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Sample records for ultra-wideband uwb pulse

  1. Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication vulnerability for security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, H. Timothy

    2010-07-01

    RF toxicity and Information Warfare (IW) are becoming omnipresent posing threats to the protection of nuclear assets, and within theatres of hostility or combat where tactical operation of wireless communication without detection and interception is important and sometimes critical for survival. As a result, a requirement for deployment of many security systems is a highly secure wireless technology manifesting stealth or covert operation suitable for either permanent or tactical deployment where operation without detection or interruption is important The possible use of ultra wideband (UWB) spectrum technology as an alternative physical medium for wireless network communication offers many advantages over conventional narrowband and spread spectrum wireless communication. UWB also known as fast-frequency chirp is nonsinusoidal and sends information directly by transmitting sub-nanosecond pulses without the use of mixing baseband information upon a sinusoidal carrier. Thus UWB sends information using radar-like impulses by spreading its energy thinly over a vast spectrum and can operate at extremely low-power transmission within the noise floor where other forms of RF find it difficult or impossible to operate. As a result UWB offers low probability of detection (LPD), low probability of interception (LPI) as well as anti-jamming (AJ) properties in signal space. This paper analyzes and compares the vulnerability of UWB to narrowband and spread spectrum wireless network communication.

  2. Assessment of Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-13

    planar antenna arrays . The suggested level of effort of each study is one person-year. (3) The Panel recommends that the...ultra-wideband linear and planar antenna arrays should be accomplished. (4) TRANSMITTER/SOURCE Although the continued development DESIGN of potential...because it is difficult to have low antenna sidelobes with an impulse radar. This is especially true when the radar employs a phased array antenna .

  3. Ultra Wideband (UWB) Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) Radar Upgrade Assessment Field Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Several upgrades have been incorporated into the Ultra Wideband (UWB) Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) radar, which includes: (a) Augmented ... Reality , (b) antenna array mounting structure, (c) electronic switch and electro-mechanical relay, and (d) low noise amplifiers. The purpose of the experiment is to assess UWB SIRE radar upgrades.

  4. A Novel Approach to Photonic Generation and Modulation of Ultra-Wideband Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Peng; Guo, Hao; Chen, Dalei; Zhu, Huatao

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach to photonic generation of ultra-wideband (UWB) signals is proposed in this paper. The proposed signal generator is capable of generating UWB doublet pulses with flexible reconfigurability, and many different pulse modulation formats, including the commonly used pulse-position modulation (PPM) and bi-phase modulation (BPM) can be realized. Moreover, the photonic UWB pulse generator is capable of generating UWB signals with a tunable spectral notch-band, which is desirable to realize the interference avoidance between UWB and other narrow band systems, such as Wi-Fi. A mathematical model describing the proposed system is developed and the generation of UWB signals with different modulation formats is demonstrated via computer simulations.

  5. Ultra-wideband short-pulse radar with range accuracy for short range detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Pankonin, Jeffrey; Heintzleman, Richard E; Kinzie, Nicola Jean; Popovic, Zorana P

    2014-10-07

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) radar transmitter apparatus comprises a pulse generator configured to produce from a sinusoidal input signal a pulsed output signal having a series of baseband pulses with a first pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The pulse generator includes a plurality of components that each have a nonlinear electrical reactance. A signal converter is coupled to the pulse generator and configured to convert the pulsed output signal into a pulsed radar transmit signal having a series of radar transmit pulses with a second PRF that is less than the first PRF.

  6. FDTD computation of human eye exposure to ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Simicevic, Neven

    2008-03-21

    With an increase in the application of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic pulses in the communications industry, radar, biotechnology and medicine, comes an interest in UWB exposure safety standards. Despite an increase of the scientific research on bioeffects of exposure to non-ionizing UWB pulses, characterization of those effects is far from complete. A numerical computational approach, such as a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method, is required to visualize and understand the complexity of broadband electromagnetic interactions. The FDTD method has almost no limits in the description of the geometrical and dispersive properties of the simulated material, it is numerically robust and appropriate for current computer technology. In this paper, a complete calculation of exposure of the human eye to UWB electromagnetic pulses in the frequency range of 3.1-10.6, 22-29 and 57-64 GHz is performed. Computation in this frequency range required a geometrical resolution of the eye of 0.1 mm and an arbitrary precision in the description of its dielectric properties in terms of the Debye model. New results show that the interaction of UWB pulses with the eye tissues exhibits the same properties as the interaction of the continuous electromagnetic waves (CWs) with the frequencies from the pulse's frequency spectrum. It is also shown that under the same exposure conditions the exposure to UWB pulses is from one to many orders of magnitude safer than the exposure to CW.

  7. Photonic generation of ultra-wideband doublet pulse using a semiconductor-optical-amplifier based polarization-diversified loop.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bowen; Dong, Jianji; Yu, Yuan; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Xinliang

    2012-06-15

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme of ultra-wideband (UWB) doublet pulse generation using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based polarization-diversified loop (PDL) without any assistant light. In our scheme, the incoming gaussian pulse is split into two parts by the PDL, and each of them is intensity modulated by the other due to cross-gain modulation (XGM) in the SOA. Then, both parts are recombined with incoherent summation to form a UWB doublet pulse. Bi-polar UWB doublet pulse generation is demonstrated using an inverted gaussian pulse injection. Moreover, pulse amplitude modulation of UWB doublet is also experimentally demonstrated. Our scheme shows some advantages, such as simple implementation without assistant light and single optical carrier operation with good fiber dispersion tolerance.

  8. Photonic generation of ultra-wideband pulses using a fiber delay interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xinliang; Zhang, Yin; Xu, Enming

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate a novel scheme to generate ultra wideband (UWB) doublet pulses by inputting a dark return-to-zero (RZ) signal into a fiber delay interferometer (FDI). When a dark RZ pulse train with a repetition rate of 0.625 GHz and a pulse width of 120 ps was inputted into a FDI with a free spectrum range (FSR) of 0.16 nm (~20 GHz, according time delay is ~50 ps) and an extinction ratio (ER) of 9 dB, by adjusting the control temperature of the FDI, the phase difference of the input light on the both fiber arms of the FDI is changed and controlled, UWB doublet pulse is directly generated at the output port of the FDI. The system parameters effects on the output signal were also discussed. Moreover, we numerically demonstrated that, by carefully optimizing system parameters, UWB quadruplet pulses also can be generated. This scheme has some distinct advantages including easy integration, convenient tuning, good stability, and so on. Presented method also accords with the general features in future applied UWB system, namely, single optical source input, simple configuration and passive device.

  9. Photonic generation of ultra-wideband pulses using a fiber delay interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xinliang; Zhang, Yin; Xu, Enming

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate a novel scheme to generate ultra wideband (UWB) doublet pulses by inputting a dark return-to-zero (RZ) signal into a fiber delay interferometer (FDI). When a dark RZ pulse train with a repetition rate of 0.625 GHz and a pulse width of 120 ps was inputted into a FDI with a free spectrum range (FSR) of 0.16 nm (~20 GHz, according time delay is ~50 ps) and an extinction ratio (ER) of 9 dB, by adjusting the control temperature of the FDI, the phase difference of the input light on the both fiber arms of the FDI is changed and controlled, UWB doublet pulse is directly generated at the output port of the FDI. The system parameters effects on the output signal were also discussed. Moreover, we numerically demonstrated that, by carefully optimizing system parameters, UWB quadruplet pulses also can be generated. This scheme has some distinct advantages including easy integration, convenient tuning, good stability, and so on. Presented method also accords with the general features in future applied UWB system, namely, single optical source input, simple configuration and passive device.

  10. Exposure of biological material to ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses: dosimetric implications.

    PubMed

    Simicevic, Neven

    2007-06-01

    Interest in ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic pulses in the communications industry and various applications in biotechnology and medicine is constantly increasing. While more and more scientific research of bioelectromagnetic phenomena is focusing on bioeffects of exposure to non-ionizing UWB pulses, characterization of those effects is far from complete. In this paper, a synthesis of experimental studies from the point of computational modeling is presented. The complexity of the experiments requires a numerical rather than an analytical approach. Solving Maxwell's equations using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is a necessary step in visualizing and understanding broadband response. The advantages of this method include having almost no limits in the description of geometrical and dispersive properties of the simulated material, numerical robustness, and appropriateness for the computer technology of today. Some of the results of the computation and their importance in future experimental design are discussed. Improvements in the computational modeling and dielectric material description are suggested. This paper aims at justifying a scientific basis for UWB exposure safety standards relevant for setting the non-ionizing UWB radiation exposure guidelines. The results of this research will be of interest to people who work with electronic devices involving UWB radiation.

  11. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  12. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-09-06

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, [+-] UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 16 figs.

  13. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  14. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-06-04

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, {+-}UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 21 figs.

  15. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 3; Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  16. A low-power high-speed ultra-wideband pulse radio transmission system.

    PubMed

    Wei Tang; Culurciello, E

    2009-10-01

    We present a low-power high-speed ultra-wideband (UWB) transmitter with a wireless transmission test platform. The system is specifically designed for low-power high-speed wireless implantable biosensors. The integrated transmitter consists of a compact pulse generator and a modulator. The circuit is fabricated in the 0.5-mum silicon-on-sapphire process and occupies 420 mum times 420 mum silicon area. The transmitter is capable of generating pulses with 1-ns width and the pulse rate can be controlled between 90 MHz and 270 MHz. We built a demonstration/testing system for the transmitter. The transmitter achieves a 14-Mb/s data rate. With 50% duty cycle data, the power consumption of the chip is between 10 mW and 21 mW when the transmission distance is from 3.2 to 4 m. The core circuit size is 70 mum times 130 mum.

  17. Penetration and propagation into biological matter and biological effects of high-power ultra-wideband pulses: a review.

    PubMed

    Schunck, Thérèse; Bieth, François; Pinguet, Sylvain; Delmote, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Systems emitting ultra-wideband high power microwave (HP/UWB) pulses are developed for military and civilian applications. HP/UWB pulses typically have durations on the order of nanoseconds, rise times of picoseconds and amplitudes around 100 kV m(-1). This article reviews current research on biological effects from HP/UWB exposure. The different references were classified according to endpoints (cardiovascular system, central nervous system, behavior, genotoxicity, teratology …). The article also reviews the aspects of mechanisms of interactions and tissue damage as well as the numerical work that has been done for studying HP/UWB pulse propagation and pulse energy deposition inside biological tissues. The mechanisms proposed are the molecular conformation change, the modification of chemical reaction rates, membrane excitation and breakdown and direct electrical forces on cells or cell constituents, and the energy deposition. As regards the penetration of biological matter and the deposited energy, mainly computations were published. They have shown that the EM field inside the biological matter is strongly modified compared to the incident EM field and that the energy absorption for HP/UWB pulses occurs in the same way as for continuous waves. However, the energy carried by a HP/UWB pulse is very low and the deposited energy is low. The number of published studies dealing with the biological effects is small and only a few pointed out slight effects. It should be further noted that the animal populations used in the studies were not always large, the statistical analyses not always relevant and the teams involved in this research rather limited in number.

  18. Sensing through the wall imaging using the Army Research Lab ultra-wideband synchronous impulse reconstruction (UWB SIRE) radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam; Ressler, Marc; Sichina, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a mission and customer funded exploratory program, has developed a new low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar is capable of penetrating enclosed areas (buildings) and generating SAR imagery. This supports the U.S. Army's need for intelligence on the configuration, content, and human presence inside these enclosed areas. The radar system is mounted on a ground based vehicle traveling along the road and is configured with an array of antennas pointing toward the enclosed areas of interest. This paper will describe an experiment conducted recently at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. In this paper we briefly describe the UWB SIRE radar and the test setup in the experiment. We will also describe the signal processing and the image techniques used to produce the SAR imagery. Finally, we will present SAR imagery of the building and its internal structure from different viewing directions.

  19. Millimeter wave band ultra wideband transmitter MMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Jin; Rolland, Nathalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new millimeter-wave (MMW) ultra wideband (UWB) transmitter MMIC which has been developed in an OMMIC 0.1 μm GaAs PHEMT foundry process (ft = 100 GHz) for 22-29 GHz vehicular radar systems. The transmitter is composed of an MMW negative resistance oscillator (NRO), a power amplifier (PA), and two UWB pulse generators (PGs). In order to convert the UWB pulse signal to MMW frequency and reduce the total power consumption, the MMW NRO is driven by one of the UWB pulse generators and the power amplifier is triggered by another UWB pulse generator. The main advantages of this transmitter are: new design, simple architecture, high-precision distance measurements, infinite ON/OFF switch ratio, and low power consumption. The total power consumption of the transmitter MMIC is 218 mW with a peak output power of 5.5 dBm at 27 GHz.

  20. Through-the-wall localization of a moving target by two independent ultra wideband (UWB) radar systems.

    PubMed

    Kocur, Dušan; Svecová, Mária; Rovňáková, Jana

    2013-09-09

    In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB) radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  1. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-11-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion. 15 figs.

  2. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion.

  3. Target Recognition Using Late-Time Returns from Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    neglecting terms associated with surface resistance. The recognition sensor illuminates the target with a series of ultra-wideband, short radar pulses...the incident radar wave . Picture yourself looking into a mirror. If you can see your own face, you see the broadside of the mirror. Broadside is used...as an azimuth reference. Broadside illumination occurs when the incident wave approaches the object’s surface in a direction parallel to the surface

  4. 4 Gbps impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission over 100 meters multi mode fiber with 4 meters wireless transmission.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Caballero, Antonio; Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2009-09-14

    We present experimental demonstrations of in-building impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) link consisting of 100 m multi mode fiber (MMF) and 4 m wireless transmission at a record 4 Gbps, and a record 8 m wireless transmission at 2.5 Gbps. A directly modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was used for the generation of the optical signal. 8 m at 2.5 Gbps corresponds to a bit rate--distance product of 20; the highest yet reported for wireless IR-UWB transmission.

  5. Enhanced Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Circular Monopole Antenna with Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) Surface and Director

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    concept of enhanced UWB monopole antenna ............................................................5 Fig. 7 Conventional mushroom EBG surface (left) vs...space (red squares) and the antenna over a single-layer mushroom EBG (blue diamonds...or coherent, signal that adds to the antenna radiation. One of the common EBG designs, known as mushroom design, is based on a periodic array of

  6. A Rugged Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Circular Planar Monopole for Multichannel Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    where y is the half separation distance between the tapered edges, x is the length, and p is the exponential growth parameter that governs how...quickly or how slowly the tapered slot expands.11 If the exponential growth is too large or too small, then the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) can...the standard exponentially tapered Vivaldi antenna and contrasts the size and performance to the UWB-CPM using a simulated example Vivaldi. The

  7. Design and Experiment of an Ultra-wideband Dual-Pulse Radiating Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitao, Z.; Guozhi, L.; Chaolong, Y.; Xiaoxin, S.; Yajun, F.; Lei, S.; Wenfeng, X.; Yufeng, Z.

    A method to widen the microwave spectrum by radiating two pulses of different FWHM is presented. Based on this method, a high-power ultra-wideband dual-pulse radiating antenna is developed. The antenna is made up of a half-impulse radiating antenna (IRA) over a ground plane. The diameter of the reflector is 3 m with focal length 1.2 m and the ground plane is a rectangle of metal with length of 4 m and width of 3 m. Three TEM horns are adopted to feed two pulses into the reflector. The antenna can radiate two different bipolar pulses with peak-to-peak width of 1.7 ns and 3 ns effectively. The 3 ns bipolar pulse is after 1.7 ns bipolar pulse with a delay of 12.5 ns. Simulation analysis and experiments on the antenna are performed. Good agreements between calculated and measured results are obtained. The radiated spectrum of the 1.7 ns pulse covers from 240 MHz to 400 MHz, while the radiated spectrum of the 3 ns pulse covers from 110 MHz to 210 MHz. The radiated spectrum of the combined 1.7 ns and 3 ns dual-pulse with a 12.5 ns delay covers from 100 MHz to 430 MHz. Results show that radiating the combined pulses is a more effective method to widen the microwave spectrum than radiating a single pulse.

  8. Multi-pulse frequency shifted (MPFS) multiple access modulation for ultra wideband

    DOEpatents

    Nekoogar, Faranak [San Ramon, CA; Dowla, Farid U [Castro Valley, CA

    2012-01-24

    The multi-pulse frequency shifted technique uses mutually orthogonal short duration pulses o transmit and receive information in a UWB multiuser communication system. The multiuser system uses the same pulse shape with different frequencies for the reference and data for each user. Different users have a different pulse shape (mutually orthogonal to each other) and different transmit and reference frequencies. At the receiver, the reference pulse is frequency shifted to match the data pulse and a correlation scheme followed by a hard decision block detects the data.

  9. Self Organization of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Ultra-Wideband Radios

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Spiridon, A

    2004-07-19

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology has proven to be useful in short range, high data rate, robust, and low power communications. These features can make UWB systems ideal candidates for reliable data communications between nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN). However, the low powered UWB pulses can be significantly degraded by channel noise, inter-node interference, and intentional jamming. In this paper we present a novel interference suppression technique for UWB based WSNs that promises self-organization in terms of power conservation, scalability, and channel estimation for the entire distributed network.

  10. Detection of Avalanche Victims Using Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamma, Walid A.; Mende, Howard; Barrie, Greg; Robinson, Robert

    A short-pulse UWB radar system for search and rescue (SAR) operations of snow avalanche victims has been studied through numerical simulation and measurements. The FDTD method was used to model the radar system, the snow, and a realistic human phantom model buried in snow. A 0.5-ns UWB pulse with f0 = 2 GHz is used to illuminate the buried phantom from an array of nine transmitters. The reflected signals were received on a planer array and were processed using the time projection technique to generate ISAR images in the x-z and x-y planes. Farr impulse antennas were also used to measure reflected signals off buried targets, including a human phantom in snow. In both simulation and measurements, the removal of the background reflections (data with no buried targets) was a requirement to improve the dynamic range and toisolate the reflected signals due to buried targets.

  11. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension technique for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-28

    DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT release for public distribution . 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This final report summarizes major project...Communication System 57 4.2.4 Simulation Results 59 4.2.5 Conclusions 61 4.3 Publication List 62 III Technical Impacts 65 4.4 UWB MIMO ...Testbed 67 4.4.1 2-By-l UWB MISO Testbed Description 67 4.4.2 Potential UWB MIMO Testbed 67 CONTENTS 7 5 Waveform Diveristy 69 6 Wideband

  12. Obstacle avoidance and concealed target detection using the Army Research Lab ultra-wideband synchronous impulse reconstruction (UWB SIRE) forward imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam; Wong, David; Ressler, Marc; Koenig, Francois; Stanton, Brian; Smith, Gregory; Sichina, Jeffrey; Kappra, Karl

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a mission and customer funded exploratory program, has developed a new low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for forward imaging to support the Army's vision of an autonomous navigation system for robotic ground vehicles. These unmanned vehicles, equipped with an array of imaging sensors, will be tasked to help detect man-made obstacles such as concealed targets, enemy minefields, and booby traps, as well as other natural obstacles such as ditches, and bodies of water. The ability of UWB radar technology to help detect concealed objects has been documented in the past and could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for autonomous navigation systems, which would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the survivability of the U. S. forces on the battlefield. One of the primary features of the radar is the ability to collect and process data at combat pace in an affordable, compact, and lightweight package. To achieve this, the radar is based on the synchronous impulse reconstruction (SIRE) technique where several relatively slow and inexpensive analog-to-digital (A/D) converters are used to sample the wide bandwidth of the radar signals. We conducted an experiment this winter at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) to support the phenomenological studies of the backscatter from positive and negative obstacles for autonomous robotic vehicle navigation, as well as the detection of concealed targets of interest to the Army. In this paper, we briefly describe the UWB SIRE radar and the test setup in the experiment. We will also describe the signal processing and the forward imaging techniques used in the experiment. Finally, we will present imagery of man-made obstacles such as barriers, concertina wires, and mines.

  13. Hemispheric ultra-wideband antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-04-01

    This report begins with a review of reduced size ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and the peculiar problems that arise when building a UWB antenna. It then gives a description of a new type of UWB antenna that resolves these problems. This antenna, dubbed the hemispheric conical antenna, is similar to a conventional conical antenna in that it uses the same inverted conical conductor over a ground plane, but it also uses a hemispheric dielectric fill in between the conductive cone and the ground plane. The dielectric material creates a fundamentally new antenna which is reduced in size and much more rugged than a standard UWB conical antenna. The creation of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) software tools in spherical coordinates, as described in SAND2004-6577, enabled this technological advance.

  14. Remote Monitoring and Tracking of UF6 Cylinders Using Long-Range Passive Ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2007-06-06

    An IAEA Technical Meeting on Techniques for IAEA Verification of Enrichment Activities identified 'smart tags' as a technology that should be assessed for tracking and locating UF6 cylinders. Although there is vast commercial industry working on RFID systems, the vulnerabilities of commercial products are only beginning to emerge. Most of the commercially off-the-shelf (COTS) RFID systems operate in very narrow frequency bands, making them vulnerable to detection, jamming and tampering and also presenting difficulties when used around metals (i.e. UF6 cylinders). Commercial passive RFID tags have short range, while active RFID tags that provide long ranges have limited lifetimes. There are also some concerns with the introduction of strong (narrowband) radio frequency signals around radioactive and nuclear materials. Considering the shortcomings of commercial RFID systems, in their current form, they do not offer a promising solution for continuous monitoring and tracking of UF6 cylinders. In this paper, we identify the key challenges faced by commercial RFID systems for monitoring UF6 cylinders, and introduce an ultra-wideband approach for tag/reader communications that addresses most of the identified challenges for IAEA safeguards applications.

  15. Ultra-Wideband Angle-of-Arrival Tracking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong H.; Phan, Chau T.; Gross, Julia; Ni, Jianjun; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    Systems that measure the angles of arrival of ultra-wideband (UWB) radio signals and perform triangulation by use of those angles in order to locate the sources of those signals are undergoing development. These systems were originally intended for use in tracking UWB-transmitter-equipped astronauts and mobile robots on the surfaces of remote planets during early stages of exploration, before satellite-based navigation systems become operational. On Earth, these systems could be adapted to such uses as tracking UWB-transmitter-equipped firefighters inside buildings or in outdoor wildfire areas obscured by smoke. The same characteristics that have made UWB radio advantageous for fine resolution ranging, covert communication, and ground-penetrating radar applications in military and law-enforcement settings also contribute to its attractiveness for the present tracking applications. In particular, the waveform shape and the short duration of UWB pulses make it possible to attain the high temporal resolution (of the order of picoseconds) needed to measure angles of arrival with sufficient precision, and the low power spectral density of UWB pulses enables UWB radio communication systems to operate in proximity to other radio communication systems with little or no perceptible mutual interference.

  16. UWB transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-01-15

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) dual impulse transmitter is made up of a trigger edge selection circuit actuated by a single trigger input pulse; a first step recovery diode (SRD) based pulser connected to the trigger edge selection circuit to generate a first impulse output; and a second step recovery diode (SRD) based pulser connected to the trigger edge selection circuit in parallel to the first pulser to generate a second impulse output having a selected delay from the first impulse output.

  17. Optimal waveforms design for ultra-wideband impulse radio sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhou, Zheng; Zou, Weixia; Li, Dejian; Zhao, Chong

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR) sensors should comply entirely with the regulatory spectral limits for elegant coexistence. Under this premise, it is desirable for UWB pulses to improve frequency utilization to guarantee the transmission reliability. Meanwhile, orthogonal waveform division multiple-access (WDMA) is significant to mitigate mutual interferences in UWB sensor networks. Motivated by the considerations, we suggest in this paper a low complexity pulse forming technique, and its efficient implementation on DSP is investigated. The UWB pulse is derived preliminarily with the objective of minimizing the mean square error (MSE) between designed power spectrum density (PSD) and the emission mask. Subsequently, this pulse is iteratively modified until its PSD completely conforms to spectral constraints. The orthogonal restriction is then analyzed and different algorithms have been presented. Simulation demonstrates that our technique can produce UWB waveforms with frequency utilization far surpassing the other existing signals under arbitrary spectral mask conditions. Compared to other orthogonality design schemes, the designed pulses can maintain mutual orthogonality without any penalty on frequency utilization, and hence, are much superior in a WDMA network, especially with synchronization deviations.

  18. Optimal Waveforms Design for Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Zhou, Zheng; Zou, Weixia; Li, Dejian; Zhao, Chong

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR) sensors should comply entirely with the regulatory spectral limits for elegant coexistence. Under this premise, it is desirable for UWB pulses to improve frequency utilization to guarantee the transmission reliability. Meanwhile, orthogonal waveform division multiple-access (WDMA) is significant to mitigate mutual interferences in UWB sensor networks. Motivated by the considerations, we suggest in this paper a low complexity pulse forming technique, and its efficient implementation on DSP is investigated. The UWB pulse is derived preliminarily with the objective of minimizing the mean square error (MSE) between designed power spectrum density (PSD) and the emission mask. Subsequently, this pulse is iteratively modified until its PSD completely conforms to spectral constraints. The orthogonal restriction is then analyzed and different algorithms have been presented. Simulation demonstrates that our technique can produce UWB waveforms with frequency utilization far surpassing the other existing signals under arbitrary spectral mask conditions. Compared to other orthogonality design schemes, the designed pulses can maintain mutual orthogonality without any penalty on frequency utilization, and hence, are much superior in a WDMA network, especially with synchronization deviations. PMID:22163511

  19. Spectrum-averaged Harmonic Path (SHAPA) algorithm for non-contact vital sign monitoring with ultra-wideband (UWB) radar.

    PubMed

    Van Nguyen; Javaid, Abdul Q; Weitnauer, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Spectrum-averaged Harmonic Path (SHAPA) algorithm for estimation of heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR) with Impulse Radio Ultrawideband (IR-UWB) radar. Periodic movement of human torso caused by respiration and heart beat induces fundamental frequencies and their harmonics at the respiration and heart rates. IR-UWB enables capture of these spectral components and frequency domain processing enables a low cost implementation. Most existing methods of identifying the fundamental component either in frequency or time domain to estimate the HR and/or RR lead to significant error if the fundamental is distorted or cancelled by interference. The SHAPA algorithm (1) takes advantage of the HR harmonics, where there is less interference, and (2) exploits the information in previous spectra to achieve more reliable and robust estimation of the fundamental frequency in the spectrum under consideration. Example experimental results for HR estimation demonstrate how our algorithm eliminates errors caused by interference and produces 16% to 60% more valid estimates.

  20. Attenuation characteristic of UWB signals propagation in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Zhonghua

    2016-10-01

    Researching attenuation characteristic of UWB signals propagation in free-space is necessary for ultra-wideband (UWB) radio fuze optimized design. Research attenuation characteristic of UWB signals propagation in free space can be achieved by learning attenuation characteristic of radio waves propagation in free-space and UWB signal power spectral density. 50ps, 100ps and 200ps of pulse width UWB fuze transmission narrow pulse signal propagation in free-space are simulated and analyzed. The attenuation of UWB signals at 3m, 6m and 9m are contrasted. The simulation, analysis and contrast is theoretical basis of UWB radio fuze optimized design.

  1. An EnantioMorphic BLumlein ultra-wideband source

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Crowe, W.R.; Clark, R.S.; Lundstrom, J.M.; Patterson, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    Working designs exist for 1 GW, 1 kHz ultra-wideband (UWB) sources (e. g. SNIPER). As these generators are pressed to higher peak powers and repetition rates, insulation, energy loss due to stray capacitance, and system efficiency (including power supplies and modulators) become critical issues. The EnantioMorphic (mirror image) BLumlein (EMBL) is a new type of vector inversion transmission line pulser which is designed to alleviate some of these problems. The design goals for EMBL are: 10 GW peak power, 700 kV,{approximately}1 kHz rep-rate and <100 ps risetime in a 50 ohm geometry. A gas spark gap peaking switch adds UWB frequency components to the EMBL output pulse.

  2. An EnantioMorphic BLumlein ultra-wideband source

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Crowe, W.R.; Clark, R.S.; Lundstrom, J.M.; Patterson, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    Working designs exist for 1 GW, 1 kHz ultra-wideband (UWB) sources (e. g. SNIPER). As these generators are pressed to higher peak powers and repetition rates, insulation, energy loss due to stray capacitance, and system efficiency (including power supplies and modulators) become critical issues. The EnantioMorphic (mirror image) BLumlein (EMBL) is a new type of vector inversion transmission line pulser which is designed to alleviate some of these problems. The design goals for EMBL are: 10 GW peak power, 700 kV,{approximately}1 kHz rep-rate and <100 ps risetime in a 50 ohm geometry. A gas spark gap peaking switch adds UWB frequency components to the EMBL output pulse.

  3. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-16

    baseband. If the waveform is 4 ns pulse, then the input RF clock is 125 MHz and the sampling rate is 250 MHz; single DAC, LVDS data port A and driving DAC A...wmm.txt is shown in Table 3.2. Figure 3.11 shows the output of DAC if 4 ns pulse is generated. By routing external LVDS data through the waveform memory...then input RF clock is 250 MHz and the sampling rate is 500 MHz; multiplexed LVDS data into DAC A pattern is used. In this situation, the functional

  4. Ultra wideband technology for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Xiong, Weiming

    2011-08-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as an important method for planetary surface exploration. To investigate the optimized wireless technology for WSNs, we summarized the key requirements of WSNs and justified ultra wideband (UWB) technology by comparing with other competitive wireless technologies. We also analyzed network topologies as well as physical and MAC layer designs of IEEE 802.15.4a standard, which adopted impulse radio UWB (IR-UWB) technology. Our analysis showed that IR-UWB-based 802.15.4a standard could enable robust communication, precise ranging, and heterogeneous networking for WSNs applications. The result of our present work implies that UWB-based WSNs can be applied to future planetary surface exploration.

  5. Photonic generation of ultra-wideband signals by direct current modulation on SOA section of an SOA-integrated SGDBR laser.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hui; Yu, Yonglin; Shu, Tan; Huang, Dexiu; Jiang, Shan; Barry, Liam P

    2010-03-29

    Photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses are generated by direct current modulation of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) section of an SOA-integrated sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SGDBR) laser. Modulation responses of the SOA section of the laser are first simulated with a microwave equivalent circuit model. Simulated results show a resonance behavior indicating the possibility to generate UWB signals with complex shapes in the time domain. The UWB pulse generation is then experimentally demonstrated for different selected wavelength channels with an SOA-integrated SGDBR laser.

  6. All-optical UWB doublet pulses generation by using a delay interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, En-Ming

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrated a simple scheme to generate ultra wideband (UWB) doublet pulses by inputting a dark return-to-zero (RZ) signal into a fiber delay interferometer (FDI). An 0.625-Gbit/s dark-RZ pulse train where the pulse width is 120 ps was inputted into a FDI where the free spectral range (FSR) is 0.16 nm (˜20 GHz, according time delay is ˜50 ps) and the extinction ratio (ER) is 9 dB, and the phase difference of the two fiber arms was changed and controlled by adjusting the operation temperature of the FDI, by do so, UWB doublet pulses were directly generated at an output port of the FDI. The system parameter effects on the output UWB pulses were discussed. Moreover, we also numerically demonstrated that the UWB quadruplet pulses can be generated in the same set by optimizing system parameters. This scheme has some distinct advantages including easy integration, convenient tuning, good stability, and so on. Presented method also accords with the general features in future applied UWB-Over-Fiber communication system, such as, single optical source input, simple configuration and passive device.

  7. Simultaneous multi-channel CMW-band and MMW-band UWB monocycle pulse generation using FWM effect in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Wu, Jian; Fu, Songnian; Xu, Kun; Li, Yan; Hong, Xiaobin; Shum, Ping; Lin, Jintong

    2010-07-19

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to simultaneously realize multi-channel centimeter wave (CMW) band and millimeter wave (MMW) band ultra-wideband (UWB) monocycle pulse generation using four wave mixing (FWM) effect in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF). Two lightwaves carrying polarity-reversed optical Gaussian pulses with appropriate time delay and another lightwave carrying a 20 GHz clock signal are launched into the HNL-PCF together. By filtering out the FWM idlers, two CMW-band UWB monocycle signals and two MMW-band UWB monocycle signals at 20 GHz are obtained simultaneously. Experimental measurements of the generated UWB monocycle pulses at individual wavelength, which comply with the FCC regulations, verify the feasibility and flexibility of proposed scheme for use in practical UWB communication systems.

  8. Multiple Access in Ultra-Wideband Communications Using Multiple Pulses and the Use of Least Squares Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2003-06-19

    Multiple access (MA) in UWB communication has recently been studied in the context of multiple transmitted-reference short duration chirp pulses in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The transmitted-reference (TR) receiver was extended in previous studies using multiple orthogonal pulses. Improved performance was observed in simulations by sampling the receiver autocorrelation function (ACF) at both zero- and non-zero lags. Sampling of non-zero ACF lags of orthogonal pulses is a novel approach. Method of using least squares filtering techniques for further tolerance against noise and interference for the TR method is proposed.

  9. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging.

  10. Spotforming with an Array of Ultra-Wideband Radio Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F; Spiridon, A

    2003-09-29

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) array signal processing has the distinct advantage in that it is possible to illuminate or focus on ''spots'' at distant points in space, as opposed to just illuminating or steering at certain directions for narrowband array processing. The term ''spotforming'' is used to emphasize the property that point-focusing techniques with UWB waveforms can be viewed as a generalization of the well-known narrowband beamforming techniques. Because methods in spotforming can lead to powerful applications for UWB systems, in this paper we derive, simulate and experimentally verify UWB spot size as a function of frequency, bandwidth and array aperture.

  11. Spotforming with an array of ultra-wideband radio transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F; Spiridon, A

    2004-02-05

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) array signal processing has the distinct advantage in that it is possible to illuminate or focus on ''spots'' at distant points in space, as opposed to just illuminating or steering at certain directions for narrowband array processing. The term ''spotforming'' is used to emphasize the property that point-focusing techniques with UWB waveforms can be viewed as a generalization of the well-known narrowband beamforming techniques. Because methods in spotforming can lead to powerful applications for UWB systems, in this paper we derive, simulate and experimentally verify UWB spot size as a function of frequency, bandwidth and array aperture.

  12. Copper ESEEM and HYSCORE through ultra-wideband chirp EPR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, Takuya F.; Doll, Andrin; Pribitzer, Stephan; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2015-07-28

    The main limitation of pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is its narrow excitation bandwidth. Ultra-wideband (UWB) excitation with frequency-swept chirp pulses over several hundreds of megahertz overcomes this drawback. This allows to excite electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) from paramagnetic copper centers in crystals, whereas up to now, only ESEEM of ligand nuclei like protons or nitrogens at lower frequencies could be detected. ESEEM spectra are recorded as two-dimensional correlation experiments, since the full digitization of the electron spin echo provides an additional Fourier transform EPR dimension. Thus, UWB hyperfine-sublevel correlation experiments generate a novel three-dimensional EPR-correlated nuclear modulation spectrum.

  13. Ultra-wideband radios for time-of-flight-ranging and network position estimation

    DOEpatents

    Hertzog, Claudia A.; Dowla, Farid U.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2011-06-14

    This invention provides a novel high-accuracy indoor ranging device that uses ultra-wideband (UWB) RF pulsing with low-power and low-cost electronics. A unique of the present invention is that it exploits multiple measurements in time and space for very accurate ranging. The wideband radio signals utilized herein are particularly suited to ranging in harsh RF environments because they allow signal reconstruction in spite of multipath propagation distortion. Furthermore, the ranging and positioning techniques discussed herein directly address many of the known technical challenges encountered in UWB localization regarding synchronization and sampling. In the method developed, noisy, corrupted signals can be recovered by repeating range measurements across a channel, and the distance measurements are combined from many locations surrounding the target in a way that minimizes the range biases associated to indirect flight paths and through-wall propagation delays.

  14. An ultra-wideband transceiver for biotelemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul; Lehmann, Torsten; Nooshabadi, Saeid

    2007-12-01

    This paper introduces an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) transceiver for in-vivo biotelemetry applications, especially for wireless endoscope. A system modeling, simulation and design trade-off analysis for an UWB impulse radio transceiver is presented that incorporates the human body attenuation effect, the IEEE 802.14a indoor channel model, and channel noise to determine an optimum architecture for the given applications. Based on the system simulation using Matlab, the severe effect from the human body attenuation has been identified and a non-coherent Transmit Reference (TR) Transceiver architecture with differential Binary Phase Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation was selected as the best option for a communication link in biotelemetry applications. The transceiver consists of an all-digital transmitter with H-bridge output stage type of Pulse Generator (PG), wideband inductorless resistive shunt feedback Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) with thermal noise canceling, Gilbert mixer, Integrator, decision detector and Variable Delay Controller (VDC). The performance characteristics of the PG, LNA and mixer are presented by the circuit simulation results using 0.18μm digital CMOS technology.

  15. FDTD simulation tools for UWB antenna analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a set of software tools useful for analyzing ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and structures. These tools are used to perform finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of a conical antenna with continuous wave (CW) and UWB pulsed excitations. The antenna is analyzed using spherical coordinate-based FDTD equations that are derived from first principles. The simulation results for CW excitation are compared to simulation and measured results from published sources; the results for UWB excitation are new.

  16. FDTD simulation tools for UWB antenna analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a set of software tools useful for analyzing ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and structures. These tools are used to perform finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of a conical antenna with continuous wave (CW) and UWB pulsed excitations. The antenna is analyzed using spherical coordinate-based FDTD equations that are derived from first principles. The simulation results for CW excitation are compared to simulation and measured results from published sources; the results for UWB excitation are new.

  17. An Analysis of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) of Ultra Wideband(UWB) and IEEE 802.11A Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Employing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    802.11 Networks, 2d ed., SAMS, Indianapolis, IN, 2002. [HäH02] M. Hämäläinen, V. Hovinen, R. Tesi , J.H.J. Iinatti, and M. Latva-aho, On the UWB...Fi) Networking Handbook, McGraw-Hill: NY, 2003. [Sal02]. M.P. Salud , Investigation of RF Emissions from Wireless Networks as a Threat to Avionic

  18. Repetitive, plasma switched, gigawatt, ultra-wideband impulse transmitter development

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.S.; Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Aurand, J.F.; Lundstrom, J.M.; Patterson, P.E.; Roose, L.D.; Crowe, W.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed several repetitive, ultra-wideband (UWB), impulse transmitters to address impulse source, and to support experimental applications. The sources fall into two different classes, pulse peaking and pulse shorting. SNIPER (Sub-Nanosecond ImPulsE Radiator) is a source which uses an oil peaking switch to obtain a fast risetime (250-pS) pulse of 2-nS duration. The output voltage ranges between few tens of kilovolts to 250-kV. EMBL (EnantioMorphic Blumlein) is a similar device (presently under development) which uses a gas switch to short the falling portion of a 2-nS pulse to approximately 100-pS. To date, an output voltage of approximately 600-kV has been obtained (700-kV is the design goal). Depending upon the source, repetitive operation from single shot to 5-kHz (1-kHz nominal) has been obtained with excellent reliability and repeatability. Both sources are plasma switched impulse transmitters using a Hydrogen-thyratron based modulator, an oil-filled Blumlein (of two types), a peaking (or shorting) switch and a wideband TEM horn. Powers exceeding one-gigawatt are routinely generated. This technology appears to be extendable to at least 10-gigawatts. The frequency spectrum of the radiated pulse from these sources include the spectrum of 100-MHz to 3-GHz. The pulse is generated externally and then injected into the antenna. Due to the high powers involved and the need to radiate a broad spectrum of frequencies, Sandia has concentrated on TEM horn antennas. Several TEM horns have been built and used during this program. In those cases where higher gains are desired for the higher frequencies, TEM horn-fed dish antennas have been employed. A detailed overview of the UWB Transmitters along with measured radiated electric field strengths will be presented.

  19. Repetitive, plasma switched, gigawatt, ultra-wideband impulse transmitter development

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.S.; Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Aurand, J.F.; Lundstrom, J.M.; Patterson, P.E.; Roose, L.D.; Crowe, W.

    1992-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed several repetitive, ultra-wideband (UWB), impulse transmitters to address impulse source, and to support experimental applications. The sources fall into two different classes, pulse peaking and pulse shorting. SNIPER (Sub-Nanosecond ImPulsE Radiator) is a source which uses an oil peaking switch to obtain a fast risetime (250-pS) pulse of 2-nS duration. The output voltage ranges between few tens of kilovolts to 250-kV. EMBL (EnantioMorphic Blumlein) is a similar device (presently under development) which uses a gas switch to short the falling portion of a 2-nS pulse to approximately 100-pS. To date, an output voltage of approximately 600-kV has been obtained (700-kV is the design goal). Depending upon the source, repetitive operation from single shot to 5-kHz (1-kHz nominal) has been obtained with excellent reliability and repeatability. Both sources are plasma switched impulse transmitters using a Hydrogen-thyratron based modulator, an oil-filled Blumlein (of two types), a peaking (or shorting) switch and a wideband TEM horn. Powers exceeding one-gigawatt are routinely generated. This technology appears to be extendable to at least 10-gigawatts. The frequency spectrum of the radiated pulse from these sources include the spectrum of 100-MHz to 3-GHz. The pulse is generated externally and then injected into the antenna. Due to the high powers involved and the need to radiate a broad spectrum of frequencies, Sandia has concentrated on TEM horn antennas. Several TEM horns have been built and used during this program. In those cases where higher gains are desired for the higher frequencies, TEM horn-fed dish antennas have been employed. A detailed overview of the UWB Transmitters along with measured radiated electric field strengths will be presented.

  20. Ultra-Wideband Signals for Target Detection in Foliage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1997], and Fourier analysis [ Papoulis , 1987]. This approach gives a simple intuitive physical explanation for the formation and propagation of...transform or Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) techniques can be applied to compute (2.14) and (2.15) [ Papoulis , 1987; Oppenheim et al., 1997] to obtain the...Assessment of Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Technology, Battelle Tactical Technology Center, July 13, 1990. A. Papoulis , The Fourier Integral and its

  1. UWB pulse propagation into human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, Marta; Pittella, Erika; Pisa, Stefano

    2013-12-01

    In this paper the propagation of a UWB pulse into a layered model of the human body is studied to characterize absorption and reflection of the UWB signal due to the different body tissues. Several time behaviours for the incident UWB pulse are considered and compared with reference to the feasibility of breath and heartbeat activity monitoring. Results show that if the UWB source is placed far from the human body, the reflection coming from the interface between air and skin can be used to detect the respiratory activity. On the contrary, if the UWB source is placed close to the human body, a small reflection due to the interface between the posterior lung wall and the bone, which is well distanced in time from the reflections due to the first layers of the body model, can be used to detect lung and heart changes associated with the cardio-respiratory activity.

  2. UCom: Ultra-wideband Communications in Harsh Propagation Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2007-03-14

    LLNL has developed an ultra-wideband (UWB) system that provides unique, through-the-wall wireless communications in heavy metallic and heavy concrete indoor channels. LLNL's UWB system is the only available wireless communications system that performs successfully and reliably in facilities where conventional narrowband communications usually fail due to destructive reflections from multiple surfaces. These environments include: cargo ships and reinforced, heavy concrete buildings. LLNL's revolutionary system has applications for the military, as well as commercial indoor communications in multistory buildings, and cluttered industrial structures.

  3. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E; Pratt, Garth C; Haugen, Peter C; Zumstein, James M; Vigars, Mark L; Romero, Carlos E

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  4. Ultra-wideband noise radar based on optical waveform generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodensky, Daniel; Kravitz, Daniel; Zadok, Avi

    2012-06-01

    A microwave-photonic, ultra-wideband (UWB) noise radar system is proposed and demonstrated. The system brings together photonic generation of UWB waveforms and fiber-optic distribution. The use of UWB noise provides high ranging resolution and better immunity to interception and jamming. Distribution over fibers allows for the separation the radar-operating personnel and equipment from the location of the front-end. The noise waveforms are generated using the amplified spontaneous emission that is associated with stimulated Brillouin scattering in a standard optical fiber, or with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Our experiments demonstrate a proof of concept for an integrated radar system, driven by optically generated UWB noise waveforms of more than 1 GHz bandwidth that are distributed over 10 km distance. The detection of concealed metallic object and the resolving of two targets with the anticipated ranging resolution are reported.

