-1 positively correlated with pain score (r = 0.63, P = 0.009), urgency (r = 0.61, P = 0.01), ICSPI (r = 0.43, P = 0.09) and daily voids (r = 0.44, P = 0.08). ICSPI and pain scores also positively correlated with sIL-1ra (r = 0.50, P = 0.04) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) or CCL2 positively correlated with daily voids (r = 0.45, P = 0.07) only. At 24 weeks, the median ICSPI index fell from 28 to 15 (n = 7, P = 0.008). Urine levels of sIL-1ra (633.8 ± 188.2 vs. 149.9 ± 41.62 pg/mL) and MCP-1 (448.3 ± 11.6 vs. 176.9 ± 46.16 pg/mL) and CCL5 (20.78 ± 4.09 vs. 11.21 ± 4.12 pg/mL) were also significantly reduced at the follow-up relative to baseline values (P = 0.04). Multivariable analysis of data revealed that sIL-1ra and MCP-1 together explained the majority of variance in data. Levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, interleukin (IL)-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also reduced at 24 weeks, but differences were not significant. Concomitant decrease in urine levels of chemokines especially MCP-1 was associated with treatment response of SNM. These results

  16. Comparison of 5 Different Rat Models to Establish a Standard Animal Model for Research Into Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Song, Phil Hyun; Chun, So Young; Chung, Jae-Wook; Kim, Yeon Yong; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Jun Nyung; Ha, Yun-Sok; Yoo, Eun Sang; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Kim, Jeongshik; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Bum Soo

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated 5 different rat models using different agents in order to establish a standard animal model for interstitial cystitis (IC) in terms of the functional and pathologic characteristics of the bladder. Five IC models were generated in 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats via transurethral instillation of 0.1M hydrogen chloride (HCl) or 3% acetic acid (AA), intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or subcutaneous injection of uroplakin II (UPK2). After generating the IC models, conscious cystometry was performed on days 3, 7, and 14. All rats were euthanized on day 14 and their bladders were obtained for histological and pro-inflammatory-related gene expression analysis. In the cystometric analysis, all experimental groups showed significantly decreased intercontraction intervals compared with the control group on day 3, but only the LPS and UPK groups maintained significantly shorter intercontraction intervals than the control group on day 14. The histological analysis revealed that areas with severe urothelial erosion (HCl, AA, and UPK) and hyperplasia (CYP and LPS), particularly in the UPK-treated bladders, showed a markedly increased infiltration of toluidine blue-stained mast cells and increased tissue fibrosis. In addition, significantly elevated expression of interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 was observed in the UPK group compared to the other groups. Among the 5 different agents, the injection of UPK generated the most effective IC animal model, showing consequent urothelial barrier loss, inflammatory reaction, tissue fibrosis stimulation, and persistent hyperactive bladder.

  17. Melatonin treatment further improves adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute interstitial cystitis in rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ta; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Lee, Fan-Yen; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chang, Chia-Lo; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Leu, Steve; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yang, Chih-Chao; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that combined melatonin and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC, 1.2 × 10(6) given intravenously) treatment offer superior protection against cyclophosphamide (CYP 150 mg/kg)-induced acute interstitial cystitis (AIC) in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated as follows: sham controls, AIC alone, AIC + melatonin, AIC + ADMSC, and AIC + melatonin +ADMSC. When melatonin was used, it was given as follows: 20 mg/kg at 30 min after CYP and 50 mg/kg at 6 and 18 hr after CYP. Twenty-four-hour urine volume, urine albumin level, and severity of hematuria were highest in AIC rats and lowest in the controls; likewise urine volume was higher in AIC + melatonin rats than in AIC + ADMSC and AIC + melatonin + ADMSC treated rats; in all cases, P < 0.001. The numbers of CD14+, CD74+, CD68+, MIP+, Cox-2+, substance P+, cells and protein expression of IL-6, IL-12, RANTES, TNF-α, NF-κB, MMP-9, iNOS (i.e. inflammatory biomarkers), glycosaminoglycan level, expression of oxidized protein, and protein expression of reactive oxygen species (NOX-1, NOX-2, NOX-4) in the bladder tissue exhibited an identical pattern compared with that of hematuria among the five groups (all P < 0.0001). The integrity of epithelial layer and area of collagen deposition displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of hematuria among all groups (P < 0.0001). The cellular expressions of antioxidants (GR, GPx, HO-1, NQO 1) showed a significant progressive increase form controls to AIC + melatonin + ADMSC (all P < 0.0001). Combined regimen of melatonin and ADMSC was superior to either alone in protecting against CYP-induced AIC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sickness behaviors in response to unusual external events in healthy cats and cats with feline interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judi L.; Lord, Linda K.; Buffington, C. A. Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare sickness behaviors (SB) in response to unusual external events (UEE) in healthy cats with those of cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC). Design Prospective observational study. Animals 12 healthy cats and 20 donated cats with FIC. Procedures Cats were housed in a vivarium. Sickness behaviors referable to the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, the skin, and behavior problems were recorded by a single observer for 77 weeks. Instances of UEE (eg, changes in caretakers, vivarium routine, and lack of interaction with the investigator) were identified during 11 of the 77 weeks. No instances of UEE were identified during the remaining 66 weeks, which were considered control weeks. Results An increase in age and exposure to UEE, but not disease status, significantly increased total number of SB when results were controlled for other factors. Evaluation of individual SB revealed a protective effect of food intake for healthy males. An increase in age conferred a small increase in relative risk (RR) for upper gastrointestinal tract signs (RR, 1.2) and avoidance behavior (1.7). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for decreases in food intake (RR, 9.3) and for no eliminations in 24 hours (6.4). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for defecation (RR, 9.8) and urination (1.6) outside the litter box. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance SB, including some of the most commonly observed abnormalities in client-owned cats, were observed after exposure to UEE in both groups. Because healthy cats and cats with FIC were comparably affected by UEE, clinicians should consider the possibility of exposure to UEE in cats evaluated for these signs. PMID:21194324

  19. Association of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis with urinary calculus: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Keller, Joseph; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-04-01

    Although one prior study reported an association between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and urinary calculi (UC), no population-based study to date has been conducted to explore this relationship. Therefore, using a population-based data set in Taiwan, this study set out to investigate the association between BPS/IC and a prior diagnosis of UC. This study included 9,269 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BPS/IC between 2006 and 2007 and 46,345 randomly selected controls. We used conditional logistic regression analysis to compute the odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) for having been previously diagnosed with UC between cases and controls. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior UC between cases and controls (8.1 vs 4.3 %, p < 0.001). Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that cases were more likely to have been previously diagnosed with UC than controls (OR = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.56-1.84) after adjusting for chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraine, sicca syndrome, allergy, endometriosis, and asthma. BPS/IC was found to be significantly associated with prior UC regardless of stone location; the adjusted ORs of kidney calculus, ureter calculus, bladder calculus, and unspecified calculus when compared to controls were 1.58 (95 % CI = 1.38-1.81), 1.73 (95 % CI = 1.45-2.05), 3.80 (95 % CI = 2.18-6.62), and 1.83 (95 % CI = 1.59-2.11), respectively. This work generates the hypothesis that UC may be associated with BPS/IC.

  20. Endoscopic Injection of Low Dose Triamcinolone: a Simple, Minimally Invasive and Effective Therapy for Interstitial Cystitis with Hunner Lesions.

    PubMed

    Funaro, Michael G; King, Alexandra N; Stern, Joel N H; Moldwin, Robert M; Bahlani, Sonia

    2018-05-18

    To investigate the efficacy of low dose triamcinolone injection for effectiveness and durability in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) patients with Hunner Lesions (HL). Clinical data from patients with HL who underwent endoscopic submucosal injection of triamcinolone were reviewed: Demographics, pre/post operative pain and nocturia scores, and long-term clinical outcomes were assessed. Duration of response was estimated by time to repeat procedure. Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to evaluate time to repeat procedure. 36 patients who received injections of triamcinolone between 2011 and 2015 were included. Median age±SD of patients was 61.5±12.0 years 23; 28 (77.8%) of patients were female and 8 (22.2%) were male. 26 patients (72.2%) received only 1 set of injections, 8 (22.2%) received 2 sets of injections, and 2 (5.56%) received 3 or more sets of injections. Average time between injections in those receiving more than one set of injections was 344.9 days (median: 313.5, range: 77-714). Pre-procedural pain scores were 8.3±1.2 (mean±SD) on Likert pain scale (0-10), and mean post-procedural pain scores at approximately one month were 3.8±2.2 p<0.001. Mean pre-procedural nocturia bother scores were 7.5±2.0 and mean post-procedural nocturia bother scores were 5.1±2.5) p<0.001. Endoscopic submucosal injection of low dose triamcinolone in IC/BPS patients with HL is an effective and durable adjunct to existing treatment modalities. This approach is associated with low morbidity and can be performed on an outpatient basis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Psychosocial co-morbidities in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain syndrome (IC/BPS): A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Lindsey C; Walsh, Colin G; Reynolds, William S; Crofford, Leslie J; Dmochowski, Roger R; Williams, David A

    2018-03-01

    Psychosocial factors amplify symptoms of Interstitial Cystitis (IC/BPS). While psychosocial self-management is efficacious in other pain conditions, its impact on an IC/BPS population has rarely been studied. The objective of this review is to learn the prevalence and impact of psychosocial factors on IC/BPS, assess baseline psychosocial characteristics, and offer recommendations for assessment and treatment. Following PRISMA guidelines, primary information sources were PubMed including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and GoogleScholar. Inclusion criteria included: (i) a clearly defined cohort with IC/BPS or with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome provided the IC/BPS cohort was delineated with quantitative results from the main cohort; (ii) all genders and regions; (iii) studies written in English from 1995 to April 14, 2017; (iv) quantitative report of psychosocial factors as outcome measures or at minimum as baseline characteristics. Thirty-four of an initial 642 articles were reviewed. Quantitative analyses demonstrate the magnitude of psychosocial difficulties in IC/BPS, which are worse than average on all measures, and fall into areas of clinical concern for 7 out of 10 measures. Meta-analyses shows mean Mental Component Score of the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (MCS) of 40.80 (SD 6.25, N = 2912), where <36 is consistent with severe psychological impairment. Averaged across studies, the population scored in the range seen in clinical depression (CES-D 19.89, SD 13.12, N = 564) and generalized anxiety disorder (HADS-A 8.15, SD 4.85, N = 465). The psychological impact of IC/BPS is pervasive and severe. Existing evidence of treatment is lacking and suggests self-management intervention may be helpful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Health care service utilization among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a single payer healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Li, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the differences in the utilization of healthcare services between patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and patients without using a population-based database in Taiwan. This study comprised of 350 patients with BPS/IC and 1,750 age-matched controls. Healthcare resource utilization was evaluated in the one-year follow-up period as follows: number of outpatient visits and inpatient days, and the mean costs of outpatient and inpatient treatment. A multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between BPS/IC and total costs of health care services. For urological services, patients with BPS/IC had a significantly higher number of outpatient visits (2.5 vs. 0.2, p<0.001) as well as significantly higher outpatient costs ($US166 vs. $US6.8, p<0.001) than the controls. For non-urologic services, patients with BPS/IC had a significantly high number of outpatient visits (35.0 vs. 21.3, p<0.001) as well as significantly higher outpatient cots ($US912 vs. $US675, p<0.001) as compared to the controls. Overall, patients with BPS/IC had 174% more outpatient visits and 150% higher total costs than the controls. Multiple-regression-analyses also showed that the patients with BPS/IC had significantly higher total costs for all healthcare services than the controls. This study found that patients with BPS/IC have a significantly higher number of healthcare related visits, and have significantly higher healthcare related costs than age-matched controls. The high level of healthcare services utilization accrued with BPS/IC was not necessarily exclusive for BPS/IC, but may have also been associated with medical co-morbidities.

  3. Measuring the success of combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide and triamcinolone for treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Gafni-Kane, Adam; Botros, Sylvia M; Du, Hongyan; Sand, Robert I; Sand, Peter K

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate change in bladder capacity as a measure of response to combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and triamcinolone instillations for the treatment of newly diagnosed bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). 141 newly diagnosed women were identified retrospectively. 79 were treated with weekly DMSO/triamcinolone instillations. Change in bladder capacity with bladder retrofill, daytime urinary frequency, nocturia episodes per night, and Likert scale symptom scores were reviewed. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Spearman's rank correlations, COX regression analysis, and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve were performed. Significant changes (median (25(th)-percentile to 75(th)-percentile) were noted for bladder capacity (75 mL (25 to 130 mL), p < 0.0001), inter-void interval (0 hrs (0 to 1 hour), p < 0.0001), nocturia episodes per night (-1 (-2 to 0), p < 0.0001), and aggregate Likert symptom scores (-2 points (-5 to 0), p < 0.0001). Percent change in bladder capacity correlated positively with percent change in inter-void interval (p = 0.03) and negatively with percent changes in nocturia (p = 0.17) and symptom scores (p = 0.01). Women without detrusor overactivity (DO) had greater percent changes in capacity than women with DO (62.5 % vs. 16.5 %, p = 0.02). 61.3 % of patients were retreated with a 36 weeks median time to retreatment and no difference in time to retreatment based upon DO. Greater capacity was protective against retreatment (hazard ratio = 0.997 [95 % CI 0.994,0.999], p = 0.02). Percent change in bladder capacity is a useful objective measure of response to intravesical DMSO/triamcinolone for newly diagnosed BPS/IC. Clinical outcomes do not differ based upon presence of DO.

  4. Individual receptor profiling as a novel tool to support diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC).

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schulte-Baukloh, Heinrich; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Speroni di Fenizio, Pietro; Horn, Lars-Christian; Rüffert, Henrik; Hartenstein, Siegurd; Burger, Maximilian; Schulze, Matthias; Schwalenberg, Thilo

    2012-10-01

    Dysregulation of neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to bladder overactivity (OAB) symptoms. To address the question whether specific receptor expression patterns are associated with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), we examined the expression of muscarinic, purinergic and histamine receptors in the detrusor. Detrusor receptor expression was investigated in bladder biopsies of female BPS/IC patients (n = 44; age 60.64 ± 13.78, mean ± SD) and carcinoma patients (n = 11; age 58.91 ± 12.72) undergoing cystectomy. Protein expression of muscarinic (M2, M3), purinergic (P2X1-3) and histamine receptors (H1, H2) was analysed by confocal immunofluorescence, and gene expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). M2, P2X1, P2X2 and H1 receptor immunoreactivity (-IR) was significantly enhanced in BPS/IC compared to the control group, while there was no difference for M3-, P2X3- and H2-IR. We calculated a score, which separated BPS/IC from control patients with an AUC of 89.46%, showing 84.09% sensitivity and 90.91% specificity. Patients had a 9.25 times enhanced calculated risk for BPS/IC. In addition, two patient subgroups (M2 > M3 and M3 > M2) were observed, which differed in associated purinergic and histamine receptor expression. M2, P2X1, P2X2 and H1 were significantly upregulated in BPS/IC patients, and H2 was occasionally highly overexpressed. There was no significant correlation between receptor protein and gene expression, implying posttranslational mechanisms being responsible for the altered receptor expressions. On the basis of individual receptor profiles, upregulated receptors could be targeted by monotherapy or combination therapy with already approved receptor inhibitors, thereby promoting tailored therapy for patients suffering from BPS/IC-like symptoms.

  5. Mental health diagnoses in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a case/control study.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J Quentin; Brown, Sheila O; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    We compared the rate of mental health disorders in male and female patients with pelvic pain and control subjects. Male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (174) and female patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (111) were identified from a urology tertiary care clinic population. A control group consisting of 72 men and 175 women was also recruited. Subjects completed self-administered questionnaires that included items about demographics, medical history, medication use and urological symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to identify depression and panic disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios for the presence of a mental health diagnosis. Mental health disorders were identified in 13% of the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome cases and 4% of male controls (OR 2.0, p = 0.04), as well as in 23% of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cases and 3% of female controls (OR 8.2, p <0.0001). Disease status (case vs control) (OR 10.4, p = 0.001) and income greater than $50,000 (OR 0.34, p = 0.008) were the only 2 variables independently predictive of the presence of a mental health diagnosis. Age, gender, race/ethnicity and education were not predictive. Medications for anxiety, depression or stress were being taken by 18% of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, 37% of those with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, 7% of male controls and 13% of female controls. Depression and panic disorder are significantly more common in men and women with pelvic pain conditions than in controls. Medication use data suggest that anxiety and depression may be more difficult to treat in patients with urological pain syndromes than in controls.

  6. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical Trial ... Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical Trial ...

  7. Interstitial Cystitis Association

    MedlinePlus

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  8. Changes in sexual function of women with refractory interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome after intravesical therapy with a hyaluronic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man-Jung; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Hao; Huang, Wen-Chu; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Hsu, Chun-Shuo; Chuang, Fei-Chi; Tsai, Ching-Pei; Shen, Pao-Sheng; Chen, Gin-Den

    2014-09-01

    Intravesical instillation with a hyaluronic acid (HA) solution is an effective treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), but its impact on sexual functioning of patients is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in sexual function of women with refractory IC/BPS who underwent a second-line intravesical HA therapy. A total of 103 women diagnosed with refractory IC/BPS were enrolled in this prospective, multicenter study. Sexual function was evaluated using the short form of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-9). Bladder-related symptoms and bother were assessed by the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI) and Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI), and a pain visual analog scale (VAS), respectively. Data were analyzed with univariate methods or multivariate logistic regression analysis accordingly. Changes in PISQ-9, ICSI, ICPI, and pain VAS scores after treatment were assessed. Mean age and duration of symptoms was 43.6 ± 11.8 and 5.1 ± 5.0 years, respectively. ICSI, ICPI, and pain VAS scores were significantly (P < 0.001) improved after 1 month and 6 months of treatment. Of the 87 (84.5%) sexually active women evaluated, PISQ-9 total scores improved significantly (P < 0.001) from the baseline (mean 18.9 ± 6.4), after 1 month (20.4 ± 5.8), and 6-months (21.5 ± 5.6) of treatment. Significantly improved PISQ-9 items included "dyspareunia" (P < 0.001) and "negative reactions" (P = 0.015) during sexual intercourse, and "intensity" (P < 0.001) of sexual orgasms. After a logistic regression analysis, we found that a baseline PISQ-9 score was negatively correlated with the duration of IC/BPS symptoms (P = 0.022). Meanwhile, the changes in PISQ-9 scores were positively correlated with the reduction in ICSI scores after treatment (P = 0.045). Intravesical HA is an effective treatment for refractory IC/BPS. A longer

  9. Evaluation of oxidative stress status and antioxidant capacity in patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: preliminary results of a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Ener, Kemal; Keske, Murat; Aldemir, Mustafa; Özcan, Muhammet Fuat; Okulu, Emrah; Özayar, Asım; Ergin, Merve; Doluoğlu, Ömer Gökhan; Çakmak, Serdar; Erel, Özcan

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate oxidative stress in etiopathogenesis by analyzing serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), binding capacity of exogenous cobalt to human albumin (IMA), serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), paraoxonase (PON), arylesterase, IgE, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). The study included 16 female patients diagnosed with BPS/IC and 25 healthy female subjects forming the control group. A bladder biopsy was performed on all patients in the BPS/IC group by carrying out cystoscopy with hydrodistention under general anesthesia. The results of serum TAC, TOS, IMA, AOPP, PON, arylesterase, IgE, and CRP of the subjects in both groups were compared. The mean age of the 16 female patients in the BPS/IC group was 43.6 ± 14.5 years, and the mean age of the 25 healthy subjects in the control group was 42.0 ± 10.3 years. According to the criteria of International Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC), eight patients were classified as Type 2A, three patients as Type 2B, four patients as Type 2C, and one patient as Type 3C. In the BPS/IC group, while TAC was found significantly lower than in the control group, IMA, IgE, and CRP were found significantly higher (P < 0.05). When binary logistic regression analysis was performed, the created model was determined to have 81.3 % sensitivity and 80 % specifity. In the etiology of BPS/IC, mechanism of oxidative damage comes into prominence. In the diagnosis of BPS/IC, IgE, CRP, and TAC are not specific markers when used separately; however, a higher specifity and sensitivity could be reached when used jointly in the suspected patients.

  10. Decreased expression of zonula occludens-1 and occludin in the bladder urothelium of patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jane-Dar; Lee, Ming-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Unique barrier properties of the urothelial surface membrane permit urine storage without contents leak into the bloodstream. Previous reports suggested that the bladder urothelial barrier might be compromised in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). We examined the changes of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in IC/PBS patients. Bladder samples were derived from of 32 patients with IC/PBS and eight controls. We detected the tight junction proteins of ZO-1 and occludin expression by immunoblotting, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and double immunofluorescent (IF) staining with confocal microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Expression of ZO-1 and occludin in the IC/PBS group was reduced compared to the control group by immunoblotting and IHC staining. Also, the thinning and denudation of urothelium were demonstrated in the IC/PBS group by histological study. IF staining showed the interruption of bladder urothelium in IC/PBS patients under confocal microscopy. Our data showed that decreased expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and interruption of bladder urothelium in IC/PBS patients. Treatment to repair the discontinuous urothelium may be useful to relieve some clinical symptoms of patients with IC/PBS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin injection for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Cho, Young Joo; Shin, In-Soo; Kim, Jae Heon

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the overall treatment efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) injections compared with placebo in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE on BoNTA use in IC/BPS. Outcome measures included changes of OLS, ICSI, ICPI, VAS, frequency, nocturia, FBC, Qmax, and PVR from baseline and also included adverse events. A total of five studies were included, with a total sample size of 252 subjects (133 subjects in the experimental group and 119 subjects in the control group). The duration of follow-up ranged from 8 to 12 weeks. The BoNTA dosage was from 50 to 200 U. The pooled overall SMD in the mean change of VAS for the BoNTA group versus the placebo group was -0.49 (95 % CI -0.74, -0.23). There were also significant improvements in ICPI and frequency. The other outcomes (ICSI, nocturia, Qmax, and FBC) were not statistically different between the two groups. Although BoNTA is not regulatory approved indication, this first evidence-based systematic review and meta-analysis of BoNTA injection for IC/BPS showed significant differences in efficacy of treatment compared with placebo, especially for pain control, and also showed no differences in the rate of procedure-related adverse events.

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced rat acute interstitial cystitis though inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress-in vitro and in vivo experiment studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ling; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Huang, Tein-Hung; Chang, Chia-Lo; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy can attenuate cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced acute interstitial cystitis (AIC) in rats. Methods and Results: Eighteen male-adult Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (AIC induced by 150 mg/kg CYP by intra-peritoneal injection) and group 3 (AIC + ECSW 200 impulses at 0.11 mJ/mm2 to the urinary bladder at 3 and 24 h after CYP treatment). Smooth-muscle cells co-culture with menadione (25 µM) with and without ECSW treatment was performed. Western-blot results demonstrated that ECSW significant attenuated oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in this in-vitro studies (all p < 0.001). 24-hour urine amount and microscopic findings of red-blood-cell count (i.e., hematuria) were higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (all p < 0.001). The urine levels of albumin and interleukin-6 showed an identical pattern of hematuria among all three groups (all p < 0.001). The cellular and mRNA expressions of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)+, CD74+, CD68+, substance p+, and Cox-2+ cells in the bladder tissue exhibited an identical pattern of hematuria among all groups (all p < 0.0001). The integrity of epithelial layer and collagen-deposition area as stained by Sirius red displayed an opposite pattern of hematuria among the three groups (p < 0.0001). The protein expression of IL-12, iNOS, TNF-α, NF-κB, MMP-9, NOX-1, NOX-2, RANTES, and Oxyblot displayed an identical pattern of hematuria among all groups (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: ECSW therapy markedly attenuated CYP-induced AIC through inhibitions of the inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25628776

  13. Enhanced urothelial expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCGβ) in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC).

    PubMed

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Ho, Thi Phuc; Mallock, Tobias; Hartenstein, Siegurd; Alexander, Henry; Zimmermann, Gerolf; Hohenfellner, Rudolf; Denzinger, Stefan; Burger, Maximilian; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is associated with urothelial lesions. Pathomechanisms of urothelial damage and factors for urothelial restoration are unknown. hCG is a factor for cellular differentiation, angiogenesis and immune competence of the endometrium during pregnancy. Clinical observations demonstrate improvement of BPS/IC symptoms during pregnancy or during infertility treatment with hCG. Our research aims were to examine the expression of hCG and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in the urothelium of BPS/IC patients and compare the levels of hCGβ with healthy controls. Bladder biopsies of BPS/IC (CLSM: n = 10; qPCR: n = 15); Tumour-free control tissue from cystectomies (n = 12). hCGα, hCGβ and LHR expression were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and hCGβ expression was quantified. hCGβ5 and hCGβ7 mRNA splice variants were quantified in real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found constitutive expression of hCGα, hCGβ and LHR in healthy controls. HCGβ was significantly upregulated in BPS/IC patients in CLSM. PCR analysis revealed higher levels of hCGβ7 than hCGβ5 in controls and BPS/IC patients. The constitutive expression of hCG and LHR speaks in favour for a functional signalling in urothelial cells without any association with either pregnancy or tumour. We show for the first time that hCGβ is upregulated in BPS/IC urothelium and that hCGβ7 is the dominant splice variant in those cells. Our findings imply a major role of hCG for urothelial integrity and a disturbance of hCG signalling in case of BPS/IC. We conclude that hCG could gain therapeutical relevance in the future.

  14. Evaluation of the incidence and risk factors associated with persistent frequency in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and the efficacy of antimuscarinic treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aram; Hoe, Kyeong-Ok; Shin, Jung Hyun; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with persistent urinary frequency, and to evaluate the efficacy of antimuscarinic treatment. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) patients complaining of persistent urinary frequency despite improved pain were evaluated. Before initial conventional treatment, each patient completed a voiding diary and symptom questionnaires. After conventional treatment, patients were divided according to the presence of pain and frequency. Improved pain was defined as lesser than 3 points in visual analogue scale, and persistent urinary frequency as >10 times/d. Risk factors for persistent frequency were identified through multivariate analysis. The efficacy of antimuscarinic treatment was assessed by the mean change of frequency. Of 171 IC/BPS patients treated with conventional therapy, 132 had improved pain after 3 months, but 72 had persistent frequency (72 of 132, 54.5%). Patients with persistent frequency had lower voided volume (p=0.008), lower maximal flow rate (p<0.001), lower maximal bladder capacity (p=0.003), and more frequent micturition (p<0.001) at baseline compared to those with improved frequency. Patients who took antimuscarinic agents showed slightly decreased urinary frequency, from 14.6 times/d to 13.5 times/d (p=0.438) after 3 months of medication. No patients showed more than a 20% decrease in frequency with antimuscarinics. About half of the patients with IC/BPS showed persistent frequency, with poor voiding function identified as a risk factor; antimuscarinic treatment was not effective in these patients.

  15. IL-33 mast cell axis is central in LL-37 induced bladder inflammation and pain in a murine interstitial cystitis model.

    PubMed

    Martin Jensen, M; Jia, Wanjian; Schults, Austin J; Ye, Xiangyang; Prestwich, Glenn D; Oottamasathien, Siam

    2018-05-18

    Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as painful bladder syndrome (PBS), is a debilitating chronic condition that afflicts over 3 million women above the age of 18 in the U.S., and most patients fail to respond to current treatment options. Mast cells have previously been implicated as both a diagnostic and prognostic marker in IC/PBS. Patients with IC/PBS have been shown to have elevated levels of IL-33, a cytokine released in response to tissue insult, in their urine. We hypothesize that mast cell-mediated inflammation induced from IL-33 may play an important role in initiating pain and inflammation in IC/PBS. A human cathelicidin, LL-37, which is found at elevated levels in IC/PBS patients, was used to induce an IC/PBS-like state of inflammation and bladder pain in mast cell deficient C-kit (-/-) and wild type C57Bl/6 (WT) mice. Inflammation was quantified using myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression in bladder tissues measured via ELISA. Response rate to suprapubic stimulation from von Frey filaments was used to assess the relative pain and discomfort. Both types of mice increased IL-33 expression in response to LL-37 exposure. However, mast cell deficient mice demonstrated significantly lower levels of inflammation (p < 0.001) and reduced pain response (p < 0.001) compared to WT mice. These findings implicate an IL-33-mast cell dependent axis with a potential etiology of pain and inflammation in IC/PBS. Future therapeutics aimed at targeting the IL-33 - mast cell axis could potentially serve as useful targets for treating IC/PBS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sleep disturbances and nocturnal symptoms: relationships with quality of life in a population-based sample of women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Booth, Marika; Buysse, Daniel J; Elliott, Marc N; Suskind, Anne M; Clemens, J Quentin; Berry, Sandra H

    2014-12-15

    To characterize the nature and impact of sleep disturbances on quality of life (QOL) in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Participants were 3,397 women from a telephone probability survey who met IC/BPS symptom criteria. Sleep quality, duration, and IC/BPS nocturnal symptoms (i.e., trouble sleeping due to bladder pain, urgency, or needing to use the bathroom), general QOL (mental and physical health and sexual functioning), and IC/BPS QOL impairment were assessed via self-report during telephone interview. Over half of the sample reported poor sleep quality, sleep duration ≤ 6 hours, or trouble sleeping due to IC/BPS symptoms. After covariate adjustment, short sleep duration was significantly associated with greater IC/BPS QOL impairment (β = -0.04; p < 0.001) and poorer self-reported physical health (β = 1.86; p < 0.001). Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with greater IC/BPS QOL impairment (β = 0.06; p < 0.001), poorer self-reported physical health (β = -2.86; p < 0.001), and greater sexual dysfunction (β = -0.04; p < 0.05). IC/BPS nocturnal symptoms were significantly associated with greater IC/BPS impairment (β = 0.14; p < 0.001), poorer physical health (β = -2.76; p < 0.001) and mental health (β = 0.52; p < 0.01), and greater sexual dysfunction (β = -0.10; p < 0.001), after covariate adjustment. After further adjustment for IC/BPS nocturnal symptoms, we found that poor sleep quality and short sleep duration were independent correlates of poor self-reported physical health. Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration, as well as disorder-specific sleep disturbances, are highly prevalent in women with IC/BPS and are associated with poorer disease-specific and general QOL. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  17. Toll-like Receptor 4 and Comorbid Pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Bradley, Catherine S.; O'Donnell, Michael; Luo, Yi; Harte, Steven E.; Kreder, Karl; Lutgendorf, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition characterized by pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. Some IC/BPS patients have pain confined to the pelvic region, while others suffer widespread pain. Inflammatory processes have previously been linked to pelvic pain in IC/BPS, but their association with widespread pain in IC/BPS has not been characterized. Methods Sixty-six women meeting criteria for IC/BPS completed self-report measures of pain as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP), collected 3 days of saliva for cortisol assays, and provided blood samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 agonists and cytokines were measured in supernatant; IL-6 was also measured in plasma. Associations between inflammatory variables and the likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain, or the presence of a comorbid syndrome, were tested by logistic regression and General Linear Models, respectively. A subset of patients (n=32) completed Quantitative Sensory Testing. Results A one standard deviation increase in TLR-4 inflammatory response was associated with a 1.59 greater likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain (p = .019). Participants with comorbid syndromes also had higher inflammatory responses to TLR-4 stimulation in PBMCs (p = .016). Lower pressure pain thresholds were marginally associated with higher TLR-4 inflammatory responses (p = .062), and significantly associated with higher IL-6 in plasma (p = .031). Conclusions TLR-4 inflammatory responses in PBMCs are a marker of widespread pain in IC/BPS, and should be explored in other conditions characterized by medically unexplained pain. PMID:25771510

  18. Morphological examination of the effects of defibrotide on experimentally induced bladder injury and its relation to interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, H; Ercan, F; Cetinel, S; San, T

    2001-08-01

    This morphological study aims to investigate the effects of defibrotide, a deoxyribonucleic acid derivative drug with cytoprotective, immunosuppressive and vasorelaxant effects, on protamine sulfate induced bladder injury. Wistar albino female rats were catheterized and intravesically infused with phosphate buffered solution (control group) or, either protamine sulfate (bladder injury group) or protamine sulfate+defibrotide (bladder injury+defibrotide group) dissolved in phosphate buffered solution. The morphology of the urinary bladder was investigated using light and electron microscopy. The number of mast cells in the mucosa, mucosal alterations, intercellular junctions, surface topography and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer as well as microvillus formation on the luminal surface were evaluated. In the bladder injury group, ulcerated areas, irregularity of the GAG layer, increased number of mast cells, vacuole formation, dilated perinuclear cistern, formation of pleomorphic and uniform microvilli and dilatations in the intercellular spaces in the urothelium were observed. In the bladder injury+defibrotide group a relatively normal urothelial topography, GAG layer and a few mast cells in the mucosa, some dilatations between the intercellular areas, less uniform microvilli, regular perinuclear cistern and tight junctions were observed. These results show that defibrotide can inhibit PS induced bladder damage.

  19. Somatoform disorder as a predictor of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: Evidence from a nested case-control study and a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chun; Lee, Ming-Huei; Lin, Hsuan-Hung; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chang, Kun-Min; Lin, Hsiu-Ying

    2017-05-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has several well-known comorbid psychiatric manifestations, including insomnia, anxiety, and depression. We hypothesized that somatoform disorder, which is a psychosomatic disease, can be used as a sensitive psychiatric phenotype of IC/BPS. We investigated whether somatoform disorder increases the risk of IC/BPS.A nested case-control study and a retrospective cohort study were followed up over a 12-year period (2002-2013) in the Taiwan Health Insurance Reimbursement Database. In the nested case-control study, 1612 patients with IC/BPS were matched in a 1:2 ratio to 3224 controls based on propensity scores. The odds ratio for somatoform disorder was calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. In the retrospective cohort study, 1436 patients with somatoform disorder were matched in a 1:2 ratio to 2872 patients with nonsomatoform disorder based on propensity scores. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio associated with the development of IC/BPS in patients with somatoform disorder, and the cumulative survival probability was tested using the Kaplan-Meier analysis.We found that the odds ratio for somatoform disorder was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-5.76). Although the average time until IC/BPS development in the control subjects was 11.5 ± 1.3 years, this interval was shorter in patients with somatoform disorder (6.3 ± 3.6 years). The hazard ratio for developing IC/BPS was 2.50 (95% CI 1.23-5.58); the adjusted hazard ratio was 2.26 (95% CI 1.002-5.007). The patients and controls also differed significantly in their cumulative survival probability for IC/BPS (log rank P < .05).Evidence from the nested case-control study and retrospective cohort study consistently indicated that somatoform disorder increases the risk for IC/BPS. Our study suggests that somatoform disorder can be used as a sensitive psychiatric phenotype to predict IC/BPS. Any past history

  20. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Process Research Training & Career Development Funded Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  1. Differential Expression of Renal Outer Medullary K+ Channel and Voltage-gated K+ Channel 7.1 in Bladder Urothelium of Patients With Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jane-Dar; Lee, Ming-Huei; Yang, Wen-Kai; Wang, Kuan-Lin; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the changes including expression and localization of 2 potassium channels, renal outer medullary K + channel (ROMK) and voltage-gated K + channel 7.1 (KCNQ1), after increased urinary potassium leakage in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). The study group included 24 patients with IC/PBS and a control group consisting of 12 volunteers without any IC/PBS symptoms. Bladder biopsies were taken from both groups. We determined the protein expression and distribution of potassium channels using immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescent staining under confocal laser microscopy. The results revealed that ROMK was predominantly expressed in apical cells of the bladder urothelium at significantly higher levels (3.3-fold) in the study group than in the control group. In contrast, KCNQ1 was expressed in the basolateral membrane according to confocal microscopy results and did not significantly differ between groups. Our data showed that the abundance of ROMK protein in apical cells was increased in the IC/PBS group, whereas KCNQ1, which was distributed in the basolateral membrane of the bladder urothelium, showed similar abundance between groups. These results suggest that upregulation of the ROMK channel in apical cells might permit avid potassium flux into the bladder lumen to maintain intracellular K + homeostasis in the dysfunctional urothelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The efficacy of botulinum toxin A and sacral neuromodulation in the management of interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS), what do we know? ICI-RS 2017 think thank, Bristol.

    PubMed

    Rahnama'i, Mohammad S; Marcelissen, Tom; Apostolidis, Apostolos; Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Schurch, Brigitte; Cardozo, Linda; Dmochowski, Roger

    2018-01-24

    This manuscript aims to address the evidence availale in the literature on the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A) and sacral neuromodulation (SNM) in patients suffering from Interstitial Cystitis (IC)/BPS and propose further research to identify mechanisms of action and establish the clinical efficacy of either therapy. At the International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society (ICI-RS) in 2017, a panel of Functional Urologists and Urogynaecologists participated in a Think Tank (TT) discussing the management of IC/BPS by BoNT-A and SNM, using available data from both PubMed and Medicine literature searches. The role of BoNT-A and SNM in the treatment of IC/BPS are discussed and mechanisms of actions are proposed. Despite the available randomized trial data on the effect of intravesical BoNT-A treatment on symptoms of IC/BPS, a consistent conclusion of a positive effect cannot be drawn at the moment, as the published studies are small and heterogeneous in design. There is substantive evidence for the positive effects of SNM on symptoms of IC/BPS patients however, during patient selection, it is important to distinguish the degree and the location of pain in order to tailor the best therapy to the right patients. Both intravesical BoNT-A treatment and SNM have been shown to have positive effects in patients with IC/BPS. However, firm conclusions cannot yet be drawn. Patient-reported outcomes and quality of life should be assessed in addition to urinary and pain symptoms. Since current treatments mainly focus on symptomatic relief, future research should also focus on clarifying the pathogenic mechanisms involved in IC/BPS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A randomized, open-label, multicenter study of the efficacy and safety of intravesical hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate versus dimethyl sulfoxide in women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Cervigni, Mauro; Sommariva, Monica; Tenaglia, Raffaele; Porru, Daniele; Ostardo, Edoardo; Giammò, Alessandro; Trevisan, Silvia; Frangione, Valeria; Ciani, Oriana; Tarricone, Rosanna; Pappagallo, Giovanni L

    2017-04-01

    Intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS) in women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has shown promising results. This study compared the efficacy, safety, and costs of intravesical HA/CS (Ialuril ® , IBSA) to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Randomized, open-label, multicenter study involving 110 women with BPS/IC. The allocation ratio (HA/CS:DMSO) was 2:1. Thirteen weekly instillations of HA (1.6%)/CS (2.0%) or 50% DMSO were given. Patients were evaluated at 3 (end-of-treatment) and 6 months. Primary endpoint was reduction in pain intensity at 6 months by visual analogue scale (VAS) versus baseline. Secondary efficacy measurements were quality of life and economic analyses. A significant reduction in pain intensity was observed at 6 months in both treatment groups versus baseline (P < 0.0001) in the intention-to-treat population. Treatment with HA/CS resulted in a greater reduction in pain intensity at 6 months compared with DMSO for the per-protocol population (mean VAS reduction 44.77 ± 25.07 vs. 28.89 ± 31.14, respectively; P = 0.0186). There were no significant differences between treatment groups in secondary outcomes. At least one adverse event was reported in 14.86% and 30.56% of patients in the HA/CS and DMSO groups, respectively. There were significantly fewer treatment-related adverse events for HA/CS versus DMSO (1.35% vs. 22.22%; P = 0.001). Considering direct healthcare costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of HA/CS versus DMSO fell between 3735€/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and 8003€/QALY. Treatment with HA/CS appears to be as effective as DMSO with a potentially more favorable safety profile. Both treatments increased health-related quality of life, while HA/CS showed a more acceptable cost-effectiveness profile. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include both regular and decaffeinated coffee, tea, chocolate, meat extracts, alcohol, black pepper, chili powder, mustard ... Disease, peptic ulcers, proton pump inhibitor, sucralfate, triple therapy January 1, 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family ...

  5. Hemorrhagic cystitis: A challenge to the urologist

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Kumar, Santosh; Dorairajan, Lalgudi N.

    2010-01-01

    Severe hemorrhagic cystitis often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Infectious etiologies are less common causes except in immunocompromised hosts. These cases can be challenging problems for the urologist and a source of substantial morbidity and sometimes mortality for the patients. A variety of modalities of treatment have been described for the management of hemorrhagic cystitis but there is none that is uniformly effective. Some progress has been made in the understanding and management of viral hemorrhagic cystitis. This article reviews the common causes of severe hemorrhagic cystitis and the currently available management options. PMID:20877590

  6. Validation of APF as a Urinary Biomarker for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    using a CKAP4127-360 biosensor with sufficient binding efficiency to detect as-APF in urine with detection limits in the high nM to uM range. Urine...specimens from 14 (47%) of 30 women diagnosed with IC/PBS demonstrated as-APF binding activity to the CKAP4127-360 biosensor compared with 22 (73%) of 30...CKAP4 immobilized biosensor to detect APF (1-24 months) 2) Determine the ability of the SPR-based assay to detect APF in urine from patients with IC (1

  7. Validation of APF as a Urinary Biomarker for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Mead, the clinical research coordinator. All processed urine samples will be shipped on dry ice to Dr. Susan Keay, who will blindly test the fresh...only and combined with Jacalin oligosaccharide affinity resin. As compared to the standard APF mass spectra (Panel A), APF was enriched and detected by...or spiked by synthetic APF (40uM), followed by enrichment with C18 reverse phase resin only and  combined with Jacalin oligosaccharide  affinity resin

  8. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    bladder symptoms including urinary frequency and urgency. Previous studies have indicated that overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF) is an... studies indicate overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF) as a key factor in the symptom development of IC/BPS. NGF antisense oligonucleotides hold...Stability Testing  Ex -vivo stress testing II-2. Research Accomplishment Description AIM 1 Regulatory approval for animal research ; Obtain

  9. Validation of APF as a Urinary Biomarker for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    its C-terminus—in order to determine whether FL-CKAP4 could improve APF binding response over the truncated rCKAP4 used in our preliminary studies...recognized by a CKAP4 antibody, indicating high activity. However, when tested by SPR, FL-CKAP4 did not improve APF binding response over the truncated ...rCKAP4 (Figure 2). We then concentrated our efforts on optimization of the truncated rCKAP4 to generate stronger binding . Using the extracellular domain

  10. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    sequences used for real-time PCR were the following: 5’- AGT AAC TGC CAG GAG CTG GA-3’ (forward) and 5’- GTG TCA TTC TGC CCA TTG TG-3’ (reverse) for...rat TRPV1 and 5’- GGC CAA AAG GGT CAT CAT CT-3’ (forward) and 5’- GTG ATG GCA TGG ACT GTG GT-3’ (reverse) for rat GAPDH, which is a house keeping

  11. Cystitis glandularis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Agut, Amalia; Carrillo, Juana D; Soler, Marta; García, Juan D; Belda, Eliseo; Gómez, Miguel A; Bernabe, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year-old intact male Persian cat was presented for investigation of chronic haematuria. The cat had episodes of haematuria on several occasions that were non-responsive to antimicrobial therapy. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed dilation of the renal pelvis and ureters of both kidneys. The urinary bladder wall was thickened, a mass of heterogeneous echogenicity filled the lumen of the bladder, and two parallel thin hyperechoic lines were identified within the lumen, which suggested a urethral catheter. Differential diagnoses for the urinary bladder mass included cystitis and neoplasia. The mass was surgically removed from the urinary bladder, and a urethral catheter was found embedded in the mass. Histopathological findings were consistent with cystitis glandularis of a typical type. Periodic bladder ultrasonographic studies were performed; at the time of writing, over 2 years later, recurrence had not been detected.

  12. Interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Papper, S

    1980-01-01

    There are many causes of interstitial nephritis other than pyelonephritis. The term interstitial nephritis does not connote a single etiologic or pathogenetic mechanism; it rather arbitrarily places together a wider variety of renal diseases that have a predilection for early and major involvement of the renal interstitium. The prototype of acute interstitial nephritis is acute pyelonephritis. In addition, there is a drug-related acute interstitial disease that is probably of immunological nature and usually reverses with discontinuance of the offending drug. Chronic interstitial nephritis includes many diverse illnesses. Nonobstructive pyelonephritis occurs but its prevalence is debated. Analgesic abuse nephropathy is not rare and is potentially reversible. Papillary necrosis has many causes and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Heavy metals, such as lead, cause interstitial nephritis. Balkan nephropathy occurs in an endemic area and although not bacterial in origin is of unknown cause.

