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Sample records for ultraflex solar array

  1. Development of an Ultraflex-Based Thin Film Solar Array for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Steve; Douglas, Mark; Spence, Brian; Jones, P. Alan; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    As flexible thin film photovoltaic (FTFPV) cell technology is developed for space applications, integration into a viable solar array structure that optimizes the attributes of this cell technology is critical. An advanced version of ABLE'sS UltraFlex solar array platform represents a near-term, low-risk approach to demonstrating outstanding array performance with the implementation of FTFPV technology. Recent studies indicate that an advanced UltraFlex solar array populated with 15% efficient thin film cells can achieve over 200 W/kg EOL. An overview on the status of hardware development and the future potential of this technology is presented.

  2. Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2010-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

  3. Promising Results from Three NASA SBIR Solar Array Technology Development Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskenazi, Mike; White, Steve; Spence, Brian; Douglas, Mark; Glick, Mike; Pavlick, Ariel; Murphy, David; O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Piszczor, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Results from three NASA SBIR solar array technology programs are presented. The programs discussed are: 1) Thin Film Photovoltaic UltraFlex Solar Array; 2) Low Cost/Mass Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ESCA); and 3) Stretched Lens Array SquareRigger (SLASR). The purpose of the Thin Film UltraFlex (TFUF) Program is to mature and validate the use of advanced flexible thin film photovoltaics blankets as the electrical subsystem element within an UltraFlex solar array structural system. In this program operational prototype flexible array segments, using United Solar amorphous silicon cells, are being manufactured and tested for the flight qualified UltraFlex structure. In addition, large size (e.g. 10 kW GEO) TFUF wing systems are being designed and analyzed. Thermal cycle and electrical test and analysis results from the TFUF program are presented. The purpose of the second program entitled, Low Cost/Mass Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ESCA) System, is to develop an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array meeting NASA s design requirements and ready this technology for commercialization and use on the NASA MMS and GED missions. The ESCA designs developed use flight proven materials and processes to create a ESCA system that yields low cost, low mass, high reliability, high power density, and is adaptable to any cell type and coverglass thickness. All program objectives, which included developing specifications, creating ESCA concepts, concept analysis and trade studies, producing detailed designs of the most promising ESCA treatments, manufacturing ESCA demonstration panels, and LEO (2,000 cycles) and GEO (1,350 cycles) thermal cycling testing of the down-selected designs were successfully achieved. The purpose of the third program entitled, "High Power Platform for the Stretched Lens Array," is to develop an extremely lightweight, high efficiency, high power, high voltage, and low stowed volume solar array suitable for very high power (multi-kW to MW

  4. Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2011-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

  5. A high specific power solar array for low to mid-power spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, P. Alan; White, Stephen F.; Harvey, T. Jeffery; Smith, Brian S.

    1993-01-01

    UltraFlex is the generic term for a solar array system which delivers on-orbit power in the 400 to 6,000 watt per wing sizes with end-of-life specific power performance ranging to 150 watts-per-kilogram. Such performance is accomplished with off-the-shelf solar cells and state-of the-art materials and processes. Much of the recent work in photovoltaics is centered on advanced solar cell development. Successful as such work has been, no integrated solar array system has emerged which meets NASA's stated goals of 'increasing the end-of-life performance of space solar cells and arrays while minimizing their mass and cost.' This issue is addressed; namely, is there an array design that satisfies the usual requirements for space-rated hardware and that is inherently reliable, inexpensive, easily manufactured and simple, which can be used with both advanced cells currently in development and with inexpensive silicon cells? The answer is yes. The UltraFlex array described incorporates use of a blanket substrate which is thermally compatible with silicon and other materials typical of advanced multi-junction devices. The blanket materials are intrinsically insensitive to atomic oxygen degradation, are space rated, and are compatible with standard cell bonding processes. The deployment mechanism is simple and reliable and the structure is inherently stiff (high natural frequency). Mechanical vibration modes are also readily damped. The basic design is presented as well as supporting analysis and development tests.

  6. A high specific power solar array for low to mid-power spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. Alan; White, Stephen F.; Harvey, T. Jeffery; Smith, Brian S.

    1993-05-01

    UltraFlex is the generic term for a solar array system which delivers on-orbit power in the 400 to 6,000 watt per wing sizes with end-of-life specific power performance ranging to 150 watts-per-kilogram. Such performance is accomplished with off-the-shelf solar cells and state-of the-art materials and processes. Much of the recent work in photovoltaics is centered on advanced solar cell development. Successful as such work has been, no integrated solar array system has emerged which meets NASA's stated goals of 'increasing the end-of-life performance of space solar cells and arrays while minimizing their mass and cost.' This issue is addressed; namely, is there an array design that satisfies the usual requirements for space-rated hardware and that is inherently reliable, inexpensive, easily manufactured and simple, which can be used with both advanced cells currently in development and with inexpensive silicon cells? The answer is yes. The UltraFlex array described incorporates use of a blanket substrate which is thermally compatible with silicon and other materials typical of advanced multi-junction devices. The blanket materials are intrinsically insensitive to atomic oxygen degradation, are space rated, and are compatible with standard cell bonding processes. The deployment mechanism is simple and reliable and the structure is inherently stiff (high natural frequency). Mechanical vibration modes are also readily damped. The basic design is presented as well as supporting analysis and development tests.

  7. Lightweight Integrated Solar Array (LISA): Providing Higher Power to Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John; Fabisinski, Leo; Lockett, Tiffany Russell

    2015-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is essential for all spacecraft and is a critical design driver for the next generation of smallsats, including CubeSats, which are currently extremely power limited. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to providing abundant power to large spacecraft in GEO and beyond. By using very thin, ultraflexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable or deployable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume.

  8. Lightweight Innovative Solar Array (LISA): Providing Higher Power to Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John; Fabisinski, Leo; Russell,Tiffany; Smith, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is essential for all spacecraft and is a critical design driver for the next generation of smallsats, including cubesats, which are currently extremely power limited. The Lightweight Innovative Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to providing abundant power to large spacecraft in GEO and beyond. By using very thin, ultra-flexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume. The LISA array comprises a launch-stowed, orbit-deployed structure on which lightweight photovoltaic devices and, potentially, transceiver elements are embedded. The system will provide a 2.5 to 5 fold increase in specific power generation (Watts/kilogram) coupled with a >2x enhancement of stowed volume (Watts/cubic-meter) and a decrease in cost (dollars/Watt) when compared to state-of-the-art solar arrays.

  9. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  10. On-Orbit Reconfigurable Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    In one or more embodiments, the present disclosure teaches a method for reconfiguring a solar array. The method involves providing, for the solar array, at least one string of solar cells. The method further involves deactivating at least a portion of at least one of the strings of solar cells of the solar array when power produced by the solar array reaches a maximum power allowance threshold. In addition, the method involves activating at least a portion of at least one of the strings of the solar cells in the solar array when the power produced by the solar array reaches a minimum power allowance threshold.

  11. Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array: Providing a Flexible, Efficient Solution to Space Power Systems for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Fabisinski, Leo; Justice, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is critical to consumers, spacecraft, military and other applications alike. In the aerospace industry, an increased emphasis on small satellite flights and a move toward CubeSat and NanoSat technologies, the need for systems that could package into a small stowage volume while still being able to power robust space missions has become more critical. As a result, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office identified a need for more efficient, affordable, and smaller space power systems to trade in performing design and feasibility studies. The Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space or on Earth. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to soldiers in the field. By using very thin, ultraflexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume (shown in artist rendering in Figure 1 below). The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the progress to date on the LISA project as well as a look at its potential, with continued development, to revolutionize small spacecraft and portable terrestrial power systems.

  12. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  13. ISS Solar Array Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  14. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  15. Developing an Inflatable Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Patrick K.; Jankowski, Francis J.; Williams, Geoffery T.; Vendura, George J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs describing the development of an inflatable solar array as part of the Inflatable Torus Solar Array Technology (ITSAT) program are presented. Program phases, overall and subsystem designs, and array deployment are addressed.

  16. Solar array technology evaluation program for SEPS (Solar Electrical Propulsion Stage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the technology and the development of a preliminary design for a 25 kilowatt solar array system for solar electric propulsion are discussed. The solar array has a power to weight ratio of 65 watts per kilogram. The solar array system is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, an array electrical harness, and hardware for supporting the system for launch and in the operating position. The technology evaluation was performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define supporting research necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the solar electric propulsion system solar array design requirements.

