Science.gov

Sample records for ulnar nerve neuropathy

  1. Ulnar nerve sonography in leprosy neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Liu, Da-Yue; Lei, Yang-Yang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with a half-year history of right forearm sensory and motor dysfunction. Ultrasound imaging revealed definite thickening of the right ulnar nerve trunk and inner epineurium, along with heterogeneous hypoechogenicity and unclear nerve fiber bundle. Color Doppler exhibited a rich blood supply, which was clearly different from the normal ulnar nerve presentation with a scarce blood supply. The patient subsequently underwent needle aspiration of the right ulnar nerve, and histopathological examination confirmed that granulomatous nodules had formed with a large number of infiltrating lymphocytes and a plurality of epithelioid cells in the fibrous connective tissues, with visible atypical foam cells and proliferous vascularization, consistent with leprosy. Our report will familiarize readers with the characteristic sonographic features of the ulnar nerve in leprosy, particularly because of the decreasing incidence of leprosy in recent years.

  2. Complete dislocation of the ulnar nerve at the elbow: a protective effect against neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Leis, A Arturo; Smith, Benn E; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Omejec, Gregor; Podnar, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Recurrent complete ulnar nerve dislocation has been perceived as a risk factor for development of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). However, the role of dislocation in the pathogenesis of UNE remains uncertain. We studied 133 patients with complete ulnar nerve dislocation to determine whether this condition is a risk factor for UNE. In all, the nerve was palpated as it rolled over the medial epicondyle during elbow flexion. Of 56 elbows with unilateral dislocation, UNE localized contralaterally in 17 elbows (30.4%) and ipsilaterally in 10 elbows (17.9%). Of 154 elbows with bilateral dislocation, 26 had UNE (16.9%). Complete dislocation decreased the odds of having UNE by 44% (odds ratio = 0.475; P =  0.028), and was associated with less severe UNE (P = 0.045). UNE occurs less frequently and is less severe on the side of complete dislocation. Complete dislocation may have a protective effect on the ulnar nerve. Muscle Nerve 56: 242-246, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pure neuritic leprosy presenting as ulnar nerve neuropathy: a case report of electrodiagnostic, radiographic, and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Payne, Russell; Baccon, Jennifer; Dossett, John; Scollard, David; Byler, Debra; Patel, Akshal; Harbaugh, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Hansen's disease, or leprosy, is a chronic infectious disease with many manifestations. Though still a major health concern and leading cause of peripheral neuropathy in the developing world, it is rare in the United States, with only about 150 cases reported each year. Nevertheless, it is imperative that neurosurgeons consider it in the differential diagnosis of neuropathy. The causative organism is Mycobacterium leprae, which infects and damages Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, leading first to sensory and then to motor deficits. A rare presentation of Hansen's disease is pure neuritic leprosy. It is characterized by nerve involvement without the characteristic cutaneous stigmata. The authors of this report describe a case of pure neuritic leprosy presenting as ulnar nerve neuropathy with corresponding radiographic, electrodiagnostic, and histopathological data. This 11-year-old, otherwise healthy male presented with progressive right-hand weakness and numbness with no cutaneous abnormalities. Physical examination and electrodiagnostic testing revealed findings consistent with a severe ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse thickening and enhancement of the ulnar nerve and narrowing at the cubital tunnel. The patient underwent ulnar nerve decompression with biopsy. Pathology revealed acid-fast organisms within the nerve, which was pathognomonic for Hansen's disease. He was started on antibiotic therapy, and on follow-up he had improved strength and sensation in the ulnar nerve distribution. Pure neuritic leprosy, though rare in the United States, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of those presenting with peripheral neuropathy and a history of travel to leprosy-endemic areas. The long incubation period of M. leprae, the ability of leprosy to mimic other conditions, and the low sensitivity of serological tests make clinical, electrodiagnostic, and radiographic evaluation necessary for diagnosis

  4. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

  5. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the cross-sectional areas of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, cubital tunnel, and ulnar nerve with the elbow in extension in patients with and without ulnar neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Eng, Hing Y; Gunio, Drew A; Benitez, Carlos L

    2018-05-10

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cross-sectional area of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle (AEM), cubital tunnel, and ulnar nerve with the elbow in extension in patients with and without ulnar neuropathy. We performed a retrospective, level IV review of elbow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Elbow MRI studies of 32 patients with an AEM (26 men and 6 women, aged 18-60 years), 32 randomly selected patients without an AEM (aged 16-71 years), and 32 patients with clinical ulnar neuritis (22 men and 10 women, aged 24-76 years) were reviewed. We evaluated the ulnar nerve cross-sectional area proximal to, within, and distal to the cubital tunnel; AEM cross-sectional area; and cubital tunnel cross-sectional area. We found no significant difference in the nerve caliber between patients with and without an AEM. No correlation was found between the AEM cross-sectional area and ulnar nerve cross-sectional area within the cubital tunnel (r = 0.14). The mean cubital tunnel cross-sectional area was larger in patients with an AEM. Only 4 of the 32 patients with an AEM had findings of ulnar neuritis on MRI. Of the 32 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ulnar neuritis, only 2 had an AEM. With the elbow in extension, the presence or cross-sectional area of an AEM does not correlate with the area of the ulnar nerve or cubital tunnel. Only a small number of individuals with MRI evidence of an AEM had clinical evidence of ulnar neuropathy. Likewise, MRI evidence of an AEM was found in only a small number of individuals with clinical evidence of ulnar neuropathy. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Compressive Neuropathy of the Ulnar Nerve: A Perspective on History and Current Controversies.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Marjoua, Youssra; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2017-06-01

    The untoward effects resulting from compression of the ulnar nerve have been recognized for almost 2 centuries. Initial treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome focused on complete transection of the nerve at the level of the elbow, resulting in initial alleviation of pain but significant functional morbidity. A number of subsequent techniques have been described including in situ decompression, subcutaneous transposition, submuscular transposition, and most recently, endoscopic release. This manuscript focuses on the historical aspects of each of these treatments and our current understanding of their efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ulnar nerve injury associated with trampoline injuries.

    PubMed

    Maclin, Melvin M; Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-08-01

    This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.

  8. Median and ulnar neuropathies in university guitarists.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rachel H; Hutcherson, Kimberly J; Kain, Jennifer B; Phillips, Alicia L; Halle, John S; Greathouse, David G

    2006-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in both upper extremities of university guitarists. Peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremities are well documented in musicians. Guitarists and plucked-string musicians are at risk for entrapment neuropathies in the upper extremities and are prone to mild neurologic deficits. Twenty-four volunteer male and female guitarists (age range, 18-26 years) were recruited from the Belmont University School of Music and the Vanderbilt University Blair School of Music. Individuals were excluded if they were pregnant or had a history of recent upper extremity or neck injury. Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination. Nerve conduction status of the median and ulnar nerves of both upper extremities was obtained by performing motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) nerve conduction studies. Descriptive statistics of the nerve conduction study variables were computed using Microsoft Excel. Six subjects had positive findings on provocative testing of the median and ulnar nerves. Otherwise, these guitarists had normal upper extremity neural and musculoskeletal function based on the history and physical examinations. When comparing the subjects' nerve conduction study values with a chart of normal nerve conduction studies values, 2 subjects had prolonged distal motor latencies (DMLs) of the left median nerve of 4.3 and 4.7 milliseconds (normal, < 4.2 milliseconds). Prolonged DMLs are compatible with median neuropathy at or distal to the wrist. Otherwise, all electrophysiological variables were within normal limits for motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) values. However, comparison studies of median and ulnar motor latencies in the same hand demonstrated prolonged differences of greater than 1.0 milliseconds that affected the median nerve in 2 additional subjects, and identified contralateral limb involvement in a subject with a prolonged

  9. Ulnar neuropathy at wrist: entrapment at a very "congested" site.

    PubMed

    Coraci, Daniele; Loreti, Claudia; Piccinini, Giulia; Doneddu, Pietro E; Biscotti, Silvia; Padua, Luca

    2018-05-19

    Ulnar tunnel syndrome indicates ulnar neuropathy at different sites within the wrist. Several classifications of ulnar tunnel syndrome are present in literature, based upon typical nerve anatomy. However, anatomical variations are not uncommon and can complicate assessment. The etiology is also complex, due to the numerous potential causes of entrapment. Clinical examination, neurophysiological testing, and imaging are all used to support the diagnosis. At present, many therapeutic approaches are available, ranging from observation to surgical management. Although ulnar neuropathy at the wrist has undergone extensive prior study, unresolved questions on diagnosis and treatment remain. In the current paper, we review relevant literature and present the current knowledge on ulnar tunnel syndrome.

  10. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Editorial team. Hand Injuries and Disorders Read more Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A. ...

  11. Optimal Measurement Level and Ulnar Nerve Cross-Sectional Area Cutoff Threshold for Identifying Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow by MRI and Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Yasushi; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Ueda, Kazuhiko; Iwakura, Nahoko; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Yoshiharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    Imaging criteria for diagnosing compressive ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) have recently been established as the maximum ulnar nerve cross-sectional area (UNCSA) upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or ultrasonography (US). However, the levels of maximum UNCSA and diagnostic cutoff values have not yet been established. We therefore analyzed UNCSA by MRI and US in patients with UNE and in controls. We measured UNCSA at 7 levels in 30 patients with UNE and 28 controls by MRI and at 15 levels in 12 patients with UNE and 24 controls by US. We compared UNCSA as determined by MRI or US and determined optimal diagnostic cutoff values based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The UNCSA was significantly larger in the UNE group than in controls at 3, 2, 1, and 0 cm proximal and 1, 2, and 3 cm distal to the medial epicondyle for both modalities. The UNCSA was maximal at 1 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle for MRI (16.1 ± 3.5 mm 2 ) as well as for US (17 ± 7 mm 2 ). A cutoff value of 11.0 mm 2 for MRI and US was found to be optimal for differentiating between patients with UNE and controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 for MRI and 0.96 for US. The UNCSA measured by MRI was not significantly different from that by US. Intra-rater and interrater reliabilities for UNCSA were all greater than 0.77. The UNCSA in the severe nerve dysfunction group of 18 patients was significantly larger than that in the mild nerve dysfunction group of 12 patients. By measuring UNCSA with MRI or US at 1 cm proximal to the ME, patients with and without UNE could be discriminated at a cutoff threshold of 11.0 mm 2 with high sensitivity, specificity, and reliability. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ulnar neuropathy and ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms in relation to biomechanical exposures assessed by a job exposure matrix: a triple case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Johnsen, Birger; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Frost, Poul

    2012-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate relations between occupational biomechanical exposures and (1) ulnar neuropathy confirmed by electroneurography (ENG) and (2) ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms with normal ENG. In this triple case-referent study, we identified all patients aged 18-65 years, examined with ENG at a neurophysiological department on suspicion of ulnar neuropathy, 2001-2007. We mailed a questionnaire to 546 patients with ulnar neuropathy, 633 patients with ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms and two separate groups of community referents, matched on sex, age and primary care centre (risk set sampling). The two patient groups were also compared to each other directly. We constructed a Job Exposure Matrix to provide estimates of exposure to non-neutral postures, repetitive movements, hand-arm vibrations and forceful work. Conditional and unconditional logistic regressions were used. The proportion who responded was 59%. Ulnar neuropathy was related to forceful work with an exposure-response pattern reaching an OR of 3.85 (95% CI 2.04 to 7.24); non-neutral postures strengthened effects of forceful work. No relation was observed with repetitive movements. Ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms were related to repetitive movements with an OR of 1.89 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.52) in the highest-exposure category (≥2.5 h/day); forceful work was unrelated to the outcome. Ulnar neuropathy and ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms differed with respect to associations with occupational biomechanical exposures. Findings suggested specific effects of forceful work on the ulnar nerve. Thus, results corroborated the importance of an electrophysiological diagnosis when evaluating risk factors for ulnar neuropathy. Preventive effects may be achieved by reducing biomechanical exposures at work.

  13. A reliable technique for ultrasound-guided perineural injection in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Hamscha, Ulrike M; Tinhofer, Ines; Heber, Stefan; Grisold, Wolfgang; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Meng, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is a common peripheral compression neuropathy and, in most cases, occurs at 2 sites, the retroepicondylar groove or the cubital tunnel. With regard to a potential therapeutic approach with perineural corticosteroid injection, the aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of injection fluid applied at a standard site. We performed ultrasound-guided (US-guided) perineural injections to the ulnar nerve halfway between the olecranon and the medial epicondyle in 21 upper limbs from 11 non-embalmed cadavers. In anatomic dissection we investigated the spread of injected ink. Ink was successfully injected into the perineural sheath of the ulnar nerve in all 21 cases (cubital tunnel: 21 of 21; retroepicondylar groove: 19 of 21). US-guided injection between the olecranon and the medial epicondyle is a feasible and safe method to reach the most common sites of ulnar nerve entrapment. Muscle Nerve 56: 237-241, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Shear-wave elastography: a new potential method to diagnose ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Łukasz; Noszczyk, Bartłomiej; Nitek, Żaneta; Walecki, Jerzy; Osiak, Katarzyna; Pietruski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to verify if shear-wave elastography (SWE) can be used to diagnose ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). The secondary objective was to compare the cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel and to determine a cut-off value for this parameter accurately identifying persons with UNE. The study included 34 patients with UNE (mean age, 59.35 years) and 38 healthy controls (mean age, 57.42 years). Each participant was subjected to SWE of the ulnar nerve at three levels: in the cubital tunnel (CT) and at the distal arm (DA) and mid-arm (MA). The CSA of the ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel was estimated by means of ultrasonographic imaging. Patients with UNE presented with significantly greater ulnar nerve stiffness in the cubital tunnel than the controls (mean, 96.38 kPa vs. 33.08 kPa, p < 0.001). Ulnar nerve stiffness of 61 kPa, CT to DA stiffness ratio equal 1.68, and CT to MA stiffness ratio of 1.75 provided 100% specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value in the detection of UNE. Mean CSA of the ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel turned out to be significantly larger in patients with UNE than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). A weak positive correlation was found in the UNE group between the ulnar nerve CSA and stiffness (R = 0.31, p = 0.008). SWE seems to be a promising, reliable and simple quantitative adjunct test to support the diagnosis of UNE. • SWE enables reliable detection of cubital tunnel syndrome • Significant increase of entrapped ulnar nerve stiffness is observed in UNE • SWE is a perspective screening tool for early detection of compressive neuropathies.

  15. Altered ulnar nerve kinematic behavior in a cadaver model of entrapment.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Mark A; Vaz, Kenneth M; Weingarten, David; Brown, Justin M; Shah, Sameer B

    2015-06-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow is more than a compressive lesion of the nerve. The tensile biomechanical consequences of entrapment are currently marginally understood. To evaluate the effects of tethering on the kinematics of the ulnar nerve as a model of entrapment neuropathy. The ulnar nerve was exposed in 7 fresh cadaver arms, and markers were placed at 1-cm increments along the nerve, centered on the retrocondylar region. Baseline translation (pure sliding) and strain (stretch) were measured in response to progressively increasing tension produced by varying configurations of elbow flexion and wrist extension. Then the nerves were tethered by suturing to the cubital tunnel retinaculum and again exposed to progressively increasing tension from joint positioning. In the native condition, for all joint configurations, the articular segment of the ulnar nerve exhibited greater strain than segments proximal and distal to the elbow, with a maximum strain of 28 ± 1% and translation of 11.6 ± 1.8 mm distally. Tethering the ulnar nerve suppressed translation, and the distal segment experienced strains that were more than 50% greater than its maximum strain in an untethered state. This work provides a framework for evaluating regional nerve kinematics. Suppressed translation due to tethering shifted the location of high strain from articular to more distal regions of the ulnar nerve. The authors hypothesize that deformation is thus shifted to a region of the nerve less accustomed to high strains, thereby contributing to the development of ulnar neuropathy.

  16. High Ulnar Nerve Injuries: Nerve Transfers to Restore Function.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer Megan M

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are challenging problems. Nerve transfers are one of many options available to surgeons caring for these patients, although they do not replace tendon transfers, nerve graft, or primary repair in all patients. Distal nerve transfers for the treatment of high ulnar nerve injuries allow for a shorter reinnervation period and improved ulnar intrinsic recovery, which are critical to function of the hand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A study on operative findings and pathogenic factors in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kurihara, K; Nagano, T

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of operative findings obtained in 44 cases of ulnar nerve neuropathy at the elbow in an attempt to help elucidate the pathogenetic factors for the condition. Distinction must be made between Lig. epitrochleo-anconeum or a ligament-like thickening at the same site and the tendinous arch of M. flexor carpi ulnaris. These 2 sites constitute the entrapment points for the condition. A thick tendinous arch, Lig. epitrochleo-anconeum of M. anconeus epitrochlearis deters the ulnar nerve from being mobile, thereby contributing to the development of neuropathy with trauma acting as a precipitating factor. Dislocation of the ulnar nerve cannot be considered a factor of major etiologic significance. An important part is played by the tendinous arch in the pathogenesis of neuropathy, regardless of whether it is in association with ganglion, osteochondromatosis or osteoarthritis. In surgery for ulnar neuropathy decompression of the nerve is of primary necessity. Division of the tendinous arch is mandatory. Medial epicondylectomy may be added as required.

  18. Simultaneous Median and Ulnar Compression Neuropathy Secondary to a Giant Palmar Lipoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Melih; Demirayak, Engin; Acar, Baver

    2018-01-01

    Lipomas are benign tumors that rarely settle in the hand. They usually present with mass, pain, and nerve compression symptoms. Although isolated median or ulnar nerve compression neuropathy secondary to a lipoma of the hand has been widely reported, simultaneous median and ulnar nerve compression neuropathy are exceedingly rare and there are only three reported cases in the current literature to date. Herein, a case of a 50-year-old woman with a giant palmar lipoma that caused median and ulnar compression neuropathy is presented. The removal of the tumor resulted in the complete recovery of the patient’s symptoms. A deep-seated palmar lipoma should be kept in mind in patients with unilateral compression neuropathy symptoms with a palmar mass. PMID:29666776

  19. Two unusual anatomic variations create a diagnostic dilemma in distal ulnar nerve compression.

    PubMed

    Kiehn, Mark W; Derrick, Allison J; Iskandar, Bermans J

    2008-09-01

    Diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies is based upon patterns of functional deficits and electrodiagnostic testing. However, anatomic variations can lead to confounding patterns of physical and electrodiagnostic findings. Authors present a case of ulnar nerve compression due to a rare combination of anatomic variations, aberrant branching pattern, and FCU insertion at the wrist, which posed a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. The literature related to isolated distal ulnar motor neuropathy and anatomic variations of the ulnar nerve and adjacent structures is also reviewed. This case demonstrates how anatomic variations can complicate the interpretation of clinical and electrodiagnostic findings and underscores the importance of thorough exploration of the nerve in consideration for possible variations. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Ulnar neuropathy and medial elbow pain in women's fastpitch softball pitchers: a report of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam M; Butler, Thomas H; Dolan, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Elite-level women's fastpitch softball players place substantial biomechanical strains on the elbow that can result in medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. There is scant literature reporting the expected outcomes of the treatment of these injuries. This study examined the results of treatment in a series of these patients. We identified 6 female softball pitchers (4 high school and 2 collegiate) with medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. Trials of conservative care failed in all 6, and they underwent surgical treatment with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition. These patients were subsequently monitored postoperatively to determine outcome. All 6 female pitchers had early resolution of elbow pain and neuropathic symptoms after surgical treatment. Long-term follow-up demonstrated that 1 patient quit playing softball because of other injuries but no longer reported elbow pain or paresthesias. One player was able to return to pitching at the high school level but had recurrent forearm pain and neuritis 1 year later while playing a different sport and subsequently stopped playing competitive sports. Four patients continued to play at the collegiate level without further symptoms. Medial elbow pain in women's softball pitchers caused by ulnar neuropathy can be treated effectively with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition if nonsurgical options fail. Further study is necessary to examine the role of overuse, proper training techniques, and whether pitching limits may be necessary to avoid these injuries. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prolonged phone-call posture causes changes of ulnar motor nerve conduction across elbow.

    PubMed

    Padua, Luca; Coraci, Daniele; Erra, Carmen; Doneddu, Pietro Emiliano; Granata, Giuseppe; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2016-08-01

    Postures and work-hobby activities may play a role in the origin and progression of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE), whose occurrence appears to be increasing. The time spent on mobile-phone has increased in the last decades leading to an increased time spent with flexed elbow (prolonged-phone-posture, PPP). We aimed to assess the effect of PPP both in patients with symptoms of UNE and in symptom-free subjects. Patients with pure sensory symptoms of UNE and negative neurophysiological tests (MIN-UNE) and symptom-free subjects were enrolled. We evaluated ulnar motor nerve conduction velocity across elbow at baseline and after 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18min of PPP in both groups. Fifty-six symptom-free subjects and fifty-eight patients were enrolled. Globally 186 ulnar nerves from 114 subjects were studied. Conduction velocity of ulnar nerve across the elbow significantly changed over PPP time in patients with MIN-UNE, showing a different evolution between the two groups. PPP causes a modification of ulnar nerve functionality in patients with MIN-UNE. PPP may cause transient stress of ulnar nerve at elbow. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the Papal Benediction Sign: The ulnar neuropathy of St. Peter.

    PubMed

    Futterman, Bennett

    2015-09-01

    The origin of the Papal Benediction Sign has been a source of controversy for many generations of medical students. The question has been whether the Papal Benediction Sign posture is the result of an injury to the median nerve or to the ulnar nerve. The increasingly popular use of online "chat rooms" and the vast quantities of information available on the internet has led to an increasing level of confusion. Looking in major anatomy texts, anatomy and board review books as well as numerous internet sites the answer remains unresolved. Through the analysis of functional anatomy of the hand, cultural and religious practices of the early centuries of the Common Era and church art a clear answer emerges. It will become apparent that this hand posture results from an ulnar neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anatomical considerations of fascial release in ulnar nerve transposition: a concept revisited.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Mark A; Gasco, Jaime; Mokhtee, David B; Brown, Justin M

    2015-11-01

    Surgical transposition of the ulnar nerve to alleviate entrapment may cause otherwise normal structures to become new sources of nerve compression. Recurrent or persistent neuropathy after anterior transposition is commonly attributable to a new distal compression. The authors sought to clarify the anatomical relationship of the ulnar nerve to the common aponeurosis of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles following anterior transposition of the nerve. The intermuscular septa of the proximal forearm were explored in 26 fresh cadaveric specimens. The fibrous septa and common aponeurotic insertions of the flexor-pronator muscle mass were evaluated in relation to the ulnar nerve, with particular attention to the effect of transposition upon the nerve in this region. An intermuscular aponeurosis associated with the FCU and FDS muscles was present in all specimens. Transposition consistently resulted in angulation of the nerve during elbow flexion when this fascial septum was not released. The proximal site at which the nerve began to traverse this fascial structure was found to be an average of 3.9 cm (SD 0.7 cm) from the medial epicondyle. The common aponeurosis encountered between the FDS and FCU muscles represents a potential site of posttransposition entrapment, which may account for a subset of failed anterior transpositions. Exploration of this region with release of this structure is recommended to provide an unconstrained distal course for a transposed ulnar nerve.

  4. Median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command Band members.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott W; Koreerat, Nicholas R; Gordon, Lindsay B; Santillo, Douglas R; Moore, Josef H; Greathouse, David G

    2013-12-01

    Musicians have been reported as having a high prevalence of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) Band members at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Thirty-five MEDCOM Band members (30 males, 5 females) volunteered to participate. There were 33 right-handed musicians, and the mean length of time in the MEDCOM Band was 12.2 yrs (range, 1-30 yrs). Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination of the cervical spine and bilateral upper extremities. Nerve conduction studies of the bilateral median and ulnar nerves were performed. Electrophysiological variables served as the reference standard for median and ulnar neuropathy and included distal sensory latencies, distal motor latencies, amplitudes, conduction velocities, and comparison study latencies. Ten of the 35 subjects (29%) presented with abnormal electrophysiologic values suggestive of an upper extremity mononeuropathy. Nine of the subjects had abnormal median nerve electrophysiologic values at or distal to the wrist; 2 had bilateral abnormal values. One had an abnormal ulnar nerve electrophysiologic assessment at the elbow. Nine of these 10 subjects had clinical examination findings consistent with the electrophysiological findings. The prevalence of mononeuropathies in this sample of band members is similar to that found in previous research involving civilian musicians (20-36%) and far exceeds that reported in the general population. Prospective research investigating screening, examination items, and injury prevention measures in musicians appears to be warranted.

  5. Neurologic examination and instrument-based measurements in the evaluation of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Omejec, Gregor; Podnar, Simon

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the utility of instrument-based assessment of peripheral nerve function with the neurologic examination in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). We prospectively recruited consecutive patients with suspected UNE, performed a neurologic examination, and performed instrument-based measurements (muscle cross-sectional area by ultrasonography, muscle strength by dynamometry, and sensation using monofilaments). We found good correlations between clinical estimates and corresponding instrument-based measurements, with similar ability to diagnose UNE and predict UNE pathophysiology. Although instrument-based methods provide quantitative evaluation of peripheral nerve function, we did not find them to be more sensitive or specific in the diagnosis of UNE than the standard neurologic examination. Likewise, instrument-based methods were not better able to differentiate between groups of UNE patients with different pathophysiologies. Muscle Nerve 57: 951-957, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ulnar nerve entrapment in Guyon's canal due to a lipoma.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, O; Calisaneller, T; Gerilmez, A; Gulsen, S; Altinors, N

    2010-09-01

    Guyon's canal syndrome is an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or palm that can cause motor, sensory or combined motor and sensory loss due to various factors . In this report, we presented a 66-year-old man admitted to our clinic with a history of intermittent pain in the left palm and numbness in 4th and 5th finger for two years. His neurological examination revealed a sensory impairment in the right fifth finger. Also, physical examination displayed a subcutaneous mobile soft tissue in ulnar side of the wrist. Electromyographic examination confirmed the diagnosis of type-1 Guyon's canal syndrome. Under axillary blockage, a lipoma compressing the ulnar nerve was excised totally and ulnar nerve was decompressed. The symptoms were improved after the surgery and patient was symptom free on 3rd postoperative week.

  7. ULNAR NERVE COMPONENT TO INNERVATION OF THUMB CARPOMETACARPAL JOINT

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Roberto Augusto; Kam, Check C; Gennis, Elisabeth R; Barkin, Jodie A; Riel, Ryan U; Robinson, Philip G; Owens, Patrick W

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint arthritis is one of the most common problems addressed by hand surgeons. The gold standard of treatment for thumb CMC joint arthritis is trapeziectomy, ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition. Denervation of the thumb CMC joint is not currently used to treat arthritis in this joint due to the failure of the procedure to yield significant symptomatic relief. The failure of denervation is puzzling, given that past anatomic studies show the radial nerve is the major innervation of the thumb CMC joint with the lateral antebrachial nerve and the median nerve also innervating this joint. Although no anatomic study has ever shown that the ulnar nerve innervates the CMC joint, due to both the failure of denervation and the success of arthroscopic thermal ablation, we suspect that previous anatomic studies may have overlooked innervation of the thumb CMC joint via the ulnar nerve. Methods We dissected 19 formalin-preserved cadaveric hand-to-mid-forearm specimens. The radial, median and ulnar nerves were identified in the proximal forearm and then followed distally. Any branch heading toward the radial side of the hand were followed to see if they innervated the thumb CMC joint. Results Eleven specimens (58%) had superficial radial nerve innervation to the thumb CMC joint. Nine specimens (47%) had median nerve innervation from the motor branch. Nine specimens (47%) had ulnar nerve innervation from the motor branch. Conclusions We believe this is the first study to demonstrate that the ulnar nerve innervates the thumb CMC joint This finding may explain the poor results seen in earlier attempts at denervation of the thumb CMC, but the more favorable results with techniques such as arthroscopy with thermal ablation. PMID:22096446

  8. Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity In Postmenopausal Women with Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak

    2016-12-01

    The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy.

  9. Differential aging of median and ulnar sensory nerve parameters.

    PubMed

    Werner, Robert A; Franzblau, Alfred; D'Arcy, Hannah J S; Evanoff, Bradley A; Tong, Henry C

    2012-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity slows and amplitude declines with aging. Median and ulnar sensory nerves were tested at the annual meetings of the American Dental Association. Seven hundred four subjects had at least two observations. The rate of change in the nerve parameters was estimated while controlling for gender, age, change in hand temperature, baseline body mass index (BMI), and change in BMI. Amplitudes of the median sensory nerve action potentials decreased by 0.58 μV per year, whereas conduction velocity decreased at a rate of 0.41 m/s per year. Corresponding values for the ulnar nerve were 0.89 μV and 0.29 m/s per year. The rates of change in amplitudes did not differ, but the median nerve demonstrated a more rapid loss of conduction velocity. The rate of change for the median conduction velocity was higher than previously reported. The rate of change of median conduction velocity was significantly greater than for the ulnar nerve. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ulnar nerve entrapment in a French horn player.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, R A

    1997-10-01

    Nerve entrapment syndromes are frequent among musicians. Because of the demands on the musculoskeletal system and the great agility needed to per-form, musicians often present with vague complaints early in the course of entrapment, which makes the diagnosis a challenge for the clinician. Presented here is such a case of ulnar nerve entrapment at the left elbow of a French horn player. This case points out some of the difficulties in establishing a diagnosis of nerve entrapment in musicians. It also supports the theory that prolonged elbow flexion and repetitive finger movement contribute to the development of ulnar entrapment at the elbow. Although surgery is not required for most of the musculoskeletal problems of musicians, release of an entrapped nerve refractory to conservative therapy may be career-saving for the musician.

  11. Side Effects: Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Cancer.gov

    Nerve problems, such as peripheral neuropathy, can be caused by cancer treatment. Learn about signs and symptoms of nerve changes. Find out how to prevent or manage nerve problems during cancer treatment.

  12. Tendon Transfers Part II: Transfers for Ulnar Nerve Palsy and Median Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sammer, Douglas M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives After reading this article (part II of II), the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the anatomy and function of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm and hand. 2. Describe the clinical deficits associated with injury to each nerve. 3. Describe the indications, benefits, and drawbacks for various tendon transfer procedures used to treat median and ulnar nerve palsy.4. Describe the treatment of combined nerve injuries. 5. Describe postoperative care and possible complications associated with these tendon transfer procedures. Summary This article discusses the use of tendon transfer procedures for treatment of median and ulnar nerve palsy as well as combined nerve palsies. Postoperative management and potential complications are also discussed. PMID:19730287

  13. 3-Tesla MRI-assisted detection of compression points in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in correlation with intraoperative findings.

    PubMed

    Hold, Alina; Mayr-Riedler, Michael S; Rath, Thomas; Pona, Igor; Nierlich, Patrick; Breitenseher, Julia; Kasprian, Gregor

    2018-03-06

    Releasing the ulnar nerve from all entrapments is the primary objective of every surgical method in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). The aim of this retrospective diagnostic study was to validate preoperative 3-Tesla MRI results by comparing the MRI findings with the intraoperative aspects during endoscopic-assisted or open surgery. Preoperative MRI studies were assessed by a radiologist not informed about intraoperative findings in request for the exact site of nerve compression. The localizations of compression were then correlated with the intraoperative findings obtained from the operative records. Percent agreement and Cohen's kappa (κ) values were calculated. From a total of 41 elbows, there was a complete agreement in 27 (65.8%) cases and a partial agreement in another 12 (29.3%) cases. Cohen's kappa showed fair-to-moderate agreement. High-resolution MRI cannot replace thorough intraoperative visualization of the ulnar nerve and its surrounding structures but may provide valuable information in ambiguous cases or relapses. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nerve Transfer Versus Nerve Graft for Reconstruction of High Ulnar Nerve Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Asser A; El-Deeb, Mohamed S; Imam, Mohamed A

    2017-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of nerve transfer versus nerve grafting in restoring motor and sensory hand function in patients with complete, isolated high ulnar nerve injuries. A retrospective chart review was performed, at a minimum 2 years of follow-up, of 52 patients suffering complete, isolated high ulnar nerve injury between January 2006 and June 2013 in one specialized hand surgery unit. Twenty-four patients underwent motor and sensory nerve transfers (NT group). Twenty-eight patients underwent sural nerve grafting (NG group). Motor recovery, return of sensibility and complications were examined as outcome measures. The Medical Research Council scale was applied to evaluate sensory and motor recovery. Grip and pinch strengths of the hand were measured. Twenty of 24 patients (83.33%) in the NT group regained M3 grade or greater for the adductor pollicis, the abductor digiti minimi, and the medial 2 lumbricals and interossei, compared with only 16 of 28 patients (57.14%) in the NG group. Means for percentage recovery of grip strengths compared with the other healthy hand were significantly higher for the NT group than the NG group. Sensory recovery of S3 or greater was achieved in more than half of each group with no significant difference between groups. Nerve transfer is favored over nerve grafting in managing high ulnar nerve injuries because of better improvement of motor power and better restoration of grip functions of the hand. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term outcomes in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow treated according to the presumed aetiology.

    PubMed

    Omejec, Gregor; Podnar, Simon

    2018-06-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) consists mainly of two conditions: entrapment under the humeroulnar aponeurosis (HUA) and extrinsic compression in the retrocondylar (RTC) groove. These in our opinion need different treatment: surgical HUA release and avoidance of inappropriate arm positioning, respectively. We treated our UNE patients accordingly, and studied their long-term outcomes. We invited our cohort of UNE patients to a follow-up examination consisting of history, neurological, electrodiagnostic (EDx) and ultrasonographic (US) examinations performed by four blinded investigators. At a mean follow-up time of 881 days, we performed a complete evaluation in 117 of 165 (65%) patients, with 96 (90%; 35 HUA and 61 RTC) treated according to our recommendations. An improvement was reported by 83% of HUA and 84% of RTC patients. In both groups the ulnar nerve mean compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude, and the minimal motor nerve conduction velocity increased, while the maximal ulnar nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) decreased. After 2.5 years similar proportions of HUA and RTC patients reported clinical improvement that was supported by improvement in EDx and US findings. These results suggest that patients with UNE improve following both surgical decompression and non-operative treatment. A clinical trial comparing treatment approaches in neuropathy localised to the HUA and RTC will be needed to possibly confirm our opinion that the therapeutic approach should be tailored according to the presumed aetiology of UNE. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Blocking Flap for Ulnar Nerve Instability After In Situ Release: Technique and a Grading System of Ulnar Nerve Instability to Guide Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peter

    2017-12-01

    In situ ulnar nerve release has been gaining popularity as a simple, effective, and low-morbidity procedure for the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. One concern with the technique is how to manage the unstable ulnar nerve after release. It is unclear how much nerve subluxation will lead to problems and surprisingly there is no grading system to assess ulnar nerve instability. I propose such a grading system, as well as a new technique to stabilize the unstable ulnar nerve. The blocking flap technique consists of raising a rectangular flap off the flexor/pronator fascia and attaching it to the posterior subcutaneous flap so that it blocks the nerve from subluxation/dislocation.

  17. The scalene reflex: relationship between increased median or ulnar nerve pressure and scalene muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, J J; Sun, Y; Rajashekhar, T P

    1995-07-01

    Neck pain, headaches, upper thoracic pain, and dystonic scalene muscles are common findings in patients who have severe entrapment neuropathies of the upper extremities. This problem was taken to the laboratory in an attempt to discover the correlation between distal entrapment neuropathies, brachial plexus entrapments, and prominent scalenus muscles. When increased pressure (over 40 mmHg) was applied to the median and ulnar nerves in the forelimbs of eight goats, increased electromyographic activity was noted in the ipsilateral scalenus muscle. Pressures ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg caused increased electromyographic activity on the contralateral scalene muscle, and the authors postulate that it is mediated by the gamma afferent and efferent system. This relationship may explain the commonly found neck pain and muscle spasm in patients with peripheral neuropathies, and it represents a link between the somatic efferent nerves and the gamma motor neuron system. At present, the same phenomenon has been documented in 30 humans with the diagnosis of brachial plexus entrapment.

  18. Ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist: traumatic versus cumulative stress cases.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Anthony; Chadd, Edmund

    2007-04-01

    To identify clinical and electromyographic characteristics of ulnar neuropathy at or below the wrist, comparing those caused by unitary trauma with those caused by suspected cumulative stress. Retrospective case series. University hospital electromyography laboratory. Patients with electrodiagnostic evidence of an ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist over a 3-year period. Forty-seven hands from 42 patients (age range, 20-80y; mean, 52y) were identified and evaluated in this study. Record review of clinical history, physical examination, electromyography, and treatment. Etiology of injury, physical signs and symptoms, and electromyographic testing results. Ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist is commonly mischaracterized because of other mononeuropathies in the upper extremity and because of peripheral polyneuropathy. Ulnar neuropathy because of cumulative stress presents typically with sensory symptoms (63%) and a normal examination (71%), whereas trauma cases present with motor with or without sensory symptoms (92%) with motor abnormalities (92%) confirmed on examination. Traumatic cases are characterized by electromyography by decreased sensory and motor-evoked amplitudes, prolonged motor distal latencies, and abnormal needle examination. The amplitude changes are noted comparing with laboratory norms and comparing side to side. No characteristic pattern of abnormalities on electromyography is noted in the cumulative stress cases. Patients with no motor symptoms, regardless of etiology, are more apt to have sensory distal latency prolongation, whereas those with motor symptoms have motor amplitude and needle examination abnormalities. Traumatic ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist is characterized by motor symptoms and sensory and motor axonal loss by electromyography, whereas cumulative stress cases have sensory symptoms and electromyographic findings that are highly variable and noncharacteristic. Patients with no motor symptoms are more apt

  19. Peripheral nerves are pathologically small in cerebellar ataxia neuropathy vestibular areflexia syndrome: a controlled ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, L; Mulroy, E; Leadbetter, R; Kilfoyle, D; Chancellor, A M; Mossman, S; Wing, L; Wu, T Y; Roxburgh, R H

    2018-04-01

    Sensory neuronopathy is a cardinal feature of cerebellar ataxia neuropathy vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). Having observed that two patients with CANVAS had small median and ulnar nerves on ultrasound, we set out to examine this finding systematically in a cohort of patients with CANVAS, and compare them with both healthy controls and a cohort of patients with axonal neuropathy. We have previously reported preliminary findings in seven of these patients with CANVAS and seven healthy controls. We compared the ultrasound cross-sectional area of median, ulnar, sural and tibial nerves of 14 patients with CANVAS with 14 healthy controls and 14 age- and gender-matched patients with acquired primarily axonal neuropathy. We also compared the individual nerve cross-sectional areas of patients with CANVAS and neuropathy with the reference values of our laboratory control population. The nerve cross-sectional area of patients with CANVAS was smaller than that of both the healthy controls and the neuropathy controls, with highly significant differences at most sites (P < 0.001). Conversely, the nerve cross-sectional areas in the upper limb were larger in neuropathy controls than healthy controls (P < 0.05). On individual analysis, the ultrasound abnormality was sufficiently characteristic to be detected in all but one patient with CANVAS. Small nerves in CANVAS probably reflect nerve thinning from loss of axons due to ganglion cell loss. This is distinct from the ultrasound findings in axonal neuropathy, in which nerve size was either normal or enlarged. Our findings indicate a diagnostic role for ultrasound in CANVAS sensory neuronopathy and in differentiating neuronopathy from neuropathy. © 2018 EAN.

  20. Interfascicular suture with nerve autografts for median, ulnar and radial nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, F; Luccarelli, G

    1981-05-01

    Interfascicular nerve suture with autografts is the operation of choice for repairing peripheral nerve injuries because it ensures more precise alignment of the fasciculi and so better chances of reinnervation of the sectioned nerve. The procedure as described by Millesi et al has been used at the Istituto Neurologico di Milano in 30 patients with traumatic lesions of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. All have been followed up for 2 to 7 years since operation. The results obtained are compared with those of other series obtained with interfascicular suture and with epineural suture. Microsurgery is essential. The best time to operate is discussed.

  1. Cross sectional study to evaluate the effect of duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the nerve conduction velocity in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Gauhar; Rizvi, S Aijaz Abbas; Singhal, Sangeeta; Zubair, Mohammad; Ahmad, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    To study the nerve conduction velocity in clinically undetectable and detectable peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus with variable duration. This cross sectional study was conducted in diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. They were divided in groups: Group I (n=37) with clinically detectable diabetic peripheral neuropathy of shorter duration and Group II (n=27) with clinically detectable diabetic peripheral neuropathy of longer duration. They were compared with T2DM patients (n=22) without clinical neuropathy. Clinical diagnosis was based on neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS) for signs. Nerve conduction velocity was measured in both upper and lower limbs. Median, ulnar, common peroneal and posterior tibial nerves were selected for motor nerve conduction study and median and sural nerves were selected for sensory nerve conduction study. The comparisons were done between nerve conduction velocities of motor and sensory nerves in patients of clinically detectable neuropathy and patients without neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus population. This study showed significant electrophysiological changes with duration of disease. Nerve conduction velocities in lower limbs were significantly reduced even in patients of shorter duration with normal upper limb nerve conduction velocities. Diabetic neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS) can help in evaluation of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy though nerve conduction study is more powerful test and can help in diagnosing cases of neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of extended electrodiagnostic studies in Ulnar Neuropathy at the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, Kari; Michler, Ralf Peter; Wader, Tony Eugen; Engstrøm, Morten; Sand, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the value of extended motor nerve conduction studies in patients with ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (UNE) in order to find the most sensitive and least time-consuming method. We wanted to evaluate the utility of examining both the sensory branch from the fifth finger and the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve. Further we intended to study the clinical symptoms and findings, and a possible correlation between the neurophysiological findings and pain. Methods The study was prospective, and 127 UNE patients who were selected consecutively from the list of patients, had a clinical and electrodiagnostic examination. Data from the most symptomatic arm were analysed and compared to the department's reference limits. Student's t - test, chi-square tests and multiple regression models were used. Two-side p-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results Ulnar paresthesias (96%) were more common than pain (60%). Reduced ulnar sensitivity (86%) and muscle strength (48%) were the most common clinical findings. Adding a third stimulation site in the elbow mid-sulcus for motor conduction velocity (MCV) to abductor digiti minimi (ADM) increased the electrodiagnostic sensitivity from 80% to 96%. Additional recording of ulnar MCV to the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) increased the sensitivity from 96% to 98%. The ulnar fifth finger and dorsal branch sensory studies were abnormal in 39% and 30% of patients, respectively. Abnormal electromyography in FDI was found in 49% of the patients. Patients with and without pain had generally similar conduction velocity parameter means. Conclusion We recommend three stimulation sites at the elbow for MCV to ADM. Recording from FDI is not routinely indicated. Sensory studies and electromyography do not contribute much to the sensitivity of the electrodiagnostic evaluation, but they are useful to document axonal degeneration. Most conduction parameters are unrelated to the presence of pain

  3. Sonoanatomy of sensory branches of the ulnar nerve below the elbow in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Lee, Seok Jun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Dong Hwee

    2018-04-01

    We identify sensory branches of the ulnar nerve-palmar ulnar cutaneous nerve (PUCN), dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve (DUCN), and superficial sensory branch-using ultrasonography. In 60 forearms of 30 healthy adult volunteers, the origin and size of the PUCN, DUCN, and superficial sensory branch were measured by ultrasonography. The relative pathway of the DUCN to the ulnar styloid process was also investigated. The PUCN was observed in 47 forearms (78%), and the DUCN was observed in all forearms. Average distances from the pisiform to the origin of the PUCN and DUCN were 11.9 ± 1.4 and 7.0 ± 1.0 cm, respectively. Superficial and deep divisions split 0.9 ± 0.3 cm distal to the pisiform. Cross-sectional areas of the PUCN, DUCN, and superficial sensory branch were 0.3 ± 0.1, 1.5 ± 0.5, and 3.9 ± 1.0 mm 2 , respectively. Sensory branches of the ulnar nerve can be visualized by ultrasonography, helping to differentiate ulnar nerve injury originating at either wrist or elbow. Muscle Nerve 57: 569-573, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Electrodiagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (Une): a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Logigian, Eric L; Villanueva, Raissa; Twydell, Paul T; Myers, Bennett; Downs, Marlene; Preston, David C; Kothari, Milind J; Herrmann, David N

    2014-03-01

    In ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE), we determined how electrodiagnostic cutoffs [across-elbow ulnar motor conduction velocity slowing (AECV-slowing), drop in across-elbow vs. forearm CV (AECV-drop)] depend on pretest probability (PreTP). Fifty clinically defined UNE patients and 50 controls underwent ulnar conduction testing recording abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI), stimulating wrist, below-elbow, and 6-, 8-, and 10-cm more proximally. For various PreTPs of UNE, the cutoffs required to confirm UNE (defined as posttest probability = 95%) were determined with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and Bayes Theorem. On ROC and Bayesian analyses, the ADM 10-cm montage was optimal. For PreTP = 0.25, the confirmatory cutoffs were >23 m/s (AECV-drop), and <38 m/s (AECV-slowing); for PreTP = 0.75, they were much less conservative: >14 m/s, and <47 m/s, respectively. (1) In UNE, electrodiagnostic cutoffs are critically dependent on PreTP; rigid cutoffs are problematic. (2) AE distances should be standardized and at least 10 cm. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Quantification of hand function by power grip and pinch strength force measurements in ulnar nerve lesion simulated by ulnar nerve block.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Nikolaus Johannes; Mentzel, Martin; Krischak, Gert D; Gülke, Joachim

    2017-06-24

    In the assessment of hand and upper limb function, grip strength is of the major importance. The measurement by dynamometers has been established. In this study, the effect of a simulated ulnar nerve lesion on different grip force measurements was evaluated. In 25 healthy volunteers, grip force measurement was done by the JAMAR dynamometer (Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY) for power grip and by a pinch strength dynamometer for tip pinch strength, tripod grip, and key pinch strength. A within-subject research design was used in this prospective study. Each subject served as the control by preinjection measurements of grip and pinch strength. Subsequent measurements after ulnar nerve block were used to examine within-subject change. In power grip, there was a significant reduction of maximum grip force of 26.9% with ulnar nerve block compared with grip force without block (P < .0001). Larger reductions in pinch strength were observed with block: 57.5% in tip pinch strength (P < .0001), 61.0% in tripod grip (P < .0001), and 58.3% in key pinch strength (P < .0001). The effect of the distal ulnar nerve block on grip and pinch force could be confirmed. However, the assessment of other dimensions of hand strength as tip pinch, tripod pinch and key pinch had more relevance in demonstrating hand strength changes resulting from an distal ulnar nerve lesion. The measurement of tip pinch, tripod grip and key pinch can improve the follow-up in hand rehabilitation. II. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Supercharged end-to-side anterior interosseous to ulnar motor nerve transfer for intrinsic musculature reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Barbour, John; Yee, Andrew; Kahn, Lorna C; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2012-10-01

    Functional motor recovery after peripheral nerve injury is predominantly determined by the time to motor end plate reinnervation and the absolute number of regenerated motor axons that reach target. Experimental models have shown that axonal regeneration occurs across a supercharged end-to-side (SETS) nerve coaptation. In patients with a recovering proximal ulnar nerve injury, a SETS nerve transfer conceptually is useful to protect and preserve distal motor end plates until the native axons fully regenerate. In addition, for nerve injuries in which incomplete regeneration is anticipated, a SETS nerve transfer may be useful to augment the regenerating nerve with additional axons and to more quickly reinnervate target muscle. We describe our technique for a SETS nerve transfer of the terminal anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) to the pronator quadratus muscle (PQ) end-to-side to the deep motor fascicle of the ulnar nerve in the distal forearm. In addition, we describe our postoperative therapy regimen for these transfers and an evaluation tool for monitoring progressive muscle reinnervation. Although the AIN-to-ulnar motor group SETS nerve transfer was specifically designed for ulnar nerve injuries, we believe that the SETS procedure might have broad clinical utility for second- and third-degree axonotmetic nerve injuries, to augment partial recovery and/or "babysit" motor end plates until the native parent axons regenerate to target. We would consider all donor nerves currently utilized in end-to-end nerve transfers for neurotmetic injuries as candidates for this SETS technique. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Peripheral neuropathy and blood-nerve barrier].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    It is important to know the cellular properties of endoneurial microvascular endothelial cells (PnMECs) and microvascular pericytes which constitute blood-nerve barrier (BNB), since this barrier structure in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) may play pivotal pathophysiological roles in various disorders of the PNS including inflammatory neuropathies (i.e. Guillain-Barré syndrome), vasculitic neuropathies, hereditary neuropathies and diabetic neuropathy. However, in contrast to blood-brain barrier (BBB), very few studies have been directed to BNB and no adequate cell lines originating from BNB had been launched. In our laboratory, we successfully established human immortalized cell lines originating from BNB using temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen and the cellular properties of human cell lines are presented in this paper. Human PnMEC cell line showed high transendothelial electrical resistance and expressed tight junction components and various types of influx as well as efflux transporters that have been reported to function at BBB. Human pericyte cell line also possessed tight junction proteins except claudin-5 and secrete various cytokines and growth factors including bFGF, VEGF, GDNF, NGF, BDNF and angiopoietin-1. Co-culture with pericytes or pericyte-conditioned media strengthend barrier properties of PnMEC, suggesting that in the PNS, peripheral nerve pericytes support the BNB function and play the same role of astrocytes in the BBB. Future accumulation of the knowledge concerning the cellular properties of BNB-forming cells will open the door to novel therapeutic strategies for intractable peripheral neuropathies.

  8. [Preliminary investigation of treatment of ulnar nerve defect by end-to-side neurorrhaphy].

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; Wang, T; Fang, H

    1997-11-01

    In the repair of the defect of peripheral nerve, it was necessary to find an operative method with excellent therapeutic effect but simple technique. Based on the experimental study, one case of old injury of the ulnar nerve was treated by end-to-side neurorraphy with the intact median nerve. In this case the nerve defect was over 3 cm and unable to be sutured directly. The patient was followed up for fourteen months after the operation. The recovery of the sensation and the myodynamia was evaluated. The results showed that: the sensation and the motor function innervated by ulnar nerve were recovered. The function of the hand was almost recovered to be normal. It was proved that the end-to-side neurorraphy between the distal stump with the intact median nerve to repair the defect of the ulnar nerve was a new operative procedure for nerve repair. Clinically it had good effect with little operative difficulty. This would give a bright prospect to repair of peripheral nerve defect in the future.

  9. Reversed Palmaris Longus Muscle Causing Volar Forearm Pain and Ulnar Nerve Paresthesia.

    PubMed

    Bhashyam, Abhiram R; Harper, Carl M; Iorio, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    A case of volar forearm pain associated with ulnar nerve paresthesia caused by a reversed palmaris longus muscle is described. The patient, an otherwise healthy 46-year-old male laborer, presented after a previous unsuccessful forearm fasciotomy for complaints of exercise exacerbated pain affecting the volar forearm associated with paresthesia in the ulnar nerve distribution. A second decompressive fasciotomy was performed revealing an anomalous "reversed" palmaris longus, with the muscle belly located distally. Resection of the anomalous muscle was performed with full relief of pain and sensory symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peripheral Neuropathy and Nerve Compression Syndromes in Burns.

    PubMed

    Strong, Amy L; Agarwal, Shailesh; Cederna, Paul S; Levi, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes lead to substantial morbidity following burn injury. Patients present with pain, paresthesias, or weakness along a specific nerve distribution or experience generalized peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms manifest at various times from within one week of hospitalization to many months after wound closure. Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by vascular occlusion of vasa nervorum, inflammation, neurotoxin production leading to apoptosis, and direct destruction of nerves from the burn injury. This article discusses the natural history, diagnosis, current treatments, and future directions for potential interventions for peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes related to burn injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Supinator to ulnar nerve transfer via in situ anterior interosseous nerve bridge to restore intrinsic muscle function in combined proximal median and ulnar nerve injury: a novel cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Hamid; HajiVandi, Shahin

    2017-05-01

    In cases of high ulnar nerve palsy, result of nerve repair in term of intrinsic muscle recovery is unsatisfactory. Distal nerve transfer can diminish the regeneration time and improve the results. But, there was no perfect distal nerve transfer for restoring intrinsic hand function in combined proximal median and ulnar nerve injuries. This cadaveric study aims to evaluate the possibility and feasibility of supinator nerve transfer to motor branch of ulnar nerve (MUN). Ten cadaveric upper limbs dissected to identify the location of the supinator branch, anterior interosseous nerve (AIN), and MUN. The AIN was cut from its origin and transferred to the supinator branches. Also, the AIN was distally cut and transferred to the MUN. After nerve coaptation, surface area, fascicle count, and axon number were determined by histologic methods. In all limbs, the proximal and distal stumps of AIN reached the supinator branch and the MUN without tension, respectively. The mean of axon number in the supinator, proximal stump of AIN, distal stump of AIN and MUN branches were 32,426, 45,542, 25,288, and 35,426, respectively. This study showed that transfer of the supinator branches to the MUN is possible via the in situ AIN bridge. The axon count data showed a favorable match between the supinator branches, AIN, and MUN. Therefore, it is suggested that this technique can be useful for patients with combined high median and ulnar nerve injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability, reference values and predictor variables of the ulnar sensory nerve in disease free adults.

    PubMed

    Ruediger, T M; Allison, S C; Moore, J M; Wainner, R S

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this descriptive and exploratory study were to examine electrophysiological measures of ulnar sensory nerve function in disease free adults to determine reliability, determine reference values computed with appropriate statistical methods, and examine predictive ability of anthropometric variables. Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve using surface electrodes were performed on 100 volunteers. Reference values were computed from optimally transformed data. Reliability was computed from 30 subjects. Multiple linear regression models were constructed from four predictor variables. Reliability was greater than 0.85 for all paired measures. Responses were elicited in all subjects; reference values for sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude from above elbow stimulation are 3.3 μV and decrement across-elbow less than 46%. No single predictor variable accounted for more than 15% of the variance in the response. Electrophysiologic measures of the ulnar sensory nerve are reliable. Absent SNAP responses are inconsistent with disease free individuals. Reference values recommended in this report are based on appropriate transformations of non-normally distributed data. No strong statistical model of prediction could be derived from the limited set of predictor variables. Reliability analyses combined with relatively low level of measurement error suggest that ulnar sensory reference values may be used with confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Ulnar nerve lesion at the wrist and sport: A report of 8 cases compared with 45 non-sport cases.

    PubMed

    Seror, P

    2015-04-01

    Reporting clinical and electrodiagnostic characteristics of sport-related ulnar neuropathies at the wrist. Eight sport-related and 45 non-sport-related cases from 53 ulnar neuropathies at the wrist cases over 14 years. Sport-related ulnar neuropathies at the wrist cases were due to cycling (5 cases), kayaking (2 cases), and big-game fishing (1 case). No patient had sensory complaints in ulnar digits, and all had motor impairment. Conduction across the wrist with recording on the first dorsal interosseous muscle was impaired in all cases, with conduction block in 5. Two cyclists showed bilateral ulnar neuropathies at the wrist. All cases recovered within 2 to 6 months with sport discontinuation. Distal lesions of the deep motor branch were more frequent in sport- than non-sport-related cases. The 8 sport-related ulnar neuropathies at the wrist cases involved the deep motor branch. Conduction study to the first dorsal interosseous muscle across the wrist is the key to electrodiagnostics. Bilateral cases in cyclists does not require wrist imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of the nerve conduction monitor in repeated measures of median and ulnar nerve latencies

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, I A

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), one of the most rapidly growing work-related injuries, cost American businesses up to $10 billion dollars in medical costs each year (1992). Because conservative therapy can be implemented and CTS is more reversible in it early stages, early detection will not only save industry unnecessary health care costs, but also prevent employees from experiencing debilitating pain and unnecessary surgery. In response to the growing number of cases of CTS, many companies have introduced screening tools to detect early stages of carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurotron Medical (New Jersey) has designedmore » a portable nerve conduction monitor (Nervepace S-200) which measures motor and sensory nerve latencies. The slowing of these latencies is one diagnostic indicator of carpal tunnel syndrome. In this study, we determined the reliability of the Nervepace Monitor in measure ulnar and median nerve latencies during repeated testing. The testing was performed on 28 normal subjects between the ages of 20 and 35 who had no prior symptoms of CTS. They were tested at the same time each day for three consecutive days. Nerve latencies between different ethnic groups and genders were compared. Results show that there was no significant daily variation of the median motor and lunar sensory latencies or the median sensory latencies. No significant differences of latencies was observed among ethnic groups; however, a significant difference of latencies between male and female subjects was observed (p<0.05).« less

  15. Analyzing cost-effectiveness of ulnar and median nerve transfers to regain forearm flexion.

    PubMed

    Wali, Arvin R; Park, Charlie C; Brown, Justin M; Mandeville, Ross

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Peripheral nerve transfers to regain elbow flexion via the ulnar nerve (Oberlin nerve transfer) and median nerves are surgical options that benefit patients. Prior studies have assessed the comparative effectiveness of ulnar and median nerve transfers for upper trunk brachial plexus injury, yet no study has examined the cost-effectiveness of this surgery to improve quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The authors present a cost-effectiveness model of the Oberlin nerve transfer and median nerve transfer to restore elbow flexion in the adult population with upper brachial plexus injury. METHODS Using a Markov model, the authors simulated ulnar and median nerve transfers and conservative measures in terms of neurological recovery and improvements in quality of life (QOL) for patients with upper brachial plexus injury. Transition probabilities were collected from previous studies that assessed the surgical efficacy of ulnar and median nerve transfers, complication rates associated with comparable surgical interventions, and the natural history of conservative measures. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), defined as cost in dollars per QALY, were calculated. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $50,000/QALY were considered cost-effective. One-way and 2-way sensitivity analyses were used to assess parameter uncertainty. Probabilistic sampling was used to assess ranges of outcomes across 100,000 trials. RESULTS The authors' base-case model demonstrated that ulnar and median nerve transfers, with an estimated cost of $5066.19, improved effectiveness by 0.79 QALY over a lifetime compared with conservative management. Without modeling the indirect cost due to loss of income over lifetime associated with elbow function loss, surgical treatment had an ICER of $6453.41/QALY gained. Factoring in the loss of income as indirect cost, surgical treatment had an ICER of -$96,755.42/QALY gained, demonstrating an overall lifetime cost savings due to

  16. Sciatic neuropathy due to popliteal fossa nerve block.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon, Adam; Arnold, W David; Bracewell, Anna; Hoyle, J Chad

    2017-10-01

    Sciatic neuropathy after popliteal nerve block (PNB) for regional anesthesia is considered uncommon but has been increasingly recognized in the literature. We identified a case of sciatic neuropathy that occurred after bunionectomy during which a PNB had been performed. To understand the frequency of PNB-related sciatic neuropathy, we performed a retrospective review of sciatic neuropathies at our center over a 5-year period. Forty-five cases of sciatic neuropathy were reviewed. Similar to earlier reports, common etiologies of sciatic neuropathy, including compression, trauma, fractures, and hip arthroplasty, were noted in the majority of our cases (60%, n = 27). Unexpectedly, PNB was the third most common etiology (16%, n = 7). Our results suggest PNB is a relatively common etiology of sciatic neuropathy and is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis. These findings should urge electromyographers to assess history of PNB in sciatic neuropathies, particularly with onset after surgery. Muscle Nerve 56: 822-824, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Relationship between the Ulnar Nerve and the Branches of the Radial Nerve to the Medial Head of the Triceps Brachii Muscle.