  13. Treatment of radiation cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenrock, G.J.; Cianci, P.

    A patient with severe radiation cystitis resistant to current therapy was treated with hyperbaric oxygen to facilitate closure of a vesicocutaneous fistula. In addition to the fistula healing, her symptoms of radiation cystitis have not recurred for over a year and a half.

  14. COSTS OF INTERSTITAL CYSTITIS IN A MANAGED CARE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, J. Quentin; Meenan, Richard T.; O’Keeffe Rosetti, Maureen C.; Kimes, Terry; Calhoun, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the direct medical costs, medication and procedure use associated with interstitial cystitis (IC) in women in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) managed care population. Methods The KPNW electronic medical record was utilized to identify women diagnosed with interstitial cystitis (n=239). Each of these cases was matched with three controls based on age and duration in the health plan. Health plan cost accounting data were used to determine inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy costs for 1998-2003. An analysis of prescription medication use, cystoscopic and urodynamic procedures commonly associated with IC was also performed. To evaluate for comorbidities, an automated risk-adjustment model (RxRisk) linked to 28 chronic medical conditions was applied to the administrative datasets from both groups. Results The mean duration from the date of IC diagnosis to the end of the study period was 36.6 months (range 1.4-60). Mean yearly costs were 2.4-fold greater in cases than controls ($7100 vs. $2994), and median yearly costs were 3.8-fold greater ($5000 vs. $1304). These cost differences were predominantly due to outpatient and pharmacy expenses. Medication and procedure use were significantly greater in cases than controls. These findings were consistent across RxRisk categories, which suggest that the observed cost differences are IC-specific. Conclusions The direct per-person costs of IC are high, with average yearly costs approximately $4000 greater than age-matched controls. This cost differential is an underestimate, as costs preceding the diagnosis, use of alternative therapies, indirect costs and costs of those with IC that is not diagnosed are not included. PMID:18329077

  15. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in a pediatric lung transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Elidemir, Okan; Chang, I-Fen; Schecter, Marc G; Mallory, George B

    2007-11-01

    BKV was first postulated to be a potential pathogen in 1971 when it was isolated in the urine of a renal transplant recipient. The pathology of BKV is generally confined to the urinary tract. In renal transplant recipients, BKV has been associated with hemorrhagic cystitis, urethral stenosis, and interstitial nephritis. Reports of BKV infection in lung transplant recipients are limited to a few case reports in adult patients. A recent report revealed that up to 32% of adult lung transplant recipients may shed BKV in their urine without symptoms or renal dysfunction. To our knowledge, there are no published reports of pediatric lung transplant recipients with BKV-associated hematuria. We hereby report a case of BKV-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in a pediatric lung transplant recipient.

  16. Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a bacterial infection, and it's called a urinary tract infection (UTI). A bladder infection can be painful and annoying, ... wetting also may be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). Nighttime bed-wetting on its own isn' ...

  17. Advances in Therapeutic Development for Radiation Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Tyagi, Pradeep; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chancellor, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Radiation treatment for pelvic malignancies is typically associated with radiation injury to urinary bladder that can ultimately lead to radiation cystitis (RC). The late sequelae of radiation therapy may take many years to develop and include bothersome storage symptoms such as hematuria, which may be life-threatening in severe cases of hemorrhagic cystitis. Although no definitive treatment is currently available, various interventions are used for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis including blood transfusion, bladder irrigation, intravesical instillation of substances such as alum, silver nitrate, prostaglandins or formalin, and fulguration of intravesical bleeding sites and surgery options such as supravesical urinary diversions and cystectomy. Effects of non-surgical treatments for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis are of modest success and studies are lacking to control the effects caused by RC. When such measures have proven ineffective, use of bladder botulinum toxin injection has been reported. New therapy, such as intravesical immunosuppression with local tacrolimus formulation is being developed for the treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  19. Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ulcerative colitis care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Ulcerative colitis symptoms can vary, depending on the severity of inflammation ... children, failure to grow Most people with ulcerative colitis have mild to moderate symptoms. The course of ulcerative colitis may vary, with ...

  20. Blocking mammalian target of rapamycin alleviates bladder hyperactivity and pain in rats with cystitis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Simin; Li, Jie; Gou, Xin; Chen, Daihui

    2016-01-01

    Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the effects of blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and (2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of mTOR in regulating cystic sensory activity. The expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (p-S6K1), 4 E-binding protein 4 (p-4 E-BP1), as well as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) pathway were amplified in cyclophosphamide rats as compared with control rats. Blocking mTOR by intrathecal infusion of rapamycin attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PI3K signal pathway attenuated activities of mTOR, which was accompanied with decreasing bladder hyperactivity and pain. Inhibition of either mTOR or PI3K blunted the enhanced spinal substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in cyclophosphamide rats. The data for the first time revealed specific signaling pathways leading to cyclophosphamide-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of mTOR and PI3K. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Effects of intravesical dexpanthenol use on lipid peroxidation and bladder histology in a chemical cystitis animal model.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Omer; Seckiner, Ilker; Solakhan, Mehmet; Karakok, Metin; Erturhan, Sakip M; Yagci, Faruk

    2012-05-01

    To demonstrate the effects of intravesical dexpanthenol use on bladder histology and lipid peroxidation in a chemical cystitis animal model. Thirty-five New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups. Cystitis was conducted with transurethral intravesical hydrochloric acid instillation on the subjects in groups I and II. Then, Group I subjects were transurethrally administered intravesical dexpanthenol therapy twice a week, Group II subjects were given only intravesical isotonic NaCl instillation, and Group III subjects were administered intravesical isotonic NaCl instillation without conducting chemical cystitis to create the same stress. Treatment schemes of all groups were arranged in the same manner. After 6-week therapy, the rabbits were sacrificed and histopathologic investigations were carried out to demonstrate changes in the urinary bladder. Serum and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) values were examined to investigate the effect of dexpanthenol on lipid peroxidation. We observed that the basal membrane and mucosal integrity were maintained, inflammatory cells were suppressed, and MDA levels decreased in group I, which received dexpanthenol therapy. However, it was also observed that mucosal integrity was spoiled, numerous inflammatory cells were accumulated, and MDA levels were significantly increased in group II, which was administered isotonic NaCl. In light of our findings, intravesical dexpanthenol therapy could be a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of interstitial cystitis because of its low cost and acceptable side effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ugh! Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... people talk about ulcers, though, they usually mean peptic ulcers . These form in the stomach or the upper ... pain go away. Kids don't usually get peptic ulcers, but they're common in adults. Doctors say ...

  3. Prevention of Cystitis: Travelling between the Imaginary and Reality.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Mariacristina; Iroz, A; Seksek, I

    2018-01-01

    As a preventive strategy, increased water intake is often recommended to women affected by recurrent cystitis; however, clinical data are sparse and conflicting. This review evaluates the preventive approaches used as alternatives to obtain relief from the burden of cystitis and focuses on the effect of fluid intake on urinary tract infection. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Risk factors for recurrent cystitis following acute cystitis in female patients.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byung Il; Kim, Sun Wook; Ha, U-Syn; Sohn, Dong Wan; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of acute cystitis (AC) patients to evaluate the risk factors of recurrent cystitis (RC) patients following AC. The clinical records of 254 subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of AC and 90 healthy subjects who visited the Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed. A patient was diagnosed with RC if she was treated for three or more symptomatic episodes of cystitis over a 12-month period. Results were analyzed according to three groups: normal control (group A, n = 90), AC (group B, n = 121), and RC (group C, n = 133). Women in the cystitis groups (groups B and C) were more likely to have diabetes, be menopausal, have a history of catheterization or sexually transmitted infections (STI), have a low daily water intake, have frequent sexual intercourse, and to use contraception more frequently than the normal control group (P < 0.05). In groups B and C, Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus species, and Klebsiella species. There were no differences between groups in the detection rates of these uropathogens. Factors that affected progression to RC were diabetes, catheterization history, STI history, sexual intercourse more than four times per month, sexual intercourse in the last month, and the use of contraceptives (P < 0.05). The identification of these factors may help develop preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies for treating RC that has progressed from AC.

  5. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  6. Peptic Ulcer

    MedlinePlus

    A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or your duodenum, the first part of your ... Comes and goes for several days or weeks Peptic ulcers happen when the acids that help you digest ...

  7. Peptic ulcer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers: Drinking too much alcohol Regular use of aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( ... pylori infection. Your ulcer is caused by taking aspirin or NSAIDs. Your doctor may also prescribe this ...

  8. Severe emphysematous cystitis: Outcome after seven days of antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Maria; Gómez-Raposo, César; Gutiérrez- Gutiérrez, Gerardo; López-Gómez, Miriam; Casado, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old woman with emphysematous cystitis. She was a diabetic patient and she was on chemotherapy treatment for a breast cancer. She complaint of severe asthenia and pain in her right lower extremity, but no fever or urinary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT) scan was suggestive of severe emphysematous cystitis. Emphysematous cystitis is a rare clinically entity, more commonly seen in diabetic, immunocompromised patients. A conservative treatment approach using antibiotics and bladder catheterization is typically successful, with a complication rate less than 20%. PMID:22363178

  9. Treatment of radiation-induced cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.P.; Boland, F.P.; Mori, H.

    The effects of hyperbaric oxygen on radiation cystitis have been documented in 3 patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis refractory to conventional therapy. Cessation of gross hematuria and reversal of cystoscopic bladder changes were seen in response to a series of hyperbaric oxygen treatments of 2 atmosphere absolute pressure for 2 hours. To our knowledge this is the first report of cystoscopically documented healing of radiation-induced bladder injury.

  10. Ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - ... Clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of nonhospitalized ulcerative colitis: the Toronto consensus. Gastroenterology . ...

  11. Hemorrhagic cystitis in a patient receiving conventional doses of dacarbazine for metastatic malignant melanoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Shirazi, Mehdi; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Omidvari, Shapour; Ahmadloo, Niloofar

    2007-06-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients receiving cancer therapy. This urologic emergency is commonly associated with the chemotherapeutic use of oxazaphosphorine alkylating agents. This report describes a case of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with dacarbazine treatment. A 63-year-old man with asymptomatic metastatic malignant melanoma received 3 cycles of dacarbazine (600-850 mg/m2) monochemotherapy, each 3 weeks apart. Two weeks after the third cycle, he presented with gross hematuria and mild dysuria. Physical examination revealed no significant finding. Hematuria was confirmed by urinalysis, and urinary infection was excluded by repeated urine cultures. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse bladder wall thickening with no discrete mass or ulceration. Cystoscopy findings revealed generalized inflammation and edema of the mucosa of the bladder, confirming the diagnosis of hemorrhagic cystitis. The patient's gross hematuria continued for 2 weeks and then completely resolved with supportive care. Two weeks after complete resolution, the patient experienced 2 transient episodes of gross hematuria that lasted a few hours and subsided spontaneously. Dacarbazine is currently considered the standard first-line treatment in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. At standard prescribed doses (a single dose of 850-1000 mg/m2 or 250 mg/m2 for 5 days per cycle), dacarbazine is a reasonably well tolerated chemotherapeutic drug; nausea, vomiting, and myelosuppression are the most common adverse effects. Association of dacarbazine with hemorrhagic cystitis has not been reported previously (in a PubMed literature search from 1950-2006), and only 1 case report associates temozolomide (an analog of dacarbazine) with hemorrhagic cystitis. Based on the Naranjo adverse drug reactions probability scale, an objective assessment revealed dacarbazine to be a probable cause of hemorrhagic cystitis in this case. This case report suggests that

  12. Emphysematous cystitis: a rare cause of gross hematuria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chirn-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2011-05-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare infectious condition of the urinary bladder. The mortality rate is high if the diagnosis is delayed or if the treatment is inadequate. We present an uncommon case of emphysematous cystitis and highlight the risk factors for this disease. An 81-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes and a central pontine infarction presented to the Emergency Department due to gross hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) and plain radiography revealed localized gas within the bladder that was compatible with the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. A Foley catheter was inserted. Urine culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2 g cefotaxime daily was initiated. Subsequent plain radiography and CT scan showed regression of intraluminal gas. We recommend CT for the definitive diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. Adequate antibiotic therapy, strict blood glucose control, adequate drainage of urine, and early goal-directed therapy for suspected sepsis are suggested to prevent the complications of emphysematous cystitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient-centred standardization in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome-a PLEA.

    PubMed

    Meijlink, Jane M

    2015-10-01

    Standardization has an impact on all links in the healthcare chain and directly affects patients with regard to diagnosis, treatment, eligibility for reimbursement, social benefits and care. Furthermore, patients are also affected if research goes down inappropriate pathways due to inaccurate terminology and definitions. Complex healthcare coding and electronic medical record systems and global reliance on the internet and search machines mean that new terminology or changes now need in some way to be designed to last or to be updated in a way that will cause least disruption, while still allowing for evolution, since changes have far more ramifications today than they ever did in the past. Official recognition of a condition is vital, so coding must be correct and uniform across all authorities. Potential problems must be anticipated at an early stage in the process. In order to achieve global consensus, stakeholders from all parts of the world need to communicate and collaborate with all viewpoints taken into consideration. Patients and their advocacy groups should be involved in standardization processes to ensure that all aspects of a condition are covered, that no patients or symptoms are excluded and that there is no adverse impact on the patient in practical terms following implementation. The trend today is for patients to be more involved in healthcare and decision-making. We must ensure that standardisation and guidelines do not get left behind in this process of development either now or in the future. However, it is necessary to find some way of training patient representatives to enable them to participate fully in standardization and guidelines and also to encourage them to do so.

  14. Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    of gastroesophageal reflux : the influence of psychological factors. Am J Gastroenterol. 88: 11-19, 1993. 6. Melzack R: The McGill Pain...to speak with patients who live with this condition was a truly eye- opening experience. I gained a much better understanding of the disease

  15. Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    THIS PAGE U UU 8 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) Table of Contents...electrical nerve stimulation, changes in diet, cessation in smoking, exercise, bladder training, physical therapy, and surgery . Unfortunately...Matzuk MM, Insel TR (2000) Infant vocalization , adult aggression, and fear behavior of an oxytocin null mutant mouse. Horm Behav 37:145–155.

  16. Predictors of symptom severity in patients with chronic prostatitis and interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J Quentin; Brown, Sheila O; Kozloff, Lara; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2006-03-01

    Numerous studies have been performed to identify potential risk factors for CP/CPPS and IC. However, few studies have been done to identify predictors of disease severity. A total of 174 men with CP/CPPS and 111 women with IC completed questionnaires to quantify symptom severity and identify demographic, medical and psychosocial characteristics. Symptom severity was assessed with the National Institutes of Health CPSI in men, and the O'Leary-Sant ICSI and problem index in women. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify characteristics predictive of worse symptoms. The mean National Institutes of Health CPSI score in men was 15.32, and the mean O'Leary-Sant ICSI and problem index in women was 19.17. The most commonly reported comorbidities were allergies, sinusitis, erectile dysfunction and irritable bowel syndrome in men, and allergies, urinary incontinence, sinusitis and irritable bowel syndrome in women. In the 2 sexes self-reported urinary frequency and urgency, worse depression scores and lower education level were independent predictors of worse symptom severity. In men additional independent predictors were self-reported pelvic pain, fibromyalgia and previous heart attack, and in women an additional independent predictor was postmenopausal status. There are several common medical conditions associated with urological pelvic pain syndromes in men and women. Few of them were predictive of symptoms severity in this analysis. Self-reported pelvic pain symptoms, education and depression severity were the factors most strongly predictive of symptom severity in patients with CP/CPPS and IC.

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen: Primary treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.P.; Neville, E.C.

    Of 8 patients with symptoms of advanced cystitis due to pelvic radiation treated with hyperbaric oxygen 7 are persistently improved during followup. All 6 patients treated for gross hematuria requiring hospitalization have been free of symptoms for an average of 24 months (range 6 to 43 months). One patient treated for stress incontinence currently is dry despite little change in bladder capacity, implying salutary effect from hyperbaric oxygen on the sphincter mechanism. One patient with radiation-induced prostatitis failed to respond. This experience suggests that hyperbaric oxygen should be considered the primary treatment for patients with symptomatic radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  18. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after pediatric stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Beom; Kang, Jin Han

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common stem cell transplantation-related complication. The incidence of early-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is related to the pretransplant conditioning regimen, has decreased with the concomitant use of mesna and hyperhydration. However, late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is usually caused by the BK virus, continues to develop. Although the BK virus is the most common pathogenic microorganism of poststem cell transplantation late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, pediatricians outside the hemato-oncology and nephrology specialties tend to be unfamiliar with hemorrhagic cystitis and the BK virus. Moreover, no standard guidelines for the early diagnosis and treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after stem cell transplantation have been established. Here, we briefly introduce poststem cell transplantation BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:25653684

  19. Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    MedlinePlus

    ... 50 More than 60% Pulmonary rehabilitation Lung transplantation Pirfenidone or nintedanib 50–70% die in 5 years. ... In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names Pirfenidone ESBRIET nintedanib OFEV Interstitial Lung Diseases Overview of ...

  20. Interstitial therapy of perineal and gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Herstein, P.; Portnuff, J.

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-five patients, 38 to 88 years of age, were treated with 125-Iodine or 192-Iridium interstitial implants at Stanford University Medical Center between July 1974, and December, 1978. There were 25 primary epithelial malignancies, eight extensions from intrapelvic organs and two metastatic tumors (hypernephroma and Hodgkin's disease). The involved sites were: urethra (6 patients); vulva (9 patients); vagina (8 patients); anus (7 patients); cervix (5 patients). Implantation was usually performed to treat evident or microscopic disease in conjunction with external beam pelvic treatment with or without local excision. Computerized implant preplanning was used.125-Iodine seeds were inserted either directly or within absorbablemore » suture Polyglactin 910; 192-Iridium in nylon carriers was placed by suture or transperineal template. Two patients were lost to follow-up leaving 33 patients, 27 of whom are alive and free of local disease from 37 to 76 months. The overall local control rate was 88%, or 29/33 patients. All four local recurrences appeared before 24 months. Minor complications included: 10 patients with transient mucositis, four with superficial ulcers, and one patient with infection at the implanted site. Two major complications occurred: a necrotic rectal ulcer requiring a colostomy and a contracted, painful bladder necessitating a urinary diversion. It is concluded that in selected cases interstitial irradiation provides good local control of perineal and gynecological malignancies with low morbidity in this elderly and quite often fragile group of patients.« less

  1. [Correlation between load of polyomavirus and hemorrhagic cystitis].

    PubMed

    Tong, Chun-Rong; Teng, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Hong-Xing; Cai, Peng; Ma, Si-Kun; Zhen, Cheng-Liang; Zeng, Yi; Lu, Dao-Pei

    2007-09-01

    To study the correlation between polyoma virus load and hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic stem cells transplantation for prevention of hemorrhagic cystitis. Blood and urine specimens were collected from 40 healthy persons, 40 patient with stem cells transplantation and 20 cases complicated with hemorrhagic cystitis for determination of VP1 gene of polyomaviruses BK virus (BKV)/Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and simian virus 40 (SV40) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and EvaGreen stain fluorescence quantitative assay. In the peripheral blood, all genes of BKV/JCV and SV40 were negative, while BKV gene in urine and blood from healthy persons and patient with stem cells transplantation was 15% (6/40) and 100% (40/40), respectively. The gene of JCV was positive in 10% (4/40) and 12% (5/40), the gene of SV40 was negative. Genes of BKV and JCV was detectable in urine specimens of healthy persons and there was a correlation between the load of polyomavirus and incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis.

  2. Treating acute cystitis with biodegradable micelle-encapsulated quercetin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bi Lan; Gao, Xiang; Men, Ke; Qiu, Jinfeng; Yang, Bowen; Gou, Ma Ling; Huang, Mei Juan; Huang, Ning; Qian, Zhi Yong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yu Quan

    2012-01-01

    Intravesical application of an anti-inflammatory drug is an efficient strategy for acute cystitis therapy. Quercetin (QU) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent; however, its poor water solubility restricts its clinical application. In an attempt to improve water solubility of QU, biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles were used to encapsulate QU by self-assembly methods, creating QU/MPEG-PCL micelles. These QU/MPEG-PCL micelles with DL of 7% had a mean particle size of <34 nm, and could release QU for an extended period in vitro. The in vivo study indicated that intravesical application of MPEG-PCL micelles did not induce any toxicity to the bladder, and could efficiently deliver cargo to the bladder. Moreover, the therapeutic efficiency of intravesical administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles on acute cystitis was evaluated in vivo. Results indicated that QU/MPEG-PCL micelle treatment efficiently reduced the edema and inflammatory cell infiltration of the bladder in an Escherichia coli-induced acute cystitis model. These data suggested that MPEG-PCL micelle was a candidate intravesical drug carrier, and QU/MPEG-PCL micelles may have potential application in acute cystitis therapy. PMID:22661886

  3. The biomechanics of leg ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Chant, A.

    1999-01-01

    Research performed in the late 1960s, using 24Na, suggested that the perfusion of skin and subcutaneous tissues is critically dependent on the relationship between capillary (Pc) and tissue pressures (Pt). Perfusion changes differed significantly between controls and patients with venous disease and the differences could be interpreted as evidence that Pt remained high in venous diseased patients. From this starting point, a biomechanical theory for the aetiology of venous ulceration was developed and tested by measuring skin elasticity, limb cross-sectional area and laser Doppler flux. The results confirm that, modelled as a two-compartment system (vascular and interstitial fluid), forces can be demonstrated sufficient to cause intermittent capillary closure and subsequent reperfusion injury. These forces are maximal in the gaiter area, the site of most leg ulcers. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10364960

  4. Voided Midstream Urine Culture and Acute Cystitis in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hooton, Thomas M; Roberts, Pacita L.; Cox, Marsha E.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cause of acute uncomplicated cystitis is determined on the basis of cultures of voided midstream urine, but few data guide the interpretation of such results, especially when gram-positive bacteria grow. METHODS Women from 18 to 49 years of age with symptoms of cystitis provided specimens of midstream urine, after which we collected urine by means of a urethral catheter for culture (catheter urine). We compared microbial species and colony counts in the paired specimens. The primary outcome was a comparison of positive predictive values and negative predictive values of organisms grown in midstream urine, with the presence or absence of the organism in catheter urine used as the reference. RESULTS The analysis of 236 episodes of cystitis in 226 women yielded 202 paired specimens of midstream urine and catheter urine that could be evaluated. Cultures were positive for uropathogens in 142 catheter specimens (70%), 4 of which had more than one uropathogen, and in 157 midstream specimens (78%). The presence of Escherichia coli in midstream urine was highly predictive of bladder bacteriuria even at very low counts, with a positive predictive value of 102 colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter of 93% (Spearman’s r = 0.944). In contrast, in midstream urine, enterococci (in 10% of cultures) and group B streptococci (in 12% of cultures) were not predictive of bladder bacteriuria at any colony count (Spearman’s r = 0.322 for enterococci and 0.272 for group B streptococci). Among 41 episodes in which enterococcus, group B streptococci, or both were found in midstream urine, E. coli grew from catheter urine cultures in 61%. CONCLUSIONS Cultures of voided midstream urine in healthy premenopausal women with acute uncomplicated cystitis accurately showed evidence of bladder E. coli but not of enterococci or group B streptococci, which are often isolated with E. coli but appear to rarely cause cystitis by themselves. (Funded by the National Institute of

  5. Interstitial laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Cromeens, Douglas M.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial laser coagulation of the canine prostate using the Sharplan interstitial thermal therapy fiber (Model 25432) was performed in 9 adult dogs and the subsequent gross and histopathologic changes occurring in the prostate were studied at intervals ranging from 1 hour to 5 weeks. A large well-demarcated area of acute coagulative necrosis developed around each fiber tract which in turn was surrounded by a prominent narrow zone of marked tissue disruption and an outer zone of hemorrhage. Liquefaction developed within the coagulative areas within 24 hours and by 4 days, each prostatic lobe contained an irregular cavity which became lined by normal-appearing transitional epithelium and that by 5 weeks, communicated with the prostatic urethra. These changes, similar to those reported following transurethral visual laser ablation of the prostate, suggest that interstitial laser thermal therapy may provide an alternative means for treating selected patients suffering from prostatic enlargement.

  6. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may ... mouth Images Oral thrush Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Mouth sores References Daniels TE, Jordan RC. ...

  7. Xanthogranulomatous cystitis: a challenging imitator of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Sinan; Dogan Ekici, Isin; Ruacan, Sevket; Midi, Ahmet

    2010-06-29

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, mimicking malignancy with unknown etiology. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man who presented with pollakiuria, nocturia, dysuria, left flank pain, and a palpable mass on the right lower abdomen. Computerized tomography demonstrated an obstructing 10-mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter and a 6-cm solid mass on the right at the anterolateral wall of the bladder. The mass presented local perivesical invasion at the anterolateral side. Cystouretroscopy revealed a mass protruding into the bladder cavity with edematous smooth surface. Frozen section analysis of the partial cystectomy specimen could not rule out malignancy. Therefore, radical cystoprostatectomy and ureterolithotomy were performed. Histologically, fibrosis, numerous plasma cells, eosinophils, and, immunohistochemically, CD68-positive epithelioid and foamy macrophages were detected. Localized prostatic adenocarcinoma was also found. The present case of xanthogranulomatous cystitis is the 23rd to be reported in the world literature.

  8. Xanthogranulomatous Cystitis: A Challenging Imitator of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Sinan; Dogan Ekici, Isin; Ruacan, Sevket; Midi, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, mimicking malignancy with unknown etiology. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man who presented with pollakiuria, nocturia, dysuria, left flank pain, and a palpable mass on the right lower abdomen. Computerized tomography demonstrated an obstructing 10-mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter and a 6-cm solid mass on the right at the anterolateral wall of the bladder. The mass presented local perivesical invasion at the anterolateral side. Cystouretroscopy revealed a mass protruding into the bladder cavity with edematous smooth surface. Frozen section analysis of the partial cystectomy specimen could not rule out malignancy. Therefore, radical cystoprostatectomy and ureterolithotomy were performed. Histologically, fibrosis, numerous plasma cells, eosinophils, and, immunohistochemically, CD68-positive epithelioid and foamy macrophages were detected. Localized prostatic adenocarcinoma was also found. The present case of xanthogranulomatous cystitis is the 23rd to be reported in the world literature. PMID:20602075

  9. Cystoscopic diagnosis of polypoid cystitis in two pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Bongiovanni, Laura; Ferro, Silvia; Melidone, Raffaele; Nicoletti, Annalisa; Duca, Valeria Del; Donnelly, Thomas M; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION AS-year-old male Dwarf rabbit and 4-year-old female Mini-Rex rabbit were evaluated because of anorexia and urine scalding of the perineum. CLINICAL FINDINGS Abdominal radiography revealed a diffuse increase in the opacity of the urinary bladder attributable to urinary sludge. In 1 rabbit, abdominal ultrasonography revealed several mass-like lesions protruding from the mucosal surface into the lumen of the urinary bladder. Rabbits were anesthetized, and cystoscopy was performed with a rigid 2.7-mm, 30° endoscope. Histologic analysis of tissue samples obtained through the cystoscope operating channel revealed findings consistent with polypoid cystitis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME To remove the urinary sludge from each rabbit, the urinary bladder was filled with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and emptied with a gentle massage several times until the ejected fluid was transparent. Rabbits were treated with NSAIDs, antimicrobials (chosen following microbial culture of urine and antimicrobial susceptibility testing), bathing of the perineum, and a low-calcium diet. The male rabbit died of unrelated causes 18 months later; postmortem examination findings confirmed the polypoid cystitis. The female rabbit remained disease free through to last follow-up (12 months after initial evaluation). CLINICAL RELEVANCE This was the first report of polypoid cystitis in pet rabbits. Although ultrasonographic findings supported this diagnosis, a definitive diagnosis was achieved through cystoscopy and lesion biopsy. Treatments administered were intended to reduce the potential sources of irritation. Research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the applied interventions and the association between excessive urinary calcium excretion and polyploid cystitis in rabbits.

  10. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce chemicals that help the ulcer heal. Taking Pressure off Your Foot Ulcer Foot ulcers are partly caused by too much ... ulcer has healed. These devices will take the pressure off of the ulcer area. This will help speed healing. Be sure ...

  11. Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636

  12. Eosinophilic cystitis with recurrent urinary retention: case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Hongzoo

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the bladder whose origin, pathogenesis, and treatment are unknown. Frequency, dysuria, and hematuria are frequent symptoms. Here, we report a rare occurrence of recurrent urinary retention and repetitive catheterization. A 67-year-old male presented with acute urinary retention and intermittent gross hematuria of 2 weeks duration. Urethral catheterization followed by a trial without catheter, was successful. Complete blood count showed presence of eosinophils (eosinophilia) and computed tomography of kidneys, ureter and bladder with contrast showed thickened bladder wall and small prostate. Cystoscopy revealed an erythematous lesion over the anterior wall. The rest of the mucosa was normal. Transurethral biopsies of the lesion were performed and histologic examination showed features of eosinophilic cystitis. Despite multiple medication regimens containing corticosteroids and antihistamines, he presented with recurrent urinary retention, approximately once every month. After 6 months, he was started on bethanechol, which led to no catheterization for up to 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful use of bethanechol as a treatment for eosinophilic cystitis with recurrent urinary retention.

  13. Stasis dermatitis and ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers; Ulcers - venous; Venous ulcer; Venous insufficiency - stasis dermatitis; Vein - stasis dermatitis ... veins. Some people with venous insufficiency develop stasis dermatitis. Blood pools in the veins of the lower ...

  14. Venous ulcer review

    PubMed Central

    Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation. PMID:21673869

  15. Clinical comparision of intravesical hyaluronic acid and hyaluronic acid-chondroitin sulphate therapy for patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitital cystitis.

    PubMed

    Gülpınar, Omer; Kayış, Aytaç; Süer, Evren; Gökçe, Mehmet İlker; Güçlü, Adil Güçal; Arıkan, Nihat

    2014-09-01

    Patients with a history of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and who responded poorly or unsatisfactorily with previous treatment were compared taking intravesical hyaluronic acid (HA) or hyaluronic acid-chondroitin sulphate (HA-CS). Patients were treated with intravesical instillation with 50 mL sterile sodium hyalurinic acid (Hyacyst, Syner-Med, Surrey, UK) (n = 32) and sodium hyaluronate 1.6% sodium chondroitin sulphate 2% (Ialuril, Aspire Pharma, UK) (n = 33). Intravesical instillations were performed weekly in first month, every 15 days in the second month and monthly in third and fourth months, for a total of 8 doses. Patients were evaluated using a visual analog pain scale (VAS), interstitial cystitis symptom index (ICSI), interstitial cystitis problem index (ICPI), voiding diary for frequency/nocturia, cystometric bladder capacity and voided volume at the beginning and at 6 months. All patients had a potassium sensitivity test (PST) initially. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In total, 53 patients met the study criteria. There were 30 patients in the HA-CS group (mean age: 48.47) and 23 patients in the HA group (mean age: 49.61) (p > 0.05). The initial PST was positive in 71.7% patients (38/53) overall with no difference between groups (p > 0.05). Responses for VAS, ICCS, ICPS, 24-hour frequency/nocturia statistically improved in both groups at 6 months. There was no significant difference in symptomatic improvement (p > 0.05). Eight patients had mild adverse events. HA and HA/CS instillation can be effective in BPS/IC patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. An important limitation of our study is that the HA dosage of the 2 treatment arms were different. It would be more appropriate with same HA dosage in both groups; however, there was no commercially available glycosaminoglycan (GAG) substance with same HA dosage for single and combination therapy. Large, long-term randomized studies

  16. Anti-ulcer Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explains the procedure of ethanol-induced ulcer to check the protective effect of drugs over induced ulcer in rats. Ulcer is defined as the erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum and is caused by the disruptions of the gastric mucosal defence and repair systems. Ulceration of stomach is called gastric ulcer and that of duodenum is called duodenal ulcer and together peptic ulcer. In clinical practice, peptic ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which commonly occurs in developed countries.

  17. BK Viremia Precedes Hemorrhagic Cystitis in Children Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Laskin, Benjamin L.; Denburg, Michelle; Furth, Susan; Diorio, Donna; Goebel, Jens; Davies, Stella M.; Jodele, Sonata

    2013-01-01

    BK virus is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), although evidence supporting a causal relationship remains limited. Although BK viruria is common after HSCT, BK viremia may better predict clinically significant cystitis, similar to its predictive value for nephropathy after kidney transplantation. We hypothesized that BK viremia would precede hemorrhagic cystitis in a cohort of 88 consecutive children prospectively enrolled to originally study thrombotic microangiopathy in the first 100 days after allogeneic HSCT. Cox regression models with time-varying covariates assessed the association between different BK viremia cutoffs and the development of hemorrhagic cystitis, defined as at least macroscopic hematuria. Subjects with a peak plasma BK viral load 1 to 9999 copies/mL had an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.2 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3 to 13.7) for the development of hemorrhagic cystitis. Those with peak BK viremia >100,000 copies/mL had an adjusted hazard ratio of 116.8 (95% CI, 12 to 1136) for cystitis. Other independent risk factors for hemorrhagic cystitis included age >7 years and HHV-6 viremia. Neither graft-versus-host disease nor achieving engraftment increased the risk for cystitis. If therapeutic strategies are found to be effective, these observations may support screening for BK viremia after HSCT, as currently recommended for other DNA viruses. PMID:23665115

  18. Hemorrhagic cystitis and possible neurologic disease from BK virus infection in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kinnaird, A N; Anstead, G M

    2010-04-01

    BK virus (BKV)-associated hemorrhagic cystitis occurs in bone marrow transplant recipients but is rare among other immunosuppressed patients. We present a rare case of BKV-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in a 48-year-old man with AIDS and previously diagnosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

  19. [Application of Monural to treat pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis].

    PubMed

    Michova, M; Ivanov, St; Batashki, I

    2009-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) and cystitis affect 4-9% of pregnancies and are associated with pyelonephritis and preterm labor. Screening for AB and adequate antimicrobal therapy prevent most of these serious complications. Twenty- nine pregnant patients, suffering from AB and 9 cases with cystitis were treated with single dose Monura (Fosfomycin trometamol) in a prospective study.

  20. Lupus cystitis in Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: risk factors and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koh, J H; Lee, J; Jung, S M; Ju, J H; Park, S-H; Kim, H-Y; Kwok, S-K

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics of lupus cystitis and determine the risk factors and clinical outcomes of lupus cystitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We retrospectively reviewed 1064 patients at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul, Korea, from 1998 to 2013. Twenty-four patients had lupus cystitis. Lupus cystitis was defined as unexplained ureteritis and/or cystitis as detected by imaging studies, cystoscopy, or bladder histopathology without urinary microorganisms or stones. Three-fourths of patients with lupus cystitis had concurrent lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV). The initial symptoms were gastrointestinal in nature for most patients (79.2%). High-dose methylprednisolone was initially administered to most patients (91.7%) with lupus cystitis. Two patients (8.3%) died of urinary tract infections. Sixty-five age- and sex-matched patients with SLE who were admitted with other manifestations were included as the control group. Patients with lupus cystitis showed a lower C3 level (p = 0.031), higher SLE Disease Activity Index score (p = 0.006), and higher ESR (p = 0.05) upon admission; more frequently had a history of LMV prior to admission (p < 0.001); and less frequently had a history of neuropsychiatric lupus (p = 0.031) than did patients with SLE but without lupus cystitis. The occurrence of lupus cystitis was associated with a history of LMV (OR, 21.794; 95% CI, 4.061-116.963). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years, and the cumulative one-year mortality rate was 20%. Complications developed in 33.3% of patients with lupus cystitis and were related to survival (log-rank p = 0.021). Our results suggest that the possibility of lupus cystitis should be considered when a patient with SLE and history of LMV presents with gastrointestinal symptoms or lower urinary tract symptoms. Development of complications in patients with lupus cystitis can be fatal. Thus, intensive treatment

  1. [Antibacterial therapy for acute cystitis in the age of growing pathogen resistance].

    PubMed

    Siniakova, L A

    2014-01-01

    Acute cystitis refers to uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections, with the recurrence rates after the first cystitis episode being 50%. The basic treatment for the above diseases is antibacterial therapy, whose efficiency depends entirely on the right choice of a drug during initial empiric therapy. The paper gives the European Association of Urology guidelines and Russian guidelines, which are based on the results of both international (ARESC) and Russian (DARMIS) studies of urinary tract infection pathogens and their susceptibility to antibacterial drugs. Phosphomycin trometamol and furasidine potassium are the drugs of choice to treat acute cystitis in Russia now.

  2. Acquired Flucytosine Resistance during Combination Therapy with Caspofungin and Flucytosine for Candida glabrata Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Caroline; El Sissy, Carine; Bachelier-Bassi, Sophie; Scemla, Anne; Quesne, Gilles; Sitterlé, Emilie; Legendre, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Candida glabrata cystitis remains a therapeutic challenge, and an antifungal combination using flucytosine is one option. We describe two patients with refractory C. glabrata cystitis who failed flucytosine combined with caspofungin with early-acquired high-level resistance to flucytosine due to nonsense mutations in the FUR1 gene. Rapidly acquired flucytosine resistance with microbiological failure should discourage combination of caspofungin and flucytosine during urinary candidiasis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Acquired Flucytosine Resistance during Combination Therapy with Caspofungin and Flucytosine for Candida glabrata Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    El Sissy, Carine; Bachelier-Bassi, Sophie; Scemla, Anne; Quesne, Gilles; Sitterlé, Emilie; Legendre, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Candida glabrata cystitis remains a therapeutic challenge, and an antifungal combination using flucytosine is one option. We describe two patients with refractory C. glabrata cystitis who failed flucytosine combined with caspofungin with early-acquired high-level resistance to flucytosine due to nonsense mutations in the FUR1 gene. Rapidly acquired flucytosine resistance with microbiological failure should discourage combination of caspofungin and flucytosine during urinary candidiasis. PMID:26525799

  4. Vesical Artery Embolization in Haemorrhagic Cystitis in Children

    SciTech Connect

    García-Gámez, Andrés, E-mail: agargamez@gmail.com; Bermúdez Bencerrey, Patricia, E-mail: PBERMUDE@clinic.ub.es; Brio-Sanagustin, Sonia, E-mail: sbrio@santpau.cat

    Haemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon and, in its severe form, potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or cancer therapy in children. The severe form involves macroscopic haematuria with blood clots, urinary obstruction and/or renal impairment. There are many therapeutic options to treat acute haemorrhage, but only recombinant factor VII has a high level of clinical evidence in children. Supraselective vesical artery embolization (SVAE) is an increasingly used therapeutic procedure for controlling haemorrhage in adults, but is less commonly used in children. This might be due to several factors, such as the invasive nature of the procedure, lack ofmore » appropriate medical experience and possible long-term side effects. We present three cases of children successfully treated by means of effective SVAE.« less

  5. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  6. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Long, D; Thiboutot, D M; Majeski, J T; Vasily, D B; Helm, K F

    1996-06-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is an uncommon systemic disorder involving the cutaneous and musculoskeletal systems. The eruption may mimic other dermatoses including granuloma annulare, erythema chronicum migrans, and the inflammatory stage of morphea. Key histopathologic characteristics, along with clinical correlation, allow accurate diagnosis. We describe the clinical, serologic, and histologic features in three patients with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis. Skin biopsy specimens were examined and correlated with the clinical and laboratory findings. Erythematous, annular, indurated plaques on the extremities were present in two women. An erythematous, papular eruption on the head and neck was present in a third patient. All patients had myalgia and migratory polyarthralgias of the extremities along with various serologic abnormalities. Histologic examination revealed a dense lymphohistiocytic interstitial infiltrate involving primarily the reticular dermis. Foci of necrobiotic collagen were present. Vasculitis was absent. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is unique multisystem disease with variable cutaneous expression. Abnormal serologic findings indicate a possible connection to collagen vascular disease.

  7. [German validation of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score].

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J F; Pilatz, A; Abdufattaev, U A; Wiltink, J; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F

    2015-09-01

    The Uzbek version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed as a simple self-reporting questionnaire to improve diagnosis and therapy of women with acute cystitis (AC). The purpose of this work was to validate the ACSS in the German language. The ACSS consists of 18 questions in four subscales: (1) typical symptoms, (2) differential diagnosis, (3) quality of life, and (4) additional circumstances. Translation of the ACSS into German was performed according to international guidelines. For the validation process 36 German-speaking women (age: 18-90 years), with and without symptoms of AC, were included in the study. Classification of participants into two groups (patients or controls) was based on the presence or absence of typical symptoms and significant bacteriuria (≥ 10(3) CFU/ml). Statistical evaluations of reliability, validity, and predictive ability were performed. ROC curve analysis was performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of ACSS and its subscales. The Mann-Whitney's U test and t-test were used to compare the scores of the groups. Of the 36 German-speaking women (age: 40 ± 19 years), 19 were diagnosed with AC (patient group), while 17 women served as controls. Cronbach's α for the German ACSS total scale was 0.87. A threshold score of ≥ 6 points in category 1 (typical symptoms) significantly predicted AC (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 82.4%). There were no significant differences in ACSS scores in patients and controls compared to the original Uzbek version of the ACSS. The German version of the ACSS showed a high reliability and validity. Therefore, the German version of the ACSS can be reliably used in clinical practice and research for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients suffering from AC.

  8. Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is because a very small number of gastric ulcers might contain cancer. Duodenal ulcers (at the beginning of the small ... They are sometimes used to treat duodenal (not gastric) ulcers. They are also often ... a risk factor for stomach cancer. If prescribed, it is very important to complete ...

  9. Cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats that underwent colocystoplasty: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Rodó, J; Farré, X; Martín, E

    2001-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide and its derivatives induce hemorrhagic cystitis. A substantial number of patients receive bladder augmentation or replacements using bowel. If patients who have undergone colocystoplasty need treatment with cyclophosphamide before or after the operation, does hemorrhagic cystitis develop? We evaluated the histological changes produced in the colon wall and bladder related to cyclophosphamide and its derivatives in rats that underwent colocystoplasty. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were grouped according to whether they received a single 200 mg./kg. dose of cyclophosphamide, underwent colocystoplasty, underwent each technique or served as controls. The technique of colocystoplasty was the same in all groups. Results were analyzed according to previously reported criteria, by the gross appearance of the bladder and colon segment used for colocystoplasty, and by histological changes. Two weeks after surgery colocystoplasty had not resulted in secondary changes in the implanted colon segment or original bladder, while there were only nonspecific changes of an inflammatory type in the anastomotic area. After cyclophosphamide administration the animals lost considerable weight and in the bladder area we observed hemorrhagic cystitis that was greater in males than in females, and greater in isolated bladder than when the bladder was sutured to the colon segment. In the colon there was no inflammation or hemorrhage damage of the hemorrhagic cystitis type in the bladder. A total of 12 days after colocystoplasty there were no secondary histological changes except in the anastomotic area. A single 200 mg./kg. dose of cyclophosphamide caused substantial weight loss and hemorrhagic cystitis. Cystitis was quantitatively greater in males than in females and greater in isolated bladder than in bladder anastomosed to the colon. Administering a single dose of cyclophosphamide did not result in lesions in the colon segment used for colocystoplasty analogous to those

  10. Late glaucoma after interstitial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Grant, W M

    1975-01-01

    In a systematic study of 45 patients who had syphilitic interstitial keratitis early in life and, many years later, were discovered to have glaucoma, there was evidence of two different but equally common mechanisms. In one group of patients, a deep-chamber type of glaucoma was superimposed on old inflammatory changes, was characteristically refractory to medical treatment, but did well with filtering surgery. The other group of patients had reversible angle-closure glaucoma associated with anatomically small anterior segments, and typically responded well to iridectomy. The late, refractory, deep-chamber type of glaucoma may involve endothelialization and formation of glass membrane in the angle, as seen in one excised eye. Occurrence of the shallow-chamber, reversible angle-closure type of glaucoma after interstitial keratitis may be coincidental, since no other evidence supports the idea that small anterior segments might be particularly prevalent among patients who have had congenital syphilis or interstitial keratitis.