  17. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  18. Advanced photovoltaic solar array design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul; Scott-Monck, John

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program seeks to bring to flight readiness a solar array that effectively doubles the specific power of the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Solar Electric Propulsion (SAFE/SEP) design that was successfully demonstrated during the Shuttle 41-D mission. APSA is a critical intermediate milestone in the effort to demonstrate solar array technologies capable of 300 W/kg and 300 W/square m at beginning of life (BOL). It is not unreasonable to anticipate the development of solar array designs capable of 300 W/kg at BOL for operational power levels approx. greater than 25 kW sub e. It is also quite reasonable to expect that high performance solar arrays capable of providing at least 200 W/kg at end of life for most orbits now being considered by mission planners will be realized in the next decade.

  19. A lightweight solar array study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josephs, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A sample module was assembled to model a portion of a flexible extendable solar array, a type that promises to become the next generation of solar array design. The resulting study of this module is intended to provide technical support to the array designer for lightweight component selection, specifications, and tests. Selected from available lightweight components were 127-micron-thick wrap-around contacted solar cells, 34- micron-thick sputtered glass covers, and as a substrate a 13-micron-thick polyimide film clad with a copper printed circuit. Each component displayed weaknesses. The thin solar cells had excessive breakage losses. Sputtered glass cover adhesion was poor, and the covered cell was weaker than the cell uncovered. Thermal stresses caused some cell delamination from the model solar array substrate.

  20. PEP solar array definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The conceptual design of a large, flexible, lightweight solar array is presented focusing on a solar array overview assessment, solar array blanket definition, structural-mechanical systems definition, and launch/reentry blanket protection features. The overview assessment includes a requirements and constraints review, the thermal environment assessment on the design selection, an evaluation of blanket integration sequence, a conceptual blanket/harness design, and a hot spot analysis considering the effects of shadowing and cell failures on overall array reliability. The solar array blanket definition includes the substrate design, hinge designs and blanket/harness flexibility assessment. The structural/mechanical systems definition includes an overall loads and deflection assessment, a frequency analysis of the deployed assembly, a components weights estimate, design of the blanket housing and tensioning mechanism. The launch/reentry blanket protection task includes assessment of solar cell/cover glass cushioning concepts during ascent and reentry flight condition.

  1. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John W.; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) missions have typically had three years between mission definition and launch. This short schedule has posed significant challenges with respect to solar array design and procurement. Typically, the solar panel geometry is frozen prior to going out with a procurement. However, with the SMEX schedule, it has been virtually impossible to freeze the geometry in time to avoid scheduling problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. A modular solar array architecture was developed to alleviate this problem. This approach involves procuring sufficient modules for multiple missions and assembling the modules onto a solar array framework that is unique to each mission. The modular approach removes the solar array from the critical path of the SMEX integration and testing schedule. It also reduces the cost per unit area of the solar arrays and facilitates the inclusion of experiments involving new solar cell or panel technologies in the SMEX missions.

  2. Solar electric propulsion thruster interactions with solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of interactions of spacecraft-generated and naturally occurring plasmas with high voltage solar array components on an advanced solar electric propulsion system proposed for the Halley's Comet rendezvous mission was investigated. The spacecraft-generated plasma consists of mercury ions and neutralizing electrons resulting from the operation of ion thrusters (the charge-exchange plasma) and associated hollow cathode neutralizers. Quantitative results are given for the parasitic currents and power coupled into solar arrays with voltage fixed as a function of position on the array.

  3. Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

  4. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John

    2002-01-01

    For the most part, Goddard solar arrays have been custom designs that are unique to each mission. The solar panel design has been frozen prior to issuing an RFP for their procurement. There has typically been 6-9 months between RFP release and contract award, followed by an additional 24 months for performance of the contract. For Small Explorer (SMEX) missions, with three years between mission definition and launch, this has been a significant problem. The SMEX solar panels have been sufficiently small that the contract performance period has been reduced to 12-15 months. The bulk of this time is used up in the final design definition and fabrication of flight solar cell assemblies. Even so, it has been virtually impossible to have the spacecraft design at a level of maturity sufficient to freeze the solar panel geometry and release the RFP in time to avoid schedule problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. With that in mind, the SMEX-Lite project team developed a modular architecture for the assembly of solar arrays to greatly reduce the cost and schedule associated with the development of a mission- specific solar array. In the modular architecture, solar cells are fabricated onto small substrate panels. This modular panel (approximately 8.5" x 17" in this case) becomes the building block for constructing solar arrays for multiple missions with varying power requirements and geometrical arrangements. The mechanical framework that holds these modules together as a solar array is the only mission-unique design, changing in size and shape as required for each mission. There are several advantages to this approach. First, the typical solar array development cycle requires a mission unique design, procurement, and qualification including a custom qualification panel. With the modular architecture, a single qualification of the SMEX-Lite modules and the associated mechanical framework in a typical configuration provided a qualification by

  5. Solar collector array

    DOEpatents

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  6. Operational considerations to reduce solar array loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, W.

    1992-01-01

    The key parameters associated with solar array plume loads are examined, and operational considerations aimed at minimizing the effect of the Shuttle plumes on the Space Station solar arrays are discussed. These include solar array pointing to reduce loads and restrictions on Shuttle piloting. Particular attention is given to the method used to obtain the forcing functions (thruster time firing histories) for solar array plume calculation.

  7. Thermally stable, highly efficient, ultraflexible organic photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaomin; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Karki, Akchheta; Park, Sungjun; Kimura, Hiroki; Jinno, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Shimomura, Satoru; Kitazawa, Daisuke; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Umezu, Shinjiro; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Someya, Takao

    2018-01-01

    Flexible photovoltaics with extreme mechanical compliance present appealing possibilities to power Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and wearable electronic devices. Although improvement in thermal stability is essential, simultaneous achievement of high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and thermal stability in flexible organic photovoltaics (OPVs) remains challenging due to the difficulties in maintaining an optimal microstructure of the active layer under thermal stress. The insufficient thermal capability of a plastic substrate and the environmental influences cannot be fully expelled by ultrathin barrier coatings. Here, we have successfully fabricated ultraflexible OPVs with initial efficiencies of up to 10% that can endure temperatures of over 100 °C, maintaining 80% of the initial efficiency under accelerated testing conditions for over 500 hours in air. Particularly, we introduce a low-bandgap poly(benzodithiophene-cothieno[3,4-b]thiophene) (PBDTTT) donor polymer that forms a sturdy microstructure when blended with a fullerene acceptor. We demonstrate a feasible way to adhere ultraflexible OPVs onto textiles through a hot-melt process without causing severe performance degradation. PMID:29666257

  8. Electrostatically clean solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore Garry (Inventor); Krumweide, Duane Eric (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Provided are methods of manufacturing an electrostatically clean solar array panel and the products resulting from the practice of these methods. The preferred method uses an array of solar cells, each with a coverglass where the method includes machining apertures into a flat, electrically conductive sheet so that each aperture is aligned with and undersized with respect to its matched coverglass sheet and thereby fashion a front side shield with apertures (FSA). The undersized portion about each aperture of the bottom side of the FSA shield is bonded to the topside portions nearest the edges of each aperture's matched coverglass. Edge clips are attached to the front side aperture shield edges with the edge clips electrically and mechanically connecting the tops of the coverglasses to the solar panel substrate. The FSA shield, edge clips and substrate edges are bonded so as to produce a conductively grounded electrostatically clean solar array panel.

  9. Torsional Buckling Tests of a Simulated Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    Spacecraft solar arrays are typically large structures supported by long, thin deployable booms. As such, they may be particularly susceptible to abnormal structural behavior induced by mechanical and thermal loading. One example is the Hubble Space Telescope solar arrays which consist of two split tubes fit one inside the other called BiSTEMs. The original solar arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope were found to be severely twisted following deployment and later telemetry data showed the arrays were vibrating during daylight to night and night to daylight transition. The solar array twist however can force the BiSTEM booms to change in cross-section and cause tile solar arrays to react unpredictably to future loading. The solar arrays were redesigned to correct for tile vibration, however, upon redeployment they again twisted. To assess the influence of boom cross-sectional configuration, experiments were conducted on two types of booms, (1)booms with closed cross-sections, and (2) booms with open cross-sections. Both models were subjected to compressive loading and imposed tip deflections. An existing analytical model by Chung and Thornton was used to define the individual load ranges for each model solar array configuration. The load range for the model solar array using closed cross-section booms was 0-120 Newtons and 0-160 Newtons for the model solar array using open cross-section booms. The results indicate the model solar array with closed cross-section booms buckled only in flexure. However, the results of the experiment with open cross-section booms indicate the model solar array buckled only in torsion and with imposed tip deflections the cross section can degrade by rotation of the inner relative to the outer STEM. For tile Hubble Space Telescope solar arrays the results of these experiments indicate the twisting resulted from the initial mechanical loading of the open cross-section booms.