    PubMed

    Sh, Cho; Ih, Chung; Uy, Lee

    2018-05-17

    One branch of the radial nerve to the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle (MHN) has been described as accompanying or joining the ulnar nerve. Mostly two MHN branches have been reported, with some reports of one; however, the topographical anatomy is not well documented. We dissected 52 upper limbs from adult cadavers and found one, two, and three MHN branches in 9.6%, 80.8%, and 9.6% of cases, respectively. The MHN accompanying the ulnar nerve was always the superior MHN. The relationship between the ulnar nerve and the MHN was classified into four types according to whether the MHN was enveloped along with the ulnar nerve in the connective tissue sheath and whether it was in contact with the ulnar nerve. It contacted the ulnar nerve in 75.0% of cases and accompanied it over a mean distance of 73.6 mm (range 36-116 mm). In all cases in which the connective tissue sheath enveloped the branch of the MHN and the ulnar nerve, removing the sheath confirmed that the MHN branch originated from the radial nerve. The detailed findings and anatomical measurements of the MHN in this study will help in identifying its branches during surgical procedures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Stimulus electrodiagnosis and motor and functional evaluations during ulnar nerve recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luciane F. R. M.; Oliveira, Nuno M. L.; Pelet, Danyelle C. S.; Cunha, Agnes F. S.; Grecco, Marco A. S.; Souza, Luciane A. P. S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distal ulnar nerve injury leads to impairment of hand function due to motor and sensorial changes. Stimulus electrodiagnosis (SE) is a method of assessing and monitoring the development of this type of injury. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic parameters to evaluate ulnar nerve recovery and to correlate these parameters (Rheobase, Chronaxie, and Accommodation) with motor function evaluations. METHOD: A prospective cohort study of ten patients submitted to ulnar neurorrhaphy and evaluated using electrodiagnosis and motor assessment at two moments of neural recovery. A functional evaluation using the DASH questionnaire (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) was conducted at the end to establish the functional status of the upper limb. RESULTS: There was significant reduction only in the Chronaxie values in relation to time of injury and side (with and without lesion), as well as significant correlation of Chronaxie with the motor domain score. CONCLUSION: Chronaxie was the most sensitive SE parameter for detecting differences in neuromuscular responses during the ulnar nerve recovery process and it was the only parameter correlated with the motor assessment. PMID:26786072

  19. Different nerve ultrasound patterns in charcot-marie-tooth types and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    PubMed

    Padua, Luca; Coraci, Daniele; Lucchetta, Marta; Paolasso, Ilaria; Pazzaglia, Costanza; Granata, Giuseppe; Cacciavillani, Mario; Luigetti, Marco; Manganelli, Fiore; Pisciotta, Chiara; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Briani, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Nerve ultrasound in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease has focused mostly on the upper limbs. We performed an evaluation of a large cohort of CMT patients in which we sonographically characterized nerve abnormalities in different disease types, ages, and nerves. Seventy patients affected by different CMT types and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) were evaluated, assessing median, ulnar, fibular, tibial, and sural nerves bilaterally. Data were correlated with age. Nerve dimensions were correlated with CMT type, age, and nerve site. Nerves were larger in demyelinating than in axonal neuropathies. Nerve involvement was symmetric. CMT1 patients had larger nerves than did patients with other CMT types. Patients with HNPP showed enlargement at entrapment sites. Our study confirms the general symmetry of ultrasound nerve patterns in CMT. When compared with ultrasound studies of nerves of the upper limbs, evaluation of the lower limbs did not provide additional information. Muscle Nerve 57: E18-E23, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Neurophysiological localisation of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: Validation of diagnostic criteria developed by a taskforce of the Danish Society of clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pugdahl, K; Beniczky, S; Wanscher, B; Johnsen, B; Qerama, E; Ballegaard, M; Benedek, K; Juhl, A; Ööpik, M; Selmar, P; Sønderborg, J; Terney, D; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A

    2017-11-01

    This study validates consensus criteria for localisation of ulnar neuropathy at elbow (UNE) developed by a taskforce of the Danish Society of Clinical Neurophysiology and compares them to the existing criteria from the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM). The Danish criteria are based on combinations of conduction slowing in the segments of the elbow and forearm expressed in Z-scores, and difference between the segments in m/s. Examining fibres to several muscles and sensory fibres can increase the certainty of the localisation. Diagnostic accuracy for UNE was evaluated on 181 neurophysiological studies of the ulnar nerve from 171 peer-reviewed patients from a mixed patient-group. The diagnostic reference standard was the consensus diagnosis based on all available clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic information reached by a group of experienced Danish neurophysiologists. The Danish criteria had high specificity (98.4%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (95.2%) and fair sensitivity (76.9%). Compared to the AANEM criteria, the Danish criteria had higher specificity (p<0.001) and lower sensitivity (p=0.02). The Danish consensus criteria for UNE are very specific and have high PPV. The Danish criteria for UNE are reliable and well suited for use in different centres as they are based on Z-scores. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Harris, Joshua D.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries lead to pain and loss of performance in the thrower’s elbow. Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a reliable treatment option for the symptomatic, deficient UCL. Injury to the UCL usually occurs because of chronic accumulation of microtrauma, although acute ruptures occur and an acute-on-chronic presentation is also common. Evidence Acquisition: Computerized databases, references from pertinent articles, and research institutions were searched for all studies using the search terms ulnar collateral ligament from 1970 until 2015. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: All studies reporting outcomes for UCLR are level 4. Most modern fixation methodologies appear to be biomechanically and clinically equivalent. Viable graft choices include ipsilateral palmaris longus tendon autograft, gracilis or semitendinosus autograft, and allograft. Clinical studies report excellent outcomes of UCLR for both recreational and elite level athletes with regard to return to sport and postoperative performance. Complications, although rare, include graft rerupture or attenuation, ulnar nerve symptoms, stiffness, pain, and/or weakness leading to decreased performance. Conclusion: Injuries to the UCL have become commonplace among pitchers. Nonoperative treatment should be attempted, but the limited studies have not shown promising results. Operative treatment can be performed with several techniques, with retrospective studies showing promising results. Complications include ulnar neuropathy as well as failure to return to sport. Detailed preoperative planning, meticulous surgical technique, and a comprehensive rehabilitation program are essential components to achieving a satisfactory result. PMID:26502444

  2. [Tunnel neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Averochkin, A I; Shtul'man, D R

    1991-01-01

    Analysis is made of 261 patients operated on for tunnel neuropathies. Of these, there were 152 men and 109 women aged 15 to 82 years, the mean age being 46 years. Among 22 patterns of neuropathy, there dominated compression of the ulnar nerve in the cubital canal (104 patients) and compression of the median nerve in the carpal canal (76 patients) accounting for 69% of all the cases. 76 patients had two and more tunnel syndromes; double operative interventions were made in 23 patients. 58 patients (22.2%) recovered, 163 (62.75%) improved, no changes were recorded in 40 (15.3%) patients. There were no deteriorations.

  3. Extravasation of calcium solution leading to calcinosis cutis surrounding the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, S; Aydin, A; Erer, M

    2006-06-01

    A case of calcinosis cutis caused by calcium extravasation around the wrist is presented. During excision, the lesion was seen to be surrounding the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve. The possibility of peripheral nerve involvement in extravasation injuries is emphasized.

  4. Ultrasound biomechanical anatomy of the soft structures in relation to the ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Paul; Leleup, Grégoire; Ould-Slimane, Mourad; Merlet, Marie Caroline; Dubourg, Benjamin; Duparc, Fabrice

    2017-11-01

    Chronic ulnar nerve entrapment worsened by elbow flexion is the most common injury, but rare painful conditions may also be related to ulnar nerve instability. The posterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament (pMCL) and the retinaculum, respectively form a soft floor and a ceiling for the cubital tunnel. The aim of our study was to dynamically assess these soft structures of the cubital tunnel focusing on those involved in the biomechanics of the ulnar nerve. Forty healthy volunteers had a bilateral ultrasonography of the cubital tunnel. Elbows were scanned in full extension, 45° and 90°, and maximal passive flexion. Morphological changes of the nerve and related structures were dynamically assessed on transverse views. Both the pMCL and the retinaculum tightened with flexion. During elbow flexion, the tightening of the pMCL superficially moved the ulnar nerve remote from the osseous floor of the retroepicondylar groove. A retinaculum was visible in all 69 tunnels with stable nerves (86.3%), tightened in flexion, but absent in 11 tunnels with unstable nerves (13.7%). The retinaculum was fibrous in 60 elbows and muscular in nine, the nine muscular variants did not significantly influence the biomechanics of stable nerves. Stable nerves flattened in late flexion between the tightened pMCL and retinaculum, whereas unstable nerves transiently flattened when translating against the anterior osseous edge of the groove. The retinaculum and the pMCL are key structures in the biomechanics of the ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel of the elbow.

  5. Sonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve at the elbow with different degrees of elbow flexion.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prutha; Norbury, John W; Fang, Xiangming

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether there were differences in the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the flattening ratio of the normative ulnar nerve as it passes between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon at 30° of elbow flexion versus 90° of elbow flexion. Bilateral upper extremities of normal healthy adult volunteers were evaluated with ultrasound. The CSA and the flattening ratio of the ulnar nerve at the elbow as it passes between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon were measured, with the elbow flexed at 30° and at 90°, by 2 operators with varying ultrasound scanning experience by using ellipse and direct tracing methods. The results from the 2 different angles of elbow flexion were compared for each individual operator. Finally, intraclass correlations for absolute agreement and consistency between the 2 raters were calculated. An outpatient clinic room at a regional rehabilitation center. Twenty-five normal healthy adult volunteers. The mean CSA and the mean flattening ratio of the ulnar nerve at 30° of elbow flexion and at 90° of elbow flexion. First, for the ellipse method, the mean CSA of the ulnar nerve at 90° (9.93 mm(2)) was slightly larger than at 30° (9.77 mm(2)) for rater 1. However, for rater 2, the mean CSA of the ulnar nerve at 90° (6.80 mm(2)) was slightly smaller than at 30° (7.08 mm(2)). This was found to be statistically insignificant when using a matched pairs t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, with a significance level of .05. Similarly, the difference between the right side and the left side was not statistically significant. The intraclass correlations for absolute agreement between the 2 raters were not very high due to different measurement locations, but the intraclass correlations for consistency were high. Second, for the direct tracing method, the mean CSA at 90° (7.26 mm(2)) was slightly lower than at 30° (7.48 mm(2)). This was found to be statistically nonsignificant when using the matched pairs t test and the

  6. Transnasal Endoscopic Optic Nerve Decompression in Post Traumatic Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devang; Gadodia, Monica

    2018-03-01

    To quantify the successful outcome in patients following optic nerve decompression in post traumatic unilateral optic neuropathy in form of improvement in visual acuity. A prospective study was carried out over a period of 5 years (January 2011 to June 2016) at civil hospital Ahmedabad. Total 20 patients were selected with optic neuropathy including patients with direct and indirect trauma to unilateral optic nerve, not responding to conservative management, leading to optic neuropathy and subsequent impairment in vision and blindness. Decompression was done via Transnasal-Ethmo-sphenoidal route and outcome was assessed in form of post-operative visual acuity improvement at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year follow up. After surgical decompression complete recovery of visual acuity was achieved in 16 (80%) patients and partial recovery in 4 (20%). Endoscopic transnasal approach is beneficial in traumatic optic neuropathy not responding to steroid therapy and can prevent permanent disability if earlier intervention is done prior to irreversible damage to the nerve. Endoscopic optic nerve surgery can decompress the traumatic and oedematous optic nerve with proper exposure of orbital apex and optic canal without any major intracranial, intraorbital and transnasal complications.

  7. Predictors of surgical revision after in situ decompression of the ulnar nerve.

    PubMed

    Krogue, Justin D; Aleem, Alexander W; Osei, Daniel A; Goldfarb, Charles A; Calfee, Ryan P

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to identify factors associated with the need for revision surgery after in situ decompression of the ulnar nerve for cubital tunnel syndrome. This case-control investigation examined all patients treated at one institution with open in situ decompression for cubital tunnel syndrome between 2006 and 2011. The case patients were 44 failed decompressions that required revision, and the controls were 79 randomly selected patients treated with a single operation. Demographic data and disease-specific data were extracted from the medical records. The rate of revision surgery after in situ decompression was determined from our 5-year experience. A multivariate logistic regression model was used based on univariate testing to determine predictors of revision cubital tunnel surgery. Revision surgery was required in 19% (44 of 231) of all in situ decompressions performed during the study period. Predictors of revision surgery included a history of elbow fracture or dislocation (odds ratio [OR], 7.1) and McGowan stage I disease (OR, 3.2). Concurrent surgery with in situ decompression was protective against revision surgery (OR, 0.19). The rate of revision cubital tunnel surgery after in situ nerve decompression should be weighed against the benefits of a less invasive procedure compared with transposition. When considering in situ ulnar nerve decompression, prior elbow fracture as well as patients requesting surgery for mild clinically graded disease should be viewed as risk factors for revision surgery. Patient factors often considered relevant to surgical outcomes, including age, sex, body mass index, tobacco use, and diabetes status, were not associated with a greater likelihood of revision cubital tunnel surgery. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Influencing Outcomes after Ulnar Nerve Stability-Based Surgery for Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ho Jung; Oh, Won Taek; Koh, Il Hyun; Kim, Sungmin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Simple decompression of the ulnar nerve has outcomes similar to anterior transposition for cubital tunnel syndrome; however, there is no consensus on the proper technique for patients with an unstable ulnar nerve. We hypothesized that 1) simple decompression or anterior ulnar nerve transposition, depending on nerve stability, would be effective for cubital tunnel syndrome and that 2) there would be determining factors of the clinical outcome at two years. Materials and Methods Forty-one patients with cubital tunnel syndrome underwent simple decompression (n=30) or anterior transposition (n=11) according to an assessment of intra-operative ulnar nerve stability. Clinical outcome was assessed using grip and pinch strength, two-point discrimination, the mean of the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) survey, and the modified Bishop Scale. Results Preoperatively, two patients were rated as mild, another 20 as moderate, and the remaining 19 as severe according to the Dellon Scale. At 2 years after operation, mean grip/pinch strength increased significantly from 19.4/3.2 kg to 31.1/4.1 kg, respectively. Two-point discrimination improved from 6.0 mm to 3.2 mm. The DASH score improved from 31.0 to 14.5. All but one patient scored good or excellent according to the modified Bishop Scale. Correlations were found between the DASH score at two years and age, pre-operative grip strength, and two-point discrimination. Conclusion An ulnar nerve stability-based approach to surgery selection for cubital tunnel syndrome was effective based on 2-year follow-up data. Older age, worse preoperative grip strength, and worse two-point discrimination were associated with worse outcomes at 2 years. PMID:26847300

  9. Multifocal sensory demyelinating neuropathy: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Oh, Shin J

    2017-10-01

    Multifocal sensory demyelinating neuropathy has not been adequately reported in the literature. A 42-year-old man with numbness of the left hand for 3 years and of the right hand for 6 months had a pure multifocal sensory neuropathy involving both hands, most prominently affecting 2-point discrimination, number writing, and object recognition of the left hand. Near-nerve needle sensory and mixed nerve conduction studies were performed on the left ulnar nerve. Studies of the left ulnar nerve documented a demyelinating neuropathy characterized by temporal dispersion and marked decrease in the amplitudes of the sensory and mixed compound nerve potentials in the above-elbow-axilla segment. With intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, there was improvement in his neuropathic condition. In this study I describe a case of multifocal sensory demyelinating neuropathy as a counterpart of multifocal motor neuropathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 825-828, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Facial neuropathy with imaging enhancement of the facial nerve: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Sehreen; Jensen, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    A young women developed unilateral facial neuropathy 2 weeks after a motor vehicle collision involving fractures of the skull and mandible. MRI showed contrast enhancement of the facial nerve. We review the literature describing facial neuropathy after trauma and facial nerve enhancement patterns with different causes of facial neuropathy. PMID:25574155

  11. Handlebar palsy--a compression syndrome of the deep terminal (motor) branch of the ulnar nerve in biking.

    PubMed

    Capitani, Daniel; Beer, Serafin

    2002-10-01

    We describe 3 patients who developed a severe palsy of the intrinsic ulnar supplied hand muscles after bicycle riding. Clinically and electrophysiologically all showed an isolated lesion of the deep terminal motor branch of the ulnar nerve leaving the hypothenar muscle and the distal sensory branch intact. This type of lesion at the canal of Guyon is quite unusual, caused in the majority of cases by chronic external pressure over the ulnar palm. In earlier reports describing this lesion in bicycle riders, most patients experienced this lesion after a long distance ride. Due to the change of riding position and shape of handlebars (horn handle) in recent years, however, even a single bicycle ride may be sufficient to cause a lesion of this ulnar branch. Especially in downhill riding, a large part of the body weight is supported by the hand on the corner of the handlebar leading to a high load at Guyon's canal. As no sensory fibres are affected, the patients are not aware of the ongoing nerve compression until a severe lesion develops. Individual adaptation of the handlebar and riding position seems to be crucial for prevention of this type of nerve lesion.

  12. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound intensity on subcutaneous tissue temperature and ulnar nerve conduction velocity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J F

    1985-02-01

    Twenty subjects completed 5 min. periods of sonation, at each of six US intensities, over the ulnar nerve in the proximal forearm. All posttreatment NCV's differed significantly from the respective pretreatment velocities. The immediate posttreatment NCV associated with placebo US was significantly (p less than 0.01) less than that observed immediately pretreatment (2.81 m/s), while the five clinical US intensities produced significantly increased immediate posttreatment velocities: 0.5 w/cm2 (2.23 m/s) at (p less than 0.05), and 1.0 w/cm2 (2.78 m/s), 1.5 w/cm2 (3.15 m/s), 2.0 w/cm2 (4.47 m/s) and 2.5 w/cm2 (2.97 m/s) at (p less than 0.01). The posttreatment velocities associated with the five clinical intensities were all significantly greater (p less than 0.01) than that associated with placebo US. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures were directly related to the intensity of US. Not until US intensity had reached 1.5 w/cm2 did the heating effect of US negate the cooling effect of the US transmission gel, to produce significantly increased subcutaneous tissue temperatures after 5 min. sonation. The decreased ulnar motor NCV's associated with placebo US are attributed to the cooling effect of the US transmission gel. The increased ulnar motor NCV's associated with the clinical intensities of US are attributed to the deep heating effect of US. The breakdown of this linear relationship at 2.5 w/cm2 intensity suggests that at this point heating on the nerve and/or the mechanical effects of US were of sufficient magnitude so as to limit the increase in conduction velocity. Sonation over an area of approximately 4.5 times the soundhead for 5 min., along the proximal forearm, at clinical intensities did not have a bipositive effect on motor NCV.

  13. Effect of fascicle composition on ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve transfer (Oberlin transfer) in neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brandon W; Chulski, Nicholas J; Little, Ann A; Chang, Kate W C; Yang, Lynda J S

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) continues to be a problematic occurrence impacting approximately 1.5 per 1000 live births in the United States, with 10%-40% of these infants experiencing permanent disability. These children lose elbow flexion, and one surgical option for recovering it is the Oberlin transfer. Published data support the use of the ulnar nerve fascicle that innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris as the donor nerve in adults, but no analogous published data exist for infants. This study investigated the association of ulnar nerve fascicle choice with functional elbow flexion outcome in NBPP. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective study of 13 cases in which infants underwent ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve transfer for NBPP at a single institution. They collected data on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, active range of motion (AROM), and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) (using 4 ulnar nerve index muscles). Standard statistical analysis compared pre- and postoperative motor function improvement between specific fascicle transfer (1-2 muscles for either wrist flexion or hand intrinsics) and nonspecific fascicle transfer (> 2 muscles for wrist flexion and hand intrinsics) groups. RESULTS The patients' average age at initial clinic visit was 2.9 months, and their average age at surgical intervention was 7.4 months. All NBPPs were unilateral; the majority of patients were female (61%), were Caucasian (69%), had right-sided NBPP (61%), and had Narakas grade I or II injuries (54%). IONM recordings for the fascicular dissection revealed a donor fascicle with nonspecific innervation in 6 (46%) infants and specific innervation in the remaining 7 (54%) patients. At 6-month follow-up, the AROM improvement in elbow flexion in adduction was 38° in the specific fascicle transfer group versus 36° in the nonspecific fascicle transfer group, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.93). CONCLUSIONS Both specific and

  14. Clarification of Eponymous Anatomical Terminology: Structures Named After Dr Geoffrey V. Osborne That Compress the Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon; Mitwalli, Madhawi; Tubbs, R Shane; Brown, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    In 1957, Dr Geoffrey Osborne described a structure between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon that placed excessive pressure on the ulnar nerve. Three terms associated with such structures have emerged: Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia. As anatomical language moves away from eponymous terminology for descriptive, consistent nomenclature, we find discrepancies in the use of anatomic terms. This review clarifies the definitions of the above 3 terms. We conducted an extensive electronic search via PubMed and Google Scholar to identify key anatomical and surgical texts that describe ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. We searched the following terms separately and in combination: "Osborne's band," "Osborne's ligament," and "Osborne's fascia." A total of 36 papers were included from 1957 to 2016. Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia were found to inconsistently describe the etiology of ulnar neuritis, referring either to the connective tissue between the 2 heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle as described by Dr Osborne or to the anatomically distinct fibrous tissue between the olecranon process of the ulna and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The use of eponymous terms to describe ulnar pathology of the elbow remains common, and although these terms allude to the rich history of surgical anatomy, these nonspecific descriptions lead to inconsistencies. As Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia are not used consistently across the literature, this research demonstrates the need for improved terminology to provide reliable interpretation of these terms among surgeons.

  15. [Transverse radioulnar branch of the dorsal ulnar nerve: anatomic description and arthroscopic implications from 45 cadaveric dissections].

    PubMed

    Ehlinger, M; Rapp, E; Cognet, J-M; Clavert, P; Bonnomet, F; Kahn, J-L; Kempf, J-F

    2005-05-01

    We conducted an anatomic study of the transverse branch of the dorsal ulnar nerve to describe its morphology and position in relation to arthroscopic exploration portals. Forty-five non-side-matched anatomic specimens of unknown age and gender were preserved in formol. The dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve was identified and dissected proximally to distally in order to reveal the different terminal branches. The morphometric analysis included measurement of the length and diameter of the transverse branch and measurement of wrist width. We also measured the smallest distance between the transverse branch and the ulnar styloid process, and between the branch and usual arthroscopic portals (4-5, 6R, 6U) in the axis of the forearm. The transverse branch was inconstant. It was found in 12 of the 45 dissection specimens (27%). In two-thirds of the specimens, the branch ran over less than 50% of the wrist width, tangentially to the radiocarpal joint. Mean nerve diameter was 1 mm. It was found 5-6 mm from the ulnar styloid process and was distal to it in 83% of the specimens. The dissections demonstrated two anatomic variants. Type A corresponded to a branch running distally to the ulnar styloid process, parallel to the joint line (10/12 specimens). Type B exhibited a trajectory proximal to the ulnar styloid process, crossing the ulnar head (2/12 specimens). The relations with the arthroscopic portals (4-5, 6R, 6U) showed that the mean distance from the branch to the portal was 3.75 mm for the 4-5 portal (distally in 11/12 specimens), 3.68 mm for the 6R portal (distally in 10/12 specimens), and 4.83 mm for the 6U portal (distally in 7 specimens and proximally in 5). To our knowledge, there has been only one report specifically devoted to this transverse branch. Two other reports simply mention its existence. According to the literature, the transverse branch of the dorsal ulnar nerve occurs in 60-80% of the cases. We found two anatomic variations different than those

  16. Dorsal scapular nerve neuropathy: a narrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Brad

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to elucidate this little known cause of upper back pain through a narrative review of the literature and to discuss the possible role of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) in the etiopathology of other similar diagnoses in this area including cervicogenic dorsalgia (CD), notalgia paresthetica (NP), SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern. Background Dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) neuropathy has been a rarely thought of differential diagnosis for mid scapular, upper to mid back and costovertebral pain. These are common conditions presenting to chiropractic, physiotherapy, massage therapy and medical offices. Methods The methods used to gather articles for this paper included: searching electronic databases; and hand searching relevant references from journal articles and textbook chapters. Results One hundred-fourteen articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates, there were 57 articles of which 29 were retrieved. There were 26 articles and textbook chapters retrieved by hand searching equaling 55 articles retrieved of which 47 relevant articles were used in this report. Discussion The anatomy, pathway and function of the dorsal scapular nerve can be varied and exceptionally rarely may include a sensory component. The signs and symptoms, therefore, may include pain, atrophy, scapular winging, and dysesthesia. The mechanism of injury to the DSN is also quite varied ranging from postural to overuse in overhead work and sport. Other conditions in this area, including CD, NP, SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern bear a striking resemblance to DSN neuropathy. Conclusion DSN neuropathy should be included in the list of common differential diagnoses of upper and mid-thoracic pain, stiffness, dysesthesia and dysfunction. The study also brings forward interesting connections between DSN neuropathy, CD, NP, SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern. PMID:28928496

  17. Establishment of a Method to Measure Length of the Ulnar Nerve and Standardize F-wave Values in Clinically Normal Beagles

    PubMed Central

    HIRASAWA, Shun; SHIMIZU, Miki; MARUI, Yuumi; KISHIMOTO, Miori; OKUNO, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    We designed a new method of measuring the length of the ulnar nerve and determining standard values for F-wave parameters of the ulnar nerve in clinically normal beagles. Nerve length must be precisely measured to determine F-wave latency and conduction velocity. The length of the forelimb has served as the length of the ulnar nerve for F-wave assessments, but report indicates that F-wave latency is proportional to the length of the pathway traveled by nerve impulses. Therefore, we measured the surface distance from a stimulus point to the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra (nerve length 1) and the anterior horn of the scapula (nerve length 2) as landmarks through the olecranon and the shoulder blade acromion. The correlation coefficients between the shortest F-wave latency and the length of nerves 1, 2 or the forelimb were 0.61, 0.7 and 0.58. Nerve length 2 generated the highest value. Furthermore, the anterior horn of the scapula was easily palpated in any dog regardless of well-fed body. We concluded that nerve length 2 was optimal for measuring the length of the ulnar nerve. PMID:25649942

  18. High resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwarpal; Gupta, Kamlesh; Kaur, Sukhdeep

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve is a fast and non invasive tool for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Our study was aimed at finding out the correlation of the cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve with the presence and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. 75 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus clinically diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were analysed, and the severity of neuropathy was determined using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. 58 diabetic patients with no clinical suspicion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 75 healthy non-diabetic subjects were taken as controls. The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerves were calculated 3 cm cranial to the medial malleolus in both lower limbs. The mean cross sectional area (22.63 +/- 2.66 mm 2 ) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles (0.70 mm) of the tibial nerves in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with both control groups was significantly larger, and statistically significant correlation was found with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ( p < 0.001). The diabetic patients with no signs of peripheral neuropathy had a larger mean cross sectional area (14.40 +/- 1.72 mm 2 ) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve (0.40 mm) than healthy non-diabetic subjects (12.42 +/- 1.01 mm 2 and 0.30 mm respectively). The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve is larger in diabetic patients with or without peripheral neuropathy than in healthy control subjects, and ultrasonography can be used as a good screening tool in these patients.

  19. Multiple schwannomas of the upper limb related exclusively to the ulnar nerve in a patient with segmental schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    Molina, Alexandra R; Chatterton, Benjamin D; Kalson, Nicholas S; Fallowfield, Mary E; Khandwala, Asit R

    2013-12-01

    Schwannomas are benign encapsulated tumours arising from the sheaths of peripheral nerves. They present as slowly enlarging solitary lumps, which may cause neurological defects. Multiple lesions are rare, but occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 or schwannomatosis. Positive outcomes have been reported for surgical excision in solitary schwannomas. However, the role of surgery in patients with multiple lesions is less clear. The risk of complications such as iatrogenic nerve injury and the high likelihood of disease recurrence mean that surgical intervention should be limited to the prevention of progressive neurological deficit. We report a case of a 45 year old male who presented with multiple enlarging masses in the upper limb and sensory deficit in the distribution of the ulnar nerve. The tumours were found to be related exclusively to the ulnar nerve during surgical exploration and excision, a rare phenomenon. The masses were diagnosed as schwannomas following histopathological analysis, allowing our patient to be diagnosed with the rare entity segmental schwannomatosis. One year post-operatively motor function was normal, but intermittent numbness still occurred. Two further asymptomatic schwannomas developed subsequently and were managed conservatively. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurotization of the biceps muscle by end-to-side neurorraphy between ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves. A series of five cases.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, L F; Modestti, C; Mueller, S F

    1998-01-01

    Three patients with avulsed C5, C6, and C7 roots and two patients with avulsed C5 and C6 roots after trauma of the brachial plexus, were treated by neurotization of the biceps using nerve fibers derived from the ulnar nerve and obtained by end-to-side neurorraphy between the ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves. The age of patients ranged from 19 to 45. The interval between the accident and surgery was 2 to 13 months. Return of biceps contraction was observed 4 to 6 months after surgery. Four patients recovered grade 4 elbow flexion. One 45-year-old patient did not obtain any biceps contraction after 9 months.

  1. Sensory and motor neuropathy in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Kenneth R; Cash, Walter C; Shelton, G Diane

    2005-10-15

    A 5-month-old female Border Collie was evaluated because of progressive hind limb ataxia. The predominant clinical findings suggested a sensory neuropathy. Sensory nerve conduction velocity was absent in the tibial, common peroneal, and radial nerves and was decreased in the ulnar nerve; motor nerve conduction velocity was decreased in the tibial, common peroneal, and ulnar nerves. Histologic examination of nerve biopsy specimens revealed considerable nerve fiber depletion; some tissue sections had myelin ovoids, foamy macrophages, and axonal degeneration in remaining fibers. Marked depletion of most myelinated fibers within the peroneal nerve (a mixed sensory and motor nerve) supported the electrodiagnostic findings indicative of sensorimotor neuropathy. Progressive deterioration in motor function occurred over the following 19 months until the dog was euthanatized. A hereditary link was not established, but a littermate was similarly affected. The hereditary characteristic of this disease requires further investigation.

  2. Prevalence of ulnar-to-median nerve motor fiber anastomosis (Riché-Cannieu communicating branch) in hand: An electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Ahadi, Tannaz; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Yavari, Masood; Majidi, Lobat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Two main muscles studied in the hand for evaluation of median nerve injuries are opponens pollicis (OP) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB). However, Riché-Cannieu communicating branch (RCCB) may limit the use of these muscles in electrodiagnosis. This condition is confusing in the case of median nerve injuries. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of RCCB. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive cases of complete median nerve injury were studied. Evoked responses via stimulation of median and ulnar nerves in the wrist and recording with needle in the thenar area were studied. Results: Of the patients, 82.6% exhibited RCCB. In 14 (60.8%) cases the OP and in 19(82.6%) cases APB was supplied by the ulnar nerve. Conclusion: RCCB was detected to be 60.8% in OP and 82.6% in APB, so OP is preferable to APB in the study of median nerve. PMID:27390694

  3. Change in the temporal coordination of the finger joints with ulnar nerve block during different power grips analyzed with a sensor glove.

    PubMed

    Wachter, N J; Mentzel, M; Häderer, C; Krischak, G D; Gülke, J

    2018-02-01

    Ulnar nerve injuries can cause deficient hand movement patterns. Their assessment is important for diagnosis and rehabilitation in hand surgery cases. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in temporal coordination of the finger joints during different power grips with an ulnar nerve block by means of a sensor glove. In 21 healthy subjects, the onset and end of the active flexion of the 14 finger joints when gripping objects of different diameters was recorded by a sensor glove. The measurement was repeated after an ulnar nerve block was applied in a standardized setting. The change in the temporal coordination of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints with and without the nerve block was calculated within the same subject. In healthy subjects, the MCP joints started their movement prior to the PIP joints in the middle and ring finger, whereas this occurred in the reverse order at the index and little finger. The DIP joint onset was significantly delayed (P<0.01). With the ulnar nerve block, this coordination shifted towards simultaneous onset of all joints, independent of the grip diameter. The thumb and index finger were affected the least. With an ulnar nerve block, the PIP joints completed their movement prior to the MCP joints when gripping small objects (G1 and G2), whereas the order was reversed with larger objects (G3 and G4). The alterations with ulnar nerve block affected mainly the little finger when gripping small objects. With larger diameter objects, all fingers had a significant delay at the end of the PIP joint movement relative to the MCP and DIP joints, and the PIP and DIP joint sequence was reversed (P<0.01). Based on the significant changes in temporal coordination of finger flexion during different power grips, there are biomechanical effects of loss of function of the intrinsic muscles caused by an ulnar nerve block on the fine motor skills of the hand. This can be

  4. Paraesthesia and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy

    2015-03-01

    Paraesthesia reflects an abnormality affecting the sensory pathways anywhere between the peripheral sensory nervous system and the sensory cortex. As with all neurology, the fundamental diagnostic tool is a concise history, devoid of potentially ambiguous jargon, which properly reflects the true nature of what the patient is experiencing, provocateurs, precipitating and relieving factors, concomitant illnesses, such as diabetes, and any treatments that could evoke neuropathies. Some localised neuropathies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) or ulnar neuropathy, produce classical features, such as weakness of the 'LOAF' (lateral two lumbricals, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis brevis) median innervated muscles, thereby obviating need for further neurophysiology. Nerve conduction studies may be necessary to diagnose peripheral neuropathy, but they may also be normal with small fibre neuropathy. Even with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy, definition of the underlying cause may remain elusive in a significant proportion of cases, despite involvement of consultants. Treatment is based on the relevant diagnosis and mechanism to address the cause. This includes better glycaemic control for diabetes, night splint for CTS or elbow padding for ulnar neuropathy, modifying lifestyle with reduced alcohol consumption or replacing dietary deficiencies or changing medications where appropriate and practical. Should such intervention fail to relieve symptoms, consideration of intervention to relieve symptoms of neuropathic pain may be required.

  5. Peripheral neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  6. Median nerve fascicle transfer versus ulnar nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch in C5-C6 and C5-C7 brachial plexus injuries: nonrandomized prospective study of 23 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Alvaro Baik; Paulos, Renata Gregorio; de Resende, Marcelo Rosa; Kiyohara, Leandro Yoshinobu; Sorrenti, Luiz; Wei, Teng Hsiang; Bolliger Neto, Raul; Mattar Júnior, Rames

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe whether the results of the median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps are equivalent to the classical ulnar nerve fascicle transfer, in terms of elbow flexion strength and donor nerve morbidity. Twenty-five consecutive patients were operated between March 2007 and July 2013. The patients were divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 8), the patients received an ulnar nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch. In Group 2 (n = 15), the patients received a median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch. Two patients with follow-up less than six months were excluded. Both groups were similar regarding age (P = 0.070), interval of injury (P = 0.185), and follow-up period (P = 0.477). Elbow flexion against gravity was achieved in 7 of 8 (87.5%) patients in Group 1, versus 14 of 15 (93.3%) patients in Group 2 (P = 1.000). The level of injury (C5-C6 or C5-C7) did not affect anti-gravity elbow flexion recovery in both the groups (P = 1.000). It was concluded that the median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps is as good as the ulnar nerve fascicle transfer, even in C5-C7 injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparative study of peripheral neuropathy and nerve regeneration in NOD and ICR diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Homs, Judit; Ariza, Lorena; Pagès, Gemma; Verdú, Enrique; Casals, Laura; Udina, Esther; Chillón, Miguel; Bosch, Assumpció; Navarro, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse was suggested as an adequate model for diabetic autonomic neuropathy. We evaluated sensory-motor neuropathy and nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve crush in NOD males rendered diabetic by multiple low doses of streptozotocin, in comparison with similarly treated Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice, a widely used model for type I diabetes. Neurophysiological values for both strains showed a decline in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity at 7 and 8 weeks after induction of diabetes in the intact hindlimb. However, amplitudes of compound muscle and sensory action potentials (CMAPs and CNAPs) were significantly reduced in NOD but not in ICR diabetic mice. Morphometrical analysis showed myelinated fiber loss in highly hyperglycemic NOD mice, but no significant changes in fiber size. There was a reduction of intraepidermal nerve fibers, more pronounced in NOD than in ICR diabetic mice. Interestingly, aldose reductase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activities were increased already at 1 week of hyperglycemia, persisting until the end of the experiment in both strains. Muscle and nerve reinnervation was delayed in diabetic mice following sciatic nerve crush, being more marked in NOD mice. Thus, diabetes of mid-duration induces more severe peripheral neuropathy and slower nerve regeneration in NOD than in ICR mice. © 2011 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  8. Ultrasonographic findings in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Ayse O; Bayrak, Ilkay Koray; Battaloglu, Esra; Ozes, Burcak; Yildiz, Onur; Onar, Musa Kazim

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the sonographic findings of patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and to examine the correlation between sonographic and electrophysiological findings. Nine patients whose electrophysiological findings indicated HNPP and whose diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis were enrolled in the study. The median, ulnar, peroneal, and tibial nerves were evaluated by ultrasonography. We ultrasonographically evaluated 18 median, ulnar, peroneal, and tibial nerves. Nerve enlargement was identified in the median, ulnar, and peroneal nerves at the typical sites of compression. None of the patients had nerve enlargement at a site of noncompression. None of the tibial nerves had increased cross-sectional area (CSA) values. There were no significant differences in median, ulnar, and peroneal nerve distal motor latencies (DMLs) between the patients with an increased CSA and those with a normal CSA. In most cases, there was no correlation between electrophysiological abnormalities and clinical or sonographic findings. Although multiple nerve enlargements at typical entrapment sites on sonographic evaluation can suggest HNPP, ultrasonography cannot be used as a diagnostic tool for HNPP. Ultrasonography may contribute to the differential diagnosis of HNPP and other demyelinating polyneuropathies or compression neuropathies; however, further studies are required.

  9. Role of neopterin as a biochemical marker for peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes: Relation to nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Elbarbary, Nancy Samir; Ismail, Eman Abdel Rahman; El-Hilaly, Rana Ahmed; Ahmed, Fatma Salama

    2018-06-01

    Neopterin, a marker of inflammation and cellular immune response, is elevated in conditions of T-cell or macrophages activation. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is associated with inflammatory/immune processes and therefore, we hypothesized that neopterin could be used as a marker of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). To measure neopterin levels in children and adolescents with T1DM and assess its possible relation to DPN and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Sixty patients aged ≤18 years and >5 years disease duration were subjected to neurological assessment by neuropathy disability score (NDS) and NCS for median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerves. Mean fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, HbA1c, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and serum neopterin levels were assessed. Patients were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The frequency of DPN according to NDS was 40 (66.7%) patients out of 60 while NCS confirmed that only 30 of those 40 patients had this complication (i.e. 50% out of the total studied patients). Neopterin levels were significantly higher in patients with DPN than those without (median [IQR], 53.5 [35-60] nmol/L versus 17 [13-32] nmol/L) and healthy controls (5.0 [3.2-7.0] nmol/L) (p < 0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between neopterin levels and HbA1c (r = 0.560, p = 0.005), serum creatinine (r = 0.376, p = 0.003), total cholesterol (r = 0.405, p = 0.026) and hs-CRP (r = 0.425, p = 0.012) among patients with DPN. Neopterin levels were positively correlated to motor latency of tibial and common peroneal nerves as well as motor and sensory latencies of median and ulnar nerves. Logistic regression analysis revealed that neopterin was a significant independent variable related to DPN (Odds ratio, 2.976). Neopterin cutoff value 32 nmol/L could differentiate patients with and without DPN with 100% sensitivity and 96

  10. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Early Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Neuropathy After Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Mitu-Pretorian, Maria; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Fadavi, Hassan; Asghar, Omar; Alam, Uazman; Ponirakis, Georgios; Jeziorska, Maria; Marshall, Andy; Efron, Nathan; Boulton, Andrew J.; Augustine, Titus; Malik, Rayaz A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To date, limited data in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes demonstrate nerve fiber repair after intervention. This may reflect a lack of efficacy of the interventions but may also reflect difficulty of the tests currently deployed to adequately assess nerve fiber repair, particularly in short-term studies. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) represents a novel noninvasive means to quantify nerve fiber damage and repair. Fifteen type 1 diabetic patients undergoing simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation (SPK) underwent detailed assessment of neurologic deficits, quantitative sensory testing (QST), electrophysiology, skin biopsy, corneal sensitivity, and CCM at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after successful SPK. At baseline, diabetic patients had a significant neuropathy compared with control subjects. After successful SPK there was no significant change in neurologic impairment, neurophysiology, QST, corneal sensitivity, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). However, CCM demonstrated significant improvements in corneal nerve fiber density, branch density, and length at 12 months. Normalization of glycemia after SPK shows no significant improvement in neuropathy assessed by the neurologic deficits, QST, electrophysiology, and IENFD. However, CCM shows a significant improvement in nerve morphology, providing a novel noninvasive means to establish early nerve repair that is missed by currently advocated assessment techniques. PMID:23002037

  11. Ulnar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour diagnosis in a mixed-breed dog as a model to study human: histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinicopathologic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Canine Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNSTs) are uncommonly reported in the ulnar, since they are underestimated relative to the more common spindle cell tumours of soft tissue. In dogs, MPNST accounts for 27% of nervous system tumours. In man, MPNST represents 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas and is often associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1).An 8-year-old, 9 kg, female mixed-breed dog with a subcutaneous mass on the upper right side of the ulnar region was presented to the small animal research and teaching hospital of Tehran University. The dog was anorexic with general weakness. The mass (7 × 4 cm) was removed surgically and processed routinely. Microscopically, the mass was composed of highly cellular areas with a homogeneous population of round or spindle cells, high cellular pleomorphism, high mitotic index and various morphologic patterns. Furthermore, spindle cells arranged in densely or loosely sweeping fascicles, interlacing whorls, or storiform patterns together with wavy cytoplasm, nuclear palisades, and round cells were arranged in sheets or cords with a meshwork of intratumoral nerve fibers. In addition, in this case the presence of neoplastic cells within the blood vessels was observed. Immunohistochemically, tumor was positive for vimentin and S-100 protein. The histopathologic features coupled with the S-100 and vimentin immunoreactivity led to a diagnosis of malignant neurofibroma. To the best of our knowledge, primary ulnar MPNST has not been reported in animals. This is the first documentation of an ulnar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in a dog. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1310907815984587 PMID:23688209

  12. Ultrasonographic nerve enlargement of the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots in patients with demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: distinction from patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takamichi; Ochi, Kazuhide; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ueno, Hiroki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Nagano, Yoshito; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are both demyelinating polyneuropathies. The differences in nerve enlargement degree and pattern at multiple evaluation sites/levels are not well known. We investigated the differences in nerve enlargement degree and the distribution pattern of nerve enlargement in patients with demyelinating CMT and CIDP, and verified the appropriate combination of sites/levels to differentiate between these diseases. Ten patients (aged 23-84 years, three females) with demyelinating CMT and 16 patients (aged 30-85 years, five females) with CIDP were evaluated in this study. The nerve sizes were measured at 24 predetermined sites/levels from the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots (CNR) using ultrasonography. The evaluation sites/levels were classified into three regions: distal, intermediate and cervical. The number of sites/levels that exhibited nerve enlargement (enlargement site number, ESN) in each region was determined from the 24 sites/levels and from the selected eight screening sites/levels, respectively. The cross-sectional areas of the peripheral nerves were markedly larger at all evaluation sites in patients with demyelinating CMT than in patients with CIDP (p < 0.01). However, the nerve sizes of CNR were not significantly different between patients with either disease. When we evaluated ESN of four selected sites for screening from the intermediate region, the sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between demyelinating CMT and CIDP were 0.90 and 0.94, respectively, with the cut-off value set at four. Nerve ultrasonography is useful to detect nerve enlargement and can clarify morphological differences in nerves between patients with demyelinating CMT and CIDP.

  13. The rat caudal nerves: a model for experimental neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, Herbert H; Zotova, Elena; Raine, Cedric S; Tar, Moses; Arezzo, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    This study provides a detailed investigation of the anatomy of the rat caudal nerve along its entire length, as well as correlated nerve conduction measures in both large and small diameter axons. It determines that rodent caudal nerves provide a simple, sensitive experimental model for evaluation of the pathophysiology of degeneration, recovery, and prevention of length-dependent distal axonopathy. After first defining the normal anatomy and electrophysiology of the rat caudal nerves, acrylamide monomer, a reliable axonal toxin, was administered at different doses for escalating time periods. Serial electrophysiological recordings were obtained, during intoxication, from multiple sites along caudal and distal sciatic nerves. Multiple sections of the caudal and sciatic nerves were examined with light and electron microscopy. The normal distribution of conduction velocities was determined and acrylamide-induced time- and dose-related slowing of velocities at the vulnerable ultraterminal region was documented. Degenerative morphological changes in the distal regions of the caudal nerves appeared well before changes in the distal sciatic nerves. Our study has shown that (1) rat caudal nerves have a complex neural structure that varies along a distal-to-proximal gradient and (2) correlative assessment of both morphology and electrophysiology of rat caudal nerves is easily achieved and provides a highly sensitive index of the onset and progression of the length-dependent distal axonopathy.

  14. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessment through texture based analysis of corneal nerve images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Susana F.; Gouveia, Sofia; Gomes, Leonor; Negrão, Luís; João Quadrado, Maria; Domingues, José Paulo; Morgado, António Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one common complication of diabetes. Early diagnosis of DPN often fails due to the non-availability of a simple, reliable, non-invasive method. Several published studies show that corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) can identify small nerve fibre damage and quantify the severity of DPN, using nerve morphometric parameters. Here, we used image texture features, extracted from corneal sub-basal nerve plexus images, obtained in vivo by CCM, to identify DPN patients, using classification techniques. A SVM classifier using image texture features was used to identify (DPN vs. No DPN) DPN patients. The accuracies were 80.6%, when excluding diabetic patients without neuropathy, and 73.5%, when including diabetic patients without diabetic neuropathy jointly with healthy controls. The results suggest that texture analysis might be used as a complementing technique for DPN diagnosis, without requiring nerve segmentation in CCM images. The results also suggest that this technique has enough sensitivity to detect early disorders in the corneal nerves of diabetic patients.

  15. Exacerbation of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2E neuropathy following traumatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Villalón, Eric; Dale, Jeffrey M; Jones, Maria; Shen, Hailian; Garcia, Michael L

    2015-11-19

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most commonly inherited peripheral neuropathy. CMT disease signs include distal limb neuropathy, abnormal gait, sensory defects, and deafness. We generated a novel line of CMT2E mice expressing hNF-L(E397K), which displayed muscle atrophy of the lower limbs without denervation, proximal reduction in large caliber axons, and decreased nerve conduction velocity. In this study, we challenged wild type, hNF-L and hNF-L(E397K) mice with crush injury to the sciatic nerve. We analyzed functional recovery by measuring toe spread and analyzed gait using the Catwalk system. hNF-L(E397K) mice demonstrated reduced recovery from nerve injury consistent with increased susceptibility to neuropathy observed in CMT patients. In addition, hNF-L(E397K) developed a permanent reduction in their ability to weight bear, increased mechanical allodynia, and premature gait shift in the injured limb, which led to increasingly disrupted interlimb coordination in hNF-L(E397K). Exacerbation of neuropathy after injury and identification of gait alterations in combination with previously described pathology suggests that hNF-L(E397K) mice recapitulate many of clinical signs associated with CMT2. Therefore, hNF-L(E397K) mice provide a model for determining the efficacy of novel therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exacerbation of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2E neuropathy following traumatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Villalon, Eric; Dale, Jeffrey M.; Jones, Maria; Shen, Hailian; Garcia, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most commonly inherited peripheral neuropathy. CMT disease signs include distal limb neuropathy, abnormal gait, sensory defects, and deafness. We generated a novel line of CMT2E mice expressing hNF-LE397K, which displayed muscle atrophy of the lower limbs without denervation, proximal reduction in large caliber axons, and decreased nerve conduction velocity. In this study, we challenged wild type, hNF-L, and hNF-LE397K mice with crush injury to the sciatic nerve. We analyzed functional recovery by measuring toe spread and analyzed gaitusing the Catwalk system. hNF-LE397K mice demonstrated reduced recovery from nerve injury consistent with increased susceptibility to neuropathy observed in CMT patients. In addition, hNF-LE397K developed a permanent reduction in their ability to weight bear, increased mechanical allodynia, and premature gait shift in the injured limb, which led to increasingly disrupted interlimb coordination in hNF-LE397K. Exacerbation of neuropathy after injury and identification of gait alterations in combination with previously described pathology suggests that hNF-LE397K mice recapitulate many of clinical signs associated with CMT2. Therefore, hNF-LE397K mice provide a model for determining the efficacy of novel therapies. PMID:26423936

  17. [Ulnar nerve tunnel syndrome of the elbow and an occupational disorder. Analysis of socio-professional and physical parameters].

    PubMed

    Pellieux, S; Fouquet, B; Lasfargues, G

    2001-05-01

    The ulnar nerve tunnel syndrome at the elbow is the second frequently tunnel syndrome, registered as an occupational disorder. The musculoskeletal troubles of the upper limb are now a public health challenge. These disorders allow manifold risk factors related to the work state, extrinsic to the patient, and related to individual factors, or intrinsic. In the same venture, 25 patients with a UNTS, declared as an occupational disorder, have been compared to 48 individuals (T). Intrinsic (physical and psychological) and extrinsic parameters have been evaluated by a questionnaire, physical examination completed by an investigation in the venture. The Nottingham Health Profile was performed by all the individuals. All the cases of UNTS were observed after an increase of the production and a change in the work organization. Only 50% of the declared UNTS have a typical topography of the pain. No UNTS patient had neurological objective motor and sensitive deficit. 52% of the UNTS patients had diffused physical disorders comparatively to 17% of the T population. Stress events were observed more frequently in the UNTS population than in the T population: in the living area, in respectively 96% and 52% of the cases, at the work place in 12% and 2%. 50% of the UNTS population was distress comparatively to 17% of the T population. The NHP score was significantly higher in the UNTS population than the T population. These data confirm the mutual influences of individual factors, physical and psychological, and of workplace factors in the occurrence of painful disorders related to an occupational activity. The therapeutic approach of these patients must be done with a physical, psychological and social evaluation.

  18. Expression of Nrf2 Promotes Schwann Cell-Mediated Sciatic Nerve Recovery in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Chen, Xiangfang; Liu, Haoqi; Lv, Qian; Zou, Junjie; Shi, Yongquan; Liu, Zhimin

    2018-04-26

    High glucose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses play an important role in painful diabetic neuropathy by activating the TLR4/NFκB signal pathway. Schwann cells (SCs) are integral to peripheral nerve biology, contributing to saltatory conduction along axons, nerve and axon development, and axonal regeneration. SCs provide a microenvironment favoring vascular regeneration but their low survival ratio in hyperglycemic conditions suppress the function to promote nerve growth. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) promotes remyelination after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to identify the role of Nrf2 in SC-mediated functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury. We compared plasma inflammatory factors in diabetic patients (DN) with/without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and assessed whether Nrf2 expression in SCs could repair peripheral nerve injury in a rat model. Nrf2, TLR4/NFκB signal pathway and apoptosis relative protein expression were detected by western blot. Apoptosis and angiogenesis were determined by immunofluorescence and tubule formation assay, respectively. Regenerated nerves were determined by transmission electron microscope. Higher levels of inflammatory factors and VEGF expression were found in DPN patients. Cellular experiments indicate that Nrf2 expression inhibits hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis and promotes angiogenesis by regulating the TLR4/NFκB signal pathway. Animal experiments show that nerve conduction velocity, myelin sheath thickness, and sciatic vasa nervorum are restored with transplantation of SCs overexpressing Nrf2. Taken together, the high survival ratio of SCs in a DPN rat model indicates that overexpression of Nrf2 restores nerve injury. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Peripheral neuropathy in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 2.

    PubMed

    Leonardis, L

    2017-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (dystrophia myotonica type 2-DM2) is an autosomal dominant multi-organ disorder. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system was found in 25%-45% of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1, although limited data are available concerning polyneuropathy in patients with DM2, which was the aim of this study with a thorough presentation of the cases with peripheral neuropathy. Patients with genetically confirmed DM2 underwent motor nerve conduction studies of the median, ulnar, tibial and fibular nerves and sensory nerve conduction studies of the median (second finger), ulnar (fifth finger), radial (forearm) and sural nerves. Seventeen adult patients with DM2 participated in the study. Fifty-three percent (9/17) of our patients had abnormality of one or more attributes (latency, amplitude or conduction velocity) in two or more separate nerves. Four types of neuropathies were found: (i) predominantly axonal motor and sensory polyneuropathy, (ii) motor polyneuropathy, (iii) predominantly demyelinating motor and sensory polyneuropathy and (iv) mutilating polyneuropathy with ulcers. The most common forms are axonal motor and sensory polyneuropathy (29%) and motor neuropathy (18% of all examined patients). No correlations were found between the presence of neuropathy and age, CCTG repeats, blood glucose or HbA1C. Peripheral neuropathy is common in patients with DM2 and presents one of the multisystemic manifestations of DM2. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Biology of the blood-nerve barrier and its alteration in immune mediated neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) is a dynamic and competent interface between the endoneurial microenvironment and the surrounding extracellular space or blood. It is localised at the innermost layer of the multilayered ensheathing perineurium and endoneurial microvessels, and is the key structure that controls the internal milieu of the peripheral nerve parenchyma. Since the endoneurial BNB is the point of entry for pathogenic T cells and various soluble factors, including cytokines, chemokines and immunoglobulins, understanding this structure is important to prevent and treat human immune mediated neuropathies such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein and skin changes) syndrome and a subset of diabetic neuropathy. However, compared with the blood-brain barrier, only limited knowledge has been accumulated regarding the function, cell biology and clinical significance of the BNB. This review describes the basic structure and functions of the endoneurial BNB, provides an update of the biology of the cells comprising the BNB, and highlights the pathology and pathomechanisms of BNB breakdown in immune mediated neuropathies. The human immortalised cell lines of BNB origin established in our laboratory will facilitate the future development of BNB research. Potential therapeutic strategies for immune mediated neuropathies manipulating the BNB are also discussed.

  1. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of ulnar nerve with fascial flap and complete excision of medial intermuscular septum in cubital tunnel syndrome: a prospective patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Hamidreza, Aslani; Saeid, Abrishami; Mohammadreza, Dehghanfard; Zohreh, Zaferani; Mehdi, Saeidpour

    2011-10-01

    Regarding the frequency of cubital tunnel syndrome, varieties of treatment modalities, and ambiguity of anterior subcutaneous transposition of ulnar nerve method, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this procedure in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome referred to Taleghani hospital between 2006 and 2009. This study was a case series including all referred patients with definite diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome, treated by anterior subcutaneous transposition. Treatment results were measured according to modified Bishop rating system, and were ranked into excellent, good, fair, and poor. Variables such as gender, age (less/more than 45 years), causation, and initial severity, determined by Dellon criteria preoperatively, were analyzed by Fisher's exact test. This study was performed on 26 eligible cases including 29 elbows, 38% males and 62.1% females, with mean age of 44.5 years (ranging 23-72 years). In a 12 months follow-up post-operatively, 62% showed excellent, 20.7% good, and 17.3% fair, with no poor result. In a 1-12 months follow-up post-operatively, results showed improvement, and initial severity and old age were demonstrated to significantly affect treatment results (P<0.07). Though considered standard of care, the present study suggests that criteria for surgical techniques of ulnar nerve decompression, e.g. simple decompression vs. more extensive repair as in the present cohort, should be revised by controlled prospective studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative comparison of disc rim color in optic nerve atrophy of compressive optic neuropathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Eri; Hata, Masayuki; Oishi, Akio; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Uji, Akihito; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Miyata, Manabu; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to investigate an objective and quantitative method to estimate the redness of the optic disc neuroretinal rim, and to determine the usefulness of this method to differentiate compressive optic neuropathy (CON) from glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). In our study there were 126 eyes: 40 with CON, 40 with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), and 46 normal eyes (NOR). Digital color fundus photographs were assessed for the redness of disc rim color using ImageJ software. We separately measured the intensity of red, green, and blue pixels from RGB images. Three disc color indices (DCIs), which indicate the redness intensity, were calculated through existing formulas. All three DCIs of CON were significantly smaller than those of NOR (P < 0.001). In addition, when compared with NTG, DCIs were also significantly smaller in CON (P < 0.05). A comparison of mild CON and mild NTG (mean deviation (MD) > -6 dB), in which the extent of retinal nerve fiber layer thinning is comparable, the DCIs of mild CON were significantly smaller than those of mild NTG (P < 0.05). In contrast, DCIs did not differ between moderate-to-severe stages of CON and NTG (MD ≤ -6 dB), though the retinal nerve fibers of CON were more severely damaged than those of NTG. To differentiate between mild CON and mild NTG, all AUROCs for the three DCIs were above 0.700. A quantitative and objective assessment of optic disc color was useful in differentiating early-stage CON from GON and NOR.

  3. Agreement between automated and manual quantification of corneal nerve fiber length: Implications for diabetic neuropathy research.

    PubMed

    Scarr, Daniel; Lovblom, Leif E; Ostrovski, Ilia; Kelly, Dylan; Wu, Tong; Farooqi, Mohammed A; Halpern, Elise M; Ngo, Mylan; Ng, Eduardo; Orszag, Andrej; Bril, Vera; Perkins, Bruce A

    2017-06-01

    Quantification of corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy represents a promising diabetic neuropathy biomarker, but applicability is limited by resource-intensive image analysis. We aimed to evaluate, in cross-sectional analysis of non-diabetic controls and patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with and without neuropathy, the agreement between manual and automated analysis protocols. Sixty-eight controls, 139 type 1 diabetes, and 249 type 2 diabetes participants underwent CNFL measurement (N=456). Neuropathy status was determined by clinical and electrophysiological criteria. CNFL was determined by manual (CNFL Manual , reference standard) and automated (CNFL Auto ) protocols, and results were compared for correlation and agreement using Spearman coefficients and the method of Bland and Altman (CNFL Manual subtracted from CNFL Auto ). Participants demonstrated broad variability in clinical characteristics associated with neuropathy. The mean age, diabetes duration, and HbA1c were 53±18years, 15.9±12.6years, and 7.4±1.7%, respectively, and 218 (56%) individuals with diabetes had neuropathy. Mean CNFL Manual was 15.1±4.9mm/mm 2 , and mean CNFL Auto was 10.5±3.7mm/mm 2 (CNFL Auto underestimation bias, -4.6±2.6mm/mm 2 corresponding to -29±17%). Percent bias was similar across non-diabetic controls (-33±12%), type 1 (-30±20%), and type 2 diabetes (-28±16%) subgroups (ANOVA, p=0.068), and similarly in diabetes participants with and without neuropathy. Levels of CNFL Auto and CNFL Manual were both inversely associated with neuropathy status. Although CNFL Auto substantially underestimated CNFL Manual , its bias was non-differential between diverse patient groups and its relationship with neuropathy status was preserved. Determination of diagnostic thresholds specific to CNFL Auto should be pursued in diagnostic studies of diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Artificial control of blood-nerve barrier: a novel therapeutic approach to peripheral neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Blood-nerve barrier (BNB) is a "Janus-faced" structure for the peripheral nerve parenchyma. Healthy BNB may contribute to stabilize the internal milleu of peripheral nervous system (PNS) and to stop the entrance of toxic substances and harmful leukocytes into nerve parenchyma. On the other hand, healthy BNB may sometimes be a drawback because the peripheral nerve parenchyma cannot receive enough amount of nutrients and growth factors and cannot excrete toxic substances into systemic circulation because of its presence. Here we present a future therapeutic strategy to control BNB function, based on the basic knowledge acquired from recently developed human immortalized cell lines of BNB origin. If we can artificially regulate the BNB permeability and the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of BNB-forming endothelial cells, and stop the entrance of toxic substances as well as pathogenic leukocytes into PNS parenchyma, the treatment of inflammatory neuropathies may make great progresses. For hereditary, metabolic and ischemic neuropathies, the promotion of the entrance of growth factors into PNS parenchyma and of the excretion of toxic substances should powerfully encourage the regeneration of axons.

  5. Surgical treatment of middle cluneal nerve entrapment neuropathy: technical note.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Juntaro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Iwamoto, Naotaka; Morimoto, Daijiro; Isobe, Masanori

    2018-05-18

    OBJECTIVE The etiology of low-back pain (LBP) is heterogeneous and is unknown in some patients with chronic pain. Superior cluneal nerve entrapment has been proposed as a causative factor, and some patients suffer severe symptoms. The middle cluneal nerve (MCN) is also implicated in the elicitation of LBP, and its clinical course and etiology remain unclear. The authors report the preliminary outcomes of a less invasive microsurgical release procedure to address MCN entrapment (MCN-E). METHODS The authors enrolled 11 patients (13 sites) with intractable LBP judged to be due to MCN-E. The group included 3 men and 8 women ranging in age from 52 to 86 years. Microscopic MCN neurolysis was performed under local anesthesia with the patient in the prone position. Postoperatively, all patients were allowed to walk freely with no restrictions. The mean follow-up period was 10.5 months. LBP severity was evaluated on the numerical rating scale (NRS) and by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) scores. RESULTS All patients suffered buttock pain, and 9 also had leg symptoms. The symptoms were aggravated by standing, lumbar flexion, rolling over, prolonged sitting, and especially by walking. The numbers of nerve branches addressed during MCN neurolysis were 1 in 9 patients, 2 in 1 patient, and 3 in 1 patient. One patient required reoperation due to insufficient decompression originally. There were no local or systemic complications during or after surgery. Postoperatively, the symptoms of all patients improved statistically significantly; the mean NRS score fell from 7.0 to 1.4, the mean RDQ from 10.8 to 1.4, and the mean JOA score rose from 13.7 to 23.6. CONCLUSIONS Less invasive MCN neurolysis performed under local anesthesia is useful for LBP caused by MCN-E. In patients with intractable LBP, MCN-E should be considered.

  6. Peripheral neuropathy following administration of nerve tissue antirabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Arega, D; Zenebe, G

    1999-10-01

    In 1997, two patients were admitted to Tikur Anbessa Hospital with complaints of ascending paralysis in all extremities following administration of sheep brain tissue anti-rabies vaccine following a rabies exposure. The paralysis had started after 14 daily subcutaneous injections of the Fermi type nerve tissue vaccine. After an eight week stay in the hospital with supportive care and physiotherapy, the patients showed remarkable improvement. They received a booster dose of vaccine while in the hospital, with no deterioration in their neurological status and were discharged.