  11. BKV infection and hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Fioriti, D; Degener, A M; Mischitelli, M; Videtta, M; Arancio, A; Sica, S; Sora, F; Pietropaolo, V

    2005-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a well-known complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) and can be related to adenovirus or human polyomavirus BK (BKV) infections. In this study a group of 20 patients after allogeneic BMT has been examined. BMT urine samples were analysed for the presence of Adenovirus and BKV DNAby means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 5/20 BMT patients developed HC after BMT. The presence of BKV DNA in urine samples was evident in 3/15 patients without HC and in 5/5 patients with HC. In 2/5 HC-patients the BKV DNA was not found after therapy with Cidofovir and Ribavirin. The search for adenovirus DNA in all samples was negative. The analysis of BKV non-coding control region (NCCR) isolated from urine samples revealed a structure very similar to the archetype in all samples. The RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism assay) showed the presence of BKV subtypes I and IV, with the prevalence of subtype I (4/5). This study supports the hypothesis that HC is mainly related to BKV rather than to adenovirus infection in BMT patients. Moreover, since BKV subtype I was predominant, it is reasonable to hypothesize that a specific BKV subtype could be associated with the development of HC.

  12. [A case of eosinophilic cystitis mimicking an invasive bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Satoshi; Hori, Jun-Ichi; Kita, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kawakami, Norihiro; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2014-12-01

    A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of gross hematuria, right lumbar pain and lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed hydronephrosis of the right kidney, irregular bladder wall thickening at the right lateral and posterior portion and external iliac lymph node swelling of the right side. Laboratory data revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC) and eosinophilia. Because she developed a high fever that was caused by acute obstructive pyelonephritis of the right kidney, percutaneous nephrostomy was placed and the therapy for DIC was initiated. Pathological examination of transurethral resection of bladder tumor performed twice showed no malignancy but inflammatory infiltration of many eosinocytes, leading to the diagnosis of eosinophilic cystitis (EC). We considered the possibility of allergic reaction to the drugs she was taking as the etiology of EC and discontinued all drugs. Although eosinophilia was resolved afterward, she then developed brain infarction, followed by cerebral hemorrhage. She was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital for long-term care. CT scan that was performed 4 months after the initial presentation showed the resolution of hydronephrosis of the right kidney and external iliac lymph node swelling and the improvement of bladder wall thickness. Hydronephrosis of the right kidney has not recurred after removing the nephrostomy catheter. EC is a rare condition that could mimic an invasive bladder cancer. EC should be considered if bladder tumor is associated with eosinophilia. Therapeutic consideration for thromboembolic events should be made in patients with EC.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... colitis is most common in North America and Western Europe; however the prevalence is increasing in other ... 3 links) Encyclopedia: Ulcerative Colitis Encyclopedia: Ulcerative Colitis (Image) Health Topic: Ulcerative Colitis Additional NIH Resources (1 ...

  14. Treatment for Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... NSAID-induced peptic ulcer when you have an H. pylori infection? If you have an H. pylori ... ulcers are healing. How do doctors treat an H.pylori -induced peptic ulcer? Doctors may prescribe triple ...

  15. Epimorphin expression in interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Fukuda, Yuh; Suga, Moritaka; Ikeguchi, Naoki; Takeya, Motohiro

    2005-01-01

    Epimorphin modulates epithelial morphogenesis in embryonic mouse organs. We previously suggested that epimorphin contributes to repair of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. To clarify the role of epimorphin in human lungs, we evaluated epimorphin expression and localization in normal lungs, lungs with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), and lungs with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP); we also studied the effect of recombinant epimorphin on cultured human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Northern and Western blotting analyses revealed that epimorphin expression in NSIP samples were significantly higher than those in control lungs and lungs with UIP. Immunohistochemistry showed strong epimorphin expression in mesenchymal cells of early fibrotic lesions and localization of epimorphin protein on mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix of early fibrotic lesions in the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia group. Double-labeled fluorescent images revealed expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in re-epithelialized cells overlying epimorphin-positive early fibrotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry and metalloproteinase activity assay demonstrated augmented expression of metalloproteinase induced by recombinant epimorphin in human alveolar epithelial cells. These findings suggest that epimorphin contributes to repair of pulmonary fibrosis in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, perhaps partly by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, which is an important proteolytic factor in lung remodeling. PMID:15651999

  16. Symptoms and Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcer. How do H. pylori cause a peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer disease? H. pylori are spiral-shaped bacteria that ... peptic ulcer. How do tumors from ZES cause peptic ulcers? Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that ...

  17. Gastroduodenal ulceration in foals.

    PubMed

    Becht, J L; Byars, T D

    1986-07-01

    Gastroduodenal ulceration is becoming recognised as an important disease in foals during the first few months of life. Aetiopathogenesis is presumed to be similar to peptic disease in humans associated with back diffusion of hydrogen ions into the mucosa. Many factors have been incriminated as predisposing foals to ulceration but few have been proven. To date, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents has been the only documented cause of gastroduodenal ulceration in foals. The clustering of affected foals on certain farms suggests an infectious aetiology but attempts to identify a causative organism have been unsuccessful. Four clinical syndromes defined for foals with gastroduodenal ulceration include: silent ulcers, which occur most often in the non-glandular stomach along the margo plicatus and are identified as incidental findings at necropsy; active ulcers which are often manifested by abdominal pain, excessive salivation and bruxism; perforating ulcers which usually result in a severe, diffuse peritonitis; and pyloric or duodenal obstruction from a healing ulcer. General approaches to therapy of a foal with active ulceration consist of reduction of gastric acidity and enhancement of mucosal protection. Antacids and type 2 histamine receptor antagonists are used most often to neutralise or decrease acid secretion, respectively. Sucralfate, a locally active sulphated sucrose preparation, is commonly used as a cytoprotective agent. The efficacy and safety of many products used have not been evaluated adequately in foals. Perforating ulcers are usually associated with death or humane destruction of the foal because of fulminating peritonitis. Surgical intervention and bypass procedures are indicated in foals that develop pyloric or duodenal obstructions from healing ulcers.

  18. Cloaca prolapse and cystitis in green iguana (Iguana iguana) caused by a novel Cryptosporidium species.

    PubMed

    Kik, Marja J L; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Lenstra, Johannes A; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2011-01-10

    Cryptosporidium infection was associated with colitis and cystitis in 2 green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The disease was characterized by a chronic clinical course of cloacal prolapses and cystitis. Histological examination of the gut and urinary bladder showed numerous Cryptosporidium developmental stages on the surface of the epithelium with mixed inflammatory response in the lamina propria. Cryptosporidium oocysts were visualised in a cytological preparation of the faeces. Based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene the cryptosporidia were characterized as belonging to the intestinal cryptosporidial lineage, but not to Cryptosporidium saurophilum or Cryptosporidium serpentis species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  20. Interstitial inflammation in Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Jan; Soleiman, Afschin; Draganovici, Dan; Mandelbaum, Jana; Ziegler, Urs; Regele, Heinz; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Gross, Oliver; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Segerer, Stephan

    2010-04-01

    The Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerular disease linked to structural abnormalities of collagen IV. In a mouse model of Alport syndrome, the interstitial lymphocyte influx was important for disease progression. CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor involved in lymphocyte recruitment to the kidney. We hypothesized that CXCR3-positive T cells might be involved in human Alport syndrome. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies from 17 patients with Alport syndrome, 10 with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, and 11 healthy donor kidneys. We investigated the expression of the alpha5 chain of collagen IV to confirm the morphologic diagnosis, the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and CD3-positive T cells. Alport syndrome biopsies demonstrated a complete loss of the alpha5 chain of collagen IV from the glomerular basement membrane and the morphologic features consistent with Alport syndrome on electron microscopy. A prominent number of CXCR3-positive cells were found in the tubulointerstitium. Most of the CXCR3-positive cells were CD3-positive T cells, demonstrated by double-labeling in selected biopsies. The number of CXCR3-positive cells in kidneys with Alport syndrome correlated with serum creatinine (P < .05) and with morphologic features of a progressive disease (eg, interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy). The severity of interstitial CXCR3-positive cell influx was similar in Alport syndrome as compared to immunoglobulin A nephropathy. The noninflammatory glomerular lesion of Alport syndrome is associated with prominent interstitial accumulation of CD3- and CXCR3-positive lymphocytes. The degree of infiltration correlated with renal function. We speculate that targeting T lymphocytes, for example, by CXCR3 blocking agents, might be a novel approach to inhibit disease progression in patients with Alport syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Connective tissue ulcers.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren's syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of tramadol on pain-related behaviors and bladder overactivity in rodent cystitis models.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Tatsuya; Homan, Takashi; Kyotani, Junko; Oka, Michiko

    2012-02-15

    Tramadol is a widely used analgesic that stimulates the μ opioid receptor and inhibits serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake. There have been studies on the analgesic effects of tramadol based on the tail-flick test, the formalin test, and the induction of allodynia by sciatic-nerve ligation. However, the effects of tramadol on behaviors related to bladder pain and bladder overactivity induced by cystitis have not been reported. To investigate the usefulness of tramadol for patients with cystitis, we investigated these effects of tramadol in rodent cystitis models. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide caused bladder-specific inflammation and increases in pain-related behaviors, the number of voids and bladder weight in mice. Tramadol suppressed the cyclophosphamide-induced pain-related behaviors but did not affect the number of voids or the bladder weight. During continuous-infusion cystometrograms in anesthetized rats, cyclophosphamide shortened the intercontraction interval, indicating bladder overactivity. Tramadol significantly prolonged the intercontraction interval, and the effect was partially blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone. This finding indicates that μ opioid receptors may be involved in the action of tramadol. In conclusion, tramadol ameliorated cyclophosphamide-induced bladder-pain-related behaviors and bladder overactivity in rodents. These findings suggest that tramadol might be a treatment option for cystitis-induced bladder pain and bladder overactivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intravesical instillation of Formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiation for gynecologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Behnam, K.; Patil, U.B.; Mariano, E.

    Our experience with the use of Formalin instillation in intractable gross hematuria secondary to radiation cystitis in patients with gynecological malignancies is reported. This study indicates coagulative effect of low concentration of Formalin with minimal side effects as a method to control hemorrhage.

  4. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15-84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0-75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90-120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective,more » Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7-70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.« less

  5. [Surgical treatment of ulcer].

    PubMed

    Ungeheuer, E; Schröder, D; Lüders, K

    1978-04-27

    The standard of today in surgical treatment of the duodenal and gastric ulcer in Germany is shown. Positive and negative aspects of the different methods are discussed. Special technics are recommended for the different types of gastroduodenal ulcera.

  6. Peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Lanas, Angel; Chan, Francis K L

    2017-08-05

    The rapidly declining prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and widespread use of potent anti-secretory drugs means peptic ulcer disease has become substantially less prevalent than it was two decades ago. Management has, however, become more challenging than ever because of the threat of increasing antimicrobial resistance worldwide and widespread use of complex anti-thrombotic therapy in the ageing population. Peptic ulcers not associated with H pylori infection or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are now also imposing substantial diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This Seminar aims to provide a balanced overview of the latest advances in the pathogenetic mechanisms of peptic ulcers, guidelines on therapies targeting H pylori infection, approaches to treatment of peptic ulcer complications associated with anti-inflammatory analgesics and anti-thrombotic agents, and the unmet needs in terms of our knowledge and management of this increasingly challenging condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ulcer dressings and management.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Geoff

    2014-09-01

    Chronic leg ulcers caused by venous disease, arterial disease or a combination of both need to be clearly identified before treatment can be commenced. Their management will depend on the diagnosis, combining direct management of the ulcer as well as management of patient factors. Other chronic wounds commonly observed in practice include pressure wounds, skin tears, atypical leg ulcers. This paper will outline a simple way to manage people with chronic ulcers. Conclusion The prevalence of chronic wounds is expected to rise given that people are living longer and that the incidence of diabetes is increasing. There is a need is to clearly identify the underlying cause of any wound, including factors that may delay healing, and to treat appropriately. Treatment should address the wound environment, tissue base, presence of bacteria and the level of slough. If there is no improvement in wound healing after 4 weeks then seek help from a wound specialist. The prevalence of chronic ulcers in Australia has been estimated at 2-5%. Comprehensive assessment of the ulcer, the region and the whole person is an important first step in treatment. The aim of management is to promote healing and minimise the impact on the patient.

  8. Diffusion and interactions of interstitials in hard-sphere interstitial solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Berend; Lathouwers, Emma; Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Using computer simulations, we study the dynamics and interactions of interstitial particles in hard-sphere interstitial solid solutions. We calculate the free-energy barriers associated with their diffusion for a range of size ratios and densities. By applying classical transition state theory to these free-energy barriers, we predict the diffusion coefficients, which we find to be in good agreement with diffusion coefficients as measured using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. These results highlight that transition state theory can capture the interstitial dynamics in the hard-sphere model system. Additionally, we quantify the interactions between the interstitials. We find that, apart from excluded volume interactions, the interstitial-interstitial interactions are almost ideal in our system. Lastly, we show that the interstitial diffusivity can be inferred from the large-particle fluctuations alone, thus providing an empirical relationship between the large-particle fluctuations and the interstitial diffusivity.

  9. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Caminati, A; Graziano, P; Sverzellati, N; Harari, S

    2010-12-01

    In pulmonary pathology, a wide spectrum of morphological changes is related to the consequences of smoking, and recognizing them on surgical specimens and on small transbronchial biopsies represents a challenge for the pathologist. Respiratory bronchiolitis, also referred to as smoker's bronchiolitis, is a common histologic feature found in the lung tissue of cigarette smokers. When identified as the sole histopathologic finding in the clinical setting of symptomatic interstitial lung disease, a diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease is made. Since smoking is recognized to cause a variety of histologic patterns encompassing respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell hystiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial lung disease may be a useful concept to keep in mind for the pathologists. The relationship of smoking with each of these entities has been largely established on the basis of epidemiologic evidence. Although they have been retained as distinct and separate conditions in various classifications of interstitial lung diseases, these entities share a number of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features suggesting that they represent a spectrum of patterns of interstitial lung disease occurring in predisposed individuals who smoke. Evaluation of histologic features, particularly in surgical lung biopsy samples, is important in making the distinction between these disorders. However, even after tissue biopsy, it may sometimes be difficult to clearly separate these entities. Recently, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease with fibrosis has been described and postulated that this is a smoking-related condition distinct from fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

  10. Recurrent uncomplicated cystitis in women: allowing patients to self-initiate antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Acute uncomplicated cystitis is a lower urinary tract infection occurring in the absence of anatomic or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract or any other complicating factors.The organism responsible is often an enterobacterium, especially Escherichia coli. What is the role of antibiotic therapy for non-pregnant women with recurrent acute uncomplicated cystitis? We reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. A single oral dose of fosfomycin trometamol is the antibiotic of choice for treating an episode of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Alternative antibiotics are certain fluoroquinolones or co-trimoxazole (a fixed-dose combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). For recurrent acute uncomplicated cystitis, cranberry juice has modest efficacy in reducing the frequency of episodes. A number of non-drug measures are typically proposed, although their effects are unproven: drinking sufficient fluids and urinating regularly; urinating after sexual intercourse; and avoiding spermicides. The strategy that results in the lowest antibiotic exposure is a short course of antibiotics for each episode of urinary tract infection, initiated as soon as clinical symptoms appear. Long-term antibiotic therapy is sometimes offered. According to one systematic review, women taking long-term prophylactic antibiotic therapy had about 6 times fewer clinical recurrences than with placebo. According to one randomised trial, 3 g of fosfomycin trometamol taken as a single dose every ten days reduced the frequency of recurrence, resulting in 0.14 episodes of infection per year on average versus about 3 episodes with placebo (p < 0.001). The amount of antibiotic used when fosfomycin trometamol is taken every 10 days for 6 months is equivalent to treatment of 18 acute episodes of cystitis. When cystitis appears to be associated with sexual intercourse, two small randomised trials suggest that routine postcoital antibiotic treatment is more effective

  11. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in BKV-associated hemorrhagic cystitis refractory to intravenous and intravesical cidofovir: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Focosi, Daniele; Maggi, Fabrizio; Pistolesi, Donatella; Benedetti, Edoardo; Papineschi, Federico; Galimberti, Sara; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca; Petrini, Mario

    2009-04-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We report here a case of severe BKV-associated hemorrhagic cystitis who did not respond to intravenous cidofovir. Overt hematuria successfully resolved after a few days on hyperbaric oxygen and intravesical instillations of cidofovir, while BK viruria dropped after a few weeks and remained low. We review the literature for therapeutic options in hemorrhagic cystitis and try to explain how hyperbaric oxygen stimulates mucosal repair in the urinary bladder.

  13. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  14. Understanding non ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Loh, K Y; Siang, T K

    2008-06-01

    Non ulcer dyspepsia is one of the most common problems encountered in primary care practice. The underlying pathophysiology of non ulcer dyspepsia is not fully understood, but it is known that this condition is associated with H. pylori infection and motility disorder. The presenting abdominal symptoms are non specific: they include bloating, belching, flatulence, excessive fullness after eating and nausea. Psychological condition such as anxiety, depression and stress do play a role in the recurrence of symptoms. Upper GI endoscopy is necessary in patients who presents with alarm symptoms suggestive of possible underlying organic condition before one makes the diagnosis of non ulcer dyspepsia. Pharmacological therapy using H2 receptor antagonist and proton pump inhibitors are effective for symptom relief. Patient's education and supportive care should be part of the management strategy in recurrent chronic dyspepsia.

  15. Ulcer disease of trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1934-01-01

    During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

  16. Hemorrhagic Cystitis due to BK Reactivation in a Young Female Treated for Hodgkin-Disease

    PubMed Central

    Le Calloch, R.; Ianotto, J. C.; Berthou, C.; Tempescul, A.

    2011-01-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is a disease with a high rate of curability under classic chemo-radiotherapy regimes. Complications due to chemotherapy could include viral reactivation due to chronic lymphopenia. BK virus (BKV) is a polyoma virus belonging to the Papovaviridae family with antibody seroprevalences in healthy populations varying from 60% to 80%. Initial infections are asymptomatic usually occur in early childhood, after which the viruses remain latent in the kidneys or urothelium. Reactivation of BKV occurs in individuals with severe immunosuppression during HIV infections, transplantation or, exceptionally, after classical chemotherapy. BKV incidence is approximately 0% to 5% in immunocompetent individuals. Reactivation is associated with nephropathy and haemorrhagic cystitis. Herein, we present a case of a haemorrhagic cystitis due to BKV reactivation in a patient with Hodgkin's disease treated with chemotherapy. PMID:22937308

  17. Hemorrhagic Cystitis due to BK Reactivation in a Young Female Treated for Hodgkin-Disease.

    PubMed

    Le Calloch, R; Ianotto, J C; Berthou, C; Tempescul, A

    2011-01-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is a disease with a high rate of curability under classic chemo-radiotherapy regimes. Complications due to chemotherapy could include viral reactivation due to chronic lymphopenia. BK virus (BKV) is a polyoma virus belonging to the Papovaviridae family with antibody seroprevalences in healthy populations varying from 60% to 80%. Initial infections are asymptomatic usually occur in early childhood, after which the viruses remain latent in the kidneys or urothelium. Reactivation of BKV occurs in individuals with severe immunosuppression during HIV infections, transplantation or, exceptionally, after classical chemotherapy. BKV incidence is approximately 0% to 5% in immunocompetent individuals. Reactivation is associated with nephropathy and haemorrhagic cystitis. Herein, we present a case of a haemorrhagic cystitis due to BKV reactivation in a patient with Hodgkin's disease treated with chemotherapy.

  18. Radiation-induced cystitis following intracavitary irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maatman, T.J.; Novick, A.C.; Montague, D.K.

    Intracavitary irradiation is effective in the treatment of noninvasive papillary transitional cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Mortality has not been associated with this form of therapy. The morbidity associated with intracavitary irradiation consists of mild to severe radiation cystitis and we report 2 such cases. One patient is from a series of 65 patients with noninvasive bladder tumors treated with intracavitary irradiation at this clinic since 1965. The second patient had noninvasive bladder tumors and was treated with intracavitary irradiation elsewhere. In both patients severe radiation cystitis subsequently developed, requiring simple cystectomy and urinary diversion. Themore » potential for this serious side effect must be considered when choosing a form of therapy for patients with noninvasive papillary transitional cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ of the bladder.« less

  19. Emphysematous cystitis occurred in the case treated with steroid for autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Tateki; Ohara, Shinya; Moriyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare clinically entity, more commonly seen in diabetic, immunocompromised patients, which was characterized by air within the bladder wall and lumen. A 83-year-old woman was introduced to our department with fever elevation and abnormal findings of computed tomography (CT). She took orally prednisolone for autoimmune hepatitis. Pelvic CT revealed diffuse air throughout the bladder wall. Urinalysis showed combined hematuria and pyuria. Escherichia coli was detected in blood culture. Abnormal findings of complete blood count and laboratory examination included an elevated WBC count (12,200/μL), C-reactive protein (11.7 mg/dL), and creatinine (1.07 mg/dL). Cystoscopy confirmed diffuse submucosal emphysema throughout. On the basis of diagnosis with emphysematous cystitis, she was treated with antibiotics based on the results of blood culture and indwelling Foley catheter. After treatment, the improvement of inflammatory findings and submucosal emphysema on cystoscopy and CT were achieved.

  20. Fatal complication of intravesical formalin during control of intractable hemorrhage from radiation cystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.S.; Singhal, P.C.; Bapna, B.C.

    Fatal acute tubular necrosis occurred in 1 patient in whom intravesical formalin was used to control massive persistent hemorrhage from radiation cystitis. A suggestion is made to monitor blood formic acid levels and institute prompt dialysis whenever these exceed 80 mg per 100 ml to avert such a catastrophe. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate appears to be indicated prophylactically in combating the associated metabolic acidosis due to absorbed formic acid.

  1. Effect of sodium meclofenamate on radiation-induced esophagitis and cystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrus, J.L.; Ambrus, C.M.; Lillie, D.B.

    Stumptailed monkeys (Macaca arctoides) received 2000 rad irradiation to the upper half of the esophagus and to the bladder by a 6-MeV linear accelerator. Endoscopy and biopsy was obtained from these organs weekly for 3 weeks. At the end of this period, the animals were autopsied and histopathologic examination undertaken. Sodium meclofenamate in doses of 5-20 mg/kg/day p.os was found effective in reducing or preventing radiation-induced esophagitis and cystitis.

  2. Photoselective Vaporisation of the Bladder for the Management of Radiation Cystitis - Technique and Initial Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Claire; Christidis, Daniel; Manning, Todd; Lamb, Benjamin W; Murphy, Declan G; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2018-05-16

    Objective To describe our technique utilising photoselective vaporisation of the bladder (PVB) for the management of haemorrhagic cystitis and initial results of 12 patients. Materials and Method An audit of theatre records of a single surgeon was performed to identify patients who had undergone PVB for management of radiation-cystitis. Rigid cystoscopy was performed. Ureteric catheters were placed and active bleeding sites targeted to optimise vision. Ablation was commenced using the vaporize function. When lasering around delicate structures the coagulation function was used. Ureteric catheters remained in situ for 24h. An 18Fr Foley catheter was placed. When urine output was clear continuous bladder irrigation was ceased. Both uretetric catheters and Foley catheter were removed prior to the 24hour mark. Results 12 patients were identified. 8 had previously required blood transfusion secondary to bladder haemorrhage. 9 were successfully treated and 2 saw improvement in haematuria but required a repeat procedure at 3 weeks post operatively. 4 went on to receive hyperbaric oxygenation as consolidative therapy. 1 patient was unsuccessfully treated and went on to cystectomy. There were no mortalities. No patients sustained bladder perforation or damage to surrounding structures. Conclusion Radiation cystitis can be life threatening and remains a challenge for the urologist with traditional intra-vescical treatments such as aluminium or formalin having variable results. We present an alternate technique using PVB to ablate the bladder mucosa, with good results. Consolidation with hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be considered. Our study is limited by small sample size and the presence of bilateral ureteric catheters leaving the bladder free from urine may impact immediate post operative outcomes. These initial results are promising however further prospective evaluation with a larger cohort and pre and post operative cystograms would enable better evaluation of this

  3. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  4. Failure to thrive, interstitial lung disease, and progressive digital necrosis with onset in infancy.

    PubMed

    Chia, Justin; Eroglu, Fehime Kara; Özen, Seza; Orhan, Dicle; Montealegre-Sanchez, Gina; de Jesus, Adriana A; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Cowen, Edward W

    2016-01-01

    Key teaching points • SAVI is a recently described interferonopathy resulting from constitutive action of STING and up-regulation of IFN-β signaling. • SAVI is characterized by facial erythema with telangiectasia, acral/cold-sensitive tissue ulceration and amputations, and interstitial lung disease. It has overlapping features with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and familial chilblain lupus. • Traditional immunosuppressive medications and biologic therapies appear to be of limited benefit, but JAK inhibitors may impact disease progression. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Hyberbaric oxygen as sole treatment for severe radiation - induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellis, Athanasios; Papatsoris, Athanasios; Kalentzos, Vasileios; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Skolarikos, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary and sole treatment for severe radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and methods Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as primary treatment in 38 patients with severe radiation cystitis. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment, while the secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results All patients completed therapy without complications with a mean follow-up of 29.33 months. Median number of sessions needed was 33. Complete and partial response rate was 86.8% and 13.2%, respectively. All 33 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset. One patient needed cystectomy, while 33 patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Our study suggests the early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen for radiation-induced severe cystitis as an effective and safe treatment option. PMID:28338304

  6. A pilot study using synthetic feline facial pheromone for the management of feline idiopathic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Gunn-Moore, D A; Cameron, M E

    2004-06-01

    Synthetic feline facial pheromone (FFP) (Feliway; Ceva Animal Health) was assessed for the management of cats with recurrent feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC). Nine of 12 cats completed the randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study. They had their environment treated daily with either FFP or placebo for 2 months, after which time the treatment groups were reversed. Owners used visual analogue scales to define the severity of their cat's clinical signs and behavioural changes. Five (56%) of the owners stated that their cat's overall health was better when they were using FFP. Four (44%) of the owners noticed no difference between when using the FFP and when using the placebo. While there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups there was a trend for the cats exposed to FFP to show fewer days with clinical signs of cystitis (FFP total, mean per cat+/-standard deviation, 30, 4.3+/-6.7; placebo 69, 9.9+/-19.1), a lower overall clinical score (1667, 238+/-476; 2009, 287+/-425), a reduced number of episodes of cystitis (9, 1.3+/-2.0; 10, 1.4+/-2.1) and reduced negative behavioural traits (e.g., less aggression and fear) (-128, -18.3+/-65.8; -73, -10.4+/-35.1).

  7. Computed tomography findings of human polyomavirus BK (BKV)-associated cystitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Beck, R; Igney, A; Vogel, M; Maksimovic, O; Claussen, C D; Faul, C; Horger, M

    2008-12-01

    Over 70% of the general population worldwide is positive for antibodies against polyomavirus hominis type 1 (BKV). Polyomavirus can be reactivated in immunocompromised patients and thereby induce urogenital tract infection, including cystitis. To describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of human polyomavirus-induced cystitis in adult patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allogeneic HCT). The study population was a retrospective cohort of 11 consecutive adult patients (eight men, three women; age range 22-59 years, mean 42.9 years) who received allogeneic HCT between December 2003 and December 2007 and were tested positive for urinary BKV infection. All CT scans were evaluated with regard to bladder wall thickness, mucosal enhancement, distinct layering of thickened bladder wall, and presence of intravesical clots, perivesical stranding as well as attenuation values of intravesical urine. Clinical data concerning transplant and conditioning regimen variables and laboratory parameters were correlated with degree and extent of imaging findings. All patients had clinical signs of cystitis with different degrees of thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Well-delineated urinary bladder layers were present in six patients. Thickening of the urinary bladder wall was continuous in nine of 11 patients. Increased attenuation of intravesical urine was found in seven patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. Four patients had intraluminal clots. Perivesical stranding was not a major CT finding, occurring in a mild fashion in three of 11 patients. The clinical classification of hemorrhagic cystitis did not correlate with the analyzed imaging parameters. Patient outcome was not influenced by this infectious complication. CT findings in patients with polyomavirus BK cystitis consist of different degrees of bladder wall thickening usually with good delineation of all mural layers and increased mucosal enhancement. These findings are not specific for

  8. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer

  10. A Prospective Multi-center Trial of Escherichia coli Extract for the Prophylactic Treatment of Patients with Chronically Recurrent Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Suk; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Jeong, In Gab; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol; Lim, Dae Jung; Shim, Hong Bang; Park, Won Hee; Jung, Hee Chang

    2010-01-01

    We have assessed the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli extract (ECE; Uro-Vaxom®) which contains active immunostimulating fractions, in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. Forty-two patients with more than 2 episodes of cystitis in the proceeding 6 months were treated for 3 months with one capsule daily of ECE and observed for a further 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the number of episodes of recurrent cystitis during the 6 months after treatment compared to those during the 6 months before treatment. At the end of the 9-month trial, 34 patients (all women) were eligible for statistical analysis. Their mean age was 56.4 yr (range, 34-75 yr), and they had experienced recurrent urinary tract infections for 7.2±5.2 yr. The number of recurrences was significantly lower during the 6-month follow-up period than during the 6 months preceding the trial (0.35 vs. 4.26, P<0.001). During the follow-up, 28 (82.4%) patients had no recurrences and 4 (11.8%) had 1 each. In patients who relapsed, ECE alleviated cystitis symptoms, including painful voiding, frequency and urgency. There were no serious adverse events related to the study drug. Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ECE in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. PMID:20191044

  11. Lung transplantation and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Alalawi, Raed; Whelan, Timothy; Bajwa, Ravinder S; Hodges, Tony N

    2005-09-01

    Interstitial lung disease includes a heterogeneous group of disorders that leads to respiratory insufficiency and death in a significant number of patients. Lung transplantation is a therapeutic option in select candidates. The indications, transplant procedure options, and outcomes continue to evolve. Various recipient comorbidities influence the choice of procedure in patients with interstitial lung disease. Single lung transplants are used as the procedure of choice and bilateral transplants are reserved for patients with suppurative lung disease and patients with pulmonary hypertension. Issues unique to patients with interstitial lung disease affect the morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Lung transplantation is an effective therapy for respiratory failure in interstitial lung disease with survival following transplant being similar to that achieved in transplant recipients with other diseases.

  12. [Prevention of pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Negishi, Kenichi

    2009-12-01

    Even though they have not been diagnosed with a recognized disease, many people have or are at risk of contracting debilitating conditions. They can be referred to as being in the "ill-health zone." For example, many bedridden elderly develop pressure ulcers. The prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers should focus on two main factors: the role of pressure in the development of circulatory disorders; and increased dermal pH. In preventing the development of circulatory disorders resulting in pressure ulcers, using an air or polyurethane mattress is helpful. However, changing the mattress has little effect if the position of the bedridden person is not also changed regularly. To avoid an increase in dermal pH, caregivers should apply moisture-repellent cream and/or oil to the sacral region after careful cleansing. It is important that such preventive measures and treatment be performed daily, and caregivers should be educated on this need and subsequently monitored. Pharmacists have a role in caring for those in the ill-health zone.

  13. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic cystitis – a complication of bone marrow transplantation in pediatric oncology patients

    PubMed Central

    Biel, Anna; Sokołowska-Dąbek, Dąbrówka; Olchowy, Cyprian; Łasecki, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic cystitis following bone marrow transplantation in children. Material and methods The study involved an analysis of clinical material and the results of imaging tests performed in 334 patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation. Ultrasonographic findings in 42 patients with hemorrhagic cystitis were analyzed in detail. The ultrasound images served to assess the severity of hemorrhagic cystitis and the results were compared with the clinical assessment of the disease on the Droller scale, as well as the laboratory and endoscopic tests. Results In the studied group of patients hemorrhagic cystitis following allogeneic transplantation was diagnosed in 12.5% cases. 73.8% patients received transplants from unrelated donors, 26.2% – from compatible siblings. The study revealed a higher incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis in children above 10 years of age. Grade 3 according to the Droller was diagnosed in 42.9%, grade 2 – in 30.9%, grade 4 – in 14.3%, and grade 1 – in 11.9% patients. The number of ultrasound examinations depended on the clinical symptoms, severity, duration and co-occurrence of other complications following the transplantation and was within the 1–15 range (average: 4.6). Grades 3 and 4 were related to the poor clinical condition of the patients and to their longer hospitalization. During this period there was an increased risk of renal malfunction and acute renal failure, post-inflammatory narrowing of the ureters, hydronephrosis, and in grade 4 the fibrosis of the bladder with reduced bladder capacity. Analyses demonstrated a significant correlation between the ultrasound image of the bladder wall and the clinical severity. Conclusions Ultrasound with Doppler options remains the primary diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hemorrhagic cystitis, and is useful in terms of its diagnosis, determination of the severity, and

  14. [The causes of recurrent ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lipnitsky, E M; Alekberzade, A V; Gasanov, M R

    To explore microcirculatory changes within the first 48 hours after admission, to compare them with clinical manifestations of bleeding and to define the dependence of recurrent bleeding from the therapy. The study included 108 patients with ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding who were treated at the Clinical Hospital #71 for the period 2012-2014. There were 80 (74.1%) men and 28 (25.9%) women. Age ranged 20-87 years (mean 54.4±16.8 years). Patients younger than 45 years were predominant (33.4%). J. Forrest classification (1974) was used in endoscopic characterization of bleeding. Roccal Prognostic Scale for gastroduodenal bleeding was applied in all patients at admission to assess the risk of possible recurrence. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 53 (49.1%) patients without recurrent bleeding; group 2-55 (50.1%) patients who had recurrent bleeding within the first two days of treatment. Investigation of microcirculation showed the role of vegetative component including blood circulation centralization, blood flow slowing, blood cells redistribution providing sufficient blood oxygenation. By the end of the first day we observed pronounced hemodilution, decreased blood oxygenation, blood flow restructuring with its acceleration above 1 ml/s, violation of tissue oxygenation, signs of hypovolemia. These changes were significantly different from group 2 and associated with circulatory decentralization with possible pulmonary microcirculation disturbances and interstitial edema. This processes contribute to disruption of tissue oxygenation. We assume that recurrent bleeding in group 2 was caused by fluid therapy in larger volumes than it was necessary in this clinical situation. Infusion therapy should be significantly reduced for the debut of gastroduodenal ulcerative bleeding. Sedative therapy is advisable to reduce the influence of central nervous system.

  15. Neonatal cystitis-induced colonic hypersensitivity in adult rats: a model of viscero-visceral convergence.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A; Mickle, A; Schmidt, J; Zhang, Z; Shaker, R; Banerjee, B; Sengupta, J N

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if neonatal cystitis alters colonic sensitivity later in life and to investigate the role of peripheral mechanisms. Neonatal rats received intravesical zymosan, normal saline, or anesthesia only for three consecutive days [(postnatal (PN) days 14-16)]. The estrous cycle phase was determined prior to recording the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) in adult rats. Eosinophils and mast cells were examined from colon and bladder tissues. CRD- or urinary bladder distension (UBD)-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNAs) were identified and their responses to distension were examined. The relative expression of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)-NR1 subunit in the lumbo-sacral (L6-S1) spinal cord was examined using Western blot. The VMR to CRD (≥10mmHg) in the neonatal zymosan group was significantly higher than control in both the diestrus, estrus phase and in all phases combined. There was no difference in the total number of eosinophils, mast cells or number of degranulated mast cells between groups. The spontaneous firing of UBD, but not CRD-sensitive PNAs from the zymosan-treated rats was significantly higher than the saline-treated control. However, the mechanosensitive properties of PNAs to CRD or UBD were no different between groups (P>0.05). The expression of spinal NR1 subunit was significantly higher in zymosan-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats (P<0.05). Neonatal cystitis results in colonic hypersensitivity in adult rats without changing tissue histology or the mechanosensitive properties of CRD-sensitive PNAs. Neonatal cystitis does result in overexpression of spinal NR1 subunit in adult rats. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Characterization of subclinical bacteriuria, bacterial cystitis, and pyelonephritis in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jonathan D; Krishnan, Harathi; Cole, Stephen

    2018-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of bacteriuria (ie, a positive microbial culture result for ≥ 1 urine sample) in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and characterize findings of subclinical bacteriuria (SBU), bacterial cystitis, or pyelonephritis in these patients. DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 182 dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records from January 2010 through July 2015 were reviewed to identify dogs with CKD that underwent urinalysis and urine microbial culture. Signalment, clinicopathologic data, stage of CKD according to previously published guidelines, results of urinalysis and urine culture, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings were recorded. Dogs with positive urine culture results were categorized as having SBU, bacterial cystitis, or pyelonephritis on the basis of these data. Prevalence of bacteriuria was calculated. Associations between CKD stage, presence of bacteriuria, and diagnosis category were analyzed statistically. RESULTS 33 of 182 (18.1%) dogs (40/235 [17.0%] urine samples) had positive culture results. All dogs received antimicrobials on the basis of culture and susceptibility test findings. Most positive culture results (18/40 [45%] samples) were found for dogs with SBU, followed by dogs with pyelonephritis (16/40 [40%]) and cystitis (6/40 [15%]). Escherichia coli was the most frequently observed isolate (29/40 [73%] cultures from 25/33 dogs). The CKD stage was not associated with presence of bacteriuria or diagnosis category. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of positive urine culture results in dogs with CKD was lower than that reported for dogs with some systemic diseases that may predispose to infection. Prospective research is needed to assess the clinical importance of SBU in dogs with CKD.

  17. The management of acute uncomplicated cystitis in adult women by family physicians in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Warren J; Prakash, Preeti; Ross, Susan

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There are few Canadian studies that have assessed prescribing patterns and antibiotic preferences of physicians for acute uncomplicated cystitis. A cross-Canada study of adult women with symptoms of acute cystitis seen by primary care physicians was conducted to determine current management practices and first-line antibiotic choices. METHODS A random sample of 2000 members of The College of Family Physicians of Canada were contacted in April 2002, and were asked to assess two women presenting with new urinary tract symptoms. Physicians completed a standardized checklist of symptoms and signs, indicated their diagnosis and antibiotics prescribed. A urine sample for culture was obtained. RESULTS Of the 418 responding physicians, 246 (58.6%) completed the study and assessed 446 women between April 2002 and March 2003. Most women (412 of 420, for whom clinical information about antibiotic prescriptions was available) reported either frequency, urgency or painful urination. Physicians would have usually ordered a urine culture for 77.0% of the women (95% CI 72.7 to 80.8) and prescribed an antibiotic for 86.9% of the women (95% CI 83.3 to 90.0). The urine culture was negative for 32.8% of these prescriptions. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (40.8%; 95% CI 35.7 to 46.1), followed by fluoroquinolones (27.4%; 95% CI 22.9 to 32.3) and nitrofurantoin (26.6%; 95% CI 22.1 to 31.4). CONCLUSION Empirical antibiotic prescribing is standard practice in the community, but is associated with high levels of unnecessary antibiotic use. While trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the first-line empirical antibiotic choice, fluoroquinolone antibiotics have become the second most commonly prescribed empirical antibiotic for acute cystitis. The effect of current prescribing patterns on community levels of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli may need to be monitored. PMID:19436509

  18. Psychological factors in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1984-04-01

    Almost 50 years ago ulcerative colitis was included among the seven classical psychosomatic diseases. The psychodynamics and personality structures specific to ulcerative colitis sufferers were sought and the main-stay of treatment was psychotherapy. However, for the past decade the psychogenic approach to this disorder has been replaced by physiological and immunological explanations and treatments. The history of medical and psychogenic explanations and treatments of ulcerative colitis has been traced to the present. Ulcerative colitis remains a "riddle," as it was described almost 50 years ago, a complex disorder whose pattern is to flare up and subside, its cause and cure still unknown despite almost 100 years of study.

  19. Pressure ulcer assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, C R; Rodeheaver, G T

    1999-01-01

    A pressure ulcer is an area of localized tissue destruction directly related to prolonged pressure. The loss of skin integrity produces significant consequences not only for the individual, but also for the community, with reported costs of $8.5 billion for pressure-ulcer care. Because of these costs, health care providers should be seeking prevention programs that identify high-risk individuals and implement preventive measures before the ulcer begins. Once the individual develops an ulcer, assessment of healing is critical to determine the appropriate treatment. Successful treatment depends on the principles of debridement, cleansing, bacterial control, wound dressing, and occasionally, surgical intervention.

  20. [Peptic ulcer disease and stress].

    PubMed

    Herszényi, László; Juhász, Márk; Mihály, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease revolutionised our views on the etiology and treatment of the disease. This discovery has tempted many experts to conclude that psychological factors and, specifically, stress are unimportant. However, Helicobacter pylori infection alone does not explain fully the incidence and prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. It has been demonstrated that stress can cause peptic ulcer disease even in the absence of Helicobacter pylori infection, supporting a multicausal model of peptic ulcer etiology. Psychological stress among other risk factors can function as a cofactor with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  1. Management of bacterial corneal ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Maske, R; Hill, J C; Oliver, S P

    1986-01-01

    A prospective microbiological study of 48 patients with corneal ulcers due to bacterial infection was performed. Positive cultures of corneal ulcer samples were obtained in 60% of all patients; about half of these patients had received antimicrobial treatment prior to sampling. A relatively high incidence of Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated from ulcer patients (27%) compared with normal controls (10%). Gram stains of ulcer samples were positive for organisms in only 27% of all patients and were not considered useful in determining initial therapy in this series. We concluded that treatment should be started with a broad combination of antibiotics while awaiting the culture results. PMID:3082352

  2. Pearsonema (syn Capillaria) plica associated cystitis in a Fennoscandian arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The bladderworm Pearsonema (syn Capillaria) plica affects domestic dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. A high prevalence in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) has been reported in many European countries. P. plica inhabits the lower urinary tract and is considered to be of low pathogenic significance in dogs mostly causing asymptomatic infections. However, a higher level of pathogenicity has been reported in foxes. A severe cystitis associated with numerous bladderworms was found in a captive arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) originating from the endangered Fennoscandian arctic fox population. To our knowledge this is the first description of P. plica infection in an arctic fox. PMID:20540788

  3. Fatal hemorrhagic cystitis induced by pelvic irradiation and cyclophosphamide therapy. Case reports and review

    SciTech Connect

    Price, W.E.; Keldahl, L.R.

    The potent cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide has been used extensively for neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Patients taking this drug may have received or may be receiving pelvic irradiation concurrently. This report describes two patients who developed fatal hemorrhagic cystitis induced by pelvic irradiation and cyclophosphamide therapy. Etiology, incidence, pathologic descriptions, and diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this entity are described. The incidence and risk of serious, life-threatening bladder hemorrhage from cyclophosphamide therapy is increased by prior or concurrent pelvic irradiation. Alternative cytotoxic, non-urotoxic chemotherapy should be used in these high-risk patients.