  10. Imperceptible and Ultraflexible p-Type Transistors and Macroelectronics Based on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-01-26

    Flexible thin-film transistors based on semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are promising for flexible digital circuits, artificial skins, radio frequency devices, active-matrix-based displays, and sensors due to the outstanding electrical properties and intrinsic mechanical strength of carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, previous research effort only led to nanotube thin-film transistors with the smallest bending radius down to 1 mm. In this paper, we have realized the full potential of carbon nanotubes by making ultraflexible and imperceptible p-type transistors and circuits with a bending radius down to 40 μm. In addition, the resulted transistors show mobility up to 12.04 cm(2) V(-1) S(-1), high on-off ratio (∼10(6)), ultralight weight (<3 g/m(2)), and good mechanical robustness (accommodating severe crumpling and 67% compressive strain). Furthermore, the nanotube circuits can operate properly with 33% compressive strain. On the basis of the aforementioned features, our ultraflexible p-type nanotube transistors and circuits have great potential to work as indispensable components for ultraflexible complementary electronics.

  11. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  12. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on Space Shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  13. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  14. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    A state-of-the-art solar-panel array demonstration site at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center provides a unique opportunity for studying the latest in high-efficiency solar photovoltaic cells. This five-kilowatt solar-array site (see Figure 1) is a technology-transfer and commercialization success for NASA. Among the solar cells at this site are cells of a type that was developed in Dryden Flight Research Center s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program for use in NASA s Helios solar-powered airplane. This cell type, now denoted as A-300, has since been transferred to SunPower Corporation of Sunnyvale, California, enabling mass production of the cells for the commercial market. High efficiency separates these advanced cells from typical previously commercially available solar cells: Whereas typical previously commercially available cells are 12 to 15 percent efficient at converting sunlight to electricity, these advanced cells exhibit efficiencies approaching 23 percent. The increase in efficiency is due largely to the routing of electrical connections behind the cells (see Figure 2). This approach to increasing efficiency originated as a solution to the problem of maximizing the degree of utilization of the limited space available atop the wing of the Helios airplane. In retrospect, the solar cells in use at this site could be used on Helios, but the best cells otherwise commercially available could not be so used, because of their lower efficiencies. Historically, solar cells have been fabricated by use of methods that are common in the semiconductor industry. One of these methods includes the use of photolithography to define the rear electrical-contact features - diffusions, contact openings, and fingers. SunPower uses these methods to produce the advanced cells. To reduce fabrication costs, SunPower continues to explore new methods to define the rear electrical-contact features. The equipment at the demonstration site includes

  15. The revised solar array synthesis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Revised Solar Array Synthesis Computer Program is described. It is a general-purpose program which computes solar array output characteristics while accounting for the effects of temperature, incidence angle, charged-particle irradiation, and other degradation effects on various solar array configurations in either circular or elliptical orbits. Array configurations may consist of up to 75 solar cell panels arranged in any series-parallel combination not exceeding three series-connected panels in a parallel string and no more than 25 parallel strings in an array. Up to 100 separate solar array current-voltage characteristics, corresponding to 100 equal-time increments during the sunlight illuminated portion of an orbit or any 100 user-specified combinations of incidence angle and temperature, can be computed and printed out during one complete computer execution. Individual panel incidence angles may be computed and printed out at the user's option.

  16. Multi-kW solar arrays for Earth orbit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The multi-kW solar array program is concerned with developing the technology required to enable the design of solar arrays required to power the missions of the 1990's. The present effort required the design of a modular solar array panel consisting of superstrate modules interconnected to provide the structural support for the solar cells. The effort was divided into two tasks: (1) superstrate solar array panel design, and (2) superstrate solar array panel-to-panel design. The primary objective was to systematically investigate critical areas of the transparent superstrate solar array and evaluate the flight capabilities of this low cost approach.

  17. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Cindy

    The SSF program's Electrical Power System supports a high-power bus with six solar-array wings in LEO; each solar array generates 30.8 kW at 161.1 V dc, with a deployed natural frequency of 0.1 Hz. Design challenges to the solar array, which must survive exposure for 15 years of operating life, include atomic oxygen, the thermal environment, and spacecraft propulsion plume-impingement loads. Tests thus far completed address cell UV-exposure effects, thermal cycling, and solar-cell deflection.

  18. (abstract) Scaling Nominal Solar Cell Impedances for Array Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert L; Wallace, Matthew T.; Iles, Peter

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a task the objective of which is to characterize solar cell array AC impedance and develop scaling rules for impedance characterization of large arrays by testing single solar cells and small arrays. This effort is aimed at formulating a methodology for estimating the AC impedance of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) cruise and lander solar arrays based upon testing single cells and small solar cell arrays and to create a basis for design of a single shunt limiter for MPF power control of flight solar arrays having very different inpedances.

  19. High voltage solar array experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennerud, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a high voltage solar array and a simulated space plasma is studied to obtain data for the design of a high voltage solar array capable of 15kW at 2 to 16kV. Testing was conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5-m long by 1.5-m diameter having a plasma source which simulated the plasma conditions existing in earth orbit between 400 nautical miles and synchronous altitude. Test samples included solar array segments pinholes in insulation covering high voltage electrodes, and plain dielectric samples. Quantitative data are presented in the areas of plasma power losses, plasma and high voltage induced damage, and dielectric properties. Limitations of the investigation are described.

  20. Solar array study for solar electric propulsion spacecraft for the Encke rendezvous mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sequeira, E. A.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The work is described which was performed on the design, analysis and performance of a 20 kW rollup solar array capable of meeting the design requirements of a solar electric spacecraft for the 1980 Encke rendezvous mission. To meet the high power requirements of the proposed electric propulsion mission, solar arrays on the order of 186.6 sq m were defined. Because of the large weights involved with arrays of this size, consideration of array configurations is limited to lightweight, large area concepts with maximum power-to-weight ratios. Items covered include solar array requirements and constraints, array concept selection and rationale, structural and electrical design considerations, and reliability considerations.

  1. Solar array construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouthamel, Marvin S. (Inventor); Coyle, Peter J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An interconnect tab on each cell of a first set of circular solar cells connects that cell in series with an adjacent cell in the set. This set of cells is arranged in alternate columns and rows of an array and a second set of similar cells is arranged in the remaining alternate columns and rows of the array. Three interconnect tabs on each solar cell of the said second set are employed to connect the cells of the second set to one another, in series and to connect the cells of the second set to those of the first set in parallel. Some tabs (making parallel connections) connect the same surface regions of adjacent cells to one another and others (making series connections) connect a surface region of one cell to the opposite surface region of an adjacent cell; however, the tabs are so positioned that the array may be easily assembled by depositing the cells in a certain sequence and in proper orientation.

  2. Mars Array Technology Experiment Developed to Test Solar Arrays on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Solar arrays will be the power supply for future missions to the planet Mars, including landers, rovers, and eventually human missions to explore the Martian surface. Until Mars Pathfinder landed in July 1997, no solar array had been used on the surface. The MATE package is intended to measure the solar energy reaching the surface, characterize the Martian environment to gather the baseline information required for designing power systems for long-duration missions, and to quantify the performance and degradation of advanced solar cells on the Martian surface. To measure the properties of sunlight reaching the Martian surface, MATE incorporates two radiometers and a visible/NIR spectrometer. The radiometers consist of multiple thermocouple junctions using thin-film technology. These devices generate a voltage proportional to the solar intensity. One radiometer measures the global broadband solar intensity, including both the direct and scattered sunlight, with a field of view of approximately 130. The second radiometer incorporates a slit to measure the direct (unscattered) intensity radiation. The direct radiometer can only be read once per day, with the Sun passing over the slit. The spectrometer measures the global solar spectrum with two 256-element photodiode arrays, one Si sensitive in the visible range (300 to 1100 nm), and a second InGaAs sensitive to the near infrared (900 to 1700 nm). This range covers 86 percent of the total energy from the Sun, with approximately 5-nm resolution. Each photodiode array has its own fiber-optic feed and grating. Although the purpose of the MATE is to gather data useful in designing solar arrays for Mars surface power systems, the radiometer and spectrometer measurements are expected to also provide important scientific data for characterizing the properties of suspended atmospheric dust. In addition to measuring the solar environment of Mars, MATE will measure the performance of five different individual solar cell types

  3. InSight Lander Solar Array Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    The solar arrays on NASA's InSight Mars lander were deployed as part of testing conducted Jan. 23, 2018, at Lockheed Martin Space in Littleton, Colorado. Engineers and technicians evaluated the solar arrays and performed an illumination test to confirm that the solar cells were collecting power. The launch window for InSight opens May 5, 2018. A video is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22205

  4. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  5. Space solar array reliability: A study and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Rodiek, Julie A.