  5. A survey of antennas for ultra-wideband applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfaraz, Maysam; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2008-04-01

    The usage of ultra-wideband (UWB) technology is growing in many communication systems such as radar systems, communication and measurement systems and imaging systems mainly because unlike the other wireless technologies UWB is not restricted to using a narrow waveband and it has high speed data rate. The large transmission bandwidth makes UWB-based electronic device resistive to interferences and gives immunity against getting detected. Typical operational frequency range of the UWB devices varies from few 100s MHz to 10 GHz. However, the most popular UWB devices are designed to operate between 1-3 GHz. This paper presents an overview of different types of commercially available antennas suitable for UWB applications. The paper begins with the basics of understanding of antennas properties. Next, it discusses the main antenna characteristics like: radiation pattern (directional or omni-directional), gain, bandwidth, size, etc for different UWB applications and explains criterions for quantitative and qualitative performance measure of the antennas. The antennas covered in this paper include: TEM Horn, Folded horn, Dipole, Planner Fat Dipole, Cross Dipole, Rolled Dipole, UWB dielectric, Bowtie, Wire Bowtie, etc. This paper describes the pros and cons of each antenna and highlights the application areas of each antenna. Lastly, this paper summaries the important characteristics of the antennas and presents several promising directions for future enhancement of UWB antenna systems.

  6. Signal and Image Processing Algorithms for the U.S. Army Research Laboratory Ultra-wideband (UWB) Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-4784 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...acquisition technique. ...................................8 Figure 10 . The SIRE transmitting pulse in the time-domain and frequency-domain... 10 Figure 11. False color plot of one complete frame of radar data: 16 receiving records using the left transmitter and 16 receiving

  7. Towards sparse characterisation of on-body ultra-wideband wireless channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodong; Ren, Aifeng; Zhang, Zhiya; Ur Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Alomainy, Akram

    2015-06-01

    With the aim of reducing cost and power consumption of the receiving terminal, compressive sensing (CS) framework is applied to on-body ultra-wideband (UWB) channel estimation. It is demonstrated in this Letter that the sparse on-body UWB channel impulse response recovered by the CS framework fits the original sparse channel well; thus, on-body channel estimation can be achieved using low-speed sampling devices.

  8. Estimation of Cardiopulmonary Parameters From Ultra Wideband Radar Measurements Using the State Space Method.

    PubMed

    Naishadham, Krishna; Piou, Jean E; Ren, Lingyun; Fathy, Aly E

    2016-12-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) Doppler radar has many biomedical applications, including remote diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, triage and real-time personnel tracking in rescue missions. It uses narrow pulses to probe the human body and detect tiny cardiopulmonary movements by spectral analysis of the backscattered electromagnetic (EM) field. With the help of super-resolution spectral algorithms, UWB radar is capable of increased accuracy for estimating vital signs such as heart and respiration rates in adverse signal-to-noise conditions. A major challenge for biomedical radar systems is detecting the heartbeat of a subject with high accuracy, because of minute thorax motion (less than 0.5 mm) caused by the heartbeat. The problem becomes compounded by EM clutter and noise in the environment. In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm based on the state space method (SSM) for the extraction of cardiac and respiration rates from UWB radar measurements. SSM produces range-dependent system poles that can be classified parametrically with spectral peaks at the cardiac and respiratory frequencies. It is shown that SSM produces accurate estimates of the vital signs without producing harmonics and inter-modulation products that plague signal resolution in widely used FFT spectrograms.

  9. An overview of Sandia National Laboratories' plasma switched, gigawatt, ultra-wideband impulse transmitter program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. S.; Rinehart, L. F.; Buttram, M. T.; Aurand, J. F.

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed several repetitive, ultra-wideband (UWB), impulse transmitters to address impulse source technology and to support experimental applications. The sources fall into two different classes, pulse peaking and pulse shorting depending on how the UWB frequency components are generated. The frequency spectrum of the radiated pulse from these sources include the spectrum of 100-MHz to 3-GHz. Depending upon the source, repetitive operation from single shot to 5-kHz (1-kHz nominal) has been obtained with excellent reliability and repeatability. SNIPER (Sub-Nanosecond Impulse Radiator) is a source which uses an oil peaking switch to obtain a fast risetime (250-pS) pulse of 2-nS duration. The output voltage ranges between few tens of kilovolts to 250-kV. EMBL (EnantioMorphic Blumlein) is a similar device (presently under development) which uses a gas switch to sharpen the trailing edge of a 2-nS pulse to approximately 100-pS. To date, an output voltage of approximately 600-kV has been obtained (700-kV is the design goal). Since the frequency spectra are identical between sources with sharpened leading or trailing edges, alternatively, one can use parallel switches to short the pulse at its peak voltage. The pulse is generated externally and then injected into the antenna. Due to the high powers involved and the need to radiate a broad spectrum of frequencies, Sandia has concentrated on TEM horn antennas with special high voltage feed adapters. Several TEM horns have been built and used during this program. In those cases where higher gains are desired for the higher frequencies, TEM horn-fed, dish antennas have been employed. An overview of the UWB transmitters, including design and operation of the modulators, the PFN'S, the pulse sharpening switches and the antennas will be presented.

  10. An overview of Sandia National Laboratories` plasma switched, gigawatt, ultra-wideband impulse transmitter program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.S.; Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Aurand, J.F.

    1992-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed several repetitive, ultra-wideband (UWB), impulse transmitters to address impulse source technology and to support experimental applications. The sources fall into two different classes, pulse peaking and pulse shorting depending on how the UWB frequency components are generated. ne frequency spectrum of the radiated pulse from these sources include the spectrum of 100-MHz to 3-GHz. Depending upon the source, repetitive operation from single shot to 5-kHz (1-kHz nominal) has been obtained with excellent reliability and repeatability. SNIPER (Sub-Nanosecond impulse Radiator) is a source which uses an oil peaking switch to obtain a fast risetime (250-pS) pulse of 2-nS duration. The output voltage ranges between few tens of kilovolts to 250-kV. EMBL (EnantioMorphic Blumlein) is a similar device (presently under development) which uses a gas switch to sharpen the trailing edge of a 2-nS pulse to approximately 100-pS. To date, an output voltage of approximately 600-kV has been obtained (700- kV is the design goal). Since the frequency spectra are identical between sources with sharpened leading or trailing edges, alternatively, one can use parallel switches to short the pulse at its peak voltage. The pulse is generated externally and then injected into the antenna. Due to the high powers involved and the need to radiate a broad spectrum of frequencies, Sandia has concentrated on TEM horn. antennas with special high voltage feed adapters. Several TEM horns have been built and used during this program. In those cases where higher gains are desired for the higher frequencies, TEM horn-fed, dish antennas have been employed. An overview of the UWB transmitters, including design and operation of the modulators, the PFN`S, the pulse sharpening switches and the antennas will be presented.

  11. An overview of Sandia National Laboratories' plasma switched, gigawatt, ultra-wideband impulse transmitter program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.S.; Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Aurand, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed several repetitive, ultra-wideband (UWB), impulse transmitters to address impulse source technology and to support experimental applications. The sources fall into two different classes, pulse peaking and pulse shorting depending on how the UWB frequency components are generated. ne frequency spectrum of the radiated pulse from these sources include the spectrum of 100-MHz to 3-GHz. Depending upon the source, repetitive operation from single shot to 5-kHz (1-kHz nominal) has been obtained with excellent reliability and repeatability. SNIPER (Sub-Nanosecond impulse Radiator) is a source which uses an oil peaking switch to obtain a fast risetime (250-pS) pulse of 2-nS duration. The output voltage ranges between few tens of kilovolts to 250-kV. EMBL (EnantioMorphic Blumlein) is a similar device (presently under development) which uses a gas switch to sharpen the trailing edge of a 2-nS pulse to approximately 100-pS. To date, an output voltage of approximately 600-kV has been obtained (700- kV is the design goal). Since the frequency spectra are identical between sources with sharpened leading or trailing edges, alternatively, one can use parallel switches to short the pulse at its peak voltage. The pulse is generated externally and then injected into the antenna. Due to the high powers involved and the need to radiate a broad spectrum of frequencies, Sandia has concentrated on TEM horn. antennas with special high voltage feed adapters. Several TEM horns have been built and used during this program. In those cases where higher gains are desired for the higher frequencies, TEM horn-fed, dish antennas have been employed. An overview of the UWB transmitters, including design and operation of the modulators, the PFN'S, the pulse sharpening switches and the antennas will be presented.

  12. Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Cobb, B L; Jauchem, J R; Mason, P A; Dooley, M P; Miller, S A; Ziriax, J M; Murphy, M R

    2000-10-01

    Several investigators have reported teratologic effects of electromagnetic field exposure. The majority of these studies have been performed at levels of exposure that could produce substantial heating of the animals. New and unique sources of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields are currently being developed and tested that are capable of generating nonthermalizing, high-peak-power, microwave (MW) pulses with nanosecond (ns) pulse widths, picosecond (ps) rise times, and an UWB of frequencies. Our study was performed to determine if teratological changes occur in rat pups as a result of (i) daily UWB exposures during gestation days 3-18, or (ii) as a result of both prenatal and postnatal (10 days) exposures. Dams were exposed either to (i) UWB irradiation from a Kentech system that emitted a 55 kV/m-peak E field, 300 ps rise time, and a 1.8 ns pulse width, average whole-body specific absorption rate 45 mW/kg; (ii) sham irradiation; or (iii) a positive control, lead (Pb) acetate solution (2000 microg/ml) continuously available in the drinking water. Offspring were examined for ontogeny (litter size, sex-ratios, weights, coat appearance, tooth-eruption, eye-opening, air-righting, and ultrasonic stress vocalizations). Male pups were tested on various performance measures (locomotor, water-maze learning, and fertilization capabilities). The pups postnatally exposed were examined for hippocampal morphology and operant behavior. Behavioral, functional, and morphological effects of UWB exposure were unremarkable with these exceptions: (i) The UWB-exposed pups emitted significantly more stress vocalizations than the sham-exposed pups; (ii) the medial-to-lateral length of the hippocampus was significantly longer in the UWB-exposed pups than in the sham-exposed animals; (iii) male offspring exposed in utero to UWB mated significantly less frequently than sham-exposed males, but when they did mate there was no difference in fertilization and offspring numbers from the

  13. Induced mitogenic activity in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes exposed to low-dose ultra-wideband electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, W C; Ford, B D; Roane, L; Haynie, D T; Tchounwou, P B

    2005-04-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR) could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM) cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23 degrees C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5-20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8-24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM) -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma.

  14. Ultra-Wideband Tracking System Design for Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, Dickey; Bgo, Phong; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being designed for use in localization and navigation of a rover in a GPS deprived environment for surface missions. In one application enabled by the UWB tracking, a robotic vehicle carrying equipments can autonomously follow a crewed rover from work site to work site such that resources can be carried from one landing mission to the next thereby saving up-mass. The UWB Systems Group at JSC has developed a UWB TDOA High Resolution Proximity Tracking System which can achieve sub-inch tracking accuracy of a target within the radius of the tracking baseline [1]. By extending the tracking capability beyond the radius of the tracking baseline, a tracking system is being designed to enable relative navigation between two vehicles for surface missions. A prototype UWB TDOA tracking system has been designed, implemented, tested, and proven feasible for relative navigation of robotic vehicles. Future work includes testing the system with the application code to increase the tracking update rate and evaluating the linear tracking baseline to improve the flexibility of antenna mounting on the following vehicle.

  15. Survey of Ultra-wideband Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokole, Eric L.; Hansen, Pete

    The development of UWB radar over the last four decades is very briefly summarized. A discussion of the meaning of UWB is followed by a short history of UWB radar developments and discussions of key supporting technologies and current UWB radars. Selected UWB radars and the associated applications are highlighted. Applications include detecting and imaging buried mines, detecting and mapping underground utilities, detecting and imaging objects obscured by foliage, through-wall detection in urban areas, short-range detection of suicide bombs, and the characterization of the impulse responses of various artificial and naturally occurring scattering objects. In particular, the Naval Research Laboratory's experimental, low-power, dual-polarized, short-pulse, ultra-high resolution radar is used to discuss applications and issues of UWB radar. Some crucial issues that are problematic to UWB radar are spectral availability, electromagnetic interference and compatibility, difficulties with waveform control/shaping, hardware limitations in the transmission chain, and the unreliability of high-power sources for sustained use above 2 GHz.

  16. Optically addressed ultra-wideband phased antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jian

    Demands for high data rate and multifunctional apertures from both civilian and military users have motivated development of ultra-wideband (UWB) electrically steered phased arrays. Meanwhile, the need for large contiguous frequency is pushing operation of radio systems into the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) range. Therefore, modern radio systems require UWB performance from VHF to mm-wave. However, traditional electronic systems suffer many challenges that make achieving these requirements difficult. Several examples includes: voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) cannot provide a tunable range of several octaves, distribution of wideband local oscillator signals undergo high loss and dispersion through RF transmission lines, and antennas have very limited bandwidth or bulky sizes. Recently, RF photonics technology has drawn considerable attention because of its advantages over traditional systems, with the capability of offering extreme power efficiency, information capacity, frequency agility, and spatial beam diversity. A hybrid RF photonic communication system utilizing optical links and an RF transducer at the antenna potentially provides ultra-wideband data transmission, i.e., over 100 GHz. A successful implementation of such an optically addressed phased array requires addressing several key challenges. Photonic generation of an RF source with over a seven-octave bandwidth has been demonstrated in the last few years. However, one challenge which still remains is how to convey phased optical signals to downconversion modules and antennas. Therefore, a feed network with phase sweeping capability and low excessive phase noise needs to be developed. Another key challenge is to develop an ultra-wideband array antenna. Modern frontends require antennas to be compact, planar, and low-profile in addition to possessing broad bandwidth, conforming to stringent space, weight, cost, and power constraints. To address these issues, I will study broadband and miniaturization

  17. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  18. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  19. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U [Castro Valley, CA; Nekoogar, Faranak [San Ramon, CA; Benzel, David M [Livermore, CA; Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Spiridon, Alex [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  20. Non-invasive respiration rate estimation using ultra-wideband distributed cognitive radar system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay Soon; Kim, Yongmin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Leyman, A Rahim; Thi, Lin Lin

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that remote monitoring of pulmonary activity can be achieved using ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, which shows promise in home healthcare, rescue, and security applications. In this paper, a geometry-based statistical channel model is developed for simulating the reception of UWB signals in the indoor propagation environment. This model enables replication of time-varying multipath profiles due to the displacement of a human chest. Subsequently, a UWB distributed cognitive radar system (UWB-DCRS) is developed for the robust detection of chest cavity motion and the accurate estimation of respiration rate. The analytical framework can serve as a basis in the planning and evaluation of future measurement programs.

  1. UWB microwave breast cancer detection: generalized models and performance prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Gunawan, Erry; Kim, Yongmin; Low, Kay Soon; Soh, Cheong Boon; Thi, Lin Lin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic framework for the modeling of ultra-wideband (UWB) signal propagation in human breast, which facilitates system-level simulations and provides performance prediction. The clutter associated with the breast tissue heterogeneity is modeled through several key parameters depending on the tissue compositions. Subsequently, important channel properties such as the backscatter energy and the probability density function of time-of-arrival are derived. The modified Hermite polynomials, which fit well into the real pulse shapes, are then used to model the UWB signals. Armed with the channel/signal model preliminaries, three metrics are proposed, namely, the mean clutter response, the clean tumor response, and the worst-case clutter response. The generalized model provides a parsimonious way to study the effects of tissue structures, pulse templates, and array setup on the performance of a specified UWB imaging system. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  2. Software-Defined Ultra-wideband Radio Communications: A New RF Technology for Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2009-10-19

    Reliable wireless communication links for local-area (short-range) and regional (long-range) reach capabilities are crucial for emergency response to disasters. Lack of a dependable communication system can result in disruptions in the situational awareness between the local responders in the field and the emergency command and control centers. To date, all wireless communications systems such as cell phones and walkie-talkies use narrowband radio frequency (RF) signaling for data communication. However, the hostile radio propagation environment caused by collapsed structures and rubble in various disaster sites results in significant degradation and attenuation of narrowband RF signals, which ends up in frequent communication breakdowns. To address the challenges of reliable radio communication in disaster fields, we propose an approach to use ultra-wideband (UWB) or wideband RF waveforms for implementation on Software Defined Radio (SDR) platforms. Ultra-wideband communications has been proven by many research groups to be effective in addressing many of the limitations faced by conventional narrowband radio technologies. In addition, LLNL's radio and wireless team have shown significant success in field deployment of various UWB communications system for harsh environments based on LLNL's patented UWB modulation and equalization techniques. Furthermore, using software defined radio platform for UWB communications offers a great deal of flexibility in operational parameters and helps the radio system to dynamically adapt itself to its environment for optimal performance.

  3. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    DOEpatents

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  4. Short-Range Ultra-Wideband Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Homier and R. A. Scholtz, “A Generalized Signal Flow Graph Approach for Hybrid Acquisition of Ultra-Wideband Signals”, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks (Special... International Journal of Wireless Information Networks (Special Issue on Ultrawideband Radio), October 2003. [19] M. Zhu and K. M. Chugg, “Iterative Message

  5. Nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NFKB (NF-kappaB) after exposure of human monocytes to pulsed ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields (1 kV/cm) fails to transactivate kappaB-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, M; Nayak, B K; Galindo, C; Mathur, S P; Roldan, F N; Meltz, M L

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure of human monocytes to a pulsed ultra-wideband electromagnetic field (EMF) of 1 kV/cm average peak power triggers a signaling pathway responsible for the transcriptional regulation of NFKB (NF-kappaB)-dependent gene expression. Human Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells were exposed intermittently to EMF pulses for a total of 90 min. The pulse width was 0.79+/-0.01 ns and the pulse repetition rate was 250 pps. The temperature of the medium was maintained at 37 degrees C in both sham- and EMF-exposed flasks. Total NFKB DNA-binding activity was measured in the nuclear extracts by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Cells exposed to the EMFs and incubated for 24 h postexposure showed a 3.5+/-0.2-fold increase in the NFKB DNA-binding activity. Since activation of NFKB was observed, the possibility of kappaB-dependent gene expression in response to exposure to the EMFs was investigated using NFKB signal-specific gene arrays. The results revealed no difference in the NFKB-dependent gene expression profiles at 8 or 24 h postexposure, indicating that activated NFKB does not lead to the differential expression of kappaB-dependent target genes. To determine whether the absence of the kappaB-dependent gene expression was due to compromised transcriptional regulation of NFKB, the functional activity of NFKB was examined in cells transiently transfected with Mercury Pathway constructs containing 4x NFKB binding sites associated either with the luciferase reporter system or a control vector. Pulsed EMF exposure did not induce NFKB-driven luciferase activity in these cells, indicating that the activation of NFKB at 24 h after the 1 kV/cm EMF exposure is functionally inactive. From these results, it is clear that the EMF-induced NFKB activation is only a transient response, with minimal or no downstream effect.

  6. Ultra-wideband miniaturized microstrip patch antennas for wireless communications: Design guidelines and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandu, Varun Kumar

    The number of wireless communication applications continue to increase steadily, leading to competition for currently allocated frequency bands. Capacity issues in form of data rate and latency have always been a bottleneck for broadband wireless-communication usage. New communication systems like ultra-wideband (UWB) require larger bandwidth than what is normally utilized with traditional antenna techniques. The interest for compact consumer electronics is growing in the meantime, creating a demand on efficient and low profile antennas which can be integrated on a printed circuit board. The main objective of this thesis is to study, design, analyze and implement UWB low profile microstrip patch antenna that satisfy UWB technology requirements. Some methods to extend the bandwidth and other antenna parameters associated with wideband usages are studied. Several techniques are used for optimal UWB bandwidth performance of the UWB microstrip patch antenna. The performance parameters such as VSWR, Gain and radiation pattern of the UWB microstrip patch antenna is extensively investigated with simulations using FEKO. A set of simple design guidelines is proposed to provide approximate rules that result in optimum "first-pass" designs of probe-fed, miniaturized, low profile, microstrip UWB antennas using different bandwidth-enhancement techniques to satisfy UWB bandwidth that require minimal tuning.

  7. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  8. Experimental implant communication of high data rate video using an ultra wideband radio link.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santiago, Raúl; Balasingham, Ilangko; Bergsland, Jacob; Zahid, Wasim; Takizawa, Kenichi; Miura, Ryu; Li, Huan-Bang

    2013-01-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) is one of the radio technologies adopted by the IEEE 802.15.6™-2012 standard for on-body communication in body area networks (BANs). However, a number of simulation-based studies suggest the feasibility of using UWB for high data rate implant communication too. This paper presents an experimental verification of said predictions. We carried out radio transmissions of H.264/1280×720 pixels video at 80 Mbps through a UWB multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) interface in a porcine chirurgical model. The results demonstrated successful transmission up to a maximum depth of 30 mm in the abdomen and 33 mm in the thorax within the 4.2-4.8 GHz frequency band.

  9. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  10. Ultra-Wideband Radars for Measurements over Land and Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogineni, S.; Hale, R.; Miller, H. G.; Yan, S.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Leuschen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gomez-Garcia, D.; Binder, T.; Steinhage, D.; Gehrmann, M.; Braaten, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    We developed two ultra-wideband (UWB) radars for measurements over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica and sea ice. One of the UWB radars operates over a 150-600 MHz frequency range with a large, cross-track 24-element array. It is designed to sound ice, image the ice-bed interface, and map internal layers with fine resolution. The 24-element array consists of three 8-element sub-arrays. One of these sub-arrays is mounted under the fuselage of a BT-67 aircraft; the other two are mounted under the wings. The polarization of each antenna element can be individually reconfigured depending on the target of interest. The measured inflight VSWR is less than 2 over the operating range. The fuselage sub-array is used both for transmission and reception, and the wing-mounted sub-arrays are used for reception. The transmitter consists of an 8-channel digital waveform generator to synthesize chirped pulses of selectable pulse width, duration, and bandwidth. It also consists of drivers and power amplifiers to increase the power level of each individual channel to about 1 kW and a fast high-power transmit/receive switch. Each receiver consists of a limiter, switches, low-noise and driver amplifiers, and filters to shape and amplify received signals to the level required for digitization. The digital sub-section consists of timing and control sub-systems and 24 14-bit A/D converters to digitize received signals at a rate of 1.6 GSPS. The radar performance is evaluated using an optical delay line to simulate returns from about 2 km thick ice, and the measured radar loop sensitivity is about 215 dB. The other UWB microwave radar operates over a 2-18 GHz frequency range in Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave (FM-CW) mode. It is designed to sound more than 1 m of snow over sea ice and map internal layers to a depth about 25-40 m in polar firn and ice. We operated the microwave radar over snow-covered sea ice and mapped snow as thin as 5 cm and as thick as 60 cm. We mapped

  11. Fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband noise radar with steerable power spectrum and colorless base station.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jianbin; Wei, Li; Pan, Shilong; Wang, Lixian; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2014-03-10

    A fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband (UWB) noise radar was achieved, which consists of a chaotic UWB noise source based on optoelectronic oscillator (OEO), a fiber-distributed transmission link, a colorless base station (BS), and a cross-correlation processing module. Due to a polarization modulation based microwave photonic filter and an electrical UWB pass-band filter embedded in the feedback loop of the OEO, the power spectrum of chaotic UWB signal could be shaped and notch-filtered to avoid the spectrum-overlay-induced interference to the narrow band signals. Meanwhile, the wavelength-reusing could be implemented in the BS by means of the distributed polarization modulation-to-intensity modulation conversion. The experimental comparison for range finding was carried out as the chaotic UWB signal was notch-filtered at 5.2 GHz and 7.8 GHz or not. Measured results indicate that space resolution with cm-level could be realized after 3-km fiber transmission thanks to the excellent self-correlation property of the UWB noise signal provided by the OEO. The performance deterioration of the radar raised by the energy loss of the notch-filtered noise signal was negligible.

  12. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-19

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna. 8 figs.

  13. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    SciTech Connect

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  14. Photonic generation and wireless transmission of different pulse modulation formats for high-speed impulse radio ultrawideband over fiber systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shizhong; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang; Li, Pengxiao

    2011-12-01

    Novel methods on photonic generation of different pulse modulation formats for impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) over fiber application is overviewed. A flexible, high-speed and power-efficient photonic on-off keying and binary phase shift keying modulated IR-UWB over fiber communication system is proposed and demonstrated. IR-UWB transmission over 20km fiber and 0.25m wireless link without any compensation is presented. The transmission performance for both modulation formats is evaluated and compared by measuring eye diagrams and the electrical spectra.

  15. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a research and development effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar./Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. U IATB impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology is exploited in the design and implementation of the prototype location and tracking system. A three-dimensional (3D) proximity tracking prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Time-Difference- Of-Arrival (TDOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. The TDOA tracking algorithm is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. Simulations show that the TDOA algorithm can achieve the fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA estimates for close-in tracking. Field tests demonstrated that this prototype UWB TDOA High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System is feasible for providing positioning-awareness information in a 3D space to a robotic control system. This 3D tracking system is developed for a robotic control system in a facility called "Moonyard" at Honeywell Defense & System in Arizona under a Space Act Agreement.

  16. Waveform Analysis of UWB GPR Antennas

    PubMed Central

    Rial, Fernando I.; Lorenzo, Henrique; Pereira, Manuel; Armesto, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems fall into the category of ultra-wideband (UWB) devices. Most GPR equipment covers a frequency range between an octave and a decade by using short-time pulses. Each signal recorded by a GPR gathers a temporal log of attenuated and distorted versions of these pulses (due to the effect of the propagation medium) plus possible electromagnetic interferences and noise. In order to make a good interpretation of this data and extract the most possible information during processing, a deep knowledge of the wavelet emitted by the antennas is essential. Moreover, some advanced processing techniques require specific knowledge of this signal to obtain satisfactory results. In this work, we carried out a series of tests in order to determine the source wavelet emitted by a ground-coupled antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency. PMID:22573965

  17. Multi-pulse multi-delay (MPMD) multiple access modulation for UWB

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2007-03-20

    A new modulation scheme in UWB communications is introduced. This modulation technique utilizes multiple orthogonal transmitted-reference pulses for UWB channelization. The proposed UWB receiver samples the second order statistical function at both zero and non-zero lags and matches the samples to stored second order statistical functions, thus sampling and matching the shape of second order statistical functions rather than just the shape of the received pulses.

  18. Time Reversal for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensor Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-31

    Wireless Communications, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2939 –2944, Nov 2005. [28] H. Liu, Y. Song, and R. Qiu, “The Impact of Fading Correlation on the Error...Propagation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–137, February 1987 . [56] H. Shen, W. Zhang, X. An, and K. S. Kwak, “DS

  19. Next Generation Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Intrusion Detection Radar.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    CLASSIFICATION CONCEPTS 4.8 SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND SUGGESTIONS 56 FOR FUTURE WORK 5 THE GATED CFAR RECEIVER AND BEAM STEERING 58 STRATEGY 5.1 BACKGROUND 58...5.2 THE RECEIVER SEARCH STRATEGY 62 5.2.1 Range and Bias Adjustment 63 5.2.2 Threshold Criterion 64 5.2.3 Activity Required each 100 gt secs., 65 i.e...Marine, Inc., Charlot- tesville, VA, which marketed the product to law enforcement agencies. The Small Business Administration, in their 5th Annual

  20. 3D positioning scheme exploiting nano-scale IR-UWB orthogonal pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nammoon; Kim, Youngok

    2011-10-01

    In these days, the development of positioning technology for realizing ubiquitous environments has become one of the most important issues. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a well-known positioning scheme, but it is not suitable for positioning in in-door/building environments because it is difficult to maintain line-of-sight condition between satellites and a GPS receiver. To such problem, various positioning methods such as RFID, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth have been developed for indoor positioning scheme. However, the majority of positioning schemes are focused on the two-dimension positioning even though three-dimension (3D) positioning information is more useful especially in indoor applications, such as smart space, U-health service, context aware service, etc. In this paper, a 3D positioning system based on mutually orthogonal nano-scale impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signals and cross array antenna is proposed. The proposed scheme uses nano-scale IR-UWB signals providing fine time resolution and high-resolution multiple signal specification algorithm for the time-of-arrival and the angle-of-arrival estimation. The performance is evaluated over various IEEE 802.15.4a channel models, and simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  1. Window-Based Channel Impulse Response Prediction for Time-Varying Ultra-Wideband Channels

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samman, A. M.; Azmi, M. H.; Rahman, T. A.; Khan, I.; Hindia, M. N.; Fattouh, A.

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes channel impulse response (CIR) prediction for time-varying ultra-wideband (UWB) channels by exploiting the fast movement of channel taps within delay bins. Considering the sparsity of UWB channels, we introduce a window-based CIR (WB-CIR) to approximate the high temporal resolutions of UWB channels. A recursive least square (RLS) algorithm is adopted to predict the time evolution of the WB-CIR. For predicting the future WB-CIR tap of window wk, three RLS filter coefficients are computed from the observed WB-CIRs of the left wk−1, the current wk and the right wk+1 windows. The filter coefficient with the lowest RLS error is used to predict the future WB-CIR tap. To evaluate our proposed prediction method, UWB CIRs are collected through measurement campaigns in outdoor environments considering line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenarios. Under similar computational complexity, our proposed method provides an improvement in prediction errors of approximately 80% for LOS and 63% for NLOS scenarios compared with a conventional method. PMID:27992445

  2. Flexible ultra-wideband antenna incorporated with metamaterial structures: multiple notches for chipless RFID application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, M. E.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Dewan, R.; Kamardin, K.

    2017-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna incorporated with metamaterial—split ring resonator structure—that operates from 3.0 to 12.0 GHz is proposed for chipless RFID tag. The 30 mm × 40 mm flexible chipless RFID tag is designed on the fleece substrate ( ɛ r = 1.35, thickness = 1 mm and tan δ = 0.025). A six-slotted modified complementary split ring resonator (MCSRR) is introduced into the ultra-wideband antenna to produce multiple band notches at 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 GHz. The frequency shifting technique is introduced for designing a high-capacity chipless RFID tag with compact size. Each MCSRR is able to code in four different allocations (00, 01, 10 and 11). To achieve encoding of 10-bits data (10,234 number), six MCSRRs are proposed with three-slotted MCSRR in the radiator and three-slotted MCSRR in the ground plane.

  3. Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System Design for International Space Station Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun (David); Hafermalz, David; Dusl, John; Barton, Rick; Wagner, Ray; Ngo, Phong

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time-of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide (CO2) and felt upset. Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members or mounted on a free-flyer and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system has been developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, a micro-controller is leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested

  4. Ultra-wideband noise radar imaging of cylindrical PEC objects using diffraction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Narayanan, Ram M.; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we show that a single transmission of a random noise waveform may not sufficient to obtain a successful tomographic image of an object. In order to overcome this shortcoming, multiple independent and identically distributed (iid) random noise waveforms over a frequency range from 8 to 10 GHz are transmitted to reconstruct the final image of various objects. Diffraction tomography theorem is applied for each noise waveform transmission so that the image of the multiple objects is reconstructed based on the backward scattered field at the end of each noise waveform transmission realization. After all iid noise waveforms are transmitted, the final tomographic image of the target is reconstructed by averaging all obtained images from multiple transmissions. Several numerical simulations in the spatial frequency domain are performed, and the successful tomographic image of the multiple cylindrical PEC objects is achieved after transmission of multiple iid ultra-wideband (UWB) random noise waveforms.

  5. Ultra-Wideband Phased Array for Millimeter-Wave 5G and ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Markus H.; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2016-01-01

    Growing mobile data consumption has prompted the exploration of the millimeter-wave spectrum for large bandwidth, high speed communications. However, the allocated bands are spread across a wide swath of spectrum: fifth generation mobile architecture (5G): 28, 38, 39, 64-71 GHz, as well as Industrial, Scientific, and Medical bands (ISM): 24 and 60 GHz. Moreover, high gain phased arrays are required to overcome the significant path loss associated with these frequencies. Further, it is necessary to incorporate several of these applications in a single, small size and low cost platform. To this end, we have developed a scanning, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) array which covers all 5G, ISM, and other mm-W bands from 24-72 GHz. Critically, this is accomplished using mass-production Printed Circuit Board (PCB) fabrication.

  6. 75 FR 62476 - Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Multi-band OFDM Alliance Special Interest Group (``MBOA-SIG'') but also for any UWB device using hopped... employing multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (``MB-OFDM'') modulation, which is a stepped... in the First R&O, for pulse gated systems to the extent that this rule applied to MB-OFDM...

  7. A Novel Picosecond Pulse Generation Circuit Based on SRD and NLTL.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianming; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan; Li, Yinqiao

    2016-01-01

    Because of the importance of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar in various applications, short pulse generation in UWB systems has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In order to shorten the pulse, nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) is imported, which expands the application of step recovery diode (SRD) for pulse generation. Detailed analysis and equations for this SRD and NLTL-based pulse generation are provided and verified by simulation and experimental results. Factors that could cause pulse waveform distortions are also analyzed. The generator circuit presented in this paper generates 130ps and 3.3V pulse, which can be used in UWB radar systems that require sub-nanosecond pulses.

  8. A Novel Picosecond Pulse Generation Circuit Based on SRD and NLTL

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianming; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan; Li, Yinqiao

    2016-01-01

    Because of the importance of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar in various applications, short pulse generation in UWB systems has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In order to shorten the pulse, nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) is imported, which expands the application of step recovery diode (SRD) for pulse generation. Detailed analysis and equations for this SRD and NLTL-based pulse generation are provided and verified by simulation and experimental results. Factors that could cause pulse waveform distortions are also analyzed. The generator circuit presented in this paper generates 130ps and 3.3V pulse, which can be used in UWB radar systems that require sub-nanosecond pulses. PMID:26919290

  9. Ultra wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of heterogeneous solids

    DOEpatents

    Warhus, John P.; Mast, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.

  10. Ultra wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of heterogeneous solids

    DOEpatents

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.

    1998-11-10

    A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes. 11 figs.

  11. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C. F.; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally. PMID:26274964

  12. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  13. Matching layer for path loss reduction in ultra wideband implant communications.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Santiago, Raul; Khaleghi, Ali; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2014-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of various physiological signals is of utmost importance for the treatment of chronic conditions. Radio technology can enable real-time sensing and collection of physiological data to facilitate timely medication and early pre-hospital management of patients. This can be realized with the aid of implantable biomedical sensors with the capability to transmit wirelessly the collected information to an external unit for display and analysis. Currently, commercial wireless medical implantable sensors operate in frequencies below 1 GHz with narrowband signals. Recently, it has been demonstrated that ultra wideband (UWB) signals could be also used for the radio interface of these devices. However, establishing an implant communication link in the allocated UWB spectrum of 3.1-10.6 GHz is challenging. The attenuation of UWB signals propagating through biological tissues at these frequencies is high. Part of these path losses are caused by the impedance mismatch between the two propagation environments (i.e., air and biological tissues) that constitute an implant communication link. This mismatch results in inefficient power transmission of the radio waves. In this paper we propose the use of a layer of dielectric material that can be applied on the patient's skin. The permittivity value of this matching layer has to be chosen such that wave coupling is maximized. Through numerical simulations we determined the appropriate permittivity value of a matching layer for UWB implant communication links in the human thorax for 1-6 GHz. Path loss reduction of up to 10 dB can be obtained in this frequency band. These results can help improve the use of UWB signals for other in-body biomedical devices like the wireless capsule endoscope (WCE).

  14. Principle and experimental results of ultra-wideband noise radar imaging of a cylindrical conducting object using diffraction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Asmuth, Mark A.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the principle, simulation, and experiment results of tomographic imaging of a cylindrical conducting object using random noise waveforms are presented. Theoretical analysis of scattering and the image reconstruction technique are developed based on physical optics approximation and Fourier diffraction tomography, respectively. The bistatic radar system is designed to transmit band-limited ultra-wideband (UWB) random noise waveforms at a fixed position, and a linear scanner allows a single receiving antenna to move along a horizontal axis for backward scattering measurement in the frequency range from 3-5 GHz. The reconstructed tomographic image of the rotating cylindrical conducting object based on experimental results are seen to be in good agreement with the simulation results, which demonstrates the capability of UWB noise radar for complete two-dimensional tomographic image reconstruction of a cylindrical conducting object.

  15. Measurement of Ultra Wideband Radar Cross Sections of an Automobile at Ka Band Using Circular Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaki, Hideyuki; Nishide, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Takehiko

    Ultra wideband (UWB) radar cross sections (RCSs) of several targets have been measured using various combinations of transmitting and receiving linear polarizations (V-V, H-H, and +45°--45°) with a view to obtaining information on the design of vehicular short-range radars. This paper reports the UWB RCSs (σLR and σLL) of a typical passenger automobile using two circular polarization combinations (L and R denote left and right circular polarizations). The wideband measurements were carried out with use of a vector network analyzer by sweeping the frequency from 24.5 to 28.8GHz in a radio anechoic chamber. The UWB RCSs were derived by integrating the received power in the frequency domain. Similar to the linear polarization results, fluctuations of the RCSs were smaller in the UWB than in narrowband for both L-R and L-L, because the ultra-wide bandwidth cancels out RCS plunges caused by narrowband interference among reflected waves from various facets of the target. The median of (σLR-σLL) was 2dB, while the median of (σHH-σ+45°--45°) or (σVV-σ+45°--45°) was 6dB. This is because the body of the automobile comprises a number of smaller scattering objects yielding σLL, either similar to the corner reflectors or asymmetrical to the radar boresight. Frequency-domain responses showed a number of notches caused by the interference between numerous reflecting waves having power levels of a similar order and different round-trip path lengths. Some representative reflective parts of the automobile were identified through analyses of time-domain responses.

  16. Full-duplex multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband over fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Wen, Xuejie; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin; Su, Jinshu

    2015-01-01

    A full-duplex multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband over fiber (UWBoF) system is proposed, and bidirectional transmission of a 1.28-Gbps MB-OFDM UWB signal over 50-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) is demonstrated. An optical remote heterodyning mixing scheme is employed to generate a 60-GHz optical millimeter wave. Meanwhile, an optical carrier without modulation data is extracted by using a fiber Bragg grating for the uplink MB-OFDM UWB signal transmission. After 50-km SSMF transmission at a bit error rate of 1×10-4, the power penalties are 0.7 dB for a 4 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-uplink and 1.0 dB for a 16QAM-uplink, respectively. The proposed scheme would greatly reduce the cost and significantly improve the spectrum utilization efficiency in the full-duplex MB-OFDM UWBoF systems.

  17. Design and investigation of planar technology based ultra-wideband antenna with directional radiation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, M. L.; Parmar, Girish; Kumar, Mithilesh

    2016-03-01

    A novel design technique based on planar technology for ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas with different ground shape having directional radiation pattern is being presented here. Firstly, the L-shape corner reflector ground plane antenna is designed with microstrip feed line in order to achieve large bandwidth and directivity. Thereafter, for the further improvement in the directivity as well as for better impedance matching the parabolic-shape ground plane has been introduced. The coaxial feed line is given for the proposed directional antenna in order to achieve better impedance matching with 50 ohm transmission line. The simulation analysis of the antenna is done on CST Microwave Studio software using FR-4 substrate having thickness of 1.6 mm and dielectric constant of 4.4. The simulated result shows a good return loss (S11) with respect to -10 dB. The radiation pattern characteristic, angular width, directivity and bandwidth performance of the antenna have also been compared at different resonant frequencies. The designed antennas exhibit low cost, low reflection coefficient and better directivity in the UWB frequency band.

  18. Performance Evaluation of a UWB-RFID System for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Chan T.; Arndt, D.; Ngo, P.; Gross, J.; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    This talk presents a brief overview of the ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID system with emphasis on the performance evaluation of a commercially available UWB-RFID system. There are many RFID systems available today, but many provide just basic identification for auditing and inventory tracking. For applications that require high precision real time tracking, UWB technology has been shown to be a viable solution. The use of extremely short bursts of RF pulses offers high immunity to interference from other RF systems, precise tracking due to sub-nanosecond time resolution, and robust performance in multipath environments. The UWB-RFID system Sapphire DART (Digital Active RFID & Tracking) will be introduced in this talk. Laboratory testing using Sapphire DART is performed to evaluate its capability such as coverage area, accuracy, ease of operation, and robustness. Performance evaluation of this system in an operational environment (a receiving warehouse) for inventory tracking is also conducted. Concepts of using the UWB-RFID technology to track astronauts and assets are being proposed for space exploration.

  19. Matched filter design optimisation for UWB receiver for sensor network application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Rohit; Singh, Jugdutt; Veljanovski, Ronny

    2005-12-01

    Ultra Wideband (UWB) communications is one of the possible solutions for future wireless personal area network (WPAN) applications. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in the USA, allocated 7.5 GHz of unlicensed frequency bandwidth from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz for UWB communication. It is an available spectrum which can be utilised for data communication using different technologies complying with FCC regulations. This paper presents a brief overview of the world wide regulations and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standardisation updates for UWB. It also focuses on the wireless sensor network application and the use of UWB communications in biomedical sensor networks. The paper aims at the design and implementation of an optimised pulsed matched filter (OPMF) used in the digital backend of a UWB radio. The optimisations are performed at the architectural and circuit level in order to reduce hardware complexity and reduced power. The OPMF is successfully implemented using the application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design methodology and the results are compared with those obtained in previous implementation. The OPMF implementation presented in this paper yields improved characteristics such as reduction in area, almost 25% power reduction and better timing.

  20. Design and analysis of ultra-wideband antennas for transient field excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzev, Miroslav; Kreitlow, Matthias; Gronwald, Frank

    2016-09-01

    This work addresses the design of two ultra-wideband antennas for the application of transient field measurements that are characterized by frequency spectra that typically range from a few MHz to several GHz. The motivation for their design is the excitation of high power transient pulses, such as double exponential or damped sinusoidal pulses, within highly resonant metallic enclosures. The antenna design is based on two independent numerical full-wave solvers and it is aimed to achieve a low return loss over a wide range of frequencies together with a high pulse fidelity. It turns out that antennas of the conical and discone type do achieve satisfactory broadband characteristics while limitations towards low frequencies persist. Also the concept of fidelity factor turns out as advantageous to determine whether the proposed antennas allow transmitting certain broadband pulse forms.

  1. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of <;1m is first shown with bit-error rates (BER) <; 10(-3). Further, IR-UWB wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz.

  2. Focus of attention for millimeter and ultra wideband synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Li-Kang

    The major goal of this research is to develop efficient detectors for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, exploiting the reflectivity characteristics of targets in different radar types. Target detection is a signal processing problem whereby one attempts to detect a stationary target embedded in background clutter while minimizing the false alarm probability. In radar signal processing, the better resolution provided by the Millimeter Wave (MMW) SAR enhances the detectability of small targets. As radar technology evolves, the newly developed Ultra Wideband (UWB) SAR provides better penetration capabilities to locate concealed targets in foliage. In this thesis we demonstrate that local intensity kernel tests can be formulated based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), while preserving constant false alarm rate (CFAR) characteristics. Both the widely used two-parameter CFAR and the g -CFAR can be viewed as special cases of the local intensity tests with different intensity kernels. It is demonstrated that the first-order Gamma kernel is a good approximation for the principal eigenvector of the projected radial intensity of targets, which provides the optimal matching intensity kernel. This also explains the better performance of the g -CFAR detector over the two parameter CFAR detector. We also developed different CFAR subspace detectors for UWB images, utilizing a Laguerre function subspace. The driven response produced by natural clutter degrades the performance of these subspace detectors. In addition to the driven response, the distinguishing feature of metallic targets in UWB is the resonance response. Therefore, we further propose a two-stage detection scheme: g -CFAR detector followed by the quadratic Laguerre discriminator (QLD). We evaluate every detector and discriminator using ROC curves in a large area (about 2 km2) of imagery. The combined g -CFAR and quadratic Laguerre discriminator improve the simple Laguerre subspace detector more

  3. An Ultra-Wideband Millimeter-Wave Phased Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Markus H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Volakis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Wideband millimeter-wave arrays are of increasing importance due to their growing use in high data rate systems, including 5G communication networks. In this paper, we present a new class of ultra-wideband millimeter wave arrays that operate from nearly 20 GHz to 90 GHz. The array is based on tightly coupled dipoles. Feeding designs and fabrication challenges are presented, and a method for suppressing feed resonances is provided.