  7. The relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory function in entrapment neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Annina B.; Bland, Jeremy D. P.; Bhat, Manzoor A.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the impact of entrapment neuropathy on target innervation and the relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory symptoms and signs. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy; the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on the morphology of small unmyelinated as well as myelinated sensory axons and relate such changes to somatosensory function and clinical symptoms. Thirty patients with a clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome [17 females, mean age (standard deviation) 56.4 (15.3)] and 26 age and gender matched healthy volunteers [18 females, mean age (standard deviation) 51.0 (17.3)] participated in the study. Small and large fibre function was examined with quantitative sensory testing in the median nerve territory of the hand. Vibration and mechanical detection thresholds were significantly elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (P < 0.007) confirming large fibre dysfunction and patients also presented with increased thermal detection thresholds (P < 0.0001) indicative of C and Aδ-fibre dysfunction. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were comparable between groups (P > 0.13). A skin biopsy was taken from a median nerve innervated area of the proximal phalanx of the index finger. Immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 and myelin basic protein was used to evaluate morphological features of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fibre density showed a striking loss in patients (P < 0.0001) confirming a significant compromise of small fibres. The extent of Meissner corpuscles and dermal nerve bundles were comparable between groups (P > 0.07). However, patients displayed a significant increase in the percentage of elongated nodes (P < 0.0001), with altered architecture of voltage-gated sodium channel distribution. Whereas neither neurophysiology nor quantitative sensory testing correlated with patients

  8. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  9. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  10. Acquired neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Lozeron, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-09-01

    Acquired neuropathies represent most of the neuropathies encountered in clinical practice. Hundreds of causes have been identified even though up to 41% of patients are still classified as idiopathic (Rajabally and Shah in J Neurol 258:1431-1436, 1). Routine evaluation relies on comprehensive medical history taking, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and laboratory tests. Other investigations such as nerve biopsy or nerve or muscle imaging are performed in specific settings. This review focuses on recent advances in acquired neuropathies.

  11. Nerve decompression and neuropathy complications in diabetes: Are attitudes discordant with evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, D. Scott

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT External neurolysis of the nerve at fibro-osseous tunnels has been proprosed to treat or prevent signs, symptoms, and complications in the lower extremity of diabetes patients with sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Nerve decompression is justified in the presence of symptomatic compressed nerves in the several fibro-osseous tunnels of the extremities, which are known to be frequent in diabetes. Quite a body of literature has accumulated reporting results after such nerve decompression in the leg, describing pain relief and sensibility improvement, as well as balance recovery, diabetic foot ulcer prevention, curtailed ulcer recurrence risk, and amputation avoidance. Historical academic hesitance to endorse surgical treatments for pain and numbness in diabetes was based primarily on the early retrospective reports’ potential for bias and placebo effects, and that the hypothetical basis for surgery lies outside the traditional etiology paradigm of length-dependent axonopathy. This reticence is here critiqued in view of recent studies using objective, measured outcome protocols which nullify such potential confounders. Pain relief is now confirmed with Level 1 studies, and Level 2 prospective information suggests protection from initial diabetic foot ulceration and most neuropathic ulcer recurrences. In view of the potential for nerve decompression to be useful in addressing some of the more difficult, expensive, and life altering complications of diabetic neuropathy, this secondary compression thesis and operative treatment methodology may deserve reassessment. PMID:28959382

  12. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) Versus Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation On Microcirculation In Diabetic Neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battecha, Kadria H.; Atya, Azza M.

    2011-09-01

    Reduced microcirculation is a morbid element of neuropathy and one of the most common complications of uncontrolled diabetes. Many physical modalities have gained a considerable attention for enhancing cutaneous microcirculation in diabetic patients and prevent its serious complications. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to compare between the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on microcirculation in diabetic neuropathy. Thirty diabetic polyneuropathic patients ranged in age from 45-60 years participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal number; patients in group (A) received LILT on plantar surface of foot with a dose of 3 J/cm2 and wavelength (904 nm), while those in group (B) received TENS on lower leg for 30 minutes with frequency (2 HZ). Treatment was conducted 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The cutaneous microcirculation was evaluated by Laser Doppler flowmetry at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results revealed that group (A) showed statistically significant increase in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with group (B). So, it was concluded that LILT has to be more efficient than TENS in increasing cutaneous microcirculation in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  13. Sensory neuropathy may cause central neuronal reorganization but does not respecify perceptual quality or localization of sensation.

    PubMed

    Ginanneschi, Federica; Mondelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Functional reorganization in the somatosensory network after peripheral nerve lesions has been suspected to modify the clinical expression of symptoms. However, no conclusive evidence exists to support this notion. We addressed this question by investigating the topographic distribution of the subjective sensory report in various chronic human mononeuropathies. We report the clinical results of 86 patients who were diagnosed with meralgia paresthetica, 86 patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, and 203 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. In the carpal tunnel syndrome group, 10% of the patients exhibited a spread of sensory symptoms beyond the innervation territory of the median nerve. As previously reported, this spread was contingent upon an indirect compressive lesion of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. In all of the patients who were affected with meralgia paresthetica or ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, the peripheral referral of sensation was always within the anatomic distribution of the affected nerve. In human neuropathies, the projected sensory symptoms are restricted to the innervation territories of the affected nerves, with no extraterritorial spread. Thus, the somatosensory localization function remains accurate, despite the central reorganization that presumably occurs after nerve injury. We conclude that reorganization of the sensory connections within the central nervous system after peripheral nerve injury in humans is a clinically silent adaptive phenomenon.

  14. [Progressive cerebral infraction initially presenting with pseudo-ulnar nerve palsy in a patient with severe internal carotid artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Kanako; Nakajima, Masashi; Hieda, Soutarou; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2010-09-01

    A 63-year-old man with hypercholesterolemia developed sensory and motor disturbances in the ulnar side of the right hand, and over three days the weakness evolved to entire right arm. Examination on the 6th day after onset showed mild lower facial palsy in addition to the upper limb weakness on the right. The weakness involved entire right arm sparing shoulder girdle muscles, which was worse in the 4th and 5th digits with claw hand deformity of the hand. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple small infracts in the centrum semiovale as well as in the medial side of the precentral knob on the left. Magnetic resonance angiography, ultrasonography, and 3D-CT angiography of the neck showed severe stenosis associated with unstable plaque of the left internal carotid artery. Hemodynamic mechanisms including microemboli and hypoperfusion associated with severe internal carotid artery stenosis are likely to cause stroke in evolution after initial presentation of pseudo-ulnar palsy in the present case.

  15. Accessory superficial ulnar artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Solan, Shweta

    2013-12-01

    Variations in the arterial system of the upper limb have been well documented. A thorough knowledge on variations of arteries of upper extremity is necessary during performance of vascular and reconstructive surgeries and also, during evaluation of angiographic images. A case of accessory superficial ulnar artery was reported. The ulnar artery had a high origin from the brachial artery, in the upper third of the arm and it proceeded superficially and lateral to ulnar nerve in forearm, but it had a normal termination in the hand. The brachial artery had a usual course in the arm, but in the cubital fossa, it divided into the radial and deep ulnar arteries. This deep ulnar artery ended by dividing into ulnar recurrent and common interosseous arteries. Knowledge on this variation is important for the radiologists, orthopaedic and plastic surgeons, for appropriate planning of operative procedures involving the arteries of the upper limb.

  16. Accessory Superficial Ulnar Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the arterial system of the upper limb have been well documented. A thorough knowledge on variations of arteries of upper extremity is necessary during performance of vascular and reconstructive surgeries and also, during evaluation of angiographic images. A case of accessory superficial ulnar artery was reported. The ulnar artery had a high origin from the brachial artery, in the upper third of the arm and it proceeded superficially and lateral to ulnar nerve in forearm, but it had a normal termination in the hand. The brachial artery had a usual course in the arm, but in the cubital fossa, it divided into the radial and deep ulnar arteries. This deep ulnar artery ended by dividing into ulnar recurrent and common interosseous arteries. Knowledge on this variation is important for the radiologists, orthopaedic and plastic surgeons, for appropriate planning of operative procedures involving the arteries of the upper limb. PMID:24551682

  17. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Sensation Thresholds in Patients with Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moharic, Metka

    2010-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is one of the therapies for painful neuropathy. Its analgesic mechanisms probably involve the gate control theory, the physiological block and the endogenous pain inhibitory system. The aim of the study was to determine whether TENS improves small fibre function diminished because of painful…

  18. Vincristine-induced neuropathy in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Oman: Frequent autonomic and more severe cranial nerve involvement.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Hanan F; AlFutaisi, Amna; Zacharia, Mathew; Elshinawy, Mohamed; Mevada, Surekha T; Alrawas, Abdulhakim; Khater, Doaa; Jaju, Deepali; Wali, Yasser

    2017-12-01

    Vincristine (VCR) induced peripheral neuropathy is a common complication in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A retrospective data analysis over an interval of 10 years (2006-2016) of all children with ALL seen at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital was carried out. Electronic medical records of eligible patients were reviewed. Patients with clinical evidence of neuropathy and abnormal nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were included in the study. Nineteen (nine females and 10 males) out of 103 pediatric patients developed VCR-related neuropathy, and their age ranged between 2.5 and 14 years. Symptoms started after 2-11 doses of VCR. All 19 patients had documented peripheral neuropathy on NCSs. The autonomic nervous system and cranial nerves affection was relatively common in our patients; two presented with bradycardia, two patients with unexplained tachycardia, and five had abdominal pain and constipation, complicated by typhlitis in two patients. One patient developed unilateral hearing loss. Two patients developed severe life-threatening cranial nerve involvement with bilateral ptosis and recurrent laryngeal nerve involvement presented as vocal cord paralysis, hoarseness of voice, frequent chocking, and aspiration episodes. Peripheral neuropathy was the commonest form of VCR-related neuropathy. Autonomic neuropathy was relatively common in our patients. Cranial neuropathy is a serious side effect of VCR that can be severe, involving multiple cranial nerves and needs prompt recognition and management. Concomitant administration of pyridoxine and pyridostigmine does not seem to protect against further neurological damage in some patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... pubmed/27979897 . Boulton AJM, Malik RA. Diabetes mellitus: ... of peripheral nerves. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, ...

  20. Stable Rat Model of Mechanical Allodynia in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: The Role of Nerve Compression.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2018-05-01

     Preclinical studies involving animal models are essential for understanding the underlying mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain.  Rats were divided into four groups: two controls and two experimental. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection in two experimental groups. The first group involved one sham operation. The second group involved one latex tube encircling the sciatic nerve. The vehicle-injection rats were used as two corresponding control groups: sham operation and encircled nerves. By the third week, STZ-injected rats with encircled nerves were further divided into three subgroups: one involving continuing observation and the other two involving decompression (removal of the latex tube) at different time points (third week and fifth week). Weight and blood glucose were monitored, and behavioral analysis, including paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and latency, was performed every week during the experimental period (7 weeks).  Hyperglycemia was induced in all STZ-injected rats. A significant increase in weight was observed in the control groups when compared with the experimental groups. By the third week, more STZ-injected rats with encircled nerves developed mechanical allodynia than those without ( P  < 0.05), while no significant difference was noted ( P  > 0.05) on the incidence of thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanical allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia, could be ameliorated by the removal of the latex tube at an early stage (third week).  With the combined use of a latex tube and STZ injection, a stable rat model of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) manifesting both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia has been established. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. MRI abnormalities of peripheral nerve and muscle are common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and share features with multifocal motor neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Nathan P.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Howe, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction MRI of peripheral nerve and muscle in patients with ALS may be performed to investigate alternative diagnoses including multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). MRI findings of peripheral nerve and muscle are not well described in these conditions, making interpretation of results difficult. Methods We examined systematically the peripheral nerve and muscle MRI findings in patients with ALS (n=60) and MMN (n=8). Results In patients with ALS and MMN, abnormal MRIs were common (85% and 75%, respectively) but did not correlate with disease severity. Peripheral nerve MRI abnormalities were similar in frequency (ALS: 58% vs. MMN: 63%) with most changes being of mild-to-moderate severity. Muscle MRI changes were more common in ALS (57% vs. 33%), and no muscle atrophy was seen in patients with MMN. Discussion MRI abnormalities of peripheral nerve and muscle in ALS and MMN are common and share some features. PMID:25736373

  2. Ultrasound-guided placement of a permanent percutaneous femoral nerve stimulator leads for the treatment of intractable femoral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer N; Zakari, Adel; Vydyanathan, Amaresh

    2009-01-01

    Femoral nerve injury is a rare complication of cardiac catheterization and is usually caused by direct trauma during femoral artery access, compression from a hematoma, or prolonged digital pressure for post-procedural hemostasis. Peripheral nerve stimulation has been used to treat different pain syndromes in the upper and lower extremities with variable success and it typically requires direct vision with open surgical approach. Since the femoral nerve can be readily seen with ultrasonography, an ultrasound-guided lead placement seemed practical. A 61-year-old morbidly obese male who sustained femoral nerve injury during cardiac catheterization continued to complain of intractable femoral neuropathy 18 months afterwords. He failed multiple treatment modalities and continued to complain of severe neuropathic pains that markedly interfere with his daily activities. Two percutaneous leads were placed under real-time ultrasonography and the placement was confirmed with fluoroscopy. One lead was placed along the longitudinal axis of the nerve and the patient had good coverage over the anterior thigh but not below the knee. So another lead was placed horizontally across the femoral nerve in order to stimulate all the branches and the patient reported good coverage along the saphenous nerve distribution down to the foot. The patient continues to be pain free 20 months after the implant. Here we described a novel non-invasive percutaneous approach for femoral nerve stimulation with ultrasound guidance which allowed precise placement of the stimulating lead very close to the femoral nerve without the need for surgical exploration.

  3. The Ultrasound pattern sum score - UPSS. A new method to differentiate acute and subacute neuropathies using ultrasound of the peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Alexander; Décard, Bernhard F; Axer, Hubertus; Fuhr, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound differentiation of neuropathies is a great challenge. We, therefore, suggest a standardized score to operationalize differentiation between several acute and subacute onset neuropathies. We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasound data of 61 patients with acute or subacute neuropathies, e.g. chronic immune-mediated neuropathies, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and axonal/vasculitic neuropathies. We compared these data to 28 healthy controls. Based on these results an ultrasound pattern sum score (UPSS) with three sub-scores (UPS-A for the sensorimotor nerves, UPS-B for the cervical roots and the vagal nerve and UPS-C for the sural nerve) was developed. Afterwards, the applicability of the score was prospectively validated in 10 patients with chronic neuropathies and in 14 patients with unknown acute and subacute PNP before performing additional tests. UPS-A and UPSS were significantly higher in CIDP than in other neuropathies and controls (p<0.001). UPS-B was significantly more often pathologic in GBS than in CIDP and other neuropathies (p<0.001). Using receiver operation characteristics curve analysis boundary values for each score were defined. Positive predictive value (PPV) of these scores for CIDP and GBS was >85%. Vasculitic neuropathies showed an intermediate type of UPSS compared to other axonal neuropathies (p<0.001). In the prospective application the pattern score could be used with good accuracy in several types of neuropathy. UPS-A and UPSS operationalize to diagnose acute and subacute-onset CIDP and its variants with high sensitivity, specificity, and PPV. An increased UPS-B with normal UPSS and other sub scores may point to the diagnosis of GBS with high PPV and enables the differentiation from CIDP. Using the UPSS and its sub-scores gives a new diagnostic power to the method of the peripheral nerve ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of exercise on neuropathic symptoms, nerve function, and cutaneous innervation in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kluding, Patricia M; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Singh, Rupali; Jernigan, Stephen; Farmer, Kevin; Rucker, Jason; Sharma, Neena K; Wright, Douglas E

    2012-01-01

    Although exercise can significantly reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetic complications, no studies have evaluated the impact of exercise on nerve function in people with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine feasibility and effectiveness of a supervised, moderately intense aerobic and resistance exercise program in people with DPN. We hypothesized that the exercise intervention can improve neuropathic symptoms, nerve function, and cutaneous innervation. A pre-test post-test design was used to assess change in outcome measures following participation in a 10-week aerobic and strengthening exercise program. Seventeen subjects with diagnosed DPN (8 males/9 females; age 58.4±5.98; duration of diabetes 12.4±12.2 years) completed the study. Outcome measures included pain measures (visual analog scale), Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) questionnaire of neuropathic symptoms, nerve function measures, and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and branching in distal and proximal lower extremity skin biopsies. Significant reductions in pain (-18.1±35.5 mm on a 100 mm scale, P=.05), neuropathic symptoms (-1.24±1.8 on MNSI, P=.01), and increased intraepidermal nerve fiber branching (+0.11±0.15 branch nodes/fiber, P=.008) from a proximal skin biopsy were noted following the intervention. This is the first study to describe improvements in neuropathic and cutaneous nerve fiber branching following supervised exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. These findings are particularly promising given the short duration of the intervention, but need to be validated by comparison with a control group in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Exercise on Neuropathic Symptoms, Nerve Function, and Cutaneous Innervation in People with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kluding, Patricia M.; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Singh, Rupali; Jernigan, Stephen; Farmer, Kevin; Rucker, Jason; Sharma, Neena; Wright, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Although exercise can significantly reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetic complications, no studies have evaluated the impact of exercise on nerve function in people with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine feasibility and effectiveness of a supervised, moderately intense aerobic and resistance exercise program in people with DPN. We hypothesize that the exercise intervention can improve neuropathic symptoms, nerve function, and cutaneous innervation. Methods A pre-test post-test design was to assess change in outcome measures following participation in a 10-week aerobic and strengthening exercise program. Seventeen subjects with diagnosed DPN (8 males/9 females; age 58.4±5.98; duration of diabetes 12.4±12.2 years) completed the study. Outcome measures included pain measures (visual analog scale), Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) questionnaire of neuropathic symptoms, nerve function measures, and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and branching in distal and proximal lower extremity skin biopsies. Results Significant reductions in pain (−18.1±35.5 mm on a 100 mm scale, p=0.05), neuropathic symptoms (−1.24±1.8 on MNSI, p=0.01), and increased intraepidermal nerve fiber branching (+0.11±0.15 branch nodes/fiber, p=−.008) from a proximal skin biopsy were noted following the intervention. Conclusions This is the first study to describe improvements in neuropathic and cutaneous nerve fiber branching following supervised exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. These findings are particularly promising given the short duration of the intervention, but need to be validated by comparison with a control group in future studies. PMID:22717465

  6. Autonomic neuropathy resulting in recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in an HIV patient with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving vinblastine and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cherif, S; Danino, S; Yoganathan, K

    2015-03-01

    Hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paresis as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy has been well recognised. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy is commonly caused by compression due to tumour or lymph nodes or by surgical damage. Vinca alkaloids are well known to cause peripheral neuropathy. However, vinca alkaloids causing recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy has been reported rarely in children. We report a case of an adult patient with HIV who developed hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paralysis during vinblastine treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement in such patients may distract clinicians from considering alternative causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, with potential ensuing severe or even life-threatening stridor. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Neurography Visualizes Abnormalities in Sciatic and Tibial Nerves in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vaeggemose, Michael; Pham, Mirko; Ringgaard, Steffen; Tankisi, Hatice; Ejskjaer, Niels; Heiland, Sabine; Poulsen, Per L; Andersen, Henning

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluates whether diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance neurography (DTI-MRN), T2 relaxation time, and proton spin density can detect and grade neuropathic abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes ( n = 49) were included-11 with severe polyneuropathy (sDPN), 13 with mild polyneuropathy (mDPN), and 25 without polyneuropathy (nDPN)-along with 30 healthy control subjects (HCs). Clinical examinations, nerve conduction studies, and vibratory perception thresholds determined the presence and severity of DPN. DTI-MRN covered proximal (sciatic nerve) and distal (tibial nerve) nerve segments of the lower extremity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated, as were T2 relaxation time and proton spin density obtained from DTI-MRN. All magnetic resonance findings were related to the presence and severity of neuropathy. FA of the sciatic and tibial nerves was lowest in the sDPN group. Corresponding with this, proximal and distal ADCs were highest in patients with sDPN compared with patients with mDPN and nDPN, as well as the HCs. DTI-MRN correlated closely with the severity of neuropathy, demonstrating strong associations with sciatic and tibial nerve findings. Quantitative group differences in proton spin density were also significant, but less pronounced than those for DTI-MRN. In conclusion, DTI-MRN enables detection in peripheral nerves of abnormalities related to DPN, more so than proton spin density or T2 relaxation time. These abnormalities are likely to reflect pathology in sciatic and tibial nerve fibers. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Optic nerve head cupping in glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fard, Masoud Aghsaei; Moghimi, Sasan; Sahraian, Alireza; Ritch, Robert

    2018-05-23

    Enlargement of optic disc cupping is seen both in glaucoma and in neurological disorders. We used enhanced depth imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to differentiate glaucoma from non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The optic discs were scanned in this prospective comparative study, and the lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness and anterior laminar depth (ALD) in the central, superior and inferior optic nerve head, and peripapillary choroidal thicknesses, were measured. There were 31 eyes of 31 patients with severe glaucoma and 33 eyes of 19 patients with non-glaucomatous cupping. Eyes of 29 healthy controls were also enrolled. There was no significant difference in the cup-to-disc ratio and in the average peripapillary nerve fibre layer thickness between the glaucoma and non-glaucomatous cupping groups (p>0.99). The average peripapillary choroidal thickness was thinner in glaucoma eyes than in the control eyes after adjusting for age and axial length. Glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes had greater ALD and thinner LC than the control eyes (p<0.001 for both). ALDs of glaucoma eyes were deeper than non-glaucomatous eyes (p=0.01 for central ALD) when age, axial length and peripapillary choroidal thickness were included in the linear mixed model. Prelaminar thickness and LC thickness of glaucoma eyes were not different from non-glaucomatous eyes after adjusting. Deeper ALD was observed in glaucoma than non-glaucomatous cupping after adjusting for choroidal thickness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Clinical Features and Surgical Treatment of Superficial Peroneal Nerve Entrapment Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Juntaro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Iwamoto, Naotaka; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Isobe, Masanori

    2018-06-20

    Superficial peroneal nerve (S-PN) entrapment neuropathy (S-PNEN) is comparatively rare and may be an elusive clinical entity. There is yet no established surgical procedure to treat idiopathic S-PNEN. We report our surgical treatment and clinical outcomes. We surgically treated 5 patients (6 sites) with S-PNEN. The 2 men and 3 women ranged in age from 67 to 91 years; one patient presented with bilateral leg involvement. Mean post-operative follow-up was 25.3 months. We recorded their symptoms before- and at the latest follow-up visit after surgery using a Numerical Rating Scale and the Japan Orthopedic Association score to evaluate the affected area. We microsurgically decompressed the affected S-PN under local anesthesia without a proximal tourniquet. We made a linear skin incision along the S-PN and performed wide S-PN decompression from its insertion point at the peroneal tunnel to the peroneus longus muscle (PLM) to the point where the S-PN penetrated the deep fascia. One patient who had undergone decompression in the area of a Tinel-like sign at the initial surgery suffered symptom recurrence and required re-operation 4 months later. We performed additional extensive decompression to address several sites with a Tinel-like sign. All 5 operated patients reported symptom improvement. In patients with idiopathic S-PNEN, neurolysis under local anesthesia may be curative. Decompression involving only the Tinel area may not be sufficient and it may be necessary to include the area from the PLM to the peroneal nerve exit point along the S-PN.

  10. Carvedilol prevents functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria of rats with oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Areti, Aparna; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ash

    Oxaliplatin use as chemotherapeutic agent is frequently limited by cumulative neurotoxicity which may compromise quality of life. Reports relate this neurotoxic effect to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Carvedilol is an antihypertensive drug, has also been appreciated for its antioxidant and mitoprotective properties. Carvedilol co-treatment did not reduce the anti-tumor effects of oxaliplatin in human colon cancer cells (HT-29), but exhibited free radical scavenging activity against oxaliplatin-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells (Neuro-2a). Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of carvedilol in the experimental model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheralmore » neuropathy (OIPN) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Oxaliplatin reduced the sensory nerve conduction velocity and produced the thermal and mechanical nociception. Carvedilol significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated these functional and sensorimotor deficits. It also counteracted oxidative/nitrosative stress by reducing the levels of nitrotyrosine and improving the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression in both sciatic nerve and DRG tissues. It improved the mitochondrial function and prevented the oxaliplatin-induced alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential in sciatic nerve thus prevented loss of intra epidermal nerve fiber density in the foot pads. Together the results prompt the use of carvedilol along with chemotherapy with oxaliplatin to prevent the peripheral neuropathy. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation neuroprotective mechanisms of carvedilol in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction causes neurotoxicity. • Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to bioenergetic and functional deficits. • Carvedilol alleviated oxaliplatin-induced behavioural and functional changes. • Targeting mitochondria with carvedilol attenuated neuropathic

  11. Restoring motor control and sensory feedback in people with upper extremity amputations using arrays of 96 microelectrodes implanted in the median and ulnar nerves.

    PubMed

    Davis, T S; Wark, H A C; Hutchinson, D T; Warren, D J; O'Neill, K; Scheinblum, T; Clark, G A; Normann, R A; Greger, B

    2016-06-01

    An important goal of neuroprosthetic research is to establish bidirectional communication between the user and new prosthetic limbs that are capable of controlling >20 different movements. One strategy for achieving this goal is to interface the prosthetic limb directly with efferent and afferent fibres in the peripheral nervous system using an array of intrafascicular microelectrodes. This approach would provide access to a large number of independent neural pathways for controlling high degree-of-freedom prosthetic limbs, as well as evoking multiple-complex sensory percepts. Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs, 96 recording/stimulating electrodes) were implanted for 30 days into the median (Subject 1-M, 31 years post-amputation) or ulnar (Subject 2-U, 1.5 years post-amputation) nerves of two amputees. Neural activity was recorded during intended movements of the subject's phantom fingers and a linear Kalman filter was used to decode the neural data. Microelectrode stimulation of varying amplitudes and frequencies was delivered via single or multiple electrodes to investigate the number, size and quality of sensory percepts that could be evoked. Device performance over time was assessed by measuring: electrode impedances, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), stimulation thresholds, number and stability of evoked percepts. The subjects were able to proportionally, control individual fingers of a virtual robotic hand, with 13 different movements decoded offline (r = 0.48) and two movements decoded online. Electrical stimulation across one USEA evoked >80 sensory percepts. Varying the stimulation parameters modulated percept quality. Devices remained intrafascicularly implanted for the duration of the study with no significant changes in the SNRs or percept thresholds. This study demonstrated that an array of 96 microelectrodes can be implanted into the human peripheral nervous system for up to 1 month durations. Such an array could provide intuitive control of a

  12. Restoring motor control and sensory feedback in people with upper extremity amputations using arrays of 96 microelectrodes implanted in the median and ulnar nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. S.; Wark, H. A. C.; Hutchinson, D. T.; Warren, D. J.; O'Neill, K.; Scheinblum, T.; Clark, G. A.; Normann, R. A.; Greger, B.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. An important goal of neuroprosthetic research is to establish bidirectional communication between the user and new prosthetic limbs that are capable of controlling >20 different movements. One strategy for achieving this goal is to interface the prosthetic limb directly with efferent and afferent fibres in the peripheral nervous system using an array of intrafascicular microelectrodes. This approach would provide access to a large number of independent neural pathways for controlling high degree-of-freedom prosthetic limbs, as well as evoking multiple-complex sensory percepts. Approach. Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs, 96 recording/stimulating electrodes) were implanted for 30 days into the median (Subject 1-M, 31 years post-amputation) or ulnar (Subject 2-U, 1.5 years post-amputation) nerves of two amputees. Neural activity was recorded during intended movements of the subject’s phantom fingers and a linear Kalman filter was used to decode the neural data. Microelectrode stimulation of varying amplitudes and frequencies was delivered via single or multiple electrodes to investigate the number, size and quality of sensory percepts that could be evoked. Device performance over time was assessed by measuring: electrode impedances, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), stimulation thresholds, number and stability of evoked percepts. Main results. The subjects were able to proportionally, control individual fingers of a virtual robotic hand, with 13 different movements decoded offline (r = 0.48) and two movements decoded online. Electrical stimulation across one USEA evoked >80 sensory percepts. Varying the stimulation parameters modulated percept quality. Devices remained intrafascicularly implanted for the duration of the study with no significant changes in the SNRs or percept thresholds. Significance. This study demonstrated that an array of 96 microelectrodes can be implanted into the human peripheral nervous system for up to 1 month durations. Such an

  13. Risk factors for revision surgery following isolated ulnar nerve release at the cubital tunnel: a study of 25,977 cases.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Ryan, Claire B; Degen, Ryan M; Dines, Joshua S; Altchek, David W; Werner, Brian C

    2017-04-01

    The literature investigating risk factors for failure after decompression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow (cubital tunnel release [CuTR]) is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for failure of isolated CuTR, defined as progression to subsequent ipsilateral revision surgery. The 100% Medicare Standard Analytic Files from 2005 to 2012 were queried for patients undergoing CuTR. Patients undergoing any concomitant procedures were excluded. A multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate patient-related risk factors for ipsilateral revision surgery. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each risk factor. A total of 25,977 patients underwent primary CuTR, and 304 (1.4%) of those with ≥2 years of follow-up required revision surgery. Although the rate of primary procedures is on the rise (P = .002), the revision rate remains steady (P = .148). Significant, independent risk factors for revision surgery included age <65 years (OR, 1.5; P < .001), obesity (OR, 1.3; P = .022), morbid obesity (OR, 1.3; P = .044), tobacco use (OR, 2.0; P < .001), diabetes (OR, 1.3; P = .011), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.2; P = .015), chronic liver disease (OR, 1.6; P = .001), chronic anemia (OR, 1.6; P = .001), and hypercoagulable disorder (OR, 2.1; P = .001). The incidence of failure requiring ipsilateral revision surgery after CuTR remained steadily low (1.4%) during the study period. There are numerous patient-related risk factors that are independently associated with an increased risk for revision surgery, the most significant of which are tobacco use, younger age, hypercoagulable disorder, liver disease, and anemia. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified first or second cervical nerve transplantation technique for the treatment of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in horses.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, F; Brandenberger, O; Perkins, J D; Marie, J-P; Mespoulhès-Rivière, C; Ducharme, N G

    2018-07-01

    In horses, the only established method for reinnervation of the larynx is the nerve-muscle pedicle implantation, whereas in human medicine, direct nerve implantation is a standard surgical technique for selective laryngeal reinnervation in human patients suffering from bilateral vocal fold paralysis. (1) To describe a modified first or second cervical nerve transplantation technique for the treatment of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) in horses and (2) evaluate the outcomes of reinnervation using direct nerve needle-stimulation of the first cervical nerve and exercising endoscopy before and after surgery. Case series. Nerve transplantation surgery, in which the first or second cervical nerve is tunnelled through the atrophied left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle, was performed in combination with ipsilateral laser ventriculocordectomy. Ultrasound-guided stimulation of the first cervical nerve at the level of the alar foramen was used to confirm successful reinnervation post-operatively. Exercising endoscopy was performed before and after surgery. The exercising RLN grade of the left arytenoid was blindly determined at the highest stride frequency for each examination. Surgery was performed in 17 client-owned animals with RLN. Reinnervation was confirmed by nerve stimulation and subsequent arytenoid abduction observed in 11 out of 12 cases between 4 and 12 months post-operatively. Fourteen horses had exercising endoscopy before and after surgery. Nine horses had an improved exercising RLN grade, four horses had the same exercising grade and one horse had a worse exercising grade after surgery. A sham-operated control group was not included and follow-up beyond 12 months and objective performance data were not obtained. The modified first or second cervical nerve transplantation technique, using tunnelling and direct implantation of the donor nerve into the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle, resulted in reinnervation in 11 out of 12 cases and improved

  15. From genes to pain: nerve growth factor and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V.

    PubMed

    Capsoni, Simona

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the loss of deep pain perception. The anomalous pain and temperature sensations are due to the absence of nociceptive sensory innervation. The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), by binding to tropomyosin receptor A (TrkA) and p75NTR receptors, is essential for the development and survival of sensory neurons, and for pain perception during adulthood. Recently a homozygous missense mutation (R100W) in the NGF gene has been identified in HSAN V patients. Interestingly, alterations in NGF signalling, due to mutations in the NGF TRKA gene, have also been involved in another congenital insensitivity to pain, HSAN IV, characterized not only by absence of reaction to painful stimuli, but also anhidrosis and mental retardation. These symptoms are absent in HSAN V patients. Unravelling the mechanisms that underlie the differences between HSAN IV and V could assist in better understanding NGF biology. This review highlights the recent key findings in the understanding of HSAN V, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with this disorder. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mitochondrial alterations with mitochondrial DNA depletion in the nerves of AIDS patients with peripheral neuropathy induced by 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC).

    PubMed

    Dalakas, M C; Semino-Mora, C; Leon-Monzon, M

    2001-11-01

    The 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), a nonazylated dideoxynucleoside analog used for the treatment of AIDS, causes a dose-dependent, painful, sensorimotor axonal peripheral neuropathy in up to 30% of the patients. To investigate the cause of the neuropathy, we performed morphological and molecular studies on nerve biopsy specimens from well-selected patients with ddC-neuropathy and from control subjects with disease, including patients with AIDS-related neuropathy never treated with ddC. Because ddC, in vitro, inhibits the replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), we counted the number of normal and abnormal mitochondria in a 0.04 mm(2) cross-sectional area of the nerves and quantified the copy numbers of mtDNA by competitive PCR in all specimens. A varying degree of axonal degeneration was present in all nerves. Abnormal mitochondria with enlarged size, excessive vacuolization, electron-dense concentric inclusions and degenerative myelin structures were prominent in the ddC-neuropathy and accounted for 55% +/- 2.5% of all counted mitochondria in the axon and Schwann cells, compared with 9% +/- 0.7% of the controls (p < 0.001). Significantly (p < 0.005) reduced copy numbers, with as high as 80% depletion, of the mtDNA was demonstrated in the nerves of the ddC-treated patients compared with the controls. We conclude that ddC induces a mitochondrial neuropathy with depletion of the nerve's mtDNA. The findings are consistent with the ability of ddC to selectively inhibit the gamma-DNA polymerase in neuronal cell lines. Toxicity to mitochondria of the peripheral nerve is a new cause of acquired neuropathy induced by exogenous toxins and may be the cause of neuropathy associated with the other neurotoxic antiretroviral drugs or toxic-metabolic conditions.

  17. Autonomic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Editorial team. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders Read more Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A. ...

  18. Chronic Nerve Compression Accelerates the Progression of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in a Rat Model: A Study of Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiji; Chen, Zenggan; Hu, Junda; Ding, Zuoyou; Lineaweaver, William C; Dellon, A Lee; Zhang, Feng

    2018-04-25

     This article investigates the role of chronic nerve compression in the progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) by gene expression profiling.  Chronic nerve compression was created in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by wrapping a silicone tube around the sciatic nerve (SCN). Neurological deficits were evaluated using pain threshold test, motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), and histopathologic examination. Differentially expressed genes (DGEs) and metabolic processes associated with chronic nerve compression were analyzed.  Significant changes in withdrawal threshold and MNCV were observed in diabetic rats 6 weeks after diabetes induction, and in DPN rats 4 weeks after diabetes induction. Histopathologic examination of the SCN in DPN rats presented typical changes of myelin degeneration in DPN. Function analyses of DEGs demonstrated that biological processes related to inflammatory response, extracellular matrix component, and synaptic transmission were upregulated after diabetes induction, and chronic nerve compression further enhanced those changes. While processes related to lipid and glucose metabolism, response to insulin, and apoptosis regulation were inhibited after diabetes induction, chronic nerve compression further enhanced these inhibitions.  Our study suggests that additional silicone tube wrapping on the SCN of rat with diabetes closely mimics the course and pathologic findings of human DPN. Further studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of this rat model of DPN and elucidate the roles of the individual genes in the progression of DPN. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Phase 2 Study of Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raimond; Major, Pierre; Sagar, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A prospective phase 2 study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of acupuncture-like transcutaneous nerve stimulation (ALTENS) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Eligible cancer patients had a < 2 ECOG performance score, received neurotoxic chemotherapy, and developed CIPN symptoms for > two months. Randomization was used to eliminate bias in patient selection for ALTENS and was not to compare the effectiveness between the two treatments.ALTENS treatments were delivered using Codetron units. Bilateral acupuncture points included LI4 and LIV3, plus LI11 or ST36 were stimulated. Acupuncture treatments were administered to CV6, SP6, ST6, LI11, Bafeng, Baxie and selective Jing points bilaterally. Twelve treatments were delivered twice weekly over 6 to 8 weeks. The Modified Total Neuropathy Score (mTNS), Numbness Score, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score (ESAS) were assessed at baseline, treatment completion, plus at 3 and 6 months follow-up. The primary study endpoint was mTNS score at 6 months. We planned to recruit 23 patients into each group. After 30 patients were recruited, 2 were lost to follow-up at 3 months in the ALTENS group and 3 in the acupuncture group. The research team decided to recruit all remaining consecutive patients only to the ALTENS group to ensure an adequate evaluation of ALTENS, the primary object of evaluation. There were 27 patients in the ALTENS group, with an average symptom duration of 10 months after chemotherapy. Twenty four and 23 patients completed the 3 and 6 month follow-up respectively. The median mTNS scores were 7.1, 4.0, 3.6 and 3.1 at baseline, treatment completion, 3 and 6 months follow-up, respectively. One-way ANOVA analysis showed a significant improvement in mTNS scores (p<0.001) at 6 months. Numbness scores were also significantly improved at 6 months. ESAS pain scores and perception of well-being scores analyses were inconclusive. There were no significant reported side

  20. Laryngeal and phrenic nerve involvement in a patient with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed

    Cortese, A; Piccolo, G; Lozza, A; Schreiber, A; Callegari, I; Moglia, A; Alfonsi, E; Pareyson, D

    2016-07-01

    Lower cranial and phrenic nerve involvement is exceptional in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). Here we report the occurrence of reversible laryngeal and phrenic nerve involvement in a patient with HNPP. The patient recalled several episodes of reversible weakness and numbness of his feet and hands since the age of 30 years. His medical history was uneventful, apart from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At age 44, following severe weight loss, he presented with progressive dysphonia and hoarseness. EMG of cricoarytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles and laryngeal fibroscopy confirmed vocal cord paralysis. These speech disturbances gradually regressed. Two years later, he reported rapidly worsening dyspnea. Electroneurography showed increased distal latency of the right phrenic nerve and diaphragm ultrasonography documented reduced right hemi-diaphragm excursion. Six months later and after optimization of CODP treatment, his respiratory function had improved and both phrenic nerve conduction and diaphragm excursion were completely restored. We hypothesize that chronic cough and nerve stretching in the context of CODP, together with severe weight loss, may have triggered the nerve paralysis in this patient. Our report highlights the need for optimal management of comorbidities such as CODP as well as careful control of weight in HNPP patients to avoid potentially harmful complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microcurrent transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gossrau, Gudrun; Wähner, Michael; Kuschke, Marion; Konrad, Birgit; Reichmann, Heinz; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2011-06-01

    Diabetes is a common health care problem in western countries. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) might be one of the consequences of long ongoing diabetes; it is estimated that approximately 20% of European diabetic patients suffer from PDN. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is often used as additional pain treatment. However, recent studies show inconsistent results. We aimed to assess the effect of micro-TENS in reducing neuropathic pain in patients with PDN in a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, and randomized design. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS/OUTCOME MEASURES: 22 diabetic patients have been treated with a micro-TENS therapy and 19 patients have been treated with a placebo therapy. Treatment duration was 4 weeks with three therapeutical settings per week. Standardized questionnaires (Pain Disability Index [PDI], neuropathic pain score [NPS], Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) were used to assess pain intensity, pain disability, as well as quality of life at baseline at the end of the treatment period and 4 weeks after treatment termination. Patients with a minimum of 30% reduction in NPS were defined as therapy responders. After 4 weeks of treatment, 6/21 patients in the verum group vs 10/19 patients in the placebo group responded to therapy. The median PDI score after 4 weeks of treatment showed a reduction of 23% in the verum vs 25% in the placebo group. The differences did not reach statistical significance. The pain reduction with the applied transcutaneous electrotherapy regimen is not superior to a placebo treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Clinical and Electrophysiological Study of Peripheral Neuropathies in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Relation of Severity of Peripheral Neuropathy with Degree of Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jasti, Dushyanth Babu; Mallipeddi, Sarat; Apparao, A.; Vengamma, B.; Sivakumar, V.; Kolli, Satyarao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence, clinical features, electrophysiological features, and severity of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with respect to severity of renal failure and presence of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Between May 2015 and December 2016, 200 predialysis CKD patients were assessed prospectively. Results: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis CKD patients in the present study was 45% based on clinical symptoms and 90% electrophysiologically. Mean age of 200 predialysis CKD patients who participated in the study was 53.2 ± 13.2 years. One hundred and thirty-six (68%) patients were male and 64 (32%) patients were female. Mean duration of disease was 2.2 ± 1.6 years. Nearly 45% patients of patients had asymptomatic peripheral neuropathy in the present study, which was more common in mild-to-moderate renal failure group. One hundred twenty-six patients (63%) had definite damage and 54 patients (27%) had early damage. In mild-to-moderate renal failure (n = 100) and severe renal failure patients (n = 100), 88% and 92% had significant peripheral neuropathy, respectively. Most common nerves involved were sural nerve, median sensory nerve, and ulnar sensory nerve. Diabetic patients (97%) showed more severe and high prevalence of peripheral neuropathy when compared to nondiabetic patients (83%). Most common patterns were pure axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. Conclusion: Peripheral neuropathy is common in predialysis patients, prevalence and severity of which increases as renal failure worsens. Predialysis patients with diabetes show higher prevalence and severity of peripheral neuropathy when compared with nondiabetics. PMID:29204008

  3. A Clinical and Electrophysiological Study of Peripheral Neuropathies in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Relation of Severity of Peripheral Neuropathy with Degree of Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Dushyanth Babu; Mallipeddi, Sarat; Apparao, A; Vengamma, B; Sivakumar, V; Kolli, Satyarao

    2017-01-01

    To study the prevalence, clinical features, electrophysiological features, and severity of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with respect to severity of renal failure and presence of diabetes mellitus. Between May 2015 and December 2016, 200 predialysis CKD patients were assessed prospectively. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis CKD patients in the present study was 45% based on clinical symptoms and 90% electrophysiologically. Mean age of 200 predialysis CKD patients who participated in the study was 53.2 ± 13.2 years. One hundred and thirty-six (68%) patients were male and 64 (32%) patients were female. Mean duration of disease was 2.2 ± 1.6 years. Nearly 45% patients of patients had asymptomatic peripheral neuropathy in the present study, which was more common in mild-to-moderate renal failure group. One hundred twenty-six patients (63%) had definite damage and 54 patients (27%) had early damage. In mild-to-moderate renal failure ( n = 100) and severe renal failure patients ( n = 100), 88% and 92% had significant peripheral neuropathy, respectively. Most common nerves involved were sural nerve, median sensory nerve, and ulnar sensory nerve. Diabetic patients (97%) showed more severe and high prevalence of peripheral neuropathy when compared to nondiabetic patients (83%). Most common patterns were pure axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is common in predialysis patients, prevalence and severity of which increases as renal failure worsens. Predialysis patients with diabetes show higher prevalence and severity of peripheral neuropathy when compared with nondiabetics.

  4. Characterizing Intraorbital Optic Nerve Changes on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Thyroid Eye Disease Before Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa; Lee, Young Hen; Suh, Sang-Il; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Baek, Sehyun; Seo, Hyung Suk

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the optic nerve is affected by thyroid eye disease (TED) before the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty TED patients and 20 controls were included. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities and fractional anisotropy (FA) value were measured at the optic nerves in DTI. Extraocular muscle diameters were measured on computed tomography. The diffusivities and FA of the optic nerves were compared between TED and controls and between active and inactive stages of TED. The correlations between these DTI parameters and the clinical features were determined. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities were lower in TED compared with the controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, FA was higher in TED (P = 0.001). Radial diffusivity was lower in the active stage of TED than the inactive stage (P = 0.035). The FA was higher in the TED group than in the control group (P = 0.021) and was positively correlated with clinical activity score (r = 0.364, P = 0.021), modified NOSPECS score (r = 0.469, P = 0.002), and extraocular muscle thickness (r = 0.325, P = 0.041) in the TED group. Radial diffusivity was negatively correlated with modified NOSPECS score (r = -0.384, P = 0.014), and axial diffusivity was positively correlated with exophthalmos degree (r = 0.363, P = 0.025). The diffusivities and FA reflected changes in the optic nerve before dysthyroid optic neuropathy in TED. The FA, in particular, reflected TED activity and severity.

  5. Paraneoplastic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe

    2017-10-01

    To review recent advances in paraneoplastic neuropathies with emphasis on their definition, different forms and therapeutic development. A strict definition of definite paraneoplastic neuropathies is necessary to avoid confusion. With carcinoma, seronegative sensory neuronopathies and neuronopathies and anti-Hu and anti-CV2/Contactin Response Mediator Protein 5 antibodies are the most frequent. With lymphomas, most neuropathies occur with monoclonal gammopathy including AL amyloidosis, Polyneuropathy-Organomegaly-Endocrinopathy-M component-Skin changes (POEMS) syndrome, type I cryoglobulinemia and antimyelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathies and Waldenström's disease. Neuropathies improving with tumor treatment are occasional, occur with a variety of cancer and include motor neuron disease, chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and nerve vasculitis. If antibodies toward intracellular antigens are well characterized, it is not the case for antibodies toward cell membrane proteins. Contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies occur with neuromyotonia and thymoma with the Morvan's syndrome in addition to Netrin 1 receptor antibodies but may not be responsible for peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. The treatment of AL amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome, anti-MAG neuropathy and cryoglobulinemia is now relatively well established. It is not the case with onconeural antibodies for which the rarity of the disorders and a short therapeutic window are limiting factors for the development of clinical trials. A strict definition of paraneoplastic neuropathies helps their identification and is necessary to allow an early diagnosis of the underlying tumor.

  6. Lipid-lowering drugs (statins) and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Emad, Mohammadreza; Arjmand, Hosein; Farpour, Hamid Reza; Kardeh, Bahareh

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a disorder with often unknown causes. Some drugs, including statins, are proposed to be among the causes of peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed at evaluating this condition by electrodiagnostic study among patients who had received statins. This case-control study was conducted in Shiraz, Iran in 2015, and included 39 patients aged 35-55 who had received statins for at least 6 months, and 39 healthy matched controls. Using electrodiagnosis, the sensory and motor wave features (amplitude, latency and nerve conduction velocity) of the peripheral nerves (Median, Ulnar, Tibial, Sural, and Peroneal) were evaluated among the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Regarding the occurrence of neuropathy, there were no significant differences in any of the definitions presented for peripheral neuropathy. However, the difference was close to significance for one definition [2 abnormalities in 2 nerves (p=0.055)]. Regarding mean values of the features, significant differences were observed in two features: amplitude of the peroneal motor nerve (p=0.048) and amplitude of the sural sensory nerve (p=0.036). Since statins are widely used, awareness regarding their side-effects would lead to better treatment. Even though no significant differences were found between the groups regarding the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy, there were significant differences in amplitudes of the sural sensory response and the peroneal motor response. This indicates the involvement of peripheral nerves. Therefore, we recommend that patients and physicians should be informed about the possible symptoms of this condition.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of erythropoietin + corticosteroid versus corticosteroid alone in methanol-induced optic nerve neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shojaei, Maziar; Rahimian, Sara

    2018-06-01

    Following methanol intoxication, optic nerve neuropathy may occur, which is currently treated by different therapeutic regimens. Erythropoietin (EPO) has recently been introduced as a good therapeutic option in methanol-induced optic neuropathy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of EPO in improvement of the visual disturbances in methanol-intoxicated patients. In a case-control study, all patients who had referred to our toxicology centre with confirmed diagnosis of methanol toxicity were considered to be included. Of them, those who had referred with visual disturbances, survived, and their visual disturbances had not improved after haemodialysis were entered. Cases received EPO and corticosteroids while controls only received corticosteroids. They were then compared regarding their visual outcome. All five patients in the control group mentioned that after discharge, their visual acuity had improved while in the cases, three mentioned visual improvement, two mentioned their visual acuity had deteriorated after discharge, two mentioned no change in their visual acuity and three mentioned that their visual acuity had first improved but then deteriorated with a mean two-month interval period. In fundoscopic evaluations, two controls had normal fundospcopy while eight cases had abnormal fundoscopy (p = 0.055). Protective effect of EPO on methanol-induced optic nerve may be strong at the beginning of the intervention but is probably transient.

  8. Automatic analysis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy using multi-scale quantitative morphology of nerve fibres in corneal confocal microscopy imaging.

    PubMed

    Dabbah, M A; Graham, J; Petropoulos, I N; Tavakoli, M; Malik, R A

    2011-10-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common long term complications of diabetes. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) image analysis is a novel non-invasive technique which quantifies corneal nerve fibre damage and enables diagnosis of DPN. This paper presents an automatic analysis and classification system for detecting nerve fibres in CCM images based on a multi-scale adaptive dual-model detection algorithm. The algorithm exploits the curvilinear structure of the nerve fibres and adapts itself to the local image information. Detected nerve fibres are then quantified and used as feature vectors for classification using random forest (RF) and neural networks (NNT) classifiers. We show, in a comparative study with other well known curvilinear detectors, that the best performance is achieved by the multi-scale dual model in conjunction with the NNT classifier. An evaluation of clinical effectiveness shows that the performance of the automated system matches that of ground-truth defined by expert manual annotation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vasculitic Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, Elie; Dyck, P James Bonham

    2015-10-01

    From pathological standpoint, we divide vasculitic neuropathies in two categories: nerve large arteriole vasculitides and nerve microvasculitis. It is also important to determine whether a large arteriole vasculitis has an infectious etiology as it entails different treatment approach. Treatment of non-infectious large arteriole vasculitides consists initially of induction therapy with corticosteroids. Adding an immunosuppressant, mainly cyclophosphamide, is often needed. Treatment of infectious large arteriole vasculitides needs a multidisciplinary approach to target both the underlying infection and the vasculitis. Corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for classic non-systemic vasculitic neuropathy. Stable or improving patients without biopsy evidence of active vasculitis can be either observed or treated. Currently, adding an immunosuppressant is only indicated for patients who continue to progress on corticosteroids alone or patients with a rapidly progressive course. The treatment of the radiculoplexus neuropathies such as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy, lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (in non-diabetic patients), and diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy, as well as painless diabetic motor neuropathy, is not well established yet. We treat patients, if they present early on in the disease course or if they have severe disabling symptoms, with IV methylprednisolone 1 g once a week for 12 weeks.

  10. Assessment of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Progressive Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sehi, Mitra; Greenfield, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To describe a case of progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy using scanning laser polarimetry with fixed (SLP-FCC) and variable corneal compensation (SLP-VCC) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Observational case report. Methods A 21-year-old male with juvenile primary open-angle glaucoma developed progression because of noncompliance with therapy. The patient underwent dilated stereoscopic examination and photography of the optic disk, standard automated perimetry (SAP), OCT, and SLP imaging with FCC and VCC at the baseline examination and after four years of follow-up. Results Optic disk, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) atrophy, and SAP progression was observed. Reduction in mean RNFL thickness (average, superior, inferior) was 18, 18, and 27 microns (OCT); 22, 40, and 17 microns (SLP-FCC); and 6, 12, and 12 microns (SLP-VCC), respectively. Conclusions This case demonstrates that digital imaging of the peripapillary RNFL is capable of documentation and measurement of progressive glaucomatous RNFL atrophy. PMID:17157591

  11. Predictive Factors for Vision Recovery after Optic Nerve Decompression for Chronic Compressive Neuropathy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Andrew P.; Stippler, Martina; Myers, Orrin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Surgical optic nerve decompression for chronic compressive neuropathy results in variable success of vision improvement. We sought to determine the effects of various factors using meta-analysis of available literature. Design Systematic review of MEDLINE databases for the period 1990 to 2010. Setting Academic research center. Participants Studies reporting patients with vision loss from chronic compressive neuropathy undergoing surgery. Main outcome measures Vision outcome reported by each study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictor variables were calculated. Overall odds ratios were then calculated for each factor, adjusting for inter study heterogeneity. Results Seventy-six studies were identified. Factors with a significant odds of improvement were: less severe vision loss (OR 2.31[95% CI = 1.76 to 3.04]), no disc atrophy (OR 2.60 [95% CI = 1.17 to 5.81]), smaller size (OR 1.82 [95% CI = 1.22 to 2.73]), primary tumor resection (not recurrent) (OR 3.08 [95% CI = 1.84 to 5.14]), no cavernous sinus extension (OR 1.88 [95% CI = 1.03 to 3.43]), soft consistency (OR 4.91 [95% CI = 2.27 to 10.63]), presence of arachnoid plane (OR 5.60 [95% CI = 2.08 to 15.07]), and more extensive resection (OR 0.61 [95% CI = 0.4 to 0.93]). Conclusions Ophthalmologic factors and factors directly related to the lesion are most important in determining vision outcome. The decision to perform optic nerve decompression for vision loss should be made based on careful examination of the patient and realistic discussion regarding the probability of improvement. PMID:24436885

  12. [Automatic analysis of the interference EMG of the brachioradial muscle in neuropathy of the radial nerve].

    PubMed

    Popelianskiĭ, Ia Iu; Bogdanov, E I; Khamidullina, V Z

    1988-01-01

    In 8 patients with radial neuropathy the authors studied histograms of distribution of potentials of motor units (PMU) by their duration, as well as of the number of intercrossings (T) and the mean amplitude of interference EMG of the musculus brachioradialis. The findings included a decrease in the T value and T/M ratio in the presence of an insignificant shift of the histograms and of the mean duration of PMU. With regard to the diagnosis of early neuropathies a reduction in the average value of T and T/M in the presence of ungraded voluntary tension of the muscle is diagnostically more important than changes in the duration of individual PMU.

  13. Comparison of peripheral nerve blockade characteristics between non-diabetic patients and patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, M; Taffé, P; Kirkham, K R; Bathory, I; Rancati, V; Crevoisier, X; Cherix, S; Albrecht, E

    2018-06-02

    Animal data have demonstrated increased block duration after local anaesthetic injections in diabetic rat models. Whether the same is true in humans is currently undefined. We, therefore, undertook this prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that type-2 diabetic patients suffering from diabetic peripheral neuropathy would have increased block duration after ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block when compared with patients without neuropathy. Thirty-three type-2 diabetic patients with neuropathy and 23 non-diabetic control patients, scheduled for fore-foot surgery, were included prospectively. All patients received an ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block with a 30 ml 1:1 mixture of lidocaine 1% and bupivacaine 0.5%. The primary outcome was time to first opioid request after block procedure. Secondary outcomes included the time to onset of sensory blockade, and pain score at rest on postoperative day 1 (numeric rating scale 0-10). These outcomes were analysed using an accelerated failure time regression model. Patients in the diabetic peripheral neuropathy group had significantly prolonged median (IQR [range]) time to first opioid request (diabetic peripheral neuropathy group 1440 (IQR 1140-1440 [180-1440]) min vs. control group 710 (IQR 420-1200 [150-1440] min, p = 0.0004). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients had a time ratio of 1.57 (95%CI 1.10-2.23, p < 0.01), experienced a 59% shorter time to onset of sensory blockade (median time ratio 0.41 (95%CI 0.28-0.59), p < 0.0001) and had lower median (IQR [range]) pain scores at rest on postoperative day 1 (diabetic peripheral neuropathy group 0 (IQR 0-1 [0-5]) vs. control group 3 (IQR 0-5 [0-9]), p = 0.001). In conclusion, after an ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy demonstrated reduced time to onset of sensory blockade, with increased time to first opioid request when compared with patients without neuropathy. © 2018 The

  14. European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on management of multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, I N; Bouche, P; Illa, I; Léger, J-M; Van den Bergh, P; Cornblath, D R; Evers, E M A; Hadden, R D M; Hughes, R A C; Koski, C L; Nobile-Orazio, E; Pollard, J; Sommer, C; van Doorn, P A

    2006-08-01

    Several diagnostic criteria for multifocal motor neuropathy have been proposed in recent years and a beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and various other immunomodulatory drugs has been suggested in several trials and uncontrolled studies. The objectives were to prepare consensus guidelines on the definition, investigation and treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy. Disease experts and a patient representative considered references retrieved from MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library in July 2004 and prepared statements which were agreed in an iterative fashion. The Task Force agreed good practice points to define clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria for multifocal motor neuropathy and investigations to be considered. The principal recommendations and good practice points were: (i) IVIg (2 g/kg given over 2-5 days) should be considered as the first line treatment (level A recommendation) when disability is sufficiently severe to warrant treatment. (ii) Corticosteroids are not recommended (good practice point). (iii) If initial treatment with IVIg is effective, repeated IVIg treatment should be considered (level C recommendation). The frequency of IVIg maintenance therapy should be guided by the individual response (good practice point). Typical treatment regimens are 1 g/kg every 2-4 weeks or 2 g/kg every 4-8 weeks (good practice point). (iv) If IVIg is not or not sufficiently effective then immunosuppressive treatment may be considered. Cyclophosphamide, ciclosporin, azathioprine, interferon beta1a, or rituximab are possible agents (good practice point). (v) Toxicity makes cyclophosphamide a less desirable option (good practice point).

  15. Role of "Sural Sparing" Pattern (Absent/Abnormal Median and Ulnar with Present Sural SNAP) Compared to Absent/Abnormal Median or Ulnar with Normal Sural SNAP in Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Surpur, Spurthi Sunil; Govindarajan, Raghav

    2017-01-01

    Sural sparing defined as absent/abnormal median sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude or absent/abnormal ulnar SNAP amplitude with a normal sural SNAP amplitude is thought to be a marker for inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. If sural sparing pattern specifically defined as absent/abnormal median and ulnar SNAP amplitude with normal sural SNAP amplitude (AMUNS) is sensitive and specific when compared with either absent/abnormal median and normal sural (AMNS) or absent/abnormal ulnar and normal sural (AUNS) for acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), select non-diabetic axonopathies (AXPs), and diabetic neuropathies (DNs). Retrospective analysis from 2001 to 2010 on all newly diagnosed AIDP, CIDP, select non-diabetic AXP, and DN. There were 20 AIDP and 23 CIDP. Twenty AXP and 50 DN patients between 2009 and 2010 were included as controls. AMUNS was seen in 65% of AIDP, 39% CIDP compared with 10% of AXP and 6% for DN with sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 92%, whereas the specificity of AMNS/AUNS was 73% and its sensitivity was 58%. If a patient has AMUNS they are >12 times more likely to have AIDP ( p  < 0.001). Sural sparing is highly specific but not sensitive when compared with either AMNS or AUNS in AIDP but does not add to sensitivity or specificity in CIDP.

  16. Nerve stress during reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Hubert; Dagneaux, Louis; Canovas, François; Waitzenegger, Thomas; Pham, Thuy Trang; Chammas, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Neurologic lesions are relatively common after total shoulder arthroplasty. These injuries are mostly due to traction. We aimed to identify the arm manipulations and steps during reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) that affect nerve stress. Stress was measured in 10 shoulders of 5 cadavers by use of a tensiometer on each nerve from the brachial plexus, with shoulders in different arm positions and during different surgical steps of RTSA. When we studied shoulder position without prostheses, relative to the neutral position, internal rotation increased stress on the radial and axillary nerves and external rotation increased stress on the musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves. Extension was correlated with increase in stress on all nerves. Abduction was correlated with increase in stress for the radial nerve. We identified 2 high-risk steps during RTSA: humeral exposition, particularly when the shoulder was in a position of more extension, and glenoid exposition. The thickness of polyethylene humeral cups used was associated with increased nerve stress in all but the ulnar nerve. During humeral preparation, the surgeon must be careful to limit shoulder extension. Care must be taken during exposure of the glenoid. Extreme rotation and oversized implants should be avoided to minimize stretch-induced neuropathies. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ji; Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Tae-Woo; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2016-01-01

    To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH) structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP), and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD) and average prelaminar tissue (PT) thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups. In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001). NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively). The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  18. Effect of diet induced obesity or type 1 or type 2 diabetes on corneal nerves and peripheral neuropathy in C57Bl/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Yorek, Matthew S.; Obrosov, Alexander; Shevalye, Hanna; Holmes, Amey; Harper, Matthew M.; Kardon, Randy H.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    We determined the impact diet induced obesity (DIO) and types 1 and 2 diabetes has on peripheral neuropathy with emphasis on corneal nerve structural changes in C57Bl/6J mice. Endpoints examined included nerve conduction velocity, response to thermal and mechanical stimuli and innervation of the skin and cornea. DIO mice and to a greater extent type 2 diabetic mice were insulin resistant. DIO and both types 1 and 2 diabetic mice developed motor and sensory nerve conduction deficits. In the cornea of DIO and type 2 diabetic mice there was a decrease in sub-epithelial corneal nerves, innervation of the corneal epithelium and corneal sensitivity. Type 1 diabetic mice did not present with any significant changes in corneal nerve structure until after 20 weeks of hyperglycemia. DIO and type 2 diabetic mice developed corneal structural damage more rapidly than type 1 diabetic mice even though hemoglobin A1C values were significantly higher in type 1 diabetic mice. This suggests that DIO with or without hyperglycemia contributes to development and progression of peripheral neuropathy and nerve structural damage in the cornea. PMID:25858759

  19. Presence of Peripheral Neuropathy Is Associated With Progressive Thinning of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Cirous; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Edwards, Katie; Pritchard, Nicola; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2017-05-01

    Reduced retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in cross-sectional studies. This prospective study defines longitudinal alterations to the RNFL thickness in individuals with type 1 diabetes without (DPN-ve) and with (DPN+ve) DPN and in relation to risk factors for nerve damage. A cohort of 105 individuals with type 1 diabetes (20% DPN+ve) with predominantly mild or no retinopathy and no previous retinal photocoagulation underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at baseline, 2 years, and 4 years. SD-OCT scans were acquired at 3.45-mm diameter around the optic nerve head and the overall RNFL and RNFL in the nasal, superior, temporal, and inferior quadrants were quantified. By including serial quantified RNFL parameters, linear mixed models were applied to assess the change in RNFL thickness over time and to explore the associations with other clinical variables. There was a significant decline in the overall RNFL thickness (-0.7 μm/y, P = 0.02) and RNFL in the superior quadrant (-1.9 μm/y, P < 0.01) in the DPN+ve group compared with DPN-ve group. The overall RNFL thickness and RNFL in the superior and nasal quadrants were inversely associated with age (β = -0.29, -0.41, and -0.29, respectively; P ≤ 0.02). Sex, retinopathy, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, lipid profile, blood pressure, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and body mass index did not show any significant effects (P > 0.05). Individuals with DPN showed a progressive RNFL thinning overall and in the superior quadrant, which was more pronounced in older individuals. There may be common pathways for retinal and peripheral neurodegeneration that are independent of conventional DPN risk factors.