    2008-12-01

    Providing reliable power over the anticipated mission life is critical to all satellites; therefore solar arrays are one of the most vital links to satellite mission success. Furthermore, solar arrays are exposed to the harshest environment of virtually any satellite component. In the past 10 years 117 satellite solar array anomalies have been recorded with 12 resulting in total satellite failure. Through an in-depth analysis of satellite anomalies listed in the Airclaim's Ascend SpaceTrak database, it is clear that solar array reliability is a serious, industry-wide issue. Solar array reliability directly affects the cost of future satellites through increased insurance premiums and a lack of confidence by investors. Recommendations for improving reliability through careful ground testing, standardization of testing procedures such as the emerging AIAA standards, and data sharing across the industry will be discussed. The benefits of creating a certified module and array testing facility that would certify in-space reliability will also be briefly examined. Solar array reliability is an issue that must be addressed to both reduce costs and ensure continued viability of the commercial and government assets on orbit.

  6. MILSTAR's flexible substrate solar array: Lessons learned, addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibb, John

    1990-01-01

    MILSTAR's Flexible Substrate Solar Array (FSSA) is an evolutionary development of the lightweight, flexible substrate design pioneered at Lockheed during the seventies. Many of the features of the design are related to the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE), flown on STS-41D in 1984. FSSA development has created a substantial technology base for future flexible substrate solar arrays such as the array for the Space Station Freedom. Lessons learned during the development of the FSSA can and should be applied to the Freedom array and other future flexible substrate designs.

  7. Flat-plate solar array progress and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The results of research into the technology of flat-plate solar arrays undertaken in the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy are surveyed. Topics examined include Si refinement, ribbon-sheet substrate formation, module process sequences, environmental isolation, module engineering and testing, and photovoltaic-array economics.

  8. The impact of solar cell technology on planar solar array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Michael W.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study into the potential impact of advanced solar cell technologies on the characteristics (weight, cost, area) of typical planar solar arrays designed for low, medium and geosynchronous altitude earth orbits are discussed. The study considered planar solar array substrate designs of lightweight, rigid-panel graphite epoxy and ultra-lightweight Kapton. The study proposed to answer the following questions: Do improved cell characteristics translate into array-level weight, size and cost improvements; What is the relative importance of cell efficiency, weight and cost with respect to array-level performance; How does mission orbital environment affect array-level performance. Comparisons were made at the array level including all mechanisms, hinges, booms, and harnesses. Array designs were sized to provide 5kW of array power (not spacecraft bus power, which is system dependent but can be scaled from given values). The study used important grass roots issues such as use of the GaAs radiation damage coefficients as determined by Anspaugh. Detailed costing was prepared, including cell and cover costs, and manufacturing attrition rates for the various cell types.

  9. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  10. Advanced photovoltaic solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program, started in mid-1987, is currently in progress to fabricate prototype wing hardware that will lead to wing integration and testing in 1989. The design configuration and key details are reviewed. A status of prototype hardware fabricated to date is provided. Results from key component-level tests are discussed. Revised estimates of array-level performance as a function of solar cell device technology for geosynchronous missions are given.

  11. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project are described for the period April through June 1978. The Project is assigned responsibility for advancing solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  12. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  13. The Long Wavelength Array (LWA): A Large HF/VHF Array for Solar Physics, Ionospheric Science, and Solar Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    adds an extra dimension to both IPS and other observations. The polarization of the CME synchrotron emission observed by [3] will be of great...base funding. 8. REFERENCES 1. Kassim et al., The 74 MHz System on the Very Large Array, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 172...The Long Wavelength Array (LWA): A Large HF/VHF Array for Solar Physics, Ionospheric Science, and Solar Radar Namir E. Kassim Naval Research

  14. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Solar Array Program is required to provide a 75 kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low Earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-year design point. Lockheed Missles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) is providing the flexible substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years. Trade studies and development testing, important for evolving any design to maturity, are presently underway at LMSC on the flexible solar array. The trade study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  15. Mariner 9 Solar Array Design, Manufacture, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sequeira, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    The mission of Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, was to make scientific observations of the surface of Mars. Throughout this unique mission, the Mariner 9 solar array successfully supported the power requirements of the spacecraft without experiencing anomalies. Basically, the design of the solar array was similar to those of Mariners 6 and 7; however, Mariner 9 had the additional flight operational requirement to perform in a Mars orbit environment mode. The array special tests provided information on the current-voltage characteristics and array space degradation. Tests indicated that total solar array current degradation was 3.5 percent, which could probably be attributed to the gradual degradation of the cover glass and/or the RTV 602 adhesive employed to cement the cover glass to the solar cell.

  16. Landsat 7 Solar Array Testing Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This paper covers the extensive Landsat 7 solar array flight qualification testing effort. Details of the mechanical design of the solar array and its retention/release system are presented. A testing chronology is provided beginning with the onset of problems encountered at the subsystem level and carrying through the third and final powered-spacecraft ground deployment test. Design fixes and other changes are explained in the same order as they became necessary to flight-qualify the array. Some interesting lessons learned are included along with key references.

  17. LSA Low-cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period October through December, 1977 are reported. The LSSA Project is assigned responsibility for advancing silicon solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  18. Anti-static coat for solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellas, C. N.

    1982-06-01

    A Kapton based composite material, suitable as a substrate for flexible solar arrays, was designed, constructed and tested under electron energies ranging from 5 to 30 keV. The rear of the array under adverse eclipse conditions (-197 C) produced voltages well below the discharge threshold. An antistatic coat suitable as a front cover for solar arrays is also described. The thermal and optical transmission characteristics were tested and are satisfactory, but the UV and particle degradation of the Tedlar material needs to be evaluated.

  19. The interactions of solar arrays with electric thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Isaacson, G. C.; Domitz, S.

    1976-01-01

    The generation of a charge-exchange plasma by a thruster, the transport of this plasma to the solar array, and the interaction of the solar array with the plasma after it arrives are all described. The generation of this plasma can be described accurately from thruster geometry and operating conditions. The transport of the charge-exchange plasma was studied experimentally with a 15 cm thruster. A model was developed for simple thruster-array configurations. A variety of experiments were surveyed for the interaction of the plasma at the solar array.

  20. Alphabus Solar Array- Versatile and Powerful Solar Arrays for Tomorrow's Commercial Telecom Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferkorn, T.; Oxynos, C.; Greff, P.; Gerlach, L.

    2008-09-01

    After the successful series of Eurostar 3000 and Spacebus 4000 satellites and due to the demand of satellite operators for even larger and more powerful satellites, ESA decided to co-fund the development of a new satellite platform which covers the market segment beyond the upper limits of both satellite families.The new satellite bus family Alphabus is developed in the frame of ARTES 8 project by a joint project team of ASTRIUM and TAS, whereas the solar array is developed by ASTRIUM GmbH.The main approaches in this design phase for the Alphabus solar array were to find a standardized and scaleable design to production and to use qualification heritage from former projects, especially Eurostar 3000, as far as possible. The main challenges for the solar array design and test philosophy were the usage of lateral deployment and related sequential deployment and the bus voltage of 102,5V and related ESD precautions.This paper provides an overview of the different configurations, their main design features and performance parameters. In addition it summarizes the development and verification approach and shows the actual qualification status.

  1. Evaluation of space station solar array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The research concerning lightweight solar array assemblies since 1970 is reported. A bibliography of abstracts of documents used for reference during this period is included along with an evaluation of available solar array technology. A list of recommended technology programs is presented.

  2. Concentrator enhanced solar arrays design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lott, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a 25 kW concentrator enhanced lightweight flexible solar array are presented. The study was organized into five major tasks: (1) assessment and specification of design requirements; (2) mechanical design; (3) electric design; (4) concentrator design; and (5) cost projection. The tasks were conducted in an iterative manner so as to best derive a baseline design selection. The objectives of the study are discussed and comparative configurations and mass data on the SEP (Solar Electric Propulsion) array design, concentrator design options and configuration/mass data on the selected concentrator enhanced solar array baseline design are presented. Design requirements supporting design analysis and detailed baseline design data are discussed. The results of the cost projection analysis and new technology are also discussed.

  3. Space Plasma Shown to Make Satellite Solar Arrays Fail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, scientists and engineers of the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Maxwell Technologies, and Space Systems/Loral discovered a new failure mechanism for solar arrays on communications satellites in orbit. Sustained electrical arcs, initiated by the space plasma and powered by the solar arrays themselves, were found to have destroyed solar array substrates on some Space Systems/Loral satellites, leading to array failure. The mechanism was tested at Lewis, and mitigation strategies were developed to prevent such disastrous occurrences on-orbit in the future. Deep Space 1 is a solar-electric-powered space mission to a comet, launched on October 24, 1998. Early in 1998, scientists at Lewis and Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) realized that some aspects of the Deep Space 1 solar arrays were nearly identical to those that had led to the failure of solar arrays on Space Systems/Loral satellites. They decided to modify the Deep Space 1 arrays to prevent catastrophic failure in space. The arrays were suitably modified and are now performing optimally in outer space. Finally, the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM1, scheduled for launch in mid-1999, is a NASA mission managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. Realizing the importance of Lewis testing on the Loral arrays, EOS-AM1 management asked Lewis scientists to test their solar arrays to show that they would not fail in the same way. The first phase of plasma testing showed that sustained arcing would occur on the unmodified EOS-AM1 arrays, so the arrays were removed from the spacecraft and fixed. Now, Lewis scientists have finished plasma testing of the modified array configuration to ensure that EOS-AM1 will have no sustained arcing problems on-orbit.