  4. Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Diversity for Green UWB-Based WBSNs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel green cooperative diversity technique based on suboptimal template-based ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) using amplify-and-forward (AF) relays. In addition, it analyzes the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the proposed nodes. The analysis is based on the moment-generating function (MGF) of the total signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination. It also provides an approximate value for the total SNR. The analysis studies the performance of equally correlated binary pulse position modulation (EC-BPPM) assuming the sinusoidal and square suboptimal template pulses. Numerical results are provided for the performance evaluation of optimal and suboptimal template-based nodes with and without relay cooperation. Results show that one relay node provides ~23 dB performance enhancement at 1e − 3 BER, which mitigates the effect of the nondesirable non-line-of-sight (NLOS) links in WBSNs. PMID:24307880

  5. Amplify-and-forward cooperative diversity for green UWB-based WBSNs.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Heba; Abou El-Nasr, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel green cooperative diversity technique based on suboptimal template-based ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) using amplify-and-forward (AF) relays. In addition, it analyzes the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the proposed nodes. The analysis is based on the moment-generating function (MGF) of the total signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination. It also provides an approximate value for the total SNR. The analysis studies the performance of equally correlated binary pulse position modulation (EC-BPPM) assuming the sinusoidal and square suboptimal template pulses. Numerical results are provided for the performance evaluation of optimal and suboptimal template-based nodes with and without relay cooperation. Results show that one relay node provides ~23 dB performance enhancement at 1e - 3 BER, which mitigates the effect of the nondesirable non-line-of-sight (NLOS) links in WBSNs.

  6. Land mine detection with an ultra-wideband SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieu, Joel; Gallais, Frederic; Mallepeyre, Vincent; Bertrand, Valerie; Beillard, Bruno; Jecko, Bernard; Guillerey, Regis; Legoff, Marc

    2002-08-01

    PULSAR is an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) short pulse Radar developed by the CELAR (French Technical Center for Armament Electronics) and the IRCOM (Research Institute of Microwave and Optical Communications) in order to detect foliage and ground concealed mines. An instrumentation measurement system has been designed and implemented, in particular new 2D broad band antennas with a very low pulse distortion. The clutter suppression is based on background subtraction and wavelet transforms. These data are used to obtain SAR ultra wide band images by transient methods. The following discussion describes the device, the experimental results and the signal processing currently utilized. Future development efforts on this system (generator, acquisition means .) are detailed. At the same time a theoretical study is made to estimate target transient responses captured by the system. So a FDTD code is modified to simulate buried objects detection by the radar.

  7. Design and Performance Evaluation on Ultra-Wideband Time-Of-Arrival 3D Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Dusl, John

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time--of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide and felt upset. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested in the Wireless Habitat Testbed which simulates the ISS module environment. In this presentation, we discuss the 3D TOA tracking algorithm and the performance evaluation based on different tracking baseline configurations. The simulation results show that two configurations of the tracking baseline are feasible. With 100 picoseconds standard deviation (STD) of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.2392 feet (about 7 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Twisted Rectangle while the average tracking error 0.9183 feet (about 28 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Slightly-Twisted Top Rectangle . The tracking accuracy can be further improved with the improvement of the STD of TOA estimates. With 10 picoseconds STD of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.0239 feet (less than 1 centimeter) can be achieved for configuration "Twisted Rectangle".

  8. Two Novel Space-Time Coding Techniques Designed for UWB MISO Systems Based on Wavelet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Amira Ibrahim; El-Khamy, Said E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper two novel space-time coding multi-input single-output (STC MISO) schemes, designed especially for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) systems, are introduced. The proposed schemes are referred to as wavelet space-time coding (WSTC) schemes. The WSTC schemes are based on two types of multiplexing, spatial and wavelet domain multiplexing. In WSTC schemes, four symbols are transmitted on the same UWB transmission pulse with the same bandwidth, symbol duration, and number of transmitting antennas of the conventional STC MISO scheme. The used mother wavelet (MW) is selected to be highly correlated with transmitted pulse shape and such that the multiplexed signal has almost the same spectral characteristics as those of the original UWB pulse. The two WSTC techniques increase the data rate to four times that of the conventional STC. The first WSTC scheme increases the data rate with a simple combination process. The second scheme achieves the increase in the data rate with a less complex receiver and better performance than the first scheme due to the spatial diversity introduced by the structure of its transmitter and receiver. The two schemes use Rake receivers to collect the energy in the dense multipath channel components. The simulation results show that the proposed WSTC schemes have better performance than the conventional scheme in addition to increasing the data rate to four times that of the conventional STC scheme. PMID:27959939

  9. Remote Sensing of Snow-covered Sea Ice with Ultra-wideband Airborne Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Gogineni, P. S.; Gomez-Garcia, D.; Leuschen, C.; Hale, R.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Paden, J. D.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    The extent and thickness of sea ice and snow play a critical role in the Earth's climate system. Both sea ice and snow have high albedo and control the heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean and atmosphere and land. In terms of hydrology, the presence of sea ice and snow modulates the flow and the salinity of ocean water. This in turn can modify the weather patterns around the globe. Understanding the formation, coverage and the properties of sea ice and snow are important for both short-term and long-term climate modeling. The advancements in high-frequency electronics and digital signal processing enabled the development of ultra-wideband radars by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) for airborne measurements of snow and ice properties over large areas. CReSIS recently developed and deployed two ultra-wideband airborne radars, namely the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder/Imager (MCoRDS/I) and the Snow Radar. The MCoRDS/I is designed to operate over the frequency range of 180-450 MHz for sounding land ice and imaging its ice-bed interface. We also took advantage of the deployment to explore the potential of UWB MCoRDS/I in sounding sea ice and collected data on flight lines flown as part of NASA Operation IceBridge mission during Spring 2015. Preliminary results show we sounded sea ice under favorable conditions. We will perform detailed processing and analysis of data over the next few months and we will compare results obtained are compared with existing altimetry-derived data products. The new snow radar, on the other hand, operating from 2 to 18 GHz, was deployed on the NRL Twin Otter aircraft in Barrow, AK. It was shown to have a vertical resolution of down to 1.5 cm which opens up the potential for thin snow measurement on both sea ice and land. Both of these new radars will be further optimized for future airborne missions to demonstrate their capabilities for sea ice and snow measurements. We will also show new technical

  10. Performance of Multiple Pulse Multiple Delay Modulated UWB Signals in a Multiple Access Indoor Wireless Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2003-06-12

    In this paper, the performance of a two user UWB multiple access (UWB-MA) system based on multiple-pulse multiple-delay (MPMD) modulation scheme in an indoor wireless channel is evaluated by computer simulations. The indoor multipath propagation channel model used in this study is based on the modified statistical Saleh-Valenzuela model proposed by Foerester and Li from Intel. The simulation results indicate that the multipath performance of MPMD modulated signals in a multiple access system outperforms the nonmultipath case as the number of autocorrelation function (ACF) sampling points increases for each user. This is an unusual but important result, since MPMD receiver exploits multipath phenomenon in indoor wireless channels to increase the BER performance, hence the transmission rate in a UWB-MA system.

  11. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  12. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  13. Three-Dimensional Planetary Surface Tracking Based on a Simple Ultra-Wideband Impulse-Radio Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.; Ni, David; Ngo, Phong

    2010-01-01

    Several prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse-radio (IR) tracking systems are currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These systems are being studied for use in tracking of Lunar/Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems (such as GPS) are not available. To date, the systems that have been designed and tested are intended only for two-dimensional location and tracking, but these designs can all be extended to three-dimensional tracking with only minor modifications and increases in complexity. In this presentation, we will briefly review the design and performance of two of the current 2-D systems: one designed specifically for short-range, extremely high-precision tracking (approximately 1-2 cm resolution) and the other designed specifically for much longer range tracking with less stringent precision requirements (1-2 m resolution). We will then discuss a new multi-purpose system design based on a simple UWB-IR architecture that can be deployed easily on a planetary surface to support arbitrary three-dimensional localization and tracking applications. We will discuss utilization of this system as an infrastructure to provide both short-range and long-range tracking and analyze the localization performance of the system in several different configurations. We will give theoretical performance bounds for some canonical system configurations and compare these performance bounds with both numerical simulations of the system as well as actual experimental system performance evaluations.

  14. Improving the power efficiency of SOA-based UWB over fiber systems via pulse shape randomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, H.; Azou, S.; Hamie, A.; Al Housseini, A.; Alaeddine, A.; Sharaiha, A.

    2016-09-01

    A simple pulse shape randomization scheme is considered in this paper for improving the performance of ultra wide band (UWB) communication systems using On Off Keying (OOK) or pulse position modulation (PPM) formats. The advantage of the proposed scheme, which can be either employed for impulse radio (IR) or for carrier-based systems, is first theoretically studied based on closed-form derivations of power spectral densities. Then, we investigate an application to an IR-UWB over optical fiber system, by utilizing the 4th and 5th orders of Gaussian derivatives. Our approach proves to be effective for 1 Gbps-PPM and 2 Gbps-OOK transmissions, with an advantage in terms of power efficiency for short distances. We also examine the performance for a system employing an in-line Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) with the view to achieve a reach extension, while limiting the cost and system complexity.

  15. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    PubMed

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented.

  16. Remote Respiration Monitoring Using Ultra-wideband Microwave Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashikatsuragi, Kenji; Nakahata, Youichiro; Matsunami, Isamu; Kajiwara, Akihiro

    Impulse based ultra-wideband radio has lately attracted considerable attention as medical monitoring sensor since it is expected to measure bio-signals of a patient on a bed such as respiration rate and heartbeat with a remote non-contact approach. It is also friendly to the environment including the human body due to the very low electromagnetic energy emission. Using conventional ranging scheme, however, high speed A/D device should be required in order to detect the small respiratory displacement. This paper suggests a respiratory monitoring scheme where the respiration rate is measured by observing the variation of the path strength from the patient. Therefore, it does not require high speed A/D. It also makes possible to design the simultaneous monitoring of multiple patients in hospital beds, for example. In this paper the measurements were conducted for various scenarios and the feasibility is discussed.

  17. Ultra-wideband Location Authentication for Item Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Nathan C; Kuhn, Michael J; Stinson, Brad J; Holland, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    International safeguards is increasingly utilizing unattended and remote monitoring methods to improve inspector efficiency and the timeliness of diversion detection. Item identification and tracking has been proposed as one unattended remote monitoring method, and a number of radio-frequency (RF) technologies have been proposed. When utilizing location information for verification purposes, strong assurance of the authenticity of the reported location is required, but most commercial RF systems are vulnerable to a variety of spoofing and relay attacks. ORNL has developed a distance bounding method that uses ultra-wideband technology to provide strong assurance of item location. This distance bounding approach can be coupled with strong symmetric key authentication methods to provide a fully authenticable tracking system that is resistant to both spoofing and relay attacks. This paper will discuss the overall problems associated with RF tracking including the common spoofing and relay attack scenarios, the ORNL distance bounding approach for authenticating location, and the potential applications for this technology.

  18. Ultra-wideband Radar Methods and Techniques of Medical Sensing and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, C N; Chang, J T; Romero, C E; Watson, J; Pearce, F J; Levin, N

    2005-10-07

    Ultra-wideband radar holds great promise for a variety of medical applications. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using ultra-wideband sensors for detection of internal injuries, monitoring of respiratory and cardiac functions, and continuous non-contact imaging of the human body. Sensors are low-power, portable, and do not require physical contact with the patient. They are ideal for use by emergency responders to make rapid diagnosis and triage decisions. In the hospital, vital signs monitoring and imaging application could improve patient outcomes. In this paper we present an overview of ultra-wideband radar technology, discuss key design tradeoffs, and give examples of ongoing research in applying ultra-wideband technology to the medical field.

  19. Studies of scattering, reflectivity, and transmitivity in WBAN channel: feasibility of using UWB.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Humaun; Ashrafuzzaman, Kazi; Chowdhury, M Sanaullah; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) is one of the fledging paradigms that the next generation of wireless systems is sprouting towards. Among them, a more specific category is the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) used for health monitoring. On the other hand, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) comes with a number of desirable features at the physical layer for wireless communications. One big challenge in adoption of UWB in WBAN is the fact that signals get attenuated exponentially. Due to the intrinsic structural complexity in human body, electromagnetic waves show a profound variation during propagation through it. The reflection and transmission coefficients of human body are highly dependent upon the dielectric constants as well as upon the frequency. The difference in structural materials such as fat, muscles and blood essentially makes electromagnetic wave attenuation to be different along the way. Thus, a complete characterization of body channel is a challenging task. The connection between attenuation and frequency of the signal makes the investigation of UWB in WBAN an interesting proposition. In this paper, we study analytically the impact of body channels on electromagnetic signal propagation with reference to UWB. In the process, scattering, reflectivity and transmitivity have been addressed with analysis of approximate layer-wise modeling, and with numerical depictions. Pulses with Gaussian profile have been employed in our analysis. It shows that, under reasonable practical approximations, the human body channel can be modeled in layers so as to have the effects of total reflections or total transmissions in certain frequency bands. This could help decide such design issues as antenna characteristics of implant devices for WBAN employing UWB.

  20. UWB Tracking System Design for Free-Flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Phan, Chan; Ngo, Phong; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort for Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) that operates cooperatively with the UWB system is developed in this research effort. Matlab simulations show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWB tracking capability with fine resolution.

  1. Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-04

    UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK THE Final Report 03/04/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR...FOUNDATION OF STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK THE 75 S MANHEIM BLVD NEW PALTZ, NY 125612447 US 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...Dr. Natalie A. Cartwright State University of New York at New Paltz The general purpose of AFOSR grant “A Research Program on Ultrawideband Elec

  2. UWB Technology and Applications on Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), also known as impulse or carrier-free radio technology, is one promising new technology. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the deployment of this technology. It is increasingly recognized that UWB technology holds great potential to provide significant benefits in many terrestrial and space applications such as precise positioning/tracking and high data rate mobile wireless communications. This talk presents an introduction to UWB technology and some applications on space exploration. UWB is characterized by several uniquely attractive features, such as low impact on other RF systems due to its extremely low power spectral densities, immunity to interference from narrow band RF systems due to its ultra-wide bandwidth, multipath immunity to fading due to ample multipath diversity, capable of precise positioning due to fine time resolution, capable of high data rate multi-channel performance. The related FCC regulations, IEEE standardization efforts and industry activities also will be addressed in this talk. For space applications, some projects currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center will be introduced. These include the UWB integrated communication and tracking system for Lunar/Mars rover and astronauts, UWB-RFID ISS inventory tracking, and UWB-TDOA close-in high resolution tracking for potential applications on robonaut.

  3. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances †

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A.; Al-Khalifa, Hend S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space. PMID:27196906

  4. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A; Al-Khalifa, Hend S

    2016-05-16

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space.

  5. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The optical modulation spectrometer (OMS) is a novel, highly efficient, low mass backend for heterodyne receiver systems. Current and future heterodyne receiver systems operating at frequencies up to a few THz require broadband spectrometer backends to achieve spectral resolutions of R approximately 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) to carry out many important astronomical investigations. Among these are observations of broad emission and absorption lines from extra-galactic objects at high redshifts, spectral line surveys, and observations of planetary atmospheres. Many of these lines are pressure or velocity broadened with either large half-widths or line wings extending over several GHz. Current backend systems can cover the needed bandwidth only by combining the output of several spectrometers, each with typically up to 1 GHz bandwidth, or by combining several frequency-shifted spectra taken with a single spectrometer. An ultra-wideband optical modulation spectrometer with 10 - 40 GHz bandwidth will enable broadband ob- servations without the limitations and disadvantages of hybrid spectrometers. Spectrometers like the OMS will be important for both ground-based observatories and future space missions like the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) which might carry IR/submm array heterodyne receiver systems requiring a spectrometer for each array pixel. Small size, low mass and small power consumption are extremely important for space missions. This report summarizes the specifications developed for the OMS and lists already identified commercial parts. The report starts with a review of the principle of operation, then describes the most important components and their specifications which were derived from theory, and finishes with a conclusion and outlook.

  6. Implementation and Performance Analysis of Noncoherent UWB Transceiver Under LOS Residential Channel Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungsoo; Koo, Insoo; Kim, Youngsun

    This paper focuses on two things. One is to describe implementation of a Low-Rate Ultra-Wideband (LR-UWB) transceiver for low power Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) applications. The other is to derive the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the proposed system. At first, in order to implement low-power and low-complexity transceiver, we design a non-coherent On-Off-Keying(OOK) UWB system by adopting the architecture of the simplified asynchronous transmission and the edge-triggered pulse transmission, which makes the system performance independent of the shape of the transmitted waveform, robust to multipath channels. The designed non-coherent UWB transceiver architecture has an advantage of the simple realization since any mixer, high-speed correlator, and very high-sampling A/D converter are not necessary at the cost of performance degradation of about 3dB. Further, the designed non-coherent UWB transceiver is actually implemented with the wireless CANVAS prototyping testbed in short range indoor application environment such as a lecture room. The implemented prototype testbed is proven to offer the data rate of 9.6kbps and 115kbps on the conditions of Peer-to-Peer (P-to-P) in the indoor channel within the range of about 10m. At second, we analyze the bit error rate (BER) performance of this proposed system under the line-of-sight (LOS) residential channel environment. As a result, it is necessary to choose appropriate number of Window Bank(WB)s for better BER performance.

  7. Ultra-Wideband Fermi Antenna Using Microstrip-to-CPS Balun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Dong-Sik; Kim, Young-Gon; Cho, Young-Ki; Kim, Kang Wook

    A new design and experimental results of a microstrip-fed ultra-wideband Fermi antenna at millimeter-wave frequencies are presented. By utilizing a new microstrip-to-CPS balun (or transition), which provides wider bandwidth than conventional planar balun, the design of microstrip-fed Fermi antenna is greatly simplified. The proposed Fermi antenna demonstrates ultra-wideband performance for the frequency range of 23 to over 58GHz with the antenna gain of 12 to 14dBi and low sidelobe levels. This design yields highly effective solutions to various millimeter-wave phased-arrays and imaging systems.

  8. UWB micro-doppler radar for human gait analysis using joint range-time-frequency representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yazhou; Fathy, Aly E.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, standalone ultra wideband (UWB) micro-Doppler radar sensor that goes beyond simple range or micro-Doppler detection to combined range-time-Doppler frequency analysis. Moreover, it can monitor more than one human object in both line-of-sight (LOS) and through wall scenarios, thus have full human objects tracking capabilities. The unique radar design is based on narrow pulse transceiver, high speed data acquisition module, and wideband antenna array. For advanced radar post-data processing, joint range-time-frequency representation has been performed. Characteristics of human walking activity have been analyzed using the radar sensor by precisely tracking the radar object and acquiring range-time-Doppler information simultaneously. The UWB micro-Doppler radar prototype is capable of detecting Doppler frequency range from -180 Hz to +180 Hz, which allows a maximum target velocity of 9 m/s. The developed radar sensor can also be extended for many other applications, such as respiration and heartbeat detection of trapped survivors under building debris.

  9. UWB multi-burst transmit driver for averaging receivers

    DOEpatents

    Dallum, Gregory E

    2012-11-20

    A multi-burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. There are two oscillators in the transmitter circuit, a gated burst rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst rate oscillator produces a relatively low frequency, i.e., MHz, square wave output for a selected transmit cycle, and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces RF bursts of much higher frequency, i.e., GHz, during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, e.g., level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second oscillator, and also controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator, i.e., how long it oscillates (which defines the transmit cycle).

  10. Integrable high order UWB pulse photonic generator based on cross phase modulation in a SOA-MZI.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vanessa; Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Muriel, Miguel A; Capmany, José

    2013-09-23

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a potentially integrable optical scheme to generate high order UWB pulses. The technique is based on exploiting the cross phase modulation generated in an InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer containing integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers, and is also adaptable to different pulse modulation formats through an optical processing unit which allows to control of the amplitude, polarity and time delay of the generated taps.

  11. Principles and Limitations of Ultra-Wideband FM Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrits, John F. M.; Kouwenhoven, Michiel H. L.; van der Meer, Paul R.; Farserotu, John R.; Long, John R.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a novel UWB communications system using double FM: a low-modulation index digital FSK followed by a high-modulation index analog FM to create a constant-envelope UWB signal. FDMA techniques at the subcarrier level are exploited to accommodate multiple users. The system is intended for low (1-10 kbps) and medium (100-1000 kbps) bit rate, and short-range WPAN systems. A wideband delay-line FM demodulator that is not preceded by any limiting amplifier constitutes the key component of the UWBFM receiver. This unusual approach permits multiple users to share the same RF bandwidth. Multipath, however, may limit the useful subcarrier bandwidth to one octave. This paper addresses the performance with AWGN and multipath, the resistance to narrowband interference, as well as the simultaneous detection of multiple FM signals at the same carrier frequency. SPICE and Matlab simulation results illustrate the principles and limitations of this new technology. A hardware demonstrator has been realized and has allowed the confirmation of theory with practical results.

  12. Performances study of UWB monopole antennas using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djidel, S.; Bouamar, M.; Khedrouche, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a performances study of UWB monopole antenna using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface. The proposed antenna, simulated using microwave studio computer CST and High frequency simulator structure HFSS, is designed to operate in frequency interval over 3.1 to 40 GHz. Good return loss and radiation pattern characteristics are obtained in the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna structure is suitable for ultra-wideband applications, which is, required for many wearable electronics applications.

  13. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  14. Statistical Modeling of Indirect Paths for UWB Sensors in an Indoor Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moona; Lee, Joon-Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical model of an indirect path generated in an ultra-wideband (UWB) human tracking scenario. When performing moving target detection, an indirect path signal can generate ghost targets that may cause a false alarm. For this purpose, we performed radar measurements in an indoor environment and established a statistical model of an indirect path based on the measurement data. The proposed model takes the form of a modified Saleh–Valenzuela model, which is used in a UWB channel model. An application example of the proposed model for mitigating false alarms is also presented. PMID:28035978

  15. Breast tumor detection using UWB circular-SAR tomographic microwave imaging.

    PubMed

    Oloumi, Daniel; Boulanger, Pierre; Kordzadeh, Atefeh; Rambabu, Karumudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the possibility of detecting tumors in human breast using ultra-wideband (UWB) circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR). CSAR is a subset of SAR which is a radar imaging technique using a circular data acquisition pattern. Tomographic image reconstruction is done using a time domain global back projection technique adapted to CSAR. Experiments are conducted on a breast phantoms made of pork fat emulating normal and cancerous conditions. Preliminary experimental results show that microwave imaging of a breast phantom using UWB-CSAR is a simple and low-cost method, efficiently capable of detecting the presence of tumors.

  16. UWB Tracking Algorithms: AOA and TDOA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, D.; Ngo, P.; Gross, J.; Refford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-Wideband (UWB) tracking prototype systems are currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for various applications on space exploration. For long range applications, a two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking method is employed for implementation of the tracking system; for close-in applications, a Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) positioning methodology is exploited. Both AOA and TDOA are chosen to utilize the achievable fine time resolution of UWB signals. This talk presents a brief introduction to AOA and TDOA methodologies. The theoretical analysis of these two algorithms reveal the affecting parameters impact on the tracking resolution. For the AOA algorithm, simulations show that a tracking resolution less than 0.5% of the range can be achieved with the current achievable time resolution of UWB signals. For the TDOA algorithm used in close-in applications, simulations show that the (sub-inch) high tracking resolution is achieved with a chosen tracking baseline configuration. The analytical and simulated results provide insightful guidance for the UWB tracking system design.

  17. 79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar - Spectrum allocation and technology trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloecher, H.-L.; Sailer, A.; Rollmann, G.; Dickmann, J.

    2009-05-01

    Automotive UWB (Ultra-Wideband) short range radar (SSR) is on the market as a key technology for novel comfort and safety systems. SiGe based 79 GHz UWB SRR will be a definite candidate for the long term substitution of the 24 GHz UWB SRR. This paper will give an overview of the finished BMBF joint project KOKON and the recently started successing project RoCC, which concentrate on the development of this technology and sensor demonstrators. In both projects, the responsibilities of Daimler AG deal with application based sensor specification, test and evaluation of realized sensor demonstrators. Recent UWB SRR frequency regulation approaches and activitites will be introduced. Furthermore, some first results of Daimler activities within RoCC will be presented, dealing with the packaging and operation of these sensors within the complex car environment.

  18. A High-Voltage UWB Coupled-Line Directional Coupler for Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Everett G.; Atchley, Lanney M.; Ellibee, Donald E.; Lawry, Dean I.

    The simplest method of building ultra-wideband (UWB) radar systems requires two antennas, one each for transmission and reception. To save space, it would be preferable to use a single antenna, so a UWB, high-voltage directional coupler is needed. In support of that goal, we develop here coupled-line directional couplers. We begin by describing the time-domain theory of operation of such couplers, and we optimize the impedances for maximum return signal. We then design, build and test two versions of high-voltage coupled-line directional couplers. We incorporate the directional couplers into a low-voltage UWB radar system, and we observe scattering back from a comer reflector. We identify possible improvements to the directional couplers and the UWB radar system.

  19. Performance comparison between UWB-IR and MB-OFDM with transmit diversity in implant communications.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuto; Furukawa, Tomofumi; Anzai, Daisuke; Wang, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    An ultra wideband (UWB) technology is a potential candidate for implant body area networks (BANs), where wireless communications are established between inside and outside of a human body. The UWB can accomplish higher data rate than the other frequency band for the implant communication. However, due to its high frequencies, the UWB signals suffer from quite large attenuation in the implant communication link, which makes it difficult to achieve reliable communications. For achieving reliable communication, it is well known that a spatial diversity technique is efficient without any frequency extension. In our previous works, we developed a transmit polarization diversity antenna for the UWB implant communication. However, optimal UWB modulation scheme for transmit diversity were rarely discussed. In this paper, in order to investigate the optimal UWB modulation schemes for implant communication with transmit diversity, we compare the communication performances of UWB-impulse radio (UWB-IR) and multiband-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM). For this purpose, we first analyze the propagation characteristics in the implant UWB channel, which ranges from 3.4 GHz to 4.8 GHz, using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical analysis technique. Then, we evaluate and discuss the communication performances of both modulation schemes for the transmit polarization diversity from the viewpoint of the BER and the required transmit power.

  20. Ultra-Wideband Array in PCB for Millimeter-Wave 5G and ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Markus H.; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2017-01-01

    Next generation 5G mobile architectures will take advantage of the millimeter-wave spectrum to deliver unprecedented bandwidth. Concurrently, there is a need to consolidate numerous disparate allocations into a single, multi-functional array. Existing arrays are either narrow-band, prohibitively expensive or cannot be scaled to these frequencies. In this paper, we present the first ultra-wideband millimeter-wave array to operate across the six 5G and ISM bands spanning 24-71 GHz. Critically, the array is realized using low-cost PCB. The design concept and optimized layout are presented, and fabrication and measurement considerations are discussed.

  1. A novel ultra-wideband 80 GHz FMCW radar system for contactless monitoring of vital signs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siying; Pohl, Antje; Jaeschke, Timo; Czaplik, Michael; Köny, Marcus; Leonhardt, Steffen; Pohl, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an ultra-wideband 80 GHz FMCW-radar system for contactless monitoring of respiration and heart rate is investigated and compared to a standard monitoring system with ECG and CO(2) measurements as reference. The novel FMCW-radar enables the detection of the physiological displacement of the skin surface with submillimeter accuracy. This high accuracy is achieved with a large bandwidth of 10 GHz and the combination of intermediate frequency and phase evaluation. This concept is validated with a radar system simulation and experimental measurements are performed with different radar sensor positions and orientations.

  2. 30 pJ/b, 67 Mbps, Centimeter-to-Meter Range Data Telemetry With an IR-UWB Wireless Link.

    PubMed

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports an energy-efficient, impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) wireless link operating in 3-5 GHz for data telemetry over centimeter-to-meter range distances at rates extended to tens of Mbps. The link comprises an all-digital, integrated transmitter (TX) fabricated in 90 nm 1P/9M CMOS that incorporates a waveform-synthesis pulse generator and a timing generator for on-off-keying (OOK) pulse modulation and phase scrambling. The link also incorporates an energy-detection receiver (RX) realized with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components that performs radio-frequency (RF) filtering, amplification, logarithmic power detection for data demodulation and automatic level control for robust operation in the presence of distance variations. Employing a miniaturized, UWB, chip antenna for the TX and RX, wireless transmission of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at rates up to 50 Mbps over 10 cm-1 m is shown. Further, employing a high-gain horn antenna for the RX, wireless transmission of PRBS data at rates up to 67 Mbps over 50 cm-4 m is shown with a TX energy consumption of 30 pJ/b (i.e., power consumption of 2 mW) from 1.2 V. The measured bit error rate (BER) in both cases is < 10(-7) . Results from wireless recording of the background current of a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) in one fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) scan using the IR-UWB link are also included, exhibiting excellent match with those obtained from a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link at ~433 MHz.

  3. Transmitted Reference Ultra Wideband Transceivers for Multiuser Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    h Ak,nhk(t− nTf) + Ik,bn/Nf cBk,nhk(t− nTf − ck,nTc) i + v(t), (2) where hk(t) = q Pk 2 w(t) ? θk(t) ? g(t) is the unknown waveform, ? denotes...modeled as a Gaussian process. Then, given signal power ²s and interference plus noise power ²n, the BER of our detector can be evaluated as Q ( p ²s...n ) where Q (x) is a Q -function given by Q (x) = R∞ x 1√ 2π e− x2 2 dx. Similarly, we will later derive signal power and interference pulse noise power

  4. Ultra-wideband filtering of spoof surface plasmon polaritons using deep subwavelength planar structures

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming Zhe; Zhang, Hao Chi; Yin, Jia Yuan; Ding, Zhao; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wen Xuan; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Novel ultra-wideband filtering of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is proposed in the microwave frequency using deep subwavelength planar structures printed on thin and flexible dielectric substrate. The proposed planar SPPs waveguide is composed of two mirror-oriented metallic corrugated strips, which are further decorated with parallel-arranged slots in the main corrugated strips. This compound structure provides deep subwavelength field confinement as well as flexible parameters when employed as a plasmonic waveguide, which is potential to construct miniaturization. Using momentum and impedance matching technology, we achieve a smooth conversion between the proposed SPPs waveguide and the conventional transmission line. To verify the validity of the design, we fabricate a spoof SPPs filter, and the measured results illustrate excellent performance, in which the reflection coefficient is less than −10 dB within the −3 dB passband from 1.21 GHz to 7.21 GHz with the smallest insertion loss of 1.23 dB at 2.21 GHz, having very good agreements with numerical simulations. The ultra-wideband filter with low insertion loss and high transmission efficiency possesses great potential in modern communication systems. PMID:27883028

  5. Ultra-wideband filtering of spoof surface plasmon polaritons using deep subwavelength planar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming Zhe; Zhang, Hao Chi; Yin, Jia Yuan; Ding, Zhao; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wen Xuan; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-11-01

    Novel ultra-wideband filtering of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is proposed in the microwave frequency using deep subwavelength planar structures printed on thin and flexible dielectric substrate. The proposed planar SPPs waveguide is composed of two mirror-oriented metallic corrugated strips, which are further decorated with parallel-arranged slots in the main corrugated strips. This compound structure provides deep subwavelength field confinement as well as flexible parameters when employed as a plasmonic waveguide, which is potential to construct miniaturization. Using momentum and impedance matching technology, we achieve a smooth conversion between the proposed SPPs waveguide and the conventional transmission line. To verify the validity of the design, we fabricate a spoof SPPs filter, and the measured results illustrate excellent performance, in which the reflection coefficient is less than ‑10 dB within the ‑3 dB passband from 1.21 GHz to 7.21 GHz with the smallest insertion loss of 1.23 dB at 2.21 GHz, having very good agreements with numerical simulations. The ultra-wideband filter with low insertion loss and high transmission efficiency possesses great potential in modern communication systems.

  6. UWB Tracking System Design with TDOA Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Schwing, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort using a tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A two-stage weighted least square method is chosen to solve the TDOA non-linear equations. Matlab simulations in both two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. The error analysis reveals various ways to improve the tracking resolution. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWBTDOA tracking capability with fine resolution. This research effort is motivated by a prototype development project Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS).

  7. Experimental Results for a Photonic Time Reversal Processor for Adaptive Control of an Ultra Wideband Phased Array Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Radar , Boston: Artech House, 1994. 2. H. Zmuda, “ Optical Beamforming for Phased Array Antennas,” Chapter 19, R...Beamforming, Phased Array Antennas, Time Reversal, Ultra Wideband Radar 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Photonic Processing for Microwave Phased Array ...Architecture for Broadband Adaptive Nulling with Linear and Conformal Phased Array Antennas”, Fiber and Integrated Optics , vol. 19, no. 2, March 2000, pp.

  8. Ultra-wideband design of waveguide magneto-optical isolator operating in 1.31mum and 1.55mum band.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2007-01-22

    The design of an ultra-wideband waveguide magneto-optical isolator is described. The isolator is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing nonreciprocal phase shift. The ultra-wideband design is realized by adjusting the wavelength dependence of reciprocal phase difference to compensate for that of nonreciprocal phase difference in the backward direction. We obtained the ultra-wideband design that provides isolation > 35dB from 1.25mum to >1.65mum. This is the proposal of magneto-optical isolator that operates both in 1.31mum band and 1.55mum band.

  9. An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Pei; Zhao, Yongjiu; Jia, Shengli; Shi, Wenwen; Wang, Hongli

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband and polarization-independent metasurface for radar cross section (RCS) reduction is proposed. The unit cell of the metasurface operates in a linear cross-polarization scheme in a broad band. The phase and amplitude of cross-polarized reflection can be separately controlled by its geometry and rotation angle. Based on the diffuse reflection theory, a 3-bit coding metasurface is designed to reduce the RCS in an ultra-wide band. The wideband property of the metasurface benefits from the wideband cross polarization conversion and flexible phase modulation. In addition, the polarization-independent feature of the metasurface is achieved by tailoring the rotation angle of each element. Both the simulated and measured results demonstrate that the proposed metasurface can reduce the RCS significantly in an ultra-wide frequency band for both normal and oblique incidences, which makes it promising in the applications such as electromagnetic cloaking.

  10. An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction.

    PubMed

    Su, Pei; Zhao, Yongjiu; Jia, Shengli; Shi, Wenwen; Wang, Hongli

    2016-02-11

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband and polarization-independent metasurface for radar cross section (RCS) reduction is proposed. The unit cell of the metasurface operates in a linear cross-polarization scheme in a broad band. The phase and amplitude of cross-polarized reflection can be separately controlled by its geometry and rotation angle. Based on the diffuse reflection theory, a 3-bit coding metasurface is designed to reduce the RCS in an ultra-wide band. The wideband property of the metasurface benefits from the wideband cross polarization conversion and flexible phase modulation. In addition, the polarization-independent feature of the metasurface is achieved by tailoring the rotation angle of each element. Both the simulated and measured results demonstrate that the proposed metasurface can reduce the RCS significantly in an ultra-wide frequency band for both normal and oblique incidences, which makes it promising in the applications such as electromagnetic cloaking.

  11. Statistical-physical model for foliage clutter in ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar images.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amit; Chellappa, Rama

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing foliage-penetrating (FOPEN) ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is a challenging problem owing to the noisy and impulsive nature of foliage clutter. Indeed, many target-detection algorithms for FOPEN SAR data are characterized by high false-alarm rates. In this work, a statistical-physical model for foliage clutter is proposed that explains the presence of outliers in the data and suggests the use of symmetric alpha-stable (SalphaS) distributions for accurate clutter modeling. Furthermore, with the use of general assumptions of the noise sources and propagation conditions, the proposed model relates the parameters of the SalphaS model to physical parameters such as the attenuation coefficient and foliage density.

  12. An ultra-wideband dielectric material characterization method using grounded coplanar waveguide and genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjloum, Massinissa; El Gibari, Mohammed; Li, Hongwu; Daryoush, Afshin S.

    2015-10-01

    An ultra-wideband complex permittivity extraction method is reported here using numerical fitting of scattering parameters to measured results. A grounded coplanar waveguide transmission line is realized on an unknown dielectric material, whose dielectric constant and loss tangent are extracted by the best fitting of the simulated magnitude, |S21|, and phase, ϕ21, of forward scattering parameter using an electromagnetic full-wave simulator (high frequency structure simulator) to the measured results. The genetic algorithm is employed for optimum rapid extraction, where errors between the numerically simulated and measured S21 (|S21| and ϕ21) are minimized in an iterative manner. As long as the convergence criterion is not satisfied, modifications to dielectric properties are made with this genetic algorithm implemented in Matlab. Feasibility of this extraction technique is validated on benzocyclobutane polymer from 10 MHz to 40 GHz.

  13. A triangular coupled-resonator antenna for ultra-wideband applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Md Zulfiker; Alam, Touhidul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2017-01-01

    A triangle-shaped coupled-resonator microstrip patch antenna is presented for ultra-wideband wireless applications. The antenna achieves bandwidth of 116.5% with electrical dimension of 0.154 λ × 0.133 λ × 0.016 λ at the lower frequency band. The operating bandwidth of proposed antenna is 3.07-11.6 GHz with more than 80% efficiency and about 5.5 dBi gain. A triangular couple resonator is added on the patch to enhance the antenna performance, and antenna ground is modified to get higher bandwidth. The antenna performances have been analyzed using the finite integration technique of computer simulation technology microwave studio and validated with another EM simulating software HFSS and in measurement.

  14. An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pei; Zhao, Yongjiu; Jia, Shengli; Shi, Wenwen; Wang, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband and polarization-independent metasurface for radar cross section (RCS) reduction is proposed. The unit cell of the metasurface operates in a linear cross-polarization scheme in a broad band. The phase and amplitude of cross-polarized reflection can be separately controlled by its geometry and rotation angle. Based on the diffuse reflection theory, a 3-bit coding metasurface is designed to reduce the RCS in an ultra-wide band. The wideband property of the metasurface benefits from the wideband cross polarization conversion and flexible phase modulation. In addition, the polarization-independent feature of the metasurface is achieved by tailoring the rotation angle of each element. Both the simulated and measured results demonstrate that the proposed metasurface can reduce the RCS significantly in an ultra-wide frequency band for both normal and oblique incidences, which makes it promising in the applications such as electromagnetic cloaking. PMID:26864084

  15. Photonics aided ultra-wideband W-band signal generation and air space transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-02-01

    We achieve several field trial demonstrations of ultra-wideband W-band millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal generation and its long-distance air space transmission based on some enabling technologies and advanced devices. First, we demonstrated photonics generation and up to 1.7-km wireless delivery of 20-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signal at W-band, adopting both optical and antenna polarization multiplexing. Then, we demonstrated photonics generation and up to 300-m wireless delivery of 80-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal at W-band, adopting both optical and antenna polarization multiplexing as well as multi-band multiplexing. We also demonstrated photonics generation and up to 100-m wireless delivery of 100-Gb/s QPSK signal at W-band, adopting antenna polarization multiplexing.

  16. Implementation of rectangular slit-inserted ultra-wideband tapered slot antenna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a tapered slot antenna capable of ultra-wideband communication was designed. In the proposed antenna, rectangular slits were inserted to enhance the bandwidth and reduce the area of the antenna. The rectangular slit-inserted tapered slot antenna operated at a bandwidth of 8.45 GHz, and the bandwidth improved upon the basic tapered slot antenna by 4.72 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna was suitable for location recognition in a certain direction owing to an appropriate 3 dB beam width. The antenna gain was analyzed within the proposed bandwidth, and the highest gain characteristic at 7.55 dBi was exhibited at a 5-GHz band. The simulation and measurement results of the proposed tapered slot antenna were similar.

  17. UWB Tracking System Design for Lunar/Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar/Mars rovers during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. The UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties such as high data rate, fine time resolution, low power spectral density, and multipath immunity. A two-cluster prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Angle Of Arrival (AOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. An AOA technique using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) information is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. After the UWB radio at each cluster is used to obtain the TDOA estimates from the UWB signal sent from the target, the TDOA data is converted to AOA data to find the angle of arrival, assuming this is a far field application. Since the distance between two clusters is known, the target position is computed by a simple triangulation. Simulations show that the average tracking error at a range of 610 meters is 2.7595 meters, less than 0.5% of the tracking range. Outdoor tests to track the SCOUT vehicle (The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed) near the Meteor Crater, Flagstaff, Arizona were performed on September 12-13, 2005. The tracking performance was obtained with less than 1% tracking error at ranges up to 2000 feet. No RF interference with on-board GPS, video, voice and telemetry systems was detected. Outdoor tests demonstrated the UWB tracking capability.

  18. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    DOEpatents

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.

    2007-12-04

    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  19. UWB Two-Cluster AOA Tracking Prototype System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Phong H.; Arndt, D.; Phan, C.; Gross, J.; Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar/Mars rovers during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. The UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties such as fine time resolution, low power spectral density and multipath immunity. A two cluster prototype design using commercially available UWB radios is employed to implement the Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking methodology in this design effort. In order to increase the tracking range, low noise amplifiers (LNA) and high gain horns are used at the receiving sides. Field tests were conducted jointly with the Science and Crew Operation Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle near the Meteor Crater in Arizona to test the tracking capability for a moving target in an operational environment. These tests demonstrate that the UWB tracking system can co-exist with other on-board radio frequency (RF) communication systems (such as Global Positioning System (GPS), video, voice and telemetry systems), and that a tracking resolution less than 1% of the range can be achieved.

  20. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-16

    be implemented in FPGA. " Up to 640 user I/O, each with high performance SelectlO technology, working at 1.2 Gb/s LVDS (differential pairs) and 800...the original waveform Port A Data ( LVDS ) Data -ith 500M Sanplhng Rate ID Port BDLta ( LVDS ) i Sa pg R hnA Cotntt, s B bd Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA 5ooM Saip...ng Rate DAC CWaneefol,e,veii t 250M Loop C’lock ( LVDS u is A l 500M RF Clock Figure 6.1: The diagram of the arbitrary waveform generator in the

  1. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-16

    64 x 128 pixel LCD • A System ACE CompactFlash (CF) Configuration Controller that allows storing Six Samtec LVDS connectors (a total of 53...oscillator is provided for general use. The two ICS8442 clock synthesizer devices output dif- ferential LVDS clocks in the 31.25 MHz to 700 MHz range...which can drive LVDS data rate up to 1.4 Gbps. The ML550 provides 53 pairs of transmit signals and 53 pairs of receive LVDS signals. These signals are

  2. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-16

    TRANSPLANT FROM VIRTEX 2 TO VIRTEX 5 " Up to 640 User I/O, each with high performance selectIO technology, can work at 1.2 Gbits/s LVDS (differ- ential...for high speed data communications. When signal bandwidth is over 500 MHz, most of the LVDS I/O pairs generate distorted signals which are unusable...via LVDS interface, using the Sundance Local Bus (SLB) e Low-jitter system clock 1e 50-Ohm analogue inputs and outputs, external triggers and clocks

  3. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-16

    was tested and experimental results are achieved. Figure 1.1 shows the system architecture, where there are two transmit channels at transmitter side...Thus, N Y, h^Pn = hTp (3.37) n=l Maximization of hTp is the same as maximization of ( hTp ) as long as hrp is equal to or greater than zero

  4. Protection of Electronic Systems from the Effects of High-Power Microwave (HPM) and Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-24

    Air War College, Maxwell AFB, May 2000. [2] R. E. Richardson, “Quiescent operating point shift in bipolar transistors with AC excitation,” IEEE...burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...shown to cause bias shifts in discrete bipolar devices and logic errors in CMOS digital circuits in [3]-[6]. Generally, in earlier work it was

  5. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-16

    Reference System for Communication in Random or Unknown Channels," IEEE Trans. Comm. Tech., vol. 13, pp. 293-301, September 1965. [28] J. Choi and W...Orthogonal Keyed ( BOK ) system, utilizing the quasi-orthogonal property of up and down chirps. In NSI|- 5.4. THE HISTORY OF CSS 79I I 800 600 ............ I 4 0...2500 3000 3500 4000 Time (ns) Figure 5.8: Normal match filter output with NBI, SIR = -20dB 1966, Hata [18] and Gott [19] independently proposed a BOK

  6. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-16

    t c C « o TO « " 111 « ?, ID « £ * *- a) *r 12 i £ ° 5...34 • ’I.E a: X o •— s ° * 2 ° z r- 9 Q n II " .£-<N ! §< ! oi > « -5 c 1 § 21 - •S o 2 § - u s 5 S co 3 E t - ce u. 200 ill CC...the idle sequence together with one feature pattern can be used to detect the frame head. 960 Patterns Idle (all 𔃺’s) - t - Detection

  7. Body Area Networks performance analysis using UWB.

    PubMed

    Fatehy, Mohammed; Kohno, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    The successful realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) using Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology supports different medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications but stand in a need for an innovative solution to meet the different requirements of these applications. Previously, we proposed to use adaptive processing gain (PG) to fulfill the different QoS requirements of these WBAN applications. In this paper, interference occurred between two different BANs in a UWB-based system has been analyzed in terms of acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs' PG providing the required QoS for each BAN. The first BAN employed for a healthcare device (e.g. EEG, ECG, etc.) with a relatively longer spreading sequence is used and the second customized for entertainment application (e.g. wireless headset, wireless game pad, etc.) where a shorter spreading code is assigned. Considering bandwidth utilization and difference in the employed spreading sequence, the acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs should fall between 0.05 and 0.5 in order to optimize the used spreading sequence and in the meantime satisfying the required QoS for these applications.