  4. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in women with acute cystitis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Warren J; Moineddin, Rahim; Meaney, Christopher; Mazzulli, Tony

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been a traditional first-line antibiotic treatment for acute cystitis; however, guidelines do not recommend TMP-SMX in regions where Escherichia coli resistance exceeds 20%. While resistance is increasing, there are no recent Canadian estimates from a primary care setting to guide prescribing decisions. METHODS: A total of 330 family physicians assessed 752 women with suspected acute cystitis between 2009 and 2011. Physicians documented clinical features and collected urine for cultures for 430 (57.2%) women. The proportion of resistant isolates of E coli and exact binomial 95% CIs were estimated nationally, and compared regionally and demographically. These estimates were compared with those from a 2002 national study. RESULTS: The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant E coli was 16.0% nationally (95% CI 11.3% to 21.8%). This was not statistically higher than 2002 (10.9% [P=0.14]). TMP-SMX resistance was increased in women ≤50 years of age (21.4%) compared with older women (10.7% [P=0.037]). In women with no antibiotic exposure in the previous three months, TMP-SMX-resistant E coli remained more prevalent in younger women (21.8%) compared with older women (4.4% [P=0.003]). The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant E coli was 5.5% nationally (95% CI 2.7% to 9.9%), and was increased compared with 2002 (1.1% [P=0.036]). Ciprofloxacin resistance was highest in British Columbia (17.7%) compared with other regions (2.7% [P=0.003]), and was increased compared with 2002 levels in this province (0.0% [P=0.025]). Nitrofurantoin-resistant E coli levels were low (0.5% [95% CI 0.01% to 2.7%). DISCUSSION: The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant E coli causing acute cystitis in women in Canada remains below 20% nationally, but may exceed this level in premenopausal women. Ciprofloxacin resistance has increased, notably in British Columbia. Nitrofurantoin resistance levels are low across the country. These observations indicate that

  5. Pearsonema (syn Capillaria) plica associated cystitis in a Fennoscandian arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Mattsson, Roland; Meijer, Tomas; Osterman-Lind, Eva; Gavier-Widén, Dolores

    2010-06-12

    The bladderworm Pearsonema (syn Capillaria) plica affects domestic dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. A high prevalence in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) has been reported in many European countries. P. plica inhabits the lower urinary tract and is considered to be of low pathogenic significance in dogs mostly causing asymptomatic infections. However, a higher level of pathogenicity has been reported in foxes. A severe cystitis associated with numerous bladderworms was found in a captive arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) originating from the endangered Fennoscandian arctic fox population. To our knowledge this is the first description of P. plica infection in an arctic fox.

  6. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  7. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  8. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  9. Advances in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ament, M E; Berquist, W; Vargas, J

    1988-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is one of the two common chronic inflammatory bowel diseases which affect the colon of children. The disease can occur at any time during infancy and childhood and is far commoner than Crohn's disease of the colon in children less than 6 years old. The Jewish population outside of Israel is at far greater risk of developing the condition than any other ethnic group. The reason for this is unknown. The chances of a family member developing the condition is 2-3 times as great as in the general population. The etiology of the condition remains unknown; however, recent advances in the understanding of the immune mechanisms in the bowel and circulation indicate there are major immunological differences between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Intestinal B cells secrete enormously increased amounts of IgG1 and a lesser increase in IgG3 in ulcerative colitis whereas in Crohn's disease, all IgG subclasses are increased, but especially IgG2. Failure of the gut immune system to control antigen crossing the colonic mucosa may be the basis for the condition. The disease is classified as moderate to severe two thirds of children as opposed to less than one third of adults. Diagnostic testing must include 3 stool cultures negative for bacterial and viral pathogens, 3 stools negative for amebiasis, trichuriasis and other intestinal parasites and absence of clostridium difficile and its toxin in the stool. Flexible proctosigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy should be done in every case with biopsies. Barium enema is contraindicated in the severely ill patient. Major improvements in medical treatment being tested involve the development of nonabsorbable corticosteroid enemas and sulfapyridene-free forms of salicylazosulfapyridene for use in enema and oral form. Surgery for ulcerative colitis has made major advances with the development of the Koch pouch (internal ileostomy) and ileoproctostomy. Both procedures although associated with relatively high

  10. Unique BK virus non-coding control region (NCCR) variants in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with and without hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michael J; McCormack, Grace P; Mutton, Ken J; Crowley, Brendan

    2006-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients frequently develop BK virus (BKV)-associated hemorrhagic cystitis, which coincides with BK viruria. However, the precise role of BKV in the etiology of hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients remains unclear, since approximately 50% of all such adult transplant recipients excrete BKV, yet do not develop this clinical condition. In the present study, BKV were analyzed to determine if mutations in the non-coding control region (NCCR), and specific BKV sub-types defined by sequence analysis of major capsid protein VP1, were associated with development of hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The regions encoding VP1 and NCCRs of BKV in urine samples collected from 15 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hemorrhagic cystitis and 20 without this illness were amplified and sequenced. Sequence variations in the NCCRs of BKV were identified in urine samples from those with and without hemorrhagic cystitis. Furthermore, five unique sequence variations within transcription factor binding sites in the canonical NCCR, O-P-Q-R-S, were identified, representing new BKV variants from a population of cloned quasi-species obtained from patients with and without hemorrhagic cystitis. Thirty-five BKV VP1 sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic analysis but no specific BKV sub-type was associated with hemorrhagic cystitis. Five previously unrecognized naturally occurring variants of the BKV are described which involve amplifications, deletions, and rearrangements of the archetypal BKV NCCRs in individuals with and without hemorrhagic cystitis. Architectural rearrangements in the NCCRs of BKV did not appear to be a prerequisite for development of hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Is a Direct Consequence of Localized Maternal Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Michael; Horvath, Dennis J.; Li, Birong; Cortado, Hanna; Newsom, David; White, Peter; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Justice, Sheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the continually increasing rates of adverse perinatal outcomes across the globe, the molecular mechanisms that underlie adverse perinatal outcomes are not completely understood. Clinical studies report that 10% of pregnant women will experience a urinary tract infection (UTI) and there is an association of UTIs with adverse perinatal outcomes. We introduced bacterial cystitis into successfully outbred female mice at gestational day 14 to follow pregnancy outcomes and immunological responses to determine the mechanisms that underlie UTI-mediated adverse outcomes. Outbred fetuses from mothers experiencing localized cystitis displayed intrauterine growth restriction (20–80%) as early as 48 hours post-infection and throughout the remainder of normal gestation. Robust infiltration of cellular innate immune effectors was observed in the uteroplacental tissue following introduction of UTI despite absence of viable bacteria. The magnitude of serum proinflammatory cytokines is elevated in the maternal serum during UTI. This study demonstrates that a localized infection can dramatically impact the immunological status as well as the function of non-infected distal organs and tissues. This model can be used as a platform to determine the mechanism(s) by which proinflammatory changes occur between non-contiguous genitourinary organs PMID:22470490

  12. Intravesical application of rebamipide promotes urothelial healing in a rat cystitis model.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshida, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Majima, Tsuyoshi; Takai, Shun; Gotoh, Momokazu

    2014-12-01

    Rebamipide is used as a topical therapeutic agent for various organs. We examined the healing effects of intravesical rebamipide on damaged urothelium in a rat model of chemically induced cystitis. Hydrochloride was injected in the bladder of female Sprague Dawley® rats to induce cystitis. On days 1 and 4 rebamipide (1 or 10 mM) or vehicle was administered in the bladder and maintained for 1 hour. Histopathology, urothelial permeability, cystometrogram and nociceptive behaviors were evaluated on day 7. Also, tissue rebamipide concentrations after the 1-hour bladder instillation were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Intravesically administered rebamipide permeated the bladder, particularly in hydrochloride treated rats, and the pharmacologically effective tissue dose remained for greater than 6 hours. Bladder histological evaluation revealed polymorphological inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased positive staining for uroplakin 3A in hydrochloride treated rats. Scanning electron microscopy showed damaged tight junctions in the hydrochloride group. Evans blue absorption in the bladder wall was increased in hydrochloride treated rats. These findings, which were associated with urothelial injury and increased permeability, were dependently suppressed by the rebamipide treatment dose. Cystometrogram demonstrated that the intercontraction interval was shorter in hydrochloride treated rats but prolonged by rebamipide. The increased nociceptive behaviors observed after intravesical resiniferatoxin administration were also suppressed by rebamipide. Intravesical rebamipide accelerated the repair of damaged urothelium, protected urothelial barrier function and suppressed bladder overactivity and nociception. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intravesical application of rebamipide suppresses bladder inflammation in a rat cystitis model.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshida, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Majima, Tsuyoshi; Takai, Shun; Gotoh, Momokazu

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of intravesical application of rebamipide (Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan) on bladder inflammation and overactivity in a chemically induced cystitis model. Female Sprague Dawley® rats under isoflurane anesthesia were injected with 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide in the peritoneum, and 1 mM or 10 mM rebamipide or vehicle was administered in the bladder and remained for 1 hour. Control rats were injected with saline in the peritoneum and vehicle was administered in the bladder. The bladder was harvested at 48 hours. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed and the inflammation grade was assessed. The amount of myeloperoxidase was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proinflammatory cytokines were quantified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cystometrogram was done in awake rats 48 hours after cyclophosphamide treatment to measure voiding reflex parameters. Histological evaluation revealed that bladder inflammation in cyclophosphamide treated rats was suppressed by rebamipide in a dose dependent manner. Up-regulated myeloperoxidase, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in cyclophosphamide treated rats was also suppressed in rebamipide treated rats. Cystometrogram demonstrated that the intercontraction interval decreased in cyclophosphamide treated rats but was prolonged by rebamipide. Intravesical application of rebamipide suppressed bladder inflammation and overactivity in a dose dependent manner. This may provide a new treatment strategy for chemotherapy associated cystitis. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ciprofloxacin and furagin in acute cystitis: comparison of early immune and microbiological results.

    PubMed

    Dybowski, Bartosz; Jabłońska, Olga; Radziszewski, Piotr; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-01

    Furagin (a nitrofurantoin analogue) has the same efficacy in treating acute cystitis as ciprofloxacin, however the duration of therapy is longer. We established a hypothesis that therapy with ciprofloxacin results in faster resolution of mucosal inflammation in comparison with furagin. Rates of urinary secretion of immunoglobulins class A, M and G and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were evaluated before and after initiation of therapy in adult women presenting with acute cystitis confirmed by urine culture. Women were randomised into two groups receiving either ciprofloxacin 250mg twice a day for 3 days (n=13) or furagin 100mg three times a day for 7 days (n=14). Median lengths of follow-up were 4 days and 5 days in the ciprofloxacin and furagin groups, respectively. Treatment with ciprofloxacin resulted in faster eradication of pathogens. No bacteria or nitrates were detected in the ciprofloxacin group, whilst leukocyte esterase was positive in only one case. In the furagin group there were four positive cultures, seven cases with positive nitrates and five cases with positive esterase. Secretion rates of all four substances dropped significantly, but the changes over time were similar in both groups.

  15. [Intravesical electrostimulation and magnetotherapy in chronic pyelonephritis and cystitis in children with urodynamic disorders].

    PubMed

    Sharkov, S M; Iatsik, S P; Bolotova, N V; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Konova, O M; Tkacheva, E N

    2011-01-01

    The results of the treatment of 38 children (6 boys and 32 girls, age 6-14 years) with chronic pyelonephritis and/or cystitis complicated with neurogenic dysfunction of the urinary bladder (NDUB) and/or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of the first-third degree demonstrate efficacy of intravesical electrostimulation (IVES) and adrenal magnetotherapy. IVES was conducted with high-frequency current impulses (2.2 kHz) by means of INTRASTIM attachment to the device AMUS-01-INTRAMAG in the region of the urethrovesical anastomosis via solution of the drugs for instillation. As the result of exposure to both physical factors in the presence of standard medication, NDUB symptoms alleviated (by E.L. Vishnevsky's criteria) by 59.5% against 38.1% in the control group. Dopplerographic examination of renal vessels stated a 24.3% increase in blood flow in the major renal artery in the study group against 10.5% in the control. The proposed complex pharmacological plus physiotherapeutic treatment of chronic pyelonephritis and cystitis in abnormal urodynamics resulted in a 2.2-fold decrease in the number of recurrences compared to the standard treatment.

  16. Emphysematous Cystitis Occurred in the Case Treated with Steroid for Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Tateki; Ohara, Shinya; Moriyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare clinically entity, more commonly seen in diabetic, immunocompromised patients, which was characterized by air within the bladder wall and lumen. A 83-year-old woman was introduced to our department with fever elevation and abnormal findings of computed tomography (CT). She took orally prednisolone for autoimmune hepatitis. Pelvic CT revealed diffuse air throughout the bladder wall. Urinalysis showed combined hematuria and pyuria. Escherichia coli was detected in blood culture. Abnormal findings of complete blood count and laboratory examination included an elevated WBC count (12,200/μL), C-reactive protein (11.7 mg/dL), and creatinine (1.07 mg/dL). Cystoscopy confirmed diffuse submucosal emphysema throughout. On the basis of diagnosis with emphysematous cystitis, she was treated with antibiotics based on the results of blood culture and indwelling Foley catheter. After treatment, the improvement of inflammatory findings and submucosal emphysema on cystoscopy and CT were achieved. PMID:23936723

  17. [Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Pavlović-Calić, Nada

    2003-01-01

    There is an enigma of inflammatory bowel diseases, despite significant advantages during last 10 years in medicamentous and surgical treatment. Ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease are chronic with remissions and recidives. Crohns disease involves any part of digestive tube. Histological changes in ulcerative colitis are: inflammation of mucosa and submucosal tissue, crypt abscesses and ulcerations, pseudopolpys, bowel shortening and toxic megacolon in severe inflammation. In Crohns disease, transmural inflammation, "jumping lesions", deeper ulcerations, coble-stone mucosa, progressive fibrosis, granuloma with gigantic epithelial cells. ulcerative colitis: mesalazine, rectal 5-ASA and hydrocortisone enemas, surgery. Crohns disease: mesalazine and prednisolone. For terminal ilcitis, corticosteroid budesonid could be applied. Severe symptomatic disease: hospitalization, parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, prednisone, surgery in partial bowel obstruction, fistulas, abscessus, perforation.

  18. The Pathogenesis of Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Alvin J.

    1955-01-01

    Peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenum look much alike and the reaction around them is nonspecific, yet other evidence indicates that ulcers in the two locations do not represent the same disease. It is suggested that a common causal factor is the digestive effect of gastric juice, and that hypersecretion may produce duodenal ulcer without any predisposing change in the relatively susceptible duodenum. The development of a gastric ulcer, which may occur without hypersecretion, presumably requires some previous alteration of the normally resistant gastric mucosa. Focal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa to tissue resembling the lining of the small intestine, which is observed frequently in association with gastric ulcer, may be a factor in providing decreased resistance to peptic injury. PMID:13250420

  19. Malignant Degeneration of Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, H.

    1939-01-01

    Malignant degeneration is the most serious complication of gastric ulcer. Its recognition is difficult both in the early stage and in advanced cases in which only the evidence of a previous ulcer-cavity, and the radiating folds of the mucous membrane indicate progressive development of carcinoma from an original ulcer. It is impossible to say how often gastric ulcer becomes malignant; one can only state the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma, found in gastric resections. One hundred and forty-one personal cases of ulcer-carcinoma are recorded, and are divided into three groups. Group I: 41 which were diagnosed clinically and at operation as cases of ulcer, but in which histological examination showed incipient cancer. Group II: 55 diagnosed clinically as cases of ulcer, but in which a diagnosis of ulcer-carcinoma was made during operation and afterwards histologically confirmed. Group III: 45 diagnosed both clinically and macroscopically (from the typical folding of the mucous membrane) as cases of ulcer-cancer, in which the cancer had entirely overgrown the ulcer. Therefore in the series of 532 resections for gastric ulcer the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma was 20.9%, or 15.2% if the third group is omitted. In a series of 718 resections for gastric cancer, the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma was 19.6% (or 14.2% if the third group is omitted). The mortality in simple two-third resection of the stomach is low (four deaths in 99 cases = 4%). When the pancreas, liver, colon, or œsophagus, is involved, the resection mortality is high (14 deaths in 42 cases = 33.3%), but even in these cases the operation is justifiable because permanent cures were achieved in a number of cases. The prognosis in cases of ulcer-cancer is very grave. In many cases, judging from the author's own experience, patients suffering from incipient ulcer-cancer—only histologically diagnosed as cancer—die from liver metastases, in spite of radical resection. It will thus be seen that the end-results of

  20. Efficacy of N-acetylcysteine, D-mannose and Morinda citrifolia to Treat Recurrent Cystitis in Breast Cancer Survivals

    PubMed Central

    MARCHIORI, DEBORA; PAOLO ZANELLO, PIER

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: Breast cancer survivors in adjuvant therapy, frequently experience the estrogen deficiency with genitourinary symptoms mostly represented by recurrent bacterial cystitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine, D-mannose and Morinda citrifolia fruit extract (NDM), when associated to antibiotic therapy, in reducing the persistence of recurrent cystitis in this risk population. Patients and Methods: Sixty breast cancer survived women with recurrent cystitis were retrospectively examined. Group 1, comprised of 40 patients treated with antibiotic therapy associated with NDM lasting for six months, Group 2 comprised of 20 patients treated with antibiotics alone. Results: The use of NDM in combination with antibiotic therapy showed a significant reduction in positive urine cultures, compared to antibiotics alone. Subjects of Group 1 rather than those of Group 2, showed improvement in symptoms score of urgency, frequency, urge incontinence, recurrent cystitis, bladder and urethral pain. Conclusion: In breast cancer survived women affected by genitourinary discomfort, the combination of NDM and antibiotic therapy showed a greater efficacy in reducing urinary tract infections and urinary discomfort with respect to antibiotic use only. PMID:28882961

  1. Efficacy of N-acetylcysteine, D-mannose and Morinda citrifolia to Treat Recurrent Cystitis in Breast Cancer Survivals.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Debora; Zanello, Pier Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors in adjuvant therapy, frequently experience the estrogen deficiency with genitourinary symptoms mostly represented by recurrent bacterial cystitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine, D-mannose and Morinda citrifolia fruit extract (NDM), when associated to antibiotic therapy, in reducing the persistence of recurrent cystitis in this risk population. Sixty breast cancer survived women with recurrent cystitis were retrospectively examined. Group 1, comprised of 40 patients treated with antibiotic therapy associated with NDM lasting for six months, Group 2 comprised of 20 patients treated with antibiotics alone. The use of NDM in combination with antibiotic therapy showed a significant reduction in positive urine cultures, compared to antibiotics alone. Subjects of Group 1 rather than those of Group 2, showed improvement in symptoms score of urgency, frequency, urge incontinence, recurrent cystitis, bladder and urethral pain. In breast cancer survived women affected by genitourinary discomfort, the combination of NDM and antibiotic therapy showed a greater efficacy in reducing urinary tract infections and urinary discomfort with respect to antibiotic use only. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasound bladder wall thickness measurement in diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections and cystitis cystica in prepubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Milošević, Danko; Trkulja, Vladimir; Turudić, Daniel; Batinić, Danica; Spajić, Borislav; Tešović, Goran

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate urinary bladder wall thickness (BWT) assessed by ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for cystitis cystica. This was a 9-year prospective study comprising 120 prepubertal girls. Sixty subjects of whom half underwent cystoscopy represented cases while the other 60 (those with a single urinary tract infection and healthy subjects) represented controls. Based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, BWT discriminated very well between cases and controls with area under the ROC curve close to 1.0. At the optimum cut-off defined at 3.9 mm, negative predictive value (NPV) was 100% leaving no probability of cystic cystitis with BWT <3.9 mm. Positive predictive value (PPV) was also very high (95.2%), indicating only around 4.82% probability of no cystic cystitis in patients with BWT values ≥3.9 mm. BWT could also distinguish between healthy subjects and those with a cured single urinary tract infection, although discriminatory properties were moderate (area under ROC 86.7%, PPV 78.8%, NPV 85.2%). Ultrasound mucosal bladder wall measurement is a non-invasive, simple and quite reliable method in diagnosis of cystitis cystica in prepubertal girls with recurrent urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Giorgio; Calagna, Gloria; Adile, Giorgio; Polito, Salvatore; Saitta, Salvatore; Speciale, Patrizia; Palomba, Stefano; Perino, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Adile, Biagio

    2015-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. This was a retrospective review of two different cohorts of women affected by recurrent bacterial cystitis. Cases (experimental group) were women who received intravesical instillations of a sterile solution of high concentration of HA + CS in 50 mL water with calcium chloride every week during the 1(st) month and then once monthly for 4 months. The control group included women who received traditional therapy for recurrent cystitis based on daily antibiotic prophylaxis using sulfamethoxazole 200 mg plus trimethoprim 40 mg for 6 weeks. Ninety-eight and 76 patients were treated with experimental and control treatments, respectively. At 12 months after treatment, 69 and 109 UTIs were detected in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The proportion of patients free from UTIs was significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group (36.7% vs. 21.0%; p = 0.03). Experimental treatment was well tolerated and none of the patients stopped it. The intravesical instillation of HA + CS is more effective than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis with the GreenLight™ XPS Laser

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Daniel Roberto; Ercole, Cesar E; Lopez, Juan Gabriel; Parker, Justin; Hall, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The treatment of pelvic malignancies with radiotherapy can develop severe sequelae, especially radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. It is a progressive disease that can lead to the need for blood transfusion, hospitalizations, and surgical interventions. This tends to affect the quality of life of these patients, and management can at times be difficult. We have evaluated the GreenLight Xcelerated Performance System (XPS) with TruCoag, although primarily used for management of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), for the treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: After International Review Board (IRB) approval, a retrospective chart review was performed in addition to a literature search. A series of four male patients, mean age of 81 years, with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies (3 prostate cancer, 1 rectal cancer) were successfully treated with the GreenLight laser after unsuccessful treatment with current therapies described in the literature. Results: All four patients treated with the GreenLight laser had resolution of their hematuria after one treatment and were discharge from the hospital with clear urine. Conclusion: The GreenLight XPS laser shows promising results for the treatment of patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis, and deserves further evaluation and validation, especially since there is limited data available in the literature regarding the use of this technology for the treatment of this devastating condition. PMID:26200555

  5. Perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Søreide, Kjetil; Thorsen, Kenneth; Harrison, Ewen M; Bingener, Juliane; Møller, Morten H; Ohene-Yeboah, Michael; Søreide, Jon Arne

    2015-09-26

    Perforated peptic ulcer is a common emergency condition worldwide, with associated mortality rates of up to 30%. A scarcity of high-quality studies about the condition limits the knowledge base for clinical decision making, but a few published randomised trials are available. Although Helicobacter pylori and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes, demographic differences in age, sex, perforation location, and underlying causes exist between countries, and mortality rates also vary. Clinical prediction rules are used, but accuracy varies with study population. Early surgery, either by laparoscopic or open repair, and proper sepsis management are essential for good outcome. Selected patients can be managed non-operatively or with novel endoscopic approaches, but validation of such methods in trials is needed. Quality of care, sepsis care bundles, and postoperative monitoring need further assessment. Adequate trials with low risk of bias are urgently needed to provide better evidence. We summarise the evidence for perforated peptic ulcer management and identify directions for future clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in the treatment of rheumatic interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Thomas, Charles F

    2004-05-01

    Interstitial lung disease frequently complicates the rheumatic diseases. The purpose of this review is to outline recent advances and current concepts regarding the management of these interstitial lung diseases. Several histologic lesions cause interstitial lung disease in rheumatic diseases, including nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and acute interstitial pneumonia. Although the relative frequency of occurrence of these histopathologic lesions is not definitively established, it seems that nonspecific interstitial pneumonia accounts for a large proportion of rheumatic disease-associated interstitial lung diseases. Although usual interstitial pneumonia generally responds poorly to corticosteroid therapy, other forms of interstitial pneumonia are often steroid responsive and have a more favorable long-term prognosis. Pulmonary hypertension is increasingly recognized as a complication of these interstitial lung diseases. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension in these patients provides clinical benefit and may suppress pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Lung transplantation is a treatment option for selected patients with severe pulmonary involvement and limited life expectancy. Interstitial lung disease is common in the rheumatic diseases, may be caused by a variety of lesions that respond differently to treatment, and may lead to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Whether the prognosis of interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatic disease is similar to that associated with the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias is not known. Treatment of these interstitial lung diseases should take into account the specific histologic lesion, the activity of the underlying rheumatic disease, and associated pulmonary hypertension, if present. The diagnosis of a rheumatic disease is no longer an absolute contraindication to lung

  7. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  8. Efficient and cost-effective alternative treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections and interstitial cystitis in women: a two-case report.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Anthony; Hariri, Essa; Shelh, Samar; Irani, Ralph; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.

  9. Efficient and Cost-Effective Alternative Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Interstitial Cystitis in Women: A Two-Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Anthony; Hariri, Essa; Shelh, Samar; Irani, Ralph; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance. PMID:25587284

  10. Ulcer osteoma and periosteal reactions to chronic leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Karasick, D; Schweitzer, M E; Deely, D M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the types of periosteal reaction seen in response to long-standing leg ulcers and to differentiate the types associated with osteomyelitis. Over a 10-year span, we retrospectively evaluated the radiographs of 20 patients with lower leg soft-tissue ulceration and adjacent periosteal bone reaction of the tibia or fibula. Two of us evaluated the location and appearance of periosteal reaction, and one of us evaluated the patients' medical records for evidence of peripheral vascular disease, systemic illnesses, and osteomyelitis. Twelve patients had organized periosteal reactions that resulted in the appearance of ulcer osteoma. None of these patients subsequently developed osteomyelitis. Eight patients had interrupted lamellar nodular periosteal reactions; six of the eight patients had superimposed osteomyelitis. Our study showed two types of periosteal response to chronic leg ulcers: a solid organized type that over time formed an ulcer osteoma and a lamellar nodular type that was often associated with osteomyelitis. Both types of ulcers were seen in patients with peripheral vascular disease, IV drug abuse, sickle cell disease, and neurologic impairment.

  11. Polyomavirus BK: possibly associated skin eruption in a patient with hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia V; Abagge, Kerstin T; Carvalho, Vânia O; Bonfim, Carmem M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl with Fanconi anemia was submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After 17 days she developed hemorrhagic cystitis due to polyoma BK virus (BKV), confirmed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Two weeks after the appearance of the urinary symptoms the patient presented numerous papules and vesicles on both hands and feet. PCR of the skin lesions and plasma was positive for BKV. The relationship of BKV with frequent infections in immunocompromised patients is well established. The positive PCR of vesicular fluid suggests that this was the causative agent of the skin lesion in this case. There are no reports of skin lesions with positive PCR for BKV. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Successful hyperbaric oxygen therapy for refractory BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, K; Yamazaki, H; Nakamura, T; Yoroidaka, T; Imi, T; Shima, Y; Ohata, K; Takamatsu, H; Kotani, T; Kondo, Y; Takami, A; Nakao, S

    2014-10-01

    BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common and major cause of morbidity in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A 32-year-old woman developed severe BKV-HC on day 24 after cord blood transplantation (CBT). Despite supportive therapies - such as hyperhydration, forced diuresis, and urinary catheterization - macroscopic hematuria and bladder irritation persisted for over a month. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy at 2.1 atmospheres for 90 min per day was started on day 64 after CBT. Macroscopic hematuria resolved within a week, and microscopic hematuria was no longer detectable within 2 weeks. Hematuria did not recur after 11 sessions of HBO therapy, and no significant side effects were observed during or after treatment. HBO therapy could thus be useful in controlling refractory BKV-HC after CBT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. In vitro adherence of radioactively labeled Escherichia coli in normal and cystitis-prone females

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, C.L.; Anwar, H.; Stauffer, C.

    Numerous investigators report data obtained using an in vitro quantitative assay for measuring bacterial adherence to epithelial cells. In the modified assay described here, we eliminated the need for visual counting of bacteria by incorporating the use of radioactively labeled Escherichia coli. This allowed quantitation of bacterial adherence to as many as 50,000 vaginal cells, whereas the visual counting system limits the determination to perhaps 50 cells. Using the modified method, we found no statistically significant differences among values for adherence of E. coli type 04 to the vaginal cells of control and cystitis-prone women at either pH 6.4 ormore » 4.0.« less

  14. Microcirculation and structural reorganization of the bladder mucosa in chronic cystitis under conditions of ozone therapy.

    PubMed

    Neimark, A I; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Lushnikova, E L; Bakarev, M A; Abdullaev, N A; Sizov, K A

    2014-01-01

    Structural reorganization of the bladder mucosa in chronic cystitis and its correction by ozone therapy were studied. A relationship between the epithelial layer restructuring of different kinds (dystrophy, metaplasia, and degeneration), level of cell proliferation, and ultrastructural organization of urotheliocytes was detected. This complex of structural reactions was combined with dysregulation of tissue bloodflow in the bladder mucosa, shown by laser Doppler flowmetry. Positive structural changes were most marked in intravesical and less so in parenteral ozone therapy added to the therapeutic complex and manifested in reduction of inflammation and alteration in parallel with more intense reparative reactions. A special feature of parenteral ozone therapy was a significant improvement of microcirculation in the bladder mucosa.

  15. Early urinary diversion with ileal conduit and vesicovaginostomy in the treatment of radiation cystitis due to carcinoma cervix: a study from a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Banerji, John Samuel; Devasia, Antony; Kekre, Nitin Sudhakar; Chacko, Ninan

    2015-10-01

    To study the magnitude of radiation cystitis following radiation therapy for carcinoma cervix, and propose an algorithm to decide on early diversion, with or without vesicovaginostomy. Women who developed radiation cystitis following radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix from January 1998 to December 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Electronic hospital records were analysed to document the presence of radiation cystitis. All women who developed evidence of radiation-induced cystitis, according to the common toxicity and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria, were included in the study. We looked at transfusion requirements, number of hospital admissions, quality of life and cost involved. Chi-square tests were done where applicable. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Of the 902 patients who received radiation for carcinoma cervix in the 13-year period, 62 (6.87%) developed grade 3/4 cystitis. Twenty-eight of them underwent ileal conduit diversion, with 18 undergoing concomitant vesicovaginostomy. When compared with the patients who did not have diversion, the transfusion requirements, number of hospital admissions and quality of life had a statistically significant difference. Cost analysis of early diversion too showed a marginal benefit with early diversion. The limitation of the study was that it was retrospective in nature. In radiation cystitis, multiple hospital admissions and consequential increase in cost is the norm. In severe disease, early diversion is a prudent, cost-effective approach with good quality of life and early return to normal activity. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. [Development and clinical testing of the Russian version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS].

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J F; Abdufattaev, U A; Makhmudov, D Kh; Mirkhamidov, D Kh; Khadzhikhanov, F A; Azgamov, A V; Pilatz, A; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F M; Akilov, F A

    2014-01-01

    The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS was originally developed in the Uzbek language and has demonstrated high reliability and validity. The study was aimed to develop a Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire and evaluate its psychometric properties. Translation and adaptation of the ACSS questionnaire containing 18 questions, 6 of them - for the typical symptoms of acute cystitis (AC), 4 - for the differential diagnosis; 3 - for the quality of life, and 5 - for the conditions that may affect the choice of treatment, were performed according to the recommendations developed by the Mapi Research Institute. Study involved 83 Russian-speaking women (mean age, 35.6 ±13.7 years); 38 (45.8%) patients were in the main group (patients with AC), and 45 (54.2%) - in the control group (without AC). Medical examination and appropriate treatment of the respondents were conducted in accordance with approved standards. After completing the course of therapy, 19 (50%) patients of the main group came for the control examination. There was statistically significant difference in the scores obtained in the two groups. Score profiles positively correlated with the results of laboratory tests (rho = 0.26-0.48). Cronbach's alpha for the Russian version of the questionnaire was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91), area under the curve in the ROC analysis was 0.96. The results of testing the Russian version correspond to those of the original version. The Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire has high. reliability and validity, and can be recommended for clinical research and diagnosis of primary AC, and dynamic monitoring of the effectiveness of the treatment of the Russian-speaking population of patients.

  17. Protective effect of ketamine against hemorrhagic cystitis in rats receiving ifosfamide

    PubMed Central

    Ozguven, Ali A.; Yılmaz, Omer; Taneli, Fatma; Ulman, Cevval; Vatansever, Seda; Onag, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible protective effect of a single dose of ketamine and the synergistic effect between ketamine and 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (mesna) against ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: 35 adult female wistar rats were divided into five groups and pretreated with ketamine at 10 mg/kg and/or mesna 400 mg/kg 30 minutes before intraperitoneal injection of IFS (400 mg/kg) or with saline (control group). Hemorrhagic cystitis was evaluated 24 hours after IFS injection according to bladder wet weight (BWW), and microscopic changes, i.e. edema, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration, and urothelial desquamation. The markers of oxidative damage including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) were also assayed in the bladder tissues. Results: Pretreatment with ketamine alone or ketamine in combination with mesna reduced the IFS-induced increase of BWW (58,47% and 63,33%, respectively, P < 0.05). IFS- induced microscopic alterations were also prevented by ketamine with or without mesna (P < 0.05). In addition, also statistically insignificant, the bladder tissue expressions of IL-1β were lower in ketamine and/or mesna-receiving groups (P > 0,05). The parameters of oxidative stress, the NO and the MDA contents of the bladder tissues of the study groups were not different. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a single dose of ketamine pretreatment attenuates experimental IFS-induced bladder damage. It is therefore necessary to investigate ketamine locally and systematically with various dosing schedulesin order to reduce the bladder damage secondary to oxazaphosphorine-alkylating agents and these results may widen the spectrum of ketamine. PMID:24741183

  18. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  19. Endoscopic Obliteration for Bleeding Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Zawadzki, J.J. J.; Gajda, A.G. G.; Kamiński, P. Ł.; Lembas, L.; Bielecki, K.

    1997-01-01

    A group of 133 patients treated for bleeding peptic ulcer in our Department, is reviewed. Within several hours of admission, all patients underwent upper gastrointestinal tract gastroscopy and obliteration of the bleeding ulcer. Bleeding gastric ulcers were found in 41 patients, and duodenal ulcers in 92 patients. Patients were classified according to the Forrest scale: IA – 11 patients, IB – 49 patients, IIA – 35 patients, lIB – 40 patients. In 126 (94.7%) patients the bleeding was stopped, and 7 required urgent surgery: 3 patients with gastric ulcer underwent gastrectomy, and 4 with duodenal ulcer – truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty and had the bleeding site underpinned. Fifty-five patients underwent elective surgery: gastrectomy and vagotomy (18 patients with gastric ulcer), highly selective vagotomy (25 patients with duodenal ulcer) and truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty (12 patients with duodenal ulcer). None of the patients was observed to have recurrent bleeding. PMID:18493453

  20. Management of Chronic Pressure Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by

  1. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder infection should drink plenty of water. Some women have repeat bladder infections. Your provider may suggest treatments such as: Taking a single dose of an antibiotic after sexual contact. These ...

  2. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  3. Deriving Sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a methodology for developing interstitial water remediation goals (IWRGs) for nonionic organic pollutants (toxicants) in sediments for the protection of benthic organisms. The document provides the basis for using the final chronic values (FCVs) from EPA’s aquatic water quality criteria (AWQC) for the protection of aquatic life to set the IWRGs for toxicants in sediments. Concentrations of the toxicants in the sediment interstitial water are measured using passive sampling. This document also discusses how to evaluate the consistency between passive sampling measurements and sediment toxicity test results. When these data are consistent, one can be reasonably assured that the causes of toxicity to benthic organisms in the sediment have been correctly identified and that the developed IWRGs for the toxicants will be protective of the benthic organisms at the site. The consistency evaluation is an important step in developing defensible IWRGs. To assist in developing defensible IWRGs.

  4. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  5. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    DOE PAGES

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; ...

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientationmore » depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.« less

  6. Acute Exacerbation in Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leuschner, Gabriela; Behr, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) has been defined as an acute, clinically significant deterioration that develops within less than 1 month without obvious clinical cause like fluid overload, left heart failure, or pulmonary embolism. Pathophysiologically, damage of the alveoli is the predominant feature of AE-IPF which manifests histopathologically as diffuse alveolar damage and radiologically as diffuse, bilateral ground-glass opacification on high-resolution computed tomography. A growing body of literature now focuses on acute exacerbations of interstitial lung disease (AE-ILD) other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Based on a shared pathophysiology it is generally accepted that AE-ILD can affect all patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) but apparently occurs more frequently in patients with an underlying usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. The etiology of AE-ILD is not fully understood, but there are distinct risk factors and triggers like infection, mechanical stress, and microaspiration. In general, AE-ILD has a poor prognosis and is associated with a high mortality within 6–12 months. Although there is a lack of evidence based data, in clinical practice, AE-ILD is often treated with a high dose corticosteroid therapy and antibiotics. This article aims to provide a summary of the clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of AE-ILD as well as an update on the current developments in the field. PMID:29109947

  7. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combinationmore » with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.« less

  8. Perforated peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Søreide, Kjetil; Thorsen, Kenneth; Harrison, Ewen M.; Bingener, Juliane; Møller, Morten H.; Ohene-Yeboah, Michael; Søreide, Jon Arne

    2015-01-01

    Summary Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a frequent emergency condition worldwide with associated mortality up to 30%. A paucity of studies on PPU limits the knowledge base for clinical decision-making, but a few randomised trials are available. While Helicobacter pylori and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are frequent causes of PPU, demographic differences in age, gender, perforation location and aetiology exist between countries, as do mortality rates. Clinical prediction rules are used, but accuracy varies with study population. Early surgery, either by laparoscopic or open repair, and proper sepsis management are essential for good outcome. Selected patients can perhaps be managed non-operatively or with novel endoscopic approaches, but validation in trials is needed. Quality of care, sepsis care-bundles and postoperative monitoring need further evaluation. Adequate trials with low risk of bias are urgently needed for better evidence. Here we summarize the evidence for PPU management and identify directions for future clinical research. PMID:26460663

  9. Successful Treatment of BK Virus Hemorrhagic Cystitis (HC) Post Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Low Dose Cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Arora, R; Jasmita; Singh, M; Garg, A; Gupta, M; Gupta, N

    2017-05-01

    BK virus (BKV) hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT) in patients with hematological malignancies. Around half of allogenic HSCT patients present with BKV viruria at some point after HSCT; about 5-40% of these patients subsequently develop active HC. Supportive care including bladder irrigation, blood transfusions and symptomatic pain management remains the mainstay of therapy; the acyclic nucleoside analogue cidofovir is currently the front-line drug for BKV-HC treatment. Here we report the first case of severe hemorrhagic cystitis from India who was successfully treated with low dose cidofovir therapy. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  10. A Real World, Observational Registry of Chronic Wounds and Ulcers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-30

    Diabetic Foot; Varicose Ulcer; Pressure Ulcer; Surgical Wound Dehiscence; Vasculitis; Skin Ulcer; Leg Ulcer; Wounds and Injuries; Pyoderma; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Diabetic Neuropathies; Lymphedema; Venous Insufficiency; Diabetes Complications; Amputation Stump

  11. Fosfomycin versus other antibiotics for the treatment of cystitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Vouloumanou, Evridiki K; Togias, Antonios G; Karadima, Maria; Kapaskelis, Anastasios M; Rafailidis, Petros I; Athanasiou, Stavros

    2010-09-01

    Cystitis is a common infection. The alarmingly high resistance rates exhibited by contemporary uropathogens necessitate the re-evaluation of old antibiotics. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fosfomycin compared with other antibiotics for the treatment of patients with cystitis. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), generated from searches performed in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane CENTRAL, which involved patients with cystitis treated with fosfomycin versus other antibiotics. Twenty-seven trials (eight double-blind) were included. Sixteen of these 27 trials involved exclusively non-pregnant female patients, 3 involved adult mixed populations of older age, 5 involved pregnant patients and 3 involved paediatric patients. Regarding clinical success, no difference was found in the comprehensive analysis regarding all comparators combined [10 RCTs, 1657 patients, risk ratio (RR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.03] in trials involving non-pregnant females and in trials involving mixed populations. Insufficient relevant data were provided from trials involving paediatric and pregnant patients. No difference between fosfomycin and comparators was also found in all comparisons regarding the remaining effectiveness outcomes (namely microbiological success/relapse/re-infection). Fosfomycin had a comparable safety profile with the evaluated comparators in non-pregnant women, mixed and paediatric populations, whereas it was associated with significantly fewer adverse events in pregnant women (4 RCTs, 507 patients, RR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.12-0.97). In the era of high drug resistance rates, reported even among community-acquired uropathogens, fosfomycin may provide a valuable alternative option for the treatment of cystitis in non-pregnant and pregnant women and in elderly and paediatric patients.

  12. Intravesical Glycosaminoglycan Replacement with Chondroitin Sulphate (Gepan(®) instill) in Patients with Chronic Radiotherapy- or Chemotherapy-Associated Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Berger, Frank Peter; Horn, Lars Christian; Thi, Phuc Ho; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Intravesical instillation of glycosaminoglycans is a promising option for the treatment of chronic cystitis, as it supports the regeneration of the damaged urothelial layer. We investigated the efficacy of short-term intravesical chondroitin sulphate treatment (six courses of instillation) in patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis. This prospective, observational study included patients with chronic radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis, who received six once-weekly intravesical instillations of 0.2% chondroitin sulphate 40 mL. Every week, patients recorded their symptoms and their benefits and tolerance of treatment, using a self-completed questionnaire. The study included 16 patients (mean age 68.5 years; 50% male). During the study, a reduction in all evaluated parameters was observed. After one dose of chondroitin sulphate, symptom improvement was observed in 38% of patients, and after the second dose, an additional 31% of patients showed improvement. At week 6, 80% of patients had either improved or were symptom free, and significant improvements in urinary urgency (p = 0.0082), pollakisuria (p = 0.0022), urge frequency (p = 0.0033) and lower abdominal pain (p = 0.0449) were observed. Haematuria, present in 9 of the 16 patients at baseline, was completely resolved in all cases after 6 weeks. The majority of patients (93%) evaluated the tolerance of chondroitin sulphate as 'good' or 'very good'. No treatment-related adverse events were reported. Intravesical administration of chondroitin sulphate was effective for the treatment of radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-associated cystitis. Even short-term treatment appears to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving the quality of life of patients.

  13. Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibiting DNA Damage and Upregulation of Nrf2 Expression.

    PubMed

    Gore, Prashant R; Prajapati, Chaitali P; Mahajan, Umesh B; Goyal, Sameer N; Belemkar, Sateesh; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced hemorrhagic cystitis is a dose-limiting side effect involving increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and suppressed activity of nuclear factor related erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, is reported to increase the expression of Nrf2, exert antioxidant action, and anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental animals. The present study was designed to explore the effects of TQ on CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in Balb/c mice. Cystitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CYP (200 mg/kg). TQ was administered intraperitoneally at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses twice a day, for three days before and three days after the CYP administration. The efficacy of TQ was determined in terms of the protection against the CYP-induced histological perturbations in the bladder tissue, reduction in the oxidative stress, and inhibition of the DNA fragmentation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of Nrf2. TQ protected against CYP-induced oxidative stress was evident from significant reduction in the lipid peroxidation, restoration of the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. TQ treatment significantly reduced the DNA damage evident as reduced DNA fragmentation. A significant decrease in the cellular infiltration, edema, epithelial denudation and hemorrhage were observed in the histological observations. There was restoration and rise in the Nrf2 expression in the bladder tissues of mice treated with TQ. These results confirm that, TQ ameliorates the CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mice through reduction in the oxidative stress, inhibition of the DNA damage and through increased expression of Nrf2 in the bladder tissues.