  4. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  5. InSight Lander Solar Array Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    While in the landed configuration for the last time before arriving on Mars, NASA's InSight lander was commanded to deploy its solar arrays to test and verify the exact process that it will use on the surface of the Red Planet. During the test on Jan. 23, 2018 from the Lockheed Martin clean room in Littleton, Colorado, engineers and technicians evaluated that the solar arrays fully deployed and conducted an illumination test to confirm that the solar cells were collecting power. A video is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22200

  6. InSight Lander Solar Array Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    While in the landed configuration for the last time before arriving on Mars, NASA's InSight lander was commanded to deploy its solar arrays to test and verify the exact process that it will use on the surface of the Red Planet. During the test on Jan. 23, 2018 from the Lockheed Martin clean room in Littleton, Colorado, engineers and technicians evaluated that the solar arrays fully deployed and conducted an illumination test to confirm that the solar cells were collecting power. A video is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22203

  7. InSight Lander Solar Array Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    While in the landed configuration for the last time before arriving on Mars, NASA's InSight lander was commanded to deploy its solar arrays to test and verify the exact process that it will use on the surface of the Red Planet. During the test on Jan. 23, 2018 from the Lockheed Martin clean room in Littleton, Colorado, engineers and technicians evaluated that the solar arrays fully deployed and conducted an illumination test to confirm that the solar cells were collecting power. A video is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22202

  8. InSight Lander Solar Array Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    While in the landed configuration for the last time before arriving on Mars, NASA's InSight lander was commanded to deploy its solar arrays to test and verify the exact process that it will use on the surface of the Red Planet. During the test on Jan. 23, 2018 from the Lockheed Martin clean room in Littleton, Colorado, engineers and technicians evaluated that the solar arrays fully deployed and conducted an illumination test to confirm that the solar cells were collecting power. A video is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22201

  9. InSight Lander Solar Array Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-23

    While in the landed configuration for the last time before arriving on Mars, NASA's InSight lander was commanded to deploy its solar arrays to test and verify the exact process that it will use on the surface of the Red Planet. During the test on Jan. 23, 2018 from the Lockheed Martin clean room in Littleton, Colorado, engineers and technicians evaluated that the solar arrays fully deployed and conducted an illumination test to confirm that the solar cells were collecting power. A video is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22204

  10. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  11. Large solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crabtree, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A spectrophotovoltaic converter, a thermophotovoltaic converter, a cassegrainian concentrator, a large silicon cell blanket, and a high flux approach are among the concepts being investigated as part of the multihundred kW solar array program for reducing the cost of photovoltaic energy in space. These concepts involve a range of technology risks, the highest risk being represented by the thermophotovoltaics and spectrophotovoltaics approaches which involve manipulation to of the incoming spectrum to enhance system efficiency. The planar array (solar blanket) has no technology risk and a moderate payback. The primary characteristics, components, and technology concerns of each of these concepts are summarized. An orbital power platform mission in the late 1980's is being used to allow a coherent technology advancement program in order to achieve a ten year life with maintenance at a capital recurring cost of $30/watt based on 1978 dollars.

  12. LSSA (Low-cost Silicon Solar Array) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Conversion Program was established to find methods of economically generating enough electrical power to meet future requirements. Activities and progress in the following areas are discussed: silicon-refinement processes; silicon-sheet-growth techniques; encapsulants; manufacturing of off-the-shelf solar arrays; and procurement of semistandardized solar arrays.

  13. DTO 1118 - Damaged Spektr solar array

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-04

    S89-E-5190 (25 Jan 1998) --- This Electronic Still Camera (ESC) image shows the Russian Mir Space Station's damaged solar array panel. The solar array panel was damaged as a result of an impact with an unmanned Progress re-supply ship which collided with the Mir on June 25, 1997, causing the Spektr Module to depressurize. This ESC view was taken on January 25, 1998 at 16:56:30 GMT.

  14. The 7.5 kW solar array simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    A high power solar array simulator capable of providing the input power to simultaneously operate two 30 cm diameter ion thruster power processors was designed, fabricated, and tested. The maximum power point is set to between 150 and 7500 watts representing an open circuit voltage from 50 to 300 volts and a short circuit current from 4 to 36 amps. Illuminated solar cells are used as the control element to provide a true solar cell characteristic and permit the option of simulating changes in this characteristic due to variations in solar intensity and/or temperature of the solar array. This is accomplished by changing the illumination and/or temperature of the control cells. The response of the output to a step change in load closely approximates that of an actual solar array.

  15. Theoretical models of Kapton heating in solar array geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand pyrolysis of Kapton in solar arrays, a computational heat transfer program was developed. This model allows for the different materials and widely divergent length scales of the problem. The present status of the calculation indicates that thin copper traces surrounded by Kapton and carrying large currents can show large temperature increases, but the other configurations seen on solar arrays have adequate heat sinks to prevent substantial heating of the Kapton. Electron currents from the ambient plasma can also contribute to heating of thin traces. Since Kapton is stable at temperatures as high as 600 C, this indicates that it should be suitable for solar array applications. There are indications that the adhesive sued in solar arrays may be a strong contributor to the pyrolysis problem seen in solar array vacuum chamber tests.

  16. Fully Printed Ultraflexible Supercapacitor Supported by a Single-Textile Substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huihui; Qiao, Yan; Lu, Zhisong

    2016-11-30

    Textile-based supercapacitors have recently attracted much attention owing to their great potential as energy storage components in wearable electronics. However, fabrication of a high-performance, fully printed, and ultraflexible supercapacitor based on a single textile still remains a great challenge. Herein, a facile, low-cost, and textile-compatible method involving screen printing and transfer printing is developed to construct all-solid-state supercapacitors on a single silk fabric. The system exhibits a high specific capacitance of 19.23 mF cm -2 at a current density of 1 mA cm -2 and excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 84% after 2000 charging/discharging cycles. In addition, the device possesses superior mechanical stability with stable performance and structures after 100 times of bending and twisting. A butterfly-patterned supercapacitor was manufactured to demonstrate the compatibility of the printing approaches to textile aesthetics. This work may provide a facile and versatile approach for fabricating rationally designed ultraflexible textile-based power-storage elements for potential applications in smart textiles and stretchable/flexible electronics.

  17. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  18. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  19. A simplified solar cell array modelling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the energy conversion/self sufficiency efforts of DSN engineering, it was necessary to have a simplified computer model of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system. This article describes the analysis and simplifications employed in the development of a PV cell array computer model. The analysis of the incident solar radiation, steady state cell temperature and the current-voltage characteristics of a cell array are discussed. A sample cell array was modelled and the results are presented.

  20. Thin-Film Solar Array Earth Orbit Mission Applicability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-01-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impact of using very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative Earth orbiting missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A simple calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a proper spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. NASA Glenn's low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is also briefly discussed to provide a perspective on one approach to achieving this enabling technology. The paper concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting missions.

  1. Space Station Freedom solar array containment box mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark E.; Haugen, Bert; Anderson, Grant

    1994-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will feature six large solar arrays, called solar array wings, built by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company under contract to Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division. Solar cells are mounted on flexible substrate panels which are hinged together to form a 'blanket.' Each wing is comprised of two blankets supported by a central mast, producing approximately 32 kW of power at beginning-of-life. During launch, the blankets are fan-folded and compressed to 1.5 percent of their deployed length into containment boxes. This paper describes the main containment box mechanisms designed to protect, deploy, and retract the solar array blankets: the latch, blanket restraint, tension, and guidewire mechanisms.

  2. High voltage solar cell power generating system for regulated solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E., Jr.; Hoffman, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kw), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500 watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 per cent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

  3. Low-cost silicon solar array project environmental hail model for assessing risk to solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C.

    1977-01-01

    The probability of solar arrays being struck by hailstones of various sizes as a function of geographic location and service life was assessed. The study complements parallel studies of solar array sensitivity to hail damage, the final objective being an estimate of the most cost effective level for solar array hail protection.

  4. EVA 2 - old solar array installed in payload bay

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-05

    STS109-326-008 (5 March 2002) --- Astronaut Michael J. Massimino, mission specialist, works at the stowage area for the Hubble Space Telescope's port side solar array. Astronauts Massimino and James H. Newman removed the old port solar array and stowed it in Columbia’s payload bay for a return to Earth. They then went on to install a third-generation solar array and its associated electrical components. Two crew mates had accomplished the same feat with the starboard array on the previous day.