  8. Self organization of wireless sensor networks using ultra-wideband radios

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Franak; Spiridon, Alex

    2009-06-16

    A novel UWB communications method and system that provides self-organization for wireless sensor networks is introduced. The self-organization is in terms of scalability, power conservation, channel estimation, and node synchronization in wireless sensor networks. The UWB receiver in the present invention adds two new tasks to conventional TR receivers. The two additional units are SNR enhancing unit and timing acquisition and tracking unit.

  9. Development of an Ultra-Wideband Receiver for the North America Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazco, J. E.; Soriano, M.; Hoppe, D.; Russell, D.; D'Addario, L.; Long, E.; Bowen, J.; Samoska, L.; Lazio, J.

    2016-11-01

    The North America Array (NAA) is a concept for a radio astronomical interferometric array operating in the 1.2 GHz to 116 GHz frequency range. It has been designed to provide substantial improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution, and frequency coverage beyond the current Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). It will have a continuous frequency coverage of 1.2 GHz to 50 GHz and 70 to 116 GHz, and a total aperture 10 times more sensitive than the VLA (and 25 times more sensitive than a 34-m-diameter antenna of the Deep Space Network [DSN]). One of the key goals for the NAA is to reduce the operating costs without sacrificing performance. We are designing an ultra-wideband receiver package designed to operate across the 8 to 48 GHz frequency range in contrast to the current VLA, which covers this frequency range with five receiver packages. Reducing the number of receiving systems required to cover the full frequency range would reduce operating costs. To minimize implementation, operational, and maintenance costs, we are developing a receiver that is compact, simple to assemble, and that consumes less power. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype integrated feed-receiver package with a sensitivity performance comparable to current narrower-band systems on radio telescopes and the DSN, but with a design that meets the requirement of low long-term operational costs. The ultra-wideband receiver package consists of a feedhorn, low-noise amplifier (LNA), and downconverters to analog intermediate frequencies. Both the feedhorn and the LNA are cryogenically cooled. Key features of this design are a quad-ridge feedhorn with dielectric loading and a cryogenic receiver with a noise temperature of no more than 30°K at the low end of the band. In this article, we report on the status of this receiver package development, including the feed design and LNA implementation. We present simulation studies of the feed horn carried out to optimize illumination

  10. GPS/UWB/MEMS-IMU tightly coupled navigation with improved robust Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zengke; Chang, Guobin; Gao, Jingxiang; Wang, Jian; Hernandez, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    The integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) with Inertial Navigation System (INS) has been very intensively developed and widely applied in multiple areas. To further enhance the reliability and availability of GPS/INS integrated navigation in GPS challenging environment, range observation through ultra-wideband (UWB) is introduced in GPS/INS tightly coupled navigation. An improved robust Kalman filter is proposed and used to resist the influence of gross error from UWB observation in GPS/UWB/IMU tightly coupled navigation. The variance of the squared Mahalanobis distance in moving window is calculated, which brings as new judgement factor for gross errors in order to decrease the rate of false outlier identification. A simulation analysis shows that the improved robust Kalman filter is able to correctly identify gross errors and the rate of false judgment as zero. In order to validate the new robust filter, a real experiment is conducted. The results indicate that the improved robust Kalman filter used in GPS/UWB/INS tightly coupled navigation is able to remove the harmful effect of gross error in UWB observation. It clearly illustrates that the improved robust Kalman filter is very effective, and all the simulated small and large gross errors added to UWB distance observation are successfully identified.

  11. Deceptive jamming for countering UWB-SAR based on Doppler frequency phase template of false target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Tang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    A false target deceptive jamming method for countering ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB-SAR) is proposed in this paper, which is based on dechirp processing to intercepted UWB-SAR signal and inverse dechirp to jamming signal. The jammer quadrature down-converts and dechirps the intercepted UWB-SAR signal using a linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal oscillator, which could reduce the bandwidth and sample rate of analog-to-digital converter. Then, the jammer utilises the azimuth direction Doppler frequency phase between the false target and the jammer, and backward reflection coefficient template to modulate the phase of the intercepted UWB-SAR signal, and then delayed the modulated phase and also modulated the range direction Doppler frequency phase to the that. Finally, the jammer uses LFM signal oscillator to up-convert the narrowband jamming signal in order to recover the bandwidth of the signal. Parameter errors analysis and simulation results have shown that the detected parameters and motion characteristic errors reduce the resolution and offset the expected position of the false target, but it still could obtain an expected false target image. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicated that the jamming signal proposed in this paper could produce a false target in the UWB-SAR image, which provide a feasible method for countering UWB-SAR in real time.

  12. An ultra-wideband pattern reconfigurable antenna based on graphene coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, YanNan; Yuan, Rui; Gao, Xi; Wang, Jiao; Li, SiMin; Lin, Yi-Yu

    2016-11-01

    An ultra-wideband pattern reconfigurable antenna is proposed. The antenna is a dielectric coaxial hollow monopole with a cylindrical graphene-based impedance surface coating. It consists of a graphene sheet coated onto the inner surface of a cylindrical substrate and a set of independent polysilicon DC gating pads mounted on the outside of the cylindrical substrate. By changing the DC bias voltages to the different gating pads, the surface impedance of the graphene coating can be freely controlled. Due to the tunability of graphene's surface impedance, the radiation pattern of the proposed antenna can be reconfigured. A transmission line method is used to illustrate the physical mechanism of the proposed antenna. The results show that the proposed antenna can reconfigure its radiation pattern in the omnidirectional mode with the relative bandwidth of 58.5% and the directional mode over the entire azimuth plane with the relative bandwidth of 67%. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61661012, 61461016, and 61361005), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi, China (Grant Nos. 2015GXNSFBB139003 and 2014GXNSFAA118283), Program for Innovation Research Team of Guilin University of Electromagnetic Technology, China, and the Dean Project of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Wireless Wideband Communication and Signal Processing, China.

  13. Ultra-wideband circular-polarization converter with micro-split Jerusalem-cross metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xi; Yu, Xing-Yang; Cao, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Yan-Nan; Yu, Xin-Hua

    2016-12-01

    An ultrathin micro-split Jerusalem-cross metasurface is proposed in this paper, which can efficiently convert the linear polarization of electromagnetic (EM) wave into the circular polarization in ultra-wideband. By symmetrically employing two micro-splits on the horizontal arm (in the x direction) of the Jerusalem-cross structure, the bandwidth of the proposed device is significantly extended. Both simulated and experimental results show that the proposed metasurface is able to convert linearly polarized waves into circularly polarized waves in a frequency range from 12.4 GHz to 21 GHz, with an axis ratio better than 1 dB. The simulated results also show that such a broadband and high-performance are maintained over a wide range of incident angle. The presented polarization converter can be used in a number of areas, such as spectroscopy and wireless communications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61461016 and 61661012), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant Nos. 2014GXNSFAA118366, 2014GXNSFAA118283, and 2015jjBB7002), and the Innovation Project of Graduate Education of Guilin University of Electronic Technology, China (Grant No. 2016YJCX82).

  14. Study of imaging radar using ultra-wideband microwave-modulated infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Inutake, Masaaki; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present an ultra-wideband microwave-modulated laser radar which is designed and fabricated for improvement of the spatial resolution both in the range direction and the azimuth direction. The amplitude modulation in a range of 0.01-18 GHz is applied to an infrared laser source of 1550 nm wavelength. The frequency and the bandwidth are assigned by the Administration of Radio under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in Japan. However, there is no bandwidth limitation in the infrared region. Considering the influence of radiation pattern for microwave antennas case, there is no side lobe in laser beam transmission. Ambiguous signal and interferences which are returned from the ground can be suppressed. A prototype of laser-radar system with a fiber collimator for both transmitting and receiving optics has been fabricated. A vector network analyzer is used to obtain S21 signal between the microwave modulation input and that of received signal. The system is, at first, applied to the measurement of the distance (position) of an object. It is proved that the spatial resolution is less than 1 cm during 5-10 m. As an initial experiment, we have succeeded to obtain 3D image of object by scanning a laser beam in two dimensions.

  15. Accurate permittivity measurements for microwave imaging via ultra-wideband removal of spurious reflectors.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Mathew G; Viera, Joseph A; Wanjura, John; Holt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The use of microwave imaging is becoming more prevalent for detection of interior hidden defects in manufactured and packaged materials. In applications for detection of hidden moisture, microwave tomography can be used to image the material and then perform an inverse calculation to derive an estimate of the variability of the hidden material, such internal moisture, thereby alerting personnel to damaging levels of the hidden moisture before material degradation occurs. One impediment to this type of imaging occurs with nearby objects create strong reflections that create destructive and constructive interference, at the receiver, as the material is conveyed past the imaging antenna array. In an effort to remove the influence of the reflectors, such as metal bale ties, research was conducted to develop an algorithm for removal of the influence of the local proximity reflectors from the microwave images. This research effort produced a technique, based upon the use of ultra-wideband signals, for the removal of spurious reflections created by local proximity reflectors. This improvement enables accurate microwave measurements of moisture in such products as cotton bales, as well as other physical properties such as density or material composition. The proposed algorithm was shown to reduce errors by a 4:1 ratio and is an enabling technology for imaging applications in the presence of metal bale ties.

  16. Conformal and Spectrally Agile Ultra Wideband Phased Array Antenna for Communication and Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, M.; Alwan, Elias; Miranda, Felix; Volakis, John

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuing need for reducing size and weight of satellite systems, and is also strong interest to increase the functional role of small- and nano-satellites (for instance SmallSats and CubeSats). To this end, a family of arrays is presented, demonstrating ultra-wideband operation across the numerous satellite communications and sensing frequencies up to the Ku-, Ka-, and Millimeter-Wave bands. An example design is demonstrated to operate from 3.5-18.5 GHz with VSWR2 at broadside, and validated through fabrication of an 8 x 8 prototype. This design is optimized for low cost, using Printed Circuit Board (PCB) fabrication. With the same fabrication technology, scaling is shown to be feasible up to a 9-49 GHz band. Further designs are discussed, which extend this wideband operation beyond the Ka-band, for instance from 20-80 GHz. Finally we will discuss recent efforts in the direct integration of such arrays with digital beamforming back-ends. It will be shown that using a novel on-site coding architecture, orders of magnitude reduction in hardware size, power, and cost is accomplished in this transceiver.

  17. Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Binggang; Kong, Sheng; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-09-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN and satellite communication interference simultaneously. Both the cutoff frequency and the notch frequency are sensitive to the structure parameters, and the cut-off frequency can reach 20 GHz. An adiabatic transition relying on gradient hole-size and flaring ground is designed to effectively couple energy into spoof SPP waveguide. The result shows its cut-off frequency of 17.4 GHz with the insertion loss better than 3 dB during the whole pass-band, while having more than 20 dB rejections at 5.36 GHz and 9.32 GHz with 10 dB fractional bandwidth 1.07% and 0.74% respectively to avoid the existing WLAN and satellite communication signals. Due to planar structures proposed here, it is easy to integrate in the microwave integrated systems, which can play an important role in the microwave communication circuit and system.

  18. Zpectrometer: an Ultra-wideband Spectrometer for Redshift Searches with the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. J.; Harris, A. I.; Jewell, P. R.; Rauch, K. P.; Zonak, S. G.; O'Neil, K.; Shelton, A. L.; Norrod, R. D.; Ray, J.; Watts, G.

    2005-12-01

    To understand the cosmic histories of star formation and accretion, observers must determine the redshifts of distant galaxies whose central starbursts and/or active nuclei are heavily obscured by dust. Direct spectroscopy of molecular emission lines is the ideal way to meet this challenge, but a suitable instrument must have large instantaneous bandwidth to achieve broad redshift coverage. We describe a new, ultra-wideband "Zpectrometer" now under construction for the Green Bank Telescope that satisfies this need. Using a novel analog lag cross-correlator spectrometer technology in a correlation radiometer architecture, the Zpectrometer will produce stable spectra over the entire 26-40 GHz range of the GBT's Ka-band receiver. The Zpectrometer will enable blind searches for CO(1-0) emission in the redshift range where the cosmic star formation rate density peaks, higher-J CO transitions at earlier epochs, and rotational lines from other molecules at a variety of redshifts. This project is funded by a National Science Foundation ATI Program grant to the University of Maryland and by contributions from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  19. Transmission over UWB channels with OFDM system using LDPC coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziwoki, Grzegorz; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Sulek, Wojciech

    2009-06-01

    Hostile wireless environment requires use of sophisticated signal processing methods. The paper concerns on Ultra Wideband (UWB) transmission over Personal Area Networks (PAN) including MB-OFDM specification of physical layer. In presented work the transmission system with OFDM modulation was connected with LDPC encoder/decoder. Additionally the frame and bit error rate (FER and BER) of the system was decreased using results from the LDPC decoder in a kind of turbo equalization algorithm for better channel estimation. Computational block using evolutionary strategy, from genetic algorithms family, was also used in presented system. It was placed after SPA (Sum-Product Algorithm) decoder and is conditionally turned on in the decoding process. The result is increased effectiveness of the whole system, especially lower FER. The system was tested with two types of LDPC codes, depending on type of parity check matrices: randomly generated and constructed deterministically, optimized for practical decoder architecture implemented in the FPGA device.

  20. A Novel Triangular Shaped UWB Fractal Antenna Using Circular Slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahu, Babu Lal; Pal, Srikanta; Chattoraj, Neela

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the design of triangular shaped fractal based antenna with circular slot for ultra wideband (UWB) application. The antenna is fed using microstrip line and has overall dimension of 24×24×1.6 mm3. The proposed antenna is covering the wide frequency bandwidth of 2.99-11.16 GHz and is achieved using simple fractal based triangular-circular geometries and asymmetrical ground plane. The antenna is designed and parametrical studies are performed using method of moment (MOM) based Full Wave Electromagnetic (EM) software Simulator Zeland IE3D. The prototype of proposed antenna is fabricated and tested to compare the simulated and measured results of various antenna parameters. The antenna has good impedance bandwidth, nearly constant gain and stable radiation pattern. Measured return loss shows fair agreement with simulated one. Also measured group delay variation obtained is less than 1.0 ns, which proves good time domain behavior of the proposed antenna.

  1. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; (Lamar) Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future.

  2. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; (Lamar) Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future. PMID:28181593

  3. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; Lamar Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-02-09

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future.

  4. Novel Dual-band Slot Antenna Design for Bluetooth and UWB Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hai-Yan; Shao, Wei; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Liang

    2014-05-01

    A novel technique to introduce an additional low frequency band to compact ultra wideband (UWB) slot antennas is proposed in this paper. To get an additional Bluetooth band, a parasitic strip is mounted on the back side of the slot edge. Because of the interaction of the strip and the slot edge, the Bluetooth band can be obtained while a notch band between the Bluetooth band and UWB band also appears. Two types of feeding, coplanar waveguide and microstrip line, are investigated. The proposed antennas are both fabricated on a low-cost FR4 substrate and have compact size (24 mm × 28 mm × 1 mm). The good agreement between measured and simulated results verifies our design.

  5. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival Two-Point-Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2009-01-01

    A UWB TDOA Two-Point-Tracking System has been conceived and developed at JSC. This system can provide sub-inch tracking capability of two points on one target. This capability can be applied to guide a docking process in a 2D space. Lab tests demonstrate the feasibility of this technology.

  6. Design of Vivaldi Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Radar Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdana, M. Y.; Hariyadi, T.; Wahyu, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The development of radar technology has an important role in several fields such as aviation, civil engineering, geology, and medicine. One of the essential components of the radar system is the antenna. The bandwidth can specify the resolution of the radar. The wider the bandwidth, the higher the resolution of radar. For Ground penetrating radar (GPR) or medical applications need with a high-resolution radar so it needs an antenna with a wide bandwidth. In addition, for the radar application is required antenna with directional radiation pattern. So, we need an antenna with wide bandwidth and directional radiation pattern. One of antenna that has meet with these characteristics is vivaldi antenna. In previous research, has designed several vivaldi microstrip antenna for ultra-wideband radar applications which has a working frequency of 3.1 to 10.7 GHz. However, these studies there is still a shortage of one of them is the radiation pattern from lowest to highest frequency radiation pattern is not uniform in the sense that not all directional. Besides the antenna material used is also not easily available and the price is not cheap. This paper will discuss the design of a vivaldi microstrip antenna which has a wide bandwidth with directional radiation pattern works on 3.1 to 10.7 GHz and using cheaper substrate. Substrates used for vivaldi microstrip antenna vivaldi is FR4 with a dielectric constant of 4.3 and a thickness of 1.6 mm. Based on the simulation results we obtained that the antenna design has frequency range 3.1-10.7 GHz for return loss less than -10 dB with a directional radiation pattern. This antenna gain is 4.8 to 8 dBi with the largest dimension is 50 mm x 40 mm.

  7. Demonstration of an ultra-wideband optical fiber inline polarizer with metal nano-grid on the fiber tip.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yongbin; Guo, Junpeng; Lindquist, Robert G

    2009-09-28

    Dramatic increase in the bandwidth of optical fiber inline polarizer can be achieved by using metal nano-grid on the fiber tip. However, high extinction ratio of such fiber polarizer requires high spatial frequency metal nano girds with high aspect ratio on the small area of optical fiber tip. We report the development of a nano-fabrication process on the optical fiber tip, and the design and realization of the first ultra-wideband fiber inline polarization device with Au nano gird fabricated on a single mode optical fiber end face.

  8. Ultra-wideband coaxial hybrid coupler for load resilient ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H. J.; Bae, Y. S.; Yang, H. L.; Kwak, J.-G.; Wang, S. J.; Kim, B. K.; Choi, J. J.

    2012-06-25

    We designed a high power and ultra-wideband two-section 3 dB coaxial hybrid coupler for load resilient ion cyclotron range of frequency heating by configuring asymmetric impedance matching using a three-dimensional simulation code, hfss. By adjusting the characteristic impedances of main and coupled lines of the hybrid coupler, we realized that the bandwidth of the proposed circuit is not only wider than that of a conventional three-section coupler, but also that the bandwidth is almost twice as wide compared to the conventional two-section hybrid coupler while maintaining the identical overall size.

  9. Provision of IR-UWB wireless and baseband wired services over a WDM-PON.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shilong; Yao, Jianping

    2011-12-12

    A simple scheme to simultaneously generate an on-off keying or bi-phase modulation (BPM) impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signal and a baseband wired signal in the optical domain using a dual-drive modulator is proposed and demonstrated. Although the two signals have spectral overlap in the optical spectrum, they are located at different frequency bands when converted to electrical signals at a photodetector (PD), which can be well separated by an electrical filter. An experiment is carried out. Eye diagrams, electrical spectra and BER measurements show that the co-channel interference between the UWB and the wired signals is small for a single-channel 36-km fiber link to provide 1.25-Gb/s UWB wireless and 1.25-Gb/s baseband wired services. The inter-channel interference is also small and negligible when the link is operated together with two other 1.25 Gb/s baseband wired links, which demonstrates that a conventional WDM-PON can be upgraded to provide additional UWB services without affecting the existing services by modifying the modulators in the center office and inserting UWB antennas in the optical network units.

  10. A framework for UWB-based communication and location tracking systems for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Chóliz, Juan; Hernández, Angela; Valdovinos, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is nowadays one of the most promising technologies for medium-short range communications. It has a wide range of applications including wireless sensor networks (WSN) with simultaneous data transmission and location tracking. The combination of location and data transmission is important in order to increase flexibility and reduce the cost and complexity of the system deployment. In this scenario, accuracy is not the only evaluation criteria, but also the amount of resources associated to the location service, as it has an impact not only on the location capacity of the system but also on the sensor data transmission capacity. Although several studies can be found in the literature addressing UWB-based localization, these studies mainly focus on distance estimation and position calculation algorithms. Practical aspects such as the design of the functional architecture, the procedure for the transmission of the associated information between the different elements of the system, and the need of tracking multiple terminals simultaneously in various application scenarios, are generally omitted. This paper provides a complete system level evaluation of a UWB-based communication and location system for Wireless Sensor Networks, including aspects such as UWB-based ranging, tracking algorithms, latency, target mobility and MAC layer design. With this purpose, a custom simulator has been developed, and results with real UWB equipment are presented too.

  11. Testing and Evaluation of an Ultra-Wideband Pulse Generator for HPM Weapon Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Bastille and the Citadelle, located on a large paved area adjacent to an abandoned runway and a set of trailers for instrumentation and monitoring...electronics as shown in Figure 1. The MOATS facility is cleared of FCC frequency allocation restrictions for testing. The Bastille test building is...rebar in the building is fiberglass to allow different construction methods to be simulated. The current systems installed in the Bastille are: PBX

  12. Design of a Tunable All-Digital UWB Pulse Generator CMOS Chip for Wireless Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Chul Kim; Nooshabadi, S

    2010-04-01

    A novel tunable all-digital, ultrawideband pulse generator (PG) has been implemented in a standard 0.18-¿ m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process for implantable medical applications. The chip shows that an ultra-low dynamic energy consumption of 27 pJ per pulse without static current flow at a 200-MHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a 1.8-V power supply and low area of 90 × 50 ¿m(2). The PG generates tunable pulsewidth, amplitude, and transmit (Tx) power by using simple circuitry, through precise timing control of the H-bridge output stage. The all-digital architecture allows easy integration into a standard CMOS process, thus making it the most suitable candidate for in-vivo biotelemetry applications.

  13. SPIDYAN, a MATLAB library for simulating pulse EPR experiments with arbitrary waveform excitation.

    PubMed

    Pribitzer, Stephan; Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Frequency-swept chirp pulses, created with arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs), can achieve inversion over a range of several hundreds of MHz. Such passage pulses provide defined flip angles and increase sensitivity. The fact that spectra are not excited at once, but single transitions are passed one after another, can cause new effects in established pulse EPR sequences. We developed a MATLAB library for simulation of pulse EPR, which is especially suited for modeling spin dynamics in ultra-wideband (UWB) EPR experiments, but can also be used for other experiments and NMR. At present the command line controlled SPin DYnamics ANalysis (SPIDYAN) package supports one-spin and two-spin systems with arbitrary spin quantum numbers. By providing the program with appropriate spin operators and Hamiltonian matrices any spin system is accessible, with limits set only by available memory and computation time. Any pulse sequence using rectangular and linearly or variable-rate frequency-swept chirp pulses, including phase cycling can be quickly created. To keep track of spin evolution the user can choose from a vast variety of detection operators, including transition selective operators. If relaxation effects can be neglected, the program solves the Liouville-von Neumann equation and propagates spin density matrices. In the other cases SPIDYAN uses the quantum mechanical master equation and Liouvillians for propagation. In order to consider the resonator response function, which on the scale of UWB excitation limits bandwidth, the program includes a simple RLC circuit model. Another subroutine can compute waveforms that, for a given resonator, maintain a constant critical adiabaticity factor over the excitation band. Computational efficiency is enhanced by precomputing propagator lookup tables for the whole set of AWG output levels. The features of the software library are discussed and demonstrated with spin-echo and population transfer simulations.

  14. SPIDYAN, a MATLAB library for simulating pulse EPR experiments with arbitrary waveform excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribitzer, Stephan; Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Frequency-swept chirp pulses, created with arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs), can achieve inversion over a range of several hundreds of MHz. Such passage pulses provide defined flip angles and increase sensitivity. The fact that spectra are not excited at once, but single transitions are passed one after another, can cause new effects in established pulse EPR sequences. We developed a MATLAB library for simulation of pulse EPR, which is especially suited for modeling spin dynamics in ultra-wideband (UWB) EPR experiments, but can also be used for other experiments and NMR. At present the command line controlled SPin DYnamics ANalysis (SPIDYAN) package supports one-spin and two-spin systems with arbitrary spin quantum numbers. By providing the program with appropriate spin operators and Hamiltonian matrices any spin system is accessible, with limits set only by available memory and computation time. Any pulse sequence using rectangular and linearly or variable-rate frequency-swept chirp pulses, including phase cycling can be quickly created. To keep track of spin evolution the user can choose from a vast variety of detection operators, including transition selective operators. If relaxation effects can be neglected, the program solves the Liouville-von Neumann equation and propagates spin density matrices. In the other cases SPIDYAN uses the quantum mechanical master equation and Liouvillians for propagation. In order to consider the resonator response function, which on the scale of UWB excitation limits bandwidth, the program includes a simple RLC circuit model. Another subroutine can compute waveforms that, for a given resonator, maintain a constant critical adiabaticity factor over the excitation band. Computational efficiency is enhanced by precomputing propagator lookup tables for the whole set of AWG output levels. The features of the software library are discussed and demonstrated with spin-echo and population transfer simulations.

  15. A hybrid TOA-fingerprinting based localization of mobile nodes using UWB signaling for Non-line-of-sight conditions.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Kohno, Ryuji

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) signaling has become popular for providing precise location accuracy for mobile and wireless sensor node localization in the indoor environment due to its large bandwidth and high time resolution while providing ultra-high transmission capacity. However, the Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) error mitigation has considerable importance in localization of wireless nodes. In order to mitigate NLOS errors in indoor localization this paper proposes and investigates a novel approach which creates a hybrid combination of channel impulse response (CIR)-based fingerprinting (FP) positioning and an iterative Time of Arrival (TOA) real time positioning method using Ultra Wideband (UWB) signaling. Besides, to reduce the calculation complexities in FP method, this paper also introduces a unique idea for the arrangement of reference nodes (or tags) to create a fingerprinting database. The simulation results confirm that the proposed hybrid method yields better positioning accuracies and is much more robust in NLOS error mitigation than TOA only and FP only and a conventional iterative positioning method.

  16. On IEEE 802.15.6 IR-UWB receivers - simulations for DBPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Ville; Hämäläinen, Matti; Iinatti, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was the first in defining regulations for ultra wideband (UWB) communications followed by Europe and Japan some years later. Focusing on impulse radio (IR) UWB, in 2007 was the time for the first published standard targeting in personal area networks, released by the IEEE. The second IEEE released standard including UWB definitions is targeted for wireless body area networks (WBAN) and was published in 2012. As the wireless communications has been and will be passing through almost any levels in society, the natural step with WBAN is using it in different medical, healthcare and wellbeing applications. The arguments for these are related to the modern lifestyle, in which people have increasingly more free time and are more interested in taking care of their health and wellbeing. Another challenge is the population composition, i.e., aging in developed countries which call for new solutions and procedures, particularly from cost wise. In this paper, we are evaluating UWB receivers based on the IEEE 802.15.6 physical layer definitions and capable of detecting differentially encoded modulation. The evaluation is performed using two different WBAN channel models.

  17. ASIC Implementation of Highly Reliable IR-UWB Transceiver for Industrial Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olonbayar, Sonom; Fischer, Gunter; Kreiser, Dan; Martynenko, Denys; Klymenko, Oleksiy; Kraemer, Rolf; Grass, Eckhard

    2016-07-01

    An in-depth treatment of impulse an radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) wireless system is provided reviewing theoretical background, proceeding with detailed implementation procedure, and finally giving simulation and test results. This is the first research and prototyping work to be published in the field of IR-UWB that operates in the 6-8 GHz band. The aim of this work is to implement an IR-UWB wireless system for industrial automation that is robust and reliable. To achieve this, an analogue bandwidth of 250 MHz and digital baseband processing at the clock frequency 499.2 MHz were realized in a 250 nm BiCMOS process, integrating the complete system into a single chip. Simulation and measurement results confirm that the implemented IR-UWB transceiver is operational across four frequency channels in the band 6-8 GHz each supporting three data rates 850 kb/s, 6.81 Mb/s and 27.24 Mb/s.

  18. Ultra Wideband Polarization-Selective Conversions of Electromagnetic Waves by Metasurface under Large-Range Incident Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jia Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-07-01

    We propose an ultra-wideband polarization-conversion metasurface with polarization selective and incident-angle insensitive characteristics using anchor-shaped units through multiple resonances. The broadband characteristic is optimized by the genetic optimization algorithm, from which the anchor-shaped unit cell generates five resonances, resulting in expansion of the operating frequency range. Owing to the structural feature of the proposed metasurface, only x- and y-polarized incident waves can reach high-efficiency polarization conversions, realizing the polarization-selective property. The proposed metasurface is also insensitive to the angle of incident waves, which indicates a promising future in modern communication systems. We fabricate and measure the proposed metasurface, and both the simulated and measured results show ultra-wide bandwidth for the x- and y-polarized incident waves.

  19. An ultra-wideband wire spiral antenna for in-body communications using different material matching layers.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Ali; Balasingham, Ilangko; Chavez-Santiago, Raul

    2014-01-01

    In this work an ultra-wideband wire antenna was designed and fabricated for transmitting/receiving signals to/from inside the human body. The antenna provides high gain and thus high field intensity in its broadside direction; hence, a high energy density wireless can be established with the inner body. The proposed antenna operates in the frequency band of 3-10 GHz with an impedance of 200 Ohms in free space. The antenna was embedded in different materials with permittivity values ranging from 12 to 74 in order to evaluate the matching layer effect on wave propagation from outside to inside the body. The antenna port impedance was adjusted by using matching circuits. The electric field intensity inside the human chest was calculated for different materials and depths. The best improvement in wave penetration was obtained for the frequency band of 750-1000 MHz by embedding the antenna inside a material with permittivity equal to 27.

  20. All-optical, ultra-wideband microwave I/Q mixer and image-reject frequency down-converter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongsheng; Wen, Aijun; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-15

    An all-optical and ultra-wideband microwave in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) mixer, based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and a wavelength division multiplexer, is proposed. Due to the simultaneous frequency down-conversion and 360-deg tunable phase shifting in the optical domain, the proposed I/Q mixer has the advantages of high conversion gain and excellent quadrature phase balance (<±1.3 deg⁡) with a wide operating frequency from 10 to 40 GHz. Assisted by an analog or digital intermediate-frequency quadrature coupler, an image-reject frequency down-converter is then implemented, with an image rejection exceeding 50 dB over the working band.

  1. S – C – L triple wavelength superluminescent source based on an ultra-wideband SOA and FBGs

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, H; Zulkifli, M Z; Hassan, N A; Muhammad, F D; Harun, S W

    2013-10-31

    We propose and demonstrate a wide-band semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based triple-wavelength superluminescent source with the output in the S-, C- and L-band regions. The proposed systems uses an ultra-wideband SOA with an amplification range from 1440 to 1620 nm as the linear gain medium. Three fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) with centre wavelengths of 1500, 1540 and 1580 nm are used to generate the lasing wavelengths in the S-, Cand L-bands respectively, while a variable optical attenuator is used to finely balance the optical powers of the lasing wavelengths. The ultra-wideband SOA generates an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum with a peak power of -33 dBm at the highest SOA drive current, and also demonstrates a down-shift in the centre wavelength of the generated spectrum due to the spatial distribution of the carrier densities. The S-band wavelength is the dominant wavelength at high drive currents, with an output power of -6 dBm as compared to the C- and L-bands, which only have powers of -11 and -10 dBm, respectively. All wavelengths have a high average signal-to-noise ratio more than 60 dB at the highest drive current of 390 mA, and the system also shows a high degree of stability, with power fluctuations of less than 3 dB within 70 min. The proposed system can find many applications where a wide-band and stable laser source is crucial, such as in communications and sensing. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. Covert situational awareness with handheld ultrawideband short-pulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Mark A.; Nag, Soumya; Payment, Tim

    2001-08-01

    Law enforcement and emergency services all face the difficult task of determining the locations of people within a building. A handheld radar able to detect motion through walls and other obstructions has been developed to fill this need. This paper describes the attributes and difficulties of the radar design and includes test results of the radar's performance. This discussion begins by summarizing key user requirements and the electromagnetic losses of typical building materials. Ultra-wideband (UWB) short pulse radars are well suited for a handheld sensor primarily because of their inherit time isolation in high clutter environments and their capability to achieve high resolution at low spectral center frequencies. There are also constraints that complicate the system design. Using a technique referred to as time-modulation allows the radars to reject range ambiguities and enhances electromagnetic compatibility with similar radars and ambient systems. An outline of the specifications of the radar developed and a process diagram on how it generates a motion map showing range and direction of the people moving within structures is included. Images are then presented to illustrate its performance. The images include adults, child, and a dog. The test results also include data showing the radar's performance through a variety of building materials.

  3. A Tightly-Coupled GPS/INS/UWB Cooperative Positioning Sensors System Supported by V2I Communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Gao, Yang; Li, Zengke; Meng, Xiaolin; Hancock, Craig M

    2016-06-27

    This paper investigates a tightly-coupled Global Position System (GPS)/Ultra-Wideband (UWB)/Inertial Navigation System (INS) cooperative positioning scheme using a Robust Kalman Filter (RKF) supported by V2I communication. The scheme proposes a method that uses range measurements of UWB units transmitted among the terminals as augmentation inputs of the observations. The UWB range inputs are used to reform the GPS observation equations that consist of pseudo-range and Doppler measurements and the updated observation equation is processed in a tightly-coupled GPS/UWB/INS integrated positioning equation using an adaptive Robust Kalman Filter. The result of the trial conducted on the roof of the Nottingham Geospatial Institute (NGI) at the University of Nottingham shows that the integrated solution provides better accuracy and improves the availability of the system in GPS denied environments. RKF can eliminate the effects of gross errors. Additionally, the internal and external reliabilities of the system are enhanced when the UWB observables received from the moving terminals are involved in the positioning algorithm.

  4. A Tightly-Coupled GPS/INS/UWB Cooperative Positioning Sensors System Supported by V2I Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Gao, Yang; Li, Zengke; Meng, Xiaolin; Hancock, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a tightly-coupled Global Position System (GPS)/Ultra-Wideband (UWB)/Inertial Navigation System (INS) cooperative positioning scheme using a Robust Kalman Filter (RKF) supported by V2I communication. The scheme proposes a method that uses range measurements of UWB units transmitted among the terminals as augmentation inputs of the observations. The UWB range inputs are used to reform the GPS observation equations that consist of pseudo-range and Doppler measurements and the updated observation equation is processed in a tightly-coupled GPS/UWB/INS integrated positioning equation using an adaptive Robust Kalman Filter. The result of the trial conducted on the roof of the Nottingham Geospatial Institute (NGI) at the University of Nottingham shows that the integrated solution provides better accuracy and improves the availability of the system in GPS denied environments. RKF can eliminate the effects of gross errors. Additionally, the internal and external reliabilities of the system are enhanced when the UWB observables received from the moving terminals are involved in the positioning algorithm. PMID:27355947

  5. Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José A P; Fonseca, Daniel; Cartaxo, Adolfo V T

    2011-11-07

    Transmission of coexisting Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-baseband (BB) and multi-band OFDM-ultra-wideband (UWB) signals along long-reach passive optical networks using directly modulated lasers (DML) is experimentally demonstrated.When optimized modulation indexes are used, bit error ratios not exceeding 5 × 10⁻⁴ can be achieved by all (OFDM-BB and three OFDM-UWB sub-bands) signals for a reach of 100 km of standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and optical signal-to-noise ratios not lower than 25dB@0.1 nm. It is experimentally shown that, for the SSMF reach of 100km, the optimized performance of coexisting OFDM-BB and OFDM-UWB signals is mainly imposed by the combination of two effects: the SSMF dispersion-induced nonlinear distortion of the OFDM-UWB signals caused by the OFDM-BB and OFDM-UWB signals, and the further degradation of the OFDM-UWB signals with higher frequency, due to the reduced DML bandwidth.

  6. A magnetometer-free indoor human localization based on loosely coupled IMU/UWB fusion.

    PubMed

    Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh; Yoon, Paul K; Park, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic distortions in indoor environment affects the accuracy of yaw angle estimation using magnetometer. Thus, the accuracy of indoor localization based on inertial-magnetic sensors will be affected as well. To address this issue, this paper proposes a magnetometer-free solution for indoor human localization and yaw angle estimation. The proposed algorithm fuses a wearable inertial sensor consisting of MEMS-based accelerometer and gyroscope with a portable ultra-wideband (UWB) localization system in a cascaded two-step filter consisting of a tilt Kalman filter and a localization Kalman filter. By benchmarking against an optical motion capture system, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately track position and velocity as well as the yaw angle without using magnetometer.

  7. Design of Compact Flower Shape Dual Notched-Band Monopole Antenna for Extended UWB Wireless Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish; Awasthi, Y. K.; Singh, Himanshu; Kumar, Raj; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, a compact monopole antenna for ultra wideband (UWB) applications is proposed with small size of 18×20=360 mm2. Antenna consist of a flower shape radiating patch with a pair of C-shaped slots which offer two notch bands for WiMAX (3.04-3.68 GHz) & WLAN (4.73-5.76 GHz) and two rectangular shaped slots in the ground plane which provides a wide measured usable fractional extended bandwidth of 163 % (2.83-14.0 GHz) with improved VSWR. Moreover, it is also convenient for other wireless application as close range radar, 8-12 GHz in X-band. Measured radiation patterns exhibits nearly omnidirectional in H-plane and dipole like pattern in E-plane across the bandwidth and furthermore exhibits good time domain performance.

  8. Implementation Status of a Ultra-Wideband Receiver Package for the next-generation Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Velazco, Jose; Soriano, Melissa; Hoppe, Daniel; Russell, Damon; D'Addario, Larry; Long, Ezra; Bowen, James; Samoska, Lorene; Janzen, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) is a concept for a radio astronomical interferometric array operating in the frequency range 1.2 GHz to 116 GHz and designed to provide substantial improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution, and frequency coverage above the current Very Large Array (VLA). As notional design goals, it would have a continuous frequency coverage of 1.2 GHz to 48 GHz and be 10 times more sensitive than the VLA (and 25 times more sensitive than a 34 m diameter antenna of the Deep Space Network [DSN]). One of the key goals for the ngVLA is to reduce the operating costs without sacrificing performance. We are designing an ultra-wideband receiver package designed to operate across the 8 to 48 GHz frequency range, which can be contrasted to the current VLA, which covers this frequency range with five receiver packages. Reducing the number of receiving systems required to cover the full frequency range would reduce operating costs, and the objective of this work is to develop a prototype integrated feed-receiver package with a sensitivity performance comparable to current narrower band systems on radio telescopes and the DSN, but with a design that meets the requirement of low long-term operational costs. The ultra-wideband receiver package consists of a feed horn, low-noise amplifier (LNA), and down-converters to analog intermediate frequencies. Key features of this design are a quad-ridge feed horn with dielectric loading and a cryogenic receiver with a noise temperature of no more than 30 K at the low end of the band. We will report on the status of this receiver package development including the feed design and LNA implementation. We will present simulation studies of the feed horn including the insertion of dielectric components for improved illumination efficiencies across the band of interest. In addition, we will show experimental results of low-noise 35nm InP HEMT amplifier testing performed across the 8-50 GHz frequency range

  9. TDM-PON compatible generation of 10 Gbps NRZ and 1.25 Gbps UWB signals by a single light source.

    PubMed

    Malekizandi, Mohammadreza; Le, Quang Trung; Emsia, Ali; Briggmann, Dieter; Chipouline, Arkadi; Küppers, Franko

    2016-07-25

    A novel and cost-efficient technique is presented to generate non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and ultra-wideband (UWB) signals in different time slots of time division multiplexing-passive optical network (TDM-PON) by using a single chirped controlled semiconductor laser associated with an optical bandpass filter. In this technique, the chirp of the laser is controlled by different bias burst amplitudes (BBA) for different time slots. Through the proper selection of the burst amplitudes, 10 Gbps NRZ and 1.25 Gbps UWB signals are generated in different time slots. Principle of operation is discussed, the complete chirp behavior of the laser is experimentally investigated, data transmission of the generated signals is demonstrated and bit-error-rate (BER) level of 10-9 is achieved.

  10. A novel through-wall respiration detection algorithm using UWB radar.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Qiao, Dengyu; Li, Ye; Dai, Huhe

    2013-01-01

    Through-wall respiration detection using Ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse radar can be applied to the post-disaster rescue, e.g., searching living persons trapped in ruined buildings after an earthquake. Since strong interference signals always exist in the real-life scenarios, such as static clutter, noise, etc., while the respiratory signal is very weak, the signal to noise and clutter ratio (SNCR) is quite low. Therefore, through-wall respiration detection using UWB impulse radar under low SNCR is a challenging work in the research field of searching survivors after disaster. In this paper, an improved UWB respiratory signal model is built up based on an even power of cosine function for the first time. This model is used to reveal the harmonic structure of respiratory signal, based on which a novel high-performance respiration detection algorithm is proposed. This novel algorithm is assessed by experimental verification and simulation and shows about a 1.5dB improvement of SNR and SNCR.

  11. Time-Domain Modeling of Electromagnetic Pulses Returned from Targets in Dispersive and Dissipative Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunaurd, G. C.; Strifors, H. C.; Sullivan, A.

    2008-06-01

    Using a Method-of-Moments (MoM) code, we earlier simulated ultra-wideband (UWB) returned echoes from two targets, one penetrable and one impenetrable, buried in a soil with known electric properties. The simple shape of mines, coupled with their predictable deployment in the ground, has also provided a fundamental understanding of the underlying backscatter phenomenology. In particular, the backscattered waveform from a mine can be decomposed into a collection of closely spaced copies of an elemental wave object with different amplitudes and time delays. This wave object is here defined as the derivative of the waveform incident on the target. The spacing of the copies or replicas of the wave object could be determined by the round trip time delay between scattering centers. This methodology was previously applied to impenetrable targets and is now applied also to a penetrable target. The previously computed returns from each target for a given incident pulse are modeled by a few copies of the elemental wave object with the time delay and amplitude of each copy taken as unknown parameters. These parameters are then determined by minimizing in the least square sense the difference between the MoM computed signal and the model signal using the differential evolution method (DEM). The methodology is extended by way of our previously developed target translated method (TTM) to approximate the computation of the backscattered model signal when the target is buried at a different depth in the soil with a different moisture content.

  12. Ultra-Wideband Indoor Double-Directional Channel Estimation Using Transformation between Frequency and Time Domain Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakiri, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Takehiko

    This paper proposes an ultra-wideband double-directional spatio-temporal channel sounding technique using transformation between frequency- and time-domain (FD and TD) signals. Virtual antenna arrays, composed of omnidirectional antennas and scanners, are used for transmission and reception in the FD. After Fourier transforming the received FD signals to TD ones, time of arrival (TOA) is estimated using a peak search over the TD signals, and then angle of arrivals (AOA) and angle of departure (AOD) are estimated using a weighted angle histogram with a multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm applied to the FD signals, inverse-Fourier transformed from the TD signals divided into subregions. Indoor channel sounding results validated that an appropriate weighting reduced a spurious level in the angle histogram by a factor of 0.1 to 0.2 in comparison with that of non-weighting. The proposed technique successfully resolved dominant multipath components, including a direct path, a single reflection, and a single diffraction, in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS environments. Joint TOA and AOA/AOD spectra were also derived from the sounding signals. The spectra illustrated the dominant multipath components (agreed with the prediction by ray tracing) as clusters.

  13. Performance evaluation on FPGA-implemented UWB-IR receiver for in-body to out-of-body communication systems.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuto; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    In order to design an optimized transceiver structure of ultra wideband (UWB) transmission in in-body to out-of-body communications, it is necessary to make the transceiver structure be easily adjustable in order to realize a good communication performance in an experimental environment. For this purpose, we first implement our develop UWB-impulse radio (IR) receiver structure for the in-body to out-of-body communication in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) board, and evaluate the fundamental communication performance of the FPGA-implemented UWB-IR receiver by a biological-equivalent liquid phantom experiment. The FPGA configuration results indicate that our FPGA realization of the UWB-IR receiver has accomplished good communication performance with few FPGA slices. Moreover, the evaluation results in the liquid phantom experiment show that the FPGA-implemented UWB-IR receiver can achieve a bit error rate (BER) of 10(-3) up to a communication distance of 70 mm with ensuring a high data rate of 2 Mbps.