  20. Anatomical variation in a patient with lateral femoral cutaneous nerve entrapment neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Rinko; Kim, Kyongsong; Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Iwamoto, Naotaka; Kitamura, Takao; Morita, Akio

    2018-05-02

    This 53-year-old man had a 10-year history of paresthesia and pain in the right antero-lateral thigh exacerbated by prolonged standing and walking. His symptoms improved completely but transiently by lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) block. The diagnosis was LFCN entrapment (LFCN-EN). As additional treatment with drugs and repeat LFCN block was ineffective, we performed surgical decompression under local anesthesia. A nerve stimulator located the LFCN 4.5 cm medial to the anterior superior iliac spine, it formed a sharp curve and was embedded in connective tissue. Proximal dissection showed it to run parallel to the femoral nerve at the level of the inguinal ligament. The inguinal ligament was partially released to complete dissection/release. Postoperatively, his symptoms improved and the numeric rating scale fell from 8 to 1. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Diabetic neuropathy: electrophysiological and morphological study of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration in transgenic mice that express IFNbeta in beta cells.

    PubMed

    Serafín, Anna; Molín, Jessica; Márquez, Merce; Blasco, Ester; Vidal, Enric; Foradada, Laia; Añor, Sonia; Rabanal, Rosa M; Fondevila, Dolors; Bosch, Fàtima; Pumarola, Martí

    2010-05-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most frequent complications in diabetes but there are no treatments beyond glucose control, due in part to the lack of an appropriate animal model to assess an effective therapy. This study was undertaken to characterize the degenerative and regenerative responses of peripheral nerves after induced sciatic nerve damage in transgenic rat insulin I promoter / human interferon beta (RIP/IFNbeta) mice made diabetic with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) as an animal model of diabetic complications. In vivo, histological and immunohistological studies of cutaneous and sciatic nerves were performed after left sciatic crush. Functional tests, cutaneous innervation, and sciatic nerve evaluation showed pronounced neurological reduction in all groups 2 weeks after crush. All animals showed a gradual recovery but this was markedly slower in diabetic animals in comparison with normoglycemic animals. The delay in regeneration in diabetic RIP/IFNbeta mice resulted in an increase in active Schwann cells and regenerating neurites 8 weeks after surgery. These findings indicate that diabetic-RIP/IFNbeta animals mimic human diabetic neuropathy. Moreover, when these animals are submitted to nerve crush they have substantial deficits in nerve regrowth, similar to that observed in diabetic patients. When wildtype animals were treated with the same dose of STZ, no differences were observed with respect to nontreated animals, indicating that low doses of STZ and the transgene are not implicated in development of the degenerative and regenerative events observed in our study. All these findings indicate that RIP/IFNbeta transgenic mice are a good model for diabetic neuropathy.

  2. Haemodilution and head-down tilting induce functional injury in the rat optic nerve: A model for peri-operative ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Steven; Dreixler, John; Newman, Nancy J

    2018-05-15

    Mechanisms of peri-operative ischaemic optic neuropathy remain poorly understood. Both specific pre-operative and intra-operative factors have been examined by retrospective studies, but no animal model currently exists. To develop a rodent model of peri-operative ischaemic optic neuropathy. In rats, we performed head-down tilt and/or haemodilution, theorising that the combination damages the optic nerve. Animal study. Laboratory. A total of 36 rats, in four groups, completed the functional examination of retina and optic nerve after the interventions. Anaesthetised groups (n>8) were supine (SUP) for 5 h, head-down tilted 70° for 5 h, head-down tilted/haemodiluted for 5 h or SUP/haemodiluted for 5 h. We measured blood pressure, heart rate, intra-ocular pressure and maintained constant temperature. Retinal function (electroretinography), scotopic threshold response (STR) (for retinal ganglion cells) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) (for transmission through the optic nerve). We imaged the optic nerve in vivo and evaluated retinal histology, apoptotic cells and glial activation in the optic nerve. Retinal and optic nerve function were followed to 14 and 28 days after experiments. At 28 days in head down tilted/haemodiluted rats, negative STR decreased (about 50% amplitude reduction, P = 0.006), VEP wave N2-P3 decreased (70% amplitude reduction, P = 0.01) and P2 latency increased (35%, P = 0.003), optic discs were swollen and glial activation was present in the optic nerve. SUP/haemodiluted rats had decreases in negative STR and increased VEP latency, but no glial activation. An injury partly resembling human ischaemic optic neuropathy can be produced in rats by combining haemodilution and head-down tilt. Significant functional changes were also present with haemodilution alone. Future studies with this partial optic nerve injury may enable understanding of mechanisms of peri-operative ischaemic optic neuropathy and could help discover

  3. Nerve action potential amplitudes, a robust marker of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Monlun, Marie; Hugo, Marie; Blanco, Laurence; Mohammedi, Kamel; Rechdi, Ahdab; Alexandre, Laure; Poirot-Mazeres, Stéphane; Rajaobelina, Kalina; Rigalleau, Vincent

    2018-05-23

    We were interested in the recent publication of Peterson et al. (1) who reported a progressive reduction of sural nerve amplitudes from 10.9μV to 7.0μV, during a ten year follow-up of 87 people with varying degrees of glucose intolerance. This reduction was more pronounced for people whose glucose tolerance deteriorated during the follow-up period, and paralleled their increasing HbA1c. In contrast, nerve conduction velocities only decreased from 47.6 to 45.8 m/s, without any significant relation to HbA1c This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. A-waves increase the risk of developing neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Srotova, Iva; Vlckova, Eva; Dusek, Ladislav; Bednarik, Josef

    2017-08-01

    A-waves, which are observed following the M-wave during motor nerve conduction studies (NCS), are late responses that are frequently found in many types of neurogenic disorders. However, A-waves are also common in healthy individuals, where their significance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether the occurrence of A-waves does in fact represent an increased risk for the future development of changes upon NCS or needle electromyography (EMG) in the corresponding nerve. Nerve conduction studies/needle electromyography findings at control examination were evaluated in relation to the occurrence of initial A-waves in 327 individuals who had undergone repeated NCS/EMG examination and exhibited normal initial findings, with or without the occurrence of A-waves as the only acceptable abnormality. The odds ratio, which reflects the predictive power of the occurrence of A-waves at the initial testing for the development of an abnormality (neuropathy or radiculopathy) at the follow-up examination, ranged from 2.7 ( p  = .041) in the tibial nerve and 3.9 ( p  = .034) in peroneal one, to 30.0 ( p  = .002) in the ulnar nerve. A-waves constitute an initial abnormality in all nerves, and they may be predictive for the future development of broader NCS/EMG abnormalities in the corresponding nerve.

  5. Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measures using eye tracking in children with nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rajjoub, Raneem D; Trimboli-Heidler, Carmelina; Packer, Roger J; Avery, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the intra- and intervisit reproducibility of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measures using eye tracking-assisted spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) in children with nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy. Prospective longitudinal study. Circumpapillary RNFL thickness measures were acquired with SD OCT using the eye-tracking feature at 2 separate study visits. Children with normal and abnormal vision (visual acuity ≥ 0.2 logMAR above normal and/or visual field loss) who demonstrated clinical and radiographic stability were enrolled. Intra- and intervisit reproducibility was calculated for the global average and 9 anatomic sectors by calculating the coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient. Forty-two subjects (median age 8.6 years, range 3.9-18.2 years) met inclusion criteria and contributed 62 study eyes. Both the abnormal and normal vision cohort demonstrated the lowest intravisit coefficient of variation for the global RNFL thickness. Intervisit reproducibility remained good for those with normal and abnormal vision, although small but statistically significant increases in the coefficient of variation were observed for multiple anatomic sectors in both cohorts. The magnitude of visual acuity loss was significantly associated with the global (ß = 0.026, P < .01) and temporal sector coefficient of variation (ß = 0.099, P < .01). SD OCT with eye tracking demonstrates highly reproducible RNFL thickness measures. Subjects with vision loss demonstrate greater intra- and intervisit variability than those with normal vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Treatment Results of Low Back and Leg Pain Considering Para-Lumbar Spine Disease and Peripheral Nerve Neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Naotaka; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Morimoto, Daijiro; Matsumoto, Juntaro; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Masanori

    2018-06-01

    Here we report our treatment results of low back and leg pain(LBLP)considering para-lumbar spine disease(PLSD)and peripheral nerve neuropathy(PNN). We enrolled 103 patients who were admitted to our institute for LBLP treatment between January and December in 2014. For the treatment, we preferentially performed intensive block therapy for PLSD. Among 103 patients, 89 patients had PLSD. In 85 patients, we performed intensive block therapy and 82 patients experienced short-term improvement of symptoms. In 35 of these 82 patients, lumbar spine and/or PNN surgical treatment was required as the effect of block therapy was transient. Intensive block therapy was effective in 47 of 103 patients(45.6%), and the remaining patients required surgical treatment(PLSD and/or PNN:31 cases, lumbar spine:13 cases, both:8 cases). Among 103 patients with LBLP, intensive block therapy for PLSD and PNN was useful for short-term symptom improvement in 82 patients(79.6%), and for long-term symptom improvement in 47 patients(45.6%)as evaluated at the final follow-up. Surgical treatment of PLSD and/or PNN was required in 39 patients(37.9%). These results suggested that treatment of PLSD and PNN might yield good results for patients with LBLP.

  7. Bi-modal radiofrequency treatment for coexisting neuralgia and neuropathy in adjacent divisions of the trigeminal nerve.

    PubMed

    Bhatjiwale, M; Bhatjiwale, M; Naik, L D; Chopade, P

    2018-05-29

    Trigeminal neuralgia and deafferentation neuropathic pain, or trigeminal neuropathy, are different symptomatologies, rarely reported to present together. The case of a 65-year-old gentleman suffering from trigeminal neuralgia of the maxillary and mandibular division is reported. He first underwent an infraorbital neurectomy that was complicated by deafferentation neuropathic pain, whilst his mandibular neuralgia continued. He was treated successfully for both the neuropathic and neuralgic symptoms in the same session using ultra-extended euthermic pulsed radiofrequency treatment for the maxillary division (V2) and radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the mandibular division (V3). This report is novel in describing the use of dual modalities in the same session for two distinct coexisting clinical entities in two different divisions of the same cranial nerve. The use of ultra-extended pulsed radiofrequency treatment for neuropathic pain in this case is also unique. Nearly 2years after the procedure, the patient continues to have complete pain relief. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on management of multifocal motor neuropathy. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society--first revision.

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    A European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society consensus guideline on the definition, investigation, and treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) was published in 2006. The aim is to revise this guideline. Disease experts considered references retrieved from MEDLINE and Cochrane Systematic Reviews published between August 2004 and July 2009 and prepared statements that were agreed to in an iterative fashion. The Task Force agreed on Good Practice Points to define clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria for MMN, investigations to be considered, and principal recommendations for treatment. © 2010 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  9. Prognostic value of nerve ultrasound and electrophysiological findings in traumatic sural neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kerasnoudis, A; Ntasiou, P; Barmpalios, G

    2018-06-13

    We report on the prognostic role of cross sectional area (CSA) enlargement and axonal damage in traumatic sural neuropathy (TSN). Reference values were defined in 23 healthy subjects. 13patients with TSN underwent evaluation (Thessaloniki Hypesthesia Score (THS), ultrasound, electrophysiology). All patients were followed up with THS 6 months after initial evaluation. During initial evaluation, the 13 patients showed a mean THS of 2.6 (SD ± 0.9). 7 patients showed pathological (pUS) and 6 normal CSA (nUS). 8 patients showed axonal affection (pCS) and 5 no axonal affection (nCS). During follow up, mean THS was 3.1 (SD ± 0.9) in pUS, and 1.8 (SD ± 0.7) in the nUS group (p < 0.001). Mean THS was 2.8 (SD ± 0.7) in pCS, and 2.1 (SD ± 0.9) in nCS group (p = 0.035). CSA enlargement, but not axonal loss, seems to have a negative prognostic role in patients with TSN. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Treatment of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A

    1985-01-01

    There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254

  11. Intraepidermal nerve-fibre density as a biomarker of the course of neuropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Divisova, S; Vlckova, E; Srotova, I; Kincova, S; Skorna, M; Dusek, L; Dubovy, P; Bednarik, J

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether intraepidermal nerve-fibre density (IENFD) may be used as a marker of the course of neuropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Skin biopsies from the distal leg were serially evaluated in a group of 30 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (median age 60 years, 17 men) with a short duration of diabetes (< 3 years) and good glucose control, and in 23 age- and sex-matched controls. The time intervals between biopsies were > 2 years (median 33.8 months). Eighteen patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus had symptoms or signs of distal symmetrical diabetic polyneuropathy, 12 had no neuropathy. At first skin biopsy, IENFD was normal in all controls and in patients without neuropathy (mean 9.5 and 7.9 fibres/mm, respectively) compared with abnormal IENFD in 77.8% in patients with polyneuropathy (mean 3.4 fibres/mm). The annual rate of intraepidermal nerve-fibre (IENF) loss expressed as a percentage of the first IENFD value in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy was significantly higher [mean (se), 11.95 (3.82)%] compared with controls [1.92 (1.81)%, P < 0.001] and similar to patients without polyneuropathy [12.16 (4.38)%]. The rate of IENF loss did not correlate with degree of glucose control. The annual rate of IENF loss in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus was several times higher than that of healthy participants, irrespective of the presence of signs or symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy at initial evaluation. The change in IENFD is not linear and should be expressed as a proportion of initial IENFD to serve as a marker of the course of diabetic neuropathy. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  12. Natural history of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: longitudinal analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layer by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Barboni, Piero; Carbonelli, Michele; Savini, Giacomo; Ramos, Carolina do V F; Carta, Arturo; Berezovsky, Adriana; Salomao, Solange R; Carelli, Valerio; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2010-03-01

    To investigate by optical coherence tomography (OCT) the topographic pattern and temporal sequence of fiber loss in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in a longitudinal follow-up. Cohort study. Six eyes of 4 patients with molecularly defined LHON were enrolled before the subacute period of visual loss. Subjects were studied by StratusOCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) during a 9-month follow-up starting from the presymptomatic stage of the disease. Examinations were carried out at 4 different time points: presymptomatic stage, time of visual loss, and 3 and 9 months later. Peripapillary RNFL thickness for each quadrant of the optic nerve. Statistical comparisons were performed by ordinary analysis of variance with Dunnett's post-test. A significant increase of RNFL thickness was detected in the temporal and inferior quadrants between the presymptomatic stage and the disease onset (P<0.05). The 360-degree average and the superior and nasal quadrants showed a nonstatistically significant increase of thickness at this time. In the 360-degree average (P<0.01), superior (P<0.01), nasal (P<0.05), and inferior (P<0.01) quadrants, RNFL thickening showed statistically significant changes between the presymptomatic stage and the 3-month follow-up. At 3 months, a nonsignificant reduction of RNFL thickness was detected in the temporal quadrant. A significant reduction of RNFL was detected in all but the nasal quadrants between the presymptomatic stage and the 9-month Follow-up. The RNFL thickness increase first appeared at the temporal and inferior quadrants. Conversely, at 3 months the thickening fibers were more evident in the superior and nasal quadrants. These findings are consistent with the established preferential early involvement of the papillomacular bundle in LHON. We also demonstrated the previously unrecognized simultaneous early involvement of the inferior quadrant. The late

  13. Localization and expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in postmortem sciatic nerve from patients with motor neuron disease and diabetic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.A.; Gross, L.; Wittrock, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the mature motor system. The factor is found most abundantly in myelinating Schwann cells in the adult sciatic nerve. Lack of neuronal growth factors has been proposed as one possible etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Growth factor replacement therapies are currently being evaluated as a treatment for motor neuron disease. In this report we determined whether the expression of CNTF in sciatic nerve differed in patients with motor neuron disease compared to controls or patients with another form ofmore » axonopathy. We identified 8 patients (7 with ALS and 1 with SMA) with motor neuron disease and 6 patients with diabetic motor neuropathy who had autopsy material available. Immunoperoxidase staining showed reduced CNTF expression in nerves of patients with motor neuron disease but not in patients with diabetic motor neuropathy. Decreased CNTF appears be associated with primary motor neuron disease rather than a generalized process of axon loss. This result supports suggestions that CNTF deficiency may be an important factor in the development of motor neuron disease. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Painful Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Benoliel; Sorin, Teich; Eli, Eliav

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses neuropathic pain of traumatic origin affecting the trigeminal nerve. This syndrome has been termed painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy by the International Headache Society and replaces atypical odontalgia, deafferentation pain, traumatic neuropathy, and phantom toothache. The discussion emphasizes the diagnosis and the early and late management of injuries to the trigeminal nerve and subsequent painful conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Neuropathy Scales in Neuropathy Associated with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zilliox, Lindsay A.; Ruby, Sandra K.; Singh, Sujal; Zhan, Min; Russell, James W.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS Disagreement exists on effective and sensitive outcome measures in neuropathy associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are costly, invasive and may have their problems with reproducibility and clinical applicability. A clinical measure of neuropathy that has sufficient sensitivity and correlates to invasive measures would enable significant future research. METHODS Data was collected prospectively on patients with IGT and symptomatic early neuropathy (neuropathy symptoms < 2 years) and normal controls. The seven scales that were examined were the Neuropathy Impairment Score of the Lower Limb (NIS-LL), Michigan Diabetic Neuropathy Score (MNDS), modified Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scale (mTCNS), Total Neuropathy Score (Clinical) (TNSc), The Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), the Early Neuropathy Score (ENS), and the Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS). RESULTS All seven clinical scales were determined to be excellent in discriminating between patients with neuropathy from controls without neuropathy. The strongest discrimination was seen with the mTCNS. The best sensitivity and specificity for the range of scores obtained, as determined by using receiver operating characteristic curves, was seen for the mTCNS followed by the TNSc. Most scales show a stronger correlation with measures of large than small fiber neuropathy. CONCULSIONS All seven scales identify patients with neuropathy. For the purpose of screening potential patients for a clinical study, the mTCNS followed by the TNSc would be most helpful to select patients with neuropathy. PMID:25690405

  16. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... by nerve abnormalities in the legs and feet (peripheral neuropathy). Many people with this condition experience prickling or ... Research Network: Inherited Neuropathies Consortium The Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic ...

  17. Structural and functional investigations of the murine cavernosal nerve: a model system for serial spatio-temporal study of autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, Herbert H; Zotova, Elena; Cannella, Barbara; Raine, Cedric S; Arezzo, Joseph; Tar, Moses; Melman, Arnold

    2007-04-01

    activity in the nerve bundles of the corpus cavernosum. Electrophysiology identified activity in C fibres on the cavernosal nerve and in Aalpha-Adelta fibres in the DNP. These results show that it is possible to perform integrated cavernosal pressure monitoring and ultrastructural and electrophysiological studies in this model. These yielded accurate data about the erectile status of the penis, and the state of unmyelinated and myelinated fibres in the DNP and cavernosal nerves of the same animal. This study provides a useful template for future studies of experimental diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

  18. The potential complications of open carpal tunnel release surgery to the ulnar neurovascular bundle and its branches: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Boughton, O; Adds, P J; Jayasinghe, J A P

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the ulnar artery and the ulnar nerve and its branches in the palm to assess how frequently they may be at risk of damage during open carpal tunnel release surgery. Twenty-one formalin-embalmed cadaveric hands were dissected, and the proximity of the ulnar neurovascular bundle to two different lines of incision, the 3rd and 4th interdigital web space axis and the ring finger axis, was assessed and compared. It was found that an incision in the latter (ring finger) axis put the ulnar artery at risk in 12 of 21 specimens, whereas an incision in the former axis (3rd/4th interdigital web space) put the ulnar artery at risk in only two specimens. In 15 hands at least one structure (the ulnar artery or a branch of the ulnar nerve) was at risk in the ring finger axis compared to only seven hands in the axis of the 3rd/4th interdigital web space. We conclude that the ulnar artery and branches of the ulnar nerve are at increased risk of damage with an incision in the axis of the ring finger. The importance of using a blunt dissection technique under direct vision during surgery to identify and preserve these structures and median nerve branches is emphasized. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Treatment of neuropathic pain in a patient with diabetic neuropathy using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the skin of the lumbar region.

    PubMed

    Somers, D L; Somers, M F

    1999-08-01

    Diabetic neuropathy can produce severe pain. The purpose of this case report is to describe the alteration of pain in a patient with severe, painful diabetic neuropathy following application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to the low back. The patient was a 73-year-old woman with pain in the left lower extremity over the lateral aspect of the hip and the entire leg below the knee. The pain prevented sound sleep. The intensity of pain was assessed with a visual analog scale. The TENS (80 Hz) was delivered 1 to 2 hours a day and during the entire night through electrodes placed on the lumbar area of the back. Following 20 minutes of TENS on the first day of treatment, the patient reported a 38% reduction in intensity of pain. After 17 days, the patient reported no pain following 20 minutes of TENS and that she could sleep through the night. Application of TENS to the skin of the lumbar area may be an effective treatment for the pain of diabetic neuropathy.

  20. HCV RNA Genomic sequences and HCV-E2 glycoprotein in sural nerve biopsies from HCV-infected patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russi, S; Sansonno, D; Monaco, S; Mariotto, S; Ferrari, S; Pavone, F; Lauletta, G; Dammacco, F

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN), the major neurological complication of chronic HCV infection, is frequently associated with mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) and small-vessel systemic vasculitis. While humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms are suspected to act together in an aberrant immune response that results in peripheral nerve damage, the role of HCV remains largely speculative. The possible demonstration of HCV in peripheral nerve tissue would obviously assume important pathogenic implications. We studied sural nerve biopsies from 11 HCV-positive patients with neuropathic symptoms: five with and six without MC. In situ hybridization (ISH) and immunofluorescence studies were carried out to detect genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA sequences and HCV-encoded E2-glycoprotein, respectively. Epineurial vascular deposits of E2-glycoprotein were found in four (80%) MC and in two (33.3%) non-MC patients, respectively. These findings were enhanced by the perivascular deposition of positive-, though not negative-strand replicative RNA, as also found in the nerve extracts of all patients. Mild inflammatory cell infiltrates with no deposits of immunoglobulins and/or complement proteins were revealed around small vessels, without distinct vasculitis changes between MC and non-MC patients. These results indicate that nerve vascular HCV RNA/E2 deposits associated to perivascular inflammatory infiltrates were similar in chronically HCV-infected patients, regardless of cryoglobulin occurrence. Given the failure to demonstrate HCV productive infection in the examined sural nerve biopsies, nerve damage is likely to result from virus-triggered immune-mediated mechanisms. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  1. Effect of aerobic exercise on peripheral nerve functions of population with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: a single blind, parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Snehil; Maiya, Arun G; Shastry, B A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40%-60% of Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was carried out in a tertiary health care setting, India. The study comprised of experimental (moderate intensity aerobic exercise and standard care) and control groups (standard care). Population with type 2 diabetes with clinical neuropathy, defined as a minimum score of seven on the Michigan Diabetic Neuropathy Score (MDNS), was randomly assigned to experimental and control groups by computer generated random number tables. RANOVA was used for data analysis (p<0.05 was significant). A total of 87 patients with DPN were evaluated in the study. After randomization there were 47 patients in the control group and 40 patients in the experimental group. A comparison of two groups using RANOVA for anthropometric measures showed an insignificant change at eight weeks. For distal peroneal nerve's conduction velocity there was a significant difference in two groups at eight weeks (p<0.05), Degrees of freedom (Df)=1, 62, F=5.14, and p=0.03. Sural sensory nerve at eight weeks showed a significant difference in two groups for conduction velocity, Df =1, 60, F=10.16, and p=0.00. Significant differences in mean scores of MDNS were also observed in the two groups at eight weeks (p value significant<0.05). Moderate intensity aerobic exercises can play a valuable role to disrupt the normal progression of DPN in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Congenital sensory neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Barry, J. E.; Hopkins, I. J.; Neal, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two infants with sporadic congenital sensory neuropathy are described. The criteria of generalized lack of superficial sensory appreciation, hypotonia, areflexia, together with histological evidence of abnormalities of sensory neural structures in skin and peripheral nerves have been met. No abnormality of motor or autonomic nerves was shown. ImagesFIG. PMID:4131674

  3. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  4. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor is essential for blood-nerve barrier functional recovery in an experimental murine model of traumatic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chaoling; Helton, E Scott; Zhou, Ping; Ouyang, Xuan; d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Pascual, Alberto; López-Barneo, José; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2018-06-18

    There is emerging evidence that glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent inducer of restrictive barrier function in tight junction-forming microvascular endothelium and epithelium, including the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in vitro. We sought to determine the role of GDNF in restoring BNB function in vivo by evaluating sciatic nerve horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability in tamoxifen-inducible GDNF conditional knockout (CKO) adult mice following non-transecting crush injury via electron microscopy, with appropriate wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HET) littermate controls. A total of 24 age-, genotype- and sex-matched mice >12 weeks of age were injected with 30 mg/kg HRP via tail vein injection 7 or 14 days following unilateral sciatic nerve crush, and both sciatic nerves were harvested 30 minutes later for morphometric assessment by light and electron microscopy. The number and percentage of HRP-permeable endoneurial microvessels were ascertained to determine the effect of GDNF in restoring barrier function in vivo. Following sciatic nerve crush, there was significant upregulation in GDNF protein expression in WT and HET mice that was abrogated in CKO mice. GDNF significantly restored sciatic nerve BNB HRP impermeability to near normal levels by day 7, with complete restoration seen by day 14 in WT and HET mice. A significant recovery lag was observed in CKO mice. This effect was independent on VE-Cadherin or claudin-5 expression on endoneurial microvessels. These results imply an important role of GDNF in restoring restrictive BNB function in vivo, suggesting a potential strategy to re-establish the restrictive endoneurial microenvironment following traumatic peripheral neuropathies.

  5. Comparison of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer loss and visual outcome in fellow eyes following sequential bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Gad; Kesler, Anat; Naftaliev, Elvira; Skarf, Barry

    2015-05-01

    To report on the correlation of structural damage to the axons of the optic nerve and visual outcome following bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A retrospective review of the medical records of 25 patients with bilateral sequential non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy was performed. Outcome measures were peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with the Stratus optical coherence tomography scanner, visual acuity and visual field loss. Median peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, mean deviation (MD) of visual field, and visual acuity of initially involved NAION eyes (54.00 µm, -17.77 decibels (dB), 0.4, respectively) were comparable to the same parameters measured following development of second NAION event in the other eye (53.70 µm, p = 0.740; -16.83 dB, p = 0.692; 0.4, p = 0.942, respectively). In patients with bilateral NAION, there was a significant correlation of peripapillary RNFL thickness (r = 0.583, p = 0.002) and MD of the visual field (r = 0.457, p = 0.042) for the pairs of affected eyes, whereas a poor correlation was found in visual acuity of these eyes (r = 0.279, p = 0.176). Peripapillary RNFL thickness following NAION was positively correlated with MD of visual field (r = 0.312, p = 0.043) and negatively correlated with logMAR visual acuity (r = -0.365, p = 0.009). In patients who experience bilateral NAION, the magnitude of RNFL loss is similar in each eye. There is a greater similarity in visual field loss than in visual acuity between the two affected eyes with NAION of the same individual.

  6. Nerve Damage (Diabetic Neuropathies)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  7. A look inside the nerve - Morphology of nerve fascicles in healthy controls and patients with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Alexander; Winter, Natalie; Rattay, Tim W; Härtig, Florian; Dammeier, Nele M; Auffenberg, Eva; Koch, Marilin; Axer, Hubertus

    2017-12-01

    Polyneuropathies are increasingly analyzed by ultrasound. Summarizing, diffuse enlargement is typical in Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1 (CMT1a), regional enlargement occurs in inflammatory neuropathies. However, a distinction of subtypes is still challenging. Therefore, this study focused on fascicle size and pattern in controls and distinct neuropathies. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median, ulnar and peroneal nerve (MN, UN, PN) was measured at predefined landmarks in 50 healthy controls, 15 CMT1a and 13 MMN patients. Additionally, largest fascicle size and number of visible fascicles was obtained at the mid-upper arm cross-section of the MN and UN and in the popliteal fossa cross-section of the PN. Cut-off normal values for fascicle size in the MN, UN and PN were defined (<4.8mm 2 , <2.8mm 2 and <3.5mm 2 ). In CMT1a CSA and fascicle values are significantly enlarged in all nerves, while in MMN CSA and fascicles are regionally enlarged with predominance in the upper arm nerves. The ratio of enlarged fascicles and all fascicles was significantly increased in CMT1a (>50%) in all nerves (p<0.0001), representing diffuse fascicle enlargement, and moderately increased in MMN (>20%), representing differential fascicle enlargement (enlarged and normal fascicles at the same location) sparing the peroneal nerve (regional fascicle enlargement). Based on these findings distinct fascicle patterns were defined. Normal values for fascicle size could be evaluated; while CMT1a features diffuse fascicle enlargement, MMN shows regional and differential predominance with enlarged fascicles as single pathology. Pattern analysis of fascicles might facilitate distinction of several otherwise similar neuropathies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fibered fluorescence microscopy (FFM) of intra epidermal nerve fibers--translational marker for peripheral neuropathies in preclinical research: processing and analysis of the data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, Frans; De Backer, Steve; Lemeire, Jan; Torfs, Berf; Nuydens, Rony; Meert, Theo; Schelkens, Peter; Scheunders, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by diabetes or AIDS or be a side-effect of chemotherapy. Fibered Fluorescence Microscopy (FFM) is a recently developed imaging modality using a fiber optic probe connected to a laser scanning unit. It allows for in-vivo scanning of small animal subjects by moving the probe along the tissue surface. In preclinical research, FFM enables non-invasive, longitudinal in vivo assessment of intra epidermal nerve fibre density in various models for peripheral neuropathies. By moving the probe, FFM allows visualization of larger surfaces, since, during the movement, images are continuously captured, allowing to acquire an area larger then the field of view of the probe. For analysis purposes, we need to obtain a single static image from the multiple overlapping frames. We introduce a mosaicing procedure for this kind of video sequence. Construction of mosaic images with sub-pixel alignment is indispensable and must be integrated into a global consistent image aligning. An additional motivation for the mosaicing is the use of overlapping redundant information to improve the signal to noise ratio of the acquisition, because the individual frames tend to have both high noise levels and intensity inhomogeneities. For longitudinal analysis, mosaics captured at different times must be aligned as well. For alignment, global correlation-based matching is compared with interest point matching. Use of algorithms working on multiple CPU's (parallel processor/cluster/grid) is imperative for use in a screening model.

  9. Axon Transport and Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tourtellotte, Warren G.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are highly prevalent and are most often associated with chronic disease, side effects from chemotherapy, or toxic-metabolic abnormalities. Neuropathies are less commonly caused by genetic mutations, but studies of the normal function of mutated proteins have identified particular vulnerabilities that often implicate mitochondrial dynamics and axon transport mechanisms. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are a group of phenotypically related diseases caused by monogenic mutations that primarily affect sympathetic and sensory neurons. Here, I review evidence to indicate that many genetic neuropathies are caused by abnormalities in axon transport. Moreover, in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. There may be specific convergence on gene mutations that disrupt nerve growth factor signaling, upon which sympathetic and sensory neurons critically depend. PMID:26724390

  10. Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy induced by ischemia-reperfusion in the rat femoral artery involves activation of proinflammatory signaling pathway in the sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yi-Wei; Huang, Chun-Jen; Wang, Po-Kai; Wan, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Yi-Ying; Kao, Ming-Chang

    2017-08-24

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in the rat femoral artery has been proposed as an experimental model of vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (VPN) which presents neuropathic pain and peripheral nerve injury patterns observed clinically. This study investigates the involvement of the proinflammatory signaling pathway underlying the peripheral mechanisms of VPN. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to receive either a sham operation or IR. IR was induced by occluding the right femoral artery for 4h followed by reperfusion periods from 0 to 72h. The behavioral parameters were assessed at baseline as well as at days 1, 2 and 3 after reperfusion. The time-course analyses of proinflammatory mediators in the sciatic nerves were also performed on rats of the sham group or IR groups with reperfusion periods of 0, 2, 4, 24 and 72h, respectively. The behavioral data confirmed that this VPN model induced hindpaw mechano-allodynia and heat hyperalgesia as well as impaired hindpaw grip strength. The molecular data revealed that IR in the femoral artery activated the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the sciatic nerve indicating a neuroinflammatory response. Moreover, IR in the femoral artery increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the sciatic nerve. This study elucidated the novel time-course expression profiles of NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines in VPN induced by IR which may be involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Since NF-κB is a key element during neuroinflammation, strategies targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway may provide therapeutic potential against VPN induced by IR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Peripheral neuropathy in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Parampreet S; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Chawla, Yogesh K; Das, Chandi P; Syal, Puneet

    2003-08-01

    Neuropathy in association with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis, is recognized; however, there are differences in the incidence and type of neuropathy reported. The causal relationship of liver disease to neuropathy has been questioned. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence and character of peripheral neuropathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. The effect of alcohol consumption, severity of liver disease and encephalopathy on the incidence and severity of neuropathy were also studied. Patients having an identifiable cause of peripheral neuropathy, except alcohol, were excluded from the study. Patients with evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency or diabetes were also excluded from the study. In this study, 33 patients with liver cirrhosis were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically to detect any evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies were performed in the upper and lower limbs using surface electrodes. These patients also underwent a detailed clinical examination. Clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy were found in seven (21%) patients. Nerve conduction studies were abnormal in 24 (73%) patients. The pattern of involvement was predominantly of an axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy. Neuropathy was found both in patients with alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related cirrhosis. The presence of encephalopathy did not have a significant bearing on the incidence and severity of neuropathy. The neuropathy was also not significantly related to the severity of liver disease. The present study reveals that a significant number of patients with liver cirrhosis show evidence of peripheral neuropathy, which is present regardless of the etiology of cirrhosis, and is subclinical in a majority of these patients. The cause of neuropathy was probably the liver disease itself, as the incidence and severity of neuropathy in the alcohol-related cirrhosis, although higher, was not significantly different from the neuropathy in patients

  12. Neuropathy in a petrol sniffer.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, D M; Ramsey, J; Schwartz, M S; Dookun, D

    1986-01-01

    A 4 year old boy developed a profound motor neuropathy after repeated deliberate inhalation of petroleum vapour. The condition was characterised by extreme slowing of the nerve conduction velocity. He made a gradual recovery over six months. The neuropathy was attributed to the N-hexane component of petroleum. PMID:3021070

  13. Neuropathy in a petrol sniffer.

    PubMed

    Hall, D M; Ramsey, J; Schwartz, M S; Dookun, D

    1986-09-01

    A 4 year old boy developed a profound motor neuropathy after repeated deliberate inhalation of petroleum vapour. The condition was characterised by extreme slowing of the nerve conduction velocity. He made a gradual recovery over six months. The neuropathy was attributed to the N-hexane component of petroleum.

  14. Change of Retinal Nerve Layer Thickness in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Revealed by Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Zhao, Chen; Han, Quan-Hong; Xie, Shiyong; Li, Yan

    2016-08-01

    To examine the changes of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) by serial morphometry using Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Retrospective study in patients with newly diagnosed NAION (n=33, all unilateral) and controls (n=75 unilateral NAION patients with full contralateral eye vision) who underwent FD-OCT of the optic disk, optic nerve head (ONH), and macula within 1 week of onset and again 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. The patients showed no improvement in vision during follow-up. Within 1 week of onset, all NAION eyes exhibited severe ONH fiber crowding and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) edema. Four had subretinal fluid accumulation and 12 had posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) at the optic disc surface. Ganglion cell complex (GCC) and RNFL thicknesses were reduced at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.05), with no deterioration thereafter. Initial RNFL/GCC contraction magnitude in the superior hemisphere correlated with the severity of inferior visual field deficits. NAION progression is characterized by an initial phase of accelerated RNFL and GCC deterioration. These results reveal that the kinetic change of neural retina in NAION and may have implication on the time window for treatment of NAION. FD-OCT is useful in the evaluation of NAION.

  15. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Distal median nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy that affects the movement of or sensation in ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  16. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Axillary nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy . It occurs when there is damage to the ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  17. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a case report of improvement in relapsing auto-immune optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jeffrey N; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C

    2015-09-01

    We present the results from a patient with relapsing optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS). SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and has become the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date (www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) for treatment of retinal and optic nerve diseases. Pre-treatment and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams of a 54 year old female patient were performed both at the Florida Study Center, USA and at The Eye Center of Columbus, USA. As a consequence of a relapsing optic neuritis, the patient's previously normal visual acuity decreased to between 20/350 and 20/400 in the right eye and to 20/70 in the left eye. Significant visual field loss developed bilaterally. The patient underwent a right eye vitrectomy with injection of BMSCs into the optic nerve of the right eyeand retrobulbar, subtenon and intravitreal injection of BMSCs in the left eye. At 15 months after SCOTS treatment, the patient's visual acuity had improved to 20/150 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Bilateral visual fields improved markedly. Both macular thickness and fast retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were maximally improved at 3 and 6 months after SCOTS treatment. The patient also reduced her mycophenylate dose from 1,500 mg per day to 500 mg per day and required no steroid pulse therapy during the 15-month follow up.

  18. Orally active Epac inhibitor reverses mechanical allodynia and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singhmar, Pooja; Huo, XiaoJiao; Li, Yan; Dougherty, Patrick M; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Heijnen, Cobi J; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2018-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major side effect of cancer treatment that significantly compromises quality of life of cancer patients and survivors. Identification of targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or reverse CIPN is needed. We investigated exchange protein regulated by cAMP (Epac) as a potential target. Epacs are cAMP-binding proteins known to play a pivotal role in mechanical allodynia induced by nerve injury and inflammation. We demonstrate that global Epac1-knockout (Epac1-/-) male and female mice are protected against paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. In addition, spinal cord astrocyte activation and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) loss are significantly reduced in Epac1-/- mice as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, Epac1-/- mice do not develop the paclitaxel-induced deficits in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the sciatic nerve that are a hallmark of CIPN. Notably, mice with cell-specific deletion of Epac1 in Nav1.8-positive neurons (N-Epac1-/-) also show reduced paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia, astrocyte activation, and IENF loss, indicating that CIPN develops downstream of Epac1 activation in nociceptors. The Epac-inhibitor ESI-09 reversed established paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in wild-type mice even when dosing started 10 days after completion of paclitaxel treatment. In addition, oral administration of ESI-09 suppressed spinal cord astrocyte activation in the spinal cord and protected against IENF loss. Ex vivo, ESI-09 blocked paclitaxel-induced abnormal spontaneous discharges in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Collectively, these findings implicate Epac1 in nociceptors as a novel target for treatment of CIPN. This is clinically relevant because ESI-09 has the potential to reverse a debilitating and long-lasting side effect of cancer treatment.

  19. Supracondylar process syndrome: two cases of median nerve neuropathy due to compression by the ligament of Struthers.

    PubMed

    Shon, Hyun-Chul; Park, Ji-Kang; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kang, Sang-Woo; Kim, Kook-Jong; Hong, Seok-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    The supracondylar process is a beak-shaped bony process on the anteromedial aspect of the distal humerus. The ligament of Struthers is a fibrous band extending from the tip of the process to the medial epicondyle. The median nerve and brachial artery pass under the ligament of Struthers and consequently can be compressed, causing supracondylar process syndrome. As a rare cause of proximal median nerve entrapment, supracondylar process syndrome is triggered when the median nerve is located in the superficial or deep layer of the ligament of Struthers as a result of anatomical variation. The supracondylar process can be easily detected on X-ray images obtained in oblique views but may not be identified in only anteroposterior or lateral views. In this article, we present 2 cases of supracondylar process syndrome and describe the process of diagnosis and treatment and results of a literature review.

  20. Gasoline sniffing multifocal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Burns, T M; Shneker, B F; Juel, V C

    2001-11-01

    The polyneuropathy caused by chronic gasoline inhalation is reported to be a gradually progressive, symmetric, sensorimotor polyneuropathy. We report unleaded gasoline sniffing by a female 14 years of age that precipitated peripheral neuropathy. In contrast with the previously reported presentation of peripheral neuropathy in gasoline inhalation, our patient developed multiple mononeuropathies superimposed on a background of sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The patient illustrates that gasoline sniffing neuropathy may present with acute multiple mononeuropathies resembling mononeuritis multiplex, possibly related to increased peripheral nerve susceptibility to pressure in the setting of neurotoxic components of gasoline. The presence of tetraethyl lead, which is no longer present in modern gasoline mixtures, is apparently not a necessary factor in the development of gasoline sniffer's neuropathy.

  1. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions.

  2. Traumatic Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun Young

    2018-04-01

    Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) refers to optic nerve injury resulting from direct and indirect head and facial trauma. The pathogenesis of indirect TON has not been fully elucidated, and the management of TON remains controversial. In this review article, I review the recent literature regarding TON and discuss how to manage indirect TON.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss of sensation in the feet and legs (peripheral neuropathy). People with HSAN IE develop hearing loss that ... control, become apparent before problems with thinking skills. Peripheral neuropathy is caused by impaired function of nerve cells ...

  4. Early Methylprednisolone Treatment Can Stabilize the Blood-Optic Nerve Barrier in a Rat Model of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (rAION).

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Lun; Wen, Yao-Tseng; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Shu-Wen; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether methylprednisolone (MP) treatment halting retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and having anti-inflammatory effect over a narrow therapeutic window affects the integrity of the blood-optic nerve barrier (BOB) in a rat model of ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). The optic nerve (ON) vascular permeability was determined by Evans blue extravasation. Changes in the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) from day 1 to day 5 post-rAION. Rats were treated with MP starting on days 0, 1, 2, and 7 post-rAION. The survival and apoptosis of the RGCs were determined by fluoroGold labeling and TUNEL assay, and the visual function was assessed with flash visual-evoked potentials (FVEPs) 4 weeks postinfarct. Inflammation of the ON was detected by immunohistochemical staining of ED1. Macrophage recruitment in the ON was significantly reduced, which was compatible with the reduction in ON vascular permeability, after MP treatment starting on days 0 and 1 postinsult compared to PBS treatment (both, P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1β expression in MP-treated rats (all, P < 0.05). The survival number and antiapoptotic effect on RGCs, and the P1-N2 FVEP amplitude significantly improved with MP treatment starting on days 0 and 1 (all, P < 0.05). Early treatment with MP halts RGC death and mitigates macrophage infiltration with decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in acute rAION. The very narrow therapeutic window is related to the quick stabilization of the disrupted BOB by early application of MP.

  5. Brain stem and inner ear abnormalities in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and cochlear nerve deficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, B Y; Roche, J P; Buchman, C A; Castillo, M

    2010-11-01

    Cranial abnormalities, including CND, are common in children with ANSD. The purpose of this study was to assess whether CND is associated with brain or inner ear abnormalities in a cohort of children with ANSD. Two neuroradiologists retrospectively reviewed cranial MR imaging examinations in 103 children with ANSD. Brain, cochlear nerve, and temporal bone abnormalities were described and tabulated. Findings were stratified on the basis of the presence and laterality of CND, and differences in the presence of associated inner ear or intracranial abnormalities were assessed by using 2-tailed Fisher exact tests. CND was identified in 33.0% of children and 26.9% of ears with ANSD. Significantly more patients with bilateral CND had intracranial abnormalities than those with unilateral CND (60.0% versus 15.8%; P = .012). Forty percent of patients with bilateral CND, 0% of patients with unilateral CND, and 10.1% of those without CND demonstrated hindbrain malformations. Patients with bilateral CND were more likely to demonstrate hindbrain malformations than patients with normal nerves (P = .01) or unilateral CND (P = .004). Labyrinthine abnormalities were significantly more common in patients with bilateral CND than in those without CND (P ≤ .001). Cochlear anomalies were more common in patients with bilateral versus unilateral CND (P = .01). IAC and cochlear aperture stenosis were more common in those with unilateral and bilateral CND than those without CND (both P < .001). Cochlear and hindbrain abnormalities are significantly more common among patients with ANSD with bilateral CND compared with those with at least 1 intact cochlear nerve.

  6. Low Peripheral Nerve Conduction Velocities and Amplitudes Are Strongly Related to Diabetic Microvascular Complications in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Morten; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Tesfaye, Solomon; Fuller, John H.; Arezzo, Joseph C.; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Witte, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Slow nerve conduction velocity and reduction in response amplitude are objective hallmarks of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Because subjective or clinical indicators of neuropathy do not always match well with the presence of abnormal nerve physiology tests, we evaluated associations to nerve conduction in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nerve conduction studies were performed in the distal sural and ulnar sensory nerves and the peroneal motor nerve in 456 individuals with type 1 diabetes who participated in the follow-up visit of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (EPCS). We used multivariate regression models to describe associations to decreased nerve conduction measures. RESULTS In addition to an effect of duration of diabetes and A1C, which were both associated with low nerve conduction velocity and response amplitude, we found that the presence of nephropathy, retinopathy, or a clinical diagnosis of neuropathy was associated with low nerve conduction velocity and amplitude. In the case of nonproliferative retinopathy, the odds ratio (OR) for being in lowest tertile was 2.30 (95% CI 1.13–4.67) for nerve conduction velocity. A similar OR was found for each 2% difference in A1C (2.39 [1.68–3.41]). CONCLUSIONS We show that the presence of other microvascular diabetes complications, together with diabetes duration and A1C, are associated with low nerve conduction velocity and amplitude response and that cardiovascular disease or risk factors do not seem to be associated with these measures. PMID:20823346

  7. Treatment for Ulnar Neuritis Around the Elbow in Adolescent Baseball Players: Factors Associated With Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Satake, Hiroshi; Takahara, Masatoshi; Harada, Mikio; Uno, Tomohiro; Mura, Nariyuki; Takagi, Michiaki

    2017-03-01

    Ulnar neuritis around the elbow is one of the injuries seen in throwing athletes. Outcomes of nonsurgical treatment and factors associated with failure outcomes have not been reported. To investigate the outcomes of treatments for ulnar neuritis in adolescent baseball players. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We assessed 40 male baseball players with a mean age of 15.0 years (range, 13-17 years) who presented with ulnar neuritis. There were 19 pitchers and 21 fielders whose throwing side was affected. All patients had elbow pain, and 13 patients had hand numbness on the ulnar side. The mean Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) overhead athlete shoulder and elbow score was 52.5 at the first follow-up visit (n = 36 patients). Thirteen patients were identified with ulnar nerve subluxation, and 23 patients had concomitant elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury. All patients underwent nonsurgical treatment, which included rehabilitation exercises and prohibition of throwing. If the nonsurgical treatment failed, we recommended surgical treatment. We investigated the outcomes of the nonsurgical and surgical treatments. Return to sports was evaluated, combined with factors associated with return to sports in nonsurgical treatment by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. The mean follow-up period was 23.6 months (range, 6-39 months). After nonsurgical treatment, 24 patients (60%) returned to the previous competition level after a mean of 2.4 months. Two patients returned to a recreational level. One patient gave up playing baseball at 2 months. The remaining 13 patients underwent surgery and returned to sports after a mean of 2.0 months postoperatively, and 12 had no limitation of sports activities. Multivariate logistical regression analysis demonstrated that hand numbness, ulnar nerve subluxation, and UCL injury were associated with failure of nonsurgical treatment ( P < .05). In addition, KJOC score of <45 at the first follow-up tended to be

  8. Neuropathy Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mutation Mycophenolic Acid Mycoplasma Myoglobin Nicotine and Cotinine Non-High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Opioid Testing Osmolality Ova ... that make neuropathy worse Detect and evaluate complications Non-laboratory tests The diagnostic workup for neuropathy begins ...

  9. Cooling modifies mixed median and ulnar palmar studies in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rogério Gayer Machado de; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris

    2007-09-01

    Temperature is an important and common variable that modifies nerve conduction study parameters in practice. Here we compare the effect of cooling on the mixed palmar median to ulnar negative peak-latency difference (PMU) in electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Controls were 22 subjects (19 women, mean age 42.1 years, 44 hands). Patients were diagnosed with mild symptomatic CTS (25 women, mean age 46.6 years, 34 hands). PMU was obtained at the usual temperature, >32 degrees C, and after wrist/hand cooling to <27 degrees C in ice water. After cooling, there was a significantly greater increase in PMU and mixed ulnar palmar latency in patients versus controls. We concluded that cooling significantly modifies the PMU. We propose that the latencies of compressed nerve overreact to cooling and that this response could be a useful tool for incipient CTS electrodiagnosis. There was a significant latency overreaction of the ulnar nerve to cooling in CTS patients. We hypothesize that subclinical ulnar nerve compression is associated with CTS.

  10. Evaluation of optic nerve head blood flow in normal rats and a rodent model of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy using laser speckle flowgraphy.

    PubMed

    Takako, Hidaka; Hideki, Chuman; Nobuhisa, Nao-I

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow in normal rats and a rodent model of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION) in vivo using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). Rats were under general anesthesia; to induce NAION, Rose Bengal (RB) was injected into the tail vein. After the administration of RB, the left ONH was photoactivated using an argon green laser. We measured ONH blood flow in the normal rats and the rNAION group (at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the induction of NAION) using an LSFG-Micro. We used the mean blur rate (MBR) of the vessel region (MV) and MBR of the tissue region (MT) as indicators of blood flow. We compared the MBR of the right and left eyes in both the normal rats and the rNAION group. In the normal rats, there were no significant differences in MV or MT between the right and left eyes. In the rNAION group, the MV and MT of the affected eyes were significantly lower than those of the unaffected eyes at all time points. There were significant differences between the left/right MV and MT ratios seen before the induction of NAION and those observed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the induction of NAION. However, there were no significant differences in these parameters among any of post-NAION induction time points. Our results indicated that the ONH blood flow of the rNAION rats fell in the acute and chronic phases.

  11. Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Demizu, Yusuke, E-mail: y_demizu@nifty.co; Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated.more » The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at alpha/beta = 3 gray equivalent (GyE{sub 3}). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE{sub 3}) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.« less

  12. Analysis of Vision loss caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy after particle therapy for head-and-neck and skull-base tumors adjacent to optic nerves.

    PubMed

    Demizu, Yusuke; Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue; Akagi, Takashi; Sasaki, Ryohei; Terashima, Kazuki; Suga, Daisaku; Kamae, Isao; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2009-12-01

    To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at alpha/beta = 3 gray equivalent (GyE(3)). Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE(3)) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

  13. A Pilot Study of a Novel Automated Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP) Monitoring Device for Detection and Prevention of Intraoperative Peripheral Nerve Injury in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chui, Jason; Murkin, John M; Drosdowech, Darren

    2018-05-21

    Peripheral nerve injury is a potentially devastating complication after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) surgery. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of using an automated somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) device to provide a timely alert/intervention to minimize intraoperative nerve insults during TSA surgery. A prospective, single-arm, observational study was conducted in a single university hospital. The attending anesthesiologist monitored the study participants using the EPAD automated SSEP device and an intervention was made if there was an alert during TSA surgery. The median, radial, and ulnar nerve SSEP on the operative arm, as well as the median nerve SSEP of the nonoperative arm were monitored for each patient. All patients were evaluated for postoperative neurological deficits 6 weeks postoperatively. In total, 21 patients were consented and were successfully monitored. In total, 4 (19%) patients developed intraoperative abnormal SSEP signal changes in the operative arm, in which 3 were reversible and 1 was irreversible till the end of surgery. Median and radial nerves were mostly involved (3/4 patients). The mean cumulative duration of nerve insult (abnormal SSEP) was 21.7±26.2 minutes. Univariate analysis did not identify predictor of intraoperative nerve insults. No patients demonstrated postoperative peripheral neuropathy at 6 weeks. A high incidence (19%) of intraoperative nerve insult was observed in this study demonstrating the feasibility of using an automated SSEP device to provide a timely alert and enable an intervention in order to minimize peripheral nerve injury during TSA. Further randomized studies are warranted.

  14. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  15. Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

  16. Genetics Home Reference: congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sensory cells. This nerve damage is known as peripheral neuropathy. Weakness in the legs, followed by the arms, ... and Neuropathy MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Congenital Cataract MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Peripheral Neuropathy General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency The prevalence of LHON in ... Nerve Disorders Health Topic: Vision Impairment and Blindness Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Leber hereditary optic neuropathy ...

  18. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the groin Diabetes or other causes of peripheral neuropathy Internal bleeding in the pelvis or belly area ( ... Editorial team. Leg Injuries and Disorders Read more Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A. ...

  19. Radial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Read more Hand Injuries and Disorders Read more Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  20. N-hexane neuropathy in offset printers.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C M; Yu, C W; Fong, K Y; Leung, S Y; Tsin, T W; Yu, Y L; Cheung, T F; Chan, S Y

    1993-01-01

    In an offset printing factory with 56 workers, 20 (36%) developed symptomatic peripheral neuropathy due to exposure to n-hexane. Another 26 workers (46%) were found to have subclinical neuropathy. The initial change in the nerve conduction study was reduced amplitude of the sensory action potentials, followed by reduced amplitude of the motor action potentials, reduction in motor conduction velocities and increase in distal latencies. These changes indicate primary axonal degeneration with secondary demyelination. Sural nerve biopsy in a severe case showed giant axonal swellings due to accumulation of 10nm neurofilaments, myelin sheath attenuation and widening of nodal gaps. The development of neuropathy bore no direct relationship to the duration of exposure, hence factors such as individual susceptibility may be important. Optic neuropathy and CNS involvement were uncommon and autonomic neuropathy was not encountered. Images PMID:8505647

  1. Neurophysiological aspects of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R A; Skuse, N F; Lethlean, A K

    1976-01-01

    1. Eighty-eight intrafascicular neural recordings were obtained in 10 normal subjects, 5 patients with axonal degeneration and 11 patients with demyelinating neuropathy. 2. Stimulus levels required for perception and fibre activation were higher in neuropathic subjects. Fibres transmitting touch perception had significantly lower conduction velocities in both patient groups, but were very much lower in the group with demyelinating neuropahty than the group with axonal degeneration. Maximum electrical stimulation evoked dispersed fibre responses in the axonal degeneration group and more dispersed, slowly conducting fibre potentials in the demyelinating group. In patients with hypertrophic Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder, usually only a small group of slowly conducting low amplitude potentials was recorded. 3. Delivery of a train of supramaximal stimuli caused prolongation of latency and dispersion of fibre potentials in all microneurographic recordings. The changes were significantly greater in the axonal neuropathy group than in normals, and recovery was slower. The demyelinating neuropathies showed significantly greater changes than both the normal and the axonal neuropathy groups, and post-tetanic conduction slowing became even more marked after limb temperature was raised. 4. Surface SAP recordings showed normal refractory period in chronic axonal neuropathy but significant latency prolongation occurred in demyelinating neuropathy. 5. It is concluded that both receptor and nerve fibre abnormalities contribute to sensory dysfunction in degenerative and demyelinating neuropathies.

  2. Ulnar-Sided Wrist Pain due to Long Ulnar Styloid: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Zahab S.; Rivlin, Michael; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2016-01-01

    Ulnar styloid impaction syndrome involves repetitive friction between an excessively long ulnar styloid and the carpus, resulting in chondromalacia, synovitis, and pain. The arthroscopic diagnosis, evaluation, and management of this syndrome are not well characterized. We present a patient with chronic wrist pain of unknown origin, culminating with arthroscopic findings demonstrating substantial loss of articular cartilage on both the lunate and triquetrum. The patient successfully underwent operative ulnar styloid excision, ultimately resolving chronic wrist pain symptomology. PMID:27777823

  3. Acute nutritional axonal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Johanna; Logigian, Eric L

    2018-01-01

    This study describes clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features of a severe acute axonal polyneuropathy common to patients with acute nutritional deficiency in the setting of alcoholism, bariatric surgery (BS), or anorexia. Retrospective analysis of clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory data of patients with acute axonal neuropathy. Thirteen patients were identified with a severe, painful, sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy that developed over 2-12 weeks with sensory ataxia, areflexia, variable muscle weakness, poor nutritional status, and weight loss, often with prolonged vomiting and normal cerebrospinal fluid protein. Vitamin B6 was low in half and thiamine was low in all patients when obtained before supplementation. Patients improved with weight gain and vitamin supplementation, with motor greater than sensory recovery. We suggest that acute or subacute axonal neuropathy in patients with weight loss or vomiting associated with alcohol abuse, BS, or dietary deficiency is one syndrome, caused by micronutrient deficiencies. Muscle Nerve 57: 33-39, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Autonomic neuropathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  5. Peripheral Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of days, weeks, or years. They can be acute or chronic. In acute neuropathies such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (in which ... that warns of impending heart attack or other acute conditions. Loss of pain sensation is a particularly ...

  6. Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000326.htm Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care To use the ... or at other unusual times. Treating and Preventing Nerve Damage from Diabetes Treating diabetic neuropathy can make ...

  7. Metronidazole: newly recognized cause of autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hobson-Webb, Lisa D; Roach, E Steve; Donofrio, Peter D

    2006-05-01

    Metronidazole is a commonly used antibiotic prescribed for the treatment of anaerobic and protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is associated with numerous neurologic complications, including peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathy is typically detected in patients on chronic therapy, although it has been documented in those taking large doses for acute infections. Numerous case reports have been published describing motor and sensory neuropathy, yet autonomic neuropathy has not been described with metronidazole use. A previously healthy 15-year-old girl presented with complaints of burning pain in her feet following a short course of metronidazole for vaginitis. She could obtain pain relief only by submerging her feet in ice water. Examination revealed cold and swollen lower extremities that became erythematous and very warm when removed from the ice water. Temperature perception was reduced to the upper third of the shin bilaterally. Deep tendon reflexes and strength were preserved. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated a peripheral neuropathy manifested by reduced sensory nerve and compound muscle action potentials. Reproducible sympathetic skin potential responses could not be obtained in the hand and foot, providing evidence of a concurrent autonomic neuropathy. A thorough evaluation revealed no other cause for her condition. Repeated nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin potentials returned to normal over the course of 6 months, paralleling the patient's clinical improvement. Metronidazole is a potential cause of reversible autonomic neuropathy.

  8. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-Hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

  9. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-dong

    2017-01-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy. PMID:29171436

  10. Burn-related peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasound and MRI of nerves for monitoring disease activity and treatment effects in chronic dysimmune neuropathies - Current concepts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Décard, Bernhard F; Pham, Mirko; Grimm, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    New imaging modalities like high-resolution-ultrasound (HRUS) and MR-Neurography (MRN) are increasingly used for the evaluation of the peripheral nervous system. The increasing knowledge on morphological changes observed in different neuropathies has led to a better understanding of underlying pathophysiological processes. The diagnosis of acquired chronic dysimmune neuropathies (CDN) like chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), Lewis-Sumner Syndrome (LSS) or multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) can be challenging. The current diagnostic criteria and outcome parameters are mainly based on clinical and electrophysiological parameters. Especially in CDN cases with atypical presentation or during early disease stages, the diagnostic accuracy is low and standardized protocols for the evaluation of disease activity and treatment response are lacking. The establishment of combined diagnostic criteria for CDN including imaging modalities could help to improve the diagnostic accuracy, allow a better differentiation of subtypes and facilitate the follow-up of disease course. The appropriate selection of eligible patients and sensitive monitoring of treatment response is mandatory future in treatment trials. In this article, we briefly summarize the clinical presentations and pathophysiological concepts of different CDN like CIDP, LSS and MMN. Furthermore, this review focuses on the diagnostic value of HRUS/MRN and its potential role for the monitoring of disease activity. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... be debilitating and difficult to control. Nerve damage (neuropathy) can be caused by many conditions, including: Diabetes. ... and pain in your hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy). Shingles. Anyone who has had chickenpox is at ...

  13. An Analysis of the Symptomatic Domains Most Relevant to Charcot Marie Tooth Neuropathy (CMT) Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-09

    Charcot Marie Tooth Disease (CMT); Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy; Nerve Compression Syndromes; Tooth Diseases; Congenital Abnormalities; Genetic Diseases, Inborn; Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System

  14. Clinical Neuropathology practice guide 3-2014: combined nerve and muscle biopsy in the diagnostic workup of neuropathy - the Bordeaux experience.