  5. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  6. P6 Truss, Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Array Wing (SAW)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    STS097-376-006 (7 Dec 2000) --- A close-up view of the P6 solar array on the International Space Station (ISS), backdropped against the blackness of space and the Earth?s horizon. The P6 solar array is the first of eight sets of solar arrays that at the completion of the space station construction in 2006, will comprise the station?s electrical power system, converting sunlight to electricity.

  7. Ultra-flexible Piezoelectric Devices Integrated with Heart to Harvest the Biomechanical Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Ying; Ou, Dapeng; Chen, Hang; Diao, Liwei; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Weiguo; Sun, Lizhong; Feng, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Power supply for medical implantable devices (i.e. pacemaker) always challenges not only the surgery but also the battery technology. Here, we report a strategy for energy harvesting from the heart motion by using ultra-flexible piezoelectric device based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics that has most excellent piezoelectricity in commercial materials, without any burden or damage to hearts. Experimental swine are selected for in vivo test with different settings, i.e. opened chest, close chest and awake from anesthesia, to simulate the scenario of application in body due to their hearts similar to human. The results show the peak-to-peak voltage can reach as high as 3 V when the ultra-flexible piezoelectric device is fixed from left ventricular apex to right ventricle. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the biomechanical energy from heart motion in human body for sustainably driving implantable devices.

  8. Mass properties survey of solar array technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Robert

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technologies, electrical performance, and mass characteristics of many of the presently available and the more advanced developmental space solar array technologies is presented. Qualitative trends and quantitative mass estimates as total array output power is increased from 1 kW to 5 kW at End of Life (EOL) from a single wing are shown. The array technologies are part of a database supporting an ongoing solar power subsystem model development for top level subsystem and technology analyses. The model is used to estimate the overall electrical and thermal performance of the complete subsystem, and then calculate the mass and volume of the array, batteries, power management, and thermal control elements as an initial sizing. The array types considered here include planar rigid panel designs, flexible and rigid fold-out planar arrays, and two concentrator designs, one with one critical axis and the other with two critical axes. Solar cell technologies of Si, GaAs, and InP were included in the analyses. Comparisons were made at the array level; hinges, booms, harnesses, support structures, power transfer, and launch retention mountings were included. It is important to note that the results presented are approximations, and in some cases revised or modified performance and mass estimates of specific designs.

  9. P6 Truss, Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Array Wing (SAW)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    STS097-376-019 (7 December 2000) --- A close-up view of the P6 solar array on the International Space Station (ISS), backdropped against the blackness of space and the Earth’s horizon. The P6 solar array is the first of eight sets of solar arrays that at the completion of the space station construction in 2006, will comprise the station’s electrical power system, converting sunlight to electricity.

  10. Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Photolvoltaic Solar Array (APSA) Program is discussed. The objective of the program is to demonstrate a producible array system by the end of this decade with a beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power of 130 W/kg at 10 kW as an intermediate milestone toward the ultimate goal of 300 W/kg at 25 kW by the year 2000. The near-term goal represents a significant improvement over existing rigid panel flight arrays (25 to 45 W/kg) and the first-generation flexible blanket NASA/OAST SAFE I array of the early 1980s, which was projected to provide about 60 W/kg BOL. The prototype wing hardware is in the last stages of fabrication and integration. The current status of the program is reported. The array configuration and key design details are shown. Projections are shown for future performance enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced structural components and solar cells.

  11. Space Station Freedom solar array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom solar array program is required to provide a 75-kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-yr design point. The design of flexible-substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years is discussed. The tradeoff study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  12. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  13. SEP solar array Shuttle flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Hill, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to verify the operational performance of a full-scale Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) solar array is described. Scheduled to fly on the Shuttle in 1983, the array will be deployed from the bay for ten orbits, with dynamic excitation to test the structural integrity being furnished by the Orbiter verniers; thermal, electrical, and sun orientation characteristics will be monitored, in addition to safety, reliability, and cost effective performance. The blanket, with aluminum and glass as solar cell mass simulators, is 4 by 32 m, with panels (each 0.38 by 4 m) hinged together; two live Si cell panels will be included. The panels are bonded to stiffened graphite-epoxy ribs and are storable in a box in the bay. The wing support structure is detailed, noting the option of releasing the wing into space by use of the Remote Manipulator System if the wing cannot be refolded. Procedures and equipment for monitoring the array behavior are outlined, and comprise both analog data and TV recording for later playback and analysis. The array wing experiment will also aid in developing measurement techniques for large structure dynamics in space.

  14. Daytime Solar Heating of Photovoltaic Arrays in Low Density Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current work is to determine the out-gassing rate of H2O molecules for a solar array placed under daytime solar heating (full sunlight) conditions typically encountered in a Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment. Arc rates are established for individual arrays held at 14 C and are used as a baseline for future comparisons. Radiated thermal solar flux incident to the array is simulated by mounting a stainless steel panel equipped with resistive heating elements several centimeters behind the array. A thermal plot of the heater plate temperature and the array temperature as a function of heating time is then obtained. A mass spectrometer is used to record the levels of partial pressure of water vapor in the test chamber after each of the 5 heating/cooling cycles. Each of the heating cycles was set to time duration of 40 minutes to simulate the daytime solar heat flux to the array over a single orbit. Finally the array is cooled back to ambient temperature after 5 complete cycles and the arc rates of the solar arrays is retested. A comparison of the various data is presented with rather some unexpected results.

  15. The Implementation of Advanced Solar Array Technology in Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.; White, Steve; Douglas, Mark; Spence, Brian; Jones, P. Alan

    2003-01-01

    Advanced solar array technology is expected to be critical in achieving the mission goals on many future NASA space flight programs. Current PV cell development programs offer significant potential and performance improvements. However, in order to achieve the performance improvements promised by these devices, new solar array structures must be designed and developed to accommodate these new PV cell technologies. This paper will address the use of advanced solar array technology in future NASA space missions and specifically look at how newer solar cell technologies impact solar array designs and overall power system performance.

  16. Operating manual: Fast response solar array simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonhatten, R.; Weimer, A.; Zerbel, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    The fast response solar array simulator (FRSAS) is a universal solar array simulator which features an AC response identical to that of a real array over a large range of DC operating points. In addition, short circuit current (I sub sc) and open circuit voltage (V sub oc) are digitally programmable over a wide range for use not only in simulating a wide range of array sizes, but also to simulate (I sub sc) and (V sub oc) variations with illumination and temperature. A means for simulation of current variations due to spinning is available. Provisions for remote control and monitoring, automatic failure sensing and warning, and a load simulator are also included.

  17. Ultra-flexible Piezoelectric Devices Integrated with Heart to Harvest the Biomechanical Energy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Ying; Ou, Dapeng; Chen, Hang; Diao, Liwei; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Weiguo; Sun, Lizhong; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Power supply for medical implantable devices (i.e. pacemaker) always challenges not only the surgery but also the battery technology. Here, we report a strategy for energy harvesting from the heart motion by using ultra-flexible piezoelectric device based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics that has most excellent piezoelectricity in commercial materials, without any burden or damage to hearts. Experimental swine are selected for in vivo test with different settings, i.e. opened chest, close chest and awake from anesthesia, to simulate the scenario of application in body due to their hearts similar to human. The results show the peak-to-peak voltage can reach as high as 3 V when the ultra-flexible piezoelectric device is fixed from left ventricular apex to right ventricle. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the biomechanical energy from heart motion in human body for sustainably driving implantable devices. PMID:26538375

  18. Planetary and deep space requirements for photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Bennett, R. B.; Stella, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the majority of interplanetary spacecraft have been powered by nuclear sources. However, as the emphasis on smaller, low cost missions gains momentum, the majority of missions now being planned will use photovoltaic solar arrays. This will present challenges to the solar array builders, inasmuch as planetary requirements usually differ from earth orbital requirements. In addition, these requirements often differ greatly, depending on the specific mission; for example, inner planets vs. outer planets, orbiters vs. flybys, spacecraft vs. landers, and so on. Also, the likelihood of electric propulsion missions will influence the requirements placed on solar array developers. The paper will discuss representative requirements for a range of planetary missions now in the planning stages. Insofar as inner planets are concerned, a Mercury orbiter is being studied with many special requirements. Solar arrays would be exposed to high temperatures and a potentially high radiation environment, and will need to be increasingly pointed off sun as the vehicle approaches Mercury. Identification and development of cell materials and arrays at high incidence angles will be critical to the design. Missions to the outer solar system that have been studied include a Galilean orbiter and a flight to the Kuiper belt. While onboard power requirements would be small (as low as 10 watts), the solar intensity will require relatively large array areas. As a result, such missions will demand extremely compact packaging and low mass structures to conform to launch vehicle constraints. In turn, the large are, low mass designs will impact allowable spacecraft loads. Inflatable array structures, with and without concentration, and multiband gap cells will be considered if available. In general, the highest efficiency cell technologies operable under low intensity, low temperature conditions are needed. Solar arrays will power missions requiring as little as approximately 100

  19. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  20. APSA - A new generation of photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.; Kurland, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides details on the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) wing design, fabrication, and testing. The impact of array size change on performance and mechanical characteristics is discussed. Projections for future performance enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced solar cells presently under development are examined.