  14. Detection of Multiple Stationary Humans Using UWB MIMO Radar

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fulai; Qi, Fugui; An, Qiang; Lv, Hao; Chen, Fuming; Li, Zhao; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been achieved in the detection of single stationary human. However, restricted by the mutual interference of multiple humans (e.g., strong sidelobes of the torsos and the shadow effect), detection and localization of the multiple stationary humans remains a huge challenge. In this paper, ultra-wideband (UWB) multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) radar is exploited to improve the detection performance of multiple stationary humans for its multiple sight angles and high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capacity. A signal model of the vital sign considering both bi-static angles and attitude angle of the human body is firstly developed, and then a novel detection method is proposed to detect and localize multiple stationary humans. In this method, preprocessing is firstly implemented to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the vital signs, and then a vital-sign-enhanced imaging algorithm is presented to suppress the environmental clutters and mutual affection of multiple humans. Finally, an automatic detection algorithm including constant false alarm rate (CFAR), morphological filtering and clustering is implemented to improve the detection performance of weak human targets affected by heavy clutters and shadow effect. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can get a high-quality image of multiple humans and we can use it to discriminate and localize multiple adjacent human targets behind brick walls. PMID:27854356

  15. Reconfigurable UWB Bandpass Filter with Flexible Notch Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhwaj, Kirti

    The thesis reports a compact tunable ultra-wideband (UWB) notch filter using hybrid microstrip and coplanar waveguide (CPW) structure. The tunable notch is implemented to filter out the wireless local area network (WLAN) channels from 5GHz to 6GHz. The proposed structure utilizes the resonance of open ended stubs to achieve transmission zeroes in the filter passband. Varactors and by-pass capacitors are then introduced for dynamic tunability of notch. Further, the electromagnetic decoupling of the two resonators leads to tunable bandwidth of notch. DC bias circuitry is implemented to control the varactor capacitances. Rejection levels up to 25 dB are attained using this technique while maintaining insertion loss levels below 2.5 dB in the passband. The reconfigurability of bandwidth is shown by maintaining a constant bandwidth of 150 MHz across the WLAN band for the notch. The filter achieves an excellent wide bandwidth (from 2.5 GHz to 8.5 GHz) using multimode-resonator (MMR) based topology which makes the filter one wavelength long at the central frequency.

  16. Ultra-Wideband Analog-to-Digital Conversion Via Signal Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    46963.4-CI We consider analog to digital (A/D) conversion, based on the quantization of coefficients obtained via the projection of a continuous time... based on pulse code modulation (PCM). Fundamental figures of merit in A/D conversion and system tradeoffs are discussed for the proposed ADC. The...Brian M. Sadler, Senior Member, IEEE (Invited Paper) Abstract—We consider analog to digital (A/D) conversion, based on the quantization of

  17. Design and Analysis of Miniaturized Microstrip Patch Antenna with Metamaterials Based on Modified Split-Ring Resonator for UWB Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedrouche, D.; Bougoutaia, T.; Hocini, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized microstrip patch antenna using a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) unit cells is proposed for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The new design of metamaterial based microstrip patch antenna has been optimized to provide an improved bandwidth and multiple frequency operations. All the antenna performance parameters are presented in response-graphs. Also it is mentioned that the physical dimensions of the metamaterial based patch antenna are very small, which is convenient to modern communication. A 130 % bandwidth, covering the frequency band of 2.9-13.5 GHz, (for return loss less than or equal -10 dB) is achieved, which allow the antenna to operate in the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) band. In addition, the antenna has a good radiation pattern in the ultra-wide band spectrum, and it is nearly omnidirectional.

  18. A human body model for efficient numerical characterization of UWB signal propagation in wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hooi Been; Baumann, Dirk; Li, Er-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a new enabling system with promising applications in areas such as remote health monitoring and interpersonal communication. Reliable and optimum design of a WBAN system relies on a good understanding and in-depth studies of the wave propagation around a human body. However, the human body is a very complex structure and is computationally demanding to model. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the numerical model's structure complexity and feature details on the simulation results. Depending on the application, a simplified numerical model that meets desired simulation accuracy can be employed for efficient simulations. Measurements of ultra wideband (UWB) signal propagation along a human arm are performed and compared to the simulation results obtained with numerical arm models of different complexity levels. The influence of the arm shape and size, as well as tissue composition and complexity is investigated.

  19. A Wireless FSCV Monitoring IC with Analog Background Subtraction and UWB Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Dorta-Quiñones, Carlos I.; Wang, Xiao Y.; Dokania, Rajeev K.; Gailey, Alycia; Lindau, Manfred; Apsel, Alyssa B.

    2015-01-01

    A 30-μW wireless fast-scan cyclic voltammetry monitoring integrated circuit for ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission of dopamine release events in freely-behaving small animals is presented. On-chip integration of analog background subtraction and UWB telemetry yields a 32-fold increase in resolution versus standard Nyquist-rate conversion alone, near a four-fold decrease in the volume of uplink data versus single-bit, third-order, delta-sigma modulation, and more than a 20-fold reduction in transmit power versus narrowband transmission for low data rates. The 1.5-mm2 chip, which was fabricated in 65-nm CMOS technology, consists of a low-noise potentiostat frontend, a two-step analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and an impulse-radio UWB transmitter (TX). The duty-cycled frontend and ADC/UWB-TX blocks draw 4 μA and 15 μA from 3-V and 1.2-V supplies, respectively. The chip achieves an input-referred current noise of 92 pArms and an input current range of ±430 nA at a conversion rate of 10 kHz. The packaged device operates from a 3-V coin-cell battery, measures 4.7 × 1.9 cm2, weighs 4.3 g (including the battery and antenna), and can be carried by small animals. The system was validated by wirelessly recording flow-injection of dopamine with concentrations in the range of 250 nM to 1 μM with a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) using 300-V/s FSCV. PMID:26057983

  20. A Wireless FSCV Monitoring IC With Analog Background Subtraction and UWB Telemetry.

    PubMed

    Dorta-Quiñones, Carlos I; Wang, Xiao Y; Dokania, Rajeev K; Gailey, Alycia; Lindau, Manfred; Apsel, Alyssa B

    2016-04-01

    A 30-μW wireless fast-scan cyclic voltammetry monitoring integrated circuit for ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission of dopamine release events in freely-behaving small animals is presented. On-chip integration of analog background subtraction and UWB telemetry yields a 32-fold increase in resolution versus standard Nyquist-rate conversion alone, near a four-fold decrease in the volume of uplink data versus single-bit, third-order, delta-sigma modulation, and more than a 20-fold reduction in transmit power versus narrowband transmission for low data rates. The 1.5- mm(2) chip, which was fabricated in 65-nm CMOS technology, consists of a low-noise potentiostat frontend, a two-step analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and an impulse-radio UWB transmitter (TX). The duty-cycled frontend and ADC/UWB-TX blocks draw 4 μA and 15 μA from 3-V and 1.2-V supplies, respectively. The chip achieves an input-referred current noise of 92 pA(rms) and an input current range of ±430 nA at a conversion rate of 10 kHz. The packaged device operates from a 3-V coin-cell battery, measures 4.7 × 1.9 cm(2), weighs 4.3 g (including the battery and antenna), and can be carried by small animals. The system was validated by wirelessly recording flow-injection of dopamine with concentrations in the range of 250 nM to 1 μM with a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) using 300-V/s FSCV.

  1. Path loss variation of on-body UWB channel in the frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dayananda; Sarma, Kanak C; Mahanta, Anil

    2016-06-01

    The wireless body area network (WBAN) has gaining tremendous attention among researchers and academicians for its envisioned applications in healthcare service. Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is considered as excellent air interface for communication among body area network devices. Characterisation and modelling of channel parameters are utmost prerequisite for the development of reliable communication system. The path loss of on-body UWB channel for each frequency band defined in IEEE 802.15.6 standard is experimentally determined. The parameters of path loss model are statistically determined by analysing measurement data. Both the line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight channel conditions are considered in the measurement. Variations of parameter values with the size of human body are analysed along with the variation of parameter values with the surrounding environments. It is observed that the parameters of the path loss model vary with the frequency band as well as with the body size and surrounding environment. The derived parameter values are specific to the particular frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard, which will be useful for the development of efficient UWB WBAN system.

  2. Hybrid UWB and WiMAX radio-over-multi-mode fibre for in-building optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J.; Llorente, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the use of hybrid WiMedia-defined ultra-wideband (UWB) and IEEE 802.16d WiMAX radio-over-fibre is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for multi-mode based in-building optical networks with the advantage of great immunity to optical transmission impairments. In the proposed approach, spectral coexistence of both signals must be achieved with negligible mutual interference. The experimental study performed addressed an indoor configuration with 50 μm multi-mode fibres (MMF) and 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) transmitters. The results indicate that the impact of the wireless convergence in radio-over-multi-mode fibre (RoMMF) is significant for UWB transmissions, mainly due to MMF dispersion and electrooptical (EO) devices with limited bandwidth. On the other hand, WiMAX transmission is feasible for a 300 m MMF and 30 m wireless link in the presence of UWB, with -31 dBm WiMAX EVM.

  3. Theoretical study of ultra-wideband slow light in dual-stub-coupled plasmonic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlei; Su, Runzhou; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xueru

    2016-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide side coupled double stubs to realize broadband slow surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) around the telecom frequency 193.5 THz. When the depth of single stub is approximately equal to integral multiple of half plasmon wavelength, owing to the constructive interferences between the electromagnetic wave propagating through the MIM waveguide and that reflected from the stubs, wideband slow light effect appears. The improved transmission line theory calculation indicates that the group velocity of SPPs in the plasmonic waveguide system for stub depth 1111 nm is 0.1c (c is light speed in vacuum.) over a broad bandwidth of 69 THz. Exploiting the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulation, the group velocity of pulse for width 20 fs (Full width at half high) is calculated. The result agrees well with that predicted by the transmission line theory. This plasmonic waveguide for slow light effect has important potential application in optical delay lines.

  4. Ultra-wideband ladder filters using zero-th shear mode plate wave in ultrathin LiNbO3 plate with apodized interdigital transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji

    2016-07-01

    There are two kinds of plate waves propagating in a thin plate, Lamb and shear horizontal (SH) waves. The former has a velocity higher than 15,000 m/s when the plate is very thin. On the contrary, 0th SH (SH0) mode plate wave in an ultrathin LiNbO3 plate has an electro-mechanical coupling factor larger than 50%. Authors fabricated an ultra-wideband T-type ladder filter with a relative bandwidth (BW) of 41% using the SH0 mode plate wave. Although the BW of the filter fully covers the digital TV band in Japan, it does not have sufficient margin at the lower and higher end of BW. Besides, periodic small ripples due to transverse mode in pass-band of the filter were observed. In this study π-type ladder filters were fabricated by changing the pitch ratio of interdigital transducer (IDT) of parallel and series arm resonators (PR(IDT)) to control the BW, and by apodizing IDTs to improve the periodic small ripples due to transverse mode. Ultra-wideband filters without periodic small transverse mode with ultrawide bandwidth from 41 to 49% were fabricated. The BWs fully cover ultrawide digital television bands in Japan and U.S.A. These filters with an ultrawide BW and a steep characteristic show the possibility to be applied to a reported cognitive radio system and other communication systems requiring an ultrawide BW.

  5. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiangwei, Yin; Ning, Li; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 × 0.28 mm2. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  6. Subbanding of temporal and spatial UWB SAR imagery of buried mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David C.; Carin, Lawrence

    1998-09-01

    A numerical algorithm has been developed for the modeling of ultra-wideband (UWB) plane-wave scattering from a class of buried mines. In particular, the model assumes that a mine can be simulated as a body of revolution (BOR). The numerical results indicate that there are particular frequency subbands in which a given target is excited most strongly, with the subband depending strongly on the target type. Moreover, these optimal subbands are also dependent on the depression angle; therefore, the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) aperture must be limited (spatial-spectrum subbanding) so that the desired depression angle is achieved over the aperture used for imaging. These results indicate that the scattered response from particular buried mines can be highlighted by proper processing of the temporal and spatial spectrum. So motivated, we have applied subbanding to data measured by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) UWB SAR, which collects fully polarimetric data over the 50 - 1200 MHz bandwidth. The measured data, when processed appropriately corroborate the theoretical expectations of where example anti-personnel and anti-tank mines scatter optimally. In particular, we consider the Valmara anti-personnel mine and the M20 anti-tank mine, using data collected at Yuma Proving Grounds. After validating the theory, we present frequency subbanding that will highlight one mine over another, a technique of potential application to the discrimination of targets from clutter.

  7. Design of UWB Monopole Antenna with Dual Notched Bands Using One Modified Electromagnetic-Bandgap Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    A modified electromagnetic-bandgap (M-EBG) structure and its application to planar monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna are presented. The proposed M-EBG which comprises two strip patch and an edge-located via can perform dual notched bands. By properly designing and placing strip patch near the feedline, the proposed M-EBG not only possesses a simple structure and compact size but also exhibits good band rejection. Moreover, it is easy to tune the dual notched bands by altering the dimensions of the M-EBG. A demonstration antenna with dual band-notched characteristics is designed and fabricated to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed antenna can satisfy the requirements of VSWR < 2 over UWB 3.1–10.6 GHz, except for the rejected bands of the world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and the wireless local area network (WLAN) at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz, respectively. PMID:24170984

  8. Toward a highly accurate ambulatory system for clinical gait analysis via UWB radios.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Heba A; Abou el-Nasr, Mohamad; Buehrer, R Michael

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we propose and investigate a low-cost and low-complexity wireless ambulatory human locomotion tracking system that provides a high ranging accuracy (intersensor distance) suitable for the assessment of clinical gait analysis using wearable ultra wideband (UWB) transceivers. The system design and transceiver performance are presented in additive-white-gaussian noise and realistic channels, using industry accepted channel models for body area networks. The proposed system is theoretically capable of providing a ranging accuracy of 0.11 cm error at distances equivalent to interarker distances, at an 18 dB SNR in realistic on-body UWB channels. Based on real measurements, it provides the target ranging accuracy at an SNR = 20 dB. The achievable accuracy is ten times better than the accuracy reported in the literature for the intermarker-distance measurement. This makes it suitable for use in clinical gait analysis, and for the characterization and assessment of unstable mobility diseases, such as Parkinson's disease.

  9. Short-Range Vital Signs Sensing Based on EEMD and CWT Using IR-UWB Radar

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xikun; Jin, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The radar sensor described realizes healthcare monitoring capable of detecting subject chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities and wirelessly estimating the respiration and heartbeat rates of the subject without attaching any devices to the body. Conventional single-tone Doppler radar can only capture Doppler signatures because of a lack of bandwidth information with noncontact sensors. In contrast, we take full advantage of impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar to achieve low power consumption and convenient portability, with a flexible detection range and desirable accuracy. A noise reduction method based on improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and a vital sign separation method based on the continuous-wavelet transform (CWT) are proposed jointly to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in order to acquire accurate respiration and heartbeat rates. Experimental results illustrate that respiration and heartbeat signals can be extracted accurately under different conditions. This noncontact healthcare sensor system proves the commercial feasibility and considerable accessibility of using compact IR-UWB radar for emerging biomedical applications. PMID:27916877

  10. Short-Range Vital Signs Sensing Based on EEMD and CWT Using IR-UWB Radar.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xikun; Jin, Tian

    2016-11-30

    The radar sensor described realizes healthcare monitoring capable of detecting subject chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities and wirelessly estimating the respiration and heartbeat rates of the subject without attaching any devices to the body. Conventional single-tone Doppler radar can only capture Doppler signatures because of a lack of bandwidth information with noncontact sensors. In contrast, we take full advantage of impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar to achieve low power consumption and convenient portability, with a flexible detection range and desirable accuracy. A noise reduction method based on improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and a vital sign separation method based on the continuous-wavelet transform (CWT) are proposed jointly to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in order to acquire accurate respiration and heartbeat rates. Experimental results illustrate that respiration and heartbeat signals can be extracted accurately under different conditions. This noncontact healthcare sensor system proves the commercial feasibility and considerable accessibility of using compact IR-UWB radar for emerging biomedical applications.

  11. Design of UWB monopole antenna with dual notched bands using one modified electromagnetic-bandgap structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Xu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    A modified electromagnetic-bandgap (M-EBG) structure and its application to planar monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna are presented. The proposed M-EBG which comprises two strip patch and an edge-located via can perform dual notched bands. By properly designing and placing strip patch near the feedline, the proposed M-EBG not only possesses a simple structure and compact size but also exhibits good band rejection. Moreover, it is easy to tune the dual notched bands by altering the dimensions of the M-EBG. A demonstration antenna with dual band-notched characteristics is designed and fabricated to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed antenna can satisfy the requirements of VSWR < 2 over UWB 3.1-10.6 GHz, except for the rejected bands of the world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and the wireless local area network (WLAN) at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz, respectively.

  12. Intruder detection and tracking using UWB technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Guy A.; Wahid, Parveen; Palaniappan, Ravishankar; Tracy, Judd; Vandoorn, Eric; Micikevicius, Paulis; Hughes, Charles

    2004-08-01

    UWB communication is essentially the transmission and receiving of ultra short electromagnetic energy pulses. Short pulses mean wide bandwidths, often greatly exceeding 25% of the nominal center frequency. Modern UWB radio is characterized by very low power transmission (in the range of tens of microwatts) and wide bandwidths (greater than a gigahertz). One of the major applications of Ultra-wide band technology has been for detection and tracking of intruders in different environments. Based on some of our previous work [1,2] we developed a hybrid Ray-tracing/FDTD technique to study the indoor and outdoor propagation of UWB signals. The basic goal of this paper is to describe the experimental and simulation studies that were conducted to locate and track an intruder inside a UWB sensor web system. The sensor was developed using the Time Domain P-200 device and the software was developed using MATLAB. Return scans from UWB devices are analyzed to determine the noise floor and the signal strength. Using the noise floor level a threshold level is set above which the alarm will be triggered to determine the presence of an intruder. The probability of false alarm (PFA) is also determined using the Signal-to-Noise ratio and the threshold. We vary the PFA to lower the false alarm to a minimum level. We also determine the noise statistics of the system using Non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. Using this basic UWB sensor web system we will try to determine the physical dimensions of the intruder and also track multiple intruders on the system.

  13. A CPW-Fed Circular Wide-Slot UWB Antenna with Wide Tunable and Flexible Reconfigurable Dual Notch Bands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingsong; Li, Wenxing; Ye, Qiubo

    2013-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed circular slot antenna with wide tunable dual band-notched function and frequency reconfigurable characteristic is designed, and its performance is verified experimentally for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication applications. The dual band-notched function is achieved by using a T-shaped stepped impedance resonator (T-SIR) inserted inside the circular ring radiation patch and by etching a parallel stub loaded resonator (PSLR) in the CPW transmission line, while the wide tunable bands can be implemented by adjusting the dimensions of the T-SIR and the PSLR. The notch band reconfigurable characteristic is realized by integrating three switches into the T-SIR and the PSLR. The numerical and experimental results show that the proposed antenna has a wide bandwidth ranging from 2.7 GHz to 12 GHz with voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) less than 2, except for the two notch bands operating at 3.8–5.9 GHz and 7.7–9.2 GHz, respectively. In addition, the proposed antenna has been optimized to a compact size and can provide omnidirectional radiation patterns, which are suitable for UWB communication applications. PMID:24222733

  14. A 128-channel 6 mW wireless neural recording IC with spike feature extraction and UWB transmitter.

    PubMed

    Chae, Moo Sung; Yang, Zhi; Yuce, Mehmet R; Hoang, Linh; Liu, Wentai

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports a 128-channel neural recording integrated circuit (IC) with on-the-fly spike feature extraction and wireless telemetry. The chip consists of eight 16-channel front-end recording blocks, spike detection and feature extraction digital signal processor (DSP), ultra wideband (UWB) transmitter, and on-chip bias generators. Each recording channel has amplifiers with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate different types of biological signals. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) shared by 16 amplifiers through time-multiplexing results in a balanced trade-off between the power consumption and chip area. A nonlinear energy operator (NEO) based spike detector is implemented for identifying spikes, which are further processed by a digital frequency-shaping filter. The computationally efficient spike detection and feature extraction algorithms attribute to an auspicious DSP implementation on-chip. UWB telemetry is designed to wirelessly transfer raw data from 128 recording channels at a data rate of 90 Mbit/s. The chip is realized in 0.35 mum complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with an area of 8.8 x 7.2 mm(2) and consumes 6 mW by employing a sequential turn-on architecture that selectively powers off idle analog circuit blocks. The chip has been tested for electrical specifications and verified in an ex vivo biological environment.

  15. A CPW-fed circular wide-slot UWB antenna with wide tunable and flexible reconfigurable dual notch bands.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingsong; Li, Wenxing; Ye, Qiubo

    2013-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed circular slot antenna with wide tunable dual band-notched function and frequency reconfigurable characteristic is designed, and its performance is verified experimentally for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication applications. The dual band-notched function is achieved by using a T-shaped stepped impedance resonator (T-SIR) inserted inside the circular ring radiation patch and by etching a parallel stub loaded resonator (PSLR) in the CPW transmission line, while the wide tunable bands can be implemented by adjusting the dimensions of the T-SIR and the PSLR. The notch band reconfigurable characteristic is realized by integrating three switches into the T-SIR and the PSLR. The numerical and experimental results show that the proposed antenna has a wide bandwidth ranging from 2.7 GHz to 12 GHz with voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) less than 2, except for the two notch bands operating at 3.8-5.9 GHz and 7.7-9.2 GHz, respectively. In addition, the proposed antenna has been optimized to a compact size and can provide omnidirectional radiation patterns, which are suitable for UWB communication applications.

  16. A multiuser detector based on artificial bee colony algorithm for DS-UWB systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2013-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity.

  17. Time-lapse imaging of human heart motion with switched array UWB radar.

    PubMed

    Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Paichard, Yoann; Aardal, Øyvind; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2014-10-01

    Radar systems for detection of human heartbeats have mostly been single-channel systems with limited spatial resolution. In this paper, a radar system for ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging of the human heart is presented. To make the radar waves penetrate the human tissue the antenna is placed very close to the body. The antenna is an array with eight elements, and an antenna switch system connects the radar to the individual elements in sequence to form an image. Successive images are used to build up time-lapse movies of the beating heart. Measurements on a human test subject are presented and the heart motion is estimated at different locations inside the body. The movies show rhythmic motion consistent with the beating heart, and the location and shape of the reflections correspond well with the expected response form the heart wall. The spatial dependent heart motion is compared to ECG recordings, and it is confirmed that heartbeat modulations are seen in the radar data. This work shows that radar imaging of the human heart may provide valuable information on the mechanical movement of the heart.

  18. Flexible, Polarization-Diverse UWB Antennas for Implantable Neural Recording Systems.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Hadi; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Ameli, Reza; Rusch, Leslie A; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-02-01

    Implanted antennas for implant-to-air data communications must be composed of material compatible with biological tissues. We design single and dual-polarization antennas for wireless ultra-wideband neural recording systems using an inhomogeneous multi-layer model of the human head. Antennas made from flexible materials are more easily adapted to implantation; we investigate both flexible and rigid materials and examine performance trade-offs. The proposed antennas are designed to operate in a frequency range of 2-11 GHz (having S11 below -10 dB) covering both the 2.45 GHz (ISM) band and the 3.1-10.6 GHz UWB band. Measurements confirm simulation results showing flexible antennas have little performance degradation due to bending effects (in terms of impedance matching). Our miniaturized flexible antennas are 12 mm×12 mm and 10 mm×9 mm for single- and dual-polarizations, respectively. Finally, a comparison is made of four implantable antennas covering the 2-11 GHz range: 1) rigid, single polarization, 2) rigid, dual polarization, 3) flexible, single polarization and 4) flexible, dual polarization. In all cases a rigid antenna is used outside the body, with an appropriate polarization. Several advantages were confirmed for dual polarization antennas: 1) smaller size, 2) lower sensitivity to angular misalignments, and 3) higher fidelity.

  19. Application of power transformation and moments in time based UWB ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyan; Huang, Xiaotao

    2016-04-01

    For ultra-wideband (UWB) ranging, TOA estimation with the energy detection (ED) receiver is to detect the energy sample that contains the first path (FP) signal in dense multipath. Threshold crossing (TC) is used frequently. However, it is difficult to determine the threshold. Some threshold setting methods are based on constant false alarm rate (CFAR) and the chi-squared distribution. However, the distribution is complicated. Moreover, it depends on the degree of freedom (DOF). If the DOF used is wrong, it will degrade the detection performance. The study bypasses the distribution. We first examine the distribution of the output of the ED receiver after power transformation. Based on the new characteristics of the transformed data and approximate distributions, we propose some practical TOA estimation methods. Similarly, the moments of the output of the ED receiver, such as the second or one-third order moments, are also analysed and used. The proposed methods are easy to implement and can achieve about the same ranging performance with methods based on the chi-squared distribution. We provide both theoretical and simulation results to prove their effectiveness.

  20. Meander-line-based inhomogeneous anisotropic artificial material for gain enhancement of UWB Vivaldi antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Singh, Hari Shankar; Meshram, Manoj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    An inhomogeneous anisotropic (IA) artificial material (AM) is proposed having epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) characteristics and effective refractive index >1, simultaneously, in the same direction. Further, the proposed IA-AM is utilized for the gain enhancement of Vivaldi antenna for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The IA-AM consists of two types of compact meandered line-based anisotropic artificial material with ENZ characteristics in two adjacent narrow bands of 5.5-8.5 and 8-11.5 GHz. However, the non-resonant behavior of the artificial material in other direction appears with high refractive index property in broadband region. The combination of both the unit cells with broadband ENZ and high refractive index property is used to improve the gain of the Vivaldi antenna in broadband. The proposed IA-AM-loaded Vivaldi antenna exhibits a gain enhancement of up to 2 dBi compared to the original antenna in the operating frequency band of 3.1-12 GHz with | S 11| < -10 dB. The proposed antenna shows nearly stable unidirectional radiation patterns with high directivity and nearly flat group delay.

  1. Design and development of ultra-wideband 3 dB hybrid coupler for Ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating in tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2014-04-01

    Design and development of a high power ultra-wideband, 3 dB tandem hybrid coupler is presented and its application in ICRF heating of the tokamak is discussed. In order to achieve the desired frequency band of 38-112 MHz and 200 kW power handling capability, the 3 dB hybrid coupler is developed using two 3-element 8.34 ± 0.2 dB coupled lines sections in tandem. In multi-element coupled lines, junctions are employed for the joining of coupled elements that produce the undesirable reactance called junction discontinuity effect. The effect becomes prominent in the high power multi-element coupled lines for high frequency (HF) and very high frequency(VHF) applications because of larger structural dimensions. Junction discontinuity effect significantly deteriorates coupling and output performance from the theoretical predictions. For the analysis of junction discontinuity effect and its compensation, a theoretical approach has been developed and generalized for n-element coupled lines section. The theory has been applied in the development of the 3 dB hybrid coupler. The fabricated hybrid coupler has been experimentally characterized using vector network analyzer and obtained results are found in good agreement with developed theory.

  2. Spectral efficiency considerations in ultrawideband (UWB) radar and communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Chinmay; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2005-05-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of ultrawideband (UWB) technology in radar and communications applications. While the initial impetus for UWB systems was derived from the need for high-resolution radar applications for the military, these systems are now used in a variety of consumer applications such as cellular phones and satellite television. The principal motivation for using UWB is that it offers improved spectral efficiency, i.e., it permits multiple users to occupy and operate within the same frequency band with minimal cross-interference. Currently, UWB schemes use some form of pulse train modulation to encode data onto the carrier. However, these schemes are not always ideal since: (a) these are not the most spectrally efficient due to the fact that additional users can be added by using alternate schemes, (b) these do not possess anti-jam capability since it is possible to estimate the carrier frequency the signal, and (c) such type of modulation possess frequency sidelobes that might interfere with UWB devices in adjacent bands. Our research aims to characterize the above shortcomings and to ultimately develop a method for defining and estimating an appropriate spectral efficiency metric. We also present results of our study of new waveform designs, for both radar and communications, resulting in optimal sharing of frequency segments with minimum impact to system functionality and avoidance of spectral fratricide. One such waveform investigated and described herein is a combination of pulse shape and pulse position modulation, primarily for optimizing the performance of UWB communications systems that use pulse trains.

  3. High speed Radix-4 soft-decision Viterbi decoder for MB-OFDM UWB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guixuan; Portilla, Jorge; Riesgo, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a 64 state soft decision Viterbi Decoder (VD) system by using a high speed radix-4 Add Compare Select (ACS) architecture is presented. The proposed VD system can support different data rate (from 53.5 Mbps to 480 Mbps) for Multiband Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) system when implemented onto the FPGA board. The proposed VD employs efficient two steps Radix 4 architecture, which is responsible of calculating two steps of 64 state Radix 4 Branch Metrics (BM) within one clock cycle. The branch metrics are calculated using a uniform distance measurement algorithm, which equals to the symbol itself when compared to logic-0 and equal to its one's complement when compared to logic-1. By employing the modified Modulo Normalization algorithm, it is possible to use only a 10- bit memory block to restore each of the 64 state metrics, with the advantage of avoiding errors caused by overflow during the updating process for state metrics, and simplifying the comparator circuit of the ACS unit. The Two Pointer Even Algorithm, which is considered to be very simple and more hardware-efficient than the register exchange algorithm, is used for tracing back the survivor sequence and output the decoded data stream. 3-bit soft decision input sequences are used for gathering the experimental results. The sampling frequency of the MBOFDM UWB system is 528 MHz, by using the proposed two steps Radix 4 VD architecture we can process 4 input signals in parallel within one clock cycle, therefore only 132 MHz operating frequency is needed for the proposed VD system. This will dramatically reduce the dynamic power consumption for hardware implementation. Final results of the implementation show that the proposed VD architecture can support a maximum working frequency of 152.5 MHz on Xilinx XUPV5-LX110T Evaluation Platform.

  4. UWB channel estimation using new generating TR transceivers

    DOEpatents

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Dowla, Farid U.; Spiridon, Alex; Haugen, Peter C.; Benzel, Dave M.

    2011-06-28

    The present invention presents a simple and novel channel estimation scheme for UWB communication systems. As disclosed herein, the present invention maximizes the extraction of information by incorporating a new generation of transmitted-reference (Tr) transceivers that utilize a single reference pulse(s) or a preamble of reference pulses to provide improved channel estimation while offering higher Bit Error Rate (BER) performance and data rates without diluting the transmitter power.

  5. A scheme of pulse compression lidar with enhanced modulated bandwidth for detection through scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng-hua; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Chen-fei; Xu, Lu; Yang, Xu; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yue-hao; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a scheme of pulse compression lidar with enhanced electrical modulated bandwidth. An ultra-wideband linear frequency modulated signal with a bandwidth of 50 GHz is generated using femtosecond laser and superimposed linear chirp fiber Bragg gratings in the transmitter, which separates the echo of the target from the backward scattered noise with low modulated frequency. An optical pulse compression system based on a negative dispersion fiber Bragg grating is used to compress the ultra-wideband linear frequency modulated signal in the receiver. SNR and range resolution of the proposed scheme are numerically simulated to prove its feasibility. The simulation results indicate that an enhancement of SNR by 15.8 dB can be achieved using the scheme, and the range resolution of the scheme increases from 0.68 m to 0.0027 m. It is therefore concluded that the proposed scheme is suitable for detection through scattering media.

  6. UWB SAR system PULSAR: new generator and antenna developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, Philippe; Dubois, Cyril; Andrieu, Jo"l.; Beillard, Bruno; Lalande, Michèle; Bertrand, Valérie; Jecko, Bernard; Pecastaing, Laurent; Gibert, Alain; Paillol, Jean; Domens, Pierre; Guillerey, Régis; Monnier, Francis; Legoff, Marc

    2003-08-01

    PULSAR is an Ultra Wide-Band short pulse Radar developed by the CELAR (French Technical Centre for Armament Electronics) and the IRCOM (Research Institute of Microwave and Optical Communications) in order to detect foliage and ground concealed targets. One of the most promising mission of such potential radar is the detection of buried and surface land mine fields. An instrumentation measurement system has been designed and implemented. This paper deals with the recent development efforts on this system, specially on a new pulse generator and a new UWB antenna. Recently, the LGE (Laboratoire de Génie Electrique) has developed a high voltage pulse coaxial generator. These recent developments allowed to increase the pulse output voltage and the pulse rise time. The new UWB antenna is able to support a very high voltage; the bandwidth and the gain are greater than the ones of the previous antenna.

  7. An Ultra-Wideband, Microwave Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness on Sea Ice and Mapping Near-Surface Internal Layers in Polar Firn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panzer, Ben; Gomez-Garcia, Daniel; Leuschen, Carl; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Patel, Azsa; Markus, Thorsten; Holt, Benjamin; Gogineni, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100mW signal is swept from 2 to 8GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 c range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.

  8. Adaptive modulation and intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging scheme for multiband OFDM UWB over fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Li, Teng; Wen, Xuejie; Deng, Rui; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the unbalanced error bit distribution among subcarriers caused by inter-subcarriers mixing interference (ISMI) and frequency selective fading (FSF), an adaptive modulation scheme based on 64/16/4QAM modulation is proposed and experimentally investigated in the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM/DD) multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) over fiber system. After 50 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission, at the bit error ratio (BER) of 1×10-3, the experimental results show that the power penalty of the IM/DD MB-OFDM UWBoF system with 64/16/4QAM adaptive modulation scheme is about 3.6 dB, compared to that with the 64QAM modulation scheme. Moreover, the receiver sensitivity has been improved about 0.52 dB when the intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) algorithm is employed in the IM/DD MB-OFDM UWBoF system based on the 64/16/4QAM adaptive modulation scheme. Meanwhile, after 50 km SSMF transmission, there is a negligible power penalty in the adaptively modulated IM/DD MB-OFDM UWBoF system, compared to the optical back-to-back case.

  9. On the Analysis of the Dynamics and Synchronization of Chaotic Modulation and Demodulation in UWB Communication and Positioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chedjou, J. C.; Dada, J. P.; Moussa, I.; Takenga, C.; Anne, R.; Kyamakya, K.

    This paper studies synchronization transitions in a system of coupled non-identical self-sustained chaotic oscillators of the Rössler type. The interest devoted to the Rössler oscillators is motivated by their capability to behave chaotically at very high frequencies. Both phase synchronization and lag synchronization are analyzed in terms of a coupling parameter. It is shown that both types of synchronization can be achieved when monitoring a coupling parameter. The advantage of using one parameter to insure both types of synchronization is found in practical realizations. Indeed one should monitor only one resistor to predict the boundaries of the control resistor for the occurrence of each type of synchronization. Another advantage of monitoring only one resistor is found in the accuracy of results. An experimental study of the synchronization is carried out. Experimental waveforms in the drive and response systems are obtained. The waveforms are compared to confirm the achievement of sync hronization experimentally. One of the advantages of using analog simulation in this work is the possibility to analyze the behaviour of the coupled system at very high frequencies by performing an appropriate time scaling. This offers the possibility of using our coupled system for Ultra-wideband (UWB) applications.

  10. A UWB Radar Signal Processing Platform for Real-Time Human Respiratory Feature Extraction Based on Four-Segment Linear Waveform Model.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Hsuan; Chiu, Yu-Fang; Shen, Yi-Hsiang; Chu, Ta-Shun; Huang, Yuan-Hao

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse-radio radar signal processing platform used to analyze human respiratory features. Conventional radar systems used in human detection only analyze human respiration rates or the response of a target. However, additional respiratory signal information is available that has not been explored using radar detection. The authors previously proposed a modified raised cosine waveform (MRCW) respiration model and an iterative correlation search algorithm that could acquire additional respiratory features such as the inspiration and expiration speeds, respiration intensity, and respiration holding ratio. To realize real-time respiratory feature extraction by using the proposed UWB signal processing platform, this paper proposes a new four-segment linear waveform (FSLW) respiration model. This model offers a superior fit to the measured respiration signal compared with the MRCW model and decreases the computational complexity of feature extraction. In addition, an early-terminated iterative correlation search algorithm is presented, substantially decreasing the computational complexity and yielding negligible performance degradation. These extracted features can be considered the compressed signals used to decrease the amount of data storage required for use in long-term medical monitoring systems and can also be used in clinical diagnosis. The proposed respiratory feature extraction algorithm was designed and implemented using the proposed UWB radar signal processing platform including a radar front-end chip and an FPGA chip. The proposed radar system can detect human respiration rates at 0.1 to 1 Hz and facilitates the real-time analysis of the respiratory features of each respiration period.

  11. Progress in UWB generation with linear silicon switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardwell, Kendall W.; Giorgi, David M.; McIntyre, Iain A.; Solone, Paul J.; Stuurman, K.; Zucker, Oved S. F.

    1993-06-01

    The use of linear photoconductive switches rather than nonlinear switches for the generation of Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) pulses provides advantages such as jitter-free operation, low losses, and a reduction of the electrical and mechanical stresses in the switch. These advantages lead to the operation of many switches in series and/or parallel, higher average powers and longer lifetimes. Energy Compression Research Corporation (ECR) has demonstrated an advanced UWB source based on light activated silicon switches (LASS). The UWB source consists of a single LASS device mounted on a low impedance (< 0.5 (Omega) ) microstrip transmission line and a high fidelity impedance transformer connected to a 50 (Omega) coaxial connection. The voltage was measured at low impedance and 50 (Omega) to verify the efficiency and fidelity of the impedance transformer. After a transformation of 110:1 in impedance, the measurement at the end of the transformer verified that pulse rise-time was less than 100 ps and the overall efficiency was 50%. The system was tested up to 10 kV into 50 (Omega) before connector breakdown limited further increase. Larger powers can be radiated if the transformer is directly connected to the antenna.

  12. 47 CFR 15.507 - Marketing of UWB equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marketing of UWB equipment. 15.507 Section 15... Operation § 15.507 Marketing of UWB equipment. In some cases, the operation of UWB devices is limited to... state or local government. The marketing of UWB devices must be directed solely to parties eligible...

  13. 47 CFR 15.507 - Marketing of UWB equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marketing of UWB equipment. 15.507 Section 15... Operation § 15.507 Marketing of UWB equipment. In some cases, the operation of UWB devices is limited to... state or local government. The marketing of UWB devices must be directed solely to parties eligible...

  14. 47 CFR 15.507 - Marketing of UWB equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marketing of UWB equipment. 15.507 Section 15... Operation § 15.507 Marketing of UWB equipment. In some cases, the operation of UWB devices is limited to... state or local government. The marketing of UWB devices must be directed solely to parties eligible...

  15. 47 CFR 15.507 - Marketing of UWB equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marketing of UWB equipment. 15.507 Section 15... Operation § 15.507 Marketing of UWB equipment. In some cases, the operation of UWB devices is limited to... state or local government. The marketing of UWB devices must be directed solely to parties eligible...

  16. 47 CFR 15.507 - Marketing of UWB equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing of UWB equipment. 15.507 Section 15... Operation § 15.507 Marketing of UWB equipment. In some cases, the operation of UWB devices is limited to... state or local government. The marketing of UWB devices must be directed solely to parties eligible...

  17. A RF receiver frontend for SC-UWB in a 0.18-μm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Guo; Haiying, Zhang

    2012-12-01

    A radio frequency (RF) receiver frontend for single-carrier ultra-wideband (SC-UWB) is presented. The front end employs direct-conversion architecture, and consists of a differential low noise amplifier (LNA), a quadrature mixer, and two intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers. The proposed LNA employs source inductively degenerated topology. First, the expression of input impedance matching bandwidth in terms of gate-source capacitance, resonant frequency and target S11 is given. Then, a noise figure optimization strategy under gain and power constraints is proposed, with consideration of the integrated gate inductor, the bond-wire inductance, and its variation. The LNA utilizes two stages with different resonant frequencies to acquire flat gain over the 7.1-8.1 GHz frequency band, and has two gain modes to obtain a higher receiver dynamic range. The mixer uses a double balanced Gilbert structure. The front end is fabricated in a TSMC 0.18-μm RF CMOS process and occupies an area of 1.43 mm2. In high and low gain modes, the measured maximum conversion gain are 42 dB and 22 dB, input 1 dB compression points are -40 dBm and -20 dBm, and S11 is better than -18 dB and -14.5 dB. The 3 dB IF bandwidth is more than 500 MHz. The double sideband noise figure is 4.7 dB in high gain mode. The total power consumption is 65 mW from a 1.8 V supply.

  18. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rana Pratap Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2016-01-15

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  19. A DS-UWB Cognitive Radio System Based on Bridge Function Smart Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yafei; Hong, Sheng; Zhao, Guodong; Zhang, Fengyuan; di, Jinshan; Zhang, Qishan

    This paper proposes a direct-sequence UWB Gaussian pulse of cognitive radio systems based on bridge function smart sequence matrix and the Gaussian pulse. As the system uses the spreading sequence code, that is the bridge function smart code sequence, the zero correlation zones (ZCZs) which the bridge function sequences' auto-correlation functions had, could reduce multipath fading of the pulse interference. The Modulated channel signal was sent into the IEEE 802.15.3a UWB channel. We analysis the ZCZs's inhibition to the interference multipath interference (MPI), as one of the main system sources interferences. The simulation in SIMULINK/MATLAB is described in detail. The result shows the system has better performance by comparison with that employing Walsh sequence square matrix, and it was verified by the formula in principle.

  20. Characteristics of trap-filled gallium arsenide photoconductive switches used in high gain pulsed power applications

    SciTech Connect

    ISLAM,N.E.; SCHAMILOGLU,E.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; JOSHI,R.P.

    2000-05-30

    The electrical properties of semi-insulating (SI) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) have been investigated for some time, particularly for its application as a substrate in microelectronics. Of late this material has found a variety of applications other than as an isolation region between devices, or the substrate of an active device. High resistivity SI GaAs is increasingly being used in charged particle detectors and photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). PCSS made from these materials operating in both the linear and non-linear modes have applications such as firing sets, as drivers for lasers, and in high impedance, low current Q-switches or Pockels cells. In the non-linear mode, it has also been used in a system to generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) High Power Microwaves (HPM). The choice of GaAs over silicon offers the advantage that its material properties allow for fast, repetitive switching action. Furthermore photoconductive switches have advantages over conventional switches such as improved jitter, better impedance matching, compact size, and in some cases, lower laser energy requirement for switching action. The rise time of the PCSS is an important parameter that affects the maximum energy transferred to the load and it depends, in addition to other parameters, on the bias or the average field across the switch. High field operation has been an important goal in PCSS research. Due to surface flashover or premature material breakdown at higher voltages, most PCSS, especially those used in high power operation, need to operate well below the inherent breakdown voltage of the material. The lifetime or the total number of switching operations before breakdown, is another important switch parameter that needs to be considered for operation at high bias conditions. A lifetime of {approximately} 10{sup 4} shots has been reported for PCSS's used in UWB-HPM generation [5], while it has exceeded 10{sup 8} shots for electro-optic drivers. Much effort is currently

  1. 76 FR 67187 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    .... Title: Ultra Wideband Transmission Systems Operating Under part 15. Form No.: N/A. Type of Review... operators of the Ultra Wideband (UWB) imaging systems to coordinate with other Federal agencies via the FCC... systems in order to avoid interference with sensitive U.S. government radio systems. The UWB...

  2. 1000-1400-nm partially mode-locked pulse from a simple all-fiber cavity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoming; Xu, Yiqing; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a partially mode-locked pulse laser delivering ultra-wideband optical spectrum, i.e., 1000-1400 nm at 30 dB, from a simple all-fiber short cavity with all-normal dispersion. Examined by both real-time temporal and spectral analyzers, the partially mode-locked pulse exhibits double-scale noise-like characteristics-the fast L-shaped mode-locked pulse modulated by slow free-running Q-switched envelopes. Moreover, the statistical analysis as a function of its optical bandwidth shows that the spectral tuning does not compromise the temporal stability, but affects the pulsing periodicity. It is believed that the wide spectrum of knowledge obtained here would enrich the field of noise-like pulse, such as being beneficial to the rogue wave generation.

  3. A Novel Low-Ringing Monocycle Picosecond Pulse Generator Based on Step Recovery Diode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianming; Yang, Xiao; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high-performance low-ringing ultra-wideband monocycle picosecond pulse generator, formed using a step recovery diode (SRD), simulated in ADS software and generated through experimentation. The pulse generator comprises three parts, a step recovery diode, a field-effect transistor and a Schottky diode, used to eliminate the positive and negative ringing of pulse. Simulated results validate the design. Measured results indicate an output waveform of 1.88 peak-to-peak amplitude and 307ps pulse duration with a minimal ringing of -22.5 dB, providing good symmetry and low level of ringing. A high degree of coordination between the simulated and measured results is achieved.