    PubMed

    Vital, Anne; Vital, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous combined superficial peroneal nerve and peroneous brevis muscle biopsy, via the same cutaneous incision, allows examination of several tissue specimens and significantly improves the diagnosis of systemic diseases with peripheral nerve involvement. Vasculitides are certainly the most frequently diagnosed on neuro-muscular biopsies, but this procedure is also well advised to asses a diagnosis of sarcoidosis or amyloidosis. More occasionally, combined nerve and muscle biopsy may reveal an unpredicted diagnosis of cholesterol embolism, intra-vascular lymphoma, or enables complementary diagnosis investigations on mitochondrial cytopathy or storage disease.

  15. Clinical Neuropathology practice guide 3-2014: Combined nerve and muscle biopsy in the diagnostic work-up of neuropathy – the Bordeaux experience

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Anne; Vital, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous combined superficial peroneal nerve and peroneous brevis muscle biopsy, via the same cutaneous incision, allows examination of several tissue specimens and significantly improves the diagnosis of systemic diseases with peripheral nerve involvement. Vasculitides are certainly the most frequently diagnosed on neuro-muscular biopsies, but this procedure is also well advised to asses a diagnosis of sarcoidosis or amyloidosis. More occasionally, combined nerve and muscle biopsy may reveal an unpredicted diagnosis of cholesterol embolism, intra-vascular lymphoma, or enables complementary diagnosis investigations on mitochondrial cytopathy or storage disease. PMID:24618073

  16. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  17. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. PMID:26892473

  18. Peripheral neuropathy associated with mitochondrial disease in children.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Manoj P; Ouvrier, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases in children are often associated with a peripheral neuropathy but the presence of the neuropathy is under-recognized because of the overwhelming involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). These mitochondrial neuropathies are heterogeneous in their clinical, neurophysiological, and histopathological characteristics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of childhood mitochondrial neuropathy. Early recognition of neuropathy may help with the identification of the mitochondrial syndrome. While it is not definite that the characteristics of the neuropathy would help in directing genetic testing without the requirement for invasive skin, muscle or liver biopsies, there appears to be some evidence for this hypothesis in Leigh syndrome, in which nuclear SURF1 mutations cause a demyelinating neuropathy and mitochondrial DNA MTATP6 mutations cause an axonal neuropathy. POLG1 mutations, especially when associated with late-onset phenotypes, appear to cause a predominantly sensory neuropathy with prominent ataxia. The identification of the peripheral neuropathy also helps to target genetic testing in the mitochondrial optic neuropathies. Although often subclinical, the peripheral neuropathy may occasionally be symptomatic and cause significant disability. Where it is symptomatic, recognition of the neuropathy will help the early institution of rehabilitative therapy. We therefore suggest that nerve conduction studies should be a part of the early evaluation of children with suspected mitochondrial disease. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved

  20. Genetic heterogeneity of motor neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit; Pyle, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F; Horvath, Rita

    2017-03-28

    To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex neurologic disease predominantly affecting the motor nerves (hereditary motor neuropathy plus, 25 patients). The prevalence of dHMN is 2.14 affected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.66) in the North of England. Causative mutations were identified in 26 out of 73 index patients (35.6%). The diagnostic rate in the dHMN subgroup was 32.5%, which is higher than previously reported (20%). We detected a significant defect of neuromuscular transmission in 7 cases and identified potentially causative mutations in 4 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy. Many of the genes were shared between dHMN and motor CMT2, indicating identical disease mechanisms; therefore, we suggest changing the classification and including dHMN also as a subcategory of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Abnormal neuromuscular transmission in some genetic forms provides a treatable target to develop therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of motor neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G.; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit; Pyle, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Methods: Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex neurologic disease predominantly affecting the motor nerves (hereditary motor neuropathy plus, 25 patients). Results: The prevalence of dHMN is 2.14 affected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 1.62–2.66) in the North of England. Causative mutations were identified in 26 out of 73 index patients (35.6%). The diagnostic rate in the dHMN subgroup was 32.5%, which is higher than previously reported (20%). We detected a significant defect of neuromuscular transmission in 7 cases and identified potentially causative mutations in 4 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy. Conclusions: Many of the genes were shared between dHMN and motor CMT2, indicating identical disease mechanisms; therefore, we suggest changing the classification and including dHMN also as a subcategory of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Abnormal neuromuscular transmission in some genetic forms provides a treatable target to develop therapies. PMID:28251916

  2. Recovery from distal ulnar motor conduction block injury: serial EMG studies.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Liliana; Felice, Kevin J

    2002-07-01

    Acute conduction block injuries often result from nerve compression or trauma. The temporal pattern of clinical, electrophysiologic, and histopathologic changes following these injuries has been extensively studied in experimental animal models but not in humans. Our recent evaluation of a young man with an injury to the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve following nerve compression from weightlifting exercises provided the opportunity to follow the course and recovery of a severe conduction block injury with sequential nerve conduction studies. The conduction block slowly and completely resolved, as did the clinical deficit, over a 14-week period. The reduction in conduction block occurred at a linear rate of -6.1% per week. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Another cause of occupational entrapment neuropathy: la main du cuisinier (the chef's hand).

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Arun V; Fulham, Michael J; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies have raised the possibility of a predisposition to mononeuropathies in a number of professions including musicians, cleaners, and industrial workers. There are, however, no previous reports of increased rates of mononeuropathies in the culinary arts. The authors report three cases of mononeuropathies occurring in professional chefs that presented over a 3-month period in the same outpatient clinic, with a case each of distal ulnar neuropathy, distal median motor neuropathy (thenar motor syndrome) and posterior interosseous neuropathy. There was no history of direct hand trauma in any of the patients. In all three patients, the injuries occurred exclusively in the dominant hand, further strengthening the argument for an occupational link.

  4. Peripheral neuropathy in Tangier disease: A literature review and assessment.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Metin; Yayla, Vildan; Altinay, Serdar; Seyhan, Serhat

    2018-06-01

    Tangier disease (TD) (OMIM#205400) is a rare cause of inherited metabolic neuropathies characterized by marked deficiency of high-density lipoproteins and accumulation of cholesterol esters in various tissue resulting from reverse cholesterol transport deficiency. We report a case of a patient with TD with multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with conduction block who presents with winging scapula, tongue, and asymmetric extremity weakness. We also present a review of all studies published from 1960 to 2017 regarding peripheral neuropathy in TD. Our search identified 54 patients with TD with peripheral neuropathy. Syringomyelia-like neuropathy subtype (52.4%) was more frequent than multifocal sensorial and motor neuropathy subtype (26.2%), focal neuropathy subtype (19.1%), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy subtype (2.4%). Splenomegaly was the most common (40.7%) clinical manifestation in these patients. The pattern of electrodiagnostic abnormalities are: (1) demyelinating abnormalities were more predominant in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities and (2) slowing of motor nerve conduction was more prominent in the intermediate segment than in distal nerve segments. The sural-sparing pattern was present in 34.6% and conduction block was present in 11.5% of the patients. Our literature review and our case showed the clinical spectrum of TD neuropathy is quite wide and that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of non-uniform demyelinating neuropathies. © 2018 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  5. Neuropathies of the optic nerve and visual evoked potentials with special reference to color vision and differential light threshold measured with the computer perimeter OCTOPUS.

    PubMed

    Wildberger, H

    1984-10-31

    The contrast evoked potentials (VEPs) to different check sizes were recorded in about 200 cases of discrete optic neuropathies (ON) of different origin. Differential light threshold (DLT) was tested with the computer perimeter OCTOPUS. Saturated and desaturated tests were applied to evaluate the degree of acquired color vision deficiency. Delayed VEP responses are not confined to optic neuritis (RBN) alone and the different latency times obtained from other ON are confluent. The delay may be due to demyelination, to an increasing dominance of paramacular VEP subcomponents or to an increasing dominance of the upper half-field responses. Recording with smaller check sizes has the advantage that discrete dysfunctions in the visual field (VF) center are more easily detected: a correlation between amplitudes and visual acuity is best in strabismic amblyopias, is less expressed in maculopathies of the retina and weak in ON. The absence or reduction of amplitudes to smaller check sizes, however, is an important indication of a disorder in the VF center of ON in an early or recovered stage. Acquired color vision defects of the tritan-like type are more confined to discrete ON, whereas the red/green type is reserved to more severe ON. The DLT of the VF center is reduced in a different, significant and non significant extent in discrete optic neuropathies and the correlation between DLT and visual acuity is weak. A careful numerical analysis is needed in types of discrete ON where the central DLT lies within normal statistical limits: a side difference of the DLT between the affected and the normal fellow eye is always present. Evaluation of visual fatigue effects and of the relative sensitivity loss of VF center and VF periphery may provide further diagnostic information.

  6. Peripheral neuropathy following intentional inhalation of naphtha fumes.

    PubMed Central

    Tenenbein, M; deGroot, W; Rajani, K R

    1984-01-01

    Two adolescent native Canadians who presented with peripheral neuropathy secondary to the abuse of volatile hydrocarbons are described. They were initially thought to have been sniffing leaded gasoline fumes, but public health investigation revealed that they had been sniffing naphtha fumes. Naphtha contains a significant amount of n-hexane, a known inducer of neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies and nerve biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of naphtha abuse. These cases emphasize the need to specifically identify the formulation of hydrocarbons being abused. PMID:6093978

  7. Lower cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies presenting with sciatic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Topakian, Raffi; Wimmer, Sibylle; Pischinger, Barbara; Pichler, Robert

    2014-10-17

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal-dominant disorder associated with recurrent mononeuropathies following compression or trivial trauma. Reports on sciatic neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of HNPP are very scarce. We report on a 21-year-old previously healthy man who was admitted with sensorimotor deficits in his left leg. He had no history of preceding transient episodes of weakness or sensory loss. Clinical and electrophysiological examinations were consistent with sciatic neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid investigation and MRI of the nerve roots, plexus, and sciatic nerve did not indicate the underlying aetiology. When extended electrophysiological tests revealed multiple subclinical compression neuropathies in the upper limbs, HNPP was contemplated and eventually confirmed by genetic testing. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Neuroprotective Strategies for the Treatment of Blast-Induced Optic Neuropathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    will examine alterations in the amacrine cells and ganglion cells as well as therapeutic outcome measures including electroretinogram, visual evoked...nerve degeneration.1-3 This suggests that degeneration of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the optic nerve is a secondary event. Secondary...for neurodegenerations from trauma extending beyond optic neuropathy. 2. Keywords: retinal ganglion cell (RGC), traumatic optic neuropathy

  10. Differentiating Familial Neuropathies from Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bordini, Brett J; Monrad, Priya

    2017-02-01

    Differentiating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from inherited neuropathies and other acquired peripheral neuropathies requires understanding the atypical presentations of GBS and its variant forms, as well as historical and physical features suggestive of inherited neuropathies. GBS is typically characterized by the acute onset of ascending flaccid paralysis, areflexia, and dysesthesia secondary to peripheral nerve fiber demyelination. The disorder usually arises following a benign gastrointestinal or respiratory illness, is monophasic, reaches a nadir with several weeks, and responds to immunomodulatory therapy. Inherited neuropathies with onset before adulthood, whose presentation may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome, are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation parameters on the level of pain perceived by participants with painful diabetic neuropathy: A crossover study.

    PubMed

    Upton, Gabrielle A; Tinley, Paul; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder; Crawford, Rachel

    This pilot study aimed to investigate and compare the perceived pain relief effectiveness of two different modes of TENS in people with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). A cross-over study was conducted at Charles Sturt University, Orange. Five participants with PDN were assessed with a McGill Pain Questionnaire before and after each of the two TENS treatments. Participants were randomly allocated to Traditional TENS (80Hz, 200ms) or Acupuncture-like TENS (2Hz, 200ms) and the treatments were applied daily for 30min over ten days. Following a seven day washout period, the alternate mode of TENS was carried out using the same method. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used to statistically analyse the results. All five participants reported personally meaningful pain relief during one or both of the TENS treatments. The Wilcoxon signed rank testing showed no statistical significance, p=1, likely due to the small sample size. Acupuncture-like TENS had a large effect size (z=-1.625, r=0.514), whilst Traditional TENS produced a medium effect size (z=-1.214, r=0.384). No adverse effects were reported. Acupuncture-like TENS may be more effective for PDN than traditional TENS. A larger scale replication of this pilot study is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro and in vivo gene therapy with CMV vector-mediated presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor in pyridoxine-induced neuropathy dogs.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Shin, Il Seob; Choi, Eun Wha; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Lee, Sang Koo; Youn, Hwa Young

    2008-12-01

    Due to the therapeutic potential of gene therapy for neuronal injury, many studies of neurotrophic factors, vectors, and animal models have been performed. The presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor (pdbeta-NGF) was generated and cloned and its expression was confirmed in CHO cells. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF protein reacted with a human beta-NGF antibody and showed bioactivity in PC12 cells. The pdbeta-NGF was shown to have similar bioactivity to the dog beta-NGF. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF plasmid was administrated into the intrathecal space in the gene therapy group. Twenty-four hours after the vector inoculation, the gene therapy group and the positive control group were intoxicated with excess pyridoxine for seven days. Each morning throughout the test period, the dogs' body weight was taken and postural reaction assessments were made. Electrophysiological recordings were performed twice, once before the experiment and once after the test period. After the experimental period, histological analysis was performed. Dogs in the gene therapy group had no weight change and were normal in postural reaction assessments. Electrophysiological recordings were also normal for the gene therapy group. Histological analysis showed that neither the axons nor the myelin of the dorsal funiculus of L4 were severely damaged in the gene therapy group. In addition, the dorsal root ganglia of L4 and the peripheral nerves (sciatic nerve) did not experience severe degenerative changes in the gene therapy group. This study is the first to show the protective effect of NGF gene therapy in a dog model.

  13. INHERITED NEUROPATHIES: CLINICAL OVERVIEW AND UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    KLEIN, CHRISTOPHER J.; DUAN, XIAOHUI; SHY, MICHAEL E.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited neuropathy is a group of common neurologic disorders with heterogeneous clinical presentations and genetic causes. Detailed neuromuscular evaluations, including nerve conduction studies, laboratory testing, and histopathologic examination, can assist in identification of the inherited component beyond family history. Genetic testing increasingly enables definitive diagnosis of specific inherited neuropathies. Diagnosis, however, is often complex, and neurologic disability may have both genetic and acquired components in individual patients. The decision of which genetic test to order or whether to order genetic tests is often complicated, and the strategies to maximize the value of testing are evolving. Apart from rare inherited metabolic neuropathies, treatment approaches remain largely supportive. We provide a clinical update of the various types of inherited neuropathies, their differential diagnoses, and distinguishing clinical features (where available). A framework is provided for clinical evaluations, including the inheritance assessment, electrophysiologic examinations, and specific genetic tests. PMID:23801417

  14. Diabetic neuropathy: Clinical manifestations and current treatments

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brian C.; Cheng, Hsinlin; Stables, Catherine L.; Smith, Andrea L.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent, disabling condition. The most common manifestation is a distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), but many patterns of nerve injury can occur. Currently, the only effective treatments are glucose control and pain management. While glucose control dramatically decreases the development of neuropathy in those with type 1 diabetes, the effect is likely much smaller in those with type 2 diabetes. High levels of evidence support the use of certain anticonvulsants and antidepressants for pain management in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the lack of disease modifying therapies for diabetic DSP makes the identification of new modifiable risk factors essential. Intriguingly, growing evidence supports an association between metabolic syndrome components, including pre-diabetes, and neuropathy. Future studies are needed to further explore this relationship with implications for new treatments for this common disease. PMID:22608666

  15. Epidemiology of Peripheral Neuropathy: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Sweety; Pandit, Alak; Ganguly, Goutam; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common disorder and presents as diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians and neurologists. In epidemiological studies from India from various regions the overall prevalence of PN varied from 5 to 2400 per 10,000 population in various community studies. India is composed of a multiethnic, multicultural population who are exposed to different adverse environmental factors such as arsenic and lead. Use of different chemotherapeutic agents with propensity to affect peripheral nerves, increasing methods of diagnosis of connective tissue disorders and use of immunomodulating drugs, growing aging population is expected to change the spectrum and burden of peripheral neuropathy in the community. The other important aspect of peripheral neuropathies is in terms of the geographical and occupational distribution especially of toxic neuropathies like arsenic which is common in eastern belt; lead, mercury and organo-phosphorous compounds where occupational exposures are major sources. Inflammatory neuropathies either due to vasculitis or G B Syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyradiculopathies are another major group of neuropathies which is increasing due to increase longevity of Indian subjects and immunological impairment, also adds to morbidity of the patients and are potentially treatable. Leprous neuropathy is common in India and although its frequency is significantly decreasing because of national control program yet pure neuritic form still remains a cause of concern and similar is the case with another infective cause like diptheric neurpathy. Thus this article is an attempt to cover major categories and also highlight the areas where further studies are needed. PMID:28904445

  16. [Acrodystrophic neuropathy in an alcoholic].

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Y; Hironaka, M; Shimoyama, M; Toyota, Y; Kurokawa, M; Kohriyama, T; Nakamura, S

    1993-01-01

    The patient was a 48-year-old alcoholic man with no contributory family history. At age 36 he had developed sensory dominant polyneuropathy with highly impaired temperature sensation and deep sensation in the lower extremities, recurrent ulcers of the toes, and sexual impotence. A sural nerve biopsy at this time revealed marked loss of myelinated fibers with relative preservation of the population of unmyelinated fibers. Subsequently, he developed muscle atrophy of the lower thighs, urinary incontinence, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, and became non-ambulatory at age 44. The peripheral nerve conduction findings suggested predominantly axonal degeneration. The entire course was characterized by alternative progression and partial recovery influenced by his alcohol intake and nutritional state. Alcoholic neuropathy is a major cause of solitary acrodystrophic neuropathy (ADN). Manifestations of autonomic and motor neuropathy are more marked in alcoholic ADN than in HSAN-I, and central nervous system involvement is the hallmark of alcoholic ADN. In the treatment of patients with alcoholic ADN, attention should be paid to diabetes mellitus, malnutritional state, and vitamin deficiency, which frequently complicate alcoholism.

  17. Corneal markers of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Nicola; Edwards, Katie; Shahidi, Ayda M; Sampson, Geoff P; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a significant clinical problem that currently has no effective therapy, and in advanced cases, leads to foot ulceration and lower limb amputation. The accurate detection, characterization and quantification of this condition are important in order to define at-risk patients, anticipate deterioration, monitor progression, and assess new therapies. This review evaluates novel corneal methods of assessing diabetic neuropathy. Two new noninvasive corneal markers have emerged, and in cross-sectional studies have demonstrated their ability to stratify the severity of this disease. Corneal confocal microscopy allows quantification of corneal nerve parameters and noncontact corneal esthesiometry, the functional correlate of corneal structure, assesses the sensitivity of the cornea. Both these techniques are quick to perform, produce little or no discomfort for the patient, and are suitable for clinical settings. Each has advantages and disadvantages over traditional techniques for assessing diabetic neuropathy. Application of these new corneal markers for longitudinal evaluation of diabetic neuropathy has the potential to reduce dependence on more invasive, costly, and time-consuming assessments, such as skin biopsy.

  18. Neurophysiological profile of peripheral neuropathy associated with childhood mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Manoj P; Rahman, Shamima; Bhattacharya, Kaustuv; Clark, Damian; Christodoulou, John; Ellaway, Carolyn; Farrar, Michelle; Pitt, Matthew; Sampaio, Hugo; Ware, Tyson L; Wedatilake, Yehani; Thorburn, David R; Ryan, Monique M; Ouvrier, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve involvement is common in mitochondrial disease but often unrecognised due to the prominent central nervous system features. Identification of the underlying neuropathy may assist syndrome classification, targeted genetic testing and rehabilitative interventions. Clinical data and the results of nerve conduction studies were obtained retrospectively from the records of four tertiary children's hospital metabolic disease, neuromuscular or neurophysiology services. Nerve conductions studies were also performed prospectively on children attending a tertiary metabolic disease service. Results were classified and analysed according to the underlying genetic cause. Nerve conduction studies from 27 children with mitochondrial disease were included in the study (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - 7, POLG - 7, SURF1 - 10, PDHc deficiency - 3). Four children with mtDNA mutations had a normal study while three had mild abnormalities in the form of an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy when not acutely unwell. One child with MELAS had a severe acute axonal motor neuropathy during an acute stroke-like episode that resolved over 12months. Five children with POLG mutations and disease onset beyond infancy had a sensory ataxic neuropathy with an onset in the second decade of life, while the two infants with POLG mutations had a demyelinating neuropathy. Seven of the 10 children with SURF1 mutations had a demyelinating neuropathy. All three children with PDHc deficiency had an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. Unlike CMT, the neuropathy associated with mitochondrial disease was not length-dependent. This is the largest study to date of peripheral neuropathy in genetically- classified childhood mitochondrial disease. Characterising the underlying neuropathy may assist with the diagnosis of the mitochondrial syndrome and should be an integral part of the assessment of children with suspected mitochondrial disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society

  19. IgG4-related cerebral pseudotumor with perineural spreading along branches of the trigeminal nerves causing compressive optic neuropathy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Chang; Tien, Peng-Tai; Li, Ying-Hsuan; Chen, Rui-Yun; Cho, Der-Yang

    2017-11-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by tumor-like lesions, a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RD has been described in a variety of organ systems; however, it rarely involves the central nervous system. A 17-year-old woman visited our clinic with a complaint of blurred vision for the past 5 months. She also reported a painless right submandibular mass that had been present for 1 year. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 2.0 LogMAR, with an almost total visual field defect in the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed lobulated parasellar tumors with perineural spreading along branches of the trigeminal nerves causing right optic nerve compression. A craniotomy with tumor removal and submandibular gland biopsy was performed. Histopathological analysis of the tumor revealed stromal fibrosis with atypical lymphoid infiltrations. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the submandibular gland confirmed the diagnosis of IgG4-RD. The patient was administered 500mg/d of pulse methylprednisolone for 3 days, 500mg of intravenous rituximab every 2 weeks (for a total of 2 doses), and 500mg of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide every month (for a total of 3 doses). Two months after the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy, the patient's BCVA returned to 0.1 LogMAR with visual field defect recovery. The follow-up MRI showed the almost complete disappearance of the previously contrast-enhanced lesions. Herein, we report a rare case of IgG4-RD presenting as a parasellar tumor and present a review of the related literature. Based on the case report, we propose that aggressive therapy with glucocorticoid, rituximab, and cyclophosphamide may potentially be useful for treating such cases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibration-induced multifocal neuropathy in forestry workers: electrophysiological findings in relation to vibration exposure and finger circulation.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Giannini, F; Rossi, S

    2000-11-01

    To investigate neural conduction in the upper limbs of symptomatic forestry workers with and without exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. A further aim was to assess the possible relationships between vibration exposure, nerve conduction and finger circulation in the forestry workers who used chain saws. A detailed neurophysiological investigation was performed on the upper extremities of 20 chain saw workers, 20 forestry operators with heavy manual work but without vibration exposure, and 20 healthy male controls. All subjects were screened to exclude polyneuropathy. Measurements of sensory and motor nerve conduction (velocity and amplitude) were obtained bilaterally from the median, ulnar and radial nerves. To assess peripheral vascular function, the forestry workers underwent a cold test with plethysmographic measurement of finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP). In the chain saw operators, vibration exposure was evaluated according to the International Standard ISO 5349. Indices of daily vibration exposure and lifetime cumulative vibration dose were estimated for each chain saw operator. Sensory nerve conduction in several segments of the median and radial nerves was significantly reduced in the chain saw operators compared with that in the workers doing heavy manual work and the controls. The neurophysiological pattern more frequently observed in the chain saw operators was a multifocal nerve conduction impairment to several neural segments with predominant involvement of sensory rather than motor fibres. Sensory nerve conduction velocities in the hands of the chain saw operators were inversely related to both daily and lifetime cumulative vibration exposures. In the vibration-exposed forestry workers, neither were sensori-motor complaints associated with vascular symptoms (finger whiteness) nor were electrophysiological data related to cold-induced changes in FSBP. Exposure to hand-transmitted vibration, in addition to ergonomic stress factors, can

  1. Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Peerooz; Tavakoli Rad, Shahzad; Bisschop, Peter H L T

    2018-06-19

    Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is a serious complication of Graves orbitopathy that can result in irreversible and profound visual loss. Controversy exists regarding the pathogenesis and management of the disease. The authors provide an overview of the current understanding of DON and present a therapeutic guideline. A review of the literature. The mechanism of DON appears to be multifactorial: direct compression of the optic nerve by enlarged extraocular muscles, stretching of the optic nerve by proptosis, orbital pressure, vascular insufficiency, and inflammation. Some or all of these factors may be involved in an individual patient. There has only been one controlled trial comparing high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone to bony orbital decompression for DON. Both 2-wall and 3-wall decompression techniques successfully improve visual functions of patients with DON. There are few case reports/case series that suggest biologic agents may improve visual function in DON. DON is a serious complication of Graves orbitopathy, the diagnosis and management of which is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. There is little evidence regarding the optimum management strategy. Based on the current literature, the first line of treatment is intravenous methylprednisolone, with the exact timing and indication of bony orbital decompression still to be determined. In addition, there may be a role for the use of biologic agents that will require a systematic program to determine efficacy.

  2. Current understanding of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun

    2008-12-01

    Auditory neuropathy is defined by the presence of normal evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sites of lesion could be at the cochlear inner hair cells, spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea, synapse between the inner hair cells and auditory nerve, or the auditory nerve itself. Genetic, infectious or neonatal/perinatal insults are the 3 most commonly identified underlying causes. Children usually present with delay in speech and language development while adult patients present with hearing loss and disproportionately poor speech discrimination for the degree of hearing loss. Although cochlear implant is the treatment of choice, current evidence show that it benefits only those patients with endocochlear lesions, but not those with cochlear nerve deficiency or central nervous system disorders. As auditory neuropathy is a disorder with potential long-term impact on a child's development, early hearing screen using both OAE and ABR should be carried out on all newborns and infants to allow early detection and intervention.

  3. [Pay attention to the secondary optic neuropathy and the safe appropriate applications of optic neuroprotection].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Y

    2016-12-11

    Secondary optic neuropathy of optic nerve abnormalities is the leading cause of persistent visual impairment. Previous ocular neuroprotection studies have proved that the nerve growth factor and other agents are of significant in the preservation of optic nerve axon and retinal ganglion cells. However, finding novel safe and effective approach as well as the appropriate applications of optic neuroprotection should be highly emphasized and would be very helpful in the treatment of optic neuropathy. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 881 - 884) .

  4. [A rare cause of optic neuropathy: Cassava].

    PubMed

    Zeboulon, P; Vignal-Clermont, C; Baudouin, C; Labbé, A

    2016-06-01

    Cassava root is a staple food for almost 500 million people worldwide. Excessive consumption of it is a rare cause of optic neuropathy. Ten patients diagnosed with cassava root related optic neuropathy were included in this retrospective study. Diagnostic criteria were a bilateral optic neuropathy preceded by significant cassava root consumption. Differential diagnoses were excluded through a neuro-ophthalmic examination, blood tests and a brain MRI. All patients had visual field examination and OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis as well as an evaluation of their cassava consumption. All patients had a bilateral optic nerve head atrophy or pallor predominantly located into the temporal sector. Visual field defects consisted of a central or cecocentral scotoma for all patients. RNFL showed lower values only in the temporal sector. Mean duration of cassava consumption prior to the appearance of visual symptoms was 22.7±11.2 years with a mean of 2.57±0.53 cassava-based meals per week. Cassava related optic neuropathy is possibly due to its high cyanide content and enabled by a specific amino-acid deficiency. Cassava root chronic consumption is a rare, underappreciated cause of optic neuropathy and its exact mechanism is still uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    PubMed

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  7. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    PubMed Central

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  8. Epidemiology of Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction: A 10-Year Study in New York State.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Justin L; Vitale, Mark; Arons, Raymond R; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-03-01

    Despite an increase in the prevalence of medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction of the elbow in professional baseball and popularity within the media, there are no population-based studies examining the incidence of UCL reconstruction. To examine the epidemiological trends of UCL reconstruction on a statewide level over a 10-year period. The primary endpoint was the yearly rate of UCL reconstruction over time; secondary endpoints included patient demographics, institution volumes, and concomitant procedures on the ulnar nerve. Descriptive epidemiology study. The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database contains records for each ambulatory discharge in New York State. This database was used to identify all UCL reconstructions in New York State from 2002 to 2011 using the outpatient CPT-4 (Current Procedural Terminology, 4th Revision) code. Assessed were patient age, sex, ethnicity, insurance status, and associated procedures, as well as hospital volume. There was a significant yearly increase in the number of UCL reconstructions (P < .001) performed in New York State from 2002 to 2011. The volume of UCL reconstructions increased by 193%, and the rate per 100,000 population tripled from 0.15 to 0.45. The mean ± SD age was 21.6 ± 8.89 years, and there was a significant trend for an increased frequency in UCL reconstruction in patients aged 17 to 18 and 19 to 20 years (P < .001). Male patients were 11.8 times more likely to have a UCL reconstruction than female patients (P < .001), and individuals with private insurance were 25 times more likely to have a UCL reconstruction than those with Medicaid (P = .0014). There was a 400% increase in concomitant ulnar nerve release/transposition performed over time in the study period, representing a significant increase in the frequency of ulnar nerve procedures at the time of UCL reconstruction (P < .001). The frequency of UCL reconstruction is steadily rising in New York

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome: just a peripheral neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo

    2018-06-05

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is considered just a peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity associated to the compression of the median nerve. There is evidence suggesting the presence of complex sensitization mechanisms in CTS. These processes are manifested by symptoms in extra-median regions and the presence of bilateral sensory and motor impairments. These sensory and motor changes are not associated to electrodiagnostic findings. The presence of sensitization mechanisms suggests that CTS should not be considered just as a peripheral neuropathy. The presence of altered nociceptive gain processing should be considered for therapeutic management of CTS by considering the application of therapeutic interventions that modulate nociceptive barrage into the CNS.

  10. Advances in the Treatment of Paraproteinemic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Bianco, Mariangela; Nozza, Andrea

    2017-10-16

    Purpose of review Several advances have been made on the pathogenesis and therapy of neuropathies associated with paraproteinemia (monoclonal gammopathy). It is important for the neurologist to understand the pathogenetic relevance of this association especially when the hematological disease does not require per se any therapy. Recent findings Treatment of the neuropathy in patients with malignant paraproteinemia is mainly addressed by the hematologist while the neurologist is mainly involved in the initial diagnosis and in deciding whether the neuropathy is caused by the disease or by the chemotherapy used for the disease. There is little evidence that the neuropathy is caused by the hematological condition in patients with IgG or IgA monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) unless there is an evidence of a reactivity of the paraprotein with nerve or evidence of its presence in the nerve. Patients with a chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP)-like presentation should be treated as CIDP while there is no evidence that immune or chemotherapy may be effective in the other patients. In most patients with IgM paraproteinemia, that is usually a MGUS or an indolent Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, the neuropathy is induced by an immune reactivity of the paraprotein with nerve and particularly with the myelin-associated glycoprotein. There are now consistent data also from controlled studies that the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab may improve the neuropathy in these patients. POEMS syndrome is a severe condition characterized by a disabling neuropathy whose prognosis has improved in the last few years with therapies against the proliferating plasma cell clone or vascular endothelial growth factor including local radiotherapy and chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Other therapies are also available for patients not eligible or resistant to transplantation, including lenalidomide and possibly

  11. Nerve ultrasound reliability of upper limbs: Effects of examiner training.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Santibanez, Rocio; Dietz, Alexander R; Bucelli, Robert C; Zaidman, Craig M

    2018-02-01

    Duration of training to reliably measure nerve cross-sectional area with ultrasound is unknown. A retrospective review was performed of ultrasound data, acquired and recorded by 2 examiners-an expert and either a trainee with 2 months (novice) or a trainee with 12 months (experienced) of experience. Data on median, ulnar, and radial nerves were reviewed for 42 patients. Interrater reliability was good and varied most with nerve site but little with experience. Coefficient of variation (CoV) range was 9.33%-22.5%. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was good to excellent (0.65-95) except ulnar nerve-wrist/forearm and radial nerve-humerus (ICC = 0.39-0.59). Interrater differences did not vary with nerve size or body mass index. Expert-novice and expert-experienced interrater differences and CoV were similar. The ulnar nerve-wrist expert-novice interrater difference decreased with time (r s  = -0.68, P = 0.001). A trainee with at least 2 months of experience can reliably measure upper limb nerves. Reliability varies by nerve and location and slightly improves with time. Muscle Nerve 57: 189-192, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Symptomatic and Electrodiagnostic Features of Peripheral Neuropathy in Scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Paik, Julie J; Mammen, Andrew L; Wigley, Fredrick M; Shah, Ami A; Hummers, Laura K; Polydefkis, Michael

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in scleroderma. The prevalence of length-dependent peripheral neuropathy was rigorously assessed using signs and symptoms of neuropathy derived from the Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), and standardized nerve conduction study (NCS). All subjects underwent TNS and NCS. Those who were symptomatic or had NCS evidence of peripheral neuropathy underwent laboratory evaluation for secondary causes of neuropathy. A total of 130 subjects were approached for participation and 60 enrolled. Of the 60 subjects, 50 (83.3%) were female and 37 (61.7%) were of the limited cutaneous subtype. The mean ± SD age was 55 ± 11.1 years, and mean ± SD disease duration was 15.3 ± 10.1 years. A total of 17 of 60 (28%) had evidence of a peripheral neuropathy as defined by the presence of neuropathic symptoms on the TNS (12 of 60) and/or electrophysiologic evidence of neuropathy (5 subjects with neuropathic symptoms and 5 without neuropathic symptoms). Subjects with neuropathy were more likely to be male (60% versus 40%; P = 0.02), African American (41% versus 4.6%; P = 0.001), have diabetes mellitus (17.7% versus 0%; P = 0.02), have limited cutaneous scleroderma (82.3% versus 53.5%; P = 0.04), and have anti-U1 RNP antibodies (23.5% versus 0%; P = 0.009) than those without neuropathy. A potential nonscleroderma etiology for the peripheral neuropathy such as diabetes mellitus was found in 82.3% (14 of 17) of subjects with neuropathy. While symptoms or objective evidence of peripheral neuropathy are common among patients with scleroderma, the cause may often be attributed to comorbid nonscleroderma-related conditions. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  13. "In Situ Vascular Nerve Graft" for Restoration of Intrinsic Hand Function: An Anatomical Study.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Zemoodeh, Hamid Reza; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Owji, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles. Twenty fresh male cadavers were dissected in order to evaluate the feasibility of this modification of technique. The size of nerve branches, the number of axons and the tension at repair site were evaluated. This nerve transfer was technically feasible in all specimens. There was no significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient nerves Conclusions: The possible advantages of this modification include innervation of both median and ulnar nerve innervated intrinsic muscles, preservation of vascularity of the nerve graft which might accelerate the nerve regeneration, avoidance of leg incision and therefore the possibility of performing surgery under regional instead of general anesthesia. Briefly, this novel technique is a viable option which can be used instead of conventional nerve graft in some brachial plexus or combined high median and ulnar nerve injuries when restoration of intrinsic hand function by transfer of posterior interosseous nerve branches is attempted.

  14. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000700.htm Neuropathy secondary to drugs To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of ...

  15. Evaluation of acute radiation optic neuropathy by B-scan ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Lovato, A.A.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.

    1990-09-15

    We studied the accuracy of B-scan ultrasonography to diagnose radiation-induced optic neuropathy in 15 patients with uveal melanoma. Optic neuropathy was diagnosed by an observer masked as to clinical and photographic data. We analyzed planimetry area measurements of the retrobulbar nerve before and after irradiation. The retrobulbar area of the optic nerve shadow on B-scan was quantitated with a sonic digitizer. Increased optic nerve shadow area was confirmed in 13 of 15 patients who had radiation optic neuropathy (P less than .004). The correct diagnosis was confirmed when the results of ultrasound were compared to fundus photography and fluorescein angiography.more » In 13 patients there was acute radiation optic neuropathy. Two patients did not show an enlarged retrobulbar optic nerve, and the clinical appearance suggested early progression to optic atrophy. Ultrasonography documents the enlargement of the optic nerve caused by acute radiation changes.« less

  16. Cryoglobulinemic neuropathy: a pathological study.

    PubMed

    Vallat, J M; Desproges-Gotteron, R; Leboutet, M J; Loubet, A; Gualde, N; Treves, R

    1980-08-01

    A 53-year-old woman developed symmetrical polyneuropathy of the lower limbs a few months after she was found to have myeloma with cryoglobulinemia. In musculocutaneous nerve biopsy material, electron microscopy showed both axonal degeneration and demyelination. The most striking finding was the presence, in the endoneurial space, of numerous masses of closely packed tubular structures. These masses also were found in the walls of all the vasa nervorum and within the lumen of some vessels. The morphological features and dimensions of the deposits within nerve were identical to those of cryoprecipitates extracted from serum and examined with the electron microscope. An example of myeloma neuropathy with cryoglobulin deposits within the endoneurial space has not been reported previously.

  17. Diabetes, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Lower Extremity Function

    PubMed Central

    Chiles, Nancy S.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. Research Design and Methods This study included 983 participants, age 65 and older from the InCHIANTI Study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0-12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cut-points of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0-5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. Results and Conclusion 12.8% (n=126) of participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β= −0.99; p< 0.01), decreased walking speed (β= −0.1m/s; p< 0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β= −1.7m/s; p< 0.01), and increased neuropathy (β= 0.25; p< 0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. PMID:24120281

  18. Screening for Electrophysiological Abnormalities in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: Peripheral Neuropathy and Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    KÖŞKDERELİOĞLU, Aslı; ORTAN, Pınar; ARI, Alpay; GEDİZLİOĞLU, Muhteşem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the existence of peripheral and optic neuropathies in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection. Methods Thirty consecutive patients who were followed in a hepatitis C outpatient clinic were recruited for electrophysiological evaluation together with 30 age- and gender-compatible healthy controls. All patients had a detailed neurological examination. The information regarding the disease duration and management with interferons were collected. Nerve conduction studies and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in all subjects. The results of the patient and control groups were statistically compared. Results Of the patients with hepatitis C infection, 16 were females and 14 males. The mean age was 57.5 years, and the average disease duration was 6.43 years. The P100 latencies in the patient group were within normal limits, while the amplitudes were meaningfully small by comparison with the controls. There were some abnormalities in the nerve conduction studies of 15 patients. Sensorial neuropathy was detected in two patients, sensorimotor polyneuropathy in four, carpal tunnel syndrome in seven, and carpal tunnel syndrome and sensorimotor polyneuropathy as comorbid states in another two patients. The nerve conduction studies and VEP parameters were entirely normal in the control group. Conclusion Hepatitis C-related neurological abnormalities may occur both in the central and peripheral nervous system. Mononeuritis multiplex, sensorial axonal neuropathy, and multiple mononeuropathies are some of the presentations of the peripheral nervous system involvement. The mode of infection is considered to be via vasculitic mechanisms. In addition, optic neuropathy is a known complication of interferon treatment. Autoantibodies, cytokines, chemokines, and cryoglobulins are accused to play roles in the pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the peripheral nervous system and optic nerves in a group of patients

  19. Screening for Electrophysiological Abnormalities in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: Peripheral Neuropathy and Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Köşkderelioğlu, Aslı; Ortan, Pınar; Ari, Alpay; Gedizlioğlu, Muhteşem

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the existence of peripheral and optic neuropathies in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection. Thirty consecutive patients who were followed in a hepatitis C outpatient clinic were recruited for electrophysiological evaluation together with 30 age- and gender-compatible healthy controls. All patients had a detailed neurological examination. The information regarding the disease duration and management with interferons were collected. Nerve conduction studies and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in all subjects. The results of the patient and control groups were statistically compared. Of the patients with hepatitis C infection, 16 were females and 14 males. The mean age was 57.5 years, and the average disease duration was 6.43 years. The P100 latencies in the patient group were within normal limits, while the amplitudes were meaningfully small by comparison with the controls. There were some abnormalities in the nerve conduction studies of 15 patients. Sensorial neuropathy was detected in two patients, sensorimotor polyneuropathy in four, carpal tunnel syndrome in seven, and carpal tunnel syndrome and sensorimotor polyneuropathy as comorbid states in another two patients. The nerve conduction studies and VEP parameters were entirely normal in the control group. Hepatitis C-related neurological abnormalities may occur both in the central and peripheral nervous system. Mononeuritis multiplex, sensorial axonal neuropathy, and multiple mononeuropathies are some of the presentations of the peripheral nervous system involvement. The mode of infection is considered to be via vasculitic mechanisms. In addition, optic neuropathy is a known complication of interferon treatment. Autoantibodies, cytokines, chemokines, and cryoglobulins are accused to play roles in the pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the peripheral nervous system and optic nerves in a group of patients with hepatitis C. The results were in

  20. Proximal Neuropathy and Associated Skeletal Muscle Changes Resembling Denervation Atrophy in Hindlimbs of Chronic Hypoglycaemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Vivi F H; Molck, Anne-Marie; Soeborg, Henrik; Nowak, Jette; Chapman, Melissa; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bogh, Ingrid B

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetic hyperglycaemia. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) might potentially exacerbate or contribute to neuropathy as hypoglycaemia also causes peripheral neuropathy. In rats, IIH induces neuropathy associated with skeletal muscle changes. Aims of this study were to investigate the progression and sequence of histopathologic changes caused by chronic IIH in rat peripheral nerves and skeletal muscle, and whether such changes were reversible. Chronic IIH was induced by infusion of human insulin, followed by an infusion-free recovery period in some of the animals. Sciatic, plantar nerves and thigh muscle were examined histopathologically after four or eight weeks of infusion and after the recovery period. IIH resulted in high incidence of axonal degeneration in sciatic nerves and low incidence in plantar nerves indicating proximo-distal progression of the neuropathy. The neuropathy progressed in severity (sciatic nerve) and incidence (sciatic and plantar nerve) with the duration of IIH. The myopathy consisted of groups of angular atrophic myofibres which resembled histopathologic changes classically seen after denervation of skeletal muscle, and severity of the myofibre atrophy correlated with severity of axonal degeneration in sciatic nerve. Both neuropathy and myopathy were still present after four weeks of recovery, although the neuropathy was less severe. In conclusion, the results suggest that peripheral neuropathy induced by IIH progresses proximo-distally, that severity and incidence increase with duration of the hypoglycaemia and that these changes are partially reversible within four weeks. Furthermore, IIH-induced myopathy is most likely secondary to the neuropathy. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  1. [Incarcerated epitrochlear fracture with a cubital nerve injury].

    PubMed

    Moril-Peñalver, L; Pellicer-Garcia, V; Gutierrez-Carbonell, P

    2013-01-01

    Injuries of the medial epicondyle are relatively common, mostly affecting children between 7 and 15 years. The anatomical characteristics of this apophysis can make diagnosis difficult in minimally displaced fractures. In a small percentage of cases, the fractured fragment may occupy the retroepitrochlear groove. The presence of dysesthesias in the territory of the ulnar nerve requires urgent open reduction of the incarcerated fragment. A case of a seven-year-old male patient is presented, who required surgical revision due to a displaced medial epicondyle fracture associated with ulnar nerve injury. A review of the literature is also made. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Helmar C; Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd; Kieseier, Bernd C; Hartung, Hans-Peter

    2009-07-01

    Immune-mediated neuropathies represent a heterogeneous spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders that can be classified according to time course, predominant involvement of motor/sensory fibers, distribution of deficits and paraclinical parameters such as electrophysiology and serum antibodies. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in elucidating underlying pathomechanisms, which made it possible to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the latest development in pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated neuropathies.

  3. Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Vitamin Deficiency, Toxins, and Medications

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Nathan P.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Peripheral neuropathies secondary to vitamin deficiencies, medications, or toxins are frequently considered but can be difficult to definitively diagnose. Accurate diagnosis is important since these conditions are often treatable and preventable. This article reviews the key features of different types of neuropathies caused by these etiologies and provides a comprehensive list of specific agents that must be kept in mind. Recent Findings: While most agents that cause peripheral neuropathy have been known for years, newly developed medications that cause peripheral neuropathy are discussed. Summary: Peripheral nerves are susceptible to damage by a wide array of toxins, medications, and vitamin deficiencies. It is important to consider these etiologies when approaching patients with a variety of neuropathic presentations; additionally, etiologic clues may be provided by other systemic symptoms. While length-dependent sensorimotor axonal peripheral neuropathy is the most common presentation, several examples present in a subacute severe fashion, mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:25299283

  4. Early applications of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can stabilize the blood-optic-nerve barrier and ameliorate inflammation in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION).

    PubMed

    Wen, Yao-Tseng; Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Sung-Ping; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2016-10-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was reported to have a neuroprotective effect in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION model). However, the therapeutic window and anti-inflammatory effects of G-CSF in a rAION model have yet to be elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of G-CSF and investigate the mechanisms of G-CSF via regulation of optic nerve (ON) inflammation in a rAION model. Rats were treated with G-CSF on day 0, 1, 2 or 7 post-rAION induction for 5 consecutive days, and a control group were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Visual function was assessed by flash visual evoked potentials at 4 weeks post-rAION induction. The survival rate and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells were determined by FluoroGold labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. ON inflammation was evaluated by staining of ED1 and Iba1, and ON vascular permeability was determined by Evans Blue extravasation. The type of macrophage polarization was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed by western blotting. A therapeutic window during which G-CSF could rescue visual function and retinal ganglion cell survival was demonstrated at day 0 and day 1 post-infarct. Macrophage infiltration was reduced by 3.1- and 1.6-fold by G-CSF treatment starting on day 0 and 1 post-rAION induction, respectively, compared with the PBS-treated group (P<0.05). This was compatible with 3.3- and 1.7-fold reductions in ON vascular permeability after G-CSF treatment compared with PBS treatment (P<0.05). Microglial activation was increased by 3.8- and 3.2-fold in the early (beginning treatment at day 0 or 1) G-CSF-treated group compared with the PBS-treated group (P<0.05). Immediate (within 30 mins of infarct) treatment with G-CSF also induced M2 microglia/macrophage activation. The cytokine levels were lower in the group that received immediate G-CSF treatment compared to

  5. Multifocal Neuropathy: Expanding the Scope of Double Crush Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brian H; Gaspar, Michael P; Daniels, Alan H; Akelman, Edward; Kane, Patrick M

    2016-12-01

    Double crush syndrome (DCS), as it is classically defined, is a clinical condition composed of neurological dysfunction due to compressive pathology at multiple sites along a single peripheral nerve. The traditional definition of DCS is narrow in scope because many systemic pathologic processes, such as diabetes mellitus, drug-induced neuropathy, vascular disease and autoimmune neuronal damage, can have deleterious effects on nerve function. Multifocal neuropathy is a more appropriate term describing the multiple etiologies (including compressive lesions) that may synergistically contribute to nerve dysfunction and clinical symptoms. This paper examines the history of DCS and multifocal neuropathy, including the epidemiology and pathophysiology in addition to principles of evaluation and management. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distal nerve transfer versus supraclavicular nerve grafting: comparison of elbow flexion outcome in neonatal brachial plexus palsy with C5-C7 involvement.

    PubMed

    Heise, Carlos O; Siqueira, Mario G; Martins, Roberto S; Foroni, Luciano H; Sterman-Neto, Hugo

    2017-09-01

    Ulnar and median nerve transfers to arm muscles have been used to recover elbow flexion in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy, but there is no direct outcome comparison with the classical supraclavicular nerve grafting approach. We retrospectively analyzed patients with C5-C7 neonatal brachial plexus palsy submitted to nerve surgery and recorded elbow flexion recovery using the active movement scale (0-7) at 12 and 24 months after surgery. We compared 13 patients submitted to supraclavicular nerve grafting with 21 patients submitted to distal ulnar or median nerve transfer to biceps motor branch. We considered elbow flexion scores of 6 or 7 as good results. The mean elbow flexion score and the proportion of good results were better using distal nerve transfers than supraclavicular grafting at 12 months (p < 0.01), but not at 24 months. Two patients with failed supraclavicular nerve grafting at 12 months showed good elbow flexion recovery after ulnar nerve transfers. Distal nerve transfers provided faster elbow flexion recovery than supraclavicular nerve grafting, but there was no significant difference in the outcome after 24 months of surgery. Patients with failed supraclavicular grafting operated early can still benefit from late distal nerve transfers. Supraclavicular nerve grafting should remain as the first line surgical treatment for children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

  7. [Distal hereditary motor neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Devic, P; Petiot, P

    2011-11-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), also known as spinal muscular atrophy, represents a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases caused by degenerations of spinal motor neurons and leading to distal muscle weakness and wasting. Nerve conduction studies reveal a pure motor axonopathy and needle examination shows chronic denervation. dHMN were initially subdivided into seven subtypes according to mode of inheritance, age at onset, and clinical evolution. Recent studies have shown that these subtypes are still heterogeneous at the molecular genetic level and novel clinical and genetic entities have been characterized. To date, mutations in 11 different genes have been identified for autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive, and X-linked recessive dHMN. Most of the genes encode protein involved in housekeeping functions, endosomal trafficking, axonal transport, translation synthesis, RNA processing, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dHMN seem to be related to the "length-dependent" death of motor neurons of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, likely because their large axons have higher metabolic requirements for maintenance. dHMN remain heterogeneous at the clinical and molecular genetic level. The molecular pathomechanisms explaining why mutations in these ubiquitously expressed housekeeping genes result in the selective involvement of spinal motor neurons remain to be unravelled. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Multifocal visual evoked potential in optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy and compressive optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Manju; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar; Ravi, Priya; Sen, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of optic neuritis (ON), ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) and compressive optic neuropathy (CON) on multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) amplitudes and latencies, and to compare the parameters among three optic nerve disorders. Materials and Methods: mfVEP was recorded for 71 eyes of controls and 48 eyes of optic nerve disorders with subgroups of optic neuritis (ON, n = 21 eyes), ischemic optic neuropathy (ION, n = 14 eyes), and compressive optic neuropathy (CON, n = 13 eyes). The size of defect in mfVEP amplitude probability plots and relative latency plots were analyzed. The pattern of the defect in amplitude probability plot was classified according to the visual field profile of optic neuritis treatment trail (ONTT). Results: Median of mfVEP amplitude (log SNR) averaged across 60 sectors were reduced in ON (0.17 (0.13-0.33)), ION (0.14 (0.12-0.21)) and CON (0.21 (0.14-0.30)) when compared to controls. The median mfVEP relative latencies compared to controls were significantly prolonged in ON and CON group of 10.53 (2.62-15.50) ms and 5.73 (2.67-14.14) ms respectively compared to ION group (2.06 (-4.09-13.02)). The common mfVEP amplitude defects observed in probability plots were diffuse pattern in ON, inferior altitudinal defect in ION and temporal hemianopia in CON eyes. Conclusions: Optic nerve disorders cause reduction in mfVEP amplitudes. The extent of delayed latency noted in ischemic optic neuropathy was significantly lesser compared to subjects with optic neuritis and compressive optic neuropathy. mfVEP amplitudes can be used to objectively assess the topography of the visual field defect. PMID:24088641

  9. The Importance of Rare Subtypes in Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Brian C; Price, Raymond S; Chen, Kevin S; Feldman, Eva L

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent condition that usually warrants a thorough history and examination but has limited diagnostic evaluation. However, rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy often require more extensive diagnostic testing and different treatments. To describe rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy, including the appropriate diagnostic evaluation and available treatments. References were identified from PubMed searches conducted on May 29, 2015, with an emphasis on systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials. Articles were also identified through the use of the authors' own files. Search terms included common rare neuropathy localizations and their causes, as well as epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies, multiple mononeuropathies, polyradiculopathies, plexopathies, and radiculoplexus neuropathies are rare peripheral neuropathy localizations that often require extensive diagnostic testing. Atypical neuropathy features, such as acute/subacute onset, asymmetry, and/or motor predominant signs, are frequently present. The most common diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies are Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Effective disease-modifying therapies exist for many diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies including Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and some paraprotein-associated demyelinating neuropathies. Vasculitic neuropathy (multiple mononeuropathy) also has efficacious treatment options, but definitive evidence of a treatment effect for IgM anti-MAG neuropathy and diabetic amyotrophy (radiculoplexus neuropathy) is lacking. Recognition of rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy is essential given the implications for diagnostic testing and treatment. Electrodiagnostic studies are an important

  10. F wave index: A diagnostic tool for peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sathya, G R; Krishnamurthy, N; Veliath, Susheela; Arulneyam, Jayanthi; Venkatachalam, J

    2017-03-01

    Each skeletal muscle is usually supplied by two or more nerve roots and if one nerve root is affected and the other is spared, the clinically used F wave minimum latency can still be normal. An F wave index was constructed taking into consideration the other parameters of the F wave such as persistence, chronodispersion, latency, arm-length to determine its usefulness in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. This study was undertaken to construct the F wave index in the upper limb for the median nerve in normal healthy adult males and in patients with peripheral neuropathy and to compare the values obtained in both groups. This hospital-based study was carried out on 40 males who were diagnosed to have peripheral neuropathy and on 40 age matched healthy males who served as the control group. The F wave recording was done using a digitalized nerve conduction/electromyography/EP machine in a quiet and dimly lit room. All recordings were done between 0900 and 1100 h at an ambient temperature of 22°C. The F wave recording was obtained from a fully relaxed muscle by stimulating the median nerve. The median value for F wave index obtained from median nerve (abductor pollicis brevis) in patients with peripheral neuropathy [right arm - 35.85, interquartile range (IQR) - 35.26; left arm - 39.49, IQR - 39.49] was significantly lower (P=0.001) as compared to the control group (right arm - 102.62, IQR - 83.76; left arm - 77.43, IQR - 58.02). Our results showed that F wave index in upper limb was significantly lower in patients with peripheral neuropathy than the healthy controls, and could be used for early detection of peripheral neuropathy.

  11. Cramp-fasciculation syndrome associated with monofocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Nicolas J; Van Pesch, Vincent; Van Den Bergh, Peter Y K

    2017-10-01

    Cramp-fasciculation syndrome is a peripheral nerve hyperexcitability disorder, which could be caused by inflammatory neuropathy. We describe a 51-year-old woman who presented with a 4- to 5-year history of fasciculations and painful cramping of the right thenar eminence. Electrophysiological studies showed motor conduction block in the right median nerve between the axilla and the elbow with fasciculation potentials and cramp discharges on electromyography in the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle. High titers of serum anti-GM1 immunoglobulin M antibodies were detected. Monofocal motor neuropathy of the right median nerve was diagnosed. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment led to significant improvement of symptoms and signs. Although fasciculations and cramps have been reported in multifocal motor neuropathy and are considered supporting criteria for the diagnosis, the occurrence of cramp-fasciculation syndrome as the presenting feature and predominant manifestation in monofocal motor neuropathy, a variant of multifocal motor neuropathy, is unique. Muscle Nerve 56: 828-832, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Vasculitic neuropathy: novel classification, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The international standard of nomenclature and classification in vasculitis, CHCC 1994,was revised as CHCC 2012. In the first part of this review article I briefly summarized the CHCC 2012 and pointed out the changes in this revision, especially on the disorders related to vasculitic neuropathy. Notable changes include the introduction of new terms such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. In the second part, I mentioned the tips for the diagnosis and treatment of vasculitic neuropathy. Because most of the vasculitic neuropathy patients require rigorous, long-standing immunosuppressive therapy, the accurate diagnosis based on the pathological detection of vasculitic changes is mandatory. In this regard, the value of sural nerve biopsy is still not ignorable. In the treatment of vascultic neuropathy, there are no controlled treatment trials and clinical practice is guided by experience from case series and indirectly by analogy with systemic vasculitis. Although combined therapy using prednisolone and cyclophosphamide is usually recommended by experts, tailor-made treatment regimen based on the conditions of each patient would produce the best outcome in vasculitic neuropathy.

  13. Is distal motor and/or sensory demyelination a distinctive feature of anti-MAG neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Lozeron, Pierre; Ribrag, Vincent; Adams, David; Brisset, Marion; Vignon, Marguerite; Baron, Marine; Malphettes, Marion; Theaudin, Marie; Arnulf, Bertrand; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    To report the frequency of the different patterns of sensory and motor electrophysiological demyelination distribution in patients with anti-MAG neuropathy in comparison with patients with IgM neuropathy without MAG reactivity (IgM-NP). Thirty-five anti-MAG patients at early disease stage (20.1 months) were compared to 23 patients with IgM-NP; 21 CIDP patients and 13 patients with CMT1a neuropathy were used as gold standard neuropathies with multifocal and homogeneous demyelination, respectively. In all groups, standard motor and sensory electrophysiological parameters, terminal latency index and modified F ratio were investigated. Motor electrophysiological demyelination was divided in four profiles: distal, homogeneous, proximal, and proximo-distal. Distal sensory and sensorimotor demyelination were evaluated. Anti-MAG neuropathy is a demyelinating neuropathy in 91 % of cases. In the upper limbs, reduced TLI is more frequent in anti-MAG neuropathy, compared to IgM-NP. But, predominant distal demyelination of the median nerve is encountered in only 43 % of anti-MAG neuropathy and is also common in IgM-NP (35 %). Homogeneous demyelination was the second most frequent pattern (31 %). Concordance of electrophysiological profiles across motor nerves trunks is low and median nerve is the main site of distal motor conduction slowing. Reduced sensory conduction velocities occurs in 14 % of patients without evidence of predominant distal slowing. Simultaneous sensory and motor distal slowing was more common in the median nerve of anti-MAG neuropathy than IgM-NP. Electrophysiological distal motor demyelination and sensory demyelination are not a distinctive feature of anti-MAG reactivity. In anti-MAG neuropathy it is mainly found in the median nerve suggesting a frequent nerve compression at wrist.

  14. Correlation of Michigan neuropathy screening instrument, United Kingdom screening test and electrodiagnosis for early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fateh, Hamid R; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathies (DPNs) are symptom-free. Methods including questionnaires and electrodiagnosis (EDx) can be fruitful for easy reach to early diagnosis, correct treatments of diabetic neuropathy, and so decline of complications for instance diabetic foot ulcer and prevention of high costs. The goal of our study was to compare effectiveness of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST) and electrophysiological evaluation in confirming diabetic peripheral neuropathy. One hundred twenty five known diabetes mellitus male and female subjects older than 18 with or without symptoms of neuropathy comprised in this research. All of them were interviewed in terms of demographic data, lipid profile, HbA1C, duration of disease, and history of retinopathy, so examined by Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST), and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software 18. One hundred twenty five diabetic patients (70 female, 55 male) were recruited in this study with a mean age of 58.7 ± 10.2, and mean duration of diabetes was 10.17 ± 6.9 years. The mean neuropathy score of MNSI and UKST were 2.3 (1.7) and 4.16 (2.9), respectively. Each instrument detected the peripheral neuropathy in 78 (69 %) and 91 (73 %) of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of neuropathies and mean of diabetes duration and development of retinopathy in both questionnaire evaluations and NCS. By nerve conduction study, neuropathy was detected in 121 (97 %) diabetic patients were reported in order 15 (12 %) mononeuropathy (as 33 % sensory and 67 % motor neuropathy) and 106 (85 %) polyneuropathy (as 31 % motor and 69 % sensorimotor neuropathy). As regards NCS is an objective, simple, and non-invasive tool and also can determine level of damage and regeneration in peripheral nerves, this study

  15. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies occurring during military training.

    PubMed

    Delacour, H; Bompaire, F; Biale, L; Sallansonnet-Froment, M; Ceppa, F; Burnat, P

    2012-03-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal-dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized by recurrent isolated nerve palsies, which are precipitated by trivial compression and trauma. Although HNPP has been well-described in literature, it often goes unrecognized. We report a case of HNPP occurring during military training to promote recognition and proper management of this entity.