  1. Modeling and reconfiguration of solar photovoltaic arrays under non-uniform shadow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dung Duc

    Mass production and use of electricity generated from solar energy has become very common recently because of the environmental threats arising from the production of electricity from fossil fuels and nuclear power. The obvious benefits of solar energy are clean energy production and infinite supply of daylight. The main disadvantage is the high cost. In these photovoltaic systems, semiconductor materials convert the solar light into electrical energy. Current versus voltage characteristics of the solar cells are nonlinear, thus leading to technical control challenges. In the first order approximation, output power of a solar array is proportional to the irradiance of sunlight. However, in many applications, such as solar power plants, building integrated photovoltaic or solar tents, the solar photovoltaic arrays might be illuminated non-uniformly. The cause of non-uniform illumination may be the shadow of clouds, the trees, booms, neighbor's houses, or the shadow of one solar array on the other, etc. This further leads to nonlinearities in characteristics. Because of the nature of the electrical characteristics of solar cells, the maximum power losses are not proportional to the shadow, but magnify nonlinearly [1]. Further, shadows of solar PV array can cause other undesired effects: (1) The power actually generated from the solar PV array is much less than designed. At some systems, the annual losses because of the shadow effects can be reached 10%. Thus, the probability for "loss of load" increases [2]. (2) The local hot spot in the shaded part of the solar PV array can damage the solar cells. The shaded solar cells may be work on the negative voltage region and become a resistive load and absorb power. Bypass diodes are sometimes connected parallel to solar cells to protect them from damage. However, in most cases, just one diode is connected in parallel to group of solar cells [3], and this hidden the potential power output of the array. This proposed research

  2. LSSA (Low-cost Silicon Solar Array) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Methods are explored for economically generating electrical power to meet future requirements. The Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LSSA) was established to reduce the price of solar arrays by improving manufacturing technology, adapting mass production techniques, and promoting user acceptance. The new manufacturing technology includes the consideration of new silicon refinement processes, silicon sheet growth techniques, encapsulants, and automated assembly production being developed under contract by industries and universities.

  3. Solar array stepping problems in satellites and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharana, P. K.; Goel, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics problems arising due to stepping motion of the solar arrays of spacecraft are studied. To overcome these problems, design improvements in the drive logic based on the phase plane analysis are suggested. The improved designs are applied to the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) of IRS-1B and INSAT-2A satellites. In addition, an alternate torquing strategy for very successful slewing of the arrays, and with minimum excitation of flexible modes, is proposed.

  4. ISS Solar Array Wing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-29

    ISS024-E-007103 (29 June 2010) --- Backdropped by a blue and white part of Earth and the blackness of space, International Space Station solar array panels are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member aboard the station.

  5. An introduction to the Astro Edge solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, B. R.; Marks, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Astro Edge solar array is a new and innovative low concentrator power generating system which has been developed for applications requiring high specific power, high stiffness, low risk, light modular construction which utilizes conventional materials and technology, and standard photovoltaic solar cells and laydown processes. Mechanisms, restraint/release devices, wiring harnesses, substrates, and support structures are designed to be simple, functional, lightweight, and modular. A brief overview of the Astro Edge solar array is discussed.

  6. Spraylon fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A development program was performed for evaluating, modifying, and optimizing the Lockheed formulated liquid transparent filmforming Spraylon fluorocarbon protective coating for silicon solar cells and modules. The program objectives were designed to meet the requirements of the low-cost automated solar cell array fabrication process. As part of the study, a computer program was used to establish the limits of the safe working stress in the coated silicon solar cell array system under severe thermal shock.

  7. Review of biased solar array - Plasma interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Possible high voltage surface interactions on the Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) are examined, with particular regard for potential effects on SEPS performance. The SEPS is intended for use for geosynchronous and planetary missions, and derives power from deployed solar cell arrays which are susceptible to collecting ions and electrons from the charged and thermal particle environment of space. The charge exchange plasma which provides the thrust force can also enhance the natural charged particle environment and increase interactions between the thrust system and the biased solar array surface. Tests of small arrays have shown that snapover, where current collection becomes proportional to the panel area, can be avoided by larger cell sizes. Arcing is predicted to diminish with larger array sizes, while the problems of efflux environments are noted to be as yet undefined and require further study.

  8. A Practical Guide To Solar Array Simulation And PCDU Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Noah; Carroll, Greg; Clegg, Russell

    2011-10-01

    Solar arrays consisting of multiple photovoltaic segments provide power to satellites and charge internal batteries for use during eclipse. Solar arrays have unique I-V characteristics and output power which vary with environmental and operational conditions such as temperature, irradiance, spin, and eclipse. Therefore, specialty power solutions are needed to properly test the satellite on the ground, especially the Power Control and Distribution Unit (PCDU) and the Array Power Regulator (APR.) This paper explores some practical and theoretical considerations that should be taken into account when choosing a commercial, off-the-shelf solar array simulator (SAS) for verification of the satellite PCDU. An SAS is a unique power supply with I-V output characteristics that emulate the solar arrays used to power a satellite. It is important to think about the strengths and the limitations of this emulation capability, how closely the SAS approximates a real solar panel, and how best to design a system using SAS as components.

  9. Plasma chamber testing of advanced photovoltaic solar array coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    The solar array module plasma interactions experiment is a space shuttle experiment designed to investigate and quantify the high voltage plasma interactions. One of the objectives of the experiment is to test the performance of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). The material properties of array blanket are also studied as electric insulators for APSA arrays in high voltage conditions. Three twelve cell prototype coupons of silicon cells were constructed and tested in a space simulation chamber.

  10. Advanced photovoltaic solar array - Design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Stella, Paul

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an ultralightweight flexible blanket, flatpack, foldout solar array design that can provide 3- to 4-fold improvement on specific power performance of current rigid panel arrays and a factor of two improvement over a first-generation flexible blanket array developed as a forerunner to the Space Station Freedom array. To date a prototype wing has been built with a projected specific power performance of about 138 W/kg at beginning-of-life (BOL) and 93 W/kg end-of-life (EOL) at 12 kW (BOL) for a 10-year geosynchronous (GEO) mission. The prototype wing hardware has been subjected to a series of system-level tests to demonstrate design feasibility. The design of the array is summarized. The major trade studies that led to the selection of the baseline design are discussed. Key system-level and component-level testing are described. Array-level performance projections are presented as a function of existing and advanced solar array component technology for various mission applications.

  11. Analysis and simulation tools for solar array power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratananukul, Nattorn

    This dissertation presents simulation tools developed specifically for the design of solar array power systems. Contributions are made in several aspects of the system design phases, including solar source modeling, system simulation, and controller verification. A tool to automate the study of solar array configurations using general purpose circuit simulators has been developed based on the modeling of individual solar cells. Hierarchical structure of solar cell elements, including semiconductor properties, allows simulation of electrical properties as well as the evaluation of the impact of environmental conditions. A second developed tool provides a co-simulation platform with the capability to verify the performance of an actual digital controller implemented in programmable hardware such as a DSP processor, while the entire solar array including the DC-DC power converter is modeled in software algorithms running on a computer. This "virtual plant" allows developing and debugging code for the digital controller, and also to improve the control algorithm. One important task in solar arrays is to track the maximum power point on the array in order to maximize the power that can be delivered. Digital controllers implemented with programmable processors are particularly attractive for this task because sophisticated tracking algorithms can be implemented and revised when needed to optimize their performance. The proposed co-simulation tools are thus very valuable in developing and optimizing the control algorithm, before the system is built. Examples that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodologies are presented. The proposed simulation tools are also valuable in the design of multi-channel arrays. In the specific system that we have designed and tested, the control algorithm is implemented on a single digital signal processor. In each of the channels the maximum power point is tracked individually. In the prototype we built, off

  12. The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) yo-yo despin and solar array deployment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The SAMPEX spacecraft, successfully launched in July 1992, carried a yo-yo despin system and deployable solar arrays. The despin and solar array mechanisms formed an integral system as the yo-yo cables held the solar array release mechanism in place. The SAMPEX design philosophy was to minimize size and weight through the use of a predominantly single string system. The design challenge was to build a system in a limited space, which was reliable with minimal redundancy. This paper covers the design and development of the SAMPEX yo-yo despin and solar array deployment mechanisms. The problems encountered during development and testing will also be discussed.