  4. A Novel Low-Ringing Monocycle Picosecond Pulse Generator Based on Step Recovery Diode

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianming; Yang, Xiao; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high-performance low-ringing ultra-wideband monocycle picosecond pulse generator, formed using a step recovery diode (SRD), simulated in ADS software and generated through experimentation. The pulse generator comprises three parts, a step recovery diode, a field-effect transistor and a Schottky diode, used to eliminate the positive and negative ringing of pulse. Simulated results validate the design. Measured results indicate an output waveform of 1.88 peak-to-peak amplitude and 307ps pulse duration with a minimal ringing of -22.5 dB, providing good symmetry and low level of ringing. A high degree of coordination between the simulated and measured results is achieved. PMID:26308450

  5. All-optical UWB generation and modulation using SOA-XPM effect and DWDM-based multi-channel frequency discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Dong, Jianji; Xu, Enming; Zhang, Xinliang

    2010-11-22

    An all-optical UWB pulses generation and modulation scheme using cross phase modulation (XPM) effect of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and DWDM-based multi-channel frequency discrimination is proposed and demonstrated, which has potential application in multiuser UWB-Over-Fiber communication systems. When a Gaussian pulse light and a wavelength-tunable CW probe light are together injected into the SOA, the probe light out from the SOA will have a temporal chirp due to SOA-XPM effect. When the chirped probe light is tuned to the slopes of single DWDM channel transmittance curve, the optical phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion is achieved at DWDM that serves as a multi-channel frequency discriminator, the inverted polarity Gaussian monocycle and doublet pulse is detected by a photodetector, respectively. If the probe lights are simultaneously aimed to different slopes of several DWDM channels, multi-channel or binary-phase-coded UWB signal generation can be acquired. Using proposed scheme, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), pulse polarity modulation (PPM) and pulse shape modulation (PSM) to UWB pulses also can be conveniently realized.

  6. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts' Breathing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed. PMID:25558995

  7. Non-invasive UWB sensing of astronauts' breathing activity.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2014-12-30

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed.

  8. Feasibility Study and Design of a Wearable System-on-a-Chip Pulse Radar for Contactless Cardiopulmonary Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Domenico; Pepe, Domenico; Neri, Bruno; Zito, Fabio; De Rossi, Danilo; Lanatà, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A new system-on-a-chip radar sensor for next-generation wearable wireless interface applied to the human health care and safeguard is presented. The system overview is provided and the feasibility study of the radar sensor is presented. In detail, the overall system consists of a radar sensor for detecting the heart and breath rates and a low-power IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee radio interface, which provides a wireless data link with remote data acquisition and control units. In particular, the pulse radar exploits 3.1–10.6 GHz ultra-wideband signals which allow a significant reduction of the transceiver complexity and then of its power consumption. The operating principle of the radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is highlighted and the results of the system analysis are reported. Moreover, the results obtained from the building-blocks design, the channel measurement, and the ultra-wideband antenna realization are reported. PMID:18389068

  9. UWB Impulse Radar Characterization and Processing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    S/B s’améliore de façon à peu près linéaire . L’intégration d’environ 80 impulsions donne lieu à un rapport S/B maximal d’environ 35 dB, avec une...défense Canada (RDDC) a un programme de recherche active sur bien des aspects des systèmes radar à bande ultra-large (UWB), y compris la simulation

  10. Industrial WSN Based on IR-UWB and a Low-Latency MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Rafael; Underberg, Lisa; Wulf, Armin; Kays, Ruediger

    2016-07-01

    Wireless sensor networks for industrial communication require high reliability and low latency. As current wireless sensor networks do not entirely meet these requirements, novel system approaches need to be developed. Since ultra wideband communication systems seem to be a promising approach, this paper evaluates the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 impulse-radio ultra-wideband physical layer and the IEEE 802.15.4 Low Latency Deterministic Network (LLDN) MAC for industrial applications. Novel approaches and system adaptions are proposed to meet the application requirements. In this regard, a synchronization approach based on circular average magnitude difference functions (CAMDF) and on a clean template (CT) is presented for the correlation receiver. An adapted MAC protocol titled aggregated low latency (ALL) MAC is proposed to significantly reduce the resulting latency. Based on the system proposals, a hardware prototype has been developed, which proves the feasibility of the system and visualizes the real-time performance of the MAC protocol.

  11. Band-notched reconfigurable CPW-fed UWB antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, H. A.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Hamid, M. R.; Murad, N. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Kamarudin, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    A reconfigurable band-notched CPW-fed UWB antenna using electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure is proposed. Two structures are positioned adjacent to the transmission line of the UWB antenna. The band-notched characteristic can be disabled by switching the state of switch place at the strip line. The EBG structure produces reconfigurable band notched at 4.0 GHz, which covers C-band satellite communication (3.625-4.2 GHz) systems. The proposed antenna is suitable for UWB systems, which requires reconfigurable band reject function.

  12. Breakdown Behavior of a Wireless Communication Network Under UWB Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohe, M.; Koch, M.

    Systems with high priority to safety and reliability such as monitoring systems on airports have to work properly. Fast information transmission, continuous access to databases, as well as the management of air traffic are most important for effective and safe operation. Sources of Intentional Electromagnetic Interference can be manufactured relatively easy using commercially available components by civilian persons with relevant expertise and can be used for sabotage or blackmail purposes. For analyzing the weak points of a system existing on airports, it is necessary to reproduce its setup. In this investigation a UHF transmitter of a wireless communication device is developed and its breakdown behavior to unipolar fast rise pulses (UWB) is determined. A breakdown is a non-permanent damage, but includes a type of upset, that requires manual reset or at least stops communications for some period of time. The transmitter consists of three main components connected by data cables: power supply, microcontroller, and loop antenna. The immunity tests are accomplished as a function of the electromagnetic field direction to the device using an open TEM waveguide.

  13. Monocycle and doublet pulses generation via photon echo in rare-earth-doped optical crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Zhang, Shuanggen; Ma, Xiurong; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-12-01

    All-optical pulse generation opens up a field for ultrawideband (UWB) applications. However, controllable pulse width and pulse type are still challenging. Here, we present a theoretical model and stimulated results of monocycle and doublet waveforms generation using programmable optical photon echo progress. We synthesized instantaneously monocycle and doublet waveforms by adjustment of pulse width, pulse amplitude, pulse position, and time interval of subpulses. We verified the possible application of the proposed method to design U.S. Federal Communications Commission-compliant UWB waveforms, and therefore, it may provide an avenue for waveform generation.

  14. Pulse

    MedlinePlus

    ... the underside of the opposite wrist, below the base of the thumb. Press with flat fingers until ... determine if the patient's heart is pumping. Pulse measurement has other uses as well. During or immediately ...

  15. UWB radar technique for arc detection in coaxial cables and waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiora, R.; Salvador, S.

    2009-11-26

    As spread spectrum technology has revolutionized the communications industry, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology is dramatically improving radar performances. These advanced signal processing techniques have been adapted to coaxial cables and waveguides to provide new features and enhanced performance on arc detection. UWB signals constituted by a sequence of chips (properly chosen to reduce side lobes and to improve detection accuracy) are transmitted along the transmission lines at a specified Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) and their echoes are received by means of directional couplers. The core of the receiver is an ultra high-speed correlator implemented in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). When a target (arc) is detected, its position and its 'radar cross section' are calculated to be able to provide the arc position along the transmission line and to be able to classify the type of detected arc. The 'background scattering' is routinely extracted from the received signal at any pulse. This permits to be resilient to the background structure of transmission lines (bends, junctions, windows, etc.). Thanks to the localization feature, segmentation is also possible for creating sensed and non-sensed zones (for example, to be insensitive to antenna load variations)

  16. A Novel Design of Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for UWB Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Yu, Ziliang; Wu, Zheng; Shen, Huajiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel frequency reconfigurable antenna which could be easily operate in a single notched-band (WiMAX (3.3-3.6 GHz)) UWB frequency band, another single notched-band (WLAN (5-6 GHz)) UWB frequency band and the dual band-notched UWB frequency band (the stopband covers the WiMAX (3.3-3.6 GHz) and WLAN (5-6 GHz)). The reconfigurability is achieved by changing the states of PIN diodes. The simulated results are in agreement well with the measured results. And the measured patterns are slightly changed with antenna reconfiguration. The proposed antenna is a good candidate for various UWB applications.

  17. UWB technology for safety-oriented vehicular communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente, Roberto; Morant, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) technology for wireless multiple access communications are receiving great interest for the last five years due to its unique features such as spectrum coexistence with other wireless services, RF front-end simplicity (enabling potential low cost terminals), good radio wave propagation (robust against multi-path fading, material penetration) and high bitrate. Low-cost UWB technology can be employed to provide simultaneous communications and vehicular radar capabilities. In this paper, the application of vehicle-to-vehicle (C2C), infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2C), communication and vehicular radar (VRAD) based on UWB technology are proposed altogether the required fiber-optics infrastructure, with the advantage of being flexible, cost-effective, reliable, fast and secure. The experimental validation and comparison for the optical generation of UWB signals combined with radio-over-fiber transmission is also reported in this work applied to vehicular communications. Both impulse-radio (IR-UWB) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM-UWB) signals are generated and their performance are evaluated experimentally in the 3.1-10.6 GHz frequency range. Up-conversion in the 60 GHz wireless band is also herein reported.

  18. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  19. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  20. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  1. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  2. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  3. Position Estimation of Tranceivers in Communication Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, C A; Dowla, F U

    2003-10-13

    With the rapid development in wireless sensor networks, there is an important need for transceiver position estimation independent of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) [1,3]. While GPS might be useful for outdoor sensor nodes, it is not for indoor node localization. In this case, position estimation is possible through network range estimates from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, a technique well suited to large bandwidth physical links, such as in ultra-wideband (UWB) communications. For example, in our UWB systems, with pulse duration less than 200 pico-seconds, range can easily be resolved to less than a foot. Assuming an encoded UWB or spread spectrum physical layer, we developed algorithms and simulation tools to test transceiver position localization. Simulations were designed to lend insight into system characteristics such as position error sensitivities to network geometry, to range estimation errors, and to number of sensor nodes.

  4. An adaptive line enhancement method for UWB proximity fuze signal processing based on correlation matrix estimation with time delay factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Zhonghua

    2016-10-01

    Signal processing for an ultra-wideband radio fuze receiver involves some challenges: it requires high real-time performance; the output signal is mixed with broadband noise; and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases with increased detection range. The adaptive line enhancement method is used to filter the output signal of the ultra-wideband radio fuze receiver, and thus suppress the wideband noise from the output signal of the receiver and extract the target characteristic signal. The filter input correlation matrix estimation algorithm is based on the delay factor of an adaptive line enhancer. The proposed adaptive algorithm was used to filter and reduce noise in the output signal from the fuze receiver. Simulation results showed that the SNR of the output signal after adaptive noise reduction was improved by 20 dB, which was higher than the SNR of the output signal after finite impulse response (FIR) filtering of around 10 dB.

  5. A Novel UWB Antenna with Dual Band-Notched Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yongfan; Liang, Jiangang; Wu, Goucheng; Xu, Zhiyong; Niu, Xuebin

    2015-11-01

    In this article, started from analyzing the basic principle of band-notched characteristics, a feasibly method used for band-notched antenna is demonstrated and the equivalent circuit for this method is designed. A novel UWB antenna is designed. Based on this method, two stubs which can be equivalent to shorted stubs in parallel configuration are added to realize dual band-notched characteristics. Simulated and measured results all show that the UWB antenna yields an impendence bandwidth of 2.0-10.6 GHz by defining VSWR ≦ 2, and two obvious band-notched functions (3.27-3.83 GHz, 4.60-5.90 GHz) occur at the working bandwidth of WIMAX (3.3-3.7 GHz) and HiperLAN/2 (5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz), so the electromagnetic interference between UWB application and WIMAX, HiperLAN/2 can be suppressed.

  6. Ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on polarization modulator and low speed electrical NRZ signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodan; Zhang, Qiufang; Wang, Quan

    2015-07-01

    A novel ultrawideband (UWB) monocycle pulse generation system by modulating a polarization modulator (PolM) with a low speed electrical nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signal is proposed, which significantly reduce the bandwidth requirement of the driving signal. At each bit transition of the input NRZ signal, two polarity-reversed Gaussian pulses are generated. By properly setting the delay between these two Gaussian pulses, an optical UWB monocycle pulse can be generated. Biphase modulation (BPM) can be realized by electrically switching the polarization direction at the output of PolM, if an electrically tunable arbitrary wave plate (AWP) is employed.

  7. Optimised implementation of a matched filter bank for ultrawideband radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuswamy, Sivanandan; Veljanovski, Ronny; Singh, Jugdutt

    2005-02-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology dates back to early 1980s and was originally employed in radar applications. Unlike any narrowband or broadband communication systems, an UWB system does not employ any radio frequency (RF) carrier for data transmission. Instead it uses very short period electrical pulses in the order of hundreds of pico-seconds to few nano-seconds, which justifies the availability of an ultra-high bandwidth. From a hardware implementation viewpoint, UWB system design presents many challenges such as synchronisation, power limitation and receiver design. However, the design of an UWB transceiver is less complex given the fact that the RF carrier is eliminated. In an UWB transceiver, most of the processing is performed in the digital baseband while the analog front end is responsible for amplification, filtering and quantisation. A bank of matched filters constitutes the major portion of digital baseband section in an UWB transceiver. This paper presents the design, optimisation and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the matched filter bank as an attempt to minimise the overall circuit complexity, achieve higher data rates and low power consumption in UWB radios.

  8. A Minimized MIMO-UWB Antenna with High Isolation and Triple Band-Notched Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yuanyuan; Li, Yingsong; Yu, Kai

    2016-11-01

    A compact high isolation MIMO-UWB antenna with triple frequency rejection bands is proposed for UWB communication applications. The proposed MIMO-UWB antenna consists of two identical UWB antennas and each antenna element has a semicircle ring shaped radiation patch fed by a bend microstrip feeding line for covering the UWB band, which operates from 2.85 GHz to 11.79 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 122.1 %. By etching a L-shaped slot on the ground plane, and embedding an "anchor" shaped stub into the patch and integrating an open ring under the semicircle shaped radiation patch, three notch bands are realized to suppress WiMAX (3.3-3.6 GHz), WLAN(5.725-5.825 GHz) and uplink of X-band satellite (7.9-8.4 GHz) signals. The high isolation with S21<-20 dB in most UWB band is obtained by adding a protruded decoupling structure. The design procedure of the MIMO-UWB antenna is given in detail. The proposed MIMO-UWB antenna is simulated, fabricated and measured. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MIMO-UWB antenna has a stable gain, good impedance match, high isolation, low envelope correlation coefficient and good radiation pattern at the UWB operating band and it can provide three designated notch bands.

  9. Ultrawideband synthetic vision sensor for airborne wire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Robert J.; Larrick, J. F.; Cade, Jeffrey E.; Rivers, Eugene P., Jr.

    1998-07-01

    A low cost, miniature ultra wideband (UWB) radar has demonstrated the ability to detect suspended wires and other small obstacles at distances exceeding several hundred feet using an average output power of less than 10 microwatts. Originally developed as a high precision UWB radar altimeter for the Navy's Program Executive Office for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Cruise Missiles, an improved sensitivity version was recently developed for the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC Dahlgren Division) as part of the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory's Hummingbird program for rotary wing platforms. Utilizing a short pulse waveform of approximately 2.5 nanoseconds in duration, the receiver processor exploits the leading edge of the radar return pulse to achieve range resolutions of less than one foot. The resultant 400 MHz bandwidth spectrum produces both a broad frequency excitation for enhanced detection, as well as a low probability of intercept and detection (LPI/D) signature for covert applications. This paper describes the design and development of the ultra wideband sensor, as well as performance results achieved during field testing at NSWC's Dahlgren, VA facility. These results are compared with those achieved with a high resolution EHF radar and a laser-based detection system.

  10. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, S T; Mathur, S P; Akyel, Y; Lee, J C

    The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect.

  11. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, S T; Mathur, S P; Akyel, Y; Lee, J C

    1999-09-01

    The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect.

  12. Advanced Wireless Integrated Navy Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Basing visualization of wireless technologies, Ad Hoc networks , network protocols, real-time resource allocation, Ultra Wideband (UWB) communications...4.1 TIP #1: Distributed MIMO UWB sensor networks incorporating software radio 67 4.2 TIP #2: Close-in UWB wireless with applications to Sea- Basing 68...4.3 TIP #3: Secure Ad Hoc Networks 73 4.4 TIP #4: Integration of Close-in UWB wireless with ESM crane for Sea Basing applications 75 5. FINANCIAL REPORT

  13. A low noise CMOS RF front-end for UWB 6-9 GHz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhou; Ting, Gao; Fei, Lan; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2010-11-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS RF front-end for 6-9 GHz is presented. A resistive feedback low noise amplifier and a gain controllable IQ merged folded quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a TSMC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum voltage gain of 23-26 dB and a minimum voltage gain of 16-19 dB, an averaged total noise figure of 3.3-4.6 dB while operating in the high gain mode and an in-band IIP3 of -12.6 dBm while in the low gain mode. This RF front-end consumes 17 mA from a 1.2 V supply voltage.

  14. UWB EMI To Aircraft Radios: Field Evaluation on Operational Commercial Transport Airplanes. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oria, A. J. (Editor); Ely, Jay J.; Martin, Warren L.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Zimmerman, John; Fuschino, Robert L.; Larsen, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) transmitters may soon be integrated into a wide variety of portable electronic devices (PEDs) that passengers routinely carry on board commercial airplanes. Airlines and the FAA will have difficulty controlling passenger use of UWB transmitters during flights with current airline policies and existing wireless product standards. The aeronautical community is concerned as to whether evolving FCC UWB rules are adequate to protect legacy and emerging aeronautical radio systems from electromagnetic interference (EMI) from emerging UWB products. To address these concerns, the NASA Office of Space Communications and Chief Spectrum Managers assembled a multidisciplinary team from NASA LaRC, NASA JPL, NASA ARC, FAA, United Airlines, Sky West Airlines, and Eagles Wings Inc. to carry out a comprehensive series of tests aimed at determining the nature and extent of any EMI to aeronautical communication and navigation systems from UWB devices meeting FCCapproved and proposed levels for unlicensed handheld transmitters.

  15. 47 CFR 15.525 - Coordination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Ultra-Wideband... the UWB device. If the imaging device is intended to be used for mobile applications, the geographical... resulting from this coordination. (b) The users of UWB imaging devices shall supply operational areas to...

  16. 47 CFR 15.503 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 15.503 Section 15.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.503 Definitions. (a) UWB bandwidth. For the purpose of this subpart, the UWB bandwidth is...

  17. Radar Based Navigation in Unknown Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-31

    focuses on the de- velopment of an Ultra-Wideband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (UWB- OFDM) radar as a navigation sensor in GPS-denied...3 UWB Ultra Wide-Band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing...waveform transmitted is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) symbol, which allows for resilience to jamming [16]. 4. Experimental

  18. Numerical solution to the Bloch equations: paramagnetic solutions under wideband continuous radio frequency irradiation in a pulsed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Ma, Hong; Yu, De; Zeng, Xiao-Hu

    2016-08-01

    A novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental scheme, called wideband continuous wave NMR (WB-CW-NMR), is presented in this article. This experimental scheme has promising applications in pulsed magnetic fields, and can dramatically improve the utilization of the pulsed field. The feasibility of WB-CW-NMR scheme is verified by numerically solving modified Bloch equations. In the numerical simulation, the applied magnetic field is a pulsed magnetic field up to 80 T, and the wideband continuous radio frequency (RF) excitation is a band-limited (0.68-3.40 GHz) white noise. Furthermore, the influences of some experimental parameters, such as relaxation time, applied magnetic field strength and wideband continuous RF power, on the WB-CW-NMR signal are analyzed briefly. Finally, a multi-channel system framework for transmitting and receiving ultra wideband signals is proposed, and the basic requirements of this experimental system are discussed. Meanwhile, the amplitude of the NMR signal, the level of noise and RF interference in WB-CW-NMR experiments are estimated, and a preliminary adaptive cancellation plan is given for detecting WB-CW-NMR signal from large background interference. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475067), the Innovative Research Foundation of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (2015 ZDTD017) and the Experimental Apparatus Research Project of Wuhan Pulsed High Magnetic Field Center (2015KF17)

  19. Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Induction for UXO Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-30

    prolate to oblate shapes do not present problematical considerations, we will just proceed below in terms of the prolate case. The coefficients bpmn in...these equations are known in the sense that they are calculated from the primary field, while the unknown Bpmn must be solved for. Obtaining the... Bpmn constitutes solving the problem, given that the associated Legendre functions m mn nandP Q are readily evaluated. A set of bpmn can be obtained

  20. Generation of the Ambiguity Function for Ultra Wideband Radar Waveforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Venezuela 9. Direction de Armamento y Electronica (DAE) Comandancia General de la Armada Av. Vollmer San Bernardino Caracas, 101 1 Venezuela 10. CC Efrain Leon Guerra 2 USMILGP Venezuela NAVSEC APO Miami 34037-0008 73 ...CA 93943-5002 5. Professor Darwish Abdel Aziz Mohamed, Air Defense College El Tabia, Alexandria Egypt 6. Escuela Superior de Guerra Naval AV. Cuyuni

  1. A Compressed Sensing Based Ultra-Wideband Communication System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    0 [ L−1 ∑ i=0 hiδ (mTs − iTh − τ) ] x (τ) dτ = L−1 ∑ i=0 hix (mTs − iTh) = Φx, (8) where Φ is a quasi− Toeplitz matrix and x = [x (0) , x (Th...x ((M − 1) qTh)] T = Ψθ, (9) Ψ = [Ψ (0) ,Ψ(Th) , ...,Ψ((M − 1) qTh)] T . (10) A quasi− Toeplitz matrix has such property: each row of Φ has L non-zero...Similar to Equation 8 and 11, the down-sampled measurements form the M×1 vector y = ΦΨθ = Θθ, where Φ is a quasi− Toeplitz matrix. Now, the

  2. Dielectric ultra wideband optical E-field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen; Lotem, Haim; Zang, De Yu; Forber, Richard; Schultz, Stephen; Selfridge, Richard

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at test and evaluation needs on high power microwave (HPM) weapons, we describe new developments on miniature all-dielectric optical field sensors with flat RF sensing response from ~ MHz to 12 GHz, with negligible field perturbation, good sensitivity (~70 mV/(mH√z), and >100dB dynamic range. Present devices use a 20 mm long sensing region in an integrated optical (IO) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using electrooptic (EO) polymer for the waveguide. The fiber-coupled optical transmitter/receiver utilizes common optical communication technology. The incident HPM RF field induces an instantaneous change in the index of refractive of the polymer that is converted into an optical intensity modulation in the MZI device. The poled EO polymer requires no electrodes nor metallic antennas that can distort the field under test. We characterized the frequency response and polarization sensitivity of the field sensor, and both agree well with modeling predictions. Common fabrication limitations result in devices with sensitivity to thermal drift. New sensor designs are being developed with remote bias control that also can provide self-calibration. To further reduce the sensor size and insertion loss, beneficial for array applications, an "in-fiber" field sensor is being developed. The core of a D-shaped fiber is partially removed and replaced with EO polymer. Such a device may use polarization modulation sensing, or be configured in similar MZI structures as the IO waveguide sensors.

  3. Ultra Wideband Wireless Body Area Network for Medical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    measurement, and shock diagnosis in emergency patients. Similar technology can obviously be applied to pneumology and polysomnography for apnoea...relative localization of a specific node can be found and updated dynamically. Iterative algorithms exist to improve precision with increasing

  4. Ultra-Wideband Radar: Research and Development Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-05

    ballistic missile IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers3 ISRD Institutional Supporting Research and Development LAMPF Los Alamos Meson ...s is the propagation velocity of light in free space. The parameter P, is the effective bandwidth of the signal defined by ,6 = ’R(0) (2.2) =f R2(r...6raveling-wave antenna are likely to be much greater than the distance light travels in the rise time of the antenna current; 10-100 ps =4. 3-30 mm

  5. Photonics for microwave systems and ultra-wideband signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, W.

    2016-08-01

    The advantages of using the broadband and low-loss distribution attributes of photonics to enhance the signal processing and sensing capabilities of microwave systems are well known. In this paper, we review the progress made in the topical areas of true-time-delay beamsteering, photonic-assisted analog-to-digital conversion, RF-photonic filtering and link performances. We also provide an outlook on the emerging field of integrated microwave photonics (MWP) that promise to reduce the cost of MWP subsystems and components, while providing significantly improved form-factors for system insertion.

  6. Location and Navigation with Ultra-Wideband Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-07

    obtaining the values of J(ñ0Tc) in the right frame where n0 is located, take the difference ∆J(ñ0Tc) = J(ñ0Tc)−J(ñ0Tc− wTc ), where w ∈ [1, Nc] and wTc ...beforehand. As illustrated in Fig. 3(a), the performance of the difference operation depends on the step size wTc . Accordingly, we choose the optimum...value for CM1 in our simulation as wTc = 3ns at low SNR and wTc = 8ns at high SNR. The normalized MSE for the SML algorithm with various K is plotted in

  7. Ultra-wideband, omni-directional, low distortion coaxial antenna

    DOEpatents

    Eubanks, Travis Wayne; Gibson, Christopher Lawrence

    2015-01-06

    An antenna for producing an omni-directional pattern, and using all frequencies of a frequency range simultaneously, is provided with first and second electrically conductive elements disposed coaxially relative to a central axis. The first element has a first surface of revolution about the axis, the first surface of revolution tapering radially outwardly while extending axially away from the second element to terminate at a first axial end of the first element. The second element has a second surface of revolution about the axis, the second surface of revolution tapering radially outwardly while extending axially toward the first element to terminate at a first axial end of the second element. The first and second surfaces of revolution overlap one another radially and axially, and are mutually non-conformal.

  8. A Survey of Antennas for Ultra-Wideband Applications (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    applications such as archaeology , civil engineering, forensic applications, geophysical application, mine detection, utilities, and remote sensing...smaller size broadband spiral antenna. To reduce the size of the antenna, they applied a miniaturization process and designed a ceramic -loaded slot...Volakis, J.L., “Design And Performance Of An Ultrawide-Band Ceramic -Loaded Slot Spiral” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on Volume 53, Issue

  9. Hex-Sided Rounded Dipole Antenna (HSRDA) For UWB Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Sarthak; Verma, Nand Kishor; Singh, Amit Kumar

    2016-03-01

    A hex-sided rounded dipole antenna (HSRDA) for UWB applications is presented. It is designed by the addition of semi-elliptical patch sections at the edges of a square bow-tie antenna. The antenna structure is fed by a modified microstrip feedline for better impedance matching. An impedance bandwidth of 2.9-11.4 GHz is achieved. The antenna structure has quasi omnidirectional radiation patterns and reasonable gain over the same frequency range. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed. The proposed antenna structure has miniaturized size for the same bandwidth as compared to already reported antenna structures.

  10. Interrogation of electrical connector faults using miniaturized UWB sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgöz, Çaǧata; Dardona, Sameh

    2017-01-01

    A diagnostic method for the detection, identification, and characterization of precursors of faults due to partial insertion of pin-socket contacts within electrical connectors commonly used in avionics systems is presented. It is demonstrated that a miniaturized ultrawideband (UWB) source and a minispectrum analyzer can be employed to measure resonant frequency shifts in connector S parameters as a small and low-cost alternative to a large and expensive network analyzer. The transfer function of an electrical connector is represented as a ratio of the spectra measured using the spectrum analyzer with and without the connector. Alternatively, the transfer function is derived in terms of the connector S parameters and the reflection coefficients at both ports of the connector. The transfer function data obtained using this derivation agreed well with its representation as a measured spectral ratio. The derivation enabled the extraction of the connector S parameters from the measured transfer function data as a function of the insertion depth of a pin-socket contact within the connector. In comparison with the S parameters measured directly using a network analyzer at multiple insertion depths, the S parameters extracted from the measured transfer function showed consistent and reliable representation of the electrical connector fault. The results demonstrate the potential of integrating a low-cost miniaturized UWB device into a connector harness for real-time detection of precursors to partially inserted connector faults.

  11. Capacity of UWB wireless channel for neural recording systems.

    PubMed

    El Khaled, Mohamad; Bahrami, Hadi; Fortier, Paul; Gosselin, Benoit; Rusch, Leslie Ann

    2014-01-01

    Ultra wide-band (UWB) short-range communication systems are valuable in medical technology, particularly for implanted devices, due to their low-power consumption, low cost, small size and high data rates. Monitoring of neural responses in the brain requires high data rate if we target a system supporting a large number of sensors. In this work, we are interested in the evaluation of the capacity of the ultra wide-band (UWB) channel that we could exploit using a realistic model of the biological channel. The channel characteristics are examined under two scenarios that are related to TX antenna placements. Using optimal power spectrum allocation (OPSA) at the transmitter side, we have computed this capacity by taking into account the fading characteristics of the channel. The results show the pertinence of the optimal power spectrum allocation for this type of channel. An improvement by a factor of 2 to 3 over a uniform power spectrum allocation (UPSA) when the SNR <; 0 dB was obtained. When the SNR is > 40 dB, both approaches give similar results. Antennas placement is examined under two scenarios having contrasting power constraints.

  12. Through-wall imaging and characterization of human activity using ultrawideband (UWB) random noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chieh-Ping; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2005-05-01

    Recent terrorist activities and law-enforcement situations involving hostage situations underscore the need for effective through-wall imaging. Current building interior imaging systems are based on short-pulse waveforms, which require specially designed antennas to subdue unwanted ringing. In addition, periodically transmitted pulses of energy are easily recognizable by the intelligent adversary who may employ appropriate countermeasures to confound detection. A coherent polarimetric random noise radar architecture is being developed based on UWB technology and software defined radio, which has great promise in its ability to covertly image obscured targets. The main advantages of the random noise radar lie in two aspects: first, random noise waveform has an ideal "thumbtack" ambiguity function, i.e., its down range and cross range resolution can be separately controlled, thus providing unambiguous high resolution imaging at any distance; second, random noise waveform is inherently low probability of intercept (LPI) and low probability of detection (LPD), i.e., it is immune from detection, jamming, and interference. Thus, it is an ideal candidate sensor for covert imaging of obscured regions in hostile environments. The coherency in the system can be exploited to field a fully-polarimetric system that can take advantage of polarization features in target recognition. Moving personnel can also be detected using Doppler processing. Simulation studies are used to analyze backscattered signals from the walls, and humans and other targets behind the walls. Real-time data processing shows human activity behind the wall and human target tracking. The high resolution provides excellent multipath and clutter rejection.

  13. Bistability and hysteresis in the emergence of pulses in microstrip Gunn-diode circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchenko, V. B.; Yurchenko, L. V.

    2014-12-15

    We develop time-domain simulations of microwave and THz radiation sources built as arrays of active devices when the radiation wavelength is small as compared to spacing between electronic components. We pursue an approach when the system is represented by equations with time-delay feedback that could generate chaos and other forms of complicated dynamics. The approach simplifies simulations of ultra-wideband effects and exceeds capabilities of frequency-domain methods. As a model case, we simulated a microstrip circuit with Gunn diode and a remote resonator emitting the radiation towards infinity. We observed the emergence of either the continuous waves or the trains of high-frequency pulses depending on the bias conditions. We found bistability and hysteresis in the onset of different oscillation modes that depends on the way of driving the bias voltage into the domain of instability of the given system. The results would allow one to improve the design of THz radiation sources with time-delay coupling between components.

  14. Very compact quad band-notched UWB monopole antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ling; Xia, Yingqing; Ye, Lei; Li, Lingzhi

    2016-10-01

    A very compact UWB antenna with four notched bands is proposed. The antenna consists of a rectangular radiating patch with a half circle at bottom, a tapered microstrip feed-line, and a semielliptical ground plane. With a pair of Lshaped slots, complementary co-directional SRR on the patch and a pair of L-shaped slots on the ground plane, four notched bands are created to prevent interference from WiMAX /WLAN/X-band. Experimental results show that the designed antenna, with compact size 20×30mm2, has an operating band(VSWR<2) from 2.7 to 20GHz,except four stop bands of 3.1 3.7GHz, 5.13 5.48GHz, 5.74 6.04GHz, 7.3 7.96GHz. And good radiation patterns within the operating band have been observed.

  15. Position Estimation of Transceivers in Communication Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F; Kent, C

    2004-01-20

    With rapid developments in wireless sensor networks, there is a growing need for transceiver position estimation independent of GPS, which may not be available in indoor networks. Our approach is to use range estimates from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, a technique well suited to large bandwidth physical links, such as in ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. In our UWB systems, pulse duration less than 200 psecs can easily be resolved to less than a foot. Assuming an encoded UWB physical layer, we first test positioning accuracy using simulations. We are interested in sensitivity to range errors and the required number of ranging nodes, and we show that in a high-precision environment, such as UWB, the optimal number of transmitters is four. Four transmitters with {+-}20ft. range error can locate a receiver to within one or two feet. We then implement these algorithms on an 802.11 wireless network and demonstrate the ability to locate a network access point to approximately 20 feet.

  16. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang, Yang; Wang, Yao; Jiangwei, Yin; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  17. Realistic modeling of the biological channel for the design of implantable wireless UWB communication systems.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Hadi; Gosselin, Benoit; Rusch, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    Several emerging medical applications require that a miniature data acquisition device be implanted into the head to extract and wirelessly communicate brain activity to other devices. Designing a reliable communication link for such an application requires a realistic model of the surrounding biological tissues. This paper exploits a realistic model of the biological channel to design a suitable wireless ultra wideband communication link in a brain monitoring application. Two scenarios for positioning the implanted transmitting antenna are considered. The 1(st) scenario places the antenna under the skull, whereas the 2(nd) scenario places the antenna under the skin, above the skull. The propagation characteristics of the signal through the tissues of the human head have been determined with full-wave electromagnetic simulation based on Finite Element Method. The implantable antenna and the external antenna are key components to establish an electromagnetic link between an implanted transmitter and an external receiver. The average specific absorption rate (ASAR) of the implantable antennas are evaluated and compared for the two proposed scenarios. Moreover, the maximum available power from the implanted antenna is evaluated to characterize the performance of the communication link established between the implantable antenna and the external antenna, with respect to spectrum and safety regulations. We show how sensitive the receiver must be in order to implement a reliable telemetry link based on the proposed model of the channel.

  18. Novel Multistatic Adaptive Microwave Imaging Methods for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2006-12-01

    Multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) methods are presented and compared for early breast cancer detection. Due to the significant contrast between the dielectric properties of normal and malignant breast tissues, developing microwave imaging techniques for early breast cancer detection has attracted much interest lately. MAMI is one of the microwave imaging modalities and employs multiple antennas that take turns to transmit ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses while all antennas are used to receive the reflected signals. MAMI can be considered as a special case of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar with the multiple transmitted waveforms being either UWB pulses or zeros. Since the UWB pulses transmitted by different antennas are displaced in time, the multiple transmitted waveforms are orthogonal to each other. The challenge to microwave imaging is to improve resolution and suppress strong interferences caused by the breast skin, nipple, and so forth. The MAMI methods we investigate herein utilize the data-adaptive robust Capon beamformer (RCB) to achieve high resolution and interference suppression. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods for breast cancer detection via numerical examples with data simulated using the finite-difference time-domain method based on a 3D realistic breast model.

  19. Antennas for the detection of radio emission pulses from cosmic-ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Charrier, D.; Denis, L.; Hilgers, G.; Mohrmann, L.; Philipps, B.; Seeger, O.

    2012-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is exploring the potential of the radio detection technique to study extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) addresses both technological and scientific aspects of the radio technique. A first phase of AERA has been operating since September 2010 with detector stations observing radio signals at frequencies between 30 and 80 MHz. In this paper we present comparative studies to identify and optimize the antenna design for the final configuration of AERA consisting of 160 individual radio detector stations. The transient nature of the air shower signal requires a detailed description of the antenna sensor. As the ultra-wideband reception of pulses is not widely discussed in antenna literature, we review the relevant antenna characteristics and enhance theoretical considerations towards the impulse response of antennas including polarization effects and multiple signal reflections. On the basis of the vector effective length we study the transient response characteristics of three candidate antennas in the time domain. Observing the variation of the continuous galactic background intensity we rank the antennas with respect to the noise level added to the galactic signal.

  20. Modeling, Real-Time Estimation, and Identification of UWB Indoor Wireless Channels

    DOE PAGES

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Djouadi, Seddik M.; Li, Yanyan; ...

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are used to model ultrawideband (UWB) indoor wireless channels. We show that the impulse responses for time-varying indoor wireless channels can be approximated in a mean-square sense as close as desired by impulse responses that can be realized by SDEs. The state variables represent the inphase and quadrature components of the UWB channel. The expected maximization and extended Kalman filter are employed to recursively identify and estimate the channel parameters and states, respectively, from online received signal strength measured data. Both resolvable and nonresolvable multipath received signals are considered and represented as small-scaled Nakagami fading. Themore » proposed models together with the estimation algorithm are tested using UWB indoor measurement data demonstrating the method’s viability and the results are presented.« less

  1. Modeling, Real-Time Estimation, and Identification of UWB Indoor Wireless Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Djouadi, Seddik M; Li, Yanyan; Fathy, Aly

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are used to model ultrawideband (UWB) indoor wireless channels. We show that the impulse responses for time-varying indoor wireless channels can be approximated in a mean square sense as close as desired by impulse responses that can be realized by SDEs. The state variables represent the inphase and quadrature components of the UWB channel. The expected maximization and extended Kalman filter are employed to recursively identify and estimate the channel parameters and states, respectively, from online received signal strength measured data. Both resolvable and non-resolvable multipath received signals are considered and represented as small-scaled Nakagami fading. The proposed models together with the estimation algorithm are tested using UWB indoor measurement data demonstrating the method s viability and the results are presented.

  2. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  3. Super multi-channel recording systems with UWB wireless transmitter for BMI.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Ando, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Takeshi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Isao; Matsushita, Kojiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Takizawa, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize a low-invasive and high accuracy Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) system for clinical applications, a super multi-channel recording system was developed in which 4096 channels of Electrocorticogram (ECoG) signal can be amplified and transmitted to outside the body by using an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) wireless system. Also, a high density, flexible electrode array made by using a Parylene-C substrate was developed that is composed of units of 32-ch recording arrays. We have succeeded in an evaluation test of UWB wireless transmitting using a body phantom system.

  4. A dielectric logging tool with insulated collar for formation fluid detection around borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Kang; Kong, Fan-Min; Zhao, Jia

    2015-08-01

    A dielectric tool with insulated collar for analyzing fluid saturation outside a borehole was introduced. The UWB (ultra-wideband) antenna mounted on the tool was optimized to launch a transient pulse. The broadband evaluation method provided more advantages when compared with traditional dielectric tools. The EM (electromagnetic) power distribution outside the borehole was studied, and it was shown that energy was propagated in two modes. Furthermore, the mechanism of the modes was discussed. In order to increase this tools' investigation depth, a novel insulated collar was introduced. In addition, operation in difference formations was discussed and this tool proved to be able to efficiently launch lateral EM waves. Response voltages indicated that the proposed scheme was able to evaluate the fluid saturation of reservoir formations and dielectric dispersion properties. It may be used as an alternative tool for imaging logging applications.

  5. An enantiomorphic blumlein impulse generator

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Crowe, W.R.; Clark, R.S.; Lundstrom, J.M.; Patterson, P.E.

    1992-07-01

    Working designs exist for 1 GW, 1 kHz ultra-wideband (UWB) sources (e.g. SNIPER). As these generators are pressed to higher peak powers and repetition rates, insulation, energy loss due to stray capacitance, and system efficiency (including power supplies and modulators) become critical issues. The EnantioMorphic (mirror image) BLumlein (EMBL) is a new type of vector inversion transmission line pulser which is designed to alleviate some of these problems. The design goals for EMBL are : >500 kV, {approximately}1 kHz rep-rate and <100 ps risetime in a 50 ohm geometry. In addition to the pulse forming line (PFL), EMBL also requires a high rep-rate modulator, primary switch, and peaking switch which will be described. Empirical design equations for peaking switch performance are included.

  6. An enantiomorphic blumlein impulse generator

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Crowe, W.R.; Clark, R.S.; Lundstrom, J.M.; Patterson, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    Working designs exist for 1 GW, 1 kHz ultra-wideband (UWB) sources (e.g. SNIPER). As these generators are pressed to higher peak powers and repetition rates, insulation, energy loss due to stray capacitance, and system efficiency (including power supplies and modulators) become critical issues. The EnantioMorphic (mirror image) BLumlein (EMBL) is a new type of vector inversion transmission line pulser which is designed to alleviate some of these problems. The design goals for EMBL are : >500 kV, {approximately}1 kHz rep-rate and <100 ps risetime in a 50 ohm geometry. In addition to the pulse forming line (PFL), EMBL also requires a high rep-rate modulator, primary switch, and peaking switch which will be described. Empirical design equations for peaking switch performance are included.

  7. 47 CFR 15.515 - Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical requirements for vehicular radar... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.515 Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems. (a..., changing gears, or engaging a turn signal. (b) The UWB bandwidth of a vehicular radar system...

  8. 47 CFR 15.515 - Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for vehicular radar... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.515 Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems. (a..., changing gears, or engaging a turn signal. (b) The UWB bandwidth of a vehicular radar system...

  9. Advanced Wireless Integrated Navy Network - AWINN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    progress report No. 3 on AWINN hardware and software configurations of smart, wideband, multi-function antennas , secure configurable platform, close-in...and Robust Networks Visualization of Wireless Technology and Ad Hoc Networks Technology Integration Projects The Advanced Antennas Group has completed a...comprehensive investigation of Wideband and Ultra Wideband (UWB) antennas for the AWINN projects. The investigation concluded that Tapered Slot

  10. 47 CFR 15.515 - Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Technical requirements for vehicular radar... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.515 Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems. (a..., changing gears, or engaging a turn signal. (b) The UWB bandwidth of a vehicular radar system...

  11. 47 CFR 15.515 - Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical requirements for vehicular radar... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.515 Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems. (a..., changing gears, or engaging a turn signal. (b) The UWB bandwidth of a vehicular radar system...

  12. 47 CFR 15.515 - Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical requirements for vehicular radar... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.515 Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems. (a..., changing gears, or engaging a turn signal. (b) The UWB bandwidth of a vehicular radar system...

  13. Multi-User Performance Issues in Wireless Impulse Radio Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Enabling uwb through precise timing. In UWBST02, 2002. [12] R. Fontana , A. Ameti, E. Richley, L. Beard, and D. Guy. Recent advances in ultra wideband...Gabriella Di Benedetto . Multi user interference in power-unbalanced ultra wide band systems: Analysis and verification. In UWBST 03, 2003. [31] G. D

  14. Test Area C-62 Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service UWB Ultra Wideband UXO Unexploded Ordnance VAM Vesicular- Arbuscular Mycorrhizae WQLS Water Quality Listed...and nutrients . The maintenance of a functional plant root and mycorrhizae fungi association is beneficial to plants and the overall soil...environment. Mycorrhizae hypae filaments mediate nutrients cycling, control soil microbiology, dictate plant community composition, and hold soil together

  15. Numerical simulation of the coupling of ultra-wide band electromagnetic pulse into landmine by aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhen-Ru; Zhao, Hui-Chang; Yang, Li; Wang, Feng-Shan

    2015-09-01

    The modern landmine’s electronic fuse is susceptible to strong interference or can even be damaged by the ultra-wide band electromagnetic pulse (UWB-EMP). The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in lossy media with cylindrical coordinates is used to study the interactions of the UWB-EMP with the landmine. First, the coupling of UWB-EMP into the landmine shielding shell through an aperture is numerically simulated. Second, the coupled electromagnetic field of mine shells made of different shielding materials and with apertures of different sizes is plotted. Third, the aperture coupling laws of UWB-EMP into shells are analyzed and categorized. Such an algorithm is capable of effectively preventing ladder similar errors, and consequently improving the calculation precision, and in addition to adopting the message passing interface (MPI) parallel method to divide the total calculating range into more sub-ranges, the overall calculating efficiency is greatly increased. These calculations are surely a constructive reference for modern landmine design against electromagnetic damage. Project supported by the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2014M552610).

  16. Compact programmable ground-penetrating radar system for roadway and bridge deck characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuioc, Dan; Xia, Tian; Venkatachalam, Anbu; Huston, Dryver; Birken, Ralf; Wang, Ming

    2011-04-01

    A compact, high-performance, programmable Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system is described based on an impulse generator transmitter, a full waveform sampling single shot receiver, and high directivity antennas. The digital programmable pulse generator is developed for the transmitter circuit and both the pulse width and pulse shape are tunable to adjust for different modes of operation. It utilizes a step-recovery diode (SRD) and short-circuited microstrip lines to produce sub-nanosecond wide ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses. Sharp step signals are generated by periodic clock signals that are connected to the SRD's input node. Up to four variable width pulses (0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.1 ns) are generated through a number of PIN switches controlling the selection of different microstrip lengths. A schottky diode is used as a rectifier at the output of the SRD in order to pass only the positive part of the Gaussian pulses while another group of short-circuit microstrips are used to generate amplitude-reversed Gaussian pulses. The addition of the two pulses results in a Gaussian monocycle pulse which is more energy efficient for emission. The pulse generator is connected to a number of UWB antennas. Primarily, a UWB Vivaldi antenna (500 MHz to 5 GHz) is used, but a number of other high-performance GPR-oriented antennas are investigated as well. All have linear phase characteristic, constant phase center, constant polarization and flat gain. A number of methods including resistive loading are used to decrease any resonances due to the antenna structure and unwanted reflections from the ground. The antennas exhibit good gain characteristics in the design bandwidth.