  16. Diagnostic capability of retinal thickness measures in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Pritchard, Nicola; Sampson, Geoff P; Edwards, Katie; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    To examine the diagnostic capability of the full retinal and inner retinal thickness measures in differentiating individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) from those without neuropathy and non-diabetic controls. Individuals with (n=44) and without (n=107) diabetic neuropathy and non-diabetic control (n=42) participants underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Retinal thickness in the central 1mm zone (including the fovea), parafovea and perifovea was assessed in addition to ganglion cell complex (GCC) global loss volume (GCC GLV) and focal loss volume (GCC FLV), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Diabetic neuropathy was defined using a modified neuropathy disability score (NDS) recorded on a 0-10 scale, wherein, NDS ≥3 indicated neuropathy and NDS indicated <3 no neuropathy. Diagnostic performance was assessed by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI), sensitivities at fixed specificities, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR) and the cut-off points for the best AUCs obtained. The AUC for GCC FLV was 0.732 (95% CI: 0.624-0.840, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 80% for differentiating DPN from controls. Evaluation of the LRs showed that GCC FLV was associated with only small effects on the post-test probability of the disease. The cut-off point calculated using the Youden index was 0.48% (67% sensitivity and 73% specificity) for GCC FLV. For distinguishing those with neuropathy from those without neuropathy, the AUCs of retinal parameters ranged from 0.508 for the central zone to 0.690 for the inferior RNFL thickness. For distinguishing those with moderate or advanced neuropathy from those with mild or no neuropathy, the inferior RNFL thickness demonstrated the highest AUC of 0.820, (95% CI: 0.731-0.909, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 69% and 80% specificity. The cut-off-point for the inferior RNFL

  17. Risk factors for the development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jetter; Raizer, Jeffrey; Hodges, James S; Gradishar, William; Allen, Jeffrey A

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel. We prospectively evaluated demographic and laboratory data in a cohort of 61 woman with breast cancer prior to paclitaxel exposure to explore factors that predispose to neuropathy development. Neuropathy was graded based on the total neuropathy score reduced version (rTNS) at baseline and at 4 months after initiation of chemotherapy. A multivariate analysis identified predictors with the strongest association with a change in rTNS. Serum albumin (P = .002), paclitaxel dose (P = .001), and body surface area (P = .006) were statistically significantly associated with a positive rTNS change (worsening neuropathy). These results suggest that poor nutritional status and obesity increase the risk of paclitaxel induced neuropathy, and that screening for these factors prior to chemotherapy exposure may improve early neuropathy detection or decrease risk with dietary modifications. © 2018 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  18. Quality assessment of online patient education resources for peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Suresh, Ragha; Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M

    2013-03-01

    Given its practicality, the internet is a primary resource for patients afflicted with diseases like peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, it is important that the readily available online resources on peripheral neuropathy are tailored to the general public, particularly concerning readability. Patient education resources were downloaded from the US National Library of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neuropathy.org, GBS/CIDP Foundation International, Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association, Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy, and Neuropathy Action Foundation websites. All patient education material related to peripheral neuropathy was evaluated for its level of readability using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The FRE scores averaged 43.4 with only the US National Library of Medicine scoring above 60 (76.5). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores averaged 11.0. All scores were above a seventh-grade level except the US National Library of Medicine, which had a score of a fifth-grade reading level. Most Americans may not fully benefit from patient education resources concerning peripheral neuropathy education on many of the websites. Only the US National Library of Medicine, which is written at a fifth-grade level, is likely to benefit the average American. © 2013 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  19. Retinoic acid reduces chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in an animal model and patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pedro, N.; Fernández-González- Aragón, M.C.; Saavedra-Pérez, D.; Campos-Parra, A.D.; Ríos-Trejo, M.Á.; Cerón-Lizárraga, T.; Martínez-Barrera, L.; Pineda, B.; Ordóñez, G.; Ortiz-Plata, A.; Granados-Soto, V.; Sotelo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in an experimental animal model and in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized in 5 groups: group A, control; groups B and C, treated with cisplatin; and groups D and E, treated with paclitaxel. ATRA (20 mg/kg PO) was administered for 15 days in groups C and E. We evaluated neuropathy and nerve regeneration–related morphologic changes in sciatic nerve, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF), and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)–α and RAR-β expression. In addition, 95 patients with NSCLC under chemotherapy treatment were randomized to either ATRA (20 mg/m2/d) or placebo. Serum NGF, neurophysiologic tests, and clinical neurotoxicity were assessed. Results: The experimental animals developed neuropathy and axonal degeneration, associated with decreased NGF levels in peripheral nerves. Treatment with ATRA reversed sensorial changes and nerve morphology; this was associated with increased NGF levels and RAR-β expression. Patients treated with chemotherapy had clinical neuropathy and axonal loss assessed by neurophysiology, which was related to decreased NGF levels. ATRA reduced axonal degeneration demonstrated by nerve conduction velocity and clinical manifestations of neuropathy grades ≥2. Conclusions: ATRA reduced chemotherapy-induced experimental neuropathy, increased NGF levels, and induced RAR-β expression in nerve. In patients, reduction of NGF in serum was associated with the severity of neuropathy; ATRA treatment reduced the electrophysiologic alterations. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that ATRA improves nerve conduction in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Neurology® 2011;77:987–995 PMID:21865574

  20. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Utah Research News Make a Difference Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Print This Page Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start ... more slowly over many years. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include: A sensation of wearing an invisible “ ...

  1. Diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Zeki; Oh, Shin J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report the diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NNN-SNCS) in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) in which the routine nerve conduction study was normal or non-diagnostic. The NNN-SNCS was performed to identify demyelination in the plantar nerves in 14 patients and in the median or ulnar nerve in 2 patients with sensory IDP. In 16 patients with sensory IDP, routine NCSs were either normal or non-diagnostic for demyelination. Demyelination was identified by NNN-SNCS by dispersion and/or slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) below the demyelination marker. Immunotherapy was initiated in 11 patients, 10 of whom improved or remained stable. NNN-SNCS played an essential role in identifying demyelinaton in 16 patients with sensory IDP, leading to proper treatment. Muscle Nerve 57: 414-418, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tacrolimus Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Nailyn; Boudreault, Katherine; Lessell, Simmons; Prasad, Sashank; Cestari, Dean M

    2018-06-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf) is a potent immunosuppressant, which inhibits cytokine synthesis and blocks T-cell development. Optic neuropathy from tacrolimus toxicity is very uncommon but, when present, can result in severe vision loss. Case series and review of the literature. We present 3 patients with tacrolimus optic neuropathy after bone marrow transplantation complicated by graft-vs-host disease and demonstrate the differing clinical and radiologic presentation of this presumed toxic optic neuropathy. Tacrolimus optic neuropathy can manifest in a multitude of clinical presentations and can have devastating visual consequences.

  3. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies in Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael; Bursztyn, Lulu; Superstein, Rosanne; Gans, Mark

    2017-12-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis of medium and large arteries often with ophthalmic involvement, including ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal artery occlusion, and ocular motor cranial nerve palsies. This last complication occurs in 2%-15% of patients, but typically involves only 1 cranial nerve. We present 2 patients with biopsy-proven GCA associated with multiple cranial nerve palsies.

  4. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Spinal Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves.

    PubMed

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, Benn E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed for the electrodiagnostic evaluation of cranial nerves XI and XII. Each of these carries both benefits and limitations, with more techniques and data being available in the literature for spinal accessory than hypoglossal nerve evaluation. Spinal accessory and hypoglossal neuropathy are relatively uncommon cranial mononeuropathies that may be evaluated in the outpatient electrodiagnostic laboratory setting. A review of available literature using PubMed was conducted regarding electrodiagnostic technique in the evaluation of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves searching for both routine nerve conduction studies and repetitive nerve conduction studies. The review provided herein provides a resource by which clinical neurophysiologists may develop and implement clinical and research protocols for the evaluation of both of these lower cranial nerves in the outpatient setting.

  5. Alcoholic neuropathy: possible mechanisms and future treatment possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Kanwaljit; Tiwari, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption produces painful peripheral neuropathy for which there is no reliable successful therapy, mainly due to lack of understanding of its pathobiology. Alcoholic neuropathy involves coasting caused by damage to nerves that results from long term excessive drinking of alcohol and is characterized by spontaneous burning pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. The mechanism behind alcoholic neuropathy is not well understood, but several explanations have been proposed. These include activation of spinal cord microglia after chronic alcohol consumption, oxidative stress leading to free radical damage to nerves, activation of mGlu5 receptors in the spinal cord and activation of the sympathoadrenal and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Nutritional deficiency (especially thiamine deficiency) and/or the direct toxic effect of alcohol or both have also been implicated in alcohol-induced neuropathic pain. Treatment is directed towards halting further damage to the peripheral nerves and restoring their normal functioning. This can be achieved by alcohol abstinence and a nutritionally balanced diet supplemented by all B vitamins. However, in the setting of ongoing alcohol use, vitamin supplementation alone has not been convincingly shown to be sufficient for improvement in most patients. The present review is focused around the multiple pathways involved in the development of peripheral neuropathy associated with chronic alcohol intake and the different therapeutic agents which may find a place in the therapeutic armamentarium for both prevention and management of alcoholic neuropathy. PMID:21988193

  6. [Acute palsy of twelfth cranial nerve].

    PubMed

    Munoz del Castillo, F; Molina Nieto, T; De la Riva Aguilar, A; Triviño Tarradas, F; Bravo-Rodríguez, F; Ramos Jurado, A

    2005-01-01

    The hypoglossal nerve or Twelfth-nerve palsy is a rare damage with different causes: tumors or metastases in skull base, cervicals tumors, schwannoma, dissection or aneurysm carotid arteries, stroke, trauma, idiopathic cause, radiation, infections (mononucleosis) or multiple cranial neuropathy. Tumors were responsible for nearly half of the cases in different studies. We studied a female with hypoglossal nerve acute palsy. We made a differential diagnostic with others causes and a review of the literature.

  7. Emerging Mitochondrial Therapeutic Targets in Optic Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Lopez Sanchez, M I G; Crowston, J G; Mackey, D A; Trounce, I A

    2016-09-01

    Optic neuropathies are an important cause of blindness worldwide. The study of the most common inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) has highlighted a fundamental role for mitochondrial function in the survival of the affected neuron-the retinal ganglion cell. A picture is now emerging that links mitochondrial dysfunction to optic nerve disease and other neurodegenerative processes. Insights gained from the peculiar susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells to mitochondrial dysfunction are likely to inform therapeutic development for glaucoma and other common neurodegenerative diseases of aging. Despite it being a fast-evolving field of research, a lack of access to human ocular tissues and limited animal models of mitochondrial disease have prevented direct retinal ganglion cell experimentation and delayed the development of efficient therapeutic strategies to prevent vision loss. Currently, there are no approved treatments for mitochondrial disease, including optic neuropathies caused by primary or secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent advances in eye research have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that mediate pathogenesis, and new therapeutic strategies including gene correction approaches are currently being investigated. Here, we review the general principles of mitochondrial biology relevant to retinal ganglion cell function and provide an overview of the major optic neuropathies with mitochondrial involvement, LHON and ADOA, whilst highlighting the emerging link between mitochondrial dysfunction and glaucoma. The pharmacological strategies currently being trialed to improve mitochondrial dysfunction in these optic neuropathies are discussed in addition to emerging therapeutic approaches to preserve retinal ganglion cell function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inherited focal, episodic neuropathies: hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy.

    PubMed

    Chance, Phillip F

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP; also called tomaculous neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder that produces a painless episodic, recurrent, focal demyelinating neuropathy. HNPP generally develops during adolescence, and may cause attacks of numbness, muscular weakness, and atrophy. Peroneal palsies, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other entrapment neuropathies may be frequent manifestations of HNPP. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities may be reduced in clinically affected patients, as well as in asymptomatic gene carriers. The histopathological changes observed in peripheral nerves of HNPP patients include segmental demyelination and tomaculous or "sausage-like" formations. Mild overlap of clinical features with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1 (CMT1) may lead patients with HNPP to be misdiagnosed as having CMT1. HNPP and CMT1 are both demyelinating neuropathies, however, their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological features are quite distinct. HNPP is most frequently associated with a 1.4-Mb pair deletion on chromosome 17p12. A duplication of the identical region leads to CMT1A. Both HNPP and CMT1A result from a dosage effect of the PMP22 gene, which is contained within the deleted/duplicated region. This is reflected in reduced mRNA and protein levels in sural nerve biopsy samples from HNPP patients. Treatment for HNPP consists of preventative and symptom-easing measures. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA; also called familial brachial plexus neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder causing episodes of paralysis and muscle weakness initiated by severe pain. Individuals with HNA may suffer repeated episodes of intense pain, paralysis, and sensory disturbances in an affected limb. The onset of HNA is at birth or later in childhood with prognosis for recovery usually favorable; however, persons with HNA may have permanent residual neurological dysfunction following attack(s). Episodes are often

  9. Extremely Painful Multifocal Acquired Predominant Axonal Sensorimotor Neuropathy of the Upper Limb.

    PubMed

    Lieba-Samal, Doris; van Eijk, Jeroen J J; van Rosmalen, Marieke H J; van Balken, Irene M F; Verrips, Aad; Mostert, Jop; Pillen, Sigrid; van Alfen, Nens

    2018-06-01

    The differential diagnosis of upper extremity mononeuritis multiplex includes neuralgic amyotrophy, vasculitic neuropathy, and Lewis-Sumner syndrome. We describe 3 patients initially suspected of neuralgic amyotrophy, who had an extremely painful, protracted, progressive disease course, not fitting one of these established diagnoses. Nerve ultrasonography showed focal caliber changes of the roots, plexus, and limb nerves. Electromyography showed predominant multifocal axonopathy. Ongoing autoimmune neuropathy was suspected. Steroid treatment provided temporary relief, and intravenous immunoglobulin A sustained pain decrease and functional improvement. These patients appear to have extremely painful axonal inflammatory neuropathy, with a good response to immune-modulating treatment. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Peripheral neuropathy in genetically characterized patients with mitochondrial disorders: A study from south India.

    PubMed

    Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Govindaraju, Chikanna; Sonam, Kothari; Nagappa, Madhu; Chiplunkar, Shwetha; Kumar, Rakesh; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Bharath, M M Srinivas; Arvinda, Hanumanthapura R; Sinha, Sanjib; Khan, Nahid Akthar; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Nunia, Vandana; Paramasivam, Arumugam; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Taly, Arun B

    2016-03-01

    There are relatively few studies, which focus on peripheral neuropathy in large cohorts of genetically characterized patients with mitochondrial disorders. This study sought to analyze the pattern of peripheral neuropathy in a cohort of patients with mitochondrial disorders. The study subjects were derived from a cohort of 52 patients with a genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders seen over a period of 8 years (2006-2013). All patients underwent nerve conduction studies and those patients with abnormalities suggestive of peripheral neuropathy were included in the study. Their phenotypic features, genotype, pattern of peripheral neuropathy and nerve conduction abnormalities were analyzed retrospectively. The study cohort included 18 patients (age range: 18 months-50 years, M:F- 1.2:1).The genotype included mitochondrial DNA point mutations (n=11), SURF1 mutations (n=4) and POLG1(n=3). Axonal neuropathy was noted in 12 patients (sensori-motor:n=4; sensory:n=4; motor:n=4) and demyelinating neuropathy in 6. Phenotype-genotype correlations revealed predominant axonal neuropathy in mtDNA point mutations and demyelinating neuropathy in SURF1. Patients with POLG related disorders had both sensory ataxic neuropathy and axonal neuropathy. A careful analysis of the family history, clinical presentation, biochemical, histochemical and structural analysis may help to bring out the mitochondrial etiology in patients with peripheral neuropathy and may facilitate targeted gene testing. Presence of demyelinating neuropathy in Leigh's syndrome may suggest underlying SURF1 mutations. Sensory ataxic neuropathy with other mitochondrial signatures should raise the possibility of POLG related disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ulnar osteosarcoma in dogs: 30 cases (1992-2008).

    PubMed

    Sivacolundhu, Ramesh K; Runge, Jeffrey J; Donovan, Taryn A; Barber, Lisa G; Saba, Corey F; Clifford, Craig A; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Atwater, Stephen W; DiBernardi, Lisa; Freeman, Kim P; Bergman, Philip J

    2013-07-01

    To examine the biological behavior of ulnar osteosarcoma and evaluate predictors of survival time in dogs. Retrospective case series. 30 dogs with primary ulnar osteosarcoma. Medical records were reviewed. Variables recorded and examined to identify predictors of survival time were signalment, tumor location in the ulna, tumor length, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, surgery type, completeness of excision, tumor stage, tumor grade, histologic subtype, development of metastases, and use of chemotherapy. 30 cases were identified from 9 institutions. Eleven dogs were treated with partial ulnar ostectomy and 14 with amputation; in 5 dogs, a resection was not performed. Twenty-two dogs received chemotherapy. Median disease-free interval and survival time were 437 and 463 days, respectively. Negative prognostic factors for survival time determined via univariate analyses were histologic subtype and development of lung metastases. Telangiectatic or telangiectatic-mixed subtype (n = 5) was the only negative prognostic factor identified via multivariate analysis (median survival time, 208 days). Dogs with telangiectatic subtype were 6.99 times as likely to die of the disease. The prognosis for ulnar osteosarcoma in this population was no worse and may have been better than the prognosis for dogs with osteosarcoma involving other appendicular sites. Partial ulnar ostectomy was associated with a low complication rate and good to excellent function and did not compromise survival time. Telangiectatic or telangiectatic-mixed histologic subtype was a negative prognostic factor for survival time. The efficacy of chemotherapy requires further evaluation.

  12. CHRONIC PERIPHERAL NERVE COMPRESSION DISRUPTS PARANODAL AXOGLIAL JUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Yoshinori; Yermakov, Leonid M.; Dupree, Jeffrey L.; Susuki, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral nerves are often exposed to mechanical stress leading to compression neuropathies. The pathophysiology underlying nerve dysfunction by chronic compression is largely unknown. Methods We analyzed molecular organization and fine structures at and near nodes of Ranvier in a compression neuropathy model in which a silastic tube was placed around the mouse sciatic nerve. Results Immunofluorescence study showed that clusters of cell adhesion complex forming paranodal axoglial junctions were dispersed with frequent overlap with juxtaparanodal components. These paranodal changes occurred without internodal myelin damage. The distribution and pattern of paranodal disruption suggests that these changes are the direct result of mechanical stress. Electron microscopy confirmed loss of paranodal axoglial junctions. Discussion Our data show that chronic nerve compression disrupts paranodal junctions and axonal domains required for proper peripheral nerve function. These results provide important clues toward better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying nerve dysfunction in compression neuropathies. PMID:27463510

  13. POEMS Syndrome Diagnosed 10 Years after Disabling Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Viet H

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is characterized as a generalized, relatively homogeneous process affecting many peripheral nerves and predominantly affecting distal nerves. The epidemiology of peripheral neuropathy is limited since the disease presents with varying etiology, pathology, and severity. Toxic, inflammatory, hereditary, and infectious factors can cause damage to the peripheral nerves resulting in peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is most commonly caused by diabetes, alcohol, HIV infection, and malignancy. We report a case of a 42-year-old female with 10-year history of progressively worsening peripheral neuropathy, hypothyroidism, and skin changes who presents with dyspnea secondary to recurrent pleural and pericardial effusions. Prior to her arrival, her peripheral neuropathy was believed to be secondary to chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CDIP) given elevated protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) which was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Unfortunately, her peripheral neuropathy did not have any improvement. Incidentally, patient was found to have splenomegaly and papilledema on physical exam. Serum protein electrophoresis showed a monoclonal pattern of IgA lambda. Patient met the diagnostic criteria for POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes) syndrome. An underlying diagnosis of POEMS syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic debilitating neuropathy and an elevated protein in the CSF.

  14. POEMS Syndrome Diagnosed 10 Years after Disabling Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Viet H.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is characterized as a generalized, relatively homogeneous process affecting many peripheral nerves and predominantly affecting distal nerves. The epidemiology of peripheral neuropathy is limited since the disease presents with varying etiology, pathology, and severity. Toxic, inflammatory, hereditary, and infectious factors can cause damage to the peripheral nerves resulting in peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is most commonly caused by diabetes, alcohol, HIV infection, and malignancy. We report a case of a 42-year-old female with 10-year history of progressively worsening peripheral neuropathy, hypothyroidism, and skin changes who presents with dyspnea secondary to recurrent pleural and pericardial effusions. Prior to her arrival, her peripheral neuropathy was believed to be secondary to chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CDIP) given elevated protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) which was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Unfortunately, her peripheral neuropathy did not have any improvement. Incidentally, patient was found to have splenomegaly and papilledema on physical exam. Serum protein electrophoresis showed a monoclonal pattern of IgA lambda. Patient met the diagnostic criteria for POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes) syndrome. An underlying diagnosis of POEMS syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic debilitating neuropathy and an elevated protein in the CSF. PMID:22013451

  15. Better diagnostic accuracy of neuropathy in obesity: A new challenge for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Brian C; Xia, Rong; Reynolds, Evan; Banerjee, Mousumi; Burant, Charles; Rothberg, Amy; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Villegas-Umana, Emily; Feldman, Eva L

    2018-03-01

    To determine the comparative diagnostic characteristics of neuropathy measures in an obese population. We recruited obese participants from the University of Michigan's Weight Management Program. Receiver operative characteristic analysis determined the area under the curve (AUC) of neuropathy measures for distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), small fiber neuropathy (SFN), and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). The best test combinations were determined using stepwise and Score subset selection models. We enrolled 120 obese participants. For DSP, seven of 42 neuropathy measures (Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS, N = 62), Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) reduced combined index, MNSI examination, nerve fiber density (NFD) leg, tibial F response, MNSI questionnaire, peroneal distal motor latency) had AUCs ≥ 0.75. Three of 19 small fiber nerve measures for SFN (UENS, NFD leg, Sudoscan feet (N = 70)) and zero of 16 CAN measures had AUCs ≥ 0.75. Combinations of tests performed better than individual tests with AUCs of 0.82 for DSP (two parameters) and 0.84 for SFN (three parameters). Many neuropathy measures demonstrate good test performance for DSP in obese participants. Select few small fiber nerve measures performed well for SFN, and none for CAN. Specific combinations of tests should be used for research studies to maximize diagnostic performance in obese cohorts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Congenital multiple cranial neuropathies: Relevance of orofacial electromyography in infants.

    PubMed

    Renault, Francis; Flores-Guevara, Roberto; Baudon, Jean-Jacques; Vazquez, Marie-Paule

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess diagnoses and outcomes of infants with 2 or more cranial neuropathies identified using orofacial electromyography (EMG). This retrospective study involved 90 patients. Diagnoses took into account clinical, radiological, and genetic data. EMG examined the orbicularis oculi, genioglossus, and levator veli palatini muscles, and blink responses. To evaluate outcome, neurological disability, respiratory complications, and feeding difficulties were recorded. The patients had malformation syndromes (59), encephalopathies (29), or no underlying disorders (2). Neurogenic EMG signs were detected in a mean of 4 muscles, reflecting a mean of 3 affected nerves. EMG identified a higher number of neuropathies than clinical examination alone (82 vs. 31, facial; 56 vs. 2, pharyngeal; 25 vs. 3, hypoglossal). Poor outcome and death were more frequent when EMG identified ≥4 affected nerves (P = 0.02). EMG highlights multiple cranial neuropathies that can be clinically silent in infants with malformation syndromes or encephalopathies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Image analysis software for following progression of peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epplin-Zapf, Thomas; Miller, Clayton; Larkin, Sean; Hermesmeyer, Eduardo; Macy, Jenny; Pellegrini, Marco; Luccarelli, Saverio; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Holmes, Timothy

    2009-02-01

    A relationship has been reported by several research groups [1 - 4] between the density and shapes of nerve fibers in the cornea and the existence and severity of peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is a complication of several prevalent diseases or conditions, which include diabetes, HIV, prolonged alcohol overconsumption and aging. A common clinical technique for confirming the condition is intramuscular electromyography (EMG), which is invasive, so a noninvasive technique like the one proposed here carries important potential advantages for the physician and patient. A software program that automatically detects the nerve fibers, counts them and measures their shapes is being developed and tested. Tests were carried out with a database of subjects with levels of severity of diabetic neuropathy as determined by EMG testing. Results from this testing, that include a linear regression analysis are shown.

  18. Familial Idiopathic Cranial Neuropathy in a Chinese Family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liang, Jianfeng; Yu, Yanbing

    Cranial neuropathy is usually idiopathic and familial cases are uncommon. We describe a family with 5 members with cranial neuropathy over 3 generations. All affected patients were women, indicating an X-linked dominant or an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Our cases and a review of the literature suggest that familial idiopathic cranial neuropathy is a rare condition which may be related to autosomal dominant vascular disorders (e.g. vascular tortuosity, sclerosis, elongation or extension), small posterior cranial fossas, anatomical variations of the posterior circulation, hypersensitivity of cranial nerves and other abnormalities. Moreover, microvascular decompression is the treatment of choice because vascular compression is the main factor in the pathogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of familial cranial neuropathy in China.

  19. Generalized peripheral neuropathy in a dental technician exposed to methyl methacrylate monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Donaghy, M.; Rushworth, G.; Jacobs, J.M.

    1991-07-01

    A 58-year-old dental prosthetic technician developed generalized sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Neurophysiologic studies showed a generalized sensorimotor neuropathy of axonal degeneration type. Examination of a sural nerve biopsy showed a moderately severe axonal neuropathy with loss of large myelinated fibers and unmyelinated axons. There was evidence of slow ongoing degeneration and considerable fiber regeneration. Electron microscopy showed increased numbers of filaments in a few fibers. These findings show resemblances to the nerve changes caused by another acrylic resin, acrylamide. They suggest that the neuropathy may have been caused by 30 years of occupational cutaneous and inhalational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomermore » since they excluded other recognized causes of neuropathy.« less

  20. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... PubMed Central Yilmaz U, Bird TT, Carter GT, Wang LH, Weiss MD. Pain in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy: an association with fibromyalgia syndrome? Muscle Nerve. 2015 Mar;51(3):385-90. doi: 10.1002/ ...

  1. Axillary nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, G S

    1999-11-01

    Axillary nerve injury remains the most common peripheral nerve injury to affect the shoulder. It most often is seen after glenohumeral joint dislocation, proximal humerus fracture, or a direct blow to the deltoid muscle. Compression neuropathy has been reported to occur in the quadrilateral space syndrome, although the true pathophysiology of this disorder remains unclear. The axillary nerve is vulnerable during any operative procedure involving the inferior aspect of the shoulder and iatrogenic injury remains a serious complication of shoulder surgery. During the acute phase of injury, the shoulder should be rested, and when clinically indicated, a patient should undergo an extensive rehabilitation program emphasizing range of motion and strengthening of the shoulder girdle muscles. If no axillary nerve recovery is observed by 3 to 6 months after injury, surgical exploration may be indicated, especially if the mechanism of injury is consistent with nerve rupture. Patients who sustain injury to the axillary nerve have a variable prognosis for nerve recovery although return of function of the involved shoulder typically is good to excellent, depending on associated ligamentous or bony injury.

  2. Immunostaining of skin biopsy adds no diagnostic value in MGUS-associated peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Al-Zuhairy, Ali; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Plesner, Torben; Abildgaard, Niels; Sindrup, Søren H

    2015-02-15

    For several decades an association between MGUS, IgM-MGUS in particular, and peripheral neuropathy has been suspected. Several histopathology studies have shown binding of IgM to myelin and a secondary widening of myelin lamellae in cutaneous nerves and in the sural nerve of patients with IgM-MGUS, or Waldenström's Macroglobulinaemia (WM), and peripheral neuropathy. In this retrospective study we investigated the value of skin biopsy examination in the diagnosis of MGUS- and WM-associated peripheral neuropathy. A total of 117 patients, who were examined for an M-component in serum with associated nerve symptoms, had a skin biopsy taken and examined for immunoglobulin deposition in cutaneous nerves. Thirty-five patients were diagnosed with MGUS or WM and peripheral neuropathy with no other cause of neuropathy. Nineteen patients had MGUS but no peripheral neuropathy. Of the 35 patients with MGUS or WM and peripheral neuropathy, four had immunoglobulin deposition in the skin biopsy, all of whom had an IgM gammopathy. In the control group of 19 without peripheral neuropathy, three had immunoglobulin deposition in the skin biopsy, all of whom had IgM-MGUS. In both groups, there was a trend towards higher IgM blood levels in patients with immunoglobulin deposition. Half of the patients with IgM gammopathy in the neuropathy group had anti-MAG reactivity, whereas only one in the control group had weak anti-MAG reactivity. Our study indicates that examination of skin biopsies for immunoglobulin deposition does not add significant diagnostic value in the evaluation of neuropathies suspected to be caused by MGUS or WM. IgM immunoglobulin deposition in skin biopsy might merely be an epiphenomenon secondary to high IgM blood levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise for people with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    White, C M; Pritchard, J; Turner-Stokes, L

    2004-10-18

    Peripheral neuropathies are a wide range of diseases affecting the peripheral nerves. Demyelination or axonal degeneration gives rise to a variety of symptoms including reduced or altered sensation, pain, muscle weakness and fatigue. Secondary disability arises and this may result in adjustments to psychological and social function. Exercise therapy, with a view to developing strength and stamina, forms part of the treatment for people with peripheral neuropathy, particularly in the later stages of recovery from acute neuropathy and in chronic neuropathies. The primary objective was to examine the effect of exercise therapy on functional ability in the treatment of people with peripheral neuropathy. In addition, secondary outcomes of muscle strength, endurance, broader measures of health and well being, as well as unfavourable outcomes were examined. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group register (July 2002 and updated February 2004) and MEDLINE (from January 1966 to June 2004), EMBASE (from January 1980 to June 2004), CINAHL (from January 1982 to July 2002) and LILACS (from January 1982 to July 2002) electronic databases. Bibliographies of all selected randomised controlled trials were checked and authors contacted to identify additional published or unpublished data. Any randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of exercise therapy with no exercise therapy or drugs or an alternative non-drug treatment on functional ability (or disability) in people with peripheral neuropathy at least eight weeks after randomisation was included. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies, rated the methodological quality and extracted data. Only one trial fully met the inclusion criteria. An additional two trials assessed outcomes less than eight weeks after randomisation and were also included. Methodological quality was poor for several criteria in each study. Data used in the three studies could not be pooled due to

  4. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  5. The diagnostic challenge of small fibre neuropathy: clinical presentations, evaluations, and causes.

    PubMed

    Terkelsen, Astrid J; Karlsson, Páll; Lauria, Giuseppe; Freeman, Roy; Finnerup, Nanna B; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-11-01

    Small fibre neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting thinly myelinated Aδ-fibres and unmyelinated C-fibres. Although multiple causes of small nerve fibre degeneration have been reported, including via genetic mutations, the cause of small fibre neuropathy remains unknown in up to 50% of cases. The typical clinical presentation of small fibre neuropathy is that of a symmetrical, length-dependent polyneuropathy associated with sensory or autonomic symptoms. More rarely, the clinical presentation is characterised by non-length-dependent, focal, or multifocal symptoms. The diagnostic tests to identify small fibre neuropathy include skin biopsy, quantitative sensory, and autonomic testing. Additional tests, such as those measuring small fibre-related evoked potentials and corneal confocal microscopy, might contribute to a better understanding of these neuropathies. Biochemical markers can also help in screening patients for the presence of small fibre neuropathy and to assess disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exome sequencing establishes a gelsolin mutation as the cause of inherited bulbar-onset neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Caress, James B; Johnson, Janel O; Abramzon, Yevgeniya A; Hawkins, Gregory A; Gibbs, J Raphael; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Chahal, Chamanpreet S; Traynor, Bryan J

    2017-11-01

    Progressive bulbar motor neuropathy is primarily caused by bulbar-onset ALS. Hereditary amyloidosis type IV also presents with a bulbar neuropathy that mimics motor neuron disease. The disease is prevalent in Finland only and is not commonly included in the differential diagnosis of ALS. We studied 18 members of a family in which some had bulbar motor neuropathy, and we performed exome sequencing. Five affected family members were found to have a D187Y substitution in the GSN gene known to cause hereditary amyloidosis type IV. This American family presented with progressive bulbar neuropathy due to a gelsolin mutation not found in Finland. Hereditary amyloidosis type IV presents with bulbar motor neuropathy and not with peripheral neuropathy as occurs with common forms of amyloidosis. This report demonstrates the power of exome sequencing to determine the cause of rare hereditary diseases with incomplete or atypical phenotypes. Muscle Nerve 56: 1001-1005, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Herbal Remedies: A Boon for Diabetic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Reshu; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Mahmood, Tarique; Bagga, Paramdeep; Ahsan, Farogh; Shamim, Arshiya

    2018-03-26

    Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus affecting about 50% of patients. Its symptoms include decreased motility and severe pain in peripheral parts. The pathogenesis involved is an abnormality in blood vessels that supply the peripheral nerves, metabolic disorders such as myo-inositol depletion, and increased nonenzymatic glycation. Moreover, oxidative stress in neurons results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways, which results in the generation of free radicals. Apart from available marketed formulations, extensive research is being carried out on herbal-based natural products to control hyperglycemia and its associated complications. This review is focused to provide a summary on diabetic neuropathy covering its etiology, types, and existing work on herbal-based therapies, which include pure compounds isolated from plant materials, plant extracts, and Ayurvedic preparations.

  8. Clinical spectrum of Castleman disease–associated neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Naddaf, Elie; Dispenzieri, Angela; Mandrekar, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To define the peripheral neuropathy phenotypes associated with Castleman disease. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with biopsy-proven Castleman disease evaluated between January 2003 and December 2014. Patients with associated peripheral neuropathy were identified and divided into 2 groups: those with Castleman disease without POEMS syndrome (CD-PN) and those with Castleman disease with POEMS syndrome (CD-POEMS). We used a cohort of patients with POEMS as controls. Clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory characteristics were collected and compared among patient subgroups. Results: There were 7 patients with CD-PN, 20 with CD-POEMS, and 122 with POEMS. Patients with CD-PN had the mildest neuropathy characterized by predominant sensory symptoms with no pain and mild distal sensory deficits (median Neuropathy Impairment Score of 7 points). Although both patients with CD-POEMS and patients with POEMS had a severe sensory and motor neuropathy, patients with CD-POEMS were less affected (median Neuropathy Impairment Score of 33 and 66 points, respectively). The degree of severity was also reflected on electrodiagnostic testing in which patients with CD-PN demonstrated a mild degree of axonal loss, followed by patients with CD-POEMS and then those with POEMS. Demyelinating features, defined by European Federation of Neurologic Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society criteria, were present in 43% of the CD-PN, 78% of the CD-POEMS, and 86% of the POEMS group. Conclusion: There is a spectrum of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies associated with Castleman disease. CD-PN is sensory predominant and is the mildest phenotype, whereas CD-POEMS is a more severe sensory and motor neuropathy. Compared to the POEMS cohort, those with CD-POEMS neuropathy have a similar but less severe phenotype. Whether these patients respond differently to treatment deserves further study. PMID:27807187

  9. Clinical spectrum of Castleman disease-associated neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, Elie; Dispenzieri, Angela; Mandrekar, Jay; Mauermann, Michelle L

    2016-12-06

    To define the peripheral neuropathy phenotypes associated with Castleman disease. We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with biopsy-proven Castleman disease evaluated between January 2003 and December 2014. Patients with associated peripheral neuropathy were identified and divided into 2 groups: those with Castleman disease without POEMS syndrome (CD-PN) and those with Castleman disease with POEMS syndrome (CD-POEMS). We used a cohort of patients with POEMS as controls. Clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory characteristics were collected and compared among patient subgroups. There were 7 patients with CD-PN, 20 with CD-POEMS, and 122 with POEMS. Patients with CD-PN had the mildest neuropathy characterized by predominant sensory symptoms with no pain and mild distal sensory deficits (median Neuropathy Impairment Score of 7 points). Although both patients with CD-POEMS and patients with POEMS had a severe sensory and motor neuropathy, patients with CD-POEMS were less affected (median Neuropathy Impairment Score of 33 and 66 points, respectively). The degree of severity was also reflected on electrodiagnostic testing in which patients with CD-PN demonstrated a mild degree of axonal loss, followed by patients with CD-POEMS and then those with POEMS. Demyelinating features, defined by European Federation of Neurologic Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society criteria, were present in 43% of the CD-PN, 78% of the CD-POEMS, and 86% of the POEMS group. There is a spectrum of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies associated with Castleman disease. CD-PN is sensory predominant and is the mildest phenotype, whereas CD-POEMS is a more severe sensory and motor neuropathy. Compared to the POEMS cohort, those with CD-POEMS neuropathy have a similar but less severe phenotype. Whether these patients respond differently to treatment deserves further study. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Dorsal scapular neuropathy causing rhomboids palsy and scapular winging.

    PubMed

    Argyriou, Andreas A; Karanasios, Panagiotis; Makridou, Alexandra; Makris, Nicolaos

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of scapular winging (SW) are attributed to either long thoracic or spinal accessory nerve lesions. Dorsal scapular nerve lesions are quite rare and the literature contains very few case reports of SW secondary to rhomboid paralysis. We are reporting the unusual case of a young patient who developed right-side scapular winging due to dorsal scapular neuropathy and rhomboids palsy, and we highlight the role of conservative treatment and rehabilitation for cases of mild/medium injury to the dorsal scapular nerve or to the rhomboid muscles. For those cases, physiotherapy is recommended, and this is mainly aimed at strengthening the trapezius in order to compensate for rhomboids weakness.

  11. Recommendations to enable drug development for inherited neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sames, Lori; Moore, Allison; Arnold, Renee; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 2500 Americans suffer from Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The underlying disease mechanisms are unique in most forms of CMT, with many point mutations on various genes causing a toxic accumulation of misfolded proteins. Symptoms of the disease often present within the first two decades of life, with CMT1A patients having reduced compound muscle and sensory action potentials, slow nerve conduction velocities, sensory loss, progressive distal weakness, foot and hand deformities, decreased reflexes, bilateral foot drop and about 5% become wheelchair bound. In contrast, the ultra-rare disease Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN) is frequently described as a recessively inherited condition that results in progressive nerve death. GAN usually appears in early childhood and progresses slowly as neuronal injury becomes more severe and leads to death in the second or third decade. There are currently no treatments for any of the forms of CMTs or GAN. We suggest that further clinical studies should analyse electrical impedance myography as an outcome measure for CMT. Further, additional quality of life (QoL) assessments for these CMTs are required, and we need to identify GAN biomarkers as well as develop new genetic testing panels for both diseases. We propose that using the Global Registry of Inherited Neuropathy (GRIN) could be useful for many of these studies. Patient advocacy groups and professional organizations (such as the Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation (HNF), Hannah's Hope Fund (HHF), The Neuropathy Association (TNA) and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) can play a central role in educating clinicians and patients. Undertaking these studies will assist in the correct diagnosis of disease recruiting patients for clinical studies, and will ultimately improve the endpoints for clinical trials. By addressing obstacles that prevent industry investment in various forms of inherited neuropathies, we can

  12. Ethambutol/Linezolid Toxic Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Libershteyn, Yevgeniya

    2016-02-01

    To report a rare toxic optic neuropathy after long-term use of two medications: ethambutol and linezolid. A 65-year-old man presented to the Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center in December 2014 for evaluation of progressive vision decrease in both eyes. The patient presented with best-corrected visual acuities of 20/400 in the right eye and counting fingers at 5 feet in the left eye. Color vision was significantly reduced in both eyes. Visual fields revealed a cecocentral defect in both eyes. His fundus and optic nerve examination was unremarkable. Because vision continued to decline after discontinuation of ethambutol, linezolid was also discontinued, after which vision, color vision, and visual fields improved. Because of these findings, the final diagnosis was toxic optic neuropathy. Final visual outcome was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Drug-associated toxic optic neuropathy is a rare but vision-threatening condition. Diagnosis is made based on an extensive case history and careful clinical examination. The examination findings include varying decrease in vision, normal pupils and extraocular muscles, and unremarkable fundoscopy, with the possibility of swollen optic discs in the acute stage of the optic neuropathy. Other important findings descriptive of toxic optic neuropathy include decreased color vision and cecocentral visual field defects. This case illustrates the importance of knowledge of all medications and/or substances a patient consumes that may cause a toxic reaction and discontinuing them immediately if the visual functions are worsening or not improving.

  13. [Leber hereditary optic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Mazunin, I O; Volodko, N V

    2018-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is characterized by bilateral, painless loss of vision in children and young adults (generally up to 25 years old). Since its first description in 1871, the understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis has improved considerably. The article considers Leber neuropathy from the points of view of ophthalmology, neurology and molecular genetics, and presents data on experimental treatment methods, one of which is undergoing clinical trial.

  14. Ulnar Rotation Osteotomy for Congenital Radial Head Dislocation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiyu; Miao, Wusheng; Mu, Mingchao; Wu, Ge; Qu, Jining; Wu, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate an ulnar rotation osteotomy for congenital anterior dislocation of the radial head. Nine patients (5 boys and 4 girls aged 6 to 13 years) with congenital anterior dislocation of the radial head were treated with ulnar rotation osteotomy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow showed the proximal radioulnar joint on the anterior-lateral side of the ulna rather than on the lateral side in patients with congenital anterior dislocation of the radial head. On the basis of this finding, we performed an osteotomy on the ulna and laterally rotated the proximal radioulnar joint achieving radial head reduction and restoring the anatomical relationship between the radial head and the capitellum. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of the elbow was performed before surgery and at postoperative follow-up. All patients were followed for 13 to 45 months after surgery. Elbow radiography showed that the radiocapitellar joint was reduced in all patients at the last follow-up visit and that the carrying angle was decreased relative to that in the preoperative condition. Elbow stability and the range of elbow flexion motion were improved at the last follow-up. We did not observe ulnar osteotomy site nonunion or elbow osteoarthritis in these patients. Furthermore, radial head dislocation did not recur. At early follow-up, ulnar rotation osteotomy was a safe and effective method for the treatment of congenital anterior dislocation of the radial head. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-russe: new autosomal recessive neuropathy in Balkan Gypsies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P K; Kalaydjieva, L; Youl, B; Rogers, T; Angelicheva, D; King, R H; Guergueltcheva, V; Colomer, J; Lupu, C; Corches, A; Popa, G; Merlini, L; Shmarov, A; Muddle, J R; Nourallah, M; Tournev, I

    2001-10-01

    A novel peripheral neuropathy of autosomal recessive inheritance has been identified in Balkan Gypsies and termed hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Russe (HMSN-R). We investigated 21 affected individuals from 10 families. Distal lower limb weakness began between the ages of 8 and 16 years, upper limb involvement beginning between 10 and 43 years, with an average of 22 years. This progressive disorder led to severe weakness of the lower limbs, generalized in the oldest subject (aged 57 years), and marked distal upper limb weakness. Prominent distal sensory loss involved all modalities, resulting in neuropathic joint degeneration in two instances. All patients showed foot deformity, and most showed hand deformity. Motor nerve conduction velocity was moderately reduced in the upper limbs but unobtainable in the legs. Sensory nerve action potentials were absent. There was loss of larger myelinated nerve fibers and profuse regenerative activity in the sural nerve. HMSN-R is a new form of autosomal recessive inherited HMSN caused by a single founder mutation in a 1 Mb interval on chromosome 10q.

  16. Desert hedgehog is a mediator of demyelination in compression neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Jung, James; Frump, Derek; Su, Jared; Wang, Weiping; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Gupta, Ranjan

    2015-09-01

    The secreted protein desert hedgehog (dhh) controls the formation of the nerve perineurium during development and is a key component of Schwann cells that ensures peripheral nerve survival. We postulated that dhh may play a critical role in maintaining myelination and investigated its role in demyelination-induced compression neuropathies by using a post-natal model of a chronic nerve injury in wildtype and dhh(-/-) mice. We evaluated demyelination using electrophysiological, morphological, and molecular approaches. dhh transcripts and protein are down-regulated early after injury in wild-type mice, suggesting an intimate relationship between the hedgehog pathway and demyelination. In dhh(-/-) mice, nerve injury induced more prominent and severe demyelination relative to their wild-type counterparts, suggesting a protective role of dhh. Alterations in nerve fiber characteristics included significant decreases in nerve conduction velocity, increased myelin debris, and substantial decreases in internodal length. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that dhh blockade via either adenovirus-mediated (shRNA) or pharmacological inhibition both resulted in severe demyelination, which could be rescued by exogenous Dhh. Exogenous Dhh was protective against this demyelination and maintained myelination at baseline levels in a custom in vitro bioreactor to applied biophysical forces to myelinated DRG/Schwann cell co-cultures. Together, these results demonstrate a pivotal role for dhh in maintaining myelination. Furthermore, dhh signaling reveals a potential target for therapeutic intervention to prevent and treat demyelination of peripheral nerves in compression neuropathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Two cases of bilateral amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chassang, B; Bonnin, N; Moisset, X; Citron, B; Clavelou, P; Chiambaretta, F

    2014-03-01

    The widespread use of amiodarone is limited by its toxicity, notably to the optic nerve. We report two cases of bilateral optic nerve neuropathy due to amiodarone, and provide a detailed description of the disease. The first case was a 59-year-old man complaining from insidious monocular loss of vision within ten months of initiating amiodarone. Funduscopy and optical coherence tomography showed bilateral optic disc edema. The second case was a 72-year-old man presenting with a decrease in visual acuity in his left eye for a month. Funduscopy showed a left optic nerve edema, and fluorescein angiography showed bilateral papillitis. In both cases, the clinical presentation was not suggestive of ischemic neuropathy, because of the preservation of visual acuity and the insidious onset. In addition, both cardiovascular and inflammatory work-up were normal. An amiodarone-associated neuropathy was suspected, and amiodarone was discontinued with the approval of the cardiologist, with complete regression of the papilledema and a stabilization of visual symptoms. Differentiating between amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy may be complicated by the cardiovascular background of such patients. The major criterion is the absence of a severe decrease in visual acuity; other criteria are the normality of cardiovascular and inflammatory work-up, and the improvement or the absence of worsening of symptoms after discontinuation of amiodarone. Amiodarone-associated neuropathy remains a diagnosis of exclusion, and requires amiodarone discontinuation, which can only be done with the approval of a cardiologist, and sometimes requires replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Reappraising entrapment neuropathies--mechanisms, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annina B; Nee, Robert J; Coppieters, Michel W

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of entrapment neuropathies can be difficult because symptoms and signs often do not follow textbook descriptions and vary significantly between patients with the same diagnosis. Signs and symptoms which spread outside of the innervation territory of the affected nerve or nerve root are common. This Masterclass provides insight into relevant mechanisms that may account for this extraterritorial spread in patients with entrapment neuropathies, with an emphasis on neuroinflammation at the level of the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, as well as changes in subcortical and cortical regions. Furthermore, we describe how clinical tests and technical investigations may identify these mechanisms if interpreted in the context of gain or loss of function. The management of neuropathies also remains challenging. Common treatment strategies such as joint mobilisation, neurodynamic exercises, education, and medications are discussed in terms of their potential to influence certain mechanisms at the site of nerve injury or in the central nervous system. The mechanism-oriented approach for this Masterclass seems warranted given the limitations in the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of entrapment neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. True Ulnar Artery Aneurysm in the Proximal Forearm: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Seamus Mark; Moloney, Michael Anthony; Greco, Elisa; Wheatcroft, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Ulnar artery aneurysms are rare with less than 150 previously reported. Previously ulnar aneurysms have been most commonly noted as occurring in the distal ulnar artery close to the palmar arch. We present the case of a 47-year-old male with a background history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who attended our outpatient clinic with symptoms of distal embolization from a proximal ulnar artery aneurysm. Preoperatively, the aneurysm was thought to arise from the distal brachial artery, and only intraoperatively was the diagnosis of ulnar aneurysm made. The aneurysm was excised, and a reverse vein bypass graft anastomosed end to side on the brachial artery, and end to end on the distal ulnar. True ulnar artery aneurysms also involving the more proximal ulnar artery have been previously reported associated with vasculitic disorders. HIV has been previously associated with aneurysm formation in a number of anatomical locations. This case is noteworthy as it reports on the presentation and successful operative management of a true ulnar artery aneurysm arising in the proximal forearm in the setting of HIV, which has not been previously reported in medical literature. We present successful operative management of a true ulnar aneurysm in the proximal forearm using a reverse venous interposition bypass. Diagnosis of a proximal ulnar artery aneurysm may represent a diagnostic challenge given its rarity as it may mimic brachial artery aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nerve injury following shoulder dislocation: the emergency physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Victor; Crane, Steve

    2006-08-01

    We describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with a right anterior shoulder dislocation following a fall onto the right shoulder and right upper arm. She also complained of numbness in the right forearm and dorsum of the right hand. The examination revealed a bruise to the upper aspect of the right arm resulting from the impact following the fall. The patient also had a right wrist drop and loss of sensation in the lateral border of the right forearm and on the dorsum of the right hand, suggesting a radial nerve injury. She also had altered sensation in the ulnar distribution of her right hand, suspicious of concomitant ulnar nerve injury. No loss of sensation in the distribution of the axillary nerve (regimental patch) was observed. These findings were carefully documented and the patient subsequently had the shoulder reduced under entonox and morphine. The neurological deficits remained unchanged. The patient was sent home from the emergency room with arrangements for orthopaedic and physiotherapy follow-up. After a 3-month period, she had clinical and electromyography evidence of persistent radial and ulnar nerve deficit. She continues to have physiotherapy. This case highlights the need for awareness of the potential for nerve damage following shoulder dislocation and also to ensure that appropriate follow-up plan is instituted on discharge from the emergency department.

  1. Ulnar hammer syndrome: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vartija, Larisa; Cheung, Kevin; Kaur, Manraj; Coroneos, Christopher James; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-11-01

    Ulnar hammer syndrome is an uncommon form of arterial insufficiency. Many treatments have been described, and debate continues about the best option. The goal of this systematic review was to determine whether ulnar hammer syndrome has an occupational association, to identify the most reliable diagnostic test, and to determine the best treatment modality. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Data from articles meeting inclusion criteria were collected in duplicate. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies scale. Thirty studies were included in the systematic review. No randomized controlled trials were identified. There is low-quality evidence suggestive of an association between exposure to repetitive hand trauma and vibration and ulnar hammer syndrome. Various diagnostic investigations were used, but few were compared, making it difficult to determine the most reliable diagnostic test. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatments were reported. With nonoperative treatment, 12 percent had complete resolution and 70 percent had partial resolution of their symptoms. Of patients treated operatively, 42.5 percent had complete resolution and 42.5 percent had partial resolution of their symptoms. The heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures limits definitive conclusions about occupational association, best diagnostic test, and treatment for ulnar hammer syndrome. However, there is low-quality evidence that suggests that most patients with ulnar hammer syndrome will have partial relief of symptoms with nonoperative treatment, and operative treatment results in complete or partial resolution of symptoms in the majority of cases. Therapeutic, IV.

  2. IgM-monoclonal gammopathy neuropathy and tremor: A first epidemiologic case control study

    PubMed Central

    Ahlskog, Matthew C.; Kumar, Neeraj; Mauermann, Michelle L.; Klein, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Small case series suggest tremor occurs frequently in IgM-monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM-MGUS) neuropathy. Epidemiologic study to confirm this association is lacking. Whether the neuropathy or another remote IgM-effect is causal remains unsettled. Materials and methods An IgM-MGUS neuropathy case cohort (n=207) was compared to age, gender, and neuropathy impairment score (NIS) matched, other-cause neuropathy controls (n=414). Tremor details were extracted from structured neurologic evaluation. All patients underwent nerve conductions. Results Tremor occurrence was significantly higher in IgM-MGUS case cohort (29%) than in control cohort (9.2%) (p=0.001). In IgM-MGUS cases, tremor was associated with worse NIS (p=0.025) and demyelinating nerve conductions (p=0.020), but 11 of 60 (18%) IgM-MGUS cases with tremor had axonal neuropathy. In other-cause neuropathy controls, tremor was associated with axonal nerve conductions (p=0.03) but not with NIS severity (p=0.57). Tremor occurrence associated with older age in controls, (p=0.004) but not in IgM-MGUS cases (p=0.272). Most IgM-MGUS tremor cases (49/60) had a postural-kinetic tremor, 8 had rest tremor, 3 had mixed rest-action. Alternative causes of tremor was identified in 42% of IgM-MGUS cases, the most common type is inherited essential tremor 6/60 (p=0.04). Conclusions This first epidemiologic case-control study validates association between IgM-MGUS neuropathy and tremor. Among IgM-MGUS neuropathy cases, severity as well as type of neuropathy (demyelinating over axonal) correlated with tremor occurrence. IgM-MGUS paraproteinemia may increase tremor expression in persons recognized with common other risk factors for tremor. PMID:22475624

  3. Acute Toxic Neuropathy Mimicking Guillain Barre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Muhammed Jasim Abdul; Fernandez, Shirley Joan; Menon, Murali Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic PMID:25811007

  4. Prevalence and predictors of peripheral neuropathy in nondiabetic children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Bagga, Arvind; Gulati, Sheffali; Toteja, G S; Hari, Pankaj; Sinha, Aditi; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Irshad, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of peripheral neuropathy in nondiabetic children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifty-one consecutive normally nourished children, 3-18 years of age, with CKD stages IV and V of nondiabetic etiology were enrolled from May to December 2012. Nerve conduction studies were performed in 50 children. Blood samples were analyzed for the biochemical parameters, trace elements, and micronutrients. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in our cohort was 52% (95% confidence interval 37.65, 66.34). The majority (80.8%) of the children had axonal neuropathy, and 11.5% had demyelinating neuropathy. Isolated motor neuropathy was identified in 92.3% of the children, and sensorimotor neuropathy was identified in 7.6%. The significant risk factors associated with peripheral neuropathy were older age, low serum copper, and dialysis therapy. Electrodiagnostic studies should be performed in children with CKD to assess for peripheral neuropathy for the purpose of optimizing medical care. Muscle Nerve 57: 792-798, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Retinal Tissue Thickness is Reduced in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Pritchard, Nicola; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Edwards, Katie; Sampson, Geoff P; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and retinal tissue thickness. Full retinal thickness in the central retinal, parafoveal, and perifoveal zones and thickness of the ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) were assessed in 193 individuals (84 with type 1 diabetes, 67 with type 2 diabetes, and 42 healthy controls) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Among those with diabetes, 44 had neuropathy defined using a modified neuropathy disability score recorded on a 0-10 scale. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and retinal tissue thickness, adjusted for the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), age, sex, duration of diabetes, and HbA 1c levels. In individuals with diabetes, perifoveal thickness was inversely related to the severity of neuropathy (p < 0.05), when adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and HbA 1c levels. DR was associated with reduced thickness in parafovea (p < 0.01). The RNFL was thinner in individuals with greater degrees of neuropathy (p < 0.04). DPN is associated with structural compromise involving several retinal layers. This compromise may represent a threat to visual integrity and therefore warrants examination of functional correlates.

  6. Spinal Disinhibition in Experimental and Clinical Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Lee-Kubli, Corinne; Azmi, Shazli; Zhang, Michael; Ferdousi, Maryam; Mixcoatl-Zecuatl, Teresa; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Ponirakis, Georgios; Fineman, Mark S.; Fadavi, Hassan; Frizzi, Katie; Tavakoli, Mitra; Jolivalt, Corinne G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Efron, Nathan; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2017-01-01

    Impaired rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the Hoffman reflex is associated with reduced dorsal spinal cord potassium chloride cotransporter expression and impaired spinal γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function, indicative of spinal inhibitory dysfunction. We have investigated the pathogenesis of impaired RDD in diabetic rodents exhibiting features of painful neuropathy and the translational potential of this marker of spinal inhibitory dysfunction in human painful diabetic neuropathy. Impaired RDD and allodynia were present in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats but not in rats with type 1 diabetes receiving insulin supplementation that did not restore normoglycemia. Impaired RDD in diabetic rats was rapidly normalized by spinal delivery of duloxetine acting via 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A receptors and temporally coincident with the alleviation of allodynia. Deficits in RDD and corneal nerve density were demonstrated in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy compared with healthy control subjects and patients with painless diabetic neuropathy. Spinal inhibitory dysfunction and peripheral small fiber pathology may contribute to the clinical phenotype in painful diabetic neuropathy. Deficits in RDD may help identify patients with spinally mediated painful diabetic neuropathy who may respond optimally to therapies such as duloxetine. PMID:28202580

  7. Revision ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction using a suspension button fixation technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gregory H; Limpisvasti, Orr; Park, Maxwell C; McGarry, Michelle H; Yocum, Lewis A; Lee, Thay Q

    2010-03-01

    Revision ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction remains a challenging problem. The objective of this study was to biomechanically evaluate an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction technique using a suspension button fixation technique that can be used even in the case of ulnar cortical bone loss. An ulnar suspension fixation technique for ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction can restore elbow kinematics and demonstrate failure strength comparable to that of currently available techniques. Controlled laboratory study. Nine pairs of cadaveric elbows were dissected free of soft tissue and potted. After simulating ulnar cortical bone loss, ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction was performed in 1 elbow of each pair using palmaris longus autograft and a 30-mm RetroButton suspended from the far (lateralmost) ulnar cortex. A docking technique was used for humeral fixation of the graft. Elbow valgus angle was quantified using a Microscribe 3DLX digitizer at multiple elbow flexion angles. Valgus angle was measured with the ulnar collateral ligament intact, transected, and reconstructed. In addition, load-to-failure testing was performed in 1 elbow of each pair. Release of the ulnar collateral ligament caused a significant increase in valgus angle at each flexion angle tested (P < .002). Reconstructed elbows demonstrated no significant differences in valgus angle from the intact elbow at all flexion angles tested. Load-to-failure tests showed that reconstructed elbows had an ultimate torque (10.3 + or - 5.7 N x m) significantly less than intact elbows (26.4 + or - 10.6 N x m) (P = .001). Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction using a suspension button fixation technique reliably restored elbow kinematics to the intact state. Load-to-failure testing demonstrated comparable fixation strength to several historic controls of primary reconstruction techniques despite the simulated ulnar cortical bone loss. Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction using a suspension

  8. High-Resolution Nerve Ultrasound and Electrophysiological Findings in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pitarokoili, K; Fels, M; Kerasnoudis, A; Toenges, L; Gold, R; Yoon, M-S

    2018-05-11

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a multifactorial network disorder of a sensorimotor system extending from dopaminergic and glutamatergic cerebral structures to the spinal neurons and peripheral nerves. The role of peripheral nerve damage in the causality and severity progression for RLS patients remains unclear. We performed a clinical and epidemiological study on a cohort of 34 RLS patients focusing on RLS risk factors and disease severity. We investigated the peripheral nerves with nerve conduction studies and with high-resolution nerve ultrasound (HRUS). In 18 of the 34 patients (mean age 67.4 ± 15 years old), a sensorimotor axonal neuropathy was diagnosed. These patients presented with late-onset RLS were treated with membrane stabilizing agents, whereas no neuropathy predisposing comorbidity could be identified for the majority of them. We could show an inverse correlation between the amplitudes of the tibial nerve for the patients with polyneuropathy and the RLS severity index. Neuropathy patients were characterized by an increase of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa and by increased intranerve and internerve variability values showing an asymmetry of CSA distribution. This pattern resembles previous studies on diabetic neuropathy. Early diagnosis, characterization, and treatment of neuropathy are increasingly relevant for RLS patients as it correlates with disease severity. HRUS revealed a pattern resembling diabetic neuropathy, which implies a similar pathophysiology with metabolic and ischemic origin of RLS-related axonal neuropathy. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  9. Clinical and electrodiagnostic characteristics of nitrous oxide-induced neuropathy in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Tao; Chu, Chun-Che; Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Liao, Ming-Feng; Chang, Hong-Shiu; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Lyu, Rong-Kuo

    2016-10-01

    Nitrous oxide-induced neuropathy is toxic neuropathy occasionally encountered in Taiwanese neurological clinics. Only several case reports described their electrodiagnostic features. We used a case-control design to investigate the detailed electrodiagnostic characteristics and possible factors relating to severe nerve injury. We retrospectively reviewed 33 patients with nitrous oxide-induced neuropathy over a 10-year period and reported their demographic data, spinal cord MRI, laboratory examinations and nerve conduction studies. 56 healthy controls' nerve conduction studies were collected for comparison analysis. We noted significant motor and sensory amplitudes reduction, conduction velocities slowing, and latencies prolongation in most tested nerves compared to the controls. Similar nerve conduction study characteristics with prominent lower limbs' motor and sensory amplitudes reduction was observed in patient groups with or without abnormal vitamin B12 and/or homocysteine levels. Among those with lower limbs' motor or sensory amplitudes reduction <20% of the lower limit of normal, higher homocysteine levels were detected. Severe impairments of the lower limbs' sensory and motor amplitudes were frequently noted in patients with nitrous oxide exposure. Nitrous oxide exposure itself is an important factor for the development of neuropathy. Our study contributes to the understanding of electrodiagnostic features underlying the nitrous oxide-induced neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The clinical identification of peripheral neuropathy among older persons.