  14. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  15. LeuX tRNA-dependent and -independent mechanisms of Escherichia coli pathogenesis in acute cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Thomas J.; Mysorekar, Indira U.; Chen, Swaine L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Jones, Jennifer M.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Seed, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contain multiple horizontally acquired pathogenicity-associated islands (PAI) implicated in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. In a murine model of cystitis, type 1 pili-mediated bladder epithelial invasion and intracellular proliferation are key events associated with UPEC virulence. In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which a conserved PAI contributes to UPEC pathogenesis in acute cystitis. In the human UPEC strain UTI89, spontaneous excision of PAI IIUTI89 disrupts the adjacent leuX tRNA locus. Loss of wild-type leuX-encoded tRNA5Leu significantly delayed, but did not eliminate, FimB recombinase-mediated phase variation of type 1 pili. FimX, an additional FimB-like, leuX-independent recombinase, was also found to mediate type 1 pili phase variation. However, whereas FimX activity is relatively slow in vitro, it is rapid in vivo as a non-piliated strain lacking the other fim recombinases rapidly expressed type 1 pili upon experimental infection. Finally, we found that disruption of leuX, but not loss of PAI IIUTI89 genes, reduced bladder epithelial invasion and intracellular proliferation, independent of type 1 piliation. These findings indicate that the predominant mechanism for preservation of PAI IIUTI89 during the establishment of acute cystitis is maintenance of wild-type leuX, and not PAI IIUTI89 gene content. PMID:18036139

  16. Nutritional care in peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    VOMERO, Nathália Dalcin; COLPO, Elisângela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peptic ulcer is a lesion of the mucosal lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract characterized by an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors of the mucosa, having H. pylori as the main etiologic factor. Dietotherapy is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Aim To update nutritional therapy in adults' peptic ulcer. Methods Exploratory review without restrictions with primary sources indexed in Scielo, PubMed, Medline, ISI, and Scopus databases. Results Dietotherapy, as well as caloric distribution, should be adjusted to the patient's needs aiming to normalize the nutritional status and promote healing. Recommended nutrients can be different in the acute phase and in the recovery phase, and there is a greater need of protein and some micronutrients, such as vitamin A, zinc, selenium, and vitamin C in the recovery phase. In addition, some studies have shown that vitamin C has a beneficial effect in eradication of H. pylori. Fibers and probiotics also play a important role in the treatment of peptic ulcer, because they reduce the side effects of antibiotics and help reduce treatment time. Conclusion A balanced diet is vital in the treatment of peptic ulcer, once food can prevent, treat or even alleviate the symptoms involving this pathology. However, there are few papers that innovate dietotherapy; so additional studies addressing more specifically the dietotherapy for treatment of peptic ulcer are necessary. PMID:25626944

  17. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants is the complex result of BK virus infection, preparative regimen intensity and donor type

    PubMed Central

    de Padua Silva, Leandro; Patah, Poliana A.; Saliba, Rima M.; Szewczyk, Nicholas A.; Gilman, Lisa; Neumann, Joyce; Han, Xiang-Yang; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Ribeiro, Rachel; Gulbis, Alison; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Jones, Roy; Popat, Uday; Walker, Julia A.; Petropoulos, Demetrios; Chiattone, Alexandre; Stewart, John; El-Zimaity, Maha; Anderlini, Paolo; Giralt, Sergio; Champlin, Richard E; de Lima, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common cause of morbidity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, frequently associated with BK virus infection. We hypothesized that patients with positive BK viruria before unrelated or mismatched related donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a higher incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis. Design and Methods To test this hypothesis, we prospectively studied 209 patients (median age 49 years, range 19–71) with hematologic malignancies who received bone marrow (n=78), peripheral blood (n=108) or umbilical cord blood (n=23) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after myeloablative (n=110) or reduced intensity conditioning (n=99). Donors were unrelated (n=201) or haploidentical related (n=8). Results Twenty-five patients developed hemorrhagic cystitis. Pre-transplant BK viruria detected by quantitative PCR was positive in 96 patients. The one-year cumulative incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis was 16% in the PCR-positive group versus 9% in the PCR-negative group (P=0.1). The use of umbilical cord blood or a haploidentical donor was the only significant predictor of the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis on univariate analysis. There was also a trend for a higher incidence after myeloablative conditioning. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who had a positive PCR pre-transplant and received haploidentical or cord blood grafts with myeloablative conditioning had a significantly higher risk of developing hemorrhagic cystitis (58%) than all other recipients (7%, P<0.001). Conclusions Hemorrhagic cystitis is the result of a complex interaction of donor type, preparative regimen intensity, and BK viruria. PMID:20410183

  19. Suppression of the PI3K pathway in vivo reduces cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy and restores bladder capacity examined by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhongwei; Xia, Chunmei; Shen, Shanwei; Corwin, Frank D; Liu, Miao; Guan, Ruijuan; Grider, John R; Qiao, Li-Ya

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the real-time status of the urinary bladder in normal and diseased states following cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis, and also examined the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in the regulation of urinary bladder hypertrophy in vivo. Our results showed that under MRI visualization the urinary bladder wall was significantly thickened at 8 h and 48 h post CYP injection. The intravesical volume of the urinary bladder was also markedly reduced. Treatment of the cystitis animals with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced cystitis-induced bladder wall thickening and enlarged the intravesical volumes. To confirm the MRI results, we performed H&E stain postmortem and examined the levels of type I collagen by real-time PCR and western blot. Inhibition of the PI3K in vivo reduced the levels of type I collagen mRNA and protein in the urinary bladder ultimately attenuating cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy. The bladder mass calculated according to MRI data was consistent to the bladder weight measured ex vivo under each drug treatment. MRI results also showed that the urinary bladder from animals with cystitis demonstrated high magnetic signal intensity indicating considerable inflammation of the urinary bladder when compared to normal animals. This was confirmed by examination of the pro-inflammatory factors showing that interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α levels in the urinary bladder were increased with cystitis. Our results suggest that MRI can be a useful technique in tracing bladder anatomy and examining bladder hypertrophy in vivo during disease development and the PI3K pathway has a critical role in regulating bladder hypertrophy during cystitis.

  20. [Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a clinicopathologic entity, histologic pattern or unclassified group of heterogeneous interstitial pneumonitis?].

    PubMed

    Morais, António; Moura, M Conceição Souto; Cruz, M Rosa; Gomes, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) initially described by Katzenstein and Fiorelli in 1994, seems to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity among idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP). Besides different histologic features from other IIP, NSIP is characterized by a better long-term outcome, associated with a better steroids responsiveness than idiopathic pulmonar fibrosis (IPF), where usually were included. Thus, differentiating NSIP from other IIP, namely IPF is very significant, since it has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. NSIP encloses different pathologies, namely those with inflammatory predominance (cellular subtype) or fibrous predominance (fibrosing subtype). NSIP is reviewed and discussed by the authors, after two clinical cases description.

  1. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Pradaxa-induced esophageal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michele; Shaw, Paul

    2015-10-09

    Pradaxa (dabigatran) is a direct thrombin inhibitor approved for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We describe a case of esophageal ulceration associated with Pradaxa administration in a 75-year-old man. The patient reported difficulty swallowing and a burning sensation after taking his first dose of Pradaxa. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed linear ulcerations in the mid-esophagus. Pradaxa was held beginning the day before the EGD. The patient reported that his pain and difficulty swallowing resolved on stopping Pradaxa. Pradaxa is formulated with a tartaric acid excipient to reduce variability in absorption. We hypothesise that the capsule lodged in the patient's esophagus and the tartaric acid may have caused local damage resulting in an esophageal ulcer. It is important to educate patients on proper administration of Pradaxa, to decrease the risk of this rare, but potentially serious adverse event. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Evolution of anisotropy in bcc Fe distorted by interstitial boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gölden, Dominik; Zhang, Hongbin; Radulov, Iliya; Dirba, Imants; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Erwin; Alff, Lambert

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic anisotropy in bcc Fe as a function of interstitial boron atoms was investigated in thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions during film growth allowed one to stabilize an interstitial boron content of about 14 at .% accompanied by lattice tetragonalization. The c /a ratio scaled linearly with the boron content up to a maximum value of 1.05 at 300 °C substrate growth temperature, with a room-temperature magnetization of. In contrast to nitrogen interstitials, the magnetic easy axis remained in-plane with an anisotropy of approximately -5.1 ×106erg /cm3 . Density functional theory calculations using the measured lattice parameters confirm this value and show that boron local ordering indeed favors in-plane magnetization. Given the increased temperature stability of boron interstitials as compared to nitrogen interstitials, this study will help to find possible ways to manipulate boron interstitials into a more favorable local order.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, A

    2000-04-01

    An ulcer in the gastrointestinal tract is a deep necrotic lesion penetrating the entire mucosal thickness and muscularis mucosae. Ulcer healing is an active process of filling the mucosal defect with proliferating and migrating epithelial and connective tissue cells. At the ulcer margin, epithelial cells proliferate and migrate onto the granulation tissue to cover (reepithelialize) the ulcer and also invade granulation tissue to reconstruct glandular structures within the ulcer scar. The reepithelialization and reconstruction of glandular structures is controlled by growth factors: trefoil peptides, EGF, HGF, bFGF and PDGF; and locally produced cytokines by regenerating cells in an orderly fashion and integrated manner to ensure the quality of mucosal restoration. These growth factors, most notably EGF, trigger cell proliferation via signal transduction pathways involving EGF-R, adapter proteins (Grb2, Shc and Sos), Ras, Raf1 and MAP (Erk1/Erk2) kinases, which, after translocation to nuclei, activate transcription factors and cell proliferation. Cell migration requires cytoskeletal rearrangements and is controlled by growth factors via Rho/Rac and signaling pathways involving PLC-gamma, PI-3 K and phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins. Granulation tissue develops at the ulcer base. It consists of connective tissue cells: fibroblasts, macrophages and proliferating endothelial cells forming microvessels under the control of angiogenic growth factors: bFGF, VEGF and angiopoietins, which all promote angiogenesiscapillary vessel formation, essential for the restoration of microvascular network in the mucosa and thus crucial for oxygen and nutrient supply. The major mechanism of activation of angiogenic growth factors and their receptor expression appears to be hypoxia, which activates hypoxia-inducible factor, which binds to VEGF promoter.

  5. Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susan

    2003-01-01

    A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

  6. [Prevention of pressure ulcer (bedsore)].

    PubMed

    Sedmak, Dijana; Vrhovec, Marina; Huljev, Dubravko

    2013-10-01

    Although progress in many fields of science, medicine and technology is evident, we are still witnessing the appearance of bedsores and its consequences. However, in the last fifty years there has been considerable progress in the understanding of its causes, prevention and treatment. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers are complicated by the many misconceptions. However, with due knowledge of the process of healing of acute and chronic wounds and of the pathophysiological processes, in many cases chronic wounds, like pressure ulcers, can now be prevented and cured, and thus reduce the cost of treatment, as well as the mortality rate.

  7. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    The histopathologic and ultrastructural features of intraluminal organizing and fibrotic changes were studied in open lung biopsies and autopsy specimens from 373 patients with interstitial lung disorders, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 44), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 92), collagen-vascular diseases (n = 20), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (n = 10), pulmonary histiocytosis X (n-90), pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 62), pneumoconioses (n = 25), Legionnaire's disease (n = 5), drug- and toxin-induced pneumonitis (n = 4), radiation-induced pneumonitis (n = 2), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 11), and chronic organizing pneumonia of unknown cause (n = 8). Three patterns of intraluminal organization and fibrosis were recognized: 1) intraluminal buds, which partially filled the alveoli, alveolar ducts and/or distal bronchioles; 2) obliterative changes, in which loose connective tissue masses obliterated the lumens of alveoli, alveolar ducts or distal bronchioles, and 3) mural incorporation of previously intraluminal connective tissue masses, which fused with alveolar, alveolar ductal, or bronchiolar structures and frequently became reepithelialized. All three patterns had common morphologic features, suggesting that, regardless of their severity, they resulted from a common pathogenetic mechanism, ie, the migration of activated connective tissue cells, through defects in the epithelial lining and its basement membrane, from the interstitial into the intraluminal compartment. Intraluminal buds were observed most frequently in hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, and organizing pneumonia of unknown cause. Mural incorporation and, to a lesser extent, obliterative changes were observed in most interstitial disorders and were very prominent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Mural incorporation and obliterative changes play an important role in pulmonary remodeling, especially when several adjacent alveoli and/or other air spaces are

  8. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  9. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pressure ulcers in four Indonesian hospitals: prevalence, patient characteristics, ulcer characteristics, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Amir, Yufitriana; Lohrmann, Christa; Halfens, Ruud Jg; Schols, Jos Mga

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this article was to study characteristics of pressure ulcer patients and their ulcers, pressure ulcer preventive and treatment measures in four Indonesian general hospitals. A multicentre cross-sectional design was applied to assess pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer care in adult patients in medical, surgical, specialised and intensive care units. Ninety-one of the 1132 patients had a total of 142 ulcers. Half (44·0%) already had pressure ulcers before admission. The overall prevalence of category I-IV pressure ulcers was 8·0% (95% CI 6·4-9·6), and the overall nosocomial pressure ulcer prevalence was 4·5% (95% CI 3·3-5·7). Most pressure ulcer patients had friction and shear problems, were bedfast, had diabetes and had more bedridden days. Most ulcers (42·3%) were category III and IV. One third of the patients had both pressure ulcers and moisture lesions (36·3%) and suffered from pain (45·1%). The most frequently used prevention measures were repositioning (61·5%), skin moisturising (47·3%), patient education (36·3%) and massage (35·2%). Most pressure ulcer dressings involved saline-impregnated or antimicrobial gauzes. This study shows the complexities of pressure ulcers in Indonesian general hospitals and reveals that the quality of pressure ulcer care (prevention and treatment) could be improved by implementing the recent evidence-based international guideline. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Recording pressure ulcer risk assessment and incidence.

    PubMed

    Plaskitt, Anne; Heywood, Nicola; Arrowsmith, Michaela

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the introduction of an innovative computer-based system developed to record and report pressure ulcer risk and incidence at an acute NHS trust. The system was introduced to ensure that all patients have an early pressure ulcer risk assessment, which prompts staff to initiate appropriate management if a pressure ulcer is detected, thereby preventing further patient harm. Initial findings suggest that this electronic process has helped to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data on pressure ulcer risk and incidence. In addition, it has resulted in a reduced number of reported hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  12. Ulcerative colitis with acute pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuming; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Weisheng; Zhang, Zhuqing; Liu, Lina; Wang, Yingde; Meng, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, are associated with a large number of extraintestinal manifestations. Pulmonary manifestations are infrequently seen in patients with IBD. Moreover, serositis including pleural and pericardial manifestations in UC is rare. Patient concerns: We report a case of UC with acute pleurisy in a 43-year-old man; review literature; and discuss the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Diagnoses: Active duodenal ulcer was found using gastroscopy. Multiple ulcers in segmented pattern were noticed in the left hemi-colon using colonoscopy. An UC in active stage was confirmed subsequently by histology. Intervention: The patient was treated with bifidobacterium tetravaccine tablets, oral mesalazine and mesalazine enemas. The omeprazole and mucosal protective agents were given to treat the duodenal ulcer. Outcomes: As follow-up, the therapy including oral mesalazine and infliximab regularly was continued and the patient condition was stabilized. Main lesson: Pulmonary involvement should be considered in patients who develop pleurisy in UC. Infliximab is considered the better available treatment for patients presenting with pleurisy in UC. PMID:28746225

  13. Challenges in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Dealey, Carol; Brindle, C Tod; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Santamaria, Nick; Call, Evan; Clark, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Although this article is a stand-alone article, it sets the scene for later articles in this issue. Pressure ulcers are considered to be a largely preventable problem, and yet despite extensive training and the expenditure of a large amount of resources, they persist. This article reviews the current understanding of pressure ulcer aetiology: pressure, shear and microclimate. Individual risk factors for pressure ulceration also need to be understood in order to determine the level of risk of an individual. Such an assessment is essential to determine appropriate prevention strategies. The main prevention strategies in terms of reducing pressure and shear and managing microclimate are studied in this article. The problem of pressure ulceration related to medical devices is also considered as most of the standard prevention strategies are not effective in preventing this type of damage. Finally, the possibility of using dressings as an additional preventive strategy is raised along with the question: is there enough evidence to support their use? © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Oesophageal ulcer caused by warfarin.

    PubMed Central

    Loft, D. E.; Stubington, S.; Clark, C.; Rees, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Oesophageal injury is a well recognized complication of certain oral medications but warfarin has not been implicated previously. We present a case of an oesophageal ulcer occurring in a patient with mitral regurgitation taking warfarin, and demonstrate a delayed oesophageal tablet transit time. PMID:2594605

  15. Deriving sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background/Objectives. Passive sampling is becoming a frequently used measurement technique at Superfund sites with contaminated sediments. Passive sampling measures the concentrations of freely dissolved chemicals (Cfrees) in the sediment interstitial water. The freely dissolved chemical is a good surrogate for and a very practical means for estimating the concentrations of bioavailable chemical in the sediments. Building from this approach, a methodology is proposed to derive sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals (IWRGs) for the protection of benthic organisms from direct toxicity using Cfrees measured with passive sampling.Approach/Activities. In the early 2000s, EPA developed and released Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for a series of chemicals. ESBs are intended to be chemical concentrations below which unacceptable toxicity to benthic organisms does not occur. The ESBs (expressed with the units of ug/g OC) were derived using the equations:ESB= K_OC×FCV where K_OC=0.00028+0.983K_OWThe KOC is the organic carbon normalized sediment-water chemical partition coefficient, FCV is the Final Chronic Value from EPA’s ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life, and KOW is the n-octanol/water partition coefficient for the chemical. At a specific site, the remedial goal (CS:ESB µg/kg-dw) in sediment are then derived using the site-specific fraction of organic carbon in the sediment (fOC:SS) at the site:C_

  16. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølholt, T. E.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Gislason, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Langouche, G.; Ólafsson, S.; Sielemann, R.; Weyer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated 57Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of 57Mn decaying to 57Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  17. Personalized medicine in interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Oldham, Justin M; Jones, Mark G; Lee, Joyce S

    2017-05-01

    A number of recent studies have explored the possibility to apply personalized medicine to interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), particularly idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. In our review, we summarize and discuss the most recent literature on personalized medicine in IPF as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sarcoidosis, with emphasis on patient subgroups for which a personalized approach to disease prognostication and management may become a reality in the near future. Most of the studies that have explored the applicability of personalized medicine to ILDs have been conducted in patients with IPF. Such studies have suggested the existence of several distinct disease subgroups defined by similar genetic profiles, molecular pathways, exposures and individual lifestyles. Personalized medicine in hypersensitivity pneumonitis is in its infancy. The development and applicability of personalized medicine to sarcoidosis, on the other hand, remains problematic for several reasons, including the lack of a diagnostic gold standard, the highly variable and unpredictable disease course, particularly across patients of different ethnicities, the poor correlation between disease activity and disease severity and the lack of a validated management algorithm. A number of distinct patient subgroups have been identified in ILDs. Although available data need to be validated longitudinally, the possibility to study homogeneous groups of patients may allow prediction of disease behavior and response to treatment with dramatic clinical implications.

  18. Complete treatment with partial cystectomy in giant xanthogranulomatous cystitis case imitating bladder tumor.

    PubMed

    Balasar, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Oltulu, Pembe; Kandemir, Abdülkadir; Kılıç, Mehmet; Gürbüz, Recai

    2017-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XC) is a very rare chronic benign inflammatory disease of the bladder. It may cause local invasion although it is not a malign lesion and may occur together with malign lesions. It has a clinical importance as the distinction from malign lesions is difficult clinically and pathologically. Sharing a 37-year-old female case with giant XC imitating bladder tumor referring to the hospital with hematuria and stomach ache, together with current literature, we wanted to present that the disease can be treated with bladder-preserving approaches instead of radical approaches even though the mass is big in these cases. Application of basic excision and partial resection for small masses and radical cystectomy for large masses was reported in literature. We think that our case may provide a contribution to literature in treatment approach since we provided surgical cure with partial resection in a big mass with dimensions of 9 cm × 8 cm which is different from the present literature. Even though XC is a rare disease, it should be considered in prediagnosis for especially big dimensioned masses, and treatment should be planned according to the pathology result after together with cystoscopy in suitable patients.

  19. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in pediatric cancer patients receiving high-dose cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Cheerva, Alexandra C; Raj, Ashok; Bertolone, Salvatore J; Bertolone, Kathy; Silverman, Craig L

    2007-09-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a known complication of oxazophosphorine chemotherapy. BK virus (BKV) has been commonly found to be associated with hematuria in stem cell transplant patients; however, it has rarely been reported after cyclophosphamide chemotherapy alone. The authors present 3 cases of BK viruria with HC in nontransplant pediatric oncology patients. The 3 patients with BKV had more prolonged hematuria (14 to 16 wk) compared with 1 patient with BKV-negative HC (10 wk). The HC necessitated chemotherapy delays and also prolonged supportive care. One patient was treated with intravenous cidofovir with resolution of BK viruria and hematuria. BKV may have an association with the development of HC in nonstem cell transplant patients receiving high-dose oxazophosphorine chemotherapy. HC may present early and be more prolonged in patients with BK viruria. Patients with HC after cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide with negative bacterial cultures should be studied for BKV. Cidofovir may be beneficial in certain patients with BK viruria and HC; however, definitive data will require a clinical trial.

  20. Hemorrhagic cystitis in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation: a putative role for simian virus 40.

    PubMed

    Comar, Manola; D'Agaro, Pierlanfranco; Andolina, Marino; Maximova, Natasha; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro; Campello, Cesare

    2004-08-27

    Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a well-known severe complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), both in adults and in children. Protracted postengraftment HC is associated with graft-versus-host disease and viral infections, mainly caused by BK virus (BKV) or adenovirus (AV). This study investigated whether simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA sequences can be detected in specimens from pediatric patients affected by severe postengraftment HC. The clinical diagnosis of HC was made in 7 of 28 BMT children. DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and urine sediment cells and supernatants was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), AV, BKV, JC virus (JCV), and SV40. DNA filter hybridization and sequencing was carried out in SV40-positive samples. SV40 footprints were detected in two of seven cases of HC. Specific SV40 DNA sequences were detected by PCR and by filter hybridization both in urine and in PBMC samples at the HC onset and during the follow-up. The DNA sequencing proved that the amplicons belonged to the SV40 wild-type. Urine samples of the two HC cases tested negative by cell cultures, PCR, or both for HCMV, BKV, JCV, and AV. The detection of SV40 DNA sequences suggest that this simian polyomavirus could be involved, at least in some cases, in the HC occurring in children after BMT.

  1. Adenovirus is a key pathogen in hemorrhagic cystitis associated with bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, H; Kurosu, T; Sakashita, C; Inoue, T; Mori Si; Ohashi, K; Tanikawa, S; Sakamaki, H; Onozawa, Y; Chen, Q; Zheng, H; Kitamura, T

    2001-05-01

    Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a well-known complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) that is mainly attributed to infection with BK virus (BKV) and adenovirus (AdV). From 1986 through 1998, 282 patients underwent BMT, and 45 of them developed HC. Urine samples tested positive for AdV in 26 patients, of which 22 showed virus type 11. Among patients who underwent allogeneic BMT, logistic regression analysis revealed acute graft-versus-host disease (grade, > or = 2) to be the most significant predictive factor for HC (P < .0001). In addition, a total of 193 urine samples regularly obtained from 26 consecutive patients who underwent allogeneic BMT were examined for BKV, JC virus (JCV), and AdV by means of polymerase chain reaction. Of patients without HC, approximately 30% of the specimens tested positive for BKV (58 samples) and JCV (55 samples), whereas 5 (3%) tested positive for AdV. Of the 3 samples obtained from patients with HC, the numbers of positive results for BKV, JCV, and AdV were 3, 1, and 1, respectively; the numbers of positive results increased to 14 of 17, 9 of 17, and 10 of 17, respectively, when we added another 14 samples obtained from 14 patients with HC (P < .0001, P = .026, and P < .0001, respectively). In conclusion, there was significant correlation between AdV and HC in the patients we studied.

  2. HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS AFTER ALLOGENEIC HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION: RISK FACTORS, GRAFT SOURCE, AND SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Laura E.; Dasaraju, Sandhyarani; Cao, Qing; Cohn, Claudia S.; Reding, Mark; Bejanyan, Nelli; Trottier, Bryan; Rogosheske, John; Brunstein, Claudio; Warlick, Erica; Young, Jo Anne H.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Ustun, Celalettin

    2017-01-01

    Although hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), its risk factors and effects on survival are not well-known. We evaluated HC in a large cohort (n=1321, 2003 – 2012) receiving alloHCT from all graft sources, including umbilical cord blood (UCB). We compared HC patients with non-HC (control) patients and examined clinical variables at HC onset and resolution. Of these 1321 patients, 219 (16.6%) developed HC at a median of 22 days after alloHCT. BK viruria was detected in 90% of 109 tested HC patients. Median duration of HC was 27 days. At the time of HC diagnosis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), fever, severe thrombocytopenia, and steroid use were more frequent than at the time of HC resolution. In univariate analysis, male sex, age <20 years, myeloablative conditioning with cyclophosphamide and acute GVHD were associated with HC. In multivariate analysis, HC was significantly more common in males and HLA-mismatched UCB graft recipients. Severe grade HC (grade III–IV) was associated with increased treatment-related mortality (TRM) but not with overall survival at 1 year. HC remains hazardous and therefore better prophylaxis and early interventions to limit its severity are still needed. PMID:26168069

  3. Choreito formula for BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Nozomu; Ito, Yoshinori; Sekiya, Yuko; Narita, Atsushi; Okuno, Yusuke; Muramatsu, Hideki; Irie, Masahiro; Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-02-01

    Therapy for BK virus (BKV)-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is limited after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We examined whether choreito, a formula from Japanese traditional Kampo medicine, is effective for treating BKV-HC. Among children who underwent allogeneic HSCT between October 2006 and March 2014, 14 were diagnosed with BKV-HC (median, 36 days; range, 14 to 330 days) after HSCT, and 6 consecutive children received pharmaceutical-grade choreito extract granules. The hematuria grade before treatment was significantly higher in the choreito group than in the nonchoreito group (P = .018). The duration from therapy to complete resolution was significantly shorter in the choreito group (median, 9 days; range, 4 to 17 days) than in the nonchoreito group (median, 17 days; range, 15 to 66 days; P = .037). In 11 children with macroscopic hematuria, the duration from treatment to resolution of macroscopic hematuria was significantly shorter in the choreito group than in the nonchoreito group (median, 2 days versus 11 days; P = .0043). The BKV load in urine was significantly decreased 1 month after choreito administration. No adverse effects related to choreito administration were observed. Choreito may be a safe and considerably promising therapy for the hemostasis of BKV-HC after HSCT. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BK Virus-Associated Hemorrhagic Cystitis After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huertas, Pablo; Cueto-Sola, Margarita; Escobar-Cava, Paloma; Fernández-Navarro, José María; Borrell-García, Carmela; Albert-Marí, Asunción; López-Briz, Eduardo; Poveda-Andrés, José Luis

    2016-02-22

    To study the incidence, risk factors, and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to BK-virus reactivation (HC-BKV) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in the pediatric population. Case-control study in which all pediatric patients (0-18 years) who underwent allo-HSCT from September 2009 to January 2014 were followed. Twenty-nine patients underwent an allo-HSCT. The median age was 9 years (range = 6 months to 15 years), 61% male. The primary diagnosis was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (72.4%). Six (20.7%) developed HC-BKV. In a multivariate analysis of risk factors, it was observed that the reactivation of BK virus was associated with age more than 10 years (P = .098) and those with positive serology for Epstein-Barr virus (P = .06). Five of the 6 patients with HC-BKV received cidofovir (CDV) at doses of 3 to 5 mg/kg/week. The treatment lasted a median of 3 cycles (range = 2-5). One of the patients (20%) developed nephrotoxicity. Of the 5 patients treated with CDV, 3 (60%) had a complete response, 1 (20%) partial response, and 1 (20%) no response. We conclude that HC-BKV is a frequent complication after allo-HSCT. CDV therapy can be effective but controlled clinical trials are needed. © 2016 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  5. Risk Factors for Haemorrhagic Cystitis in Paediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, RT; Gu, Z; Liu, Wei; Lovins, R; Kasow, K; Woodard, P; Srivistava, K; Leung, W

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrrhagic cystitis (HC) results in significant morbidity among hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Several potential causes for HC have been postulated, including viral infection, but definitive evidence is lacking, particularly in paediatric HSCT patients. Ninety paediatric HSCT recipients were prospectively tested on a weekly basis for adenovirus and BK virus by quantitative real-time PCR in blood and urine samples. Results were correlated with the occurrence of grade II-IV HC. The odds ratio (OR) of HC (95% CI) for BK virus ≥ 1× 109 copies/mL of urine was 7.39 (1.52, 35.99), with a p-value of 0.013. Those with aGvHD also had higher odds of developing HC, with an OR of 5.34. Given a 20% prevalence rate of HC, positive and negative predictive values of 29% and 95% were seen with a cutoff of 109 copies/mL. BK viremia did not reach significance as a risk factor for development of HC (p=0.06). Only 8 patients showed adenoviruria and 7 showed adenoviremia; all had low viral loads and four had no evidence of HC. HC in paediatric HSCT is correlated most strongly to elevated urinary viral load of BK virus and to aGVHD, but less strongly to BK viremia. PMID:25648430

  6. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Beniamino, P; Vadalà, M; Laurino, C

    2016-07-02

    Long-term bedridden patients are at high risk of acquring pressure ulcers (PUs). In this group of patients, prevention is necessary to cut the health costs, improve quality of life and reduce the mortality. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) as plastic bulking-agent filling and remodelling the deep dermis and subcutaneous space of the skin areas exposed to the risk of necrosis. Our work hypothesis has been to inflate a sub-dermal elastic cushion, filled with a natural ECM component, with the aim to induce a stronger tissue background resistant to the ulcerative process. All the patients had an increased risk of PUs, at the sacral, ileum or heel skin. Patients were being nursed accordingly to the standard orthopaedic ward management with a pressure relieveing air mattress. The standard protocol consisted in body mobilisation every 3 hours, 24 hours a day and accurate cleaning of the skin with liquid soap and water without any towel friction and without adding any cream or lotion for the skin protection. Our filling protocol enclosed: accurate disinfection of the skin to be injected with povidone-iodine solution, followed by a local anaesthesia with 28G 13 mm needle, injecting 1.5 ml of 1% xylocaine. Then slow, deep, subcutaneous injection of cross-linked HA was performed with a 18G long needle, in order to deliver a homogeneous, soft gel layer underneath and around the whitish erythematous skin edges at risk of ulceration. Patients' tolerability of the compound and adverse events were also recorded. There were 15 patients (78-94 years old) who participated in the study. All tolerated the procedure very well and no serious side effects were declared. No skin pressure ulceration was detected in the four weeks follow-up Conclusion: We have demonstrated the safety and tolerability of a cross-linked HA subdermal injection in PUs prevention. The compound stratifies in a soft, elastic, interstitial bulk into the deep dermis, thus

  7. Coxiella burnetii, a hidden pathogen in interstitial lung disease?

    PubMed

    Melenotte, Cléa; Izaaryene, Jalal-Jean; Gomez, Carine; Delord, Marion; Prudent, Elsa; Lepidi, Hubert; Mediannikov, Oleg; Lacoste, Marion; Djossou, Felix; Mania, Alexandre; Bernard, Noelle; Huchot, Eric; Mège, Jean-Louis; Brégeon, Fabienne; Raoult, Didier

    2018-04-06

    We report 7 patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) on CT-scan reviewing. C. burnetii was diagnosed in situ in one lung biopsy performed. All patients had advanced interstitial lung fibrosis and persistent C. burnetii infection. Q fever may be a cofactor of ILD, especially in endemic areas.

  8. Time scales of transient enhanced diffusion: Free and clustered interstitials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowern, N. E. B.; Huizing, H. G. A.; Stolk, P. A.; Visser, C. C. G.; de Kruif, R. C. M.; Kyllesbech Larsen, K.; Privitera, V.; Nanver, L. K.; Crans, W.

    1996-12-01

    Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and electrical activation after nonamorphizing Si implantations into lightly B-doped Si multilayers shows two distinct timescales, each related to a different class of interstitial defect. At 700°C, ultrafast TED occurs within the first 15 s with a B diffusivity enhancement of > 2 × 10 5. Immobile clustered B is present at low concentration levels after the ultrafast transient and persists for an extended period (˜ 10 2-10 3 s). The later phase of TED exhibits a near-constant diffusivity enhancement of ≈ 1 × 10 4, consistent with interstitial injection controlled by dissolving {113} interstitial clusters. The relative contributions of the ultrafast and regular TED regimes to the final diffusive broadening of the B profile depends on the proportion of interstitials that escape capture by {113} clusters growing within the implant damage region upon annealing. Our results explain the ultrafast TED recently observed after medium-dose B implantation. In that case there are enough B atoms to trap a large proportion of interstitials in SiB clusters, and the remaining interstitials contribute to TED without passing through an intermediate {113} defect stage. The data on the ultrafast TED pulse allows us to extract lower limits for the diffusivities of the Si interstitial ( DI > 2 × 10 -10 cm 2s -1) and the B interstitial(cy) defect ( DBi > 2 × 10 -13 cm 2s -1) at 700°C.

  9. Maintenance therapy with sucralfate in duodenal ulcer: genuine prevention or accelerated healing of ulcer recurrence?

    PubMed

    Bynum, T E; Koch, G G

    1991-08-08

    We sought to compare the efficacy of sucralfate to placebo for the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence and to determine that the efficacy of sucralfate was due to a true reduction in ulcer prevalence and not due to secondary effects such as analgesic activity or accelerated healing. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multicenter clinical study with 254 patients. All patients had a past history of at least two duodenal ulcers with at least one ulcer diagnosed by endoscopic examination 3 months or less before the start of the study. Complete ulcer healing without erosions was required to enter the study. Sucralfate or placebo were dosed as a 1-g tablet twice a day for 4 months, or until ulcer recurrence. Endoscopic examinations once a month and when symptoms developed determined the presence or absence of duodenal ulcers. If a patient developed an ulcer between monthly scheduled visits, the patient was dosed with a 1-g sucralfate tablet twice a day until the next scheduled visit. Statistical analyses of the results determined the efficacy of sucralfate compared with placebo for preventing duodenal ulcer recurrence. Comparisons of therapeutic agents for preventing duodenal ulcers have usually been made by testing for statistical differences in the cumulative rates for all ulcers developed during a follow-up period, regardless of the time of detection. Statistical experts at the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and on the FDA Advisory Panel expressed doubts about clinical study results based on this type of analysis. They suggested three possible mechanisms for reducing the number of observed ulcers: (a) analgesic effects, (b) accelerated healing, and (c) true ulcer prevention. Traditional ulcer analysis could miss recurring ulcers due to an analgesic effect or accelerated healing. Point-prevalence analysis could miss recurring ulcers due to accelerated healing between endoscopic examinations. Maximum ulcer

  10. Cyclophosphamide for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Hayley; Holland, Anne E; Westall, Glen P; Goh, Nicole Sl; Glaspole, Ian N

    2018-01-03

    Approximately one-third of individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have associated connective tissue disease (CTD). The connective tissue disorders most commonly associated with ILD include scleroderma/systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Although many people with CTD-ILD do not develop progressive lung disease, a significant proportion do progress, leading to reduced physical function, decreased quality of life, and death. ILD is now the major cause of death amongst individuals with systemic sclerosis.Cyclophosphamide is a highly potent immunosuppressant that has demonstrated efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission in autoimmune and inflammatory illnesses. However this comes with potential toxicities, including nausea, haemorrhagic cystitis, bladder cancer, bone marrow suppression, increased risk of opportunistic infections, and haematological and solid organ malignancies.Decision-making in the treatment of individuals with CTD-ILD is difficult; the clinician needs to identify those who will develop progressive disease, and to weigh up the balance between a high level of need for therapy in a severely unwell patient population against the potential for adverse effects from highly toxic therapy, for which only relatively limited data on efficacy can be found. Similarly, it is not clear whether histological subtype, disease duration, or disease extent can be used to predict treatment responsiveness. To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of individuals with CTD-ILD. We performed searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science up to May 2017. We handsearched review articles, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of retrieved articles. We included randomised controlled parallel-group trials that compared cyclophosphamide in any form, used individually or concomitantly with other immunomodulating therapies, versus non

  11. EFFECTS OF CYP-INDUCED CYSTITIS ON GROWTH FACTORS AND ASSOCIATED RECEPTORS EXPRESSION IN MICTURITION PATHWAYS IN MICE WITH CHRONIC OVEREXPRESSION OF NGF IN UROTHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Beatrice M.; Malley, Susan; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    We have determined if cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis produces additional changes in growth factor/receptors expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium, detrusor) and lumbosacral (L6-S1) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a transgenic mouse model with chronic urothelial overexpression of NGF (NGF-OE). Functionally, NGF-OE mice treated with CYP exhibit significant increases in voiding frequency above that observed in control NGF-OE mice (no CYP). Quantitative PCR was used to determine NGF, BDNF, VEGF and receptors (TrkA, TrkB, p75NTR) transcripts expression in tissues from NGF-OE and wildtype (WT) mice with CYP-induced cystitis of varying duration (4 h, 48 h, 8 d). In urothelium of control NGF-OE mice, NGF mRNA was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased. Urothelial expression of NGF mRNA in NGF-OE mice treated with CYP (4 h, 48 h, 8 d) was not further increased but maintained with all durations of CYP treatment evaluated. In contrast, CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, 8 d) in NGF-OE mice demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) regulation in BDNF, VEGF, TrkA, TrkB and P75NTR mRNA in urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle. Similarly, CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, 8 d) in NGF-OE mice resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05), differential changes in transcript expression for NGF, BDNF and receptors (TrkA, TrkB, p75NTR) in S1 DRG that was dependent on the duration-of CYP-induced cystitis. In general, NGF, BDNF, TrkA and TrkB protein content in the urinary bladder increased in WT and NGF-OE mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h). Changes in NGF, TrkA and TrkB expression in the urinary bladder were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in NGF-OE mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h) compared to WT mice with cystitis (4 h). However, the magnitude of change between WT and NGF-OE mice was only significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different for TrkB expression in urinary bladder of NGF-OE mice treated with CYP. These studies are consistent with target-derived NGF and other inflammatory

  12. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of a diagnostic algorithm for symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service

    PubMed Central

    Grude, Nils; Lindbaek, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the clinical outcome of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis who were seen by a doctor, with patients who were given treatment following a diagnostic algorithm. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. Out-of-hours service, Oslo, Norway. Intervention. Women with typical symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis were included in the trial in the time period September 2010–November 2011. They were randomized into two groups. One group received standard treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm, the other group received treatment after a regular consultation by a doctor. Subjects. Women (n = 441) aged 16–55 years. Mean age in both groups 27 years. Main outcome measures. Number of days until symptomatic resolution. Results. No significant differences were found between the groups in the basic patient demographics, severity of symptoms, or percentage of urine samples with single culture growth. A median of three days until symptomatic resolution was found in both groups. By day four 79% in the algorithm group and 72% in the regular consultation group were free of symptoms (p = 0.09). The number of patients who contacted a doctor again in the follow-up period and received alternative antibiotic treatment was insignificantly higher (p = 0.08) after regular consultation than after treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm. There were no cases of severe pyelonephritis or hospital admissions during the follow-up period. Conclusion. Using a diagnostic algorithm is a safe and efficient method for treating women with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service. This simplification of treatment strategy can lead to a more rational use of consultation time and a stricter adherence to National Antibiotic Guidelines for a common disorder. PMID:25961367

  14. A randomized controlled trial of a diagnostic algorithm for symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service.

    PubMed

    Bollestad, Marianne; Grude, Nils; Lindbaek, Morten

    2015-06-01

    To compare the clinical outcome of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis who were seen by a doctor, with patients who were given treatment following a diagnostic algorithm. Randomized controlled trial. Out-of-hours service, Oslo, Norway. Women with typical symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis were included in the trial in the time period September 2010-November 2011. They were randomized into two groups. One group received standard treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm, the other group received treatment after a regular consultation by a doctor. Women (n = 441) aged 16-55 years. Mean age in both groups 27 years. Number of days until symptomatic resolution. No significant differences were found between the groups in the basic patient demographics, severity of symptoms, or percentage of urine samples with single culture growth. A median of three days until symptomatic resolution was found in both groups. By day four 79% in the algorithm group and 72% in the regular consultation group were free of symptoms (p = 0.09). The number of patients who contacted a doctor again in the follow-up period and received alternative antibiotic treatment was insignificantly higher (p = 0.08) after regular consultation than after treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm. There were no cases of severe pyelonephritis or hospital admissions during the follow-up period. Using a diagnostic algorithm is a safe and efficient method for treating women with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service. This simplification of treatment strategy can lead to a more rational use of consultation time and a stricter adherence to National Antibiotic Guidelines for a common disorder.

  15. Acute interstitial nephritis due to nicergoline (Sermion).

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Park, Joo Hyun; Choi, Yeong Jin; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Sung Hak; Bang, Byung Kee

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) due to nicergoline (Sermion). A 50-year-old patient admitted to our hospital for fever and acute renal failure. Before admission, he had been taking nicergoline and bendazac lysine due to retinal vein occlusion at ophthalmologic department. Thereafter, he experienced intermittent fever and skin rash. On admission, clinical symptoms (i.e. arthralgia and fever) and laboratory findings (i.e. eosinophilia and renal failure) suggested AIN, and which was confirmed by pathologic findings on renal biopsy. A lymphocyte transformation test demonstrated a positive result against nicergoline. Treatment was consisted of withdrawal of nicergoline and intravenous methylprednisolone, and his renal function was completely recovered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nicergoline-associated AIN. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Brooks, F P

    1985-11-01

    Heterogeneity is the most important consideration in the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease. Acute ulcers and erosions present clinically with gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation. If they heal there is no predictable recurrence. Factors concerned with mucosal defense are relatively more important than aggressive factors such as acid and pepsin. Local ischemia is the earliest recognizable gross lesion. The gastric mucosa is at least as vulnerable as the duodenal mucosa and probably more so. Most drug-induced ulcers occur in the stomach. Chronic or recurrent true peptic ulcers (penetrating the muscularis mucosae) usually present with abdominal pain. Many duodenal ulcer patients report that the pain occurs when the stomach is empty or is relieved by food, and follows a pattern of relatively long periods of freedom from symptoms between recurrences. Approximately 50% of patients experience a recurrence within a year if anti-ulcer medication is stopped. In most western countries recurrent duodenal ulcer is more common than gastric ulcer. Peptic ulcer disease is also more common in men. Recent evidence indicates genetic and familial factors in duodenal ulcer and increased acid-pepsin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli. However, it is also becoming clear that of all the abnormal functions noted, few are present in all subjects and many are clustered in subgroups. In chronic gastric ulcer of the corpus, defective defense mechanisms, such as duodenogastric reflux and atrophic gastritis, seem to be more important than aggressive factors. Nevertheless, antisecretory medications accelerate the healing of such ulcers. It remains to be seen whether prostaglandins, mucus secretion, or gastric mucosal blood flow are impaired in chronic ulcer disease.

  17. Do Unilateral Herpetic Stromal Keratitis and Neurotrophic Ulcers Cause Bilateral Dry Eye?

    PubMed

    Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Hashemian, Hesam; Khodaparast, Mehdi; Rafatnejad, Amin; Beheshtnejad, Amirhooshang; Salami, Amir

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the ocular surface condition in herpetic interstitial stromal keratitis and neurotrophic ulcer groups and their normal fellow eyes. In this observational, cross-sectional case-control study, 85 consecutive patients were included, including 56 cases of treated herpetic interstitial keratitis and 29 patients with neurotrophic ulcers. Fifty-six age- and sex-matched participants were also recruited from a normal population as the control group. We evaluated and scored the subjective and objective measures of dry eye for both eyes of all patients. Then, we compared the score of the groups with one another and also with the control group. The main outcome measures were the discomfort level, visual symptoms of dry eye, conjunctival injection, conjunctival staining, corneal staining, corneal tear signs of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction, tear break-up time, Schirmer test score with anesthesia, and tear osmolarity. The normal fellow eye of the herpetic keratitis group had significantly higher discomfort levels (1.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.3 ± 0.5, P = 0.003), visual symptoms (1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7, P = 0.002), tear break-up time (8.3 ± 3.2 vs. 12.1 ± 3.3 seconds, P = 0.003), Schirmer test scores (9.2 ± 3.9 vs. 12.9 ± 3 mm, P = 0.04), and tear osmolarity (9.2 ± 3.9 vs. 12.9 ± 3 mm, P = 0.003) in comparison with normal controls. The normal fellow eyes of the neurotrophic ulcer group had significantly worse values for discomfort level (1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.3 ± 0.5, P < 0.001), tear break-up time (7.9 ± 4 vs. 12.1 ± 3.3, P = 0.004), Schirmer test score (8.1 ± 3.9 vs. 12.9 ± 3, P = 0.005), and tear osmolarity (295 ± 9.2 vs. 292.7 ± 5.9, P = 0.02) compared with normal controls. Both eyes of patients with neurotrophic ulcer and interstitial herpetic keratitis have a significantly poorer ocular surface condition compared with that of normal controls.

  18. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  19. Presence of human polyomavirus DNA in the peripheral circulation of bone marrow transplant patients with and without hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovic, G; Ljungman, P; Wang, F; Dalianis, T

    1996-04-01

    In BMT patients, shedding of BK virus (BKV) in the urine has been strongly but not absolutely correlated to hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). The possible presence of human polyomaviruses in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), plasma, serum and urine in BMT patients and an association with HC was investigated by a nested PCR assay. Samples from allogeneic BMT patients with and without HC as well as from autologous BMT patients were analyzed. Human polyomaviruses were detected in urine and blood samples of both allogeneic and autologous BMT patients with and without HC. An association between the presence of a specific human polyomavirus in blood and HC was thus not observed.