  17. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2014-01-01

    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  18. Extremely High Peak Power Pulsed RF and UWB EMR Effects on Genomic Transcription - Microarray Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-26

    selenoprotein T 213424_at 2.255 KIAA0895 KIAA0895 protein 210439_at 2.255 ICOS inducible T-cell co-stimulator 201637_s_at 2.252 FXR1 fragile X... mental retardation , autosomal homolog 1 214553_s_at 2.242 ARPP-19 cyclic AMP phosphoprotein, 19 kD 221517_s_at 2.24 CRSP6 cofactor required for Sp1...control, cells were treated with staurosporine (Sigma) for 6 hours at a concentration of 0.5 µg/ml of medium. Western Blot Analysis The p53 protein

  19. Measurement of the Pulse Radiation of an IRA in Time Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadtler, Thiemo; Ter Haseborg, Jan Luiken; Sabath, Frank

    For radiation of UWB pulses special Impulse Radiating Antennas (IRA) have been designed and are continuously improved. The measurement of its near field can help optimizing this antenna type. This paper presents a time domain scanner which is able to determine the transient near field. The so called double probe near field scanner can be employed to measure the two dimensional field distribution in time domain.

  20. Ultrawideband doublet pulse generation based on nonlinear polarization rotation of an elliptically polarized beam and its distribution over a fiber/wireless link.

    PubMed

    Chang, You Min; Lee, Junsu; Lee, Ju Han

    2010-09-13

    Proposed herein is an alternative photonic scheme for the generation of a doublet UWB pulse, which is based on the nonlinear polarization rotation of an elliptically polarized probe beam. The proposed scheme is a modified optical-fiber Kerr shutter that uses an elliptically polarized probe beam together with a linearly polarized control beam. Through theoretical analysis, it was shown that the optical-fiber-based Kerr shutter is capable of producing an ideal transfer function for the successful conversion of input Gaussian pulses into doublet pulses under special elliptical polarization states of the probe beam. An experimental verification was subsequently carried out to verify the working principle. Finally, the system performance of the generated UWB doublet pulses was assessed by propagating them over a 25-km-long standard single-mode fiber link, followed by wireless transmission. Error-free transmission was successfully achieved.

  1. Fabrication of CPW-Fed Fractal Antenna for UWB Applications with Omni-Directional Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sedghi, Tohid; Jalali, Mahdi; Aribi, Tohid

    2014-01-01

    Novel and compact CPW-fed antennas are proposed comprised of a fractal patch and modified ground-plane. The ground-plane is truncated at the center and includes dielectric notches at its side to enhance the antenna's impedance bandwidth. The dimensions of the notches effectively control the upper and lower band edges of the antenna. The optimized antenna operates across 2.95–12.81 GHz for S11 ≤ −10 dB. Omnidirectional radiation pattern is achieved over the full UWB frequency range. The miniaturized antenna has a total size of 14 × 18 × 1 mm3. The characteristics of the proposed antenna are suitable for UWB wireless communication requiring low profile antennas. PMID:24672314

  2. Super-resolution techniques for velocity estimation using UWB random noise radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawood, Muhammad; Quraishi, Nafish; Alejos, Ana V.

    2011-06-01

    The Doppler spread pertaining to the ultrawideband (UWB) radar signals from moving target is directly proportional to the bandwidth of the transmitted signal and the target velocity. Using typical FFT-based methods, the estimation of true velocities pertaining to two targets moving with relatively close velocities within a radar range bin is problematic. In this paper, we extend the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to resolve targets moving velocities closer to each other within a given range bin for UWB random noise radar waveforms. Simulated and experimental results are compared for various target velocities using both narrowband (200MHz) and wideband (1GHz) noise radar signals, clearly establishing the unbiased and unambiguous velocity estimations using the MUSIC algorithm.

  3. Multichannel neural recording with a 128 Mbps UWB wireless transmitter for implantable brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ando, H; Takizawa, K; Yoshida, T; Matsushita, K; Hirata, M; Suzuki, T

    2015-01-01

    To realize a low-invasive and high accuracy BMI (Brain-machine interface) system, we have already developed a fully-implantable wireless BMI system which consists of ECoG neural electrode arrays, neural recording ASICs, a Wi-Fi based wireless data transmitter and a wireless power receiver with a rechargeable battery. For accurate estimation of movement intentions, it is important for a BMI system to have a large number of recording channels. In this paper, we report a new multi-channel BMI system which is able to record up to 4096-ch ECoG data by multiple connections of 64-ch ASICs and time division multiplexing of recorded data. This system has an ultra-wide-band (UWB) wireless unit for transmitting the recorded neural signals to outside the body. By preliminary experiments with a human body equivalent liquid phantom, we confirmed 4096-ch UWB wireless data transmission at 128 Mbps mode below 20 mm distance.

  4. Location detection and tracking of moving targets by a 2D IR-UWB radar system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2015-03-19

    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  5. Performance Evaluation of MIMO-UWB Systems Using Measured Propagation Data and Proposal of Timing Control Scheme in LOS Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, Masaki; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Ohgane, Takeo

    Ultrawide-band impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have attracted interest regarding their use in next-generation high-speed radio communication. We have studied the use of MIMO ultrawide-band (MIMO-UWB) systems to enable higher-speed radio communication. We used frequency-domain equalization based on the minimum mean square error criterion (MMSE-FDE) to reduce intersymbol interference (ISI) and co-channel interference (CCI) in MIMO-UWB systems. Because UWB systems are expected to be used for short-range wireless communication, MIMO-UWB systems will usually operate in line-of-sight (LOS) environments and direct waves will be received at the receiver side. Direct waves have high power and cause high correlations between antennas in such environments. Thus, it is thought that direct waves will adversely affect the performance of spatial filtering and equalization techniques used to enhance signal detection. To examine the feasibility of MIMO-UWB systems, we conducted MIMO-UWB system propagation measurements in LOS environments. From the measurements, we found that the arrival time of direct waves from different transmitting antennas depends on the MIMO configuration. Because we can obtain high power from the direct waves, direct wave reception is critical for maximizing transmission performance. In this paper, we present our measurement results, and propose a way to improve performance using a method of transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) timing control. We evaluate the bit error rate (BER) performance for this form of timing control using measured channel data.

  6. Hybrid graphene-copper UWB array sensor for brain tumor detection via scattering parameters in microwave detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamlos, Mohd Aminudin; Ismail, Abdul Hafiizh; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Narbudowicz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid graphene-copper ultra-wideband array sensor applied to microwave imaging technique is successfully used in detecting and visualizing tumor inside human brain. The sensor made of graphene coated film for the patch while copper for both the transmission line and parasitic element. The hybrid sensor performance is better than fully copper sensor. Hybrid sensor recorded wider bandwidth of 2.0-10.1 GHz compared with fully copper sensor operated from 2.5 to 10.1 GHz. Higher gain of 3.8-8.5 dB is presented by hybrid sensor, while fully copper sensor stated lower gain ranging from 2.6 to 6.7 dB. Both sensors recorded excellent total efficiency averaged at 97 and 94%, respectively. The sensor used for both transmits equivalent signal and receives backscattering signal from stratified human head model in detecting tumor. Difference in the data of the scattering parameters recorded from the head model with presence and absence of tumor is used as the main data to be further processed in confocal microwave imaging algorithm in generating image. MATLAB software is utilized to analyze S-parameter signals obtained from measurement. Tumor presence is indicated by lower S-parameter values compared to higher values recorded by tumor absence.

  7. Techniques for clutter suppression in the presence of body movements during the detection of respiratory activity through UWB radars.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, Antonio; Girbau, David; Villarino, Ramon

    2014-02-07

    This paper focuses on the feasibility of tracking the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration from the waveforms recorded using an impulse-radio (IR) ultra-wideband radar. The paper describes the signal processing to estimate sleep apnea detection and breathing rate. Some techniques to solve several problems in these types of measurements, such as the clutter suppression, body movement and body orientation detection are described. Clutter suppression is achieved using a moving averaging filter to dynamically estimate it. The artifacts caused by body movements are removed using a threshold method before analyzing the breathing signal. The motion is detected using the time delay that maximizes the received signal after a clutter removing algorithm is applied. The periods in which the standard deviations of the time delay exceed a threshold are considered macro-movements and they are neglected. The sleep apnea intervals are detected when the breathing signal is below a threshold. The breathing rate is determined from the robust spectrum estimation based on Lomb periodogram algorithm. On the other hand the breathing signal amplitude depends on the body orientation respect to the antennas, and this could be a problem. In this case, in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, multiple sensors are proposed to ensure that the backscattered signal can be detected by at least one sensor, regardless of the direction the human subject is facing. The feasibility of the system is compared with signals recorded by a microphone.

  8. Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Interference - Assessment and Mitigation Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Gaussian pulses............................................................................ 45 Figure 35 ESD of Hermite polynomial based (from...television stations have to have a license to operate. Their carrier frequency is allocated based upon which channels are already assigned in the nearby...continuous sine wave, as shown in Figure 1, where its frequency is based on how many times it completes a cycle in one second. In the AM radio band

  9. Model of human breathing reflected signal received by PN-UWB radar.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Mohamed; Rajan, Sreeraman; Bolic, Miodrag; Batkin, Izmail; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z

    2014-01-01

    Human detection is an integral component of civilian and military rescue operations, military surveillance and combat operations. Human detection can be achieved through monitoring of vital signs. In this article, a mathematical model of human breathing reflected signal received in PN-UWB radar is proposed. Unlike earlier published works, both chest and abdomen movements are considered for modeling the radar return signal along with the contributions of fundamental breathing frequency and its harmonics. Analyses of recorded reflected signals from three subjects in different postures and at different ranges from the radar indicate that ratios of the amplitudes of the harmonics contain information about posture and posture change.

  10. Influence of the organism interface on the breast cancer detection by UWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xia; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2008-11-01

    Ultra-wide band (UWB) imaging technique is very attractive for the early breast cancer detection based on the obvious contrast in the electrical properties of malignant tumor to the normal fatty breast tissue. The tumor can be detected by analyzing the reflecting and scattering behavior of the UWB microwaves propagating in the breast. In this study, the influence of the organism interfaces is investigated from different cases of breast configuration involving different gland shapes as well as the tumor locations. Results show that the gland structure and tumor status have large influences on the reconstructed images generated from the detected signals due to the interface varieties. The tumor information in the proposed configurations can be obtained by series signal processing including eliminating the early time response of the detected signals caused by the direct wave and the reflection from the interface between the skin and the breast fat, and compensating the path loss of the propagating signal due to the radial spreading and the attenuation in the lossy breast. The location and the number of emitters and detectors affect the quality of the reconstructed image.

  11. A high linearity dual-band mixer for IMT-A and UWB systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xusheng, Tang; Xiaoyu, Wang; Jiang, Yang; Xin, Tang; Fengyi, Huang

    2014-11-01

    The design and analysis of a reconfigurable dual-band down-conversion mixer for IMT-advanced (3.4-3.6 GHz) and UWB (4.2-4.8 GHz) applications are presented. Based on a folded double-balanced Gilbert cell, which is well known for its low voltage, simplicity and well balanced performance, the mixer adopts a capacitive cross-coupling technique for input matching and performance improvement. Switched capacitors and resistors are added to shift the working bands. Fabricated in a TSMC 0.13 μm process, the test results show flat conversion gains from 9.6 to 10.3 dB on the IMT-A band and from 9.7 to 10.4 dB on the UWB band, with a noise figure of about 15 dB on both bands. The input third-order intercept points (IIP3) are about 7.3 dBm on both of the frequency bands. The whole chip consumes 11 mW under 1.2 V supply and the total area of the layout is 0.76 × 0.65 mm2.

  12. MB-OFDM-UWB Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coalmine: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruisong; Yang, Wei; You, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    Safety production of coalmines is a task of top priority which plays an important role in guaranteeing, supporting and promoting the continuous development of the coal industry. Since traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) cannot fully meet the requirements of comprehensive environment monitoring of underground coalmines, wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), enabling the retrieval of multimedia information, are introduced to realize fine-grained and precise environment surveillance. In this paper, a framework for designing underground coalmine WMSNs based on Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Ultra-wide Band (MB-OFDM-UWB) is presented. The selection of MB-OFDM-UWB wireless transmission solution is based on the characteristics of underground coalmines. Network structure and design challenges are analyzed first, which is the foundation for further discussion. Then, key supporting technologies and open research areas in different layers are surveyed, and we provide a detailed literature review of the state of the art strategies, algorithms and general solutions in these issues. Finally, other research issues like localization, information processing, and network management are discussed. PMID:27999258

  13. Experimental Results of Site Calibration and Sensitivity Measurements in OTR for UWB Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanadham, Chandana; Rao, P. Mallikrajuna

    2016-08-01

    System calibration and parameter accuracy measurement of electronic support measures (ESM) systems is a major activity, carried out by electronic warfare (EW) engineers. These activities are very critical and needs good understanding in the field of microwaves, antennas, wave propagation, digital and communication domains. EW systems are broad band, built with state-of-the art electronic hardware, installed on different varieties of military platforms to guard country's security from time to time. EW systems operate in wide frequency ranges, typically in the order of thousands of MHz, hence these are ultra wide band (UWB) systems. Few calibration activities are carried within the system and in the test sites, to meet the accuracies of final specifications. After calibration, parameters are measured for their accuracies either in feed mode by injecting the RF signals into the front end or in radiation mode by transmitting the RF signals on to system antenna. To carry out these activities in radiation mode, a calibrated open test range (OTR) is necessary in the frequency band of interest. Thus site calibration of OTR is necessary to be carried out before taking up system calibration and parameter measurements. This paper presents the experimental results of OTR site calibration and sensitivity measurements of UWB systems in radiation mode.

  14. MB-OFDM-UWB Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coalmine: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruisong; Yang, Wei; You, Kaiming

    2016-12-16

    Safety production of coalmines is a task of top priority which plays an important role in guaranteeing, supporting and promoting the continuous development of the coal industry. Since traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) cannot fully meet the requirements of comprehensive environment monitoring of underground coalmines, wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), enabling the retrieval of multimedia information, are introduced to realize fine-grained and precise environment surveillance. In this paper, a framework for designing underground coalmine WMSNs based on Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Ultra-wide Band (MB-OFDM-UWB) is presented. The selection of MB-OFDM-UWB wireless transmission solution is based on the characteristics of underground coalmines. Network structure and design challenges are analyzed first, which is the foundation for further discussion. Then, key supporting technologies and open research areas in different layers are surveyed, and we provide a detailed literature review of the state of the art strategies, algorithms and general solutions in these issues. Finally, other research issues like localization, information processing, and network management are discussed.

  15. An ultra-wideband CMOS PA with dummy filling for reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Ye, Yu; Xu, Hongtao; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, N. C.; Gu, Q. Jane

    2017-03-01

    A V-band power amplifier in a bulk 65 nm CMOS technology with a peak gain 14.5 dB and 3-dB bandwidth of 28.8 GHz (50.8-79.6 GHz) is presented. The techniques to boost bandwidth and power efficiency are presented. In addition, the design of dummy filling to satisfy manufacturing density requirements while having negligible effects on performances is discussed in details. The PA features a three stage transformer coupled differential architecture with integrated input and output baluns on-chip. The PA achieves a measured saturated output power of 15.1 dBm and output 1 dB compression power of 12.9 dBm at 65 GHz. The peak power-added efficiency is 18.9%. The entire PA occupies area of 0.31 mm2, while consuming 150 mW from a 1.25 V supply.

  16. Ultra-wideband fiber optical parametric amplifier for spectrally-encoded microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoming; Tan, Sisi; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) has gained its popularity in the telecommunication systems at the 1.5-um window for its gain, bandwidth etc. Unfortunately, its practical application at the bio-favorable window, i.e. 1.0 um, still requires substantial efforts. Thus, here we report a versatile all-fiber optical parametric amplifier for life-science (OPALS) at 1.0 um as an add-on module for optical imaging system. The parametric gain fiber (photonic-crystal fiber (PCF), 110 m in length) is specially designed to reduce the longitudinal dispersion fluctuation, which yields a superior figure of merit, i.e. a total insertion loss of ~2.5 dB and a nonlinear coefficient of 34 /(W•km). Our OPALS delivers a superior performance in terms of gain (~158,000), bandwidth (>100 nm) and gain flatness (< 3-dB ripple). Experimentally, we show that: 1) a wavelength-varying quasi-monochrome pump achieves a 52-dB gain and 160-nm bandwidth, but at the expense of a larger gain-spectrum ripple, i.e. a bell-shaped; 2) the birefringence of the parametric gain medium, i.e. PCF in this case, can be utilized to improve the gain-spectrum flatness of OPALS by 10.5 dB, meanwhile a 100-nm bandwidth can be guaranteed; 3) the gain-spectrum flatness of OPALS can be further flattened by using a high-speed wavelength-sweeping pump, which exhibits a 110-nm flat gain spectrum with ripple less than 3 dB. Finally, we employ this versatile all-fiber OPALS as an add-on module to enhance the sensitivity of a spectrally-encoded microscope by 47 dB over an ultra-wide spectral range.

  17. Power-efficient ultra wideband LNAs for the world's largest radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, M.; Bhaumik, S.; George, D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports two Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) for Aperture Array system of the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project. LNA design for SKA is a step change in traditional LNA design approach for radio astronomy applications as the defining aspects of performance are low noise along with low power consumption and adequate gain. The LNAs are designed, fabricated and characterised for frequency range of 20 -1000 MHz. One LNA has single ended input to single ended output configuration (LNA1) while the other LNA has balanced input to single ended output (LNA2). The S-parameter, noise figure (NF) and large signal response of the LNAs are measured at room temperature. Both LNAs show flat gain of higher than 30 dB over specified frequency range. Average NF values of LNA1 and LNA2 are 0.55 dB and 0.75 dB respectively. Mixed mode S-parameter response based on theoretical analysis of differential configuration is presented. The LNAs have exceptionally low power consumption of less than 25 mW; 20 times lower than the other reported LNAs available for the SKA and also covering complete frequency band with less than 1 dB NF. Therefore implication of these LNAs is a significant step forward as the projected number of LNAs required for the lower frequency band of SKA Aperture Array system is 5,600,000 (Dewdney et al., Proc. IEEE 97(8), 1482-1496, 2009; Faulkner et al. 2010).

  18. Low-Cost Ultra-Wideband EM Sensor for UXO Detection and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    chose to use a MOTU audio signal processing system that ESS already had on hand. This system provides 24 ADC channels and 24 DAC channels, and...processing system with a PC and the MOTU digital audio unit (left). Photograph of the MOTU digital audio unit and signal cables that connect to the...resistance COTS Commercial-Off-The-Shelf DAC Digital to Analog Converter DC Direct Current DSP Digital Signal Processor EM Electromagnetic EMI

  19. Ultra-Wideband, Fully Polarimetric Ground Penetrating Radar for UXO Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-30

    38. Output from neural network trained to detect target arcs. .............................................. 81 Figure 39. GPR measurements...showing buried drainage pipes in farmland. .................................. 82 Figure 40. Neural network detection of the drainage pipes from time vs...ANN: Artificial Neural Network CNR: Complex [electromagnetic] natural resonance CRREL: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ERDC Cold Regions Research

  20. All-fiber, ultra-wideband tunable laser at 2 μm.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Alam, S U; Jung, Y; Heidt, A M; Richardson, D J

    2013-11-15

    We report a direct diode-pumped all-fiber tunable laser source at 2 μm with a tuning range of more than 250 nm. A 3 dB power flatness of 200 nm with a maximum output power of 30 mW at 1930 nm was achieved. The laser has a high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of more than 40 dB across the whole tuning range.

  1. Design of mid-infrared ultra-wideband metallic absorber based on circuit theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, Kamalodin; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Farajollahi, Saeed; Khavasi, Amin; Rejaei, Behzad

    2016-12-01

    An ultra-broadband absorber of light is proposed by using periodic array of ultra-thin metallic ribbons on top of a lossless quarter-wavelength dielectric spacer placed on a metallic reflector. We propose a fully analytical circuit model for the structure, and then the absorber is duly designed based on the impedance matching concept. As a result, normalized bandwidth of 99.5% is realized by the proposed absorbing structure in mid-infrared regime. Performing a numerical optimization algorithm, we could also reach to normalized bandwidth of 103%.

  2. A Baseband, Impulse Ultra-Wideband Transceiver Front-end for Low Power Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-08

    at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 2003. [72] D. C. Giancoli , Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics , 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall...Sayf Alalusi, Dennis Yee, Brian Limketkai, Nate Pletcher, and Delynn Bettencourt deserve a special mention for helping keep me in physical (as well as...communication from a systems-level perspective. Unfortunately this requires knowledge beyond the char- CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 3 acteristics of the physical

  3. Ultra-wideband RF/microwave MEMS switches for wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, A. R.

    2006-03-01

    Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) switches offer outstanding performance over wide bandwidth, minimum weight, sue, and power consumption, and significantly improved reliability unmatched by any other electronic switches deploying GaAS FETs or GaAs PIN-diodes or GaAs HEMTs. These switches are best suited for applications that require high signal purity in terms of signal linearity, insertion loss, isolation, and power consumption. RF-MEMS switches offer reliability exceeding ten billion life cycles and low insertion loss and high isolation while operating over uh-wideband. Design parameters and fabrication aspects of RF-MEMS shunt and series switches are investigated, which will permit switch operation over 60 to 94 GHz range.

  4. Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio for Tactical Ad-Hoc Military Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-02

    21], [23]. Rather than using simulations to show the bit-error- probability ( BEP ) performance with MAI as found in [14] and [15], we incorporate...the power 4 delay profile (PDP) of the channel, inspired by the work in [13], to derive the variance of the MAI, enabling theoretical BEP analysis. Our...an upper bound on the BEP , the number of equal-power users that the system can support is evaluated for different modulation order M. The network

  5. Ultra-Wideband Multi-Dye-Sensitized Upconverting Nanoparticles for Information Security Application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongha; Yoo, Byeongjun; Lee, Hakyong; Cha, Gi Doo; Lee, Hee-Su; Cho, Youngho; Kim, Sang Yeon; Seo, Hyunseon; Lee, Woongchan; Son, Donghee; Kang, Myungjoo; Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Yong Il; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-01-01

    Multi-dye-sensitized upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs), which harvest photons of wide wavelength range (450-975 nm) are designed and synthesized. The UCNPs embedded in a photo-acid generating layer are integrated on destructible nonvolatile resistive memory device. Upon illumination of light, the system permanently erases stored data, achieving enhanced information security.

  6. Graphene as a high impedance surface for ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrigo, Martino; Dragoman, Mircea; Constanzo, Alessandra; Dragoman, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    The metals are regularly used as reflectors of electromagnetic fields emitted by antennas ranging from microwaves up to THz. To enhance the reflection and thus the gain of the antenna, metallic high impedance surfaces (HIS) are used. HIS is a planar array of continuous metallic periodic cell surfaces able to suppress surface waves, which cause multipath interference and backward radiation in a narrow bandwidth near the cell resonance. Also, the image currents are reduced, and therefore the antenna can be placed near the HIS. We demonstrate that graphene is acting as a HIS surface in a very large bandwidth, from microwave to THz, suppressing the radiation leakages better than a metal.

  7. An Ultra-Wideband Cross-Correlation Radiometer for Mesoscopic Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Ryan; Haselby, Cyrus; Qin, Hua; Eriksson, Mark; Blick, Robert

    2007-03-01

    We have designed, built and tested a cross-correlation radiometer for detecting statistical order in the quantum fluctuations of mesoscopic experiments at sub-Kelvin temperatures. Our system utilizes a fully analog front-end--operating over the X- and Ku-bands (8 to 18 GHz)--for computing the cross-correlation function. Digital signal processing techniques are used to provide robustness against instrumentation drifts and offsets. The economized version of our instrument can measure, with sufficient correlation efficiency, noise signals having power levels as low as 10 fW. We show that, if desired, we can improve this performance by including cryogenic preamplifiers which boost the signal-to-noise ratio near the signal source. By adding a few extra components, we can measure both the real and imaginary parts of the cross-correlation function--improving the overall signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of sqrt[2]. We demonstrate the utility of our cross-correlator with noise power measurements from a quantum point contact.

  8. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  9. Ultra-Wideband Harmonic Radar for Locating Radio-Frequency Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Fig. 9 Picture of the directional coupler , diplexers, and receive chain ..........................................8  Fig. 10 Close-up picture of...directional coupler : port 1 = input, port 2 = through (output), port 3 = coupled...the Hewlett Packard 11607-60001 (20 dB) directional coupler . The sampled signal is captured by 1 channel of the Lecroy Wavemaster 8300A oscilloscope

  10. Investigation of ultra wideband multi-channel dichroic beamsplitters from 0.3 to 52 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, K. Q.; Hunneman, R.; Seeley, J. S.; Hawkins, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a set of multi-channel dichroics which includes a 6 channel dichroic operating over the wavelength region from 0.3 to 52 microns is described. In order to achieve the optimum performance, the optical constraints of PbTe, Ge, and CdTe coatings in the strongly absorptive region have been determined by use of a new iterative method using normal incidence reflectance measurement of the multilayer together with initial values of energy gap and infinite refractive index for the semiconductor model. The design and manufacture of the dichroics is discussed and the final results are presented.

  11. Graphene as a high impedance surface for ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrigo, Martino; Costanzo, Alessandra; Dragoman, Mircea; Dragoman, Daniela

    2013-11-14

    The metals are regularly used as reflectors of electromagnetic fields emitted by antennas ranging from microwaves up to THz. To enhance the reflection and thus the gain of the antenna, metallic high impedance surfaces (HIS) are used. HIS is a planar array of continuous metallic periodic cell surfaces able to suppress surface waves, which cause multipath interference and backward radiation in a narrow bandwidth near the cell resonance. Also, the image currents are reduced, and therefore the antenna can be placed near the HIS. We demonstrate that graphene is acting as a HIS surface in a very large bandwidth, from microwave to THz, suppressing the radiation leakages better than a metal.

  12. Accurate permittivity measurements for microwave imaging via ultra-wideband removal of spurious reflectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of microwave imaging is becoming more prevalent for detection of interior hidden defects in manufactured and packaged materials. In applications for detection of hidden moisture, microwave tomography can be used to image the material and then perform an inverse calculation to derive an estim...

  13. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  14. Ultra-Wideband, Dual-Polarized, Beam-Steering P-Band Array Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    duToit, Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    A dual-polarized, wide-bandwidth (200 MHz for one polarization, 100 MHz for the orthogonal polarization) antenna array at P-band was designed to be driven by NASA's EcoSAR digital beam former. EcoSAR requires two wide P-band antenna arrays mounted on the wings of an aircraft, each capable of steering its main beam up to 35deg off-boresight, allowing the twin radar beams to be steered at angles to the flight path. The science requirements are mainly for dual-polarization capability and a wide bandwidth of operation of up to 200 MHz if possible, but at least 100 MHz with high polarization port isolation and low cross-polarization. The novel design geometry can be scaled with minor modifications up to about four times higher or down to about half the current design frequencies for any application requiring a dual-polarized, wide-bandwidth steerable antenna array. EcoSAR is an airborne interferometric P-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research application for studying two- and three-dimensional fine-scale measurements of terrestrial ecosystem structure and biomass, which will ultimately aid in the broader study of the carbon cycle and climate change. The two 2×8 element Pband antenna arrays required by the system will be separated by a baseline of about 25 m, allowing for interferometry measurements. The wide 100-to- 200-MHz bandwidth dual-polarized beams employed will allow the determination of the amount of biomass and even tree height on the ground. To reduce the size of the patches along the boresight dimension in order to fit them into the available space, two techniques were employed. One technique is to add slots along the edges of each patch where the main electric currents are expected to flow, and the other technique is to bend the central part of the patch away from the ground plane. The latter also facilitates higher mechanical rigidity. The high port isolation of more than 40 dB was achieved by employing a highly symmetrical feed mechanism for each pair of elements: three apertures coupling to the patch elements were placed along the two symmetry lines of the antenna element pair. Two apertures were used in tandem to excite two of the stacked patch elements for one polarization; the other was used to excite one element from one side and the other element from the other side, opposite in phase, taking care of the remaining polarization. The apertures narrow down to a small gap where they are excited by a crossing microstrip line to prevent any asymmetrical excitation of the two sides of the aperture gap, minimizing port-to-port coupling. Using patches that are non-planar leads to higher mechanical rigidity and smaller patch sizes to fit into the available space. Aperture coupling minimizes direct metal-to-metal connections. Using an aperture coupling feed mechanism results in a feed network for two antenna elements with a total of three feed points, plus one simple in-phase combiner to reduce it to two ports. It greatly reduces the complexity of the alternative, but more conventional, way of feeding a pair of two dual-polarized elements with high port isolation.

  15. A compact 5.5 GHz band-rejected UWB antenna using complementary split ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Faruque, M R I; Islam, M T

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm(2), and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band.

  16. A Compact 5.5 GHz Band-Rejected UWB Antenna Using Complementary Split Ring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. M.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm2, and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band. PMID:24971379

  17. A 10.6mm3 Fully-Integrated, Wireless Sensor Node with 8GHz UWB Transmitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Yoonmyung; Foo, Zhiyoong; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David; Wentzloff, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a complete, autonomous, wireless temperature sensor, fully encapsulated in a 10.6mm3 volume. The sensor includes solar energy harvesting with an integrated 2 μAh battery, optical receiver for programming, microcontroller and memory, 8GHz UWB transmitter, and miniaturized custom antennas with a wireless range of 7 meters. Full, stand-alone operation was demonstrated for the first time for a system of this size and functionality. PMID:26855848

  18. Compact self-grounded Bow-Tie antenna design for an UWB phased-array hyperthermia applicator.

    PubMed

    Takook, Pegah; Persson, Mikael; Gellermann, Johanna; Trefná, Hana Dobšíček

    2017-01-08

    Using UWB hyperthermia systems has the potential to improve the heat delivery to deep seated tumours. In this paper, we present a novel self-grounded Bow-Tie antenna design which is to serve as the basis element in a phased-array applicator. The UWB operation in the frequency range of 0.43-1 GHz is achieved by immersing the antenna in a water bolus. The radiation characteristics are improved by appropriate shaping the water bolus and by inclusion of dielectric layers on the top of the radiating arms of the antenna. In order to find the most appropriate design, we use a combination of performance indicators representing the most important attributes of the antenna. These are the UWB impedance matching, the transmission capability and the effective field size. The antenna was constructed and experimentally validated on muscle-like phantom. The measured reflection and transmission coefficients as well as radiation characteristics are in excellent agreement with the simulated results. MR image acquisitions with antenna located inside MR bore indicate a negligible distortion of the images by the antenna itself, which indicates MR compatibility.

  19. Pulse Oximetry

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.thoracic.org amount of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) that are in your blood. To get ... Also, a pulse oximeter does not measure your carbon dioxide level. How accurate is the pulse oximeter? ...

  20. Robust NLoS Multipath Mitigation for TOA Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    2002. [2] I. Guvenc and Z. Sahinoglu , “Threshold-based TOA estimation for impulse radio UWB systems ,” in IEEE Intern. Conf. on Ultra - Wideband ICU...official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. This document has been approved for...unknown. The data stream is formatted into segments of lengths , with the same length LT TRS at the same position in each segment (Fig. 1). We

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 3.1-4.8 GHz transmitter with a high frequency divider in 0.18 μm CMOS for OFDM-UWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renliang, Zheng; Junyan, Ren; Wei, Li; Ning, Li

    2009-12-01

    A fully integrated low power RF transmitter for a WiMedia 3.1-4.8 GHz multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband system is presented. With a separate transconductance stage, the quadrature up-conversion modulator achieves high linearity with low supply voltage. The co-design of different resonant frequencies of the modulator and the differential to single (D2S) converter ensures in-band gain flatness. By means of a series inductor peaking technique, the D2S converter obtains 9 dB more gain without extra power consumption. A divided-by-2 divider is used for carrier signal generation. The measurement results show an output power between -10.7 and -3.1 dBm with 7.6 dB control range, an OIP3 up to 12 dBm, a sideband rejection of 35 dBc and a carrier rejection of 30 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process with an area of 1.74 mm2 and only consumes 32 mA current (at 1.8 V) including the test associated parts.

  2. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  3. Pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.

    1994-05-03

    Apparatus for increasing the length of a laser pulse to reduce its peak power without substantial loss in the average power of the pulse is disclosed. The apparatus uses a White cell having a plurality of optical delay paths of successively increasing number of passes between the field mirror and the objective mirrors. A pulse from a laser travels through a multi-leg reflective path between a beam splitter and a totally reflective mirror to the laser output. The laser pulse is also simultaneously injected through the beam splitter to the input mirrors of the optical delay paths. The pulses from the output mirrors of the optical delay paths go simultaneously to the laser output and to the input mirrors of the longer optical delay paths. The beam splitter is 50% reflective and 50% transmissive to provide equal attenuation of all of the pulses at the laser output. 6 figures.

  4. Pulsed power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David H.

    Pulsed power systems are critical elements for such prospective weapons technologies as high-power microwaves, electrothermal and electromagnetic projectile launchers, neutral particle beams, space-based FELs, ground-based lasers, and charged particle beams. Pulsed power will also be essential for the development of nonweapon military systems such as lidars and ultrawideband radars, and could serve as the bases for nuclear weapon effect simulators. The pulsed power generation requirements for each of these systems is considered.

  5. Pulse Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojek, Zbigniew

    The idea of imposing potential pulses and measuring the currents at the end of each pulse was proposed by Barker in a little-known journal as early as in 1958 [1]. However, the first reliable trouble-free and affordable polarographs offering voltammetric pulse techniques appeared on the market only in the 1970s. This delay was due to some limitations on the electronic side. In the 1990s, again substantial progress in electrochemical pulse instrumentation took place. This was related to the introduction of microprocessors, computers, and advanced software.

  6. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A low-spurious fast-hopping MB-OFDM UWB synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danfeng, Chen; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2010-06-01

    A frequency synthesizer for the ultra-wide band (UWB) group #1 is proposed. The synthesizer uses a phase-locked loop (PLL) and single-sideband (SSB) mixers to generate the three center frequencies of the first band group by mixing 4224 MHz with ±264 MHz and 792 MHz, respectively. A novel multi-QSSB mixer is designed to combine the function of frequency selection and frequency conversion for low power and high linearity. The synthesizer is fabricated in Jazz 0.18-μm RF CMOS technology. The measured reference spur is as low as -69 dBc and the maximum spur is the LO leakage of -32 dBc. A low phase noise of -110 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz offset and an integrated phase noise of 1.86° are achieved. The hopping time between different bands is less than 1.8 ns. The synthesizer consumes 30 mA from a 1.8 V supply.

  7. PCA-based artifact removal algorithm for stroke detection using UWB radar imaging.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Elisa; di Domenico, Simone; Cianca, Ernestina; Rossi, Tommaso; Diomedi, Marina

    2016-09-16

    Stroke patients should be dispatched at the highest level of care available in the shortest time. In this context, a transportable system in specialized ambulances, able to evaluate the presence of an acute brain lesion in a short time interval (i.e., few minutes), could shorten delay of treatment. UWB radar imaging is an emerging diagnostic branch that has great potential for the implementation of a transportable and low-cost device. Transportability, low cost and short response time pose challenges to the signal processing algorithms of the backscattered signals as they should guarantee good performance with a reasonably low number of antennas and low computational complexity, tightly related to the response time of the device. The paper shows that a PCA-based preprocessing algorithm can: (1) achieve good performance already with a computationally simple beamforming algorithm; (2) outperform state-of-the-art preprocessing algorithms; (3) enable a further improvement in the performance (and/or decrease in the number of antennas) by using a multistatic approach with just a modest increase in computational complexity. This is an important result toward the implementation of such a diagnostic device that could play an important role in emergency scenario.

  8. Entropy-Based TOA Estimation and SVM-Based Ranging Error Mitigation in UWB Ranging Systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Cui, Kai; Wu, Zhilu; Yin, Liang

    2015-05-21

    The major challenges for Ultra-wide Band (UWB) indoor ranging systems are the dense multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) problems of the indoor environment. To precisely estimate the time of arrival (TOA) of the first path (FP) in such a poor environment, a novel approach of entropy-based TOA estimation and support vector machine (SVM) regression-based ranging error mitigation is proposed in this paper. The proposed method can estimate the TOA precisely by measuring the randomness of the received signals and mitigate the ranging error without the recognition of the channel conditions. The entropy is used to measure the randomness of the received signals and the FP can be determined by the decision of the sample which is followed by a great entropy decrease. The SVM regression is employed to perform the ranging-error mitigation by the modeling of the regressor between the characteristics of received signals and the ranging error. The presented numerical simulation results show that the proposed approach achieves significant performance improvements in the CM1 to CM4 channels of the IEEE 802.15.4a standard, as compared to conventional approaches.

  9. UWB Band-notched Adjustable Antenna Using Concentric Split-ring Slots Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.; Hong, J. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a kind of concentric split-ring slots structure is utilized to design a novel triple-band-notched UWB antenna. Firstly, a concentric split-ring slots structure that has a higher VSWR than that of a single slot at notch frequency is presented. What's more, the structure is very simple and feasible to obtain notched-band at different frequency by adjustment of the length of slot. Secondly, a triple-band-notched antenna, whose notched bands are at 3.52-3.81 GHz for WiMAX and 5.03-5.42 GHz and 5.73-56.17 GHz for WLAN, is designed by using this structure. At last, a compact size of 24 × 30 mm2 of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and measured and it is shown that the proposed antenna has a broadband matched impedance (3.05-14 GHz, VSWR < 2), relatively stable gain and good omnidirectional radiation patterns at low bands.

  10. Pulse oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Jubran, Amal

    1999-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is one of the most commonly employed monitoringmodalities in the critical care setting. This review describes the latesttechnological advances in the field of pulse oximetry. Accuracy of pulseoximeters and their limitations are critically examined. Finally, the existingdata regarding the clinical applications and cost-effectiveness of pulseoximeters are discussed. PMID:11094477

  11. PULSE AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-06-17

    The improvement of pulse amplifiers used with scintillation detectors is described. The pulse amplifier circuit has the advantage of reducing the harmful effects of overloading cause by large signal inputs. In general the pulse amplifier circuit comprises two amplifier tubes with the input pulses applied to one amplifier grid and coupled to the second amplifier tube through a common cathode load. The output of the second amplifier is coupled from the plate circuit to a cathode follower tube grid and a diode tube in connected from grid to cathode of the cathode follower tube. Degenerative feedback is provided in the second amplifier by coupling a signal from the cathode follower cathode to the second amplifier grid. The circuit proqides moderate gain stability, and overload protection for subsequent pulse circuits.

  12. Design and Performance Evaluation of a UWB Communication and Tracking System for Mini-AERCam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    be a passive component of the communication system which will need to operate in a time-varying multipath environment created as the robot camera moves over the ISS structure. In addition, due to many interference sources located on the ISS, SSO, LEO satellites and ground-based transmitters, selecting a frequency for the ISS and Mini-AERCam link which will coexist with all interferers poses a major design challenge. To meet all of these challenges, ultrawideband (UWB) radio technology is being studied for use in the Mini-AERCam communication and tracking subsystem. The research described in this report is focused on design and evaluation of passive tracking system algorithms based on UWB radio transmissions from mini-AERCam.

  13. Pulse Voltammetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteryoung, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of pulse voltammetry, indicating that its widespread use arises from good sensitivity and detection limits and from ease of application and low cost. Provides analytical and mechanistic applications of the procedure. (JN)

  14. MRI-aided tissues interface characterization: An accurate signal propagation time calculation method for UWB breast tumor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Xiao, Xia; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2016-12-01

    Radar-based ultrawideband (UWB) microwave imaging is expected to be a safe, low-cost tool for breast cancer detection. However, since radar wave travels at different speeds in different tissues, propagation time is hard to be estimated in heterogeneous breast. Wrongly estimated propagation time leads to error of tumor location in resulting image, aka imaging error. In this paper, we develop a magnetic resonance imaging-aided (MRI-aided) propagation time calculation technique which is independent from radar imaging system but can help decrease the imaging error. The technique can eliminate the influence of the rough interface between fat layer and gland layer in breast and get relative accurate thicknesses of two layers. The propagation time in each layer is calculated and summed. The summed propagation time is used in Confocal imaging algorithm to increase the accuracy of resulting image. 25 patients' breast models with glands of varying size are classified into four categories for imaging simulation tests. Imaging accuracy in terms of tumor location along x-direction has been improved for 21 among 25 cases, as a result, overall around 50% improvement compared to conventional UWB imaging.

  15. Towards Contactless Silent Speech Recognition Based on Detection of Active and Visible Articulators Using IR-UWB Radar.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Hoon; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-10-29

    People with hearing or speaking disabilities are deprived of the benefits of conventional speech recognition technology because it is based on acoustic signals. Recent research has focused on silent speech recognition systems that are based on the motions of a speaker's vocal tract and articulators. Because most silent speech recognition systems use contact sensors that are very inconvenient to users or optical systems that are susceptible to environmental interference, a contactless and robust solution is hence required. Toward this objective, this paper presents a series of signal processing algorithms for a contactless silent speech recognition system using an impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) radar. The IR-UWB radar is used to remotely and wirelessly detect motions of the lips and jaw. In order to extract the necessary features of lip and jaw motions from the received radar signals, we propose a feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm noticeably improved speech recognition performance compared to the existing algorithm during our word recognition test with five speakers. We also propose a speech activity detection algorithm to automatically select speech segments from continuous input signals. Thus, speech recognition processing is performed only when speech segments are detected. Our testbed consists of commercial off-the-shelf radar products, and the proposed algorithms are readily applicable without designing specialized radar hardware for silent speech processing.

  16. A Detailed Algorithm for Vital Sign Monitoring of a Stationary/Non-Stationary Human through IR-UWB Radar

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Faheem; Cho, Sung Ho

    2017-01-01

    The vital sign monitoring through Impulse Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR-UWB) radar provides continuous assessment of a patient’s respiration and heart rates in a non-invasive manner. In this paper, IR UWB radar is used for monitoring respiration and the human heart rate. The breathing and heart rate frequencies are extracted from the signal reflected from the human body. A Kalman filter is applied to reduce the measurement noise from the vital signal. An algorithm is presented to separate the heart rate signal from the breathing harmonics. An auto-correlation based technique is applied for detecting random body movements (RBM) during the measurement process. Experiments were performed in different scenarios in order to show the validity of the algorithm. The vital signs were estimated for the signal reflected from the chest, as well as from the back side of the body in different experiments. The results from both scenarios are compared for respiration and heartbeat estimation accuracy. PMID:28165416

  17. Towards Contactless Silent Speech Recognition Based on Detection of Active and Visible Articulators Using IR-UWB Radar

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young Hoon; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    People with hearing or speaking disabilities are deprived of the benefits of conventional speech recognition technology because it is based on acoustic signals. Recent research has focused on silent speech recognition systems that are based on the motions of a speaker’s vocal tract and articulators. Because most silent speech recognition systems use contact sensors that are very inconvenient to users or optical systems that are susceptible to environmental interference, a contactless and robust solution is hence required. Toward this objective, this paper presents a series of signal processing algorithms for a contactless silent speech recognition system using an impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) radar. The IR-UWB radar is used to remotely and wirelessly detect motions of the lips and jaw. In order to extract the necessary features of lip and jaw motions from the received radar signals, we propose a feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm noticeably improved speech recognition performance compared to the existing algorithm during our word recognition test with five speakers. We also propose a speech activity detection algorithm to automatically select speech segments from continuous input signals. Thus, speech recognition processing is performed only when speech segments are detected. Our testbed consists of commercial off-the-shelf radar products, and the proposed algorithms are readily applicable without designing specialized radar hardware for silent speech processing. PMID:27801867

  18. Pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus (20) for increasing the length of a laser pulse to reduce its peak power without substantial loss in the average power of the pulse. The apparatus (20) uses a White cell (10) having a plurality of optical delay paths (18a-18d) of successively increasing number of passes between the field mirror (13) and the objective mirrors (11 and 12). A pulse (26) from a laser (27) travels through a multi-leg reflective path (28) between a beam splitter (21) and a totally reflective mirror (24) to the laser output (37). The laser pulse (26) is also simultaneously injected through the beam splitter (21) to the input mirrors (14a-14d) of the optical delay paths (18a-18d). The pulses from the output mirrors (16a-16d) of the optical delay paths (18a-18d) go simultaneously to the laser output (37) and to the input mirrors ( 14b-14d) of the longer optical delay paths. The beam splitter (21) is 50% reflective and 50% transmissive to provide equal attenuation of all of the pulses at the laser output (37).