    PubMed

    Richardson, James K

    2002-11-01

    To identify simple clinical rules for the detection of a diffuse peripheral neuropathy among older outpatients. Observational, blinded, controlled study. A tertiary-care electrodiagnostic laboratory and biomechanics laboratory. One hundred research subjects, 68 with electrodiagnostic evidence of peripheral neuropathy, between the ages of 50 and 80 years. Not applicable. One examiner, unaware of the results of electrodiagnostic testing, evaluated Achilles' and patellar reflexes, Romberg testing, semiquantified vibration, and position sense at the toe and ankle in all subjects, and unipedal stance time and the Michigan Diabetes Neuropathy Score in a subset of subjects. Significant group differences were present in all clinical measures tested. Three signs, Achilles' reflex (absent despite facilitation), vibration (128Hz tuning fork perceived for <10s), and position sense (<8/10 1-cm trials) at the toe, were the best predictors of peripheral neuropathy on both univariate and logistic regression (pseudo R(2)=.744) analyses. The presence of 2 or 3 signs versus 0 or 1 sign identified peripheral neuropathy with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 94.1%, 84.4%, 92.8%, and 87.1%, respectively. Values were similar among subgroups of subjects with and without diabetes mellitus. When other clinicians applied the technique to 12 more subjects, excellent interrater reliability regarding the presence of peripheral neuropathy (kappa=.833) and good to excellent interrater reliability for each sign (kappa range,.667-1.00) were shown. Among older persons, the presence of 2 or 3 of the 3 clinical signs strongly suggested electrodiagnostic evidence of a peripheral neuropathy, regardless of etiology. Age-related decline in peripheral nerve function need not be a barrier to the clinical recognition of a diffuse peripheral neuropathy among older persons. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of

  11. Anatomy of pudendal nerve at urogenital diaphragm--new critical site for nerve entrapment.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Stephan; Ebmer, Johannes; Dellon, A Lee; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the relations of the pudendal nerve in this complex anatomic region and determine possible entrapment sites that are accessible for surgical decompression. Entrapment neuropathies of the pudendal nerve are an uncommon and, therefore, often overlooked or misdiagnosed clinical entity. The detailed relations of this nerve as it exits the pelvis through the urogenital diaphragm and enters the mobile part of the penis have not yet been studied. Detailed anatomic dissections were performed in 10 formalin preserved hemipelves under 3.5x loupe magnification. The pudendal nerve was dissected from the entrance into the Alcock canal to the dorsum of the penis. The branching pattern of the nerve and its topographic relationship were recorded and photographs taken. The anatomic dissections revealed that the pudendal nerve passes through a tight osteofibrotic canal just distal to the urogenital diaphragm at the entrance to the base of the penis. This canal is, in part, formed by the inferior ramus of the pubic bone, the suspensory ligament of the penis, and the ischiocavernous body. In two specimens, a fusiform pseudoneuromatous thickening was found. The pudendal nerve is susceptible to compression at the passage from the Alcock canal to the dorsum of the penis. Individuals exposed to repetitive mechanical irritation in this region are especially endangered. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy can have additional compression neuropathy with decreased penile sensibility and will benefit from decompression of the pudendal nerve.

  12. Familial auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuju; Gu, Rui; Han, Dongyi; Yang, Weiyan

    2003-09-01

    Auditory neuropathy is a sensorineural hearing disorder characterized by absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses and normal cochlear outer hair cell function as measured by otoacoustic emission recordings. Many risk factors are thought to be involved in its etiology and pathophysiology. Four Chinese pedigrees with familial auditory neuropathy were presented to demonstrate involvement of genetic factors in the etiology of auditory neuropathy. Probands of the above-mentioned pedigrees, who had been diagnosed with auditory neuropathy, were evaluated and followed in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, China People Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China). Their family members were studied, and the pedigree maps established. History of illness, physical examination, pure-tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, auditory brainstem responses, and transient evoked and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions were obtained from members of these families. Some subjects received vestibular caloric testing, computed tomography scan of the temporal bone, and electrocardiography to exclude other possible neuropathic disorders. In most affected patients, hearing loss of various degrees and speech discrimination difficulties started at 10 to 16 years of age. Their audiological evaluation showed absence of acoustic reflex and auditory brainstem responses. As expected in auditory neuropathy, these patients exhibited near-normal cochlear outer hair cell function as shown in distortion product otoacoustic emission recordings. Pure-tone audiometry revealed hearing loss ranging from mild to profound in these patients. Different inheritance patterns were observed in the four families. In Pedigree I, 7 male patients were identified among 43 family members, exhibiting an X-linked recessive pattern. Affected brothers were found in Pedigrees II and III, whereas in pedigree IV, two sisters were affected. All the patients were otherwise normal without evidence of

  13. Median and ulnar muscle and sensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Felsenthal, G

    1978-08-01

    The medical literature was reviewed to find suggested clinical applications of the study of the amplitude of evoked muscle action potentials (MAP) and sensory action potentials (SAP). In addition, the literature was reviewed to ascertain the normal amplitude and duration of the evoked MAP and SAP as well as the factors affecting the amplitude: age, sex, temperature, ischemia. The present study determined the normal amplitude and duration of the median and ulnar MAP and SAP in fifty normal subjects. The amplitude of evoked muscle or sensory action potentials depends on multiple factors. Increased skin resistance, capacitance, and impedance at the surface of the recording electrode diminishes the amplitude. Similarly, increased distance from the source of the action potential diminishes its amplitude. Increased interelectrode distance increases the amplitude of the bipolarly recorded sensory action potential until a certain interelectrode distance is exceeded and the diphasic response becomes tri- or tetraphasic. Artifact or poor technique may reduce the potential difference between the recording electrodes or obscure the late positive phase of the action potential and thus diminish the peak to peak amplitude measurement. Intraindividual comparison indicated a marked difference of amplitude in opposite hands. The range of the MAP of the abductor pollicis brevis in one hand was 40.0--100% of the response in the opposite hand. For the abductor digiti minimi, the MAP was 58.5--100% of the response of the opposite hand. The median and ulnar SAP was between 50--100% of the opposite SAP. Consequent to these findings the effect of hand dominance on the amplitude of median and ulnar evoked muscle and sensory action potentials was studied in 41 right handed volunteers. The amplitudes of the median muscle action potential (p less than 0.02) and the median and ulnar sensory action potentials (p less than 0.001) were significantly less in the dominant hand. There was no

  14. Major Peripheral Nerve Injuries After Elbow Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mihir J; Mithani, Suhail K; Lodha, Sameer J; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Ruch, David S

    2016-06-01

    To survey the American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership to determine the nature and distribution of nerve injuries treated after elbow arthroscopy. An online survey was sent to all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Collected data included the number of nerve injuries observed over a 5-year period, the nature of treatment required for the injuries, and the outcomes observed after any intervention. Responses were anonymous, and results were securely compiled. We obtained 372 responses. A total of 222 nerve injuries were reported. The most injured nerves reported were ulnar, radial, and posterior interosseous (38%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). Nearly half of all patients with injuries required operative intervention, including nerve graft, tendon transfer, nerve repair, or nerve transfer. Of the patients who sustained major injuries, those requiring intervention, 77% had partial or no motor recovery. All minor injuries resolved completely. Our results suggest that major nerve injuries after elbow arthroscopy are not rare occurrences and the risk of these injuries is likely under-reported in the literature. Furthermore, patients should be counseled on this risk because most nerve injuries show only partial or no functional recovery. With the more widespread practice of elbow arthroscopy, understanding the nature and sequelae of significant complications is critically important in ensuring patient safety and improving outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and lower-extremity function.

    PubMed

    Chiles, Nancy S; Phillips, Caroline L; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Patel, Kushang V

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower-extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine the following: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. This study included 983 participants, age 65 years and older from the InCHIANTI study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0 to 12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cutpoints of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0 to 5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. One hundred twenty-six (12.8%) participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β=-0.99; p<0.01), decreased walking speed (β=-0.1m/s; p<0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β=-1.7m/s; p<0.01), and increased neuropathy (β=0.25; p<0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. © 2014.

  16. Electrophysiological measurements of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shabeeb, Dheyauldeen; Najafi, Masoud; Hasanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hadian, Mohammed Reza; Musa, Ahmed Eleojio; Shirazi, Alireza

    2018-03-28

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus. One of the features of diabetic nerve damage is abnormality of sensory and motor nerve conduction study. An electrophysiological examination can be reproduced and is also a non-invasive approach in the assessment of peripheral nerve function. Population-based and clinical studies have been conducted to validate the sensitivity of these methods. When the diagnosis was based on clinical electrophysiological examination, abnormalities were observed in all patients. In this research, using a review design, we reviewed the issue of clinical electrophysiological examination of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in articles from 2008 to 2017. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus and Embase databases of journals were used for searching articles. The researchers indicated that diabetes (both types) is a very disturbing health issue in the modern world and should be given serious attention. Based on conducted studies, it was demonstrated that there are different procedures for prevention and treatment of diabetes-related health problems such as diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). The first objective quantitative indication of the peripheral neuropathy is abnormality of sensory and motor nerve conduction tests. Electrophysiology is accurate, reliable and sensitive. It can be reproduced and also is a noninvasive approach in the assessment of peripheral nerve function. The methodological review has found that the best method for quantitative indication of the peripheral neuropathy compared with all other methods is clinical electrophysiological examination. For best results, standard protocols such as temperature control and equipment calibration are recommended. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sensation, mechanoreceptor, and nerve fiber function after nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Krarup, Christian; Rosén, Birgitta; Boeckstyns, Michel; Ibsen Sørensen, Allan; Lundborg, Göran; Moldovan, Mihai; Archibald, Simon J

    2017-12-01

    Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber function after nerve regeneration. Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2 years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. At both repair methods, touch thresholds at the finger tips recovered to 81 ± 3% and tactile gnosis only to 20 ± 4% (p < 0.001) of control. The sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) remained dispersed and areas recovered to 23 ± 2% and the amplitudes only to 7 ± 1% (P < 0.001). The areas of SNAPs after tactile stimulation recovered to 61 ± 11% and remained slowed. Touch sensation correlated with SNAP areas (p < 0.005) and was negatively related to the prolongation of tactile latencies (p < 0.01); tactile gnosis was not related to electrophysiological parameters. The recovered function of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers and reinnervated mechanoreceptors may differentially influence recovery of sensory modalities. Touch was affected by the number and function of regenerated fibers and mechanoreceptors. In contrast, tactile gnosis depends on the input and plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS), which may explain the absence of a direct relation between electrophysiological parameters and poor recovery. Dispersed maturation of sensory nerve fibers with desynchronized inputs to the CNS also contributes to the poor recovery of tactile gnosis. Ann Neurol 2017. Ann Neurol 2017;82:940-950. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  18. Content validity of symptom-based measures for diabetic, chemotherapy, and HIV peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Burke, Laurie; Cavaletti, Guido; Dworkin, Robert H; Gibbons, Christopher; Gover, Tony D; Herrmann, David N; Mcarthur, Justin C; McDermott, Michael P; Rappaport, Bob A; Reeve, Bryce B; Russell, James W; Smith, A Gordon; Smith, Shannon M; Turk, Dennis C; Vinik, Aaron I; Freeman, Roy

    2017-03-01

    No treatments for axonal peripheral neuropathy are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although patient- and clinician-reported outcomes are central to evaluating neuropathy symptoms, they can be difficult to assess accurately. The inability to identify efficacious treatments for peripheral neuropathies could be due to invalid or inadequate outcome measures. This systematic review examined the content validity of symptom-based measures of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, HIV neuropathy, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Use of all FDA-recommended methods to establish content validity was only reported for 2 of 18 measures. Multiple sensory and motor symptoms were included in measures for all 3 conditions; these included numbness, tingling, pain, allodynia, difficulty walking, and cramping. Autonomic symptoms were less frequently included. Given significant overlap in symptoms between neuropathy etiologies, a measure with content validity for multiple neuropathies with supplemental disease-specific modules could be of great value in the development of disease-modifying treatments for peripheral neuropathies. Muscle Nerve 55: 366-372, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. What is the Best Strategy on Detection of Cornea Neuropathy in People with Diabetes? Recent Advances in Potential Measurements.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ying; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2018-03-26

    There are well-acknowledged clinical or pre-clinical measurements concerning diabetic peripheral neuropathy(DPN). The current gold standard for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is nerve conduction suitable for detecting large nerve fiber function[1] and intraepidermal nerve fiber density assessment for small fiber damage evaluation[2]. The lack of a sensitive, non-invasive, and repeatable endpoint to measure changes in small nerve fibers is a major factor holding back clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. As cornea is the most densely innerved tissue, assessing corneal nerves' structure and function will be promising to predict and assess the degree of DPN [3]. In the diabetic micro-environment, damaged corneal nerves lead to decreased corneal sensitivity, both of which resulting in abnormal tear function. According to this theory, the measurements of nerve structure, corneal sensitivity, tear secretion and tear components, to some extent, can reveal and assess the state of corneal neuropathy. This review focuses on summarizing the knowledge of the latest detective methods of diabetic corneal neuropathy, popular in use or possible to further in study and be applied into clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comparison of Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy Alone Versus Combined Arthroscopic Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Debridement and Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Background This study compared the results of patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome using an ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) alone with those treated with combined arthroscopic debridement and USO. Methods The results of 27 wrists were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into three groups: group A (USO alone, 10 cases), group B (combined arthroscopic debridement and USO, 9 cases), and group C (arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex [TFCC] debridement alone, 8 cases). The wrist function was evaluated using the modified Mayo wrist score, disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score and Chun and Palmer grading system. Results The modified Mayo wrist score in groups A, B, and C was 74.5 ± 8.9, 73.9 ± 11.6, and 61.3 ± 10.2, respectively (p < 0.05). The DASH score in groups A, B, and C was 15.6 ± 11.8, 19.3 ± 11.9, and 33.2 ± 8.5, respectively (p < 0.05). The average Chun and Palmer grading score in groups A and B was 85.7 ± 8.9 and 84.7 ± 6.7, respectively. The difference in the Mayo wrist score, DASH score and Chun and Palmer grading score between group A and B was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Both USO alone and combined arthroscopic TFCC debridement with USO improved the wrist function and reduced the level of pain in the patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome. USO alone may be the preferred method of treatment in patients if the torn flap of TFCC is not unstable. PMID:21909465

  1. Pattern analysis of nerve enlargement using ultrasonography in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Hong; Cho, Charles S; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Seok, Hung Youl; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2014-09-01

    Focal nerve enlargement is a characteristic finding in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We performed this study to assess the distribution of nerve enlargement through ultrasonographic examination of peripheral nerves and to correlate the ultrasonographic findings with clinical features. To compare the ultrasonographic features of 10 subjects with CIDP with those of 18 healthy controls, we bilaterally measured the cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the vagus, brachial plexus, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, sciatic, tibial, common peroneal, and sural nerves. We also analyzed correlations between CSAs and various clinical and electrophysiological features. Mean CSAs were significantly larger in CIDP patients than controls, especially at proximal and non-entrapment sites. CSAs were significantly correlated with muscle strength at initial presentation, but not at the time of ultrasonography. The CSAs of the median and ulnar nerves at the mid-forearm, tibial nerve at 7 cm proximal to the medial malleolus, and sural nerve correlated with the nerve conduction velocity of the corresponding region. Ultrasonography revealed widely distributed nerve enlargement, especially in proximal regions and non-entrapment sites, in patients with CIDP compared with healthy controls. Nerve enlargement correlated well with the electrophysiologic function of the nerve, but not current clinical status. Pattern analysis of nerve enlargement using ultrasonography is a supportive tool in the diagnosis of CIDP. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autosomal recessive type II hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with acrodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P K; Claus, D; King, R H

    1999-02-01

    A family is described with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance in which three siblings developed a progressive neuropathy that combined limb weakness and severe distal sensory loss leading to prominent mutilating changes. Electrophysiological and nerve biopsy findings indicated an axonopathy. The disorder is therefore classifiable as type II hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN II). The clinical features differ from those reported in previously described cases of autosomal recessive HMSN II. This disorder may therefore represent a new variant.

  3. Navigation-guided optic canal decompression for traumatic optic neuropathy: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Serasiya, Samir; Kapoor, Deepika; Bhattacharjee, Harsha

    2018-06-01

    Two cases of traumatic optic neuropathy presented with profound loss of vision. Both cases received a course of intravenous corticosteroids elsewhere but did not improve. They underwent Navigation guided optic canal decompression via external transcaruncular approach, following which both cases showed visual improvement. Postoperative Visual Evoked Potential and optical coherence technology of Retinal nerve fibre layer showed improvement. These case reports emphasize on the role of stereotactic navigation technology for optic canal decompression in cases of traumatic optic neuropathy.

  4. Deletion of Sarm1 gene is neuroprotective in two models of peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Turkiew, Elliot; Falconer, Debbie; Reed, Nicole; Höke, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    Distal axon degeneration seen in many peripheral neuropathies is likely to share common molecular mechanisms with Wallerian degeneration. Although several studies in mouse models of peripheral neuropathy showed prevention of axon degeneration in the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) mouse, the role of a recently identified player in Wallerian degeneration, Sarm1, has not been explored extensively. In this study, we show that mice lacking the Sarm1 gene are resistant to distal axonal degeneration in a model of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy caused by paclitaxel and a model of high fat diet induced putative metabolic neuropathy. This study extends the role of Sarm1 to axon degeneration seen in peripheral neuropathies and identifies it as a likely target for therapeutic development. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  5. Hierarchical models for epidermal nerve fiber data.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Claes; Rajala, Tuomas; Särkkä, Aila

    2018-02-10

    While epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) data have been used to study the effects of small fiber neuropathies through the density and the spatial patterns of the ENFs, little research has been focused on the effects on the individual nerve fibers. Studying the individual nerve fibers might give a better understanding of the effects of the neuropathy on the growth process of the individual ENFs. In this study, data from 32 healthy volunteers and 20 diabetic subjects, obtained from suction induced skin blister biopsies, are analyzed by comparing statistics for the nerve fibers as a whole and for the segments that a nerve fiber is composed of. Moreover, it is evaluated whether this type of data can be used to detect diabetic neuropathy, by using hierarchical models to perform unsupervised classification of the subjects. It is found that using the information about the individual nerve fibers in combination with the ENF counts yields a considerable improvement as compared to using the ENF counts only. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-03-28

    To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve ( R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy associated with vitamin B12

  7. Ambient geothermal hydrogen sulfide exposure and peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Karl; So, Yuen T.; Crane, Julian; Bates, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is thought mainly to operate through effects on the nervous system. The gas has high acute toxicity, but whether chronic exposure causes effects, including peripheral neuropathy, is yet unclear. The city of Rotorua, New Zealand, sits on an active geothermal field and the population has some of the highest measured ambient H2S exposures. A previous study in Rotorua provided evidence that H2S is associated with peripheral neuropathy. Using clinical methods, the present study sought to investigate and possibly confirm this association in the Rotorua population. The study population comprised 1,635 adult residents of Rotorua, aged 18–65. Collected data relevant to the peripheral neuropathy investigation included symptoms, ankle stretch reflex, vibration sensitivity, as measured by the timed-tuning fork test and a Bio-Thesiometer (Bio-Medical Instrument Co., Ohio), and light touch sensitivity measured by monofilaments. An exposure metric, estimating time-weighted H2S exposure across the last 30 years was used. Principal components analysis was used to combine data across the various indicators of possible peripheral neuropathy. The main data analysis used linear regression to examine associations between the peripheral nerve function indicators and H2S exposure. None of the peripheral nerve function indicators were associated with H2S exposure, providing no evidence that H2S exposure at levels found in Rotorua is a cause of peripheral neuropathy. The earlier association between H2S exposure and peripheral neuropathy diagnoses may be attributable to the ecological study design used. The possibility that H2S exposure misclassification could account for the lack of association found cannot be entirely excluded. PMID:28223159

  8. Ambient geothermal hydrogen sulfide exposure and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pope, Karl; So, Yuen T; Crane, Julian; Bates, Michael N

    2017-05-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) gas is thought mainly to operate through effects on the nervous system. The gas has high acute toxicity, but whether chronic exposure causes effects, including peripheral neuropathy, is yet unclear. The city of Rotorua, New Zealand, sits on an active geothermal field and the population has some of the highest measured ambient H 2 S exposures. A previous study in Rotorua provided evidence that H 2 S is associated with peripheral neuropathy. Using clinical methods, the present study sought to investigate and possibly confirm this association in the Rotorua population. The study population comprised 1635 adult residents of Rotorua, aged 18-65. Collected data relevant to the peripheral neuropathy investigation included symptoms, ankle stretch reflex, vibration sensitivity, as measured by the timed-tuning fork test and a Bio-Thesiometer (Bio-Medical Instrument Co., Ohio), and light touch sensitivity measured by monofilaments. An exposure metric, estimating time-weighted H 2 S exposure across the last 30 years was used. Principal components analysis was used to combine data across the various indicators of possible peripheral neuropathy. The main data analysis used linear regression to examine associations between the peripheral nerve function indicators and H 2 S exposure. None of the peripheral nerve function indicators were associated with H 2 S exposure, providing no evidence that H 2 S exposure at levels found in Rotorua is a cause of peripheral neuropathy. The earlier association between H 2 S exposure and peripheral neuropathy diagnoses may be attributable to the ecological study design used. The possibility that H 2 S exposure misclassification could account for the lack of association found cannot be entirely excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Peripheral Neuropathy of Unknown Origin in an Outpatient Foot and Ankle Practice.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sandra E; Chu, Jennifer; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E

    2015-09-01

    The foot and ankle surgeon can see peripheral neuropathy in the treatment of foot and ankle conditions. The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the demographics and presenting complaints of patients diagnosed with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy during an examination by a foot and ankle surgeon and (2) to identify the type and frequency of subsequent diagnosis of medical causes of neuropathy. This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in our practice between January 1997 and December 2008. Ninety-five patients were identified, and demographic data, presenting complaints, and medical comorbidities were extracted from the medical record. Examination findings of decreased sensation to Semmes Weinstein 5.07 monofilament testing were documented, and electromyogram and nerve conduction study results were reviewed when available. Laboratory values were noted, as were neurologic evaluations performed to diagnose medical conditions associated with peripheral neuropathy. The most common presentation was foot pain, in 36 patients (38%). Ninety-one patients had Semmes Weinstein 5.07 monofilament testing, with loss of protective sensation reported in 75 of the 91 tested (82%). Only 30 of the 95 patients had electromyogram and nerve conduction study results available, with a test positive for peripheral neuropathy in 20 of the 30 tested. Thirty-two patients were evaluated by a neurologist. A specific cause was identified in 12 of the 32 seen by a neurologist. Of the total group of 95 patients, 31 patients (33%) were diagnosed with a condition that may be associated with peripheral neuropathy. Thirty-three percent of the patients presenting to our clinic and given a diagnosis of idiopathic peripheral neuropathy were ultimately diagnosed with a medical cause of neuropathy-most commonly, diabetes. For those patients with idiopathic neuropathy, a spectrum of disease was encountered, including pain, ulcer, infection, and Charcot

  10. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach Jr, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  11. Quantification of human upper extremity nerves and fascicular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Brill, Natalie A; Tyler, Dustin J

    2017-09-01

    In this study we provide detailed quantification of upper extremity nerve and fascicular anatomy. The purpose is to provide values and trends in neural features useful for clinical applications and neural interface device design. Nerve cross-sections were taken from 4 ulnar, 4 median, and 3 radial nerves from 5 arms of 3 human cadavers. Quantified nerve features included cross-sectional area, minor diameter, and major diameter. Fascicular features analyzed included count, perimeter, area, and position. Mean fascicular diameters were 0.57 ± 0.39, 0.6 ± 0.3, 0.5 ± 0.26 mm in the upper arm and 0.38 ± 0.18, 0.47 ± 0.18, 0.4 ± 0.27 mm in the forearm of ulnar, median, and radial nerves, respectively. Mean fascicular diameters were inversely proportional to fascicle count. Detailed quantitative anatomy of upper extremity nerves is a resource for design of neural electrodes, guidance in extraneural procedures, and improved neurosurgical planning. Muscle Nerve 56: 463-471, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Radiation optic neuropathy after megavoltage external-beam irradiation: Analysis of time-dose factors

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Million, R.R.

    1994-11-15

    To investigate the risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy according to total radiotherapy dose and fraction size, based on both retrospective and prospectively collected data. Between October 1964 and May 1989, 215 optic nerves in 131 patients received fractionated external-beam irradiation during the treatment of primary extracranial head and neck tumors. All patients had a minimum of 3 years of ophthalmologic follow-up (range, 3 to 21 years). The clinical end point was visual acuity of 20/100 or worse as a result of optic nerve injury. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy developed in five nerves (at mean and median times of 32 andmore » 30 months, respectively, and a range of 2-4 years). Retrobulbar optic neuropathy developed in 12 nerves (at mean and median times of 47 and 28 months, respectively, and a range of 1-14 years). No injuries were observed in 106 optic nerves that received a total dose of <59 Gy. Among nerves that received doses of {ge} 60 Gy, the dose per fraction was more important than the total dose in producing optic neuropathy. The 15-year actuarial risk of optic compared with 47% when given in fraction sizes {ge}1.9 Gy. The data also suggest an increased risk of optic nerve injury with increasing age. As there is no effective treatment of radiation-induced optic neuropathy, efforts should be directed at its prevention by minimizing the total dose, paying attention to the dose per fraction to the nerve, and using reduced field techniques where appropriate to limit the volume of tissues that receive high-dose irradiation. 32 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  13. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Thomas Paul; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition are often hindered by the difficulties in making objective, noninvasive measurements of nerve fibers. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has the ability to obtain high resolution, specific images of peripheral nerves without exogenous contrast. We demonstrated the first proof-of-concept imaging of peripheral nerves using PAM. As validated by both standard histology and photoacoustic spectroscopy, the origin of photoacoustic signals is myelin, the primary source of lipids in the nerves. An extracted sciatic nerve sandwiched between two layers of chicken tissue was imaged by PAM to mimic the in vivo case. Ordered fibrous structures inside the nerve, caused by the bundles of myelin-coated axons, could be observed clearly. With further technical improvements, PAM can potentially be applied to monitor and diagnose peripheral neuropathies.

  14. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hilgersom, Nick F J; van Deurzen, Derek F P; Gerritsma, Carina L E; van der Heide, Huub J L; Malessy, Martijn J A; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by word-of-mouth throughout the Dutch Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, and the Leiden University Nerve Centre, and (2) approaching two medical liability insurance companies. Medical records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics, disease history and postoperative course. Surgical records were reviewed to determine surgical details. A total of eight patients were collected, four men and four women, ageing 21-54 years. In five out of eight patients (62.5%), the ulnar nerve was affected; in the remaining three patients (37.5%), the radial nerve was involved. Possible causes for nerve injury varied among patients, such as portal placement and the use of motorized instruments. A case series on permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy is presented. Reporting on this sequel in the literature is little, however, its risk is not to be underestimated. This study emphasizes that permanent nerve injury is a complication of elbow arthroscopy, concurrently increasing awareness and thereby possibly aiding to prevention. IV, case series.

  15. Successful treatment of IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy with fludarabine

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, H.; Lunn, M.; Schey, S.; Hughes, R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the response of four patients with IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy to a novel therapy—pulsed intravenous fludarabine.
BACKGROUND—The peripheral neuropathy associated with IgM paraproteinaemia usually runs a chronic, slowly progressive course which may eventually cause severe disability. Treatment with conventional immunosuppressive regimens has been unsatisfactory. Fludarabine is a novel purine analogue which has recently been shown to be effective in low grade lymphoid malignancies.
METHODS—Four patients were treated with IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy with intravenous pulses of fludarabine. Two of the four patients had antibodies to MAG and characteristic widely spaced myelin on nerve biopsy and a third had characteristic widely spaced myelin only. The fourth had an endoneurial lymphocytic infiltrate on nerve biopsy and a diagnosis of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia.
RESULTS—In all cases subjective and objective clinical improvement occurred associated with a significant fall in the IgM paraprotein concentration in three cases. Neurophysiological parameters improved in the three patients examined. The treatment was well tolerated. All patients developed mild, reversible lymphopenia and 50% mild generalised myelosuppression, but there were no febrile episodes.
CONCLUSION—Fludarabine should be considered as a possible treatment for patients with IgM MGUS paraproteinaemic neuropathy.

 PMID:10209166

  16. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy, Multifocal Acquired Demyelinating Sensory and Motor Neuropathy and Other Chronic Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Variants

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.; Katz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathies (CADP) are an important group of immune neuromuscular disorders affecting myelin. These are distinct from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Classically, CIDP is characterized by proximal and distal weakness, large fiber sensory loss, elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein content, demyelinating changes nerve conduction studies or nerve biopsy, and response to immunomodulating treatment. In this chapter we discuss CADP with emphasis on multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy and conclude with less common variants. While each of these entities has distinctive laboratory and electrodiagnostic features that aid in their diagnosis, clinical characteristics are of paramount importance in diagnosing specific conditions and determining the most appropriate therapies. Unlike CIDP, MMN is typically asymmetric and affects only the motor nerve fibers. MMN is a rare disease that presents chronically, over several years of progression affecting the arms are more commonly than the legs. Men are more likely than women to develop MMN. MADSAM should be suspected in patients who have weakness and loss of sensation in primarily one arm or leg which progresses slowly over several months to years. It is important in patient with multifocal demyelinating clinical presentation to distinguish MMN from MADSAM since corticosteroids are not effective in MMN where the mainstay of therapy is intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg). DADS can be subdivided into DADS-M (associated woth M-protein) and DADS-I which is idioapthic. While DADS-I patients respond somewhat to immunotherapy, DADS-M patients present with distal predominant sensorimotor demyelinating neuropathy phenotype and are notoriously refractory to immunotherapies regardless of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Our knowledge

  17. Herpes Zoster Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Aaron R; Myers, Eileen M; Moster, Mark L; Stanley, Jordan; Kline, Lanning B; Golnik, Karl C

    2018-06-01

    Herpes zoster optic neuropathy (HZON) is a rare manifestation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). The aim of our study was to better characterize the clinical features, therapeutic choices, and visual outcomes in HZON. A retrospective chart review was performed at multiple academic eye centers with the inclusion criteria of all eyes presenting with optic neuropathy within 1 month of cutaneous zoster of the ipsilateral trigeminal dermatome. Data were collected regarding presenting features, treatment regimen, and visual acuity outcomes. Six patients meeting the HZON inclusion criteria were identified. Mean follow-up was 2.75 months (range 0.5-4 months). Herpes zoster optic neuropathy developed at a mean of 14.1 days after initial rash (range 6-30 days). Optic neuropathy was anterior in 2 eyes and retrobulbar in 4 eyes. Other manifestations of HZO included keratoconjunctivitis (3 eyes) and iritis (4 eyes). All patients were treated with systemic antiviral therapy in addition to topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. At the last follow-up, visual acuity in 3 eyes had improved relative to presentation, 2 eyes had worsened, and 1 eye remained the same. The 2 eyes that did not receive systemic corticosteroids had the best observed final visual acuity. Herpes zoster optic neuropathy is an unusual but distinctive complication of HZO. Visual recovery after HZON is variable. Identification of an optimal treatment regiment for HZON could not be identified from our patient cohort. Systemic antiviral agents are a component of HZON treatment regimens. Efficacy of systemic corticosteroids for HZON remains unclear and should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Nicotinamide Riboside Opposes Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Samuel A.J.; Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Chadda, Ankita; Yorek, Matthew S.; Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Obrosov, Alexander; Kardon, Randy H.; Yorek, Mark A.; Brenner, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Male C57BL/6J mice raised on high fat diet (HFD) become prediabetic and develop insulin resistance and sensory neuropathy. The same mice given low doses of streptozotocin are a model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), developing hyperglycemia, severe insulin resistance and diabetic peripheral neuropathy involving sensory and motor neurons. Because of suggestions that increased NAD+ metabolism might address glycemic control and be neuroprotective, we treated prediabetic and T2D mice with nicotinamide riboside (NR) added to HFD. NR improved glucose tolerance, reduced weight gain, liver damage and the development of hepatic steatosis in prediabetic mice while protecting against sensory neuropathy. In T2D mice, NR greatly reduced non-fasting and fasting blood glucose, weight gain and hepatic steatosis while protecting against diabetic neuropathy. The neuroprotective effect of NR could not be explained by glycemic control alone. Corneal confocal microscopy was the most sensitive measure of neurodegeneration. This assay allowed detection of the protective effect of NR on small nerve structures in living mice. Quantitative metabolomics established that hepatic NADP+ and NADPH levels were significantly degraded in prediabetes and T2D but were largely protected when mice were supplemented with NR. The data justify testing of NR in human models of obesity, T2D and associated neuropathies. PMID:27230286

  19. Nicotinamide Riboside Opposes Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Trammell, Samuel A J; Weidemann, Benjamin J; Chadda, Ankita; Yorek, Matthew S; Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Obrosov, Alexander; Kardon, Randy H; Yorek, Mark A; Brenner, Charles

    2016-05-27

    Male C57BL/6J mice raised on high fat diet (HFD) become prediabetic and develop insulin resistance and sensory neuropathy. The same mice given low doses of streptozotocin are a model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), developing hyperglycemia, severe insulin resistance and diabetic peripheral neuropathy involving sensory and motor neurons. Because of suggestions that increased NAD(+) metabolism might address glycemic control and be neuroprotective, we treated prediabetic and T2D mice with nicotinamide riboside (NR) added to HFD. NR improved glucose tolerance, reduced weight gain, liver damage and the development of hepatic steatosis in prediabetic mice while protecting against sensory neuropathy. In T2D mice, NR greatly reduced non-fasting and fasting blood glucose, weight gain and hepatic steatosis while protecting against diabetic neuropathy. The neuroprotective effect of NR could not be explained by glycemic control alone. Corneal confocal microscopy was the most sensitive measure of neurodegeneration. This assay allowed detection of the protective effect of NR on small nerve structures in living mice. Quantitative metabolomics established that hepatic NADP(+) and NADPH levels were significantly degraded in prediabetes and T2D but were largely protected when mice were supplemented with NR. The data justify testing of NR in human models of obesity, T2D and associated neuropathies.

  20. Axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia: there is a HINT.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Kristien; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo; Jordanova, Albena

    2017-04-01

    Recessive mutations in the gene encoding the histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) were recently shown to cause a motor-predominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. About 80% of the patients exhibit neuromyotonia, a striking clinical and electrophysiological hallmark that can help to distinguish this disease and to guide diagnostic screening. HINT1 neuropathy has worldwide distribution and is particularly prevalent in populations inhabiting central and south-eastern Europe. With 12 different mutations identified in more than 60 families, it ranks among the most common subtypes of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. This article provides an overview of the present knowledge on HINT1 neuropathy with the aim to increase awareness and spur interest among clinicians and researchers in the field. We propose diagnostic guidelines to recognize and differentiate this entity and suggest treatment strategies to manage common symptoms. As a recent player in the field of hereditary neuropathies, the role of HINT1 in peripheral nerves is unknown and the underlying disease mechanisms are unexplored. We provide a comprehensive overview of the structural and functional characteristics of the HINT1 protein that may guide further studies into the molecular aetiology and treatment strategies of this peculiar Charcot-Marie-Tooth subtype. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  1. Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Environmental Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa B.; Jortner, Bernard S.; Sills, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the progress in our understanding of pathogeneses and the identification of etiologies of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic neuropathy remains common. Typically, attention to peripheral neuropathies resulting from exposure to environmental agents is limited relative to more commonly diagnosed causes of peripheral neuropathy (diabetes and chemotherapeutic agents). Given that there are more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and that at least 1000 chemicals are known to have neurotoxic potential, very few chemicals have been established to affect the peripheral nervous system (mainly after occupational exposures). A wide spectrum of exposures, including pesticides, metals, solvents, nutritional sources, and pharmaceutical agents, has been related, both historically and recently, to environmental toxicant-induced peripheral neuropathy. A review of the literature shows that the toxicity and pathogeneses of chemicals adversely affecting the peripheral nervous system have been studied using animal models. This article includes an overview of five prototypical environmental agents known to cause peripheral neuropathy—namely, organophosphates, carbon disulfide, pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), acrylamide, and hexacarbons (mainly n-hexane, 2,5-hexanedione, methyl n-butyl ketone). Also included is a brief introduction to the structural components of the peripheral nervous system and pointers on common methodologies for histopathologic evaluation of the peripheral nerves. PMID:24615445

  2. Usefulness of sural nerve biopsy in the genomic era.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    The value of peripheral nerve biopsy is now sometimes questioned due to the high complication rate and the recent development of noninvasive molecular techniques for diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy. However, the disorders that can be diagnosed by genetic analysis are limited and sural nerve biopsy is still a powerful tool for making a correct diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. Histological evaluation of the sural nerve has long focused on changes of the two major components of peripheral nerves, axons and myelin, as well as on the detection of diagnostic changes such as amyloid deposits, sarcoid tubercles, and vasculitis. In addition to these components, the sural nerve biopsy specimen contains various important cells, including perineurial cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, pericytes, and lymphocytes. Among these cells, the endothelial cells and pericytes form the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) and investigation of these cells can reveal important information, especially in inflammatory neuropathies. To better understand the biological basis of BNB, we established rat and human immortal cell lines from the endothelial cells and pericytes of endoneurial microvessels. Characterization of these cell lines is now underway at our laboratory. These BNB cell lines should provide useful information concerning the pathophysiology of peripheral neuropathy, and we should obtain a new perspective for the investigation of nerve biopsy specimens after understanding the molecular background of the BNB.

  3. Electrodiagnosis in the management of focal neuropathies: the "WOG" syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, W F; Dellon, A L; Campbell, W W

    1994-11-01

    The role of electrodiagnosis in managing patients with focal neuropathies is discussed from the differing perspectives of a peripheral nerve surgeon and a practitioner of electrodiagnostic medicine. Both clinical evaluation and electrodiagnosis are useful methodologies, each having limitations. Dr. Dellon labels the overreliance on electrodiagnosis and the "WOG" (Word of God) syndrome, and describes its signs, symptoms, and treatment. Dr. Brown contends Dr. Dellon's crusade is misdirected. The exchange is an eloquent polemic on the virtues and foibles of these different approaches to evaluating peripheral nerve function and the imperative to practice them in a complementary rather than a contentious manner.

  4. Optic Nerve Lymphoma. Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jennifer L.; Mendoza, Pia; Rashid, Alia; Hayek, Brent; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoma may involve the optic nerve as isolated optic nerve lymphoma or in association with CNS or systemic lymphoma. We present two biopsy-proven non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the optic nerve and compare our findings with previously reported cases. We discuss the mechanism of metastasis, classification of optic nerve involvement, clinical features, radiologic findings, optic nerve biopsy indications and techniques, histologic features, and treatments. We propose a classification system of optic nerve lymphoma: isolated optic nerve involvement, optic nerve involvement with CNS disease, optic nerve involvement with systemic disease, and optic nerve involvement with primary intraocular lymphoma. Although it is an uncommon cause of infiltrative optic neuropathy, optic nerve metastasis should be considered in patients with a history of lymphoma. The recommended approach to a patient with presumed optic nerve lymphoma includes neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid evaluation as part of the initial work-up, then judicious use of optic nerve biopsy, depending on the clinical situation. PMID:25595061

  5. Inflammation and neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, C; Dyck, P; Friedenberg, S; Burns, T; Windebank, A; Dyck, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of mechanical, infectious, and inflammatory factors inducing neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy (HBPN), an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by attacks of pain and weakness, atrophy, and sensory alterations of the shoulder girdle and upper limb muscles. Methods: Four patients from separate kindreds with HBPN were evaluated. Upper extremity nerve biopsies were obtained during attacks from a person of each kindred. In situ hybridisation for common viruses in nerve tissue and genetic testing for a hereditary tendency to pressure palsies (HNPP; tomaculous neuropathy) were undertaken. Two patients treated with intravenous methyl prednisolone had serial clinical and electrophysiological examinations. One patient was followed prospectively through pregnancy and during the development of a stereotypic attack after elective caesarean delivery. Results: Upper extremity nerve biopsies in two patients showed prominent perivascular inflammatory infiltrates with vessel wall disruption. Nerve in situ hybridisation for viruses was negative. There were no tomaculous nerve changes. In two patients intravenous methyl prednisolone ameliorated symptoms (largely pain), but with tapering of steroid dose, signs and symptoms worsened. Elective caesarean delivery did not prevent a typical postpartum attack. Conclusions: Inflammation, probably immune, appears pathogenic for some if not all attacks of HBPN. Immune modulation may be useful in preventing or reducing the neuropathic attacks, although controlled trials are needed to establish efficacy, as correction of the mutant gene is still not possible. The genes involved in immune regulation may be candidates for causing HBPN disorders. PMID:12082044

  6. Anomalous Bilateral Communication between the Inferior Alveolar Nerve and the Auriculotemporal Nerve: A Rare Variation

    PubMed Central

    BHARDWAJ, Nikha; SAHNI, Priya; SINGHVI, Abhishek; NAYAK, Meghanand; TIWARI, Vineeta

    2014-01-01

    Branches of the posterior division of the mandibular nerve show various anomalous communications in the infratemporal region. Understanding such communication has relevance in the management of neuropathies and surgical procedures in this region. This study was conducted to explore such communicating branches, anticipating that they might provide information of clinical significance. A total of 15 human cadavers (30 infratemporal regions) were studied to explore such communicating branches in infratemporal region. The branches of the posterior division of the mandibular nerve were carefully dissected, and these branches were studied and analysed for any abnormal course. In one case, a rare type of bilateral communication between the auriculotemporal nerve and the inferior alveolar nerve, forming a loop with no association with any structure, was observed. It is possible that such communicating branches may be associated with delayed regression of the first arch vessels. The clinical implications of these anomalous communications require further detailed study for improved management of neuropathies and surgical procedures. PMID:25977637

  7. Pathological Confirmation of Optic Neuropathy in Familial Dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos E; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Hedges, Thomas R; Laver, Nora V; Farhat, Nada; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2017-03-01

    Clinical data suggest that optic neuropathy and retinal ganglion cell loss are the main cause of visual decline in patients with familial dysautonomia, but this has not previously been confirmed by pathological analyses. We studied retinas and optic nerves in 6 eyes from 3 affected patients obtained at autopsy. Analyses included routine neurohistology and immunohistochemistry for neurofilaments, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and melanopsin-containing ganglion cells. We observed profound axon loss in the temporal portions of optic nerves with relative preservation in the nasal portions; this correlated with clinical and optical coherence tomography findings in 1 patient. Retinal ganglion cell layers were markedly reduced in the central retina, whereas melanopsin-containing ganglion cells were relatively spared. COX staining was reduced in the temporal portions of the optic nerve indicating reduced mitochondrial density. Axonal swelling with degenerating lysosomes and mitochondria were observed by electron microscopy. These findings support the concept that there is a specific optic neuropathy and retinopathy in patients with familial dysautonomia similar to that seen in other optic neuropathies with mitochondrial dysfunction. This raises the possibility that defective expression of the IkB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) resulting from mutations in IKBKAP affects mitochondrial function in the metabolism-dependent retinal parvocellular ganglion cells in this condition. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Overexpression of mutant HSP27 causes axonal neuropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinho; Jung, Sung-Chul; Joo, Jaesoon; Choi, Yu-Ri; Moon, Hyo Won; Kwak, Geon; Yeo, Ha Kyung; Lee, Ji-Su; Ahn, Hye-Jee; Jung, Namhee; Hwang, Sunhee; Rheey, Jingeun; Woo, So-Youn; Kim, Ji Yon; Hong, Young Bin; Choi, Byung-Ok

    2015-06-19

    Mutations in heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSP27 or HSPB1) cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 F (CMT2F) according to unknown factors. Mutant HSP27 proteins affect axonal transport by reducing acetylated tubulin. We generated a transgenic mouse model overexpressing HSP27-S135F mutant protein driven by Cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early promoter. The mouse phenotype was similar to dHMN patients in that they exhibit motor neuropathy. To determine the phenotypic aberration of transgenic mice, behavior test, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrophysiological study, and pathology were performed. Rotarod test showed that founder mice exhibited lowered motor performance. MRI also revealed marked fatty infiltration in the anterior and posterior compartments at calf level. Electrophysiologically, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) but not motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was reduced in the transgenic mice. Toluidine staining with semi-thin section of sciatic nerve showed the ratio of large myelinated axon fiber was reduced, which might cause reduced locomotion in the transgenic mice. Electron microscopy also revealed abundant aberrant myelination. Immunohistochemically, neuronal dysfunctions included elevated level of phosphorylated neurofilament and reduced level of acetylated tubulin in the sural nerve of transgenic mice. There was no additional phenotype besides motor neuronal defects. Overexpression of HSP27-S135F protein causes peripheral neuropathy. The mouse model can be applied to future development of therapeutic strategies for dHMN or CMT2F.

  9. Selective antagonism of muscarinic receptors is neuroprotective in peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Darrell R.; Frizzi, Katie; Sabbir, Mohammad Golam; Chowdhury, Subir K. Roy; Mixcoatl-Zecuatl, Teresa; Saleh, Ali; Muttalib, Nabeel; Van der Ploeg, Randy; Ochoa, Joseline; Gopaul, Allison; Tessler, Lori; Wess, Jürgen; Jolivalt, Corinne G.

    2017-01-01

    Sensory neurons have the capacity to produce, release, and respond to acetylcholine (ACh), but the functional role of cholinergic systems in adult mammalian peripheral sensory nerves has not been established. Here, we have reported that neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons that were maintained under subsaturating neurotrophic factor conditions operates under cholinergic constraint that is mediated by muscarinic receptor–dependent regulation of mitochondrial function via AMPK. Sensory neurons from mice lacking the muscarinic ACh type 1 receptor (M1R) exhibited enhanced neurite outgrowth, confirming the role of M1R in tonic suppression of axonal plasticity. M1R-deficient mice made diabetic with streptozotocin were protected from physiological and structural indices of sensory neuropathy. Pharmacological blockade of M1R using specific or selective antagonists, pirenzepine, VU0255035, or muscarinic toxin 7 (MT7) activated AMPK and overcame diabetes-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. These antimuscarinic drugs prevented or reversed indices of peripheral neuropathy, such as depletion of sensory nerve terminals, thermal hypoalgesia, and nerve conduction slowing in diverse rodent models of diabetes. Pirenzepine and MT7 also prevented peripheral neuropathy induced by the chemotherapeutic agents dichloroacetate and paclitaxel or HIV envelope protein gp120. As a variety of antimuscarinic drugs are approved for clinical use against other conditions, prompt translation of this therapeutic approach to clinical trials is feasible. PMID:28094765

  10. Physiological improvement with moderate exercise in type II diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M A; Langbein, W E; Collins, E G; Williams, K; Corzine, L

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate improvement in nerve function with moderate exercise in patients with type II diabetic neuropathies. Fives subjects with type II diabetes mellitus and distal, predominantly sensory polyneuropathies were studied. The subjects completed an 8-week program of a supervised moderate exercise program (40-75% of maximal 02 uptake reserve) with a subsequent 16-week program of monitored similar exercise. The same experienced electrophysiologist performed the electrodiagnostic studies both before and after the 24-week exercise period. These studies monitored physiological changes (conduction velocities, response amplitudes) in motor and sensory fibers as well as F-wave latencies. The exercise program produced a documented increase in aerobic exercise capacity. Despite the small number of subjects studied and the relatively short exercise period, there was a statistically significant improvement in nearly all electrophysiological parameters evaluated post exercise including motor conduction velocities and amplitudes, sensory conduction velocities, and F-wave latencies. This improvement included a statistically significant improvement in absolute median motor evoked response amplitudes as well as the recording of sensory nerve action potentials not present prior to exercise. There were no adverse effects from the exercise. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise can be performed safely in patients with type II diabetic neuropathies and can produce improvement in their nerve function. This study also supports the hypothesis that ischemia may have a meaningful role in the pathogenesis of neuropathies in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

  11. Mechanisms of axonal dysfunction in diabetic and uraemic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Ria; Kwai, Natalie C G; Krishnan, Arun V

    2013-11-01

    The global burden imposed by metabolic diseases and associated complications continue to escalate. Neurological complications, most commonly peripheral neuropathy, represent a significant cause of morbidity and disability in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Furthermore, health care costs are substantially increased by the presence of complications making investigation into treatment a matter of high priority. Over the last decade nerve excitability techniques have entered the clinical realm and enabled in vivo assessment of biophysical properties and function of peripheral nerves in health and disease. Studies of excitability in diabetic neuropathy have demonstrated alteration in biophysical properties, including changes in Na(+) conductances and Na(+)/K(+) pump function, which may contribute to the development of neuropathic symptoms. Interventional studies have demonstrated that these changes are responsive to pharmacological agents. Excitability studies in patients with chronic kidney disease have demonstrated prominent changes that may contribute to the development of uraemic neuropathy. In particular, these studies have demonstrated strong correlation between hyperkalaemia and the development of nerve dysfunction. These studies have provided a basis for future work assessing the benefits of potassium restriction as a therapeutic strategy in this condition. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of perioperative limb neuropathies in abdominal free flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Adam; Taghizadeh, Rieka; Hughes, David; O'Donoghue, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative peripheral neuropathies are a significant cause of post-operative morbidity in patients undergoing prolonged procedures. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and possible causes of peripheral neuropathy in patients undergoing abdominal free flap breast reconstruction and to develop methods of ameliorating this problem. A 4-year retrospective study of patients undergoing abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon and anaesthetist was undertaken to determine the incidence and potential causes of perioperative neuropathy. A new positioning protocol was introduced to minimise the stretch on the brachial plexus and to protect peripheral nerves from compression forces. In addition, regular intraoperative physiotherapy was introduced. A prospective study was then conducted on patients managed by the same team to evaluate the effect of this change in practice on the subsequent incidence of peripheral neuropathies. Over the 4-year retrospective period, 93 consecutive patients underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction, six of whom (6.5%) developed a peripheral neuropathy. Following the introduction of the new positioning protocol, prospective data collected on 65 consecutive patients showed no further occurrences of perioperative neuropathy (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in the characteristics between the two cohorts. Perioperative peripheral neuropathy in abdominal free flap breast reconstruction is a preventable problem. This paper presents a peripheral neuropathy prevention protocol for managing these patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Epidemic optic neuropathy in Cuba. Eye findings.

    PubMed

    Sadun, A A; Martone, J F; Muci-Mendoza, R; Reyes, L; DuBois, L; Silva, J C; Roman, G; Caballero, B

    1994-05-01

    To characterize and establish a clinical definition of the optic neuropathy that appeared in epidemic form in Cuba in 1992 and 1993. At the invitation of the Cuban Ministry of Health, Havana, members of ORBIS International and the Pan American Health Organization, assembled teams that traveled to Cuba in May 1993. We were initially briefed by Cuban national experts in the areas of virology, nutrition, toxicology, ophthalmology, neurology, and public health. We then examined 20 patients on our own. Thirteen of these patients underwent a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including neurologic examination, ophthalmologic examination, visual fields, optic nerve function studies, contrast sensitivity studies, and funduscopy. We returned 4 months later to perform an additional 12 comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic and follow-up examinations. Only seven of the 13 patients who were alleged to have the optic form of the epidemic and who were rigorously and systematically examined on the first visit demonstrated a bilateral optic neuropathy. These seven patients had several features that included decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, central scotomas, decreased contrast sensitivity, saccadic eye movements, and most prominent and distinctive of all, nerve fiber layer wedge defects of the papillomacular bundle. Our clinical definition was then implemented by the Cuban ophthalmologists and epidemiologists. On returning 4 months later, we found that all newly presented patients were correctly diagnosed to have the epidemic disease. With the new case definition and the application of a few simple psychophysical tests, the false-positive rate of diagnosis became much lower. After vitamin therapy, we reexamined the patients seen on our initial visit, and all showed marked improvement. The Cuban epidemic was characterized by an optic neuropathy with features that were similar to those of tobacco/alcohol amblyopia and Leber's optic atrophy. Recent political

  14. [High resolution 3T magnetic resonance neurography of the peroneal nerve].

    PubMed

    Pineda, D; Barroso, F; Cháves, H; Cejas, C

    2014-01-01

    Peroneal neuropathy is the most common mononeuropathy of the lower limbs. The causes of peroneal neuropathy include trauma, tumors of the nerve and nerve sheath, entrapment, and others like perineurioma, fibromatosis, lymphoma, and intraneural and externeural ganglia. The diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and electrophysiological studies. Nowadays, however, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography is a complementary diagnostic technique that can help determine the location and cause of peroneal neuropathy. In this article, we describe the MR anatomy of the peroneal nerve, its relations, and the muscles it innervates. We also discuss the clinical and electrophysiological manifestations of peroneal neuropathy, describe the technical parameters used at our institution, and illustrate the MR appearance of various diseases that involve the peroneal nerve. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Where Is the Ulnar Styloid Process? Identification of the Absolute Location of the Ulnar Styloid Process Based on CT and Verification of Neutral Forearm Rotation on Lateral Radiographs of the Wrist.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung-Han; Lee, Yong-Suk; Kang, Jin-Woo; Noh, Dong-Young; Jung, Joon-Yong; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2018-03-01

    The location of the ulnar styloid process can be confusing because the radius and the hand rotate around the ulna. The purpose of this study was to identify the absolute location of the ulnar styloid process, which is independent of forearm pronation or supination, to use it as a reference for neutral forearm rotation on lateral radiographs of the wrist. Computed tomography (CT) images of 23 forearms taken with elbow flexion of 70° to 90° were analyzed. The axial CT images were reconstructed to be perpendicular to the distal ulnar shaft. The absolute location of the ulnar styloid process in this study was defined as the position of the ulnar styloid process on the axial plane of the ulnar head relative to the long axis of the humeral shaft with the elbow set in the position for standard lateral radiographs of the wrist. To identify in which direction the ulnar styloid is located on the axial plane of the ulnar head, the angle between "the line of humeral long axis projected on the axial plane of the ulna" and "the line passing the center of the ulnar head and the center of the ulnar styloid" was measured (ulnar styloid direction angle). To identify how volarly or dorsally the ulnar styloid should appear on the true lateral view of the wrist, the ratio of "the volar-dorsal diameter of the ulnar head" and "the distance between the volar-most aspect of the ulnar head and the center of the ulnar styloid" was calculated (ulnar styloid location ratio). The mean ulnar styloid direction angle was 12° dorsally. The mean ulnar styloid location ratio was 1:0.55. The ulnar styloid is located at nearly the ulnar-most (the opposite side of the humerus with the elbow flexed) and slightly dorsal aspects of the ulnar head on the axial plane. It should appear almost midway (55% dorsally) from the ulnar head on the standard lateral view of the wrist in neutral forearm rotation. These location references could help clinicians determine whether the forearm is in neutral or rotated

  16. Role of blink reflex in diagnosis of subclinical cranial neuropathy in diabetic mellitus type II.

    PubMed

    Kazem, Shakouri S; Behzad, Davoudi

    2006-05-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is one of the late complications of diabetes mellitus. Cranial nerves III, VII, and V are among the most commonly affected in diabetic patients. Traditional electrodiagnosis (Edx) studies are a useful method for diagnosis of PN and symptomatic cranial neuropathy, and may not be useful for detecting subclinical involvement of cranial nerves. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the role of blink reflex (BR) for early diagnosis of cranial neuropathy in diabetic patients with PN. A prospective study was performed on NIDDM patients with PN. One hundred eighty-eight subjects were included in our study in which 142 acted as healthy subjects and 46 as diabetic patients. Patients were excluded with prior history of cranial nerve lesions, stroke, or any other disease with polyneuropathy or drug-induced neuropathy. Routine nerve conduction studies were performed, and only patients with PN were included in this study. Abnormalities were found in 54.4% of patients. R1, IR2, and CR2 were prolonged relative to the healthy group. Statistically there was no significant difference in R/D ratio of patients (P=0.201). Also, there was a positive correlation between R1, IR2, and CR2 latencies with duration of diabetes and severity of polyneuropathy, but not for R/D. The greatest correlation was shown in R1 latency (69.9% abnormality). BR is a noninvasive and very useful method for the evaluation and diagnosis of subclinical cranial nerve involvement in diabetic patients.

  17. Role of Blink Reflex in diagnosis of subclinical cranial neuropathy in Diabetic Mellitus type II.

    PubMed

    Kazem, S S; Behzad, D

    2005-01-01

    Peripheral Neuropathy (PN) is one of the late complications of Diabetes Mellitus. Cranial nerves III, VII and V are among the most commonly affected in diabetic patients. Traditional Electrodiagnosis (Edx) studies are useful method for diagnosis of PN and symptomatic cranial neuropathy, and may not be useful for detecting subclinical involvement of cranial nerves. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the role of Blink Reflex (BR) for early diagnosis of cranial neuropathy in diabetic patients with PN. A prospective study was performed on NIDDM patients with a PN. 188 subjects were included in our study in which 142 acted as healthy subjects and 46 as diabetic patients. Patients were excluded with prior history of cranial nerve lesions, stroke, and other disease with polyneuropathy or drug-induced neuropathy. Routine nerve conduction studies were performed and only patients with PN were included in this study. Abnormalities were found in 54.4% of patients. R1, IR2 and CR2 were prolonged relative to healthy group. Statistically there was no significant difference in R/D ratio of patients (P = 0.201). Also there was a positive correlation between R1, IR2 and CR2 latencies with duration of diabetes and severity of polyneuropathy, but not for R/D. The greatest correlation was shown in R1 latency (69.9% abnormality). BR is a non-invasive and very useful method for evaluation and diagnosis of subclinical cranial nerve involvement in diabetic patients.

  18. Clinical approach to optic neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Behbehani, Raed

    2007-01-01

    Optic neuropathy is a frequent cause of vision loss encountered by ophthalmologist. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds. The history often points to the possible etiology of the optic neuropathy. A rapid onset is typical of demyelinating, inflammatory, ischemic and traumatic causes. A gradual course points to compressive, toxic/nutritional and hereditary causes. The classic clinical signs of optic neuropathy are visual field defect, dyschromatopsia, and abnormal papillary response. There are ancillary investigations that can support the diagnosis of optic neuropathy. Visual field testing by either manual kinetic or automated static perimetry is critical in the diagnosis. Neuro-imaging of the brain and orbit is essential in many optic neuropathies including demyelinating and compressive. Newer technologies in the evaluation of optic neuropathies include multifocal visual evoked potentials and optic coherence tomography. PMID:19668477

  19. Diabetic Neuropathy: Mechanisms to Management

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, James L.; Vincent, Andrea; Cheng, Thomas; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscores the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets. PMID:18616962

  20. Genetics Home Reference: small fiber neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Small fiber neuropathy is considered a form of peripheral neuropathy because it affects the peripheral nervous system, which ... Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Peripheral Neuropathy Information Page Educational Resources (4 links) Johns Hopkins ...

  1. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-10-06

    Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction

  2. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Liu, Jian Ping

    2011-06-15

    Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (15 June 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2010 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2010), AMED (January 1985 to June 2010), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to June 2010), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to June 2010), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to June 2010). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to March 2010). No language or publication restrictions were used. We included randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. The data analyses were carried out using Review Manager 5.1 (Cochrane software). Thirty-nine randomized trials involving 2890 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 18 self-concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve

  3. Correlation of nerve ultrasound, electrophysiological and clinical findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kerasnoudis, A; Pitarokoili, K; Behrendt, V; Gold, R; Yoon, M-S

    2015-01-01

    We present the nerve ultrasound findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and examine their correlation with electrophysiology and functional disability. A total of 75 healthy controls and 48 CIDP patients underwent clinical, sonographic and electrophysiological evaluation a mean of 3.9 years(SD+/-2.7) after disease onset. Nerve ultrasound revealed statistically significant higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values of the median (P<.0001), ulnar (P<.0001), radial (P<.0001), tibial (P<.0001), fibular nerve(P<.0001) in most of the anatomic sites and brachial plexus (supraclavicular, P<.0001;interscalene space, P = .0118),when compared to controls. The electroneurography documented signs of permanent axonal loss in the majority of peripheral nerves. A correlation between sonographic and electrophysiological findings was found only between the motor conduction velocity and CSA of the tibial nerve at the ankle (r = -.451, P = .007). Neither nerve sonography nor electrophysiology correlated with functional disability. The CSA of the median nerve in carpal tunnel and the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal correlated with disease duration (P = .036, P = .027 respectively). CIDP seems to show inhomogenous CSA enlargement in brachial plexus and peripheral nerves, with weak correlation to electrophysiological findings. Neither nerve sonography nor electrophysiology correlated with functional disability in CIDP patients. Multicenter, prospective studies are required to proof the applicability and diagnostic values of these findings. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  4. [Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Hilo, Wasseem; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen; Modi, Naftali; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease characterized by subacute severe visual loss in both eyes, which usually manifests in young adulthood. The disease has maternal inheritance due to mitochondrial DNA mutation. The final diagnosis is genetic. There is still no proven treatment, but there is significant progress in developments on the genetics of the disease to reach gene therapy. In this article we review the latest literature relevant to this disease.

  5. [Study of peripheral nerve injury in trauma patients].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Galván, Marina Lizeth; Martínez-Ruiz, Fernando Maximiliano; de la Garza-Castro, Oscar; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, location, mechanism, and characteristics of peripheral nerve injury (PNI) in trauma patients. A retrospective study of medical records with PNI diagnosis secondary to trauma in the period of 2008-2012. The following information was collected: gender, age, occupation, anatomic location, affected nerve, mechanism of injury, degree of injury, costs, and hospitalization time. The prevalence of PNI is 1.12%. The location of the nerve injury was 61% upper limb, the highest incidence was presented to the brachial plexus (35%) and ulnar nerve (18%). The mechanism of the lesion was sharp injury (19%). The PNI are commonly present in people of a productive age. Neurotmesis was the most frequent degree of lesion. The patients stayed at hospital 2.51 ± 1.29 days and the average cost was 12,474.00 Mexican pesos ± 5,595.69 (US$ 1,007.54 ± 452.21) for one nerve injury.

  6. Clinical research for neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Petra

    2012-05-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has a long-standing commitment to neuropathy research. From 2005-2009, the NIH has committed US $115 million each year. A collaborative effort between researchers and patients can accelerate the translation of pre-clinical discoveries into better treatments for neuropathy patients. Clinical trials are needed to test these new treatments, but they can only be implemented in a timely fashion if patients with neuropathies are willing to participate. This perspective focuses on the value of having various outlets for informing both the patients and the physicians about existing clinical research opportunities and on the potential benefit of establishing patient registries to help with trial recruitment. Once data have been collected, there is a need to broadly share the data in order to inform future trials, and a first step would be to harmonize data collection by using Common Data Elements (CDEs). Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Inflammation role in sensory neuropathy in Chinese patients with diabetes/prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Xu, Yalin; Shi, Yao; Jiang, Chenyin

    2018-03-01

    Prediabetes involves people with glucose-metabolism impairment, and is related to different diabetic complications, like peripheral neuropathy. We aimed to explore the relationship among inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) and antiinflammatory (interleukin 10 [IL10]) cytokines as well as neuropathy of very distal-sensory-nerves in Chinese patients with prediabetes/diabetes. In the present study, 55 patients having prediabetes, 55 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and 48 controls were included. TNFα, HbA1c, and IL10 plasma levels were measured. Electrodiagnosis was conducted on dorsal-sural/medial-plantar sensory nerve, that is most distal feet sensory-nerves. Nerve conduction test (NCT) irregularities of dorsal-sural/medial-plantar sensory nerve were considerably greater in patients with prediabetes or diabetes. The means of TNFα levels demonstrated a significant increase in patients with diabetes when compared to prediabetes patients as well as controls showed a significant decrease in patients with prediabetes and diabetes contrasted with controls. No significant contrast with respect to serum biomarkers among patients having regular as well as irregular medial-plantar/dorsal-sural NCT was noted. Critical correlationship among TNFα as well as HbA1c with symptoms severity as well as disability while negative correlations of IL10 with neuropathy severity was noted. Biomarker levels of TNFα, IL10, and HbA1c were noted to differ significantly among patients without/with neuropathy. All in all, the proinflammatory phase appears to start from initial pre-clinical phases, sometime prior to advancement of diabetes. The higher neuropathy frequency in patients with prediabetes indicates conceivable causative impact; although, the prospective part of inflammation in pathogenetics of peripheral neuropathy requires more elucidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Repetitive trauma and nerve compression.

    PubMed

    Carragee, E J; Hentz, V R

    1988-01-01

    Repetitive movement of the upper extremity, whether recreational or occupational, may result in various neuropathies, the prototype of which is the median nerve neuropathic in the carpal canal. The pathophysiology of this process is incompletely understood but likely involves both mechanical and ischemic features. Experimentally increased pressures within the carpal canal produced reproducible progressive neuropathy. Changes in vibratory (threshold-type) sensibility appears to be more sensitive than two-point (innervation density-type) sensibility. The specific occupational etiologies of carpal neuropathy are obscured by methodologic and sociological difficulties, but clearly some occupations have high incidences of CTS. History and physical examination are usually sufficient for the diagnosis, but diagnostic assistance when required is available through electrophysiological testing, CT scanning, and possibly MRI. Each of these tests has limitations in both sensitivity and specificity. Treatment by usual conservative means should be combined with rest from possible provocative activities. Surgical release of the carpal canal is helpful in patients failing conservative therapy. Occupational modifications are important in both treatment and prevention of median neuropathy due to repetitive trauma.

  9. Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: A case series investigating the appropriate diagnosis, management, and post-operative considerations.

    PubMed

    Woitzik, Erin; deGraauw, Chris; Easter, Brock

    2014-12-01

    Ulnar sided wrist pain is a common site for upper extremity disability. Ulnar impaction syndrome results in a spectrum of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries and associated lunate, triquetrum, and ligamentous damage. Patients commonly present with insidious ulnar sided wrist pain and clicking, and a history of trauma or repetitive axial loading and rotation. In this case series, three patients presented to a sports chiropractor for evaluation and were subsequently diagnosed with ulnar impaction syndrome. Treatment strategies consist of conservative management, arthroscopic debridement or repair, arthroscopic wafer procedure, or ulnar shortening osteotomy. For the athlete, intervention should be individualized and sport-specific, considering athletic priorities, healing potential, return to play, and long-term health concerns.

  10. Outcomes and Return to Sport After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Saper, Michael; Shung, Joseph; Pearce, Stephanie; Bompadre, Viviana; Andrews, James R

    2018-04-01

    The number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions in adolescent athletes has increased over the past 2 decades. Clinical results in this population have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and return to sport after UCL reconstruction in a large group of adolescent baseball players. We hypothesized that excellent clinical outcomes and high rates of return to sport would be observed in this population at a minimum 2-year follow-up. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We reviewed 140 adolescent (aged ≤19 years) baseball players who underwent UCL reconstruction with the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique by a single surgeon. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, injury characteristics, operative details, and surgical complications. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Conway scale, the Andrews-Timmerman (A-T) score, the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) score, and a 0- to 100-point subjective scale for elbow function and satisfaction. Return to sporting activity was assessed using a custom-designed questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery was 18.0 years (range, 13-19 years), and the mean follow-up was 57.9 months (range, 32.4-115.4 months). Over half (60%) of patients were high school athletes. The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 6.9 months (range, 0.5-60.0 months). Partial tears were identified in 57.9% of patients, and 41.3% of patients had preoperative ulnar nerve symptoms. Graft type included the ipsilateral palmaris in 77.1% of patients. Concomitant procedures were performed in 25% of patients. Outcomes on the Conway scale were "excellent" in 86.4% of patients. The mean A-T and KJOC scores were 97.3 ± 6.1 and 85.2 ± 14.6, respectively. Mean patient satisfaction was 94.4. Overall, 97.8% of patients reported returning to sport at a mean of 11.6 months (range, 5-24 months), and 89.9% of patients returned to sport at the same level of

  11. Outcomes and Return to Sport After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Michael; Shung, Joseph; Pearce, Stephanie; Bompadre, Viviana; Andrews, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions in adolescent athletes has increased over the past 2 decades. Clinical results in this population have not been well studied. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and return to sport after UCL reconstruction in a large group of adolescent baseball players. We hypothesized that excellent clinical outcomes and high rates of return to sport would be observed in this population at a minimum 2-year follow-up. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We reviewed 140 adolescent (aged ≤19 years) baseball players who underwent UCL reconstruction with the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique by a single surgeon. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, injury characteristics, operative details, and surgical complications. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Conway scale, the Andrews-Timmerman (A-T) score, the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) score, and a 0- to 100-point subjective scale for elbow function and satisfaction. Return to sporting activity was assessed using a custom-designed questionnaire. Results: The mean age at the time of surgery was 18.0 years (range, 13-19 years), and the mean follow-up was 57.9 months (range, 32.4-115.4 months). Over half (60%) of patients were high school athletes. The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 6.9 months (range, 0.5-60.0 months). Partial tears were identified in 57.9% of patients, and 41.3% of patients had preoperative ulnar nerve symptoms. Graft type included the ipsilateral palmaris in 77.1% of patients. Concomitant procedures were performed in 25% of patients. Outcomes on the Conway scale were “excellent” in 86.4% of patients. The mean A-T and KJOC scores were 97.3 ± 6.1 and 85.2 ± 14.6, respectively. Mean patient satisfaction was 94.4. Overall, 97.8% of patients reported returning to sport at a mean of 11.6 months (range, 5

  12. Do Clinical Results and Return-to-Sport Rates After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Differ Based on Graft Choice and Surgical Technique?

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Frank, Rachel M; Bach, Bernard R; Cohen, Mark S; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure performed in overhead-throwing athletes of many athletic levels. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical outcomes and return-to-sport (RTS) rates differ among patients undergoing UCLR based on graft choice, surgical technique, athletic competition level, handedness, and treatment of the ulnar nerve. We hypothesized that no differences would exist in clinical outcomes or RTS rates between technique, graft choice, or other variables. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All patients who underwent UCLR from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2014 at a single institution were identified. Charts were reviewed to determine patient age, sex, date of surgery, sport played, handedness, athletic level, surgical technique, graft type, and complications. Patients were contacted via telephone to obtain the RTS rate, Conway-Jobe score, Timmerman-Andrews score, and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow score. Eighty-five patients (mean age at surgery, 19.3 ± 4.7 years; 92% male; 78% right hand-dominant) underwent UCLR between 2004 and 2014 and were available for follow-up. Overall, 87% were baseball pitchers, 49.4% were college athletes, and 41.2% were high school athletes. No significant difference existed between the docking and double-docking techniques, graft choice, handedness, sex, activity level, and treatment of the ulnar nerve with regard to clinical outcomes, RTS, or subsequent surgeries (all P > .05). More complications were seen in the docking technique compared with the double-docking technique ( P = .036). Hamstring autograft was used more commonly with the docking technique ( P = .023) while allograft was used more commonly with the double-docking technique ( P = .0006). Both the docking and double-docking techniques produce excellent clinical outcomes in patients undergoing UCLR. No difference in outcome scores was seen between surgical technique

  13. Functional nerve disorders in the athlete's foot, ankle, and leg.

    PubMed

    Baxter, D E

    1993-01-01

    Although neuropathies in the athlete's foot, ankle, and leg are uncommon, they are often underdiagnosed, primarily because of the complex interplay of causative factors. The physician should be aware of the possible occurrence of these neuropathies, and should be familiar with the anatomy and course of the nerves. Often, the problem only occurs during functional activity and cannot be demonstrated during the routine static examination. Other problems should also be considered when there is the possibility of a nerve compression syndrome. Metabolic processes, such as diabetes or abuse of alcohol, can certainly cause neuropathies. A double crush syndrome or pain from a higher source should also be considered. Finally, if surgery is done for chronic problems, only the area of constriction should be released, without interfering with the nerve itself. Release the fascia but leave the perineural fat intact. If instability is a factor, the joint should also be stabilized.

  14. Nerve and muscle involvement in mitochondrial disorders: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Michelangelo; Piazza, Selina; Volpi, Leda; Orsucci, Daniele; Calsolaro, Valeria; Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Carlesi, Cecilia; Rocchi, Anna; Petrozzi, Lucia; Calabrese, Rosanna; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in mitochondrial disorders (MD) has been previously reported. However, the exact prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and/or myopathy in MD is still unclear. In order to evaluate the prevalence of neuropathy and myopathy in MD, we performed sensory and motor nerve conduction studies (NCS) and concentric needle electromyography (EMG) in 44 unselected MD patients. NCS were abnormal in 36.4% of cases, and were consistent with a sensori-motor axonal multineuropathy (multifocal neuropathy), mainly affecting the lower limbs. EMG evidence of myopathy was present in 54.5% of patients, again mainly affecting the lower limbs. Nerve and muscle involvement was frequently subclinical. Peripheral nerve and muscle involvement is common in MD patients. Our study supports the variability of the clinical expression of MD. Further studies are needed to better understand the molecular basis underlying the phenotypic variability among MD patients.

  15. Sonographic identification of peripheral nerves in the forearm

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Saundra A.; Derr, Charlotte; De Lucia, Anthony; Harris, Marvin; Closser, Zuheily; Miladinovic, Branko; Mhaskar, Rahul; Jorgensen, Theresa; Green, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the growing utilization of ultrasonography in emergency medicine combined with the concern over adequate pain management in the emergency department (ED), ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade in ED is an area of increasing interest. The medical literature has multiple reports supporting the use of ultrasound guidance in peripheral nerve blocks. However, to perform a peripheral nerve block, one must first be able to reliably identify the specific nerve before the procedure. Objective: The primary purpose of this study is to describe the number of supervised peripheral nerve examinations that are necessary for an emergency medicine physician to gain proficiency in accurately locating and identifying the median, radial, and ulnar nerves of the forearm via ultrasound. Methods: The proficiency outcome was defined as the number of attempts before a resident is able to correctly locate and identify the nerves on ten consecutive examinations. Didactic education was provided via a 1 h lecture on forearm anatomy, sonographic technique, and identification of the nerves. Participants also received two supervised hands-on examinations for each nerve. Count data are summarized using percentages or medians and range. Random effects negative binomial regression was used for modeling panel count data. Results: Complete data for the number of attempts, gender, and postgraduate year (PGY) training year were available for 38 residents. Nineteen males and 19 females performed examinations. The median PGY year in practice was 3 (range 1–3), with 10 (27%) in year 1, 8 (22%) in year 2, and 19 (51%) in year 3 or beyond. The median number (range) of required supervised attempts for radial, median, and ulnar nerves was 1 (0–12), 0 (0–10), and 0 (0–17), respectively. Conclusion: We can conclude that the maximum number of supervised attempts to achieve accurate nerve identification was 17 (ulnar), 12 (radial), and 10 (median) in our study. The only

  16. Insulin-induced upregulation of lipoprotein lipase in Schwann cells during diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rachana, Kuruvanthe S; Manu, Mallahalli S; Advirao, Gopal M

    2018-03-17

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the major complications associated with diabetes. It is characterized by the degeneration of the myelin sheath around axons, referred to as demyelination. Such demyelinations are often caused by reduced lipid component of the myelin sheath. Since, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) provides the lipid for myelin sheath by hydrolysing the triglyceride rich lipoproteins, and also helps in the uptake of lipids by the Schwann cells (SCs) for its utilization, LPL is considered as the important factor in the regeneration of myelin sheath during diabetic neuropathy. Earlier reports from our laboratory have provided the insights of insulin and its receptor in SCs during diabetic neuropathy. In order to evaluate the long term effect of insulin on lipid metabolism during diabetic neuropathy, in this study, we analyzed the expression of LPL in SCs under normal, high glucose and insulin treated conditions. A decrease in the expression of LPL was observed in SCs of high glucose condition and it was reversed upon insulin treatment. Histochemical observations of sciatic nerve of insulin treated neuropathy subjects showed the improved nerve morphology, signifying the importance of insulin in restoring the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sciatic neuropathy and rhabdomyolysis after carbon monoxide intoxication: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeok Dong; Lee, Sung Young; Cho, Young-Shin; Han, Seung Hoon; Park, Si-Bog; Lee, Kyu Hoon

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a rare complication of carbon monoxide intoxication. Peripheral neuropathy following carbon monoxide intoxication is known to completely recover within a few months. A 40-year-old man complained of motor weakness and hypoesthesia of the right lower extremity with swelling of his right thigh after carbon monoxide intoxication resulting from a suicide attempt. Following nerve conduction and electromyographic studies, the patient was diagnosed with sciatic neuropathy with severe axonopathy. Clinical and laboratory findings led to a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. The patient was treated conservatively for rhabdomyolysis and underwent comprehensive rehabilitation for sciatic neuropathy during hospitalization. After discharge, he underwent serial follow-up tests with nerve conduction and electromyographic studies, which showed prolonged persistence of sciatic neuropathy; however, he showed significant improvement at his 26-month post-discharge follow-up. Patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy secondary to carbon monoxide intoxication may show variable recovery periods; however, a favorable prognosis can be expected regardless of the concomitant occurrence of rhabdomyolysis and/or compartment syndrome.

  18. Impaired peripheral nerve regeneration in type-2 diabetic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pham, Vuong M; Tu, Nguyen Huu; Katano, Tayo; Matsumura, Shinji; Saito, Akira; Yamada, Akihiro; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of type-2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by a distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and its incidence increases in patients 40 years of age or older. In spite of extensive research over decades, there are few effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy besides glucose control and improved lifestyle. The earliest changes in diabetic neuropathy occur in sensory nerve fibers, with initial degeneration and regeneration resulting in pain. To seek its effective treatment, here we prepared a type-2 diabetic mouse model by giving mice 2 injections of streptozotocin and nicotinamide and examining the ability for nerve regeneration by using a sciatic nerve transection-regeneration model previously established by us. Seventeen weeks after the last injection, the mice exhibited symptoms of type-2 diabetes, that is, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin level, mechanical hyperalgesia, and impaired sensory nerve fibers in the plantar skin. These mice showed delayed functional recovery and nerve regeneration by 2 weeks compared with young healthy mice and by 1 week compared with age-matched non-diabetic mice after axotomy. Furthermore, type-2 diabetic mice displayed increased expression of PTEN in their DRG neurons. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor at the cutting site of the nerve for 4 weeks promoted the axonal transport and functional recovery remarkably. This study demonstrates that peripheral nerve regeneration was impaired in type-2 diabetic model and that its combination with sciatic nerve transection is suitable for the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of early diabetic neuropathy. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Accessory neuropathy after sternotomy: Clinico-anatomical correlation supporting an inflammatory cause.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohammad W; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Stone, Jonathan J; Smith, Jay; Spinner, Robert J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-04-01

    Inflammatory etiologies are becoming increasingly recognized as explanations of some neuropathies, especially those occurring in the perioperative period. Although "brachial neuritis" is known to affect extraplexal nerves, accessory nerve palsy following median sternotomy has been attributed to stretch on the nerve. To better elucidate stretch as a potential cause, a cadaveric study was performed. Two patients who developed accessory nerve palsy following median sternotomy are presented to illustrate features consistent with the diagnosis of a perioperative inflammatory neuropathy. Five adult unembalmed cadavers underwent exposure of the bilateral accessory nerves in the posterior cervical triangle. A median sternotomy was performed and self-retaining retractors positioned. With the head in neutral, left rotation and right rotation, retractors were opened as during surgery while observing and recording any accessory nerve movements. The self-retaining sternal retractors were fully opened to a mean inter-blade distance of 13 cm. Regardless of head position, from the initial retractor click to maximal opening there was no gross movement of the accessory nerve on the left or right sides. Opening self-retaining sternal retractors does not appear to stretch the accessory nerve in the posterior cervical triangle. Based on our clinical experience and cadaveric results, we believe that inflammatory conditions, (i.e., idiopathic brachial plexitis) can involve the accessory nerve, and might be triggered by surgical procedures. Clin. Anat. 31:417-421, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Axonal loss from acute optic neuropathy documented by scanning laser polarimetry

    PubMed Central

    Meier, F M; Bernasconi, P; Stürmer, J; Caubergh, M-J; Landau, K

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Retinal nerve fibre layer analysis by scanning laser polarimetry has been shown to facilitate diagnosis of glaucoma while its role in glaucoma follow up is still unclear. A major difficulty is the slow reduction of retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Eyes of patients were studied after acute retrobulbar optic nerve lesion in order to evaluate the usefulness of scanning laser polarimetry in documenting retinal nerve fibre layer loss over time. Methods: Five patients who suffered severe retrobulbar optic neuropathy have had repeated measurements of the retinal nerve fibre layer using scanning laser polarimetry at various intervals, the first examination being within 1 week of injury. Results: All eyes showed a marked decrease in peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, which followed an exponential curve and occurred predominantly within 8 weeks of injury. Compared to a previous study using red-free photographs, scanning laser polarimetry showed retinal nerve fibre layer loss earlier in the course of descending atrophy. Conclusion: Scanning laser polarimetry is useful for early detection and documentation of retinal nerve fibre layer loss following acute injury to the retrobulbar optic nerve. It seems to be a promising tool for follow up of individual glaucoma patients. PMID:11864884

  1. Leukemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Brown, G C; Shields, J A; Augsburger, J J; Serota, F T; Koch, P

    1981-03-01

    The clinical course and ophthalmic manifestations of an eight year old child with acute undifferentiated leukemia and unilateral blindness secondary to leukemic optic nerve head infiltration are described. At autopsy the involved nerve head and peripapillary retina demonstrated massive leukemic cell infiltration and hemorrhagic necrosis. This manifestation of leukemia is quite uncommon and prognosis for life in such cases is poor with existing methods of therapy.

  2. Progression of leprosy neuropathy: a case series study

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Robson T; Illarramendi, Ximena; Nascimento, Osvaldo; Hacker, Mariana A; Sarno, Euzenir N; Jardim, Marcia R

    2012-01-01

    A need still exists to determine the clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of leprosy neuropathy at distinct times of the disease by different methods that measure the various nerve fiber functions. A prospective clinical study was performed with 10 paucibacillary (PB) and 12 multibacillary (MB) patients evaluated at diagnosis and one year after cessation of multidrug therapy (MDT). Peripheral nerve function was assessed clinically and by means of the sympathetic skin response, skin vasomotor reflex, and nerve conduction study (NCS). At diagnosis, 73% of the total 22 patients had nerve function impairment (NFI). Autonomic function (χ2= 5.5, P= 0.019) and NCS (χ2= 7.765, P= 0.01) were significantly more altered in MB than PB patients. At final evaluation, NFI of the MB patients had worsened, especially among the six who had leprosy reaction. As the NFI of PB patients showed improvement, a significant difference between the two groups (χ2= 12.320, P= 0.001) was observed. A high prevalence of neuropathy was observed in newly diagnosed patients. Associating different tests with a thorough clinical neurological evaluation increases detection rates. PMID:22741099

  3. Bilateral spinal anterior horn lesions in acute motor axonal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Daisuke; Fujii, Katsunori; Misawa, Sonoko; Shiohama, Tadashi; Fukuhara, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Mayuko; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2018-05-28

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute immune-mediated peripheral polyneuropathy. Neuroimaging findings from patients with this syndrome have revealed gadolinium enhancement in the cauda equina and in the anterior and posterior nerve roots, but intra-spinal lesions have never been described. Herein, we report, for the first time, bilateral spinal anterior horn lesions in a patient with an acute motor axonal neuropathy form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The patient was a previously healthy 13-year-old Japanese girl, who exhibited acute-onset flaccid tetraplegia and loss of tendon reflexes. Nerve conduction studies revealed motor axonal damage, leading to the diagnosis of acute motor axonal neuropathy. Notably, spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral anterior horn lesions on T2-weighted imaging at the Th11-12 levels, as well as gadolinium enhancement of the cauda equina and anterior and posterior nerve roots. The anterior horn lesions were most prominent on day 18, and their signal intensity declined thereafter. Although intravenous treatment with immunoglobulins was immediately administered, the motor function was not completely regained. We propose that anterior spinal lesions might be responsible for the prolonged neurological disability of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, possibly produced by retrograde progression from the affected anterior nerve roots to the intramedullary roots, and the anterior horn motor neurons. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel curcumin derivative for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Daniel J; Marquez, Alexandra; Calcutt, Nigel A; Schubert, David

    2018-02-01

    Neuropathy is a common complication of long-term diabetes. Proposed mechanisms of neuronal damage caused by diabetes that are downstream of hyperglycemia and/or loss of insulin signaling include ischemic hypoxia, inflammation and loss of neurotrophic support. The curcumin derivative J147 is a potent neurogenic and neuroprotective drug candidate initially developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions associated with aging that impacts many pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Here, we demonstrate efficacy of J147 in ameliorating multiple indices of neuropathy in the streptozotocin-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes was determined by blood glucose, HbA1c, and insulin levels and efficacy of J147 by behavioral, physiologic, biochemical, proteomic, and transcriptomic assays. Biological efficacy of systemic J147 treatment was confirmed by its capacity to decrease TNFα pathway activation and several other markers of neuroinflammation in the CNS. Chronic oral treatment with J147 protected the sciatic nerve from progressive diabetes-induced slowing of large myelinated fiber conduction velocity while single doses of J147 rapidly and transiently reversed established touch-evoked allodynia. Conduction slowing and allodynia are clinically relevant markers of early diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain, respectively. RNA expression profiling suggests that one of the pathways by which J147 imparts its protection against diabetic induced neuropathy may be through activation of the AMP kinase pathway. The diverse biological and therapeutic effects of J147 suggest it as an alternative to the polypharmaceutical approaches required to treat the multiple pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  6. Distal Sensorimotor Neuropathy: Improvements in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Prashanth R. J.; Sharma, Sanjeev; Rayman, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Neurological complications of diabetes are common, affecting up to 50% of people with diabetes. In these patients, diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy (DSPN) is by far the most frequent complication. Detecting DSPN has traditionally been a clinical exercise that is based on signs and symptoms. However, the appearance of morphometric and neurophysiological techniques along with composite scoring systems and new screening tools has induced a paradigm change in the detection and stratification of DSPN and our understanding of its natural history and etiopathogenesis. These newer techniques have provided further evidence that changes in small nerve fiber structure and function precede large fiber changes in diabetes. Although useful, the challenge for the use of these new techniques will be their sensitivity and specificity when widely adopted and ultimately, their ability to demonstrate improvement when pathogenic mechanisms are corrected. Concurrently, we have also witnessed an emergence of simpler screening tools or methods that are mainly aimed at quicker detection of large fiber neuropathy in the outpatient setting. In this review, we have focused on techniques and tools that receive particular attention in the current literature, their use in research and potential use in the clinical environment. PMID:26676660

  7. Peripheral nerve proteins as potential autoantigens in acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jia Pei; Devaux, Jérôme; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Whereas autoantibodies to GM1 or GD1a induce the development of acute motor axonal neuropathy, pathogenic autoantibodies have yet to be identified in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This review highlights the importance of autoantibodies to peripheral nerve proteins in the physiopathology of acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. Moreover, we listed up other potential antigens, which may become helpful biomarkers for acquired, dysimmune demyelinating neuropathies based on their critical functions during myelination and their implications in hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coincidental Optic Nerve Meningioma and Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Garg, Aakriti; Patel, Payal; Lignelli, Angela; Baron, Edward; Kazim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and Graves disease presented with clinical evidence of thyroid eye disease (TED) and optic neuropathy. She was referred when a tapered dose of steroids prompted worsening of her TED. CT and MRI were consistent with TED and bilateral optic nerve meningioma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent TED and unsuspected bilateral optic nerve meningioma. When investigating the etiology of TED-associated optic neuropathy, careful attention to orbital imaging is required because coexisting pathology may exist.

  9. Imaging of macrophage dynamics with optical coherence tomography in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kokona, Despina; Häner, Nathanael U; Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2017-01-01

    Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is a relatively common cause of visual loss and results from hypoperfusion of the small arteries of the anterior portion of the optic nerve. AION is the leading cause of sudden optic nerve related vision loss with approximately 10 cases per 100'000 in the population over 50 years. To date there is no established treatment for AION and therefore a better understanding of the events occurring at the level of the optic nerve head (ONH) would be important to design future therapeutic strategies. The optical properties of the eye allow imaging of the optic nerve in vivo, which is a part of the CNS, during ischemia. Experimentally laser induced optic neuropathy (eLiON) displays similar anatomical features as anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in humans. After laser induced optic neuropathy we show that hyperreflective dots in optical coherence tomography correspond to mononuclear cells in histology. Using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FACS) we found these cells to peak one week after eLiON. These observations were translated to OCT findings in patients with AION, where similar dynamics of hyperreflective dots at the ONH were identified. Our data suggests that activated macrophages can be identified as hyperreflective dots in OCT. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroprotective Strategies for the Treatment of Blast-Induced Optic Neuropathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    optic nerve or ocular hypertension . Therefore, our study has implications for neurodegenerations from trauma extending beyond optic neuropathy. 2...manuscript that will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal . What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? 1. We will

  11. Relapsing Painful Ophthalmoplegic Neuropathy: No longer a "Migraine," but Still a Headache.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stacy V; Schuster, Nathaniel M

    2018-06-14

    Recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy (RPON), formerly known as ophthalmoplegic migraine, is an uncommon disorder with repeated episodes of ocular cranial nerve neuropathy associated with ipsilateral headache. This review discusses the clinical presentation, current understanding of the pathophysiology, key differential diagnoses, and evaluation and treatment of RPON. The literature is limited due to the rarity of the disorder. Recent case reports and series continue to suggest the age of first attack is most often during childhood or adolescence as well as a female predominance. Multiple recent case reports and series demonstrate focal enhancement of the affected cranial nerve, as the nerve root exits the brainstem. This finding contributed to the current classification of the disorder as a neuropathy, with the present understanding that it is due to a relapsing-remitting inflammatory or demyelinating process. The link to migraine remains a cause of disagreement in the literature. RPON is a complex disorder with features of inflammatory neuropathy and an unclear association with migraine. Regardless, the overall prognosis is good for individual episodes, but permanent nerve damage may accumulate with repeated attacks. A better understanding of the pathogenesis is needed to clarify whether it truly represents a single disorder and to guide its treatment. Until that time, a combined approach with acute and preventive therapies can mitigate acute symptoms as well as attempt to limit recurrence of this disabling syndrome.

  12. Analysis of Genetic Mutations in a Cohort of Hereditary Optic Neuropathy in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Gan, Dekang; Li, Mengwei; Wu, Jihong; Sun, Xinghuai; Tian, Guohong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical classification and characteristics of hereditary optic neuropathy patients in a single center in China. Retrospective case study. Patients diagnosed with hereditary optic neuropathy between January 2014 and December 2015 in the neuro-ophthalmology division in Shanghai Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were recruited. Clinical features as well as visual field, brain/orbital MRI, and spectrum domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed. Eighty-two patients diagnosed by gene test were evaluated, including 66 males and 16 females. The mean age of the patients was 19.4 years (range, 5-46 years). A total of 158 eyes were analyzed, including 6 unilateral, 61 bilateral, and 15 sequential. The median duration of the disease was 0.5 year (range, 0.1-20 years). Genetic test identified 68 patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, 9 with dominant optic neuropathy, and 2 with a Wolfram gene mutation. There was also one case of hereditary spastic paraplegia, spinocerebellar ataxia, and polymicrogyria with optic nerve atrophy, respectively. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is the most common detected type of hereditary optic neuropathy in Shanghai, China. The detection of other autosomal mutations in hereditary optic neuropathy is limited by the currently available technique.

  13. A Novel Rodent Model of Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Brown, Dale P.; Duan, Yuanli; Kong, Wei; Watson, Brant D.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop a reliable, reproducible rat model of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) and study the cellular responses in the optic nerve and retina. Methods Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy was induced in adult rats by photochemically induced ischemia. Retinal and optic nerve vasculature was examined by fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran extravasation. Tissue sectioning and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the pathologic changes. Retinal ganglion cell survival at different times after PION induction, with or without neurotrophic application, was quantified by fluorogold retrograde labeling. Results Optic nerve injury was confirmed after PION induction, including local vascular leakage, optic nerve edema, and cavernous degeneration. Immunostaining data revealed microglial activation and focal loss of astrocytes, with adjacent astrocytic hypertrophy. Up to 23%, 50%, and 70% retinal ganglion cell loss was observed at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks, respectively, after injury compared with a sham control group. Experimental treatment by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor remarkably prevented retinal ganglion cell loss in PION rats. At 3 weeks after injury, more than 40% of retinal ganglion cells were saved by the application of neurotrophic factors. Conclusions Rat PION created by photochemically induced ischemia is a reproducible and reliable animal model for mimicking the key features of human PION. Clinical Relevance The correspondence between the features of this rat PION model to those of human PION makes it an ideal model to study the pathophysiologic course of the disease, most of which remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, it provides an optimal model for testing therapeutic approaches for optic neuropathies. PMID:23544206

  14. Peripheral neuropathy in children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Louraki, M; Karayianni, C; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Katsalouli, M; Karavanaki, K

    2012-10-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a major complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with significant morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Clinical neuropathy is rarely seen in paediatric populations, whereas subclinical neuropathy is commonly seen, especially in adolescents. Peripheral DN involves impairment of the large and/or small nerve fibres, and can be diagnosed by various methods. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) are the gold-standard method for the detection of subclinical DN; however, it is invasive, difficult to perform and selectively detects large-fibre abnormalities. Vibration sensation thresholds (VSTs) and thermal discrimination thresholds (TDTs) are quicker and easier and, therefore, more suitable as screening tools. Poor glycaemic control is the most important risk factor for the development of DN. Maintaining near-normoglycaemia is the only way to prevent or reverse neural impairment, as the currently available treatments can only relieve the symptoms of DN. Early detection of children and adolescents with nervous system abnormalities is crucial to allow all appropriate measures to be taken to prevent the development of DN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Bilateral optic neuropathy and non-Hodkin's lymphoma].

    PubMed

    El Kettani, A; Lamari, H; Lahbil, D; Rais, L; Zaghloul, K

    2006-01-01

    While ocular lesion is commonly known in lymphoma, optic neuropathy is very rare : 1,3% of lymphomas affecting the central nervous systems. Authors report the case of a 75 year old patient treated in the haematology department for 8 years, for a large cell B phenotype stage IV lymphoma for which he received 7 chemotherapy courses (CHOP protocol). After a 4 year remission period, he presented a relapse with a rapid progressive bilateral impairment of visual acuity observed for a week before his admission. The ophthalmologic exam revealed no light perception and no afferent reflex on the right eye. There was light perception and weak afferent reflex on the left eye. The anterior segment was normal on both eyes and fundus examination revealed a bilateral stage I papillar oedema. The general exam showed a right facial palsy and an impairment of general condition. The orbital CT scan revealed a significant thickening of both optic nerves caused by lymphomatous infiltration. A chemotherapy with highly dosed IV and intrathecal methotrexate was performed. the optic neuropathy is usually associated with a generalized lymphoma with central nervous system involvement, but sometimes can precede the systemic spread of the disease. Apart from infiltration, the optic nerve can be compressed by an intracranial or orbital tumor. The optic neuropathy can also be caused by lymphomatous leptomeningitis.

  16. The utility of ultrasound in the assessment of traumatic peripheral nerve lesions: report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Zeidenberg, Joshua; Burks, S Shelby; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K; Levi, Allan D

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound technology continues to improve with better image resolution and availability. Its use in evaluating peripheral nerve lesions is increasing. The current review focuses on the utility of ultrasound in traumatic injuries. In this report, the authors present 4 illustrative cases in which high-resolution ultrasound dramatically enhanced the anatomical understanding and surgical planning of traumatic peripheral nerve lesions. Cases include a lacerating injury of the sciatic nerve at the popliteal fossa, a femoral nerve injury from a pseudoaneurysm, an ulnar nerve neuroma after attempted repair with a conduit, and, finally, a spinal accessory nerve injury after biopsy of a supraclavicular fossa lesion. Preoperative ultrasound images and intraoperative pictures are presented with a focus on how ultrasound aided with surgical decision making. These cases are set into context with a review of the literature on peripheral nerve ultrasound and a comparison between ultrasound and MRI modalities.

  17. Toxocara optic neuropathy: clinical features and ocular findings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seo-Young; Jung, Jae Ho

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated thirteen eyes of twelve patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with Toxocara optic neuropathy. Eleven patients had unilateral involvement and one patient had bilateral optic neuropathy. Eight patients (66.7%) had a possible infection source to Toxocara. Six patients (50%) had painless acute optic neuropathy. Ten eyes had asymmetric, sectorial optic disc edema with peripapillary infiltration and three eyes had diffuse optic disc edema. Eosinophilia was noted in five patients (41.7%) and optic nerve enhancement was observed in eight of eleven eyes (72.7%) with available orbit magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean visual acuity significantly improved following treatment [mean logarithmic of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) 0.94±0.56 at baseline and 0.47±0.59 at the final ( P =0.02)]. Asymmetric optic disc edema with a peripapillary lesion and a history of raw meat ingestion were important clues for diagnosing Toxocara optic neuropathy. Additionally, Toxocara IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and evaluating eosinophil may be helpful for diagnosis.

  18. Toxocara optic neuropathy: clinical features and ocular findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seo-Young; Jung, Jae Ho

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated thirteen eyes of twelve patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with Toxocara optic neuropathy. Eleven patients had unilateral involvement and one patient had bilateral optic neuropathy. Eight patients (66.7%) had a possible infection source to Toxocara. Six patients (50%) had painless acute optic neuropathy. Ten eyes had asymmetric, sectorial optic disc edema with peripapillary infiltration and three eyes had diffuse optic disc edema. Eosinophilia was noted in five patients (41.7%) and optic nerve enhancement was observed in eight of eleven eyes (72.7%) with available orbit magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean visual acuity significantly improved following treatment [mean logarithmic of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) 0.94±0.56 at baseline and 0.47±0.59 at the final (P=0.02)]. Asymmetric optic disc edema with a peripapillary lesion and a history of raw meat ingestion were important clues for diagnosing Toxocara optic neuropathy. Additionally, Toxocara IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and evaluating eosinophil may be helpful for diagnosis. PMID:29600190

  19. Nerve Blocks

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn off" a pain signal along a specific distribution of nerve. Imaging guidance may be used to place the needle in the most appropriate location for maximum benefit. A nerve block may allow a damaged nerve time to heal, provide temporary pain relief and help ...

  20. High Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From a Five-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Walter-Höliner, Isabella; Barbarini, Daniela Seick; Lütschg, Jürg; Blassnig-Ezeh, Anya; Zanier, Ulrike; Saely, Christoph H; Simma, Burkhard

    2018-03-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy at baseline and after five years of follow-up in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus using both measurements of nerve conduction velocity and clinical neurological examination. A total of 38 patients who underwent insulin pump or intensive insulin therapy were included. The subjects averaged 12.6 ± 2.4 years of age and their diabetes duration averaged 5.6 ± 3.2 years. All patients underwent a detailed physical, neurological, and electrophysiological examination, as well as laboratory testing at their annual checkup. At baseline, the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy diagnosed using neurological examination was 13.2%, whereas nerve conduction velocity testing revealed diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 31.6%, highlighting a high prevalence of subclinical diabetic peripheral neuropathy. During follow-up, there was a strong increase in the prevalence of clinically diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which reached 34.2% (P = 0.039) after five years; the proportion of patients with subclinical diabetic peripheral neuropathy even reached 63.2% (P = 0.002). The most significant changes in electrophysiological parameters were observed in the tibial sensory nerve (P = 0.001). The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus was high, and there was a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy during a five-year follow-up interval. Importantly, our data show that a mere clinical evaluation is not sensitive enough to diagnose diabetic peripheral neuropathy in these patients. Nerve conduction velocity measurement, which is regarded as the gold standard for the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, should be applied more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetic corneal neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R O; Peters, M A; Sobocinski, K; Nassif, K; Schultz, K J

    1983-01-01

    Corneal epithelial lesions can be found in approximately one-half of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. These lesions are transient and clinically resemble the keratopathy seen in staphylococcal keratoconjunctivitis. Staphylococcal organisms, however, can be isolated in equal percentages from diabetic patients without keratopathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be related to the presence of diabetic keratopathy after adjusting for age with analysis of covariance. The strongest predictor of both keratopathy and corneal fluorescein staining was vibration perception threshold in the toes (P less than 0.01); and the severity of keratopathy was directly related to the degree of diminution of peripheral sensation. Other predictors of keratopathy were: reduced tear breakup time (P less than 0.03), type of diabetes (P less than 0.01), and metabolic status as indicated by c-peptide fasting (P less than 0.01). No significant relationships were found between the presence of keratopathy and tear glucose levels, endothelial cell densities, corneal thickness measurements, the presence of S epidermidis, or with duration of disease. It is our conclusion that asymptomatic epithelial lesions in the nontraumatized diabetic cornea can occur as a manifestation of generalized polyneuropathy and probably represent a specific form of corneal neuropathy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:6676964

  2. A comparative study of brachial plexus sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Goedee, H S; Jongbloed, B A; van Asseldonk, J-T H; Hendrikse, J; Vrancken, A F J E; Franssen, H; Nikolakopoulos, S; Visser, L H; van der Pol, W L; van den Berg, L H

    2017-10-01

    To compare the performance of neuroimaging techniques, i.e. high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when applied to the brachial plexus, as part of the diagnostic work-up of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Fifty-one incident, treatment-naive patients with CIDP (n = 23) or MMN (n = 28) underwent imaging of the brachial plexus using (i) a standardized MRI protocol to assess enlargement or T2 hyperintensity and (ii) bilateral HRUS to determine the extent of nerve (root) enlargement. We found enlargement of the brachial plexus in 19/51 (37%) and T2 hyperintensity in 29/51 (57%) patients with MRI and enlargement in 37/51 (73%) patients with HRUS. Abnormal results were only found in 6/51 (12%) patients with MRI and 12/51 (24%) patients with HRUS. A combination of the two imaging techniques identified 42/51 (83%) patients. We found no association between age, disease duration or Medical Research Council sum-score and sonographic nerve size, MRI enlargement or presence of T2 hyperintensity. Brachial plexus sonography could complement MRI in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CIDP and MMN. Our results indicate that combined imaging studies may add value to the current diagnostic consensus criteria for chronic inflammatory neuropathies. © 2017 EAN.

  3. Echogenicity and ultrasound visibility of peripheral nerves of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Lori A; Acuna, Josie Galarza; Gaskin, Kevin; Murphy, Amanda M; Friedman, Lucas; Stears-Ellis, Summer; Javedani, Parisa; Stolz, Uwe; Adhikari, Srikar

    2018-05-02

    Regional anesthesia with ultrasound-guidance is an excellent option for pain control if nerves are adequately visualized. Gender, body mass index (BMI), history of diabetes, neck and forearm circumference may affect echotexture and visualization. This study evaluates patient characteristics for their ability to predict the echogenicity or visibility of upper extremity peripheral nerves. This is a prospective observational study. A convenience sample of adult emergency department patients were enrolled. Gender, BMI, history of diabetes, neck circumference and arm circumference were recorded. Sonographic images of the brachial plexus at interscalene and supraclavicular levels, the median, the radial and ulnar nerves were recorded. Three reviewers independently graded the echogenicity and visibility using subjective scales. 395 peripheral nerves were included. Nerves of the forearm (median, ulnar, radial nerves) were found to be more echogenic (OR=9.3; 95% CI: 5.7, 15.3) and visible (OR=10.0; 6.3, 16.0) than more proximal nerves (brachial plexus at interscalene and supraclavicular levels). Gender, BMI, and history of diabetes mellitus were not significantly related to nerve visibility (p=0.9, 0.2, 0.2, respectively) or echogenicity (p=0.3, 0.8, 0.3). Neck circumference was not related to visibility or echogenicity of proximal nerves. Increased forearm circumference improved echogenicity (OR=1.25; 1.09, 1.43) but not visibility of forearm nerves. Gender, BMI and presence of diabetes were not related to echogenicity or visibility of upper extremity nerves. Increasing forearm circumference was associated with increased echogenicity of the adjacent nerves, but not visibility. Neck circumference was not associated with either nerve visibility or echogenicity of brachial plexus nerve bundles.

  4. [False traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager].

    PubMed

    Nour, M; Talha, H; El Idrissi, R; Lahraoui, Y; Ouazzani, L; Oubejja, H; Erraji, M; Zerhouni, H; Ettayebi, F

    2014-12-01

    Most aneurysms of hand arteries are traumatic. It is a generally rare unrecognized pathology. Complications are serious (embolism and thromboses of interdigital arteries). Two main causes can be recalled: acute trauma, with development of a false aneurysm; repeated microtrauma (hand hammer syndrome), with occurrence of an arterial dysplasic aneurysm. The diagnosis is based on the presence of a pulsatile mass, with finger dysesthesia, unilateral Raynaud's phenomenon. It is confirmed by duplex Doppler. Arteriography is necessary but can be replaced by an angio-MR. We report a case of false traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager. This case illustrates this rare condition and opens discussion on therapeutic options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Corneal confocal microscopy detects small fiber neuropathy in CMT1A patients

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Marshall, Andy; Banka, Siddharth; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Fadavi, Hassan; Kingston, Helen; Malik, Rayaz A

    2012-01-01

    Although unmyelinated nerve fibers are affected in CMT1A, they have not been studied in detail due to the invasive nature of the techniques needed to study them. We established alterations in C-fiber bundles of the cornea in patients with CMT1A using non-invasive corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). Twelve patients with CMT1A and twelve healthy control subjects underwent assessment of neuropathic symptoms and deficits, electrophysiology, quantitative sensory testing, corneal sensitivity and corneal confocal microscopy. Corneal sensitivity, corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, corneal nerve fiber length and corneal nerve fiber tortuosity were significantly reduced in CMT1A patients compared to controls. There was a significant correlation between corneal sensation and CCM parameters with the severity of painful neuropathic symptoms, cold and warm thresholds and median nerve CMAP amplitude. CCM demonstrates significant damage to C-fiber bundles, which relates to some measures of neuropathy in CMT1A patients. PMID:22996176

  6. Nerve compression injuries due to traumatic false aneurysm.

    PubMed Central

    Robbs, J V; Naidoo, K S

    1984-01-01

    Experience with 17 patients with delayed onset of compression neuropraxia due to hemorrhage following nonoperative treatment of penetrating arterial injuries is presented. Fifteen cases involved the arteries of the neck shoulder girdle and upper extremity and two the gluteal vessels. This resulted in dysfunction of components of the brachial plexus, median ulnar, and sciatic nerves. Follow-up extended from 3 to 18 months. Of 10 brachial plexus lesions two recovered fully, five partially, and three not at all. Of seven peripheral nerve injuries, full recovery occurred in two patients and none in five. Adverse prognostic factors for neurological recovery are sepsis, involvement of intrinsic hand innervation and the sciatic nerve. An improved prognosis may be expected for upper trunk lesions of the brachial plexus and radial nerve lesions. The complication is essentially avoidable and a careful appraisal of the circulatory status must be made in all patients with penetrating trauma in the neck and shoulder girdle and buttock. PMID:6732331

  7. Autologous Serum Tears for Treatment of Photoallodynia in Patients with Corneal Neuropathy: Efficacy and Evaluation with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shruti; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Cavalcanti, Bernardo M; Cruzat, Andrea; Colon, Clara; Brown, Emma; Borsook, David; Prüss, Harald; Hamrah, Pedram

    2015-07-01

    Patients suffering from corneal neuropathy may present with photoallodynia; i.e., increased light sensitivity, frequently with a normal slit-lamp examination. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of autologous serum tears (AST) for treatment of severe photoallodynia in corneal neuropathy and to correlate clinical findings with corneal subbasal nerve alterations by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Retrospective case control study with 16 patients with neuropathy-induced severe photoallodynia compared to 16 normal controls. Symptom severity, clinical examination and bilateral corneal IVCM scans were recorded. All patients suffered from extreme photoallodynia (8.8±1.1) with no concurrent ocular surface disease. Subbasal nerves were significantly decreased at baseline in patients compared to controls; total nerve length (9208±1264 vs 24714±1056 μm/mm(2); P<.0001) and total nerve number (9.6±1.4 vs 28.6±2.0; P<.0001), respectively. Morphologically, significantly increased reflectivity (2.9±0.2 vs 1.8±0.1; P<.0001), beading (in 93.7%), and neuromas (in 62.5%) were seen. AST (3.6±2.1 months) resulted in significantly decreased symptom severity (1.6±1.7; P=.02). IVCM demonstrated significantly improved nerve parameters (P<.005), total nerve length (15451±1595 μm/mm(2)), number (13.9±2.1), and reflectivity (1.9±0.1). Beading and neuromas were seen in only 56.2% and 7.6% of patients. Patients with corneal neuropathy-induced photoallodynia show profound alterations in corneal nerves. AST restores nerve topography through nerve regeneration, and this correlated with improvement in patient-reported photoallodynia. The data support the notion that corneal nerve damage results in alterations in afferent trigeminal pathways to produce photoallodynia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NRP-1 Receptor Expression Mismatch in Skin of Subjects with Experimental and Diabetic Small Fiber Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Van Acker, Nathalie; Ragé, Michael; Vermeirsch, Hilde; Schrijvers, Dorien; Nuydens, Rony; Byttebier, Geert; Timmers, Maarten; De Schepper, Stefanie; Streffer, Johannes; Andries, Luc; Plaghki, Léon; Cras, Patrick; Meert, Theo

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo cutaneous nerve regeneration model using capsaicin is applied extensively to study the regenerative mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy of disease modifying molecules for small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Since mismatches between functional and morphological nerve fiber recovery are described for this model, we aimed at determining the capability of the capsaicin model to truly mimic the morphological manifestations of SFN in diabetes. As nerve and blood vessel growth and regenerative capacities are defective in diabetes, we focused on studying the key regulator of these processes, the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)/semaphorin pathway. This led us to the evaluation of NRP-1 receptor expression in epidermis and dermis of subjects presenting experimentally induced small fiber neuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy and of diabetic subjects without clinical signs of small fiber neuropathy. The NRP-1 receptor was co-stained with CD31 vessel-marker using immunofluorescence and analyzed with Definiens® technology. This study indicates that capsaicin application results in significant loss of epidermal NRP-1 receptor expression, whereas diabetic subjects presenting small fiber neuropathy show full epidermal NRP-1 expression in contrast to the basal expression pattern seen in healthy controls. Capsaicin induced a decrease in dermal non-vascular NRP-1 receptor expression which did not appear in diabetic polyneuropathy. We can conclude that the capsaicin model does not mimic diabetic neuropathy related changes for cutaneous NRP-1 receptor expression. In addition, our data suggest that NRP-1 might play an important role in epidermal nerve fiber loss and/or defective regeneration and that NRP-1 receptor could change the epidermal environment to a nerve fiber repellant bed possibly through Sem3A in diabetes. PMID:27598321

  9. Susceptibility of various areas of the nervous system of hens to TOCP-induced delayed neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Classen, W; Gretener, P; Rauch, M; Weber, E; Krinke, G J

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of in-life parameters, biochemical endpoints, and susceptibility of various areas of the chicken nervous system to delayed neuropathy induced by tri-orthocresyl phosphate (TOCP) was assessed. Groups of hens were exposed to a single oral dose of TOCP of 0, 50, 200 or 500 mg/kg and the animals observed for 21 days. Perfusion fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were stained with Bodian's silver and Luxol blue and semi-thin epoxy sections with toluidine blue. Sciatic and tibial nerves, lumbosacral, midthoracic, and upper cervical spinal cord, medulla oblongata and cerebellum were examined using a semiquantitative scoring system. In pair-dosed hens inhibition of brain and spinal cord neurotoxic esterase (NTE) and cholinesterase and of plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterases was determined 24 hr and 48 hr after administration. At all dose levels NTE in brain and spinal cord and plasma cholinesterase was inhibited markedly. Quantitative inhibition of NTE was seen also in absence of neuropathy. Ataxia and body weight loss occurred in high-dose animals only, while dose-related neuropathy was seen in the distal tibial nerve, medulla oblongata and cerebellum. Ataxia was correlated best with neuropathy in peripheral nerves while degeneration of nerve fibers in the cerebellum, seen best in mid-longitudinal sections, was the most sensitive histological indicator of TOCP-induced delayed neuropathy. The particular susceptibility of spinocerebellar neurons was recognized long ago, but often has been neglected in delayed neurotoxicity studies and respective guidelines. Optimal sensitivity of toxicity tests is a prerequisite for risk assessment, can be cost efficient, and nowadays should be a main interest of animal welfare in order to reduce animals' suffering. Based on these data, determination of NTE inhibition together with histopathological examination of longitudinal sections of distal tibial nerves, mid-longitudinal sections of rostral cerebellum and cross

  10. Peripheral Neuropathy in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1, 2, 3, and 6.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Christoph; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Rakowicz, Maryla; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Szymanski, Sandra; Berciano, Jose; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Pedersen, Karine; Depondt, Chantal; Rola, Rafal; Klockgether, Thomas; García, Antonio; Mutlu, Gurkan; Schöls, Ludger

    2016-04-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are characterized by autosomal dominantly inherited progressive ataxia but are clinically heterogeneous due to variable involvement of non-cerebellar parts of the nervous system. Non-cerebellar symptoms contribute significantly to the burden of SCAs, may guide the clinician to the underlying genetic subtype, and might be useful markers to monitor disease. Peripheral neuropathy is frequently observed in SCA, but subtype-specific features and subclinical manifestations have rarely been evaluated. We performed a multicenter nerve conduction study with 162 patients with genetically confirmed SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6. The study proved peripheral nerves to be involved in the neurodegenerative process in 82 % of SCA1, 63 % of SCA2, 55 % of SCA3, and 22 % of SCA6 patients. Most patients of all subtypes revealed affection of both sensory and motor fibers. Neuropathy was most frequently of mixed type with axonal and demyelinating characteristics in all SCA subtypes. However, nerve conduction velocities of SCA1 patients were slower compared to other genotypes. SCA6 patients revealed less axonal damage than patients with other subtypes. No influence of CAG repeat length or biometric determinants on peripheral neuropathy could be identified in SCA1, SCA3, and SCA6. In SCA2, earlier onset and more severe ataxia were associated with peripheral neuropathy. We proved peripheral neuropathy to be a frequent site of the neurodegenerative process in all common SCA subtypes. Since damage to peripheral nerves is readily assessable by electrophysiological means, nerve conduction studies should be performed in a longitudinal approach to assess these parameters as potential progression markers.

  11. Suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Gülçin Kaymak; Göğüş, Feride

    2003-03-01

    To determine presence of suprascapular nerve entrapment in a group of newsreel cameramen. Thirty-six men working as newsreel cameramen participated in the study. In addition to musculoskeletal and neurologic examinations, bilateral suprascapular nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography were performed. A group of 19 healthy, male volunteers were included in the study as normal controls for suprascapular nerve conduction studies. In newsreel cameramen, mean suprascapular nerve latency was 3.20 +/- 0.56 msec and 2.84 +/- 0.36 msec for right and left shoulders, respectively (P = 0.001). The mean latency difference between right and left suprascapular nerves was -0.05 +/- 0.19 msec in the control group and 0.36 +/- 0.58 msec in the cameramen group (P < 0.001). Six subjects' right suprascapular nerve motor latencies were 2 SD above the normal mean values. There was no relationship between suprascapular nerve latencies and the age, professional life, and number of hours worked daily by the subjects. Carrying a heavy, mobile camera on the shoulder might cause suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen. This could be considered an occupational disorder of the suprascapular nerve, like meat-packer's neuropathy.

  12. Toxic optic neuropathy following ingestion of homeopathic medication Arnica-30.

    PubMed

    Venkatramani, Devendra V; Goel, Shubhra; Ratra, Vineet; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of acute, bilateral and severe vision loss after inadvertent consumption of a large quantity of the homoeopathic medication Arnica-30. Severe vomiting which required hospitalization preceded visual symptoms. In the acute stage, pupillary responses to light were absent and fundus examination was normal. Vision loss followed a fluctuating course, with profound loss noted after 6 weeks along with bilateral optic disc pallor. Neuro-ophthalmic examination and detailed investigations were performed, including magnetic resonance imaging, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Ocular coherence tomography (OCT) showed gross thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer. While a differential diagnosis of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy was kept in mind, these findings supported a diagnosis of bilateral toxic optic neuropathy. Arnica-30 is popularly used to accelerate wound healing, including after oculoplastic surgery. While homeopathic medicines are generally considered safe due to the very low concentrations involved, Arnica-30 may be neurotoxic if consumed internally in large quantities.

  13. Novel treatment for radiation optic neuropathy with intravenous bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Osman; Lincoff, Norah S; Saikali, Nicolas; Prasad, Dheerendra; Miletich, Robert S; Mechtler, Laszlo L

    2012-12-01

    Radiation optic neuropathy is a devastating form of vision loss that can occur months to years after radiation therapy for tumors and other lesions located in close proximity to the visual pathways. We present the case of a 24-year-old woman who underwent external beam radiation for treatment of a tectal pilocytic astrocytoma, and 5 years later she developed bilateral radiation optic neuropathy and radiation necrosis of the right temporal lobe. We opted to treat her with intravenous bevacizumab with 3 doses every 3 weeks, as well as dexamethasone and pentoxifylline. After the first infusion of bevacizumab, the patient noted improvement in vision and color vision, and a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study showed that the previous enhancement of the optic nerves and chiasm was diminishing. Her vision improved dramatically and has remained stable over a 3-year period.

  14. Sight-threatening optic neuropathy is associated with paranasal lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahiko; Watanabe, Ken; Tsuura, Yukio; Tsuji, Gengo; Koyama, Shingo; Yoshigi, Jun; Hirata, Naoko; Yamane, Shin; Iizima, Yasuhito; Toyota, Shigeo; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma around the orbit is very rare. We present a rare case of optic neuropathy caused by lymphoma. A 61-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of idiopathic optic neuropathy affecting her right eye. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy (methyl-predonisolone 1 g daily for 3 days) with a presumed diagnosis of idiopathic optic neuritis. After she had been switched to oral steroid therapy, endoscopic sinus surgery had been performed, which revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the ethmoidal sinus. Although R-CHOP therapy was immediately started, prolonged optic nerve compression resulted in irreversible blindness. Accordingly, patients with suspected idiopathic optic neuritis should be carefully assessed when they show a poor response, and imaging of the orbits and brain should always be done for initial diagnosis because they may have compression by a tumor. PMID:20390034

  15. Structure and stability of internodal myelin in mouse models of hereditary neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Avila, Robin L; Inouye, Hideyo; Baek, Rena C; Yin, Xinghua; Trapp, Bruce D; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2005-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathies often result in abnormalities in the structure of internodal myelin, including changes in period and membrane packing, as observed by electron microscopy (EM). Mutations in the gene that encodes the major adhesive structural protein of internodal myelin in the peripheral nervous system of humans and mice--P0 glycoprotein--correlate with these defects. The mechanisms by which P0 mutations interfere with myelin packing and stability are not well understood and cannot be provided by EM studies that give static and qualitative information on fixed material. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of mutant P0, we used x-ray diffraction, which can detect more subtle and dynamic changes in native myelin, to investigate myelin structure in sciatic nerves from murine models of hereditary neuropathies. We used mice with disruption of one or both copies of the P0 gene (models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth-like neuropathy [CMT1B] or Dejerine-Sottas-like neuropathy) and mice with a CMT1B resulting from a transgene encoding P0 with an amino terminal myc-tag. To directly test the structural role of P0, we also examined a mouse that expresses P0 instead of proteolipid protein in central nervous system myelin. To link our findings on unfixed nerves with EM results, we analyzed x-ray patterns from unembedded, aldehyde-fixed nerves and from plastic-embedded nerves. From the x-ray patterns recorded from whole nerves, we assessed the amount of myelin and its quality (i.e. relative thickness and regularity). Among sciatic nerves having different levels of P0, we found that unfixed nerves and, to a lesser extent, fixed but unembedded nerves gave diffraction patterns of sufficient quality to distinguish periods, sometimes differing by a few Angstroms. Certain packing abnormalities were preserved qualitatively by aldehyde fixation, and the relative amount and structural integrity of myelin among nerves could be distinguished. Measurements from the same nerve over time

  16. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in footpad skin lesions with diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Up Noh, Sun; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Yong-Taek; Jae Yoon, Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy originating in distal lower extremities is associated with pain early in the disease course, overwhelming in the feet. However, the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor has been implicated in the onset of neuropathic pain and the development of diabetes. Objective of this study was to observe pain syndromes elicited in the footpad of diabetic neuropathy rat model and to assess the contributory role of migration inhibitory factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Methods Diabetic neuropathy was made in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin. Pain threshold was evaluated using von Frey monofilaments for 24 weeks. On comparable experiment time after streptozotocin injection, all footpads were prepared for following procedures; glutathione assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling staining, immunohistochemistry staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. Additionally, human HaCaT skin keratinocytes were treated with methylglyoxal, transfected with migration inhibitory factor/control small interfering RNA, and prepared for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results As compared to sham group, pain threshold was significantly reduced in diabetic neuropathy group, and glutathione was decreased in footpad skin, simultaneously, cell death was increased. Over-expression of migration inhibitory factor, accompanied by low expression of glyoxalase-I and intraepidermal nerve fibers, was shown on the footpad skin lesions of diabetic neuropathy. But, there was no significance in expression of neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, mas-related G protein coupled receptor D, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 between diabetic neuropathy group and sham group. Intriguingly

  17. Diabetic corneal neuropathy: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bikbova, Guzel; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Baba, Takayuki; Bikbov, Mukharram; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic keratopathy is characterized by impaired innervation of the cornea that leads to decreased sensitivity, with resultant difficulties with epithelial wound healing. These difficulties in wound healing put patients at risk for ocular complications such as surface irregularities, corneal infections, and stromal opacification. Pathological changes in corneal innervations in diabetic patients are an important early indicator of diabetic neuropathy. The decrease in corneal sensitivity is strongly correlated with the duration of diabetes as well as the severity of the neuropathy. This review presents recent findings in assessing the ocular surface as well as the recent therapeutic strategies for optimal management of individuals with diabetes who are susceptible to developing diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to detect optic neuropathy in patients with craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Dagi, Linda R; Tiedemann, Laura M; Heidary, Gena; Robson, Caroline D; Hall, Amber M; Zurakowski, David

    2014-12-01

    Detecting and monitoring optic neuropathy in patients with craniosynostosis is a clinical challenge due to limited cooperation, and subjective measures of visual function. The purpose of this study was to appraise the correlation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with indication of optic neuropathy based on fundus examination. The medical records of all patients with craniosynostosis presenting for ophthalmic evaluation during 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The following data were abstracted from the record: diagnosis, historical evidence of elevated intracranial pressure, current ophthalmic evaluation and visual field results, and current peripapillary RNFL thickness. A total of 54 patients were included (mean age, 10.6 years [range, 2.4-33.8 years]). Thirteen (24%) had evidence of optic neuropathy based on current fundus examination. Of these, 10 (77%) demonstrated either peripapillary RNFL elevation and papilledema or depression with optic atrophy. Sensitivity for detecting optic atrophy was 88%; for papilledema, 60%; and for either form of optic neuropathy, 77%. Specificity was 94%, 90%, and 83%, respectively. Kappa agreement was substantial for optic atrophy (κ = 0.73) and moderate for papilledema (κ = 0.39) and for either form of optic neuropathy (κ = 0.54). Logistic regression indicated that peripapillary RNFL thickness was predictive of optic neuropathy (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that RNFL thickness measurements were more sensitive at detecting optic neuropathy than visual field testing (likelihood ratio = 10.02; P = 0.002). Sensitivity and specificity of logMAR visual acuity in detecting optic neuropathy were 15% and 95%, respectively. Peripapillary RNFL thickness measured by SD-OCT provides adjunctive evidence for identifying optic neuropathy in patients with craniosynostosis and appears more sensitive at detecting optic atrophy than