  13. Interconnnect and bonding technologies for large flexible solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Thermocompression bonding and conductive adhesive bonding are developed and evaluated as alternate methods of joining solar cells to their interconnect assemblies. Bonding materials and process controls applicable to fabrication of large, flexible substrate solar cell arrays are studied. The primary potential use of the techniques developed is on the solar array developed by NASA/MSFC and LMSC for solar electric propulsion (SEP) and shuttle payload applications. This array is made up of flexible panels approximately 0.7 by 3.4 meters. It is required to operate in space between 0.3 and 6 AU for 5 years with limited degradation. Materials selected must be capable of enduring this space environment, including outgassing and radiation.

  14. Solar Array Structures for 300 kW-Class Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard; Rose, Geoff; Mann, Troy O.; Warren, Jerry E.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Kerslake, Tom; Kraft, Tom; Banik, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art solar arrays for spacecraft provide on the order of 20 kW of electrical power, and they usually consist of 3J solar cells bonded to hinged rigid panels about 1 inch in thickness. This structural construction allows specific mass and packaging volumes of up to approximately 70 W/kg and 15 kW/m3 to be achieved. Significant advances in solar array structures are required for future very-high-power spacecraft (300+ kW), such as those proposed for pre-positioning heavy cargo on or near the Moon, Mars, or asteroids using solar electric propulsion. These applications will require considerable increases in both W/kg and kW/m3, and will undoubtedly require the use of flexible-substrate designs. This presentation summarizes work sponsored by NASA's Game Changing Development Program since Oct. 2011 to address the challenge of developing 300+ kW solar arrays. The work is primarily being done at NASA Langley, NASA Glenn, and two contractor teams (ATK and DSS), with technical collaboration from AFRL/Kirtland. The near-tem objective of the project is design, analysis, and testing of 30-50 kW solar array designs that are extensible to the far-term objective of 300+ kW. The work is currently focused on three designs: the MegaFlex concept by ATK, the Mega-ROSA concept by DSS, and an in-house 300-kW Government Reference Array concept. Each of these designs will be described in the presentation. Results obtained to date by the team, as well as future work plans, for the design, analysis, and testing of these large solar array structures will be summarized.

  15. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor); Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  16. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  17. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  18. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  19. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  20. Evaluation of materials for high performance solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Smith, C. F., Jr.; Peacock, C. L., Jr.; Little, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    A program has been underway to evaluate materials for advanced solar arrays which are required to provide power to weight ratios up to 100 W/kg. Severe mission environments together with the lack of knowledge of space environmental materials degradation rates require the generation of irradiation and outgassing engineering data for use in the initial design phase of the flight solar arrays. Therefore, approximately 25 candidate array materials were subjected to selected mission environments of vacuum, UV, and particle irradiation, and their mechanical and/or optical properties were determined where appropriate.

  1. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  2. Array Automated Assembly Task Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, S. S.; Jones, G. T.; Allison, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of solar cells and module process steps for low-cost solar arrays is reported. Specific topics covered include: (1) a system to automatically measure solar cell electrical performance parameters; (2) automation of wafer surface preparation, printing, and plating; (3) laser inspection of mechanical defects of solar cells; and (4) a silicon antireflection coating system. Two solar cell process steps, laser trimming and holing automation and spray-on dopant junction formation, are described.

  3. The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.; Nita, G. M.; White, S. M.; Tun, S. D.; Fleishman, G. D.; McTiernan, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is now under construction near Big Pine, CA as a solar-dedicated microwave imaging array operating in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The solar science to be addressed focuses on the 3D structure of the solar corona (magnetic field, temperature and density), on the sudden release of energy and subsequent particle acceleration, transport and heating, and on space weather phenomena. The project will support the scientific community by providing open data access and software tools for analysis of the data, to exploit synergies with on-going solar research in other wavelengths. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is expanding OVSA from its previous complement of 7 antennas to a total of 15 by adding 8 new antennas, and will reinvest in the existing infrastructure by replacing the existing control systems, signal transmission, and signal processing with modern, far more capable and reliable systems based on new technology developed for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The project will be completed in time to provide solar-dedicated observations during the upcoming solar maximum in 2013 and beyond. We provide an update on current status and our preparations for exploiting the data through modeling and data analysis tools. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-0908344, and AGS-0961867 and NASA grant NNX10AF27G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  4. Optical Design of Segmented Hexagon Array Solar Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huegele, Vince

    2000-01-01

    A segmented array of mirrors was designed for a solar concentrator test stand at MSFC for firing solar thermal propulsion engines. The 144 mirrors each have a spherical surface to approximate a parabolic concentrator when combined into the entire 18-foot diameter array. The mirror segments are aluminum hexagons that had the surface diamond turned and quartz coated. The array focuses sunlight reflected from a heliostat to a 4 inch diameter spot containing 10 kw of power at the 15-foot focal point. The derivation of the surface figure for the respective mirror elements is shown. The alignment process of the array is discussed and test results of the system's performance is given.

  5. GPM Solar Array Gravity Negated Deployment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, Jonathan; Johnson, Chris; Lewis, Jesse; Dear, Trevin; Stewart, Alphonso

    2014-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) successfully developed a g-negation support system for use on the solar arrays of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Satellite. This system provides full deployment capability at the subsystem and observatory levels. In addition, the system provides capability for deployed configuration first mode frequency verification testing. The system consists of air pads, a support structure, an air supply, and support tables. The g-negation support system was used to support all deployment activities for flight solar array deployment testing.

  6. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  7. Micrometeorite Impact Test of Flex Solar Array Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H.; Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Hoang, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.

    2016-01-01

    Spacecraft with solar arrays operate throughout the near earth environment and are planned for outer planet missions. An often overlooked test condition for solar arrays that is applicable to these missions is micrometeoroid impacts and possibly electrostatic discharge (ESD) events resulting from these impacts. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is partnering with Space Systems/Loral, LLC (SSL) to examine the results of simulated micrometeoroid impacts on the electrical performance of an advanced, lightweight flexible solar array design. The test is performed at MSFC's Micro Light Gas Gun Facility with SSL-provided coupons. Multiple impacts were induced at various locations on a powered test coupon under different string voltage (0V-150V) and string current (1.1A - 1.65A) conditions. The setup, checkout, and results from the impact testing are discussed.

  8. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, L.; Gröbner, J.; Hülsen, G.; Bachmann, L.; Blumthaler, M.; Dubard, J.; Khazova, M.; Kift, R.; Hoogendijk, K.; Serrano, A.; Smedley, A. R. D.; Vilaplana, J.-M.

    2015-12-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers are small, light, robust and cost effective instruments and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP-ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines, and characterization methods have been developed to improve solar UV measurements with array spectroradiometers and support to the end-user community has been provided. In order to assess the quality of 14 end-user array spectroradiometers, a solar UV intercomparison was held on the measurement platform of the World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) in Davos, Switzerland, from 10 to 17 July 2014. The results of the intercomparison revealed that array spectroradiometers, currently used for solar UV measurements, show a large variation in the quality of their solar UV measurements. Most of the instruments overestimate the erythema weighted UV index - in particular at low solar zenith angles - due to stray light contribution in the UV-B range. The spectral analysis of global solar UV irradiance further supported the finding that the uncertainties in the UV-B range are very large due to stray light contribution in this wavelength range. In summary, the UV index may be detected by some commercially available array spectroradiometer within 5 % compared to the world reference spectroradiometer, if well characterized and calibrated, but only for a limited range or solar zenith angle. Generally, the tested instruments are not yet suitable for solar UV measurements for the entire range between 290 to 400 nm under all atmospheric conditions.

  9. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  10. Methods for utilizing maximum power from a solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of maximum power utilization methods was performed for an outer planet spacecraft using an ion thruster propulsion system and a solar array as the primary energy source. The problems which arise from operating the array at or near the maximum power point of its 1-V characteristic are discussed. Two closed loop system configurations which use extremum regulators to track the array's maximum power point are presented. Three open loop systems are presented that either: (1) measure the maximum power of each array section and compute the total array power, (2) utilize a reference array to predict the characteristics of the solar array, or (3) utilize impedance measurements to predict the maximum power utilization. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are discussed and recommendations for further development are made.

  11. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  12. A Parametric Assessment of the Mission Applicability of Thin-film Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented from a parametric assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impacts of very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative space missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. The presentation concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting and deep space missions.

  13. A Unique test for Hubble's new Solar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    In mid-October, a team from the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA will perform a difficult, never-before-done test on one of the Hubble Space Telescope's new solar array panels. Two of these panels, or arrays, will be installed by astronauts