  19. Phase-coherent orthogonally polarized optical single sideband modulation with arbitrarily tunable optical carrier-to-sideband ratio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Mei, Hai Kuo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2016-01-11

    We propose and experimentally verify a novel approach to achieve phase-coherence orthogonally polarized optical single sideband (OSSB) modulation with a tunable optically carrier-to-sideband ratio (OCSR). In our scheme, the orthogonally polarized OSSB signal is achieved using a dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator without an optical band-pass filter (OBPF). Therefore, the proposed method is wavelength independent. The DP-QPSK modulator includes two parallel QPSK modulators locating on its two arms. The upper QPSK modulator of the DP-QPSK modulator is driven by two quadrature sinusoidal microwave signals and works at the frequency shifting condition whose bias voltages are optimized to suppress the optical. The lower QPSK modulator of that works at the maximum transmission point and the optical carrier is not modulated. The OCSR is continuously tunable by simply adjusting the bias voltages of the lower modulator. The frequency shifting optical signal from the upper QPSK modulator and the optical carrier from the lower QPSK modulator are combined together at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator. The optical carrier and sideband are polarized orthogonally. The generated OSSB signals could be used to shift and code the phase of the microwave signal and generate ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave pulse. The proposed method is analyzed and experimental demonstrated.

  20. Advanced signal processing method for ground penetrating radar feature detection and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Venkatachalam, Anbu Selvam; Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on new signal processing algorithms customized for an air coupled Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system targeting highway pavements and bridge deck inspections. The GPR hardware consists of a high-voltage pulse generator, a high speed 8 GSps real time data acquisition unit, and a customized field-programmable gate array (FPGA) control element. In comparison to most existing GPR system with low survey speeds, this system can survey at normal highway speed (60 mph) with a high horizontal resolution of up to 10 scans per centimeter. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of subsurface media, the GPR signal processing is important but challenging. In this GPR system, an adaptive GPR signal processing algorithm using Curvelet Transform, 2D high pass filtering and exponential scaling is proposed to alleviate noise and clutter while the subsurface features are preserved and enhanced. First, Curvelet Transform is used to remove the environmental and systematic noises while maintain the range resolution of the B-Scan image. Then, mathematical models for cylinder-shaped object and clutter are built. A two-dimension (2D) filter based on these models removes clutter and enhances the hyperbola feature in a B-Scan image. Finally, an exponential scaling method is applied to compensate the signal attenuation in subsurface materials and to improve the desired signal feature. For performance test and validation, rebar detection experiments and subsurface feature inspection in laboratory and field configurations are performed.

  1. PULSE COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Trumbo, D.E.

    1959-02-10

    A transistorized pulse-counting circuit adapted for use with nuclear radiation detecting detecting devices to provide a small, light weight portable counter is reported. The small size and low power requirements of the transistor are of particular value in this instance. The circuit provides an adjustable count scale with a single transistor which is triggered by the accumulated charge on a storage capacitor.

  2. Pulsed hydrojet

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Torrey, M.D.

    1986-06-10

    An underwater pulsed hydrojet propulsion system is provided for accelerating and propelling a projectile or other vessel. A reactant, such as lithium, is fluidized and injected into a water volume. The resulting reaction produces an energy density in a time effective to form a steam pocket. Thrust flaps or baffles direct the pressure from the steam pocket toward an exit nozzle for accelerating a water volume to create thrust. A control system regulates the dispersion of reactant to control thrust characteristics.

  3. A Negative Index Metamaterial-Inspired UWB Antenna with an Integration of Complementary SRR and CLS Unit Cells for Microwave Imaging Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Islam, Md. Moinul; Samsuzzaman, Md.; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Misran, Norbahiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a negative index metamaterial incorporated UWB antenna with an integration of complementary SRR (split-ring resonator) and CLS (capacitive loaded strip) unit cells for microwave imaging sensor applications. This metamaterial UWB antenna sensor consists of four unit cells along one axis, where each unit cell incorporates a complementary SRR and CLS pair. This integration enables a design layout that allows both a negative value of permittivity and a negative value of permeability simultaneous, resulting in a durable negative index to enhance the antenna sensor performance for microwave imaging sensor applications. The proposed MTM antenna sensor was designed and fabricated on an FR4 substrate having a thickness of 1.6 mm and a dielectric constant of 4.6. The electrical dimensions of this antenna sensor are 0.20 λ × 0.29 λ at a lower frequency of 3.1 GHz. This antenna sensor achieves a 131.5% bandwidth (VSWR < 2) covering the frequency bands from 3.1 GHz to more than 15 GHz with a maximum gain of 6.57 dBi. High fidelity factor and gain, smooth surface-current distribution and nearly omni-directional radiation patterns with low cross-polarization confirm that the proposed negative index UWB antenna is a promising entrant in the field of microwave imaging sensors. PMID:26007721

  4. A Negative Index Metamaterial-Inspired UWB Antenna with an Integration of Complementary SRR and CLS Unit Cells for Microwave Imaging Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Islam, Md Moinul; Samsuzzaman, Md; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Misran, Norbahiah

    2015-05-20

    This paper presents a negative index metamaterial incorporated UWB antenna with an integration of complementary SRR (split-ring resonator) and CLS (capacitive loaded strip) unit cells for microwave imaging sensor applications. This metamaterial UWB antenna sensor consists of four unit cells along one axis, where each unit cell incorporates a complementary SRR and CLS pair. This integration enables a design layout that allows both a negative value of permittivity and a negative value of permeability simultaneous, resulting in a durable negative index to enhance the antenna sensor performance for microwave imaging sensor applications. The proposed MTM antenna sensor was designed and fabricated on an FR4 substrate having a thickness of 1.6 mm and a dielectric constant of 4.6. The electrical dimensions of this antenna sensor are 0.20 λ × 0.29 λ at a lower frequency of 3.1 GHz. This antenna sensor achieves a 131.5% bandwidth (VSWR < 2) covering the frequency bands from 3.1 GHz to more than 15 GHz with a maximum gain of 6.57 dBi. High fidelity factor and gain, smooth surface-current distribution and nearly omni-directional radiation patterns with low cross-polarization confirm that the proposed negative index UWB antenna is a promising entrant in the field of microwave imaging sensors.

  5. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  6. Ultra-wideband microwave absorber by connecting multiple absorption bands of two different-sized hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiang; Long, Chang; Li, Junhao; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Lin; Guan, Jianguo; Li, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Microwave absorbers have important applications in various areas including stealth, camouflage, and antenna. Here, we have designed an ultra-broadband light absorber by integrating two different-sized tapered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguides, each of which has wide but different absorption bands due to broadband slow-light response, into a unit cell. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that in such a design strategy, the low absorption bands between high absorption bands with a single-sized tapered HMM waveguide array can be effectively eliminated, resulting in a largely expanded absorption bandwidth ranging from 2.3 to 40 GHz. The presented ultra-broadband light absorber is also insensitive to polarization and robust against incident angle. Our results offer a further step in developing practical artificial electromagnetic absorbers, which will impact a broad range of applications at microwave frequencies. PMID:26477740

  7. Method of achieving ultra-wideband true-time-delay beam steering for active electronically scanned arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Loui, Hung; Brock, Billy C.

    2016-10-25

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to beam steering an array antenna by modifying intermediate frequency (IF) waveforms prior to conversion to RF signals. For each channel, a direct digital synthesis (DDS) component can be utilized to generate a waveform or modify amplitude, timing and phase of a waveform relative to another waveform, whereby the generation/modification can be performed prior to the IF input port of a mixer on each channel. A local oscillator (LO) signal can be utilized to commonly drive each of the mixers. After conversion at the RF output port of each of the mixers, each RF signal can be transmitted by a respective antenna element in the antenna array. Initiation of transmission of each RF signal can be performed simultaneously at each antenna. The process can be reversed during receive whereby timing, amplitude, and phase of the received can be modified digitally post ADC conversion.

  8. Design and optimization of an ultra wideband and compact microwave antenna for radiometric monitoring of brain temperature.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dario B; Maccarini, Paolo F; Salahi, Sara; Oliveira, Tiago R; Pereira, Pedro J S; Limao-Vieira, Paulo; Snow, Brent W; Reudink, Doug; Stauffer, Paul R

    2014-07-01

    We present the modeling efforts on antenna design and frequency selection to monitor brain temperature during prolonged surgery using noninvasive microwave radiometry. A tapered log-spiral antenna design is chosen for its wideband characteristics that allow higher power collection from deep brain. Parametric analysis with the software HFSS is used to optimize antenna performance for deep brain temperature sensing. Radiometric antenna efficiency (η) is evaluated in terms of the ratio of power collected from brain to total power received by the antenna. Anatomical information extracted from several adult computed tomography scans is used to establish design parameters for constructing an accurate layered 3-D tissue phantom. This head phantom includes separate brain and scalp regions, with tissue equivalent liquids circulating at independent temperatures on either side of an intact skull. The optimized frequency band is 1.1-1.6 GHz producing an average antenna efficiency of 50.3% from a two turn log-spiral antenna. The entire sensor package is contained in a lightweight and low-profile 2.8 cm diameter by 1.5 cm high assembly that can be held in place over the skin with an electromagnetic interference shielding adhesive patch. The calculated radiometric equivalent brain temperature tracks within 0.4 °C of the measured brain phantom temperature when the brain phantom is lowered 10 °C and then returned to the original temperature (37 °C) over a 4.6-h experiment. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the optimized 2.5-cm log-spiral antenna is well suited for the noninvasive radiometric sensing of deep brain temperature.

  9. Ultra-wideband microwave absorber by connecting multiple absorption bands of two different-sized hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiang; Long, Chang; Li, Junhao; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Lin; Guan, Jianguo; Li, Xun

    2015-10-01

    Microwave absorbers have important applications in various areas including stealth, camouflage, and antenna. Here, we have designed an ultra-broadband light absorber by integrating two different-sized tapered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguides, each of which has wide but different absorption bands due to broadband slow-light response, into a unit cell. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that in such a design strategy, the low absorption bands between high absorption bands with a single-sized tapered HMM waveguide array can be effectively eliminated, resulting in a largely expanded absorption bandwidth ranging from 2.3 to 40 GHz. The presented ultra-broadband light absorber is also insensitive to polarization and robust against incident angle. Our results offer a further step in developing practical artificial electromagnetic absorbers, which will impact a broad range of applications at microwave frequencies.

  10. The Applications of Decision-Level Data Fusion Techniques in the Field of Multiuser Detection for DS-UWB Systems.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yebo; Yang, Minglei; Shi, Zhenguo; Wu, Zhilu

    2015-09-25

    In this paper, the decision-level data fusion techniques are extended to the multiuser detection (MUD) field. Then two novel MUD algorithms, that is the chairman arbitrating decision-level fusion criterion (CA-DFC) based MUD algorithm and the veto logic decision-level fusion criterion (VL-DFC) based MUD algorithm, are proposed for DS-UWB communication systems. In CA-DFC based method, the chairman can make his arbitration among the preliminary decisions from sub-optimal detectors by his own rule. In the VL-DFC based method, the undetermined bits in these preliminary decisions are considered to construct a simplified solution space, and then the chairman can make his final decision within this space. Simulation results demonstrate that the performances of CA-DFC and VL-DFC based MUD algorithms are superior to those of other sub-optimal MUD algorithms, and even close to that of OMD. Moreover, both of these proposed algorithms have lower computational complexity than OMD, which reveals their efficiency. Compared with CA-DFC, VL-DFC based algorithm achieves a little improvement in its performance, at the cost of the increment in its computational complexity. Thus, they can be applied to different practical situations.

  11. Wideband Array for C, X, and Ku-Band Applications with 5.3:1 Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Markus H.; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Félix A.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite communication has largely been accomplished using reflector antennas. However, such antennas are inherently bulky, and rely on mechanical steering. For this reason, ultra-wideband (UWB) and beam forming arrays have received strong interest. These lower weight, size,and cost arrays can combine many satellite applicationsspread throughout the C–Ka bands (4–40 GHz).To this end, we seek to develop an UWB Tightly-Coupled Dipole Array (TCDA) with the following attributes: UWB band operation (3.5–18.5 GHz) with low loss; 45° or more scanning in all planes; Low-cost Printed Circuit Board (PCB) fabrication; Scalable to Ka-band and above.

  12. Bird Face Microstrip Printed Monopole Antenna Design for Ultra Wide Band Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad Jakir; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Md. Moinul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Rahman, Md. Atiqur

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a novel bird face microstrip printed monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna is investigated. The proposed compact antenna consists of a ring-shaped with additional slot and slotted ground plane on FR4 material. The overall electrical dimension of the proposed antenna is 0.25 λ×0.36 λ×0.016 λ and is energized by microstrip feed line. The Computer Simulation Technology (CST) and the High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) is applied in this analysis. The impedance bandwidth of the monopole antenna cover 3.1-12.3 GHz (9.2 GHz, BW) frequency range. The messurement displayed that the designed antenna achieved excellent gain and stable omnidirectional radiation patterns within the UWB. The maximum gain of 6.8 dBi and omnidirectional radiation pattern makes the proposed antenna that is suitable for UWB systems.

  13. Channel models for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Aoyagi, Akahiro; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Katayama, Norihiko; Yekeh, Kamya; Takehiko, Yazdandoost; Kohno, Kobayashi Ryuji

    2008-01-01

    Wireless patient monitoring using wearable sensors is a promising application. This paper provides stochastic channel models for wireless body area network (WBAN) on the human body. Parameters of the channel models are extracted from measured channel transfer functions (CTFs) in a hospital room. Measured frequency bands are selected so as to include permissible bands for WBAN; ultra wideband (UWB), the industry, science and medical (ISM) bands, and wireless medical telemetry system (WMTS) bands. As channel models, both a path loss model and a power delay profile (PDP) model are considered. But, even though path loss models are derived for the all frequency bands, PDP model is only for the UWB band due to the highly frequency selectiveness of UWB channels. The parameters extracted from the measurement results are summarized for each channel model.

  14. Pulsed Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirlimann, C.

    Optics is the field of physics which comprises knowledge on the interaction between light and matter. When the superposition principle can be applied to electromagnetic waves or when the properties of matter do not depend on the intensity of light, one speaks of linear optics. This situation occurs with regular light sources such as light bulbs, low-intensity light-emitting diodes and the sun. With such low-intensity sources the reaction of matter to light can be characterized by a set of parameters such as the index of refraction, the absorption and reflection coefficients and the orientation of the medium with respect to the polarization of the light. These parameters depend only on the nature of the medium. The situation changed dramatically after the development of lasers in the early sixties, which allowed the generation of light intensities larger than a kilowatt per square centimeter. Actual large-scale short-pulse lasers can generate peak powers in the petawatt regime. In that large-intensity regime the optical parameters of a material become functions of the intensity of the impinging light. In 1818 Fresnel wrote a letter to the French Academy of Sciences in which he noted that the proportionality between the vibration of the light and the subsequent vibration of matter was only true because no high intensities were available. The intensity dependence of the material response is what usually defines nonlinear optics.

  15. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1994-08-02

    A method of producing a long output pulse from a short pump pulse is disclosed, using an elongated amplified fiber having a doped core that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding. A seed beam of the longer wavelength is injected into the core at one end of the fiber and a pump pulse of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding at the other end of the fiber. The counter-propagating seed beam and pump pulse will produce an amplified output pulse having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse through the fiber plus the length of the pump pulse. 3 figs.

  16. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing a long output pulse (SA) from a short pump pulse (P), using an elongated amplified fiber (11) having a doped core (12) that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding 13. A seed beam (S) of the longer wavelength is injected into the core (12) at one end of the fiber (11) and a pump pulse (P) of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding (13) at the other end of the fiber (11). The counter-propagating seed beam (S) and pump pulse (P) will produce an amplified output pulse (SA) having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse (P) through the fiber (11) plus the length of the pump pulse (P).

  17. A wideband rectangular-ring textile antenna integrated with corner-notched artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aun, N. F. M.; Soh, P. J.; Jamlos, M. F.; Lago, H.; Al-Hadi, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a wideband artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) for operation in the Wireless Body Area Network Ultra Wideband (WBAN-UWB) mandatory channel 6. The proposed AMC is incorporated onto a rectangular-ring patch antenna for operation centered at 8 GHz with 2 GHz of bandwidth. The incorporation of the AMC improved the antenna reflection coefficient and impedance bandwidth, besides shielding the radiator against on-body detuning. The prototype is fully fabricated using textiles except for an SMA connector used for feeding. It is observed that the experimental results are in good agreement with the simulations, and bandwidth broadening is successfully achieved and validated.

  18. Customization of UWB 3D-RTLS Based on the New Uncertainty Model of the AoA Ranging Technique.

    PubMed

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J

    2017-01-25

    The increased potential and effectiveness of Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) substantially influence their application spectrum. They are widely used, inter alia, in the industrial sector, healthcare, home care, and in logistic and security applications. The research aims to develop an analytical method to customize UWB-based RTLS, in order to improve their localization performance in terms of accuracy and precision. The analytical uncertainty model of Angle of Arrival (AoA) localization in a 3D indoor space, which is the foundation of the customization concept, is established in a working environment. Additionally, a suitable angular-based 3D localization algorithm is introduced. The paper investigates the following issues: the influence of the proposed correction vector on the localization accuracy; the impact of the system's configuration and LS's relative deployment on the localization precision distribution map. The advantages of the method are verified by comparing them with a reference commercial RTLS localization engine. The results of simulations and physical experiments prove the value of the proposed customization method. The research confirms that the analytical uncertainty model is the valid representation of RTLS' localization uncertainty in terms of accuracy and precision and can be useful for its performance improvement. The research shows, that the Angle of Arrival localization in a 3D indoor space applying the simple angular-based localization algorithm and correction vector improves of localization accuracy and precision in a way that the system challenges the reference hardware advanced localization engine. Moreover, the research guides the deployment of location sensors to enhance the localization precision.

  19. Customization of UWB 3D-RTLS Based on the New Uncertainty Model of the AoA Ranging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J.

    2017-01-01

    The increased potential and effectiveness of Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) substantially influence their application spectrum. They are widely used, inter alia, in the industrial sector, healthcare, home care, and in logistic and security applications. The research aims to develop an analytical method to customize UWB-based RTLS, in order to improve their localization performance in terms of accuracy and precision. The analytical uncertainty model of Angle of Arrival (AoA) localization in a 3D indoor space, which is the foundation of the customization concept, is established in a working environment. Additionally, a suitable angular-based 3D localization algorithm is introduced. The paper investigates the following issues: the influence of the proposed correction vector on the localization accuracy; the impact of the system’s configuration and LS’s relative deployment on the localization precision distribution map. The advantages of the method are verified by comparing them with a reference commercial RTLS localization engine. The results of simulations and physical experiments prove the value of the proposed customization method. The research confirms that the analytical uncertainty model is the valid representation of RTLS’ localization uncertainty in terms of accuracy and precision and can be useful for its performance improvement. The research shows, that the Angle of Arrival localization in a 3D indoor space applying the simple angular-based localization algorithm and correction vector improves of localization accuracy and precision in a way that the system challenges the reference hardware advanced localization engine. Moreover, the research guides the deployment of location sensors to enhance the localization precision. PMID:28125056

  20. Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Clutter Rejection in Real-Time IR-UWB Radar-Based Moving Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom

    2016-01-01

    The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method. PMID:27598159

  1. Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Clutter Rejection in Real-Time IR-UWB Radar-Based Moving Target Detection.

    PubMed

    Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom

    2016-09-01

    The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method.

  2. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.

  3. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  4. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  5. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  6. Pulse compression in plasma: Generation of femtosecond pulses without CPA

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; N. J. Fisch; A. Pukhov; J. Meyer-ter-Vehn

    2000-07-20

    Laser pulses can be efficiently compressed to femtosecond duration when a smaller-frequency short pulse collides with high frequency long pulse in rare plasma, absorbing most of its energy. The mechanism of short pulse amplification is nonlinear superradiance.

  7. Analysis of hyperbolic signatures from small discontinuities using an UWB ground-coupled radar: FDTD simulations and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnard, Florence; Tebchrany, Elias; Baltazart, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a well-known non-destructive technique based on electromagnetic wave propagation that is able to detect by reflection or scattering of waves dielectric discontinuities in the underground. Our application is mainly concerned with civil engineering to perform supervision, inventory, and soil characterization. Because the air-coupled radar suffers from a significant reflection at the ground interface that reduces energy transfer of electromagnetic radiation in the sub-surface and penetration depth, we have developed an ultra-wide band (UWB) ground-coupled radar made of a pair of partially shielded compact planar bowtie slot antennas. As the antenna dimension (36*23 cm2) is close to the A4 sheet size, the maturity of the microstrip technology has allowed to design a particular geometry on the FR4 substrate (h=1.5 mm) which is able to operate at frequencies from 460 MHz to beyond 4 GHz in air. Contrary to a commercial GPR where details on antenna design are not available, it appears here possible to know and control the radiation characteristics and develop full-wave FDTD modeling that can represent field experiments for comparisons and analyses. The objective of this work is to improve, by means of a parametric study, the knowledge of physical phenomena involved in dielectric polarization when waves interact with buried discontinuities and particularly cracks, pipes, delaminations that can be distinguished by their shape, size, dielectric contrast with the surrounding medium, orientation relative to the electric field… Thus, we have first characterized by FDTD modeling and field measurements in a wet sand the radar link in two perpendicular polarizations (parallel and mirror) in the presence of a common soil (epsilon'=5.5, sigma=0.01 S/m) considering variable offsets. Afterwards, we have studied and analyzed the hyperbola signatures generated by the presence of buried canonical objects (pipes, strips) with several dielectric

  8. Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2005-03-29

    A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.

  9. Laser fusion pulse shape controller

    DOEpatents

    Siebert, Larry D.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

  10. Simple pre-distortion schemes for improving the power efficiency of SOA-based IR-UWB over fiber systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, H.; Azou, S.; Hamie, A.; Al Housseini, A.; Alaeddine, A.; Sharaiha, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the usage of SOA for reach extension of an impulse radio over fiber system. Operating in the saturated regime translates into strong nonlinearities and spectral distortions, which drops the power efficiency of the propagated pulses. After studying the SOA response versus operating conditions, we have enhanced the system performance by applying simple analog pre-distortion schemes for various derivatives of the Gaussian pulse and their combination. A novel pulse shape has also been designed by linearly combining three basic Gaussian pulses, offering a very good spectral efficiency (> 55 %) for a high power (0 dBm) at the amplifier input. Furthermore, the potential of our technique has been examined considering a 1.5 Gbps-OOK and 0.75 Gbps-PPM modulation schemes. Pre-distortion proved an advantage for a large extension of optical link (150 km), with an inline amplification via SOA at 40 km.

  11. Pulsed IR inductive lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed inductive discharge is a new alternative method of pumping active gas laser media. The work presents results of experimental investigations of near, mid, and far IR inductive gas lasers (H2, HF, and CO2) operating at different transitions of atoms and molecules with different mechanisms of formation of inversion population. The excitation systems of a pulsed inductive cylindrical discharge (pulsed inductively coupled plasma) and pulsed RF inductive discharge in the gases are developed. Various gas mixtures including H2, N2, He, Ne, F2, NF3, and SF6 are used. Characteristics of near IR H2 laser radiation are investigated. Maximal pulse peak power of 7 kW is achieved. The possibility of using a pulsed inductive discharge as a new method of pumping HF laser active medium is demonstrated. The pulsed RF inductive CO2 laser is created and a total efficiency of 17% is achieved.

  12. Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galler, A.; Feurer, T.

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate that a pulse shaper is able to simultaneously act as an optical waveform generator and a short pulse characterization device when combined with an appropriate nonlinear element. We present autocorrelation measurements and their frequency resolved counterparts. We show that control over the carrier envelope phase allows continuous tuning between an intensity-like and an interferometric autocorrelation. By changing the transfer function other measurement techniques, for example STRUT, are easily realized without any modification of the optical setup.

  13. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Gray, G.W.; Jensen, A.S.

    1957-10-22

    A pulse-height analyzer system of improved design for sorting and counting a series of pulses, such as provided by a scintillation detector in nuclear radiation measurements, is described. The analyzer comprises a main transmission line, a cathode-ray tube for each section of the line with its deflection plates acting as the line capacitance; means to bias the respective cathode ray tubes so that the beam strikes a target only when a prearranged pulse amplitude is applied, with each tube progressively biased to respond to smaller amplitudes; pulse generating and counting means associated with each tube to respond when the beam is deflected; a control transmission line having the same time constant as the first line per section with pulse generating means for each tube for initiating a pulse on the second transmission line when a pulse triggers the tube of corresponding amplitude response, the former pulse acting to prevent successive tubes from responding to the pulse under test. This arrangement permits greater deflection sensitivity in the cathode ray tube and overcomes many of the disadvantages of prior art pulse-height analyzer circuits.

  14. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  15. Towards a Reduced-Wire Interface for CMUT-Based Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaemyung; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-09-20

    Having intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging capability on guide wires used in cardiovascular interventions may eliminate the need for separate IVUS catheters and expand the use of IVUS in a larger portion of the vasculature. High frequency capacitive micro machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays should be integrated with interface electronics and placed on the guide wire for this purpose. Besides small size, this system-on-a-chip (SoC) front-end should connect to the back-end imaging system with a minimum number of wires to preserve the critical mechanical properties of the guide wire. We present a 40 MHz CMUT array interface SoC, which will eventually use only two wires for power delivery and transmits image data using a combination of analog-to-time conversion (ATC) and an impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) wireless link. The proof-of-concept prototype ASIC consumes only 52.8 mW and occupies 4.07 [Formula: see text] in a 0.35-[Formula: see text] standard CMOS process. A rectifier and regulator power the rest of the SoC at 3.3 V from a 10 MHz power carrier that is supplied through a 2.4 m micro-coax cable with an overall efficiency of 49.1%. Echo signals from an 8-element CMUT array are amplified by a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) array and down-converted to baseband by quadrature sampling using a 40 MHz clock, derived from the power carrier. The ATC generates pulse-width-modulated (PWM) samples at 2 × 10 MS/s with 6 bit resolution, while the entire system achieved 5.1 ENOB. Preliminary images from the prototype system are presented, and alternative data transmission and possible future directions towards practical implementation are discussed.

  16. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Greenblatt, M.H.

    1958-03-25

    This patent pertains to pulse amplitude analyzers for sorting and counting a serles of pulses, and specifically discloses an analyzer which ls simple in construction and presents the puise height distribution visually on an oscilloscope screen. According to the invention, the pulses are applied to the vertical deflection plates of an oscilloscope and trigger the horizontal sweep. Each pulse starts at the same point on the screen and has a maximum amplitude substantially along the same vertical line. A mask is placed over the screen except for a slot running along the line where the maximum amplitudes of the pulses appear. After the slot has been scanned by a photocell in combination with a slotted rotating disk, the photocell signal is displayed on an auxiliary oscilloscope as vertical deflection along a horizontal time base to portray the pulse amplitude distribution.

  17. PULSED INDICATOR CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Linlor, W.I.; Kerns, Q.A.

    1960-11-15

    A system is given for detecting incremental changes in a transducer impedance terminating a transmission line. Principal novelty resides in the transducer impedance terminating the line in a mismatch and a pulse generator being provided to apply discrete pulses to the input end of the line. The amplitudes of the pulses reflected to the input end of the line from the mismatched transducer impedance are then observed as a very accurate measure of the instantaneous value of the latter.

  18. PulseSoar

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, P.; Peglow, S.

    1992-07-21

    This paper is an introduction to the PulseSoar concept. PulseSoar is a hypervelocity airplane that uses existing airport facilities and current technologies to fly at the very edge of space. It will be shown that PulseSoar can fly between any two points on the globe in less than two hours with fuel efficiency exceeding current state of the art commercial airliners. In addition, it will be shown that PulseSoar avoids environmental issues concerning the ozone layer and sonic booms because of its unique flight profile. All of this can be achieved with current technology. PulseSoar does not require the development of enabling technology. It is a concept which can be demonstrated today. The importance of this idea goes beyond the technical significance`s of PulseSoar in terms of feasibility and performance. PulseSoar could provide a crucial economic advantage to America`s largest export market: commercial aircraft. PulseSoar is a breakthrough concept for addressing the emerging markets of long range and high speed aircraft. Application of PulseSoar to commercial transport could provide the US Aerospace industry a substantial lead in offering high speed/long range aircraft to the world`s airlines. The rapid emergence of a US developed high speed aircraft could also be important to our competitiveness in the Pacific Rim and South American economies. A quick and inexpensive demonstration vehicle is proposed to bang the concept to reality within two years. This discussion will address all the major technical subjects encompassed by PulseSoar and identifies several near-term, and low risk, applications which may be further explored with the initial demonstration vehicle. What is PulseSoar? PulseSoar could enable high speed, high altitude and long range flight without many of the difficulties encountered by traditional hypersonic vehicles.

  19. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  20. PULSE SCALING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Kandiah, K.

    1954-06-01

    Pulse scaling systems embodying multi-electrode gaseous-discharge tubes of the type having a plurality of stable discharge paths are described. The novelty of this particular system lies in the simplification of the stepping arrangement between successive tubes. In one form the invention provides a multistage scaler comprising a pulse generator, a first multi-electrode scaling tube of the type set forth coupled to said generator to receive transfer pulses therefrom and one or more succeeding multi-electrode scaling tubes each deriving its transfer pulses from preceding scaling tubes.

  1. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  2. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  3. Random Noise Polarimetry Technique for Covert Detection of Targets Obscured by Foliage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ram M.; Xu, Xiaojian; Henning, Joseph A.; Kumru, Cihan

    2002-07-01

    The University of Nebraska has been investigating a novel technique called random noise polarimetry for foliage penetration (FOPEN) imaging applications, under support from the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). In this final report, we summarize the main activities and results of the research during the past three years (1999-2002). These include: (a) Development of an experimental UHF band ultra wideband (UWB) FOPEN noise radar system; (b) Development of a down range sidelobe suppression; (c) Study of the foliage transmission model and the impact of foliage obscuration; (d) Development of FOPEN SAR imaging model and image formation algorithms; (e) Study of the impact of frequency and aspect angle dependent target signatures on UWB SAR images; (f) Three-dimensional interferometric SAR and ISAR imaging techniques; (g) Development of SAR image enhancement techniques; and (h) Field tests, data acquisition and image processing using the experimental random noise radar system. Suggestions for future work are also presented.

  4. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 1; Main Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  5. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 3 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Bates, Lakesha D.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  6. Adaptive target detection in foliage-penetrating SAR images using alpha-stable models.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Burlina, P; Chellappa, R

    1999-01-01

    Detecting targets occluded by foliage in foliage-penetrating (FOPEN) ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB SAR) images is an important and challenging problem. Given the different nature of target returns in foliage and nonfoliage regions and very low signal-to-clutter ratio in UWB imagery, conventional detection algorithms fail to yield robust target detection results. A new target detection algorithm is proposed that (1) incorporates symmetric alpha-stable (SalphaS) distributions for accurate clutter modeling, (2) constructs a two-dimensional (2-D) site model for deriving local context, and (3) exploits the site model for region-adaptive target detection. Theoretical and empirical evidence is given to support the use of the SalphaS model for image segmentation and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection. Results of our algorithm on real FOPEN images collected by the Army Research Laboratory are provided.

  7. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  8. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    DOEpatents

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  9. Extrusion cooking: Legume pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. Extrusion cooking of pulses (...

  10. Composite Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.; Cloyd, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the design of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube cryocooler reduces axial thermal conductance while preserving radial thermal conductance. It is desirable to minimize axial thermal conductance in the pulse-tube wall to minimize leakage of heat between the warm and cold ends of the pulse tube. At the same time, it is desirable to maximize radial thermal conductance at the cold end of the pulse tube to ensure adequate thermal contact between (1) a heat exchanger in the form of a stack of copper screens inside the pulse tube at the cold end and (2) the remainder of the cold tip, which is the object to which the heat load is applied and from which heat must be removed. The modified design yields a low-heat-leak pulse tube that can be easily integrated with a cold tip. A typical pulse tube of prior design is either a thin-walled metal tube or a metal tube with a nonmetallic lining. It is desirable that the outer surface of a pulse tube be cylindrical (in contradistinction to tapered) to simplify the design of a regenerator that is also part of the cryocooler. Under some conditions, it is desirable to taper the inner surface of the pulse tube to reduce acoustic streaming. The combination of a cylindrical outer surface and a tapered inner surface can lead to unacceptably large axial conduction if the pulse tube is made entirely of metal. Making the pulse-tube wall of a nonmetallic, lowthermal- conductivity material would not solve the problem because the wall would not afford the needed thermal contact for the stack of screens in the cold end. The modified design calls for fabricating the pulse tube in two parts: a longer, nonmetallic part that is tapered on the inside and cylindrical on the outside and a shorter, metallic part that is cylindrical on both the inside and the outside. The nonmetallic part can be made from G-10 fiberglass-reinforced epoxy or other low-thermal-conductivity, cryogenically compatible material. The metallic part must have high

  11. ELECTRIC PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Buntenbach, R.W.

    1959-06-01

    S>An electro-optical apparatus is described which produces electric pulses in programmed sequences at times and durations controlled with great accuracy. An oscilloscope CRT is supplied with signals to produce a luminous spot moving in a circle. An opaque mask with slots of variable width transmits light from the spot to a photoelectric transducer. For shorter pulse decay times a CRT screen which emits UV can be used with a UVtransmitting filter and a UV- sensitive photoelectric cell. Pulses are varied by changing masks or by using masks with variable slots. This device may be used in multiple arrangements to produce other pulse aT rangements, or it can be used to trigger an electronic pulse generator. (T.R.H.)

  12. Pulsed hall thruster system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, Vladimir J. (Inventor); Pote, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gamero-Castano, Manuel (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A pulsed Hall thruster system includes a Hall thruster having an electron source, a magnetic circuit, and a discharge chamber; a power processing unit for firing the Hall thruster to generate a discharge; a propellant storage and delivery system for providing propellant to the discharge chamber and a control unit for defining a pulse duration .tau.<0.1d.sup.3.rho./m, where d is the characteristic size of the thruster, .rho. is the propellant density at standard conditions, and m is the propellant mass flow rate for operating either the power processing unit to provide to the Hall thruster a power pulse of a pre-selected duration, .tau., or operating the propellant storage and delivery system to provide a propellant flow pulse of duration, .tau., or providing both as pulses, synchronized to arrive coincidentally at the discharge chamber to enable the Hall thruster to produce a discreet output impulse.

  13. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Florida State University is investigating the concept of pulsed electron beams for fly ash precipitation. This report describes the results and data on three of the subtasks of this project and preliminary work only on the remaining five subtasks. Described are the modification of precharger for pulsed and DC energization of anode; installation of the Q/A measurement system; and modification and installation of pulsed power supply to provide both pulsed and DC energization of the anode. The other tasks include: measurement of the removal efficiency for monodisperse simulated fly ash particles; measurement of particle charge; optimization of pulse energization schedule for maximum removal efficiency; practical assessment of results; and measurement of the removal efficiency for polydisperse test particles. 15 figs., 1 tab. (CK)

  14. Short pulse test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This report discusses the construction and operation of the Short Pulse Test Set that has been built for the U.S. Army Missile Command for the purpose of applying short (25 to 100 nanosecond), high voltage pulses to electronic explosive devices (EEDs) in both the pin-to-pin and pins-to-case mode. The test set employs the short pulse generating techniques first described in the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories (now Franklin Research Center) Report I-C3410, 'Pins-to-Case Short Pulse Sensitivity Studies for the Atlas DC Switch', December 1974. This report, authored by Ramie H. Thompson, was prepared for Picatinny Arsenal under contract DAAA21-72C-0766. The test set described herein utilizes a computer controlled high speed digitizer to monitor the pulse voltage and current and provides software to process and display these data.

  15. Localized wave pulse experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

    1999-06-01

    The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

  16. SHORT PULSE STRETCHER

    DOEpatents

    Branum, D.R.; Cummins, W.F.

    1962-12-01

    >A short pulse stretching circuit capable of stretching a short puise to enable it to be displayed on a relatively slow sweeping oscilloscope is described. Moreover, the duration of the pulse is increased by charging a capacitor through a diode and thereafter discharging the capacitor at such time as is desired. In the circuit the trigger pulse alone passes through a delay line, whereas the main signal passes through the diode only, and results in over-all circuit losses which are proportional to the low losses of the diode only. (AEC)

  17. Pulse joining cartridges

    DOEpatents

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2016-08-23

    A pulsed joining tool includes a tool body that defines a cavity that receives an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member and a pulse joining cartridge. The tubular members are nested together with the cartridge being disposed around the outer tubular member. The cartridge includes a conductor, such as a wire or foil, that extends around the outer tubular member and is insulated to separate a supply segment from a return segment. A source of stored electrical energy is discharged through the conductor to join the tubular members with an electromagnetic force pulse.

  18. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Gerald L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter.

  19. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Mook, H.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The waves are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  20. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Mook, Jr., Herbert A.

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The wave are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  1. Pulse Coil Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Set of relays tested easily and repeatedly. Pulse coil tester causes coil under test to generate transient voltage; waveform indicates condition of coil. Tester accommodates assembly of up to four coils at a time.

  2. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.; Demchuk, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H2 - F2(NF3 or SF66) and He(Ne) - H2 - F2(NF3 or SF6) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% - 6%.

  3. HIGH POWER PULSED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Singer, S.; Neher, L.K.

    1957-09-24

    A high powered, radio frequency pulse oscillator is described for generating trains of oscillations at the instant an input direct voltage is impressed, or immediately upon application of a light pulse. In one embodiment, the pulse oscillator comprises a photo-multiplier tube with the cathode connected to the first dynode by means of a resistor, and adjacent dynodes are connected to each other through adjustable resistors. The ohmage of the resistors progressively increases from a very low value for resistors adjacent the cathode to a high value adjacent the plate, the last dynode. Oscillation occurs with this circuit when a high negative voltage pulse is applied to the cathode and the photo cathode is bombarded. Another embodiment adds capacitors at the resistor connection points of the above circuit to increase the duration of the oscillator train.

  4. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  5. Four pulse recoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaneja, Navin; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes a family of novel recoupling pulse sequences in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR, called four pulse recoupling. These pulse sequences can be employed for both homonuclear and heteronuclear recoupling experiments and are robust to dispersion in chemical shifts and rf-inhomogeneity. The homonuclear pulse sequence consists of a building block (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ°(π/2) 180 ° + ϕ°(3π/2) 180 ° where ϕ = π/n (ϕ° = 180°/n) , and n is number of blocks in a two rotor period. The heteronuclear recoupling pulse sequence consists of a building block (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ1 °(π/2) 180 ° +ϕ1 °(3π/2) 180 ° and (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ2 °(π/2) 180 ° +ϕ2 °(3π/2) 180 ° on channel I and S, where ϕ1 = 3π/2n, ϕ2 = π2/n and n is number of blocks in a two rotor period. The recoupling pulse sequences mix the y magnetization. We show that four pulse recoupling is more broadband compared to three pulse recoupling [1]. Experimental quantification of this method is shown for 13Cα-13CO, homonuclear recoupling in a sample of Glycine and 15N-13Cα, heteronuclear recoupling in Alanine. Application of this method is demonstrated on a sample of tripeptide N-formyl-[U-13C,15N]-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF).

  6. Pulse subtraction Doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahue, Veronique; Mari, Jean Martial; Eckersley, Robert J.; Caro, Colin G.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances have demonstrated the feasibility of molecular imaging using targeted microbubbles and ultrasound. One technical challenge is to selectively detect attached bubbles from those freely flowing bubbles and surrounding tissue. Pulse Inversion Doppler is an imaging technique enabling the selective detection of both static and moving ultrasound contrast agents: linear scatterers generate a single band Doppler spectrum, while non-linear scatterers generate a double band spectrum, one being uniquely correlated with the presence of contrast agents and non-linear tissue signals. We demonstrate that similar spectrums, and thus the same discrimination, can be obtained through a Doppler implementation of Pulse Subtraction. This is achieved by reconstructing a virtual echo using the echo generated from a short pulse transmission. Moreover by subtracting from this virtual echo the one generated from a longer pulse transmission, it is possible to fully suppress the echo from linear scatterers, while for non-linear scatterers, a signal will remain, allowing classical agent detection. Simulations of a single moving microbubble and a moving linear scatterer subject to these pulses show that when the virtual echo and the long pulse echo are used to perform pulsed Doppler, the power Doppler spectrum allows separation of linear and non-linear moving scattering. Similar results are obtained on experimental data acquired on a flow containing either microbubble contrast agents or linear blood mimicking fluid. This new Doppler method constitutes an alternative to Pulse Inversion Doppler and preliminary results suggest that similar dual band spectrums could be obtained by the combination of any non-linear detection technique with Doppler demodulation.

  7. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  8. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  9. Pulse magnetic welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder is described for automated closure of fuel pins by a pulsed magnetic process in which the open end of a length of cladding is positioned within a complementary tube surrounded by a pulsed magnetic welder. Seals are provided at each end of the tube, which can be evacuated or can receive tag gas for direct introduction to the cladding interior. Loading of magnetic rings and end caps is accomplished automatically in conjunction with the welding steps carried out within the tube.

  10. A versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarr, C. E.; Nickerson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A digital pulse programmer producing the standard pulse sequences required for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is described. In addition, a 'saturation burst' sequence, useful in the measurement of long relaxation times in solids, is provided. Both positive and negative 4 V trigger pulses are produced that are fully synchronous with a crystal-controlled time base, and the pulse programmer may be phase-locked with a maximum pulse jitter of 3 ns to the oscillator of a coherent pulse spectrometer. Medium speed TTL integrated circuits are used throughout.

  11. Gas Breakdown in the Sub-Nanosecond Regime with Voltages Below 15 KV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    protect devices from high power microwave radiation. Previous investigations of sub-nanosecond breakdown were mainly limited to high-pressure gases...which are doubled at the open gap before breakdown) delay times between start of the pulse and start of a measurable current flow (amplitude > several...using gas breakdown caused by the first cycle of incoming high power microwaves with frequencies in the GHz regime - Ultra-wideband radiation sources

  12. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  13. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  14. Efficient optical pulse stacker system

    DOEpatents

    Seppala, Lynn G.; Haas, Roger A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for spreading and angle-encoding each pulse of a multiplicity of small area, short pulses into several temporally staggered pulses by use of appropriate beam splitters, with the optical elements being arranged so that each staggered pulse is contiguous with one or two other such pulses, and the entire sequence of stacked pulses comprising a single, continuous long pulse. The single long pulse is expanded in area, and then doubly passed through a nonstorage laser amplifier such as KrF. After amplification, the physically separated, angle-encoded and temporally staggered pulses are recombined into a single pulse of short duration. This high intensity output beam is well collimated and may be propagated over long distance, or used for irradiating inertial confinement fusion targets.

  15. High voltage pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  16. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  17. Laser pulse sampler

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera.

  18. Pulsed neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, deceased, J. Craig; Rowland, Mark S.

    1989-03-21

    A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

  19. Pulse shaping system

    DOEpatents

    Skeldon, Mark D.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    1999-03-23

    Temporally shaped electrical waveform generation provides electrical waveforms suitable for driving an electro-optic modulator (EOM) which produces temporally shaped optical laser pulses for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The temporally shaped electrical waveform generation is carried out with aperture coupled transmission lines having an input transmission line and an aperture coupled output transmission line, along which input and output pulses propagate in opposite directions. The output electrical waveforms are shaped principally due to the selection of coupling aperture width, in a direction transverse to the lines, which varies along the length of the line. Specific electrical waveforms, which may be high voltage (up to kilovolt range), are produced and applied to the EOM to produce specifically shaped optical laser pulses.

  20. Pulse shaping system

    DOEpatents

    Skeldon, M.D.; Letzring, S.A.

    1999-03-23

    Temporally shaped electrical waveform generation provides electrical waveforms suitable for driving an electro-optic modulator (EOM) which produces temporally shaped optical laser pulses for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The temporally shaped electrical waveform generation is carried out with aperture coupled transmission lines having an input transmission line and an aperture coupled output transmission line, along which input and output pulses propagate in opposite directions. The output electrical waveforms are shaped principally due to the selection of coupling aperture width, in a direction transverse to the lines, which varies along the length of the line. Specific electrical waveforms, which may be high voltage (up to kilovolt range), are produced and applied to the EOM to produce specifically shaped optical laser pulses. 8 figs.