  20. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  1. [Topical therapy of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Rogler, G; Beglinger, C; Mottet, C; Seibold, F; Gross, V

    2011-11-16

    The availability of new topical preparations for the treatment of left sided ulcerative colitis ulcerosa offers a therapy optimization for many patients. Rectal application of steroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is associated with fewer side effects and has a higher therapeutic efficacy in mild to moderate-active left-sided colitis as compared to a systemic therapy. Often it is argued that the patients' compliance is insufficient with a rectal therapy. However, with sufficient information on the proven advantages this is usually not the case. The rectal application of drugs in distal ulcerative colitis is suitable also for the maintenance of remission. Therefore the new therapy guidelines recommend topical therapy more than in former times. Subsequently, these manuscripts focussed specifically on the topical therapy of distal colitis, to elucidate that clear treatment advantages are present in daily practice.

  2. Hydroxyurea-induced oral ulceration.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Maha; Almazrooa, Soulafa; Azher, Fatima; Alsayes, Fatin

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite that is widely used in the treatment of many benign and malignant conditions. This drug is usually well tolerated but has a number of side effects that vary in incidence. In cases of clinically significant adverse events, hydroxyurea is usually discontinued either temporarily or permanently, depending on treatment need versus harm caused by side effects. Here, we report a case of oral ulceration associated with hydroxyurea treatment in a patient who had chronic myelogenous leukemia. The patient rapidly developed an oral ulcer 12 days after administration of the drug. Hydroxyurea was discontinued, and the oral lesion appreciably decreased in size and severity. Physicians and dentists should be aware of the association between hydroxyurea and oral lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors for hemorrhagic cystitis in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hayden, R T; Gu, Z; Liu, W; Lovins, R; Kasow, K; Woodard, P; Srivastava, K; Leung, W

    2015-04-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) results in significant morbidity among hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Several potential causes for HC have been postulated, including viral infection, but definitive evidence is lacking, particularly in pediatric HSCT patients. Ninety pediatric HSCT recipients were prospectively tested on a weekly basis for adenovirus (ADV) and BK virus (BKV) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in blood and urine samples. Results were correlated with the occurrence of grade II-IV HC. The odds ratio (OR) of HC (95% confidence interval) for BKV ≥1 × 10(9) copies/mL of urine was 7.39 (1.52, 35.99), with a P-value of 0.013. Those with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) also had higher odds of developing HC, with an OR of 5.34. Given a 20% prevalence rate of HC, positive and negative predictive values of 29% and 95% were seen with a cutoff of 10(9) copies/mL. BK viremia did not reach significance as a risk factor for development of HC (P = 0.06). Only 8 patients showed ADV viruria and 7 showed ADV viremia; all had low viral loads and 4 had no evidence of HC. HC in pediatric HSCT is correlated most strongly to elevated urinary viral load of BKV and to aGVHD, but less strongly to BK viremia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Quantification of polyoma BK viruria in hemorrhagic cystitis complicating bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leung, A Y; Suen, C K; Lie, A K; Liang, R H; Yuen, K Y; Kwong, Y L

    2001-09-15

    Polyoma BK virus (BKV) is frequently identified in the urine of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients with hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). However, viruria is common even in asymptomatic patients, making a direct causative role of BKV difficult to establish. This study prospectively quantified BK viruria and viremia in 50 BMT patients to define the quantitative relationship of BKV reactivation with HC. Adenovirus (ADV) was similarly quantified as a control. More than 800 patient samples were quantified for BKV VP1 gene with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Twenty patients (40%) developed HC, 6 with gross hematuria (HC grade 2 or higher) and 14 with microscopic hematuria (HC grade 1). When compared with asymptomatic patients, patients with HC had significantly higher peak BK viruria (6 x 10(12) versus 5.7 x 10(7) genome copies/d, P <.001) and larger total amounts of BKV excreted during BMT (4.9 x 10(13) versus 7.7 x 10(8) genome copies, P <.001). There was no detectable increase in BK viremia. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that BK viruria was the only risk factor, with HC not related to age, conditioning regimen, type of BMT, and graft-versus-host disease. Furthermore, the levels of ADV viruria in patients with or without HC were similar and comparable with those of BK viruria in patients without HC, suggesting that the significant increase in BK viruria in HC patients was not due to background viral reactivation or damage to the urothelium. BK viruria was quantitatively related to the occurrence of HC after BMT.

  5. Cidofovir for BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Simone; Hirsch, Hans H; Faraci, Maura; Owoc-Lempach, Joanna; Beltrame, Angela; Tendas, Andrea; Baltadakis, Ioannis; Dalle, Jean-Hughes; Koc, Yener; Toporski, Jacek; Styczynski, Jan; Yesilipek, M Akif; Heinz, Werner; Caniglia, Maurizio; Rascon, Jelena; Fauser, Axel A; Michallet, Mauricette; Lopez-Corral, Lucia; Neuburger, Stefan; Tridello, Gloria; Einsele, Herman

    2009-07-15

    BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but antiviral treatment for this condition has not been evaluated. We conducted a retrospective survey on the safety and outcome of cidofovir treatment for patients with BKV-HC in centers affiliated with the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. From 1 April 2004 to 31 December 2007, 62 patients received a diagnosis of BKV-HC after a median interval of 35 days after HSCT (range, 3-577 days). Fifty-seven patients (92%) received intravenous cidofovir, whereas 5 patients received cidofovir intravesically. Complete response (CR) was recorded in 38 (67%) of 57 patients with HC treated with intravenous cidofovir, whereas partial response (PR) was documented in 7 patients (12%). CR was documented in 3 patients and PR in 1 patient with HC treated with intravesical cidofovir. A reduction of 1-3 logs in BKV load was documented in 8 of the 10 patients achieving CR. Mild-to-moderate toxic effects were recorded in 18 of 57 patients who received intravenous cidofovir administration. In a multivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with response to cidofovir were the stem cell source (P = .01) and the use of total body irradiation (P = .03). After a median follow-up of 287 days, overall survival and total treatment-related mortality rates were 63% and 40% for patients achieving CR, compared with 14% and 72% for patients with PR or no response to cidofovir, respectively (P = .001 and P = .001, respectively). Cidofovir may be a potentially effective therapy for BKV-HC, but evidence supporting its use requires randomized controlled trials.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in case of hemorrhagic cystitis after radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Klejnotowska, Alicja; Matuszewski, Marcin; Sicko, Zdzislaw; Markuszewski, Marcin; Krajka, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We present the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) after radiotherapy for cancer in the pelvic cavity resulting in hematuria. Increasing the pressure of oxygen (PO2) in ischemic tissues favors the formation of new blood vessels and increases the secretion of collagen. Material and methods We evaluated 10 patients who were treated with HBOT from October 2006 to December 2010 due to persistent radiation damage to the lining of the bladder leading to recurrent hematuria. The study group was comprised of seven men and three women. In the case of cervical and endometrial cancers, 30 Gy of brachytherapy with 45-50 Gy of teleradiotherapy were used. In prostate cancer (PCa), we applied 50 Gy of teleradiotherapy with an additional dose of 20-24 Gy, and in the case of bladder cancer (BCa), 50 Gy of teleradiotherapy was applied with an additional dose of 16 Gy. HBOT consisted of 60 HBO2 treatments, in which patients were administered 100% oxygen at a pressure of 2.5 atm. Results The group effect of total or partial resolution was observed in six patients. In one case, treatment was discontinued due to an increase in hematuria and the consequent suspicion of bladder tumor recurrence. While in and additional three cases, the treatment did not produce the desired result. Conclusions Treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis is a difficult therapeutic challenge. One possible method is the implementation of HBOT. In very difficult cases, HBO2 treatment appears to be effective in giving more than half of patients a chance of getting better. PMID:24578962

  7. Effects of vitamin D analog on bladder function and sensory signaling in animal models of cystitis.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Bennett; Redman, T Lawton; Zvara, Peter

    2013-02-01

    To measure the effects of nonhypercalcemic vitamin D receptor agonist elocalcitol on bladder function in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and on bladder function and sensory nerve activity in a mouse with acetic acid-evoked bladder irritation. Female Wistar rats and male Balb/C mice were gavaged once daily with elocalcitol diluted in miglyol 812 (treatment group) or miglyol alone (control group). On experimental day 12, polyethylene tubing was implanted into the urinary bladder in all the animals. In the mice, a bipolar electrode was positioned under a single postganglionic bladder nerve. At 48 hours after surgery, bladder function was measured in awake, freely moving rats during bladder filling with 0.9% NaCl and both bladder function and sensory nerve activity was measured in awake, restrained mice during continuous intravesical infusion of 0.9% NaCl followed by 0.25% acetic acid. In rats, the treatment group showed a significant increase in bladder capacity and decrease in number of nonvoiding bladder contractions. In mice, the filling pressure during saline infusion was similar in both groups; however, during acetic acid infusion, the average filling pressure was significantly increased (47%) in the control group but not in the elocalcitol treatment group. The firing rate at filling pressure for the treatment group was 3.6-fold and 2.7-fold lower than that in the control group during the saline and acetic acid infusion, respectively. Oral treatment with elocalcitol suppressed signs of detrusor overactivity in both animal models and exerted strong suppressive effect on urinary bladder sensory signaling during filling in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fosfomycin: A First-Line Oral Therapy for Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhanel, George G.; Walkty, Andrew J.; Karlowsky, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Fosfomycin is a new agent to Canada approved for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in adult women infected with susceptible isolates of E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of AUC. All English-language references from 1975 to October 2015 were reviewed. In Canada, fosfomycin tromethamine is manufactured as Monurol® and is available as a 3-gram single dose sachet. Fosfomycin has a unique chemical structure, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis at an earlier site compared to β-lactams with no cross-resistance with other agents. Fosfomycin displays broad-spectrum activity against ESBL-producing, AmpC-producing, carbapenem-non-susceptible, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli. Resistance to fosfomycin in E. coli is rare (<1%). Fosfomycin is excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration with peak urinary concentration ~4000 µg/mL and remains at concentrations >100 µg/mL for 48 hours after a single 3-gram oral dose. No dosage adjustments are required in elderly patients, in pregnant patients, or in either renal or hepatic impairment. Fosfomycin demonstrates a favorable safety profile, and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy in AUC that is comparable to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Fosfomycin's in vitro activity against common uropathogens, including MDR isolates, its favorable safety profile including pregnancy patients, drug interactions, and clinical trials data demonstrating efficacy in AUC, has resulted in Canadian, US, and European guidelines/authorities recommending fosfomycin as a first line agent for the treatment of AUC. PMID:27366158

  9. Urologic Outcomes of Children With Hemorrhagic Cystitis After Bone Marrow Transplant at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Au, Jason K; Graziano, Christopher; Elizondo, Rodolfo A; Ryan, Sheila; Roth, David R; Koh, Chester J; Gonzales, Edmond T; Tu, Duong T; Janzen, Nicolette; Naik, Swati; Seth, Abhishek

    2017-03-01

    To analyze clinical outcomes and the risk factors associated with genitourinary (GU) morbidity and mortality in children who present with hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after bone marrow transplant (BMT). A retrospective chart review of patients with HC who had undergone BMT at a single pediatric hospital from 2008 to 2015 was conducted. Demographic data, severity of hematuria, HC management, and mortality were analyzed. Bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were performed to identify risk factors. Out of 43 patients who met inclusion criteria, 67.4% were male with a median age at BMT of 10.2 years (interquartile range 5.8-14.6). Percutaneous nephrostomy catheters were inserted in 5 patients for urinary diversion. All-cause mortality was 32.6% (N = 14). Intravesical retroviral therapy (P <.001), HC grade (P <.001), total Foley time (P <.001), total gross hematuria time (P <.001), total days hospitalized (P = .012), and days to most improved hematuria (P = .032) were associated with significant GU morbidity on bivariate analysis. On multivariable analysis, days to most improved hematuria was associated with significant GU morbidity odds ratio of 1.177 (1.006-1.376) (P = .042). Status of percutaneous nephrostomy was not associated with increased mortality (P = .472); however, in the multivariate model, BK viremia (P = .023), need for renal dialysis (P = .003), and presence of Foley catheter (P = .005) were associated with increased mortality. Children with HC after BMT fall in a very high-risk category with high mortality and significant GU morbidity. The presence of a Foley catheter, need for dialysis, and BK viremia are associated with increased mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extracorporeal shock wave markedly alleviates radiation-induced chronic cystitis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ta; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Chao; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chia-Lo; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Lee, Fan-Yen; Shao, Pei-Lin; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2018-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) treatment can effectively inhibit radiation-induced chronic cystitis (CC). Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 24) were randomly divided into group 1 (normal control), group 2 (CC induced by radiation with 300 cGy twice with a four-hour interval to the urinary bladder), group 3 [CC with ECSW treatment (0.2 mJ/mm2/120 impulses/at days 1, 7, and 14 after radiation)]. Bladder specimens were harvested by day 28 after radiation. By day 28 after radiation, the degree of detrusor contraction impairment was significantly higher in group 2 than that in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than that in group 1 (P<0.0001). The urine albumin concentration expressed an opposite pattern compared to that of detrusor function among the three groups (P<0.0001). The bladder protein expressions of inflammatory (TLR-2/TLR-4/IL-6/IL-12/MMP-9/TNF-α/NF-κB/RANTES/iNOS) and oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein) biomarkers exhibited a pattern identical to that of urine albumin in all groups (all P<0.0001). The cellular expressions of inflammatory (CD14+/CD68+/CD74+/COX-2/MIF+/substance P+) and cytokeratin (CK13+/HMW CK+/CK+17/CK+18/CK+19) biomarkers, and collagen-deposition/fibrotic areas as well as epithelial-damaged score displayed an identical pattern compared to that of urine albumin among the three groups (all P<0.0001). In conclusion, ECSW treatment effectively protected urinary bladder from radiation-induced CC. PMID:29636892

  11. Perforated peptic ulcer - an update

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kin Tong; Shelat, Vishalkumar G

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) affects 4 million people worldwide annually. The incidence of PUD has been estimated at around 1.5% to 3%. Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a serious complication of PUD and patients with PPU often present with acute abdomen that carries high risk for morbidity and mortality. The lifetime prevalence of perforation in patients with PUD is about 5%. PPU carries a mortality ranging from 1.3% to 20%. Thirty-day mortality rate reaching 20% and 90-d mortality rate of up to 30% have been reported. In this review we have summarized the current evidence on PPU to update readers. This literature review includes the most updated information such as common causes, clinical features, diagnostic methods, non-operative and operative management, post-operative complications and different scoring systems of PPU. With the advancement of medical technology, PUD can now be treated with medications instead of elective surgery. The classic triad of sudden onset of abdominal pain, tachycardia and abdominal rigidity is the hallmark of PPU. Erect chest radiograph may miss 15% of cases with air under the diaphragm in patients with bowel perforation. Early diagnosis, prompt resuscitation and urgent surgical intervention are essential to improve outcomes. Exploratory laparotomy and omental patch repair remains the gold standard. Laparoscopic surgery should be considered when expertise is available. Gastrectomy is recommended in patients with large or malignant ulcer. PMID:28138363

  12. [Therapeutic options for pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Damert, H-G; Meyer, F; Altmann, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this overview is based on remarks on the pathogenesis of and therapy for pressure ulcers and selected but representative cases to demonstrate current options of plastic coverage. As a consequence of the demographic developments, in particular, with regard to the increasing proportion of older patients as well as the advances in modern medicine, the number of multimorbid, geriatric and bedridden patients and of those with prolonged sickbed periods has been steadily growing. Therefore, partly severe manifestations of pressure ulcers at various exposed body regions can be observed in spite of the best preventive intention of care. While in the early stages rather conservative treatment is adequate, surgical intervention might become important and indispensable for a sufficient treatment in advanced stages. To facilitate basic care and to appropriately treat the infectious focus, the methods and procedures of plastic surgery can become relevant. Although there are several options and approaches existing to sanitise and cover defects of pressure ulcers, which are described within the article based on representative cases, preventive measures can still be considered the best approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Perforated peptic ulcer - an update.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kin Tong; Shelat, Vishalkumar G

    2017-01-27

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) affects 4 million people worldwide annually. The incidence of PUD has been estimated at around 1.5% to 3%. Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a serious complication of PUD and patients with PPU often present with acute abdomen that carries high risk for morbidity and mortality. The lifetime prevalence of perforation in patients with PUD is about 5%. PPU carries a mortality ranging from 1.3% to 20%. Thirty-day mortality rate reaching 20% and 90-d mortality rate of up to 30% have been reported. In this review we have summarized the current evidence on PPU to update readers. This literature review includes the most updated information such as common causes, clinical features, diagnostic methods, non-operative and operative management, post-operative complications and different scoring systems of PPU. With the advancement of medical technology, PUD can now be treated with medications instead of elective surgery. The classic triad of sudden onset of abdominal pain, tachycardia and abdominal rigidity is the hallmark of PPU. Erect chest radiograph may miss 15% of cases with air under the diaphragm in patients with bowel perforation. Early diagnosis, prompt resuscitation and urgent surgical intervention are essential to improve outcomes. Exploratory laparotomy and omental patch repair remains the gold standard. Laparoscopic surgery should be considered when expertise is available. Gastrectomy is recommended in patients with large or malignant ulcer.

  14. Engaging patients in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Hudgell, Lynne; Dalphinis, Julie; Blunt, Chris; Zonouzi, Maryam; Procter, Susan

    2015-05-06

    As patients increasingly care for themselves at home, they require accessible information to enable informed self-care. This article describes the development of an educational electronic application (app) designed for use by patients at risk of pressure ulcers, and their carers. The app can be downloaded to Windows, Android or Apple smartphones or tablets. The app is based on the current pressure ulcer prevention and management guidelines from the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and is designed to educate patients and carers about how to prevent a pressure ulcer, how to recognise a pressure ulcer, and what to do if they suspect they are developing a pressure ulcer. We hope the app will be used to help with educational conversations among patients, carers and healthcare professionals.

  15. [Having trouble with pressure ulcers care?].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masako; Noda, Yasuhiro; Nohara, Yoko; Fujii, Keiko; Sato, Noriko; Renda, Akiyoshi; Yuasa, Takashi; Muramatsu, Shuichi; Furuta, Katsunori

    2004-12-01

    Since 1997, we, the community pharmacists, have established this society, Aichi Prefecture Society for the Study of Pressure Ulcers Care, in order to furnish drug information about pressure ulcers care. Moist atmosphere is required for the healing of pressure ulcers. The moist environment that could be regulated depends on the physicochemical property of ointment bases. Therefore, ointment should reasonably be chosen to adjust the moisture. Since 2000, we have been committed to providing pharmacists, who work on home care, with a booklet to instruct how to choose ointments for pressure ulcers treatment. In 2002, when the Aichi pharmaceutical association held a training conference held at various hospitals using the booklet as a teaching material, hospital pharmacists cooperated by making a field study trip to observe pressure ulcers treatments. Nowadays researchers at pharmaceutical colleges have also cooperated in studying the efficacy and economical effect of the method of blending different ointments to improve the healing process of pressure ulcers.

  16. Laparoscopic pyloroplasty for perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Grišin, Edvard; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Poškus, Tomas; Jotautas, Valdemaras; Strupas, Kęstutis

    2017-09-01

    Peptic ulcer is a common disease affecting millions of people every year. Despite improved understanding and treatment of the disease, the number of patients admitted with duodenal peptic ulcer perforation has not decreased. Deaths from peptic ulcer disease overcome other common emergency situations. Laparoscopic repair of the perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is the gold standard approach for simple perforation. However, in patients with large perforated chronic ulcers laparotomy with pyloroplasty is the standard treatment. It is generally accepted to perform open surgery in PPU emergencies because of the greater knowledge and experience gathered over the past decades and less potential harm for the patient or surgical complications. We present a case of successful laparoscopic pyloroplasty of a perforated duodenal ulcer with stenosis.

  17. Laparoscopic pyloroplasty for perforated peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Mikalauskas, Saulius; Poškus, Tomas; Jotautas, Valdemaras; Strupas, Kęstutis

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is a common disease affecting millions of people every year. Despite improved understanding and treatment of the disease, the number of patients admitted with duodenal peptic ulcer perforation has not decreased. Deaths from peptic ulcer disease overcome other common emergency situations. Laparoscopic repair of the perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is the gold standard approach for simple perforation. However, in patients with large perforated chronic ulcers laparotomy with pyloroplasty is the standard treatment. It is generally accepted to perform open surgery in PPU emergencies because of the greater knowledge and experience gathered over the past decades and less potential harm for the patient or surgical complications. We present a case of successful laparoscopic pyloroplasty of a perforated duodenal ulcer with stenosis. PMID:29062455

  18. Enhancing Documentation of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Reduce Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  19. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison ofmore » emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.« less

  1. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Raynaud, digital ulcers and calcinosis in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Raynaud, digital ulcers and calcinosis are frequent manifestations of patients with systemic sclerosis. Digital ulcers are seen in more than half of the patients with scleroderma. Hospitalizations, ischemic complications and impairment of hand function are frequently observed in patients with digital ulcers, especially if treatment is delayed. Rapid and intensive treatment escalation in patients with scleroderma and refractory Raynaud's phenomenon is one of the most effective preventive action available in order to avoid the development of digital ulcers and tissue loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Ulcerative colitis masked by giant urticaria.

    PubMed

    Caroselli, C; Plocco, M; Pratticò, F; Bruno, C; Antonaglia, C; Rota, F; Curreli, I; Caroselli, A; Bruno, G

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of giant urticaria and ulcerative colitis is very infrequent. A 23 year-old female reported the initial eruption of short-lived cutaneous itchy weals on her arms. Then lesions ran together and became confluent, extending to her legs, followed by undefined abdominal pain and a slight increase of body temperature. Exams showed hystologically confirmed ulcerative colitis, with perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity. Ulcerative colitis therapy led not only to the remission of the colitic symptoms, but also to the prompt recovery of skin manifestations. Urticaria was the epiphenomenon of ulcerative colitis.

  4. Antacids and peptic ulcer--a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, T; Rhodes, J

    1979-01-01

    Antacids can reduce gastroduodenal acidity for long periods if taken in substantial quantities after food. Their healing effect on gastric ulcer is minimal, if present at all, and easily overwhelmed by the benefit obtained from admission to hospital. Intensive antacid therapy appears effective in healing duodenal ulcer and preventing haemorrhage from stress ulcer, and is comparable in these respects with cimetidine but with a higher incidence of side-effects. Clinical impression strongly suggests that antacids relieve pain in peptic ulcer but objective confirmation is lacking. PMID:38192

  5. Pressure ulcer prevention in frail older people.

    PubMed

    Barry, Maree; Nugent, Linda

    2015-12-16

    Pressure ulcers are painful and cause discomfort, have a negative effect on quality of life, and are costly to treat. The incidence and severity of preventable pressure ulcers is an important indicator of quality of care; it is essential that healthcare providers monitor prevalence and incidence rates to ensure that care strategies implemented are effective. Frail older people are at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers. This article discusses the complexities of preventing pressure ulcers in frail older people and emphasises the importance of structured educational programmes that incorporate effective clinical leadership and multidisciplinary teamwork.

  6. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Bangladesh: A Multi-centre Study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, C K; Khan, M R; Alam, F; Shil, B C; Kabir, M S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Das, S C; Masud, H; Roy, P K

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer has steadily declined through out the world. This decreasing trend is also noticeable in this subcontinent. The point prevalence of peptic ulcer (PUD) in Bangladesh was around 15% in eighties. The aim of this study was to see the present prevalence of peptic ulcer at endoscopy and to identify changing trends in the occurrence of peptic ulcer in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis of the endoscopic records of multiple tertiary referral centres of Dhaka city were done from January 2012 to July 2013. A total of 5608 subjects were the study samples. We included those patients having peptic ulcer in the form of duodenal ulcer, benign gastric ulcer including pre-pyloric ulcer and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer. Duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer were found in 415(7.4%) and 184(3.28%) patients respectively and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer was found in 23(0.40%) patients.

  7. Low-dose cidofovir treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Savona, M R; Newton, D; Frame, D; Levine, J E; Mineishi, S; Kaul, D R

    2007-06-01

    In recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs), BK virus (BKV) has been associated with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). In our institution, HSCT recipients with BKV-associated HC are treated with 1 mg/kg of cidofovir weekly. We identified HSCT recipients with BKV-associated HC, treated with weekly cidofovir. Microbiological response was defined as at least a one log reduction in urinary BKV viral load; clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms and stability or reduction in the grade of cystitis. Nineteen allogeneic HSCT patients received a mean of 4.5 weekly doses of cidofovir. HC occurred at a mean of 68.7 days after transplant. A clinical response was detected in 16/19 (84%) patients, and 9/19 (47%) had a measurable microbiological response (8/10 nonresponders had a BKV viral load above the upper limit of the assay before treatment). Fourteen out of nineteen (74%) patients had no significant increase in serum creatinine. Five patients with renal dysfunction resolved after completion of the therapy and removal of other nephrotoxic agents. We conclude that weekly low-dose cidofovir appears to be a safe treatment option for BKV-associated HC. Although the efficacy of low-dose cidofovir is not proven, a prospective trial is warranted.

  8. BK polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis among pediatric allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: treatment response and evidence for nosocomial transmission.

    PubMed

    Koskenvuo, Minna; Dumoulin, Alexis; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Auvinen, Eeva; Mannonen, Laura; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Saarinen-Pihkala, Ulla M; Hirsch, Hans H

    2013-01-01

    BK polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BK-PyVHC) is a significant complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but risk factors and treatment are currently unresolved. BK-PyVHC typically presents with clinical cystitis, macrohematuria, and increasing urine and blood BKV loads. Characterization of children undergoing allogeneic HSCT with BK-PyVHC and their clinical and antibody response to cidofovir treatment. By prospective screening of urine and plasma in 50 pediatric allogenic HSCT performed between 2008 and 2010, we identified 6 (12%) children with BK-PyVHC. Cidofovir was administered intravenously to 5 patients and intravesically to 4 patients (3 double treatments). Decreasing BKV viremia of>2log(10)copies/mL and clinical resolution was seen in 4 patients over 5-12 weeks. Responses occurred only in patients mounting BKV-specific IgM and IgG responses. Epidemic curve plots, BKV genotyping and contact tracing provided evidence of transmission between 2 BKV-seronegative patients, but ruled out transmission among the remaining four patients The data suggest that BK-PyVHC may be the result of nosocomial transmission in children with low/undetectable BKV antibodies and raises urgent questions about appropriate infection control measures and the role of cidofovir. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Quentin E; Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K; Li, Xing; Enger, Shirin A; Rockey, William R; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T

    2014-05-01

    To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). A wire-mounted 62 GBq(153)Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0-5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D(98%)), I-RSBT reduced urethral D(0.1cc) below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D(1cc) was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D(1cc) was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq (153)Gd sources. For the case considered, the proposed(153)Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%-44% if the clinician allows a urethral dose gradient volume of 0

  10. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the

  11. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Quentin E., E-mail: quentin-adams@uiowa.edu; Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535more » μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR

  12. Association between a High BK Virus Load in Urine Samples of Patients with Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Development of Hemorrhagic Cystitis after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovic, G.; Priftakis, P.; Giraud, G.; Kuzniar, M.; Ferraldeschi, R.; Kokhaei, P.; Mellstedt, H.; Remberger, M.; Ljungman, P.; Winiarski, J.; Dalianis, T.

    2004-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) load in urine alone or in combination with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was correlated to development of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). BKV load in combination with acute GVHD discriminated the best, while BKV and viral load alone, but not GVHD, still showed predictive ability for HC. PMID:15528753

  13. Association between a high BK virus load in urine samples of patients with graft-versus-host disease and development of hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovic, G; Priftakis, P; Giraud, G; Kuzniar, M; Ferraldeschi, R; Kokhaei, P; Mellstedt, H; Remberger, M; Ljungman, P; Winiarski, J; Dalianis, T

    2004-11-01

    BK virus (BKV) load in urine alone or in combination with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was correlated to development of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). BKV load in combination with acute GVHD discriminated the best, while BKV and viral load alone, but not GVHD, still showed predictive ability for HC.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance of Urinary Tract Isolates in Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis among College-Aged Women: Choosing a First-Line Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hames, Leesa; Rice, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors of this retrospective case study focused on antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in cases of acute uncomplicated cystitis in college-aged women, aged 18 to 24 years, diagnosed at a major south-central university student health center. Methods: The authors obtained pertinent data from…

  15. Technique of after-loading interstitial implants.

    PubMed

    Syed, A M; Feder, B H

    1977-01-01

    Interstitial implants are either removable or permanent (and occasionally a combination of both). Permanent implants are generally utilized where tumors are not accessible enough to permit easy removal of sources or where accurate source distribution is less critical. They are useful for cancers of the lung, pancreas, prostate, bladder, lymph nodes, etc. Radon and gold-198 have been largely replaced by iodine-125. Our major interests are in the removable after-loading iridium-192 implant techniques. Template (steel guide) and non-template (plastic tube) techniques are utilized. Templates are preferred where the tumor volume can only be approached from one side and where accurate positioning of sources would otherwise be difficult. They are useful for cancers of the cervix, vagina, urethra, and rectum. Non-template (plastic tube) techniques are preferred where the tumor volume can be approached from at least two sides and where templates are either not feasible or not essential for accurate positioning of sources. The single needle non-template approach is useful for cancers of lip, nodes, and breast (plastic button) and for cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx (gold button). The paired needle non-template approach is useful for cancers of the gum, retromolar trigone, and base of tongue (loop technique) and for cancers of the palate (arch technique). Procedures for each technique are described in detail.

  16. Interstitial cells of Cajal in chagasic megaesophagus.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Marcus Aurelho; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Tavares, Marcelo Garcia; Gerolin, Gustavo Pacheco; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    Chagasic visceromegalies are the most important digestive manifestations of Chagas disease and are characterized by motor disorders and dilation of organs such as esophagus and colon. One of the theories raised to explain the physiopathogenesis of chagasic megas is the plexus theory. Recent studies have shown a reduction of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the colon of chagasic patients. These cells are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and are considered to be pacemaker cells, that is, they are responsible for coordinating peristalsis and for mediating nerve impulses. In view of the lack of studies on these cells in megaesophagus and the previous observation of a reduction of ICCs in chagasic megacolons, we compared the distribution of ICCs in the esophagus of chagasic and nonchagasic patients to contribute to a better understanding of the physiopathogenesis of this esophageal disease. Esophageal biopsy samples from 10 chagasic and 5 nonchagasic patients were used. Cells were identified with the anti-CD117 antibody. The number of ICCs was quantified in longitudinal and circular muscle layers and myenteric plexus. The results were analyzed statistically by comparison of means. An intense reduction in the number of ICCs was observed in muscle layers and in the myenteric plexus of patients with megaesophagus. We conclude that there is an intense reduction of ICCs in the esophagus of chagasic patients when compared to nonchagasic patients, a finding supporting the important role of these cells in gastrointestinal tract motility. A deficiency in these cells might be implied in the genesis of megaesophagus.

  17. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims.

  18. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  19. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  20. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment. PMID:25590006

  1. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Wolff, Christian; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

  2. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT changemore » in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.« less

  4. Interstitial protein alterations in rabbit vocal fold with scar.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Susan L; Bless, Diane M; Gray, Steven D

    2003-09-01

    Fibrous and interstitial proteins compose the extracellular matrix of the vocal fold lamina propria and account for its biomechanic properties. Vocal fold scarring is characterized by altered biomechanical properties, which create dysphonia. Although alterations of the fibrous proteins have been confirmed in the rabbit vocal fold scar, interstitial proteins, which are known to be important in wound repair, have not been investigated to date. Using a rabbit model, interstitial proteins decorin, fibromodulin, and fibronectin were examined immunohistologically, two months postinduction of vocal fold scar by means of forcep biopsy. Significantly decreased decorin and fibromodulin with significantly increased fibronectin characterized scarred vocal fold tissue. The implications of altered interstitial proteins levels and their affect on the fibrous proteins will be discussed in relation to increased vocal fold stiffness and viscosity, which characterizes vocal fold scar.

  5. Birth-cohort patterns of mortality from ulcerative colitis and peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to follow the time trends of mortality from ulcerative colitis and compare them with those of gastric and duodenal ulcer. Mortality data from 21 different countries between 1941 and 2004 were analyzed. The age-specific death rates of each individual country, as well as the average age-specific rates of all countries, were plotted against the periods of birth and death. The average trends of mortality from ulcerative colitis, gastric and duodenal ulcer reveal distinctive and unique birth-cohort patterns of all three diseases. Similar to both types of peptic ulcer, the risk of developing ulcerative colitis started to rise in successive generations born during the second half of the 19(th) century. It peaked shortly before the turn of the century and has continued to decline since then. The rise and fall in the occurrence of ulcerative colitis preceded those of both ulcer types. The birth-cohort pattern indicates that exposure to the relevant risk factors of ulcerative colitis occurs during early life. As the model of H. pylori and its associated birth-cohort patterns of gastric and duodenal ulcer suggest, an enteric infection provides a possible explanation for such temporal trends of ulcerative colitis as well.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of wound management in France: pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Meaume, S; Gemmen, E

    2002-06-01

    This study set out to define realistic protocols of care for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers and pressure ulcers in France and, by developing cost-effectiveness models, to compare the different protocols of care for the two ulcer groups, enabling a calculation of direct medical costs per ulcer healed in a typical French health insurance plan. Clinical outcomes and some treatment patterns were obtained from published literature. Validations of different treatment patterns were developed using an expert consensus panel similar to the Delphi approach. Costs were calculated based on national averages and estimates from the UK and Germany. The models were used to measure costs per healed ulcer over a 12-week period. For both the pressure ulcer and venous leg ulcer models, three protocols of care were identified. For pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers, the hydrocolloid DuoDERM (ConvaTec, also known as Granuflex in the UK and Varihesive in Germany) was most cost-effective in France. The combination of published data and expert consensus opinion is a valid technique, and in this case suggests that treating pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers with hydrocolloid dressings is more cost-effective than treating them with saline gauze, in spite of the lower unit cost of the latter.

  7. Native interstitial defects in ZnGeN2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skachkov, Dmitry; Lambrecht, Walter R. L.

    2017-10-01

    A density functional study is presented of the interstitial Zni, Gei, and Ni in ZnGeN2. Corrections to the band gap are included by means of the LDA+U method. The Zn and Ge interstitials are both found to strongly prefer the larger octahedral site compared to the two types of tetrahedral sites. The Zn interstitial is found to be a shallow double donor, but it has higher energy than previously studied antisite defects. It has a resonance in the conduction band that is Zn-s like. The Ge interstitial is an even higher energy of formation defect and also behaves as a shallow double donor, but it also has a deep level in the gap corresponding to a Ge-s orbital character while the Ge-p forms a resonance in the conduction band. The nitrogen interstitial forms a split-interstitial configuration, as also occurs in GaN. Its electronic levels can be related to that of a N2 molecule. The defect levels in the gap correspond to the πg-like lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the molecule, which here becomes filled with three electrons in the defect's neutral charge state. They are found to prefer a high-spin configuration in the q =+1 state. The corresponding transition levels are obtained and show that this is an amphoteric trap level occurring in +2 , +1 , 0, and -1 charge states. The two possible sites for this split interstitial, on top of Zn or on top of Ge, differ slightly in N2 bond length. While the Ni defects have the lowest formation energy among the interstitials, it is still higher than that of the antisites. Hence they are not expected to occur in sufficient concentration to affect the intrinsic Fermi level position. In particular, they do not contribute to the unintentional n -type background doping.

  8. Laparoscopic management of interstitial pregnancy with automatic stapler

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan Akhtar, Muhammad; Izzat, Feras; Keay, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman was referred by general practitioner to the early pregnancy unit with pelvic pain in her seventh week of pregnancy. She had a transvaginal ultrasound. Unruptured live twin tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed an unruptured left interstitial ectopic pregnancy. The interstitial tubal pregnancy was removed by laparoscopic automatic stapler with minimal blood loss. The patient had an uneventful recovery to health. PMID:23093504

  9. Effects of CYP-induced cystitis on PACAP/VIP and receptor expression in micturition pathways and bladder function in mice with overexpression of NGF in urothelium.

    PubMed

    Girard, Beatrice M; Tompkins, John D; Parsons, Rodney L; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2012-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated nerve growth factor (NGF) regulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/receptors in bladder reflex pathways using a transgenic mouse model of chronic NGF overexpression in the bladder using the urothelial-specific uroplakin II promoter. We have now explored the contribution of target-derived NGF in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis to determine whether additional changes in neuropeptides/receptors are observed in micturition reflex pathways due to the presence of additional inflammatory mediators in the urinary bladder. Quantitative PCR was used to determine PACAP/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P, galanin, and receptor transcript expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium, detrusor) in mice with overexpression of NGF in the urothelium (NGF-OE) and wild-type (WT) mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, and chronic). With CYP-induced cystitis (4 h), WT and NGF-OE mice exhibited similar changes in galanin transcript expression in the urothelium (30-fold increase) and detrusor (threefold increase). In contrast, PACAP, VIP, and substance P transcripts exhibited differential changes in WT and NGF-OE with CYP-induced cystitis. PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 transcript expression also exhibited differential responses in NGF-OE mice that were tissue (urothelium vs. detrusor) and CYP-induced cystitis duration-dependent. Using conscious cystometry, NGF-OE mice treated with CYP exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.01) increases in voiding frequency above that observed in control NGF-OE mice. In addition, no changes in the electrical properties of the major pelvic ganglia neurons of NGF-OE mice were detected using intracellular recording, suggesting that the urinary bladder phenotype in NGF-OE mice is not influenced by changes in the efferent limb of the micturition reflex. These studies are consistent with target-derived NGF and other inflammatory mediators affecting

  10. Expression and function of transforming growth factor-β isoforms and cognate receptors in the rat urinary bladder following cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Eric J.; Girard, Beatrice M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the reorganization of lower urinary tract function following cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. The present study investigated the functional profile of three pleiotropic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms and receptor (TβR) variants in the normal and inflamed (CYP-induced cystitis) rat urinary bladder. Our findings indicate that TGF-β (1, 2, and 3) and TβR (1, 2, and 3) transcript and protein expression were regulated to varying degrees in the urothelium or detrusor smooth muscle following intermediate (48 h; 150 mg/kg ip) or chronic (75 mg/kg ip; once every 3 days for 10 days), but not acute (4 h; 150 mg/kg ip), CYP-induced cystitis. Conscious, open-outlet cystometry was performed to determine whether aberrant TGF-β signaling contributes to urinary bladder dysfunction following intermediate (48 h) CYP-induced cystitis. TβR-1 inhibition with SB505124 (5 μM) significantly (p ≤ 0.001) decreased voiding frequency and increased bladder capacity (2.5-fold), void volume (2.6-fold), and intercontraction intervals (2.5-fold) in CYP-treated (48 h) rats. Taken together, these results provide evidence for 1) the involvement of TGF-β in lower urinary tract neuroplasticity following urinary bladder inflammation, 2) a functional role of TGF-β signaling in the afferent limb of the micturition reflex, and 3) urinary bladder TβR-1 as a viable target to reduce voiding frequency with cystitis. PMID:23926183

  11. Optimization of Neuromodulation for Bladder Control in a Rat Cystitis Model.

    PubMed

    Su, Xin; Nickles, Angela; Nelson, Dwight E

    2016-01-01

    In a bladder overactivity model of cystitis induced by intravesical infusion of acetic acid (a.a.), several parameters of spinal nerve stimulation (SNS) were optimized using continuous infusion cystometry. The optimal stimulation was further characterized through measurements of urodynamic function using single-fill cystometry. In anesthetized male rats, a cannula was placed into the bladder dome for saline or 0.3% a.a. infusion and intravesical pressure monitoring. For SNS, two teflon-coated stainless steel electrodes were placed bilaterally under each of the L6 spinal nerves, and current stimulation was controlled independently using two Grass stimulators. Stimulation of 1 Hz or 50 Hz at motor threshold (Tmot ) was ineffective for altering bladder activities, but 10-Hz SNS increased the infused volume (IV) in a stimulation intensity-dependent fashion (P < 0.01, mixed model repeated analysis). Pairwise comparisons of IV differences to each stimulation intensity show that IV during 1 × Tmot stimulation was significantly larger than 0 × Tmot (no stim, P = 0.001), while the IV during 2 × Tmot stimulation was significantly larger than other intensities tested (P < 0.01). The mean IV (±SEM) during 0 × Tmot (no stim), 0.5 × Tmot , 1 × Tmot , and 2 × Tmot were 0.23 ± 0.04 mL, 0.25 ± 0.03 mL, 0.26 ± 0.03 mL, and 0.40 ± 0.04 mL, respectively. In single-fill cystometry, 10-Hz SNS at 1 × Tmot and 2 × Tmot stimulation increased the IV, or voiding duration and threshold pressure. SNS did not produce significant effects on basal pressure and micturition pressure. SNS significantly attenuates hypersensitive micturition reflex; 10 Hz and high-intensity stimulation are mostly effective. Acute peripheral nerve activation increases the functional bladder capacity, which may be via mechanisms on the afferent arm of the bladder micturition reflex. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  12. 38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic...

  13. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Karoon; Chauhan, Neha

    2012-01-01

    Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is somewhat lacking in the correct description of the disease process. Hence, a modified definition has been presented. This disease is here to stay. In the process of managing these ulcers the basic pathology needs to be understood well. Pressure ischemia is the main reason behind the occurrence of ulceration. Different extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been described in detail with review of literature. There are a large number of risk factors causing ulceration. The risk assessment scales have eluded the surgical literature and mostly remained in nursing books and websites. These scales have been reproduced for completion of the basics on decubitus ulcer. The classification of the pressure sores has been given in a comparative form to elucidate that most of the classifications are the same except for minor variations. The management of these ulcers is ever evolving but the age old saying of “prevention is better than cure” suits this condition the most. PMID:23162223

  14. Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise

    2014-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought.

  15. 38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic...

  16. 38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic...

  17. 38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic...

  18. 38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic...

  19. Laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Busić, Zeljko; Servis, Draien; Slisurić, Ferdinand; Kristek, Jozo; Kolovrat, Marijan; Cavka, Vlatka; Cavka, Mislav; Cupurdija, Kristijan; Patrlj, Leonardo; Kvesić, Ante

    2010-03-01

    Although prevalence of peptic ulcer is decreasing, the number of peptic ulcer perforations appears to be unchanged. This complication of peptic ulcer is traditionally surgically treated. In recent years, a number of papers have been published where the authors managed perforated duodenal peptic ulcer in selected patients using laparoscopic approach. Laparoscopic treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer has been described as safe and advantageous compared to open technique but advantages are still not clear due to small number of cases in published studies. Based on these recommendations we decided to establish our own protocol for laparoscopic treatment of perforated peptic duodenal ulcer. In this prospective study we evaluated the first 10 patients in whom we performed laparoscopic repair of perforated duodenal ulcer. There were no conversions to open procedure and no early postoperative complications. The patients were contacted by phone a year after the operation, and all were satisfied with the operation and the appearance of postoperative scars. We regard laparoscopic repair of selected patients with perforated duodenal ulcer as a safe and preferable treatment.

  20. New insights into canted spiro carbon interstitial in graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The self-interstitial carbon is the key to radiation damage in graphite moderator nuclear reactor, so an understanding of its behavior is essential for plant safety and maximized reactor lifetime. The density functional theory is applied on four different graphite unit cells, starting from of 64 carbon atoms up to 256 carbon atoms, using AIMPRO code to obtain the energetic, athermal and mechanical properties of carbon interstitial in graphite. This study presents first principles calculations of the energy of formation that prove its high barrier to athermal diffusion (1.1 eV) and the consequent large critical shear stress (39 eV-50 eV) necessary to shear graphite planes in its presence. Also, for the first time, the gamma surface of graphite in two dimensions is calculated and found to yield the critical shear stress for perfect graphite. Finally, in contrast to the extensive literature describing the interstitial of carbon in graphite as spiro interstitial, in this work the ground state of interstitial carbon is found to be canted spiro interstitial.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers for low-dose aspirin-associated peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Murao, Takahisa; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Sakakibara, Takashi; Nishio, Kazuto; Haruma, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In our previous study, the SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer in patients taking low-dose aspirin (LDA). The aim of the present study was to investigate pharmacogenomic profile of LDA-induced peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding. Patients taking 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin for cardiovascular diseases and with a peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding and patients who also participated in endoscopic surveillance were studied. Genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Affymetrix DME Plus Premier Pack. SLCO1B1*1b haplotype and candidate genotypes of genes associated with ulcer bleeding or small bowel bleeding identified by genome-wide analysis were determined using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay kits, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and direct sequencing. Of 593 patients enrolled, 111 patients had a peptic ulcer and 45 had ulcer bleeding. The frequencies of the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype and CHST2 2082 T allele were significantly greater in patients with peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding compared to the controls. After adjustment for significant factors, the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype was associated with peptic ulcer (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.24-3.89) and CHST2 2082 T allele with ulcer bleeding (2.57, 1.07-6.17). The CHST2 2082 T allele as well as SLCO1B1*1b haplotype may identify patients at increased risk for aspirin-induced peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Plasma cytokine levels in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Goral, Vedat; Celenk, Tahir; Kaplan, Abdurahman; Sit, Dede

    2007-06-01

    Some immunological factors are responsible in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. There is a relationship between cytokines and ulcerative colitis. In this study 20 ulcerative colitis patients (mean age 36.2 years old, 9 women, 11 men) and 20 healthy control groups (mean age 27.2 years old, 11 women, 9 men) were involved in the study. We established that IL-2Rsp, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels were different at the patients and control groups (p < 0.005). TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta were similar at the both groups. According to these results, IL-2Rsp, IL-6, 11-8 and IL-10 play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. We consider that these cytokines are beneficial parameters in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ulcerative colitis.

  3. Current and emerging biologics for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Chul; Jeen, Yoon Tae

    2015-01-01

    Conventional medical treatment for ulcerative colitis can have limited efficacy or severe adverse reactions requiring additional treatment or colectomy. Hence, different biological agents that target specific immunological pathways are be-ing investigated for treating ulcerative colitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were the first biologics to be used for treating inflammatory bowel disease. For example, infliximab and adalimumab, which are anti-TNF agents, are be-ing used for treating ulcerative colitis. Recently, golimumab, another anti-TNF agent, and vedolizumab, an anti-adhesion therapy, have been approved for ulcerative colitis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition, new medications such as tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, and etrolizumab, another anti-adhesion therapy, are emerging as therapeutic agents. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to select appropriate patient groups for these biologics and to improve the outcomes of ulcerative colitis treatment through appropriate medical usage.

  4. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current and Emerging Biologics for Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Chul; Jeen, Yoon Tae

    2015-01-01

    Conventional medical treatment for ulcerative colitis can have limited efficacy or severe adverse reactions requiring additional treatment or colectomy. Hence, different biological agents that target specific immunological pathways are being investigated for treating ulcerative colitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were the first biologics to be used for treating inflammatory bowel disease. For example, infliximab and adalimumab, which are anti-TNF agents, are being used for treating ulcerative colitis. Recently, golimumab, another anti-TNF agent, and vedolizumab, an anti-adhesion therapy, have been approved for ulcerative colitis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition, new medications such as tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, and etrolizumab, another anti-adhesion therapy, are emerging as therapeutic agents. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to select appropriate patient groups for these biologics and to improve the outcomes of ulcerative colitis treatment through appropriate medical usage. PMID:25547087

  6. PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION: FUNDAMENTALS FOR BEST PRACTICE.

    PubMed

    Collier, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This introduction has highlighted both the complex nature of the aetiology of pressure ulcer development and the complex nature of the assessment process intended to identify those patients who are or might be at an enhanced risk of pressure ulcer development. The latter statement assumes that all patients cared for in any healthcare setting are vulnerable to pressure ulcer development. Whilst it is acknowledged that the use of a risk assessment tool can be important in an overall pressure ulcer prevention strategy, it is important that the limitations of these tools are acknowledged and that they are not an finite assessment in themselves and that they should be used by a practitioner with a fundamental breadth of relevant knowledge and an appreciation of the range of appropriate preventative equipment/techniques available and the role of the multi-disciplinary team in the prevention of all avoidable pressure ulcers.

  7. The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide comprehensive trial methods and baseline data for the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial and to present epidemiological characteristics such as risk factors, causative organisms, and ulcer severity. Methods Baseline data from a 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial comparing prednisolone phosphate, 1%, with placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and had been taking moxifloxacin for 48 hours. The primary outcome for the trial is best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months from enrollment. This report provides comprehensive baseline data, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, infiltrate size, microbio-logical results, and patient demographics, for patients enrolled in the trial. Results Of 500 patients enrolled, 97% were in India. Two hundred twenty patients (44%) were agricultural workers. Median baseline visual acuity was 0.84 logMAR (Snellen, 20/125) (interquartile range, 0.36-1.7; Snellen, 20/50 to counting fingers). Baseline visual acuity was not significantly different between the United States and India. Ulcers in India had larger infiltrate/scar sizes (P=.04) and deeper infiltrates (P=.04) and were more likely to be localized centrally (P=.002) than ulcers enrolled in the United States. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common organisms isolated from the ulcers (n=366, 72%). Conclusions The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial will compare the use of a topical corticosteroid with placebo as adjunctive therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients enrolled in this trial had diverse ulcer severity and on average significantly reduced visual acuity at presentation. PMID:21987581

  8. Gastroduodenitis associated with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kazutoshi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Nakano, Hiroki; Uchino, Motoi; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Hida, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is regarded as confined to the colorectum; however, there are several case reports showing upper gastrointestinal involvement. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of gastroduodenitis associated with UC (GDUC). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies was prospectively performed on 250 UC patients (134 men, 116 women; mean age, 42 years; 162 with colectomy, 163 with pancolitis). Criteria for GDUC were created on the basis of endoscopic and histological comparisons with non-UC controls, and the prevalence and characteristics were statistically analyzed. GDUC was defined endoscopically as friable mucosa (erosive or ulcerative mucosa with contact or spontaneous bleeding), granular mucosa (multiple white spots almost without a red halo), or, conditionally, multiple aphthae (multiple white spots surrounded by a red halo, clinically excluding other disorders such as Crohn's disease). The prevalence of GDUC was 19/250 (7.6%). The clinical characteristics included more extensive colitis, lower dose of prednisolone, higher prevalence of pouchitis, and longer postoperative period. In our population, the presence of pancolitis and a lower dose of prednisolone were significant risk factors for developing GDUC in multivariate analysis. The high prevalence of GDUC suggests that the gut inflammatory reaction in UC may not be restricted to the large intestine. Administered steroids might conceal GDUC, and more aggressive UC such as active pancolitis may be related to the development of GDUC.

  9. Factors precipitating acute ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Puri, A S; Chaubal, C C; Midha, Vandana

    2014-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation of a variable length of the colon starting from the rectum. The precise etiopathogenesis is unknown but it occurs in genetically susceptible individuals who manifest an abnormal immunological response against gut commensal bacteria. The disease course is-characterized by multiple spontaneous relapses and remissions. Two pathogens namely CMV and C. difficile have been associated with disease exacerbation in specific clinical situations. Whereas C. difficile may produce worsening of the disease in those exposed to broad spectrum antibiotics, CMV reactivation is seen only in patients with moderate to severe steroid refractory disease. The importance of these two super-infections can be gauged by the fact that both the ACG and the ECCO recommend testing for these two pathogens in appropriate clinical situations. The applicability of these guidelines in the Indian scenario has yet to be determined in view of the bacterial and parasitic infections endemic in tropical countries. The guidelines for diagnosis and management of these two super-infections in the presence of ulcerative colitis are discussed in this review.

  10. History of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Gianfaldoni, S; Wollina, U; Lotti, J; Gianfaldoni, R; Lotti, T; Fioranelli, M; Roccia, M G

    To retrieve the history of venous ulcers and of skin lesions in general, we must go back to the appearance of human beings on earth. It is interesting to note that cutaneous injuries evolved parallel to human society. An essential first step in the pathogenesis of ulcers was represented by the transition of the quadruped man to Homo Erectus. This condition was characterized by a greater gravitational pressure on the lower limbs, with consequences on the peripheral venous system. Furthermore, human evolution was characterized by an increased risk of traumatic injuries, secondary to his natural need to create fire and hunt (e.g. stones, iron, fire, animal fighting). Humans then began to fight one another until they came to real wars, with increased frequency of wounds and infectious complications. The situation degraded with the introduction of horse riding, introduced by the Scites, who first tamed animals in the 7th century BC. This condition exhibited iliac veins at compression phenomena, favouring the venous stasis. With time, man continued to evolve until the modern age, which is characterized by increased risk factors for venous wounds such as poor physical activity and dietary errors (1, 2).

  11. Zinc deficiency promotes cystitis-related bladder pain by enhancing function and expression of Cav3.2 in mice.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Tomoka; Matsuoka, Junki; Tsubota, Maho; Tomita, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Minami, Takeshi; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2018-01-15

    Ca v 3.2 T-type Ca 2+ channel activity is suppressed by zinc that binds to the extracellular histidine-191 of Ca v 3.2, and enhanced by H 2 S that interacts with zinc. Ca v 3.2 in nociceptors is upregulated in an activity-dependent manner. The enhanced Ca v 3.2 activity by H 2 S formed by the upregulated cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is involved in the cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced cystitis-related bladder pain in mice. We thus asked if zinc deficiency affects the cystitis-related bladder pain in mice by altering Ca v 3.2 function and/or expression. Dietary zinc deficiency for 2 weeks greatly decreased zinc concentrations in the plasma but not bladder tissue, and enhanced the bladder pain/referred hyperalgesia (BP/RH) following CPA at 200mg/kg, a subeffective dose, but not 400mg/kg, a maximal dose, an effect abolished by pharmacological blockade or gene silencing of Ca v 3.2. Acute zinc deficiency caused by systemic N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylendiamine (TPEN), a zinc chelator, mimicked the dietary zinc deficiency-induced Ca v 3.2-dependent promotion of BP/RH following CPA at 200mg/kg. CPA at 400mg/kg alone or TPEN plus CPA at 200mg/kg caused Ca v 3.2 overexpression accompanied by upregulation of Egr-1 and USP5, known to promote transcriptional expression and reduce proteasomal degradation of Ca v 3.2, respectively, in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The CSE inhibitor, β-cyano-l-alanine, prevented the BP/RH and upregulation of Ca v 3.2, Egr-1 and USP5 in DRG following TPEN plus CPA at 200mg/kg. Together, zinc deficiency promotes bladder pain accompanying CPA-induced cystitis by enhancing function and expression of Ca v 3.2 in nociceptors, suggesting a novel therapeutic avenue for treatment of bladder pain, such as zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with First and Recurrent Cystitis in Indian Women: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bharti; Srivastava, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Srivastava, Sugandha; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145) and recurrent (77) cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257) were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]): Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52), time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was <5 days (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.22-4.23), use of cloth during menstrual cycle (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.26), >250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38), presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62) and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38). Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07), constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92) and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06) were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country. PMID:26917870

  13. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; P<0.001) and a lower percentage of emphysema defined by lung-attenuation thresholds of -950 Hounsfield units (-3%; 95% CI, -4 to -2; P<0.001) and -910 Hounsfield units (-10%; 95% CI, -12 to -8; P<0.001). As compared with participants without interstitial lung abnormalities, those with abnormalities were more likely to have a restrictive lung deficit (total lung capacity <80% of the predicted value; odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.7; P<0.001) and were less likely to meet the diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation

  14. Immune-expression of HSP27 and IL-10 in recurrent aphthous ulceration.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Nelson T; Borra, Ricardo Carneiro; Abreu, Marilda; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice; Franco, Marcello

    2008-09-01

    Recently, abnormal cellular immune response has been considered responsible for the oral lesion in the recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU). For reasons not yet defined, antigens of the oral microbiota would trigger abnormal Th1 immune response against epithelial cells. On the other hand, studies have demonstrated that heat shock proteins (HSP) can block the production of proinflammatory cytokine through inhibition of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways or activate anti-inflammatory cytokines and therefore control the magnitude of the immune response. HSP27 has been considered a powerful inductor of IL-10, a major inhibitor of Th1 response. Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression and location of HSP27 and IL-10 in ulcerated lesions clinically diagnosed as RAU (n = 27) and to compare it with that of oral clinically normal mucosa (CT; n = 6) and of other inflammatory chronic diseases such as oral fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia (FIH; n = 18), Crohn's disease (CD; n = 10) and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 9). A lower proportion of HSP27-positive epithelial cells in RAU and CD were observed when compared with CT and FIH (P < 0.001**; P = 0.013**). A lower proportion of IL-10-positive interstitial cells in RAU was observed when compared with FIH, UC, CT and CD (P < 0.001**; P < 0.001**; P < 0.001**; P = 0.034*). Altogether the data suggest that a reduced cellular expression of HSP27 and IL-10 in RAU might be related with the aetiopathogenesis of the ulcerated oral lesions.

  15. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  16. Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Ajah, Austin Azubuike; Elufioye, Taiwo Olayemi

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ≤ 0.05) is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration.

  17. Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents

    PubMed Central

    Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Ajah, Austin Azubuike; Elufioye, Taiwo Olayemi

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Results: The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ≤ 0.05) is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration. PMID:23900937

  18. Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... gets through to the sensitive tissues lining the digestive system underneath. Acid and bacteria directly irritate this lining ... to other problems, such as bleeding in the digestive system or a hole in the wall of the ...

  19. Clinical effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for BK-virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Savva-Bordalo, J; Pinho Vaz, C; Sousa, M; Branca, R; Campilho, F; Resende, R; Baldaque, I; Camacho, O; Campos, A

    2012-08-01

    Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been associated with BK virus (BKV). Antiviral drugs are of limited efficacy and the optimal treatment for HC has not yet been established. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) may benefit these patients. We, therefore, retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of HBO therapy in 16 patients with HC after allogeneic HSCT. All 16 patients had macroscopic hematuria and BKV infection. Patients received 100% oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber at 2.1 atmospheres for 90 min, 5 days per week, with a median 13 treatments (range, 4-84). Fifteen patients (94%) showed complete resolution of hematuria. Median urinary DNA BKV titers declined after HBO (P<0.05). Patients started on HBO earlier after diagnosis of HC responded sooner (P<0.05). HBO was generally well tolerated and proved to be a reliable option for this difficult to manage condition.

  20. BK virus-associated fatal renal failure following late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis in an unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Shotaro; Azuma, Eiichi; Hori, Hiroki; Hirayama, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Komada, Yoshihiro; Nishimori, Hisashi; Miyahara, Masazumi

    2002-06-01

    The human polyomavirus BK (BKV)-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) has been a frequent and, seldom life-threatening complication after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The authors report a male with melodysplastic syndrome, who developed BKV-associated late-onset HC 12 days after HLA-matched unrelated BMT. His urine contained epithelial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies suggestive of BKV infection and was positive for BKV in polymerase chain reaction. He did not respond to any treatment for HC. In addition, he developed BKV-associated acute renal failure on day 26, followed by hepatic veno-occlusive disease on day 42. This is the first case in which BKV may be associated with fatal progressive renal failure.

  1. [Laser's biostimulation in healing or crural ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Król, P; Franek, A; Huńka-Zurawińska, W; Bil, J; Swist, D; Polak, A; Bendkowski, W

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate effect of laser's biostimulation on the process of healing of crural ulcerations. Three comparative groups of patients, A, B and C, were made at random from the patients with venous crural ulcerations. The group A consisted of 17, the group B 15, the group C 17 patients. The patients in all comparative groups were treated pharmacologically and got compress therapy. Ulcerations at patients in group A were additionally irradiated by light of biostimulation's laser (810 nm) in this way that every time ulcerations got dose of energy 4 J/cm2. The patient's in-group B additionally got blind trial (with placebo in the form of quasi-laserotherapy). The evaluated factors were to estimate how laser's biostimulation causes any changes of the size of the ulcers and of the volume of tissue defect. The speed of changes of size and volume of tissue defect per week was calculated. After the treatment there was statistically significant decrease of size of ulcers in all comparative groups while there was no statistically significant difference between the groups observed. After the treatment there was statistically significant decrease of volume of ulcers only in groups A and C but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups observed.

  2. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb amputation unless a prompt, rational, multidisciplinary approach to therapy is taken. Factors that affect development and healing of diabetic patients' foot ulcers include the degree of metabolic control, the presence of ischemia or infection, and continuing trauma to feet from excessive plantar pressure or poorly fitting shoes. Appropriate wound care for diabetic patients addresses these issues and provides optimal local ulcer therapy with débridement of necrotic tissue and provision of a moist wound-healing environment. Therapies that have no known therapeutic value, such as foot soaking and topical antiseptics, can actually be harmful and should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Family physicians are often primary medical contacts for patients with diabetes. Patients should be screened regularly for diabetic foot complications, and preventive measures should be initiated for those at risk of ulceration. PMID:11398715

  3. Corneal ulceration following measles in Nigerian children.

    PubMed Central

    Sandford-Smith, J H; Whittle, H C

    1979-01-01

    Acute corneal ulceration in malnourished children is the commonest cause of childhood blindness in Northern Nigeria and usually develops after measles. Other severe diseases in malnourished children rarely precipitate corneal ulceration. A survey in a school for blind children showed that 69% of the children were blind from corneal disease, and a survey of children with corneal scars showed that at least 42% were caused by ulceration after measles. The clinical appearance of the active ulcers was very varied. The serum retinol-binding protein and prealbumin levels in children with corneal ulcers following measles were below normal, but a group of malnourished children without eye complaints following measles were found to have even lower levels. Thus a specific deficiency of vitamin A does not appear to be the primary cause of these ulcers, though it may be a contributory one. A specific measles keratitis and secondary herpes simplex infectious may be local factors contributing to this ulceration, and there is nearly always a background of protein calorie malnutrition. Racial factors may also be of some significance. PMID:508686

  4. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    PubMed

    Bowering, C K

    2001-05-01

    To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb amputation unless a prompt, rational, multidisciplinary approach to therapy is taken. Factors that affect development and healing of diabetic patients' foot ulcers include the degree of metabolic control, the presence of ischemia or infection, and continuing trauma to feet from excessive plantar pressure or poorly fitting shoes. Appropriate wound care for diabetic patients addresses these issues and provides optimal local ulcer therapy with débridement of necrotic tissue and provision of a moist wound-healing environment. Therapies that have no known therapeutic value, such as foot soaking and topical antiseptics, can actually be harmful and should be avoided. Family physicians are often primary medical contacts for patients with diabetes. Patients should be screened regularly for diabetic foot complications, and preventive measures should be initiated for those at risk of ulceration.

  5. Perforated peptic ulcer disease in Zewditu Hospital.

    PubMed

    Asefa, Zelalem; G/eyesus, Awetash

    2012-04-01

    Peptic ulcer perforation is a serious complication of peptic ulcer disease with a significant morbidity and mortality. To evaluate 76 patients operated for peptic ulcer perforation and analyse the associated factors in Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa from September 2006 to August 2008. A retrospective analysis of medical records of 76 patients who were operated up on for perforated peptic ulcer over a two year period (2006-2008). The male to female ratio was 6.6:1 with a mean age being 31.5 years. The most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain in 76 (100%) patients. History of smoking and khat chewing was documented in 53/64 (82.8%) and 48/64 (75%) of the patients respectively. Twenty five per cent of the patients gave no history of previous peptic ulcer disease. Seventy patients (92.1%) presented after 48 hours of their illness. The mean hospital stay was 14.5 days. Leucocytosis was found in 31.6% of the cases. Sixty five (85.5%) patients had duodenal ulcer perforation. Postoperative complications occurred in 24 (31.6%) patients. Twelve (15.8%) patients died in the hospital. Early presentation of patients and change in life style may reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with peptic ulcer perforation.

  6. Effect of a Stewardship Intervention on Adherence to Uncomplicated Cystitis and Pyelonephritis Guidelines in an Emergency Department Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Michelle T.; Fox, Clinton J.; Son, Andrea H.; Cydulka, Rita K.; Siff, Jonathan E.; Emerman, Charles L.; Sethi, Ajay K.; Muganda, Christine P.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate adherence to uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) guidelines and UTI diagnostic accuracy in an emergency department (ED) setting before and after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. Methods The intervention included implementation of an electronic UTI order set followed by a 2 month period of audit and feedback. For women age 18 – 65 with a UTI diagnosis seen in the ED with no structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary system, we evaluated adherence to guidelines, antimicrobial use, and diagnostic accuracy at baseline, after implementation of the order set (period 1), and after audit and feedback (period 2). Results Adherence to UTI guidelines increased from 44% (baseline) to 68% (period 1) to 82% (period 2) (P≤.015 for each successive period). Prescription of fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated cystitis decreased from 44% (baseline) to 14% (period 1) to 13% (period 2) (P<.001 and P = .7 for each successive period). Unnecessary antibiotic days for the 200 patients evaluated in each period decreased from 250 days to 119 days to 52 days (P<.001 for each successive period). For 40% to 42% of cases diagnosed as UTI by clinicians, the diagnosis was deemed unlikely or rejected with no difference between the baseline and intervention periods. Conclusions A stewardship intervention including an electronic order set and audit and feedback was associated with increased adherence to uncomplicated UTI guidelines and reductions in unnecessary antibiotic therapy and fluoroquinolone therapy for cystitis. Many diagnoses were rejected or deemed unlikely, suggesting a need for studies to improve diagnostic accuracy for UTI. PMID:24498394

  7. Comparison of voiding function and nociceptive behavior in two rat models of cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide or acetone

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Chikashi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Chancellor, Michael B.; de Groat, William C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    Aims Nociceptive behavior and its relationship with bladder dysfunction were investigated in two cystitis models, which were induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) or intravesical instillation of acetone, using freely moving, non-catheterized conscious rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Cystitis was induced by ip injection of CYP (100 and 200mg/kg) or intravesical instillation of acetone (10, 30 and 50%) via a polyethylene catheter temporarily inserted into the bladder through the urethra. Then the incidence of nociceptive behavior (immobility with decreased breathing rates) was scored. Voided urine was collected simultaneously and continuously to measure bladder capacity. The plasma extravasation in the bladder was quantified by an evans blue (EB) dye leakage technique. Results CYP (100mg/kg, ip) induced nociceptive behavior without affecting bladder capacity or EB concentration in the bladder. A higher dose of CYP (200mg/kg, ip) decreased bladder capacity and increased EB levels as well as nociceptive behavior. In contrast, intravesical instillation of acetone (30%) decreased bladder capacity and increased EB levels, but evoked nociceptive behavior less frequently compared with CYP-treated animals. In capsaicin pretreated rats, nociceptive behavior induced by CYP or acetone was reduced; however, the overall effects of CYP or acetone on bladder capacity and bladder EB levels were unaffected. Conclusions These results suggest that there is a difference in the induction process of nociceptive behavior and small bladder capacity after two different types of bladder irritation and that C-fiber sensitization is more directly involved in pain sensation than reduced bladder capacity. PMID:19618450

  8. Stereotactic interstitial radiosurgery for cerebral metastases.

    PubMed

    Curry, William T; Cosgrove, Garth Rees; Hochberg, Fred H; Loeffler, Jay; Zervas, Nicholas T

    2005-10-01

    . Stereotactic interstitial radiosurgery performed using the PRS can obtain local control of cerebral metastases at rates that are comparable to those achieved through open resection and external stereotactic radiosurgery. The major advantage of using the PRS is that effective treatment can be accomplished at the time of stereotactic biopsy.

  9. The influence of oxazaphosphorines alkylating agents on autonomic nervous system activity in rat experimental cystitis model.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Thor, Piotr J

    2013-01-01

    The oxazaphosphorines alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide; CP and ifosfamide; IF) are often used in common clinical practice. However, treatment with CP/IF is burdened with the risk of many adverse drug reactions, especially including hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) that is associated with bladder overactivity symptoms (OAB). The HC pathophysiology is still not fully displayed; it seems that autonomic nervous system (ANS) functional abnormalities play important role in this disturbance. The aim of our study was to reveal the potential ANS differences in rat experimental HC model, evoked by CP and IF by an indirect ANS assessment--heart rate variability (HRV) study. We carried out our experimental research in three essential groups: control group (group 1), cyclophosphamide-induced HC (CP-HC; group 2) one and ifosfamide-induced HC (IF-HC; group 3) one. CP was i.p. administrated four times in dose of 75 mg/kg body weight while IF-treated rats received i.p. five drug doses; 50 mg/kg body weight. Control rats were administrated i.p. vehicle in appropriate volumes as CP/IF treated animals. HRV studies were performed the next day after the last oxazaphosphorines dose. Standard time- and spectral (frequency) domain parameters were estimated. We confirmed the HC development after both CP/IF in macroscopic assessment and bladder wet weight measurement; however, it was more aggravated in CP-HC group. Moreover, we demonstrated HRV disturbances, suggesting ANS impairment after both studied oxazaphosphorines, however, consistent with the findings mentioned above, the autonomic dysfunction was more emphasized after CP. CP treatment was also associated with changes of non-normalized HRV spectral components percentage distribution--a marked very low frequency--VLF [%] increase together with low frequency--LF [%] and high frequency--HF [%] decrease were observed. Taking into consideration the next findings, demonstrating the lack of both normalized power spectral components (nLF and n

  10. [Genetic and immunological basis for ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2005-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the rectum and colon. Results from many studies in people and animals of intestinal inflammation suggest that ulcerative colitis results from environmental factors triggering a loss of tolerance for normal intestinal flora in genetically susceptible individuals. Although progress has been made in the overall management of the disease, there are few clinical data on biological agents in contrast to Crohn' s disease. Here, we discuss the genetic and immunological basis of ulcerative colitis including the recent findings.

  11. Stress Ulcer Disease in the Burned Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    8 ia o World J. Sunt. 5, 209.222, 1981 o Wurkl Journal (rf Skirgpry /■’ Stress Ulcer Disease in the Burned Patient Basil A.\\Priiitt.Jr.yM.D...andCleon W.^oodwin, Jr|. M.D. U.S. Army Institute ofSurgical Research. Brooke Army Medical Center. Fort Sam Houston. Stress -induced ulcers of the...has occurred, these compli- cations of Curling’s ulcer appear to be best treated by gas- tric resection combined with vagotomy. The stress caused hy

  12. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Third compartment ulcers in the llama.

    PubMed

    Smith, B B; Pearson, E G; Timm, K I

    1994-07-01

    The diagnosis of third compartment ulcers in the llama and alpaca is largely one of exclusion. Clinical signs may include mild to severe colic, inappetence, decreased fecal output, bruxism, and depression. Abdominocentesis results are usually unremarkable if C3 perforation has not occurred but reflective of a generalized peritonitis if full thickness ulceration has occurred. The H-2 receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine do not suppress C3 acid production for a significant period of time and are of questionable efficacy in the management of C3 ulcers.

  14. [Contact eczema in patients with leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K

    1986-01-01

    Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.

  15. A Clinical Approach to Vulvar Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kristen M A

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses the differential diagnosis of vulvar ulcers and describes a general clinical approach to this common but nonspecific examination finding. The differential diagnosis includes sexually and nonsexually transmitted infections, dermatitides, trauma, neoplasms, hormonally induced ulcers, and drug reactions. Patient history and physical examination provide important clues to the cause of a vulvar ulcer. However, laboratory testing is usually required for accurate diagnosis because the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and may be atypical due to secondary conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain interstitial fluid TNF-α after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hanafy, Khalid A.; Grobelny, Bartosz; Fernandez, Luis; Kurtz, Pedro; Connolly, ES; Mayer, Stephan A.; Schindler, Christian; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective: TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in promoting the cascade of events leading to an inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested that TNF-α may play a key role in the formation and rupture of cerebral aneurysms, and that the underlying cerebral inflammatory response is a major determinate of outcome following subrarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: We studied 14 comatose SAH patients who underwent multimodality neuromonitoring with intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral microdialysis as part of their clinical care. Continuous physiological variables were time-locked every 8 hours and recorded at the same point that brain interstitial fluid TNF-α was measured in brain microdialysis samples. Significant associations were determined using generalized estimation equations. Results: Each patient had a mean of 9 brain tissue TNF-α measurements obtained over an average of 72 hours of monitoring. TNF-α levels rose progressively over time. Predictors of elevated brain interstitial TNF-α included higher brain interstitial fluid glucose levels (β=0.066, P<0.02), intraventricular hemorrhage (β=0.085, P<0.021), and aneurysm size >6 mm (β=0.14, p<0.001). There was no relationship between TNF-α levels and the burden of cisternal SAH; concurrent measurements of serum glucose, or lactate-pyruvate ratio. Interpretation: Brain interstitial TNF-α levels are elevated after SAH, and are associated with large aneurysm size, the burden of intraventricular blood, and elevation brain interstitial glucose levels. PMID:20110094

  17. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  18. Specific immunotherapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Min; Zeng, Lu; Li, Lin-Jing; Mo, Li-Hua; Xie, Rui-Di; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of IBD patients. Patients with both ulcerative colitis (UC) and food allergy were recruited into this study. Food allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and serum specific IgE. The patients were treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) and Clostridium butyricum (CB) capsules. After treating with SIT and CB, the clinical symptoms of UC were markedly suppressed as shown by reduced truncated Mayo scores and medication scores. The serum levels of specific IgE, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also suppressed. Treating with SIT alone or CB alone did not show appreciable improvement of the clinical symptoms of UC. UC with food allergy can be ameliorated by administration with SIT and butyrate-production probiotics.

  19. Expression of HSP47 in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Seiko; Sakamoto, Noriho; Yoshioka, Sumako; Sugiyama, Kanako; Mine, Mariko; Mizuta, Yohei; Kohno, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagens, and its expression is increased in various fibrotic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of the expression levels of HSP47, type I procollagen and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) allows the differentiation of idiopathic usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) from UIP associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) and idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Methods We reviewed surgical lung biopsy specimens of 19 patients with idiopathic UIP, 7 with CVD-associated UIP and 16 with idiopathic NSIP and assigned a score for the expression of HSP47, type I procollagen and α-SMA in type II pneumocytes and/or lung fibroblasts (score 0 = no; 1 = weak; 2 = moderate; 3 = strong staining). Results The expression level of HSP47 in type II pneumocytes of idiopathic UIP was significantly higher than in CVD-associated UIP and idiopathic NSIP. The expression of HSP47 in fibroblasts was significantly higher in idiopathic UIP and idiopathic NSIP than in CVD-associated UIP. The expression of type I procollagen in type II pneumocytes was significantly higher in idiopathic UIP than in idiopathic NSIP. The expression of type I procollagen in fibroblasts was not different in the three groups, while the expression of α-SMA in fibroblasts was significantly higher in idiopathic UIP than in idiopathic NSIP. Conclusion Our results suggest the existence of different fibrotic pathways among these groups involved in the expression of HSP47 and type I procollagen. PMID:15955241

  20. The behaviour of stacking fault energy upon interstitial alloying.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Yong; Koo, Yang Mo; Lu, Song; Vitos, Levente; Kwon, Se Kyun

    2017-09-11

    Stacking fault energy is one of key parameters for understanding the mechanical properties of face-centered cubic materials. It is well known that the plastic deformation mechanism is closely related to the size of stacking fault energy. Although alloying is a conventional method to modify the physical parameter, the underlying microscopic mechanisms are not yet clearly established. Here, we propose a simple model for determining the effect of interstitial alloying on the stacking fault energy. We derive a volumetric behaviour of stacking fault energy from the harmonic approximation to the energy-lattice curve and relate it to the contents of interstitials. The stacking fault energy is found to change linearly with the interstitial content in the usual low concentration domain. This is in good agreement with previously reported experimental and theoretical data.

  1. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with chrysotile asbestos fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, J A; Miller, A; Gordon, R E; Fischbein, A; Kleinerman, J; Langer, A M

    1991-01-01

    The drywall construction trade has in the past been associated with exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. This paper reports a drywall construction worker with 32 years of dust exposure who developed dyspnoea and diminished diffusing capacity, and showed diffuse irregular opacities on chest radiography. He did not respond to treatment with corticosteroids. Open lung biopsy examination showed desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Only a single ferruginous body was seen on frozen section, but tissue examination by electron microscopy showed an extraordinary pulmonary burden of mineral dust with especially high concentrations of chrysotile asbestos fibres. This report emphasises the need to consider asbestos fibre as an agent in the aetiology of desquamative interstitial pneumonia. The coexistent slight interstitial fibrosis present in this case is also considered to have resulted from exposure to mineral dust, particularly ultramicroscopic asbestos fibres. Images PMID:1645584

  2. [Differential diagnosis of ulcerated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    Llorens, P; Atlschiller, H; Pisano, R; Moya, P

    1986-01-01

    The semiological characteristics of the ulcerated gastric lesions, benign and malignant, are on study. Its frequency and location is analysed in 32,829 subjects of 40 or more years of age, apparently in good health, finding gastric ulcers in 2.98% been unique in 2.3% and multiple in 0.68%. A symptomatic group of 8,765 people of 40 or more years, showed gastric ulcer in 7.11% been unique in 5.18% and multiple in 1.93%. It is also reported the frequency of gastric cancer in both studied groups, which leads to permanently propose the differential diagnostic with benign lesions, underlying by its frequency those of ulcerated type. The value of the gastric biopsy in differential diagnosis represents finally an aid of major importance because its high yield.

  3. Tannins, peptic ulcers and related mechanisms.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products.

  4. Ulcerative colitis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Koulentaki, M; Koutroubakis, I E; Petinaki, E; Tzardi, M; Oekonomaki, H; Mouzas, I; Kouroumalis, E A

    1999-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis and ulcerative colitis are two diseases with many features of autoimmunity. Thirteen cases of coexistence of the two diseases have been reported in the literature so far. Patients are usually younger and more often males than the ordinary primary biliary cirrhosis patient, while the colitis is mild and easily controllable. In a homogeneous population of 550,000 inhabitants of the island of Crete, 412 cases of ulcerative colitis and 82 individuals with primary biliary cirrhosis or autoimmune cholangitis have been identified. In two cases, coexistence of the two diseases was found. Immunological screening for AMA positivity in 150 ulcerative colitis sera disclosed no further cases. Prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis in ulcerative colitis patients seems at least 30 times higher than in the general population in our area. A possible immunological link between the two diseases is discussed.

  5. Pressure ulcers - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 52. Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Stroke - discharge Review Date ...

  6. Tannins, Peptic Ulcers and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products. PMID:22489149

  7. [Surgical tactics at "difficult" perforative duodenal ulcers].

    PubMed

    Kolosovych, I V; Bezrodnyĭ, B H; Chemodanov, P V; Sysak, O M

    2013-09-01

    Bacteriological research of abdominal cavities exsudate is conducted to 264 patients on perforative duodenal ulcers and the dynamics of peritonitis motion is studied in a postoperative period. It is set that already hour-long after the perforation of duodenal ulcer, according to information of peritoneal maintenance pH-metry and it's bacteriologic research, the optimum conditions for progress of inflammatory and infectious factors are created in an abdominal cavity. Therefore a formal term from the moment of perforation can not be the index of degree of inflammation (bacterial contamination) of peritoneum. The methods of duodenoplasty are improved at the giant perforative ulcers of duodenum and ulcers, combined with tubular stenosis of duodenum, allowed to avoid development of purulent-septic postoperative complications through insolvency of stitches and severe motor function disturbances.

  8. Pressure ulcer prevention in care home settings.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael

    2017-03-31

    Pressure ulcer prevention in the care home setting can be challenging and is often compromised by a lack of access to education and resources. There are measures that have been shown to consistently improve outcomes in pressure ulcer prevention including assessment of the patient and their individual risks, delivery of a consistent plan of care that meets patients' needs, and regular evaluation to identify shortfalls. In addition, there should be a robust approach to investigating events that lead to a person developing a pressure ulcer and that information should be used to improve future practice. Pressure ulcer prevention in care homes is achievable and nurses should all be aware of the necessary measures detailed in this article.

  9. Managing leg ulceration in intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Jemell

    2015-09-01

    Chronic venous leg ulceration is a long-term condition commonly associated with lower-limb injecting and chronic venous hypertension caused by collapsed veins, incompetent valves, deep vein thrombosis and reflux. It is not usually a medical emergency, but intravenous (IV) drug users with leg ulcers can attend emergency departments (EDs) with a different primary complaint such as pain or because they cannot access local primary care or voluntary services. Leg ulceration might then be identified during history taking, so it is important that ED nurses know how to assess and manage these wounds. This article explains how to assess and manage chronic venous leg ulcers in patients with a history of IV drug use, and highlights the importance of referral to specialist services when required, and to local primary care or voluntary services, before discharge to prevent admission and re-attendance.

  10. The Sixth Decision Regarding Perforated Duodenal Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Ross L.; Kakihara, Minoru; Pappas, Theodore N.; Eubanks, Steve

    2002-01-01

    This presentation reviews the literature regarding the current surgical treatment of perforated ulcers, describes the surgical techniques for laparoscopic repair, and reviews the clinical algorithm used by laparoscopic surgeons at Duke University Medical Center. PMID:12500837

  11. Perforated peptic ulcer in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shepard; Edden, Yair; Orkin, Boris; Erlichman, Matityahu

    2012-07-01

    A perforated peptic ulcer in a child is a rare entity. Severe abdominal pain in an ill-appearing child with a rigid abdomen and possibly with signs of shock is the typical presenting feature of this life-threatening complication of peptic ulcer disease. We present a case of a 14.5-year-old adolescent girl who developed abdominal and shoulder pain that resolved after 1 day. She was then completely well for 2 days until the abdominal and shoulder pain recurred. On examination, she appeared well, but in pain. A chest radiograph revealed a large pneumoperitoneum. She underwent emergent laparoscopic omental patch repair of a perforated ulcer on the anterior wall of her stomach. Result of a urea breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori was negative. The differential diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum in children is discussed, as are childhood perforated peptic ulcer in general, and the unique clinical features present in this case in particular.

  12. Pressure ulcer prevention program: a journey.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Barbara; Lebovits, Sarah; Baldock, Philip; Suggs, Barbara; Ayello, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' regulations regarding nonpayment for hospital-acquired conditions such as pressure ulcers have prompted a marked increase in focus on preventive care. Our hospital also used this change in payment policy as an opportunity to strengthen our pressure ulcer prevention practices. We used an 8-spoke prevention wheel to develop and implement practice changes that reduced pressure ulcer incidence from 7.3% to 1.3% in 3 years. Because it is about the journey, we will describe the mechanisms we designed and implemented, and identify strategies that worked or did not work as we promulgated a quality improvement process for pressure ulcer prevention in our large urban hospital center.

  13. Restoring Psychology's Role in Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J Bruce; Murison, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the transition from the belief that gastrointestinal ulcers are caused primarily by psychological factors to the current state of belief that they are caused primarily by infection and argues that neither is fully accurate. We argue that psychological factors play a significant role as predisposing to vulnerability, modulating of precipitation, and sustaining of gastric ulceration. We review data that challenge the assumption of a simple infectious disease model and adduce recent preclinical data that confirm the predisposing, modulatory, and sustaining roles for psychological factors. We note that others, too, are now challenging the adequacy of the contemporary simple bacterial infection model. We hope to replace the competition between psychology and medicine with cooperation in understanding and treating patients suffering gastric ulceration and ulcer. PMID:23457084

  14. Effects of CYP-Induced Cystitis on Growth Factors and Associated Receptor Expression in Micturition Pathways in Mice with Chronic Overexpression of NGF in Urothelium.

    PubMed

    Girard, Beatrice M; Malley, Susan; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    We have determined if cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis produces additional changes in growth factor/receptors expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium, detrusor) and lumbosacral (L6-S1) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a transgenic mouse model with chronic urothelial overexpression of NGF (NGF-OE). Functionally, NGF-OE mice treated with CYP exhibit significant increases in voiding frequency above that observed in control NGF-OE mice (no CYP). Quantitative PCR was used to determine NGF, BDNF, VEGF, and receptors (TrkA, TrkB, p75(NTR)) transcripts expression in tissues from NGF-OE and wild-type (WT) mice with CYP-induced cystitis of varying duration (4 h, 48 h, 8 days). In urothelium of control NGF-OE mice, NGF mRNA was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased. Urothelial expression of NGF mRNA in NGF-OE mice treated with CYP (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) was not further increased but maintained with all durations of CYP treatment evaluated. In contrast, CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) in NGF-OE mice demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) regulation in BDNF, VEGF, TrkA, TrkB, and P75(NTR) mRNA in urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle. Similarly, CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) in NGF-OE mice resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05), differential changes in transcript expression for NGF, BDNF, and receptors (TrkA, TrkB, p75(NTR)) in S1 DRG that was dependent on the duration-of CYP-induced cystitis. In general, NGF, BDNF, TrkA, and TrkB protein content in the urinary bladder increased in WT and NGF-OE mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h). Changes in NGF, TrkA and TrkB expression in the urinary bladder were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in NGF-OE mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h) compared to WT mice with cystitis (4 h). However, the magnitude of change between WT and NGF-OE mice was only significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different for TrkB expression in urinary bladder of NGF-OE mice treated with CYP. These studies are

  15. Autoimmune thyroid disease with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Modebe, O

    1986-06-01

    Two cases of co-existing thyroid disease and ulcerative colitis are reported. Thyroid disorder preceded ulcerative colitis in each case. The presence of acute colitis delayed and obscured the clinical diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in one case and the colitis could not be controlled until her thyrotoxicosis was treated. Although the specific factors involved in this relationship are now known, an interplay of immunological factors is most probable.

  16. The economics of adalimumab for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation in the colon. Adalimumab, as a TNF-α blocker, offers a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and refractory or intolerant to conventional medications; however, its cost-effectiveness profile has not yet been well established. Future economic evaluations should choose appropriate comparators in the context of target-reimbursement decision making and focus on cost-effectiveness over a long time horizon.

  17. Perforated pyloroduodenal peptic ulcer and sonography.

    PubMed

    Kuzmich, Siarhei; Harvey, Chris J; Fascia, Daniel T M; Kuzmich, Tatsiana; Neriman, Deena; Basit, Rizwan; Tan, Kai Lee

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the spectrum of sonographic findings in perforated pyloroduodenal peptic ulcer and discuss the potential role of sonography in the diagnosis. Although sonography is not the first-line investigation of choice in suspected perforated peptic ulcer, understanding of the characteristic appearances seen during general abdominal sonography may aid the reader in the diagnosis of this important and sometimes overlooked cause of nonspecific abdominal pain. This may shorten time to the diagnosis and ultimate surgical management.

  18. Gallium interstitial in irradiated germanium: Deep level transient spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Petersen, M. Christian; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    Two electronic levels at 0.34 eV above the valence band and 0.32 eV below the conduction band, in gallium doped, p-type Ge irradiated with 2 MeV electrons have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with both majority- and minority-carrier injections, and Laplace DLTS spectroscopy. It is concluded that these levels, having donor and acceptor characters, respectively, are correlated with interstitial Ga atoms, formed by the Watkins-replacement mechanism via self-interstitials.

  19. Gallium interstitial in irradiated germanium: Deep level transient spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Petersen, M. Christian; Mesli, A.; van Gheluwe, J.; Clauws, P.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2008-12-01

    Two electronic levels at 0.34 eV above the valence band and 0.32 eV below the conduction band, in gallium doped, p -type Ge irradiated with 2 MeV electrons have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with both majority- and minority-carrier injections, and Laplace DLTS spectroscopy. It is concluded that these levels, having donor and acceptor characters, respectively, are correlated with interstitial Ga atoms, formed by the Watkins-replacement mechanism via self-interstitials.

  20. Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q

    SciTech Connect

    McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Oscarsson, Nicklas, E-mail: nicklas.oscarsson@vgregion.se; Arnell, Per; Lodding, Pär

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was deliveredmore » with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.« less

  2. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori

  3. Non-contact ulcer area calculation system for neuropathic foot ulcer.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parth; Mahajan, Siddaram; Nageswaran, Sharmila; Paul, Sathish Kumar; Ebenzer, Mannam

    2017-08-11

    Around 125,785 new cases in year 2013-14 of leprosy were detected in India as per WHO report on leprosy in September 2015 which accounts to approximately 62% of the total new cases. Anaesthetic foot caused by leprosy leads to uneven loading of foot leading to ulcer in approximately 20% of the cases. Much efforts have gone in identifying newer techniques to efficiently monitor the progress of ulcer healing. Current techniques followed in measuring the size of ulcers, have not been found to be so accurate but are still is followed by clinicians across the globe. Quantification of prognosis of the condition would be required to understand the efficacy of current treatment methods and plan for further treatment. This study aims at developing a non contact technique to precisely measure the size of ulcer in patients affected by leprosy. Using MATLAB software, GUI was designed to process the acquired ulcer image by segmenting and calculating the pixel area of the image. The image was further converted to a standard measurement using a reference object. The developed technique was tested on 16 ulcer images acquired from 10 leprosy patients with plantar ulcers. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc analysis software to find the reliability of the system. The analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient (r=0.9882) between the ulcer area measurements done using traditional technique and the newly developed technique, The reliability of the newly developed technique was significant with a significance level of 99.9%. The designed non-contact ulcer area calculating system using MATLAB is found to be a reliable system in calculating the size of ulcers. The technique would help clinicians have a reliable tool to monitor the progress of ulcer healing and help modify the treatment protocol if needed. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  5. Benefits of Preventive Administration of Chlorella sp. on Visceral Pain and Cystitis Induced by a Single Administration of Cyclophosphamide in Female Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Violle, Nicolas; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Hélène; Bisson, Jean-François

    2016-05-01

    Chlorella sp. is a green microalgae containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella sp. is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. In a rat model, ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) benefits were investigated on visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). RCs was orally administered every day from day 1-16 (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Six hours after an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg body weight of CYP, body temperature, general behavior, food intake, and body weight were recorded. Twenty-four hours after CYP injection, rats were tested in two behavioral tests, an open field and the aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning test, to evaluate the influence of pain on general activity and learning ability of rats. After euthanasia, bladders were weighed, their thickness was scored, and the urinary hemoglobin was measured. RCs orally administered at the two dosages significantly reduced visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by CYP injection, and improved rat behavior. To conclude, RCs demonstrated beneficial effects against visceral pain and cystitis.

  6. Perforated gastric ulcer--reappraisal of surgical options.

    PubMed

    Madiba, T E; Nair, R; Mulaudzi, T V; Thomson, S R

    2005-08-01

    The available operative procedures for perforated gastric ulcer are gastrectomy, ulcer excision and omental patch closure. This study analysed the outcome of these operative options in a single institution. Seventy-two patients (mean age 43 years, 62 males) with perforated gastric ulcers were managed by laparotomy. There were 34 lesser curve (incisural) and 38 antral ulcers. Partial gastrectomy was performed in 27 patients, ulcer excision in 27 and simple patch closure in 18. Two ulcers were malignant. The mortality rate was 18% (26% for gastrectomy, 19% for ulcer excision and 5% for patch closure). Shock on admission (p = 0.006) and Candida (p = 0.020) in the histological specimen were predictive of poor outcome. Hospital stay was similar in the 3 groups. Omental patch closure and ulcer excision are as effective as gastrectomy in the management of perforated gastric ulcer and merit consideration as first-line therapy in technically applicable cases.

  7. Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael; Herrick, Ariane L

    2017-01-01

    Digital ulcers (DUs) are a common visible manifestation of the progressive vascular disease that characterizes the SSc disease process. DUs not only impact significantly on patients' quality of life and hand function, but are also a biomarker of internal organ involvement and of disease severity. The aetiology of (digital) vascular disease in SSc is multifactorial, and many of these factors are potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. The management of DU disease in SSc is multifaceted. Patient education and non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. smoking cessation) should not be neglected. There are a number of drug therapies available to prevent (e.g. phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors and ET receptor-1 antagonists) and treat (e.g. i.v. iloprost) DUs. DUs are also important for two other reasons: firstly, as a primary end point in SSc-related clinical trials; and secondly, DUs are included in the ACR/EULAR SSc classification criteria. However, the reliability of rheumatologists to grade DUs is poor to moderate at best, and this poses challenges in both clinical practice and research. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a description of the spectrum of DU disease in SSc including pathophysiology, epidemiology and clinical burden, all of which inform the multifaceted approach to management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Golimumab in unresponsive ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, Elisabeth; Müller, Martina; Ott, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines) and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC. PMID:24904202

  9. Golimumab in unresponsive ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Elisabeth; Müller, Martina; Ott, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines) and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC.

  10. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  11. Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi

    1995-05-01

    Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.

  12. [Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Berastegui, Cristina; Monforte, Victor; Bravo, Carlos; Sole, Joan; Gavalda, Joan; Tenório, Luis; Villar, Ana; Rochera, M Isabel; Canela, Mercè; Morell, Ferran; Roman, Antonio

    2014-09-15

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We retrospectively studied 150 patients, 87 (58%) men, mean age 48 (r: 20-67) years between August 1990 and January 2010. One hundred and four (69%) were single lung transplants (SLT) and 46 (31%) bilateral-lung transplants (BLT). The postoperative diagnoses were: 94 (63%) usual interstitial pneumonia, 23 (15%) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 11 (7%) unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia and 15% miscellaneous. We describe the functional results, complications and survival. The actuarial survival was 87, 70 and 53% at one, 3 and 5 years respectively. The most frequent causes of death included early graft dysfunction and development of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS). The mean postoperative increase in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was similar in SLT and BLT. The best FEV1 was reached after 10 (r: 1-36) months. Sixteen percent of patients returned to work. At some point during the evolution, proven acute rejection was diagnosed histologically in 53 (35%) patients. The prevalence of BOS among survivors was 20% per year, 45% at 3 years and 63% at 5 years. LT is the best treatment option currently available for ILD, in which medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [New toxicity of fotemustine: diffuse interstitial lung disease].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, M; Wémeau-Stervinou, L; Gauthier, S; Auffret, M; Mortier, L

    2012-04-01

    Fotemustine is an alkylating cytostatic drug belonging to the nitrosourea family and is used in particular in the treatment of disseminated malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of interstitial lung disease associated with fotemustine. An 81-year-old man treated with fotemustine for metastatic melanoma presented acute interstitial lung disease 20 days after a fourth course of fotemustine monotherapy. The condition regressed spontaneously, with the patient returning to the clinical, radiological and blood gas status that had preceded fotemustine treatment. After other potential aetiologies had been ruled out, acute fotemustine-induced lung toxicity was considered and this treatment was definitively withdrawn. Other cytostatic agents belonging to the nitrosourea family can cause similar pictures, with a number of cases of interstitial lung disease thus being ascribed to fotemustine and dacarbazine. To our knowledge, this is the first case of interstitial lung disease induced by fotemustine monotherapy. This diagnosis should be considered where respiratory signs appear in melanoma patients undergoing fotemustine treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pathophysiology of wound healing and alterations in venous leg ulcers-review.

    PubMed

    Raffetto, Joseph D

    2016-03-01

    Venous leg ulcer (VLU) is one of the most common lower extremity ulcerated wound, and is a significant healthcare problem with implications that affect social, economic, and the well-being of a patient. VLU can have debilitating related problems which require weekly medical care and may take months to years to heal. The pathophysiology of VLU is complex, and healing is delayed in many patients due to a persistent inflammatory condition. Patient genetic and environmental factors predispose individuals to chronic venous diseases including VLU. Changes in shear stress affecting the glycocalyx are likely initiating events, leading to activation of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, and leukocyte activation with attachment and migration into vein wall, microcirculation, and in the interstitial space. Multiple chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, proteases and matrix metalloproteinases are produced. The pathology of VLU involves an imbalance of inflammation, inflammatory modulators, oxidative stress, and proteinase activity. Understanding the cellular and biochemical events that lead to the progression of VLU is critical. With further understanding of inflammatory pathways and potential mechanisms, certain biomarkers could be revealed and studied as both involvement in the pathophysiology of VLU but also as therapeutic targets for VLU healing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Massage therapy for preventing pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinhong; Sun, Zhongren; Yue, Jinhuan

    2015-06-17

    Pressure ulcers affect approximately 10% of patients in hospitals and the elderly are at highest risk. Several studies have suggested that massage therapy may help to prevent the development of pressure ulcers, but these results are inconsistent. To assess the evidence for the effects of massage compared with placebo, standard care or other interventions for prevention of pressure ulcers in at-risk populations.The review sought to answer the following questions:Does massage reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers of any grade?Is massage safe in the short- and long-term? If not, what are the adverse events associated with massage? We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (8 January 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to 8 January 2015), Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process Other Non-Indexed Citations 8 January 2015), Ovid EMBASE (1974 to 8 January 2015), and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 8 January 2015). We did not apply date or language restrictions. We planned to include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (Q-RCTs) that evaluated the effects of massage therapy for the prevention of pressure ulcers. Our primary outcome was the proportion of people developing a new pressure ulcer of any grade. Two review authors independently carried out trial selection. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. No studies (RCTs or Q-RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Therefore, neither a meta-analysis nor a narrative description of studies was possible. There are currently no studies eligible for inclusion in this review. It is, therefore, unclear whether massage therapy can prevent pressure ulcers.

  16. Dietary Phytosterols Protective Against Peptic Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Frank I; Capanoglu, Doga; Langley, G. John; Herniman, Julie M; Bor, Serhat; Ozutemiz, Omer; Hobsley, Michael; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Linclau, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Background In developing countries the prevalence of duodenal ulceration is related to the staple diet and not to the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori. Experiments using animal peptic ulcer models show that the lipid fraction in foods from the staple diets of low prevalence areas gives protection against ulceration, including ulceration due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and also promotes healing of ulceration. The lipid from the pulse Dolichos biflorus (Horse gram) was highly active and used for further investigations. Further experiments showed the phospholipids, sterol esters and sterols present in Horse gram lipid were gastroprotective. Dietary phospholipids are known to be protective, but the nature of protective sterols in staple diets is not known. The present research investigates the nature of the protective phytosterols. Methods Sterol fractions were extracted from the lipid in Dolichos biflorus and tested for gastroprotection using the rat ethanol model. The fractions showing protective activity were isolated and identification of the components was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results The protective phytosterol fraction was shown to consist of stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and a third as yet unidentified sterol, isomeric with β-sitosterol. Conclusions Dietary changes, affecting the intake of protective phospholipids and phytosterols, may reduce the prevalence of duodenal ulceration in areas of high prevalence and may reduce the incidence of recurrent duodenal ulceration after healing and elimination of Helicobacter pylori infection. A combination of phospholipids and phytosterols, such as found in the lipid fraction of ulceroprotecive foods, may be of value in giving protection against the ulcerogenic effect of NSAIDs. PMID:27942332

  17. BK virus-hemorrhagic cystitis following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Clinical characteristics and utility of leflunomide treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Hoon; Lim, Joo Han; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo

    2016-04-18

    BK virus-hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality in patients having undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT). We analyzed the clinical features of BKV-HC following Allo-SCT and reported the utility of leflunomide therapy for BKV-HC. From January 2005 to June 2014, among the 69 patients underwent Allo-SCT in our institution, the patients who experienced BKV-HC were investigated retrospectively. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) was observed in 30 patients (43.5%), and among them, 18 patients (26.1%) were identified as BKV-HC. The median age of the patients (12 males and 6 females) was 45 years (range, 13-63). Patients received Allo-SCT from acute myeloid leukemia (n=11), aplastic anemia (n=4), myelodysplastic syndrome (n=2), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=1).The donor types were a HLA-matched sibling donor for 6 patients, HLA-matched unrelated donor for 9, and a haploidentical familial donor for 2. The median onset and duration of BKV-HC was on day 21 (range, 7-97) after transplantation and 22 days (range, 6-107). Eleven patients (62.1%) had grade I-II HC and seven patients (38.9%) had grade III-IV (high-grade) HC. Among the seven patients who had high-grade HC, one had complete response (CR), one partial response (PR), and five no response (NR). Among the five non-responders, one died of BKV-HC associated complications. The remaining four patients were treated with leflunomide, with achieving CR (n=2) and PR (n=2). The median duration from the start of leflunomide therapy to response was 13 days (range, 8-17 days). All patients tolerated the leflunomide treatment well, with three patients having mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including anorexia and abdominal bloating. BKV-HC was commonly observed in patients with HC following Allo-SCT. In high-grade BKV-HC patients who fail supportive care, leflunomide may be a feasible option without significant toxicity.

  18. Biologics in oral medicine: ulcerative disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, I D; Scully, C

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa are wide ranging but include especially aphthous and aphthous-like ulceration, vesiculobullous disorders and erosive lichen planus (LP). While most patients with these conditions respond to conventional topical and/or systemic immunosuppressive agents, treatment-resistant cases remain challenging. In these, the use of biologics such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors or rituximab may be of benefit. This article reviews the use of biologics in ulcerative oral conditions, highlighting potential benefits, adverse effects and principles of use and future developments. TNF-α inhibitors such as infliximab can be effective in inducing resolution in oral aphthous and aphthous-like ulcers and may be an appropriate therapy in those patients in which disease is severe and refractory to, or patients are intolerant of, traditional immunomodulatory regimens. There would also seem support and rationale for use of biologics (mainly rituximab) in pemphigus but not in oral LP or other oral ulcerative conditions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jonathan Zhang Ming; Ng, Natasha Su Lynn; Thomas, Cecil

    2017-03-01

    The rising prevalence of diabetes estimated at 3.6 million people in the UK represents a major public health and socioeconomic burden to our National Health Service. Diabetes and its associated complications are of a growing concern. Diabetes-related foot complications have been identified as the single most common cause of morbidity among diabetic patients. The complicating factor of underlying peripheral vascular disease renders the majority of diabetic foot ulcers asymptomatic until latter evidence of non-healing ulcers become evident. Therefore, preventative strategies including annual diabetic foot screening and diabetic foot care interventions facilitated through a multidisciplinary team have been implemented to enable early identification of diabetic patients at high risk of diabetic foot complications. The National Diabetes Foot Care Audit reported significant variability and deficiencies of care throughout England and Wales, with emphasis on change in the structure of healthcare provision and commissioning, improvement of patient education and availability of healthcare access, and emphasis on preventative strategies to reduce morbidities and mortality of this debilitating disease. This review article aims to summarise major risk factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. It also considers the key evidence-based strategies towards preventing diabetic foot ulcer. We discuss tools used in risk stratification and classifications of foot ulcer.

  20. Annihilating vacancies via dynamic reflection and emission of interstitials in nano-crystal tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangyan; Duan, Guohua; Xu, Yichun; Zhang, Yange; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S.; Liang, Yunfeng; Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N.

    2017-11-01

    Radiation damage not only seriously degrades the mechanical properties of tungsten (W) but also enhances hydrogen retention in the material. Introducing a large amount of defect sinks, e.g. grain boundaries (GBs) is an effective method for improving radiation-resistance of W. However, the mechanism by which the vacancies are dynamically annihilated at long timescale in nano-crystal W is still not clear. The dynamic picture for eliminating vacancies with single interstitials and small interstitial-clusters has been investigated by combining molecular dynamics, molecular statics and object Kinetic Monte Carlo methods. On one hand, the annihilation of bulk vacancies was enhanced due to the reflection of an interstitial-cluster of parallel ≤ft< 1 1 1 \\right> crowdions by the GB. The interstitial-cluster was observed to be reflected back into the grain interior when approaching a locally dense GB region. Near this region, the energy landscape for the interstitial was featured by a shoulder, different to the decreasing energy landscape of the interstitial near a locally loose region as indicative of the sink role of the GB. The bulk vacancy on the reflection path was annihilated. On the other hand, the dynamic interstitial emission efficiently anneals bulk vacancies. The single interstitial trapped at the GB firstly moved along the GB quickly and clustered to be the di-interstitial therein, reducing its mobility to a value comparable to that that for bulk vacancy diffusion. Then, the bulk vacancy was recombined via the coupled motion of the di-interstitial along the GB, the diffusion of the vacancy towards the GB and the accompanying interstitial emission. These results suggest that GBs play an efficient role in improving radiation-tolerance of nano-crystal W via reflecting highly-mobile interstitials and interstitial-clusters into the bulk and annihilating bulk vacancies, and via complex coupling of in-boundary interstitial diffusion, clustering of the interstitial

  1. Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiang Yong; Li, Hong Ling; Su, He; Cai, Hui; Guo, Tian Kang; Liu, Ruifeng; Jiang, Lei; Shen, Yan Fei

    2017-02-22

    Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin. Phenytoin is a drug more commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy, but may play an important role in accelerating ulcer healing. To assess the effects of topical phenytoin on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers of any grade, in any care setting. In September 2016, we searched the following electronic databases to identify relevant randomized clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We handsearched conference proceedings from the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Wound Management Association and the Tissue Viability Society for all available years. We searched the references of the retrieved trials to identify further relevant trials. We also searched clinical trials registries to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing the effects (both benefits and harms) of topical phenytoin on the healing of pressure ulcers of any grade compared with placebo or alternative treatments or no therapy, irrespective of blinding, language, and publication status. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted information on participants, interventions, methods and results and assessed risk of bias using

  2. [Airway-centered interstitial fibrosis related to exposure to fumes from cleaning products].

    PubMed

    Serrano, Mario; Molina-Molina, María; Ramírez, José; Sánchez, Marcelo; Xaubet, Antoni

    2006-10-01

    Airway-centered interstitial fibrosis is a little known clinical entity that has only recently been described in the literature. Its pathology is characterized by bronchial fibrosis and localized interstitial pulmonary fibrosis around the airways. The disease has been associated with inhalation of a variety of substances, environmental or occupational, organic or inorganic. Clinical signs, radiographic manifestations, and lung function in patients with airway-centered interstitial fibrosis are similar to those of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. We describe a case of airway-centered interstitial fibrosis related to exposure to fumes from cleaning products.

  3. A case of acute kidney injury caused by granulomatous interstitial nephritis associated with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Horino, Taro; Matsumoto, Tatsuki; Inoue, Kosuke; Ichii, Osamu; Terada, Yoshio

    2018-05-01

    Sarcoidosis affects multiple organs including lung, heart and kidney. Sarcoidosis causes hypercalcemia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and rarely, granulomatous interstitial nephritis, resulting in renal stromal damage. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is characterized as interstitial nephritis with noncaseating epithelioid granulomas. Diagnosing granulomatous interstitial nephritis before patient's death is challenging; hence, only few cases proven by renal biopsy have been reported till date. We present a case of acute kidney injury caused by granulomatous interstitial nephritis as a renal manifestation of sarcoidosis proven by renal biopsy, which can be confirmed by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Glucocorticoid therapy was helpful for improving and maintaining her renal function over a 6-year period.

  4. Surgical management of perforated peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, K J; Faolain, M O; Gannon, D; Gorey, T F; Kerin, M J

    2006-01-01

    Surgery for perforated peptic ulcer disease is one of the most common emergency procedures carried out in the western world. The role of postoperative empiric Helicobacter Pylori eradication therapy is controversial. The clinical, operative and postoperative surveillance details of 84 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for perforated peptic ulcer were reviewed. All patients underwent omentopexy +/- simple closure followed by proton pump therapy. Patients were followed-up for an average of 44 +/- 19 months. Females were older than male patients (59 +/- 20 vs. 46 + 17 years; p<0.05), presented with symptoms of a longer duration (17.9 +/- 16 vs. 8.9 +/- 9 hours; p=0.045) and had a higher mortality rate (18% vs 3%; p<0.05). Seventy-nine per cent of patients received postoperative empiric Helicobacter Pylori eradication therapy. Surgery for perforated peptic ulcer is associated with a significant perioperative mortality rate. Elderly female patients are particularly at risk.

  5. [Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J

    2010-05-01

    An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success.

  6. Thyroid storm precipitated by duodenal ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Ando, Takao; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  7. Infliximab to treat severe ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Dídia Bisamra; de Souza Cury, Marcelo; Elias, Geraldo Vinicius Hemerly; Mizsputen, Sender Jankiel

    2009-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with severe ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy was referred to our facility for management. The patient showed extensive ulcerative colitis since the age of 20 years and had failed therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid agents and azathioprine. The disease remained active despite treatment with steroids and cyclosporine. The clinical and endoscopic parameters were consistent with severe disease. Infectious precipitants were ruled out. Given the severity of the disease and in order to avoid a colectomy, we started the patient on infliximab therapy. A dramatic clinical and endoscopic response was observed and she remained in remission at the end of a 1-year follow-up period. We discuss findings in the literature regarding the use of infliximab therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis who have failed steroids and cyclosporine. PMID:19360923

  8. Mucosa-sparing, KTP laser coagulation of submucosal telangiectatic vessels in patients with radiation-induced cystitis: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Talab, Saman Shafaat; McDougal, W Scott; Wu, Chin-Lee; Tabatabaei, Shahin

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed evaluate the safety and feasibility of endoscopic potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser application in the management of patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (RHC). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 20 patients with RHC who underwent endoscopic KTP laser ablation of telangiectatic bladder vessels between October 2005 and January 2013. After initial cystoscopy, KTP laser was used to ablate the submucosal vasculature while preserving the overlying mucosa. The surgical outcome was evaluated by duration of hematuria-free interval, number of episodes of hematuria, and number of required medical and/or surgical interventions after initial treatment. Overall, 20 patients underwent 26 sessions of KTP laser ablation of bladder vessels. The procedure was able to stop bleeding 92% of the time and the average hematuria-free interval after ablation was 11.8 months, with a range of 1-37 months. In 13 patients (65%) hematuria resolved after 1 session of KTP laser treatment, whereas 5 patients (25%) required multiple sessions. Two patients (10%) with severe hematuria continued to have bleeding after laser treatment, which necessitated proximal diversion of urine with percutaneous nephrostomy tubes to control bleeding. This study suggests that KTP laser, with its unique photoselectivity property, is a safe, effective, and durable treatment with minimal side effects for ablation of submucosal bladder vessels in patients with RHC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kidney and bladder outcomes in children with hemorrhagic cystitis and BK virus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oshrine, Benjamin; Bunin, Nancy; Li, Yimei; Furth, Susan; Laskin, Benjamin L

    2013-12-01

    BK virus (BKV) infection is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients and nephropathy after kidney transplantation. We assessed the association between BKV and kidney and bladder complications in children developing HC by retrospectively reviewing 221 consecutive pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2005 to 2011. We included all patients with BKV PCR testing performed for clinical indication from day 0 until 1 year post-HSCT (N = 68). We assessed the association of any BKV infection (urine and/or blood) or peak BK viremia ≥ 10,000 copies/mL (high viremia) with severe HC (defined as grade IV-bladder catheterization or surgical intervention); the need for dialysis; serum creatinine-estimated glomerular filtration rate at the time of BKV testing, day 100, and day 365; and death. Children with high viremia more likely developed severe HC compared with those with peak viremia < 10,000 copies/mL (21% versus 2%; P = .02). BKV infection of the blood or urine was not associated with the need for dialysis, change in estimated glomerular filtration rate, or mortality. BKV infection is common after pediatric allogeneic HSCT, and plasma testing in those with HC may predict patients who will develop severe bladder injury. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of BK polyoma viruria in Japanese children and adults with hemorrhagic cystitis complicating stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kaori; Hori, Tsukasa; Hatakeyama, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Takayama, Rumiko; Yoto, Yuko; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Yukiho; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tadao; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2008-12-01

    Polyoma BK virus (BKV) is frequently found in the urine of stem cell transplantation (SCT) patients with hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), but also occurs in SCT patients without HC. How BK viruria relates to the development of HC in SCT patients, especially in children, has not yet been fully evaluated. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship of several factors including urinary BKV load to HC development in children and adults undergoing SCT. We employed a quantitative PCR assay and evaluated 37 patients (aged 9 months-62 years) of whom 12 developed HC and 25 did not. Older age was a risk factor for the development of HC; however, other factors such as sex, primary disease, type of SCT, conditioning regimen and aGVHD were not. Peak urinary BKV values in HC patients were not higher than those in non-HC patients. Severity of HC also did not correlate with urinary BKV loads. However, in some patients who secreted higher urinary BKV loads, the peak loads were closely related with the onset of HC. Higher BKV loads may be a risk factor for the development of HC in conjunction with other coexisting factors.

  11. Different risk factors related to adenovirus- or BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Kato, Koji; Kamezaki, Kenjiro; Kuriyama, Takuro; Oku, Seido; Takenaka, Katsuto; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Harada, Naoki; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Abe, Yasunobu; Nagafuji, Koji; Teshima, Takanori; Akashi, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    Virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although numerous studies have attempted to identify factors that predispose patients to viral HC, its causes remain controversial. We analyzed retrospectively the results of 266 allogeneic HSCTs to identify factors associated with HC. Of this group, 42 patients (15.8%) were diagnosed with viral HC, because of either adenovirus (ADV; n = 26; 9.8%) or BK virus (BKV; n = 16; 6.0%). ADV-HC was frequently associated with T cell purging, and was less common in patients with acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Conversely, BKV-HC was more frequently observed in patients with excessive immune reactions such as GVHD, preengraftment immune reaction, and hemophagocytic syndrome. These observations indicate that ADV- and BKV-HC may differ significantly in their risk factors and pathogenesis. Profound immune deficiency is more likely to be associated with ADV-HC, whereas immune hyperactivity might play a key role in BKV-HC. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kidney and bladder outcomes in children with hemorrhagic cystitis and BK virus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Oshrine, Benjamin; Bunin, Nancy; Li, Yimei; Furth, Susan; Laskin, Benjamin L

    2015-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) infection is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and nephropathy after kidney transplant. We assessed the association between BKV and kidney and bladder complications in children developing HC by retrospectively reviewing 221 consecutive pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from 2005–2011. We included all patients with BKV PCR testing performed for clinical indication from day 0 until 1 year post-HSCT (N=68). We assessed the association of any BKV infection (urine and/or blood) or peak BK viremia ≥10,000 copies/ml (high viremia) with severe HC (defined as grade IV—bladder catheterization or surgical intervention), the need for dialysis, serum creatinine-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the time of BKV testing, day 100, and day 365, and death. Children with high viremia more likely developed severe HC compared to those with peak viremia <10,000 copies/mL (21% versus 2%; p=0.02). BKV infection of the blood or urine was not associated with the need for dialysis, change in eGFR, or mortality. BKV infection is common after pediatric allogeneic HSCT and plasma testing in those with HC may predict patients who will develop severe bladder injury. PMID:24060406

  13. First Isolation of carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis from an uncomplicated cystitis patient with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oana, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Nagata, Mika; Washino, Kei-Ichi; Akahane, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Yu-Uki; Tsutsui, Chie; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    An uncomplicated cystitis caused by CO2-dependent Proteus mirabilis was observed in a 64-year-old Japanese female patient with Sjögren's syndrome in the Aomori Kyoritsu Hospital, Aomori, Japan. The initial P. mirabilis isolate came from a midstream urine specimen containing large numbers of Gram-negative, rod-shaped organisms that failed to grow on both Drigalski agar and sheep blood agar incubated in ambient air. The organism did grow when the urine was cultured overnight on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. Hence, we believed that the organism was an anaerobe. Further investigation revealed that the isolate grew on sheep blood agar along with swarming when the atmospheric CO2 concentrations were increased to 5%. Initially, we failed to characterize or identify the P. mirabilis isolate or determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities using the MicroScan WalkAway-40 System because the isolate did not grow in the system. However, the isolate was subsequently identified as P. mirabilis based on its morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties by using the commercially available kit systems, Quick ID-GN and ID-Test EB-20. This identification of the isolate was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical isolation of capnophilic P. mirabilis.

  14. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for diagnosing ulcerative early gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyungkil; Bang, Byongwook; Kwon, Kyesook; Shin, Youngwoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the first-choice imaging modality for predicting the invasion depth of early gastric cancer (EGC), the prediction accuracy of EUS is significantly decreased when EGC is combined with ulceration. The aim of present study was to compare the accuracy of EUS and conventional endoscopy (CE) for determining the depth of EGC. In addition, the various clinic-pathologic factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of EUS, with a particular focus on endoscopic ulcer shapes, were evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed data from 236 consecutive patients with ulcerative EGC. All patients underwent EUS for estimating tumor invasion depth, followed by either curative surgery or endoscopic treatment. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS and CE was evaluated by comparing the final histologic result of resected specimen. The correlation between accuracy of EUS and characteristics of EGC (tumor size, histology, location in stomach, tumor invasion depth, and endoscopic ulcer shapes) was analyzed. Endoscopic ulcer shapes were classified into 3 groups: definite ulcer, superficial ulcer, and ill-defined ulcer. The overall accuracy of EUS and CE for predicting the invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was 68.6% and 55.5%, respectively. Of the 236 patients, 36 patients were classified as definite ulcers, 98 were superficial ulcers, and 102 were ill-defined ulcers, In univariate analysis, EUS accuracy was associated with invasion depth (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.034), and endoscopic ulcer shapes (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, there is a significant association between superficial ulcer in CE and EUS accuracy (odds ratio: 2.977; 95% confidence interval: 1.255–7.064; P = 0.013). The accuracy of EUS for determining tumor invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was superior to that of CE. In addition, ulcer shape was an important factor that affected EUS accuracy. PMID:27472672

  15. Nurses' knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention, staging, and description.

    PubMed

    Pieper, B; Mott, M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine registered nurses' (N = 228) knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention, pressure ulcer staging, and wound description. A 47-item, true-false Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Test was developed for he study. Nurses' knowledge was significantly higher the more recently they had heard a lecture or read an article about pressure ulcers. Knowledge scores were not related to educational background, age, or years of work experience.

  16. Endoscopic variceal ligation-induced ulcer bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed to determine the risk factors of endoscopic variceal ligation-(EVL) induced ulcer bleeding. The prevalence of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding is reported to be 3.6%. However, there are only limited reports of this serious complication, and the risk factors and the treatment methods are not well established. A total of 430 patients who had undergone EVL in Chonnam National University Hospital from January 2014 to October 2016 were studied. EVL was performed for prophylaxis or acute hemorrhage. The patients were classified into 2 groups: a bleeding group (n = 33) and a non-bleeding group (n = 397). The patients who had endoscopically confirmed EVL-induced ulcer bleeding were included in the bleeding group. EVL-induced ulcer bleeding occurred in 7.7% (n = 33) of the patients. In a multivariate analysis, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >10 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–10.64), concomitant GV F3 (OR: 14.1, 95% CI: 2.84–71.43), and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy (OR: 8.06, 95% CI: 2.55–25.64) were independent predictive factors of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding. Various endoscopic modalities were attempted for hemostasis (EVL in 8 cases [24.2%], endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in 6 cases [18.2%], argon plasma coagulation [APC] in 1 case (3%), Sengstaken–Blakemore (SB) tube in 3 cases [9.1%]), and proton pump inhibitor therapy only in 15 cases (45.5%). MELD score >10, concomitant GV F3, and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy are risk factors for EVL-induced ulcer bleeding. PMID:28614248

  17. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos M G A; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees W J; Nelson, E Andrea

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Discussion Paper. The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010-2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos MGA; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees WJ; Nelson, E Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Background Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Design Discussion Paper. Data Sources The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010–2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). Implications for Nursing A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. Conclusion By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. PMID:24684197

  19. Guilty as charged: bugs and drugs in gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Sontag, S J

    1997-08-01

    Gastric ulcer disease remains a cause of hemorrhage, perforation, outlet obstruction, and death. Recent advances in the understanding of peptic ulcer disease indicate that infection with Helicobacter pylori and ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cause of almost all gastric and duodenal ulcers. Our therapy, therefore, is in a state of transition: the old acid-suppressive temporary therapy that allows frequent ulcer recurrences and complications is being replaced by curative therapies. The old therapy, by reducing gastric acid secretion or enhancing gastric mucosal defenses, inhibited the cofactors needed for ulcer development. Acid suppression relieved symptoms and healed ulcers, while defense enhancers, such as prostaglandin analogs healed and prevented acute NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. These benefits were maintained, however, only as long as acid-reducing agents or mucosal defense enhancers were continued. On the other hand, curative therapies (such as eradicating H. pylori infection and/or stopping the use of NSAIDs) eliminate the causes of ulcer. Curative combination regimens consisting of antibiotics, ranitidine bismuth citrate, bismuth, and proton pump inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. These new regimens can cure benign gastric ulcer. Unfortunately, we cannot always determine which gastric ulcers are benign, and concern about gastric cancer remains. All gastric ulcers therefore still require biopsy and histological examination. With new treatment regimens, the time may be rapidly approaching when ulcer disease will be "history."

  20. Catastrophic Bleeding From a Marginal Ulcer After Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Sidani, Shafik; Akkary, Ehab

    2013-01-01

    Marginal ulceration at the gastrojejunal anastomosis is a common complication following Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Hemodynamically significant hemorrhagic marginal ulcers are usually treated either endoscopically or surgically. We describe a unique case of life-threatening hemorrhagic marginal ulcer eroding into the main splenic artery. This condition was initially managed with angiographic embolization, followed by surgical intervention. PMID:23743389

  1. Attitudes of Nurses Toward Pressure Ulcer Prevention: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Shirley M

    2014-01-01

    Despite the existence of accepted guidelines to prevent pressure ulcers, interventions are not performed consistently. Many variables, including nurses' attitudes, contribute to the development of pressure ulcers. A review of the literature on nurses' attitudes toward pressure ulcer prevention is provided.

  2. Haemophilus ducreyi Associated with Skin Ulcers among Children, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Pillay, Allan; Sokana, Oliver; Pavluck, Alex; Mabey, David C.; Chen, Cheng Y.; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    During a survey of yaws prevalence in the Solomon Islands, we collected samples from skin ulcers of 41 children. Using PCR, we identified Haemophilus ducreyi infection in 13 (32%) children. PCR-positive and PCR-negative ulcers were phenotypically indistinguishable. Emergence of H. ducreyi as a cause of nongenital ulcers may affect the World Health Organization’s yaws eradication program. PMID:25271477

  3. Haemophilus ducreyi associated with skin ulcers among children, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Pillay, Allan; Sokana, Oliver; Pavluck, Alex; Mabey, David C; Chen, Cheng Y; Solomon, Anthony W

    2014-10-01

    During a survey of yaws prevalence in the Solomon Islands, we collected samples from skin ulcers of 41 children. Using PCR, we identified Haemophilus ducreyi infection in 13 (32%) children. PCR-positive and PCR-negative ulcers were phenotypically indistinguishable. Emergence of H. ducreyi as a cause of nongenital ulcers may affect the World Health Organization's yaws eradication program.

  4. [Ulcer. New approach to the problem].

    PubMed

    Ilćhenko, A A

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues of ulcerogenesis, including the value of Helicobacter pylori (HP) as one of the etiological and pathogenetic factors of ulcer diseases. The data available in the literature and the author's own findings have allowed the author to study the spread of HP infection. There is a higher incidence of ulcer disease among endoscopists than that in therapeutists and inhabitants in Moscow. Light and electron microscopies have demonstrated abnormal changes in the gastric mucosa if there is HP infection. The paper also analyzes the therapeutical efficiency of antiulcer drugs and their effects on the degree of gastric sanitation from HP.

  5. [Laparoscopic surgery for perforated peptic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Seigo

    2004-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become the treatment of choice for the management of perforated peptic ulcer. The advantages of laparoscopic repair for perforated peptic ulcer include less pain, a short hospital stay, and an early return to normal activity. Although the operation time of laparoscopic surgery is significantly longer than that of open surgery, laparoscopic technique is safe, feasible, and with morbidity and mortality comparable to that of the conventional open technique. To benefit from the advantages offered by minimally invasive laparoscopic technique, further study will need to determine whether laparoscopic surgery is safe in patients with generalized peritonitis or sepsis.

  6. Ulcerative Cheilitis in a Rhesus Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C. C.; Miller, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    A two-year-old, female, simian immunodeficiency virus E543-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia due to a history of diarrhea, weight loss, and a small, round ulcer along the left labial commisure. Histopathologic examination of the ulcer revealed infiltration by large numbers of degenerate and non-degenerate neutrophils and macrophages admixed with syncytial epithelial cells. Rare epithelial cells contained herpetic inclusion bodies. These cells stained positive for Human herpesvirus 1 via immunohistochemistry and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of closely related Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus). PMID:21383117

  7. [The use of papain in plantar ulcers].

    PubMed

    Otuka, E S; Pedrazzani, E S; Pioto, M P

    1996-01-01

    This work has as a goal to contribute to decrease the inability in leprosy and continuous recurrence of plantar ulcers, through the use of a treatment method using papaine and actions of health education. This work has been done in a health centre with patients that presented plantar ulcers and agreed to participate in the proposed treatment. Analysing and comparing the obtained data before and after treatment, a greater adhesion of patients to this treatment, a quicker healing in relation to other methods used before and a greater interaction with the patient has been observed.

  8. Endoscopic management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ulcerative cheilitis in a rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C C; Miller, A D

    2012-03-01

    A 2-year-old, female, simian immunodeficiency virus E543-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia due to a history of diarrhea, weight loss, and a small, round ulcer along the left labial commissure. Histopathologic examination of the ulcer revealed infiltration by large numbers of degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils and macrophages admixed with syncytial epithelial cells. Rare epithelial cells contained herpetic inclusion bodies. These cells stained positive for Human herpesvirus 1 via immunohistochemistry, and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of closely related Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus).

  10. The VCU Pressure Ulcer Summit: Collaboration to Operationalize Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention Best Practice Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Brindle, C Tod; Creehan, Sue; Black, Joyce; Zimmermann, Deb

    2015-01-01

    This executive summary reports outcomes of an interprofessional collaboration between experts in pressure ulcer prevention, bedside clinicians, regulatory agencies, quality improvement, informatics experts, and professional nursing organizations. The goal of the collaboration was to develop a framework to assist facilities to operationalize best practice recommendations to sustain organizational culture change in hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevention, to develop a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer severity score, and to address topics related to the unavoidable pressure ulcer.

  11. The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial

    PubMed Central

    Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Prajna, Lalitha; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Porco, Travis C.; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare topical natamycin vs voriconazole in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. Methods This phase 3, double-masked, multicenter trial was designed to randomize 368 patients to voriconazole (1%) or natamycin (5%), applied topically every hour while awake until reepithelialization, then 4 times daily for at least 3 weeks. Eligibility included smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcer and visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months; secondary outcomes included corneal perforation and/or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Results A total of 940 patients were screened and 323 were enrolled. Causative organisms included Fusarium (128 patients [40%]), Aspergillus (54 patients [17%]), and other filamentous fungi (141 patients [43%]). Natamycin-treated cases had significantly better 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity than voriconazole-treated cases (regression coefficient=−0.18 logMAR; 95% CI, −0.30 to −0.05; P=.006). Natamycin-treated cases were less likely to have perforation or require therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (odds ratio=0.42; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.80; P=.009). Fusarium cases fared better with natamycin than with voriconazole (regression coefficient=−0.41 logMAR; 95% CI, −0.61 to −0.20; P<.001; odds ratio for perforation=0.06; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.28; P<.001), while non-Fusarium cases fared similarly (regression coefficient=−0.02 logMAR; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.13; P=.81; odds ratio for perforation=1.08; 95% CI, 0.48 to 2.43; P=.86). Conclusions Natamycin treatment was associated with significantly better clinical and microbiological outcomes than voriconazole treatment for smear-positive filamentous fungal keratitis, with much of the difference attributable to improved results in Fusarium cases. Application to Clinical Practice Voriconazole should not be used as monotherapy in filamentous keratitis. Trial Registration

  12. Pheochromocytoma Multisystem Crisis Behaving Like Interstitial Pneumonia: An Autopsy Case

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, Yohta; Kawano, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Keiko; Yamashita, Tomoko; Makita, Naoki; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Kamimori, Kimio; Yanagi, Shiro; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis is a rare and life-threatening disease that is associated with numerous symptoms and which is also difficult to diagnose. We herein report an autopsy case of a 61-year-old man who died due to pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. The patient complained of vomiting and breathlessness. Computed tomography showed a shadow-like region with a similar appearance to interstitial pneumonia. The patient was diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by severe lung disease based on the results of echocardiography and coronary angiography. The patient was treated for interstitial pneumonia. However, his condition rapidly deteriorated and he died 6 hours after arrival. We were later informed of his extremely high catecholamine serum levels. We found pheochromocytoma with hemorrhage at autopsy. The patient's lungs showed acute passive congestion with edema and extravasation. PMID:28090043

  13. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  14. Acute respiratory failure secondary to mesalamine-induced interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Albin; Karakurum, Ali

    2013-08-20

    Interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect of mesalamine therapy is a rare but potentially serious complication. Patients typically have a mild disease course with no documented cases of respiratory failure in published literature. Given its variable latent period and non-specific signs and symptoms, it may be difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with symptoms of fever, shortness of breath and a non-productive cough, 2 weeks after initiation of therapy with mesalamine. His hospital course was complicated by acute respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Radiographic studies revealed bilateral lower lobe infiltrates and bronchosopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering a diagnosis of mesalamine-induced lung injury in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms while on mesalamine therapy and to review relevant literature.

  15. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-07

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia in a gas station worker.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Moon, C H; Oh, Y B; Kim, H Y; Ahn, Y; Ko, E J; Joo, J E

    1998-10-01

    Giant-cell interstitial Pneumonia (GIP) is a very uncommon respiratory disease. The majority of cases of GIP are caused by exposure to cobalt, tungsten and other hard metals. In this report, we describe GIP in a patient who worked in gas station and dealt in propane gas vessels. He presented with clinical features of chronic interstitial lung disease and underwent an open lung biopsy that showed DIP-like reaction with large numbers of intra-alveolar macrophages and numerous large, multinucleated histiocytes which were admixed with the macrophages. Analysis of lung tissue for hard metals was done. Cobalt was the main component of detected hard metals. Corticosteroid therapy was started and he recovered fully.

  17. [CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF PRESSURE ULCER INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Kučišec-Tepeš, N

    2016-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is a localized injury of the skin and/or adjacent tissue, usually above bone protrusions. It is a result of pressure or pressure combined with shear stress, friction and humidity. With regard to long life and delayed healing, it is a chronic wound. Pressure ulcer appears as a consequence of a combination of micro-embolism, ischemia and myonecrosis. These pathophysiological processes provide an ideal medium for proliferation of microorganisms, predominantly bacteria, and development of infection. Progression in the development of pressure ulcer is a dynamic process manifesting in phases, each of which is characterized by its own physiological-anatomical peculiarities and microbiological status. An open lesion without protective barrier becomes contaminated immediately, and, shortly afterwards, colonized by physiological microflora of the host and microbes from the environment. In the absence of preventive measures, the wound becomes critically colonized and infected. The characteristic of chronic wound/pressure ulcer is that it is colonized, and the infection develops depending on various factors in 5% to 80% of cases. The ability of microbes to cause infection depends on a number of factors, which include the pathogen and the host. The number and quantity of virulent factors, microbes, determines the virulence coefficient, which is responsible for overcoming the host’s immune system and development of infection. In the development of pressure ulcer infection, two essential microbial factors predominate, i.e. the presence of adhesin and association with biofilm. Thus, pressure ulcer infection as a chronic wound is characterized by a polymicrobial and heterogeneous population of microbes, domination of biofilm phenotype as a primary factor of virulence present in 90% of cases, phenotype hypervariability of species, and resistance or tolerance of the etiological agents to all types of biocides. The most significant virulence factor is biofilm. It is a

  18. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. This was assessed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. All 15 cases of interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The isoprenoidal metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns, free radical metabolism, glycoconjugate metabolism, and RBC membrane composition--were assessed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction con tributes to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The biochemical patterns obtained in interstitial lung disease are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. However, all the patients with interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Interstitial lung disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  19. Levetiracetam-induced interstitial nephritis in a patient with glioma.

    PubMed

    Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with a new diagnosis of low grade glioma was started on an escalating dose of levetiracetam (Lev) for seizure management. He gradually developed intractable nausea/vomiting and a high creatinine concentration due to acute renal failure which was attributed to Lev-induced interstitial nephritis. The medication was changed and his renal function rapidly improved to his baseline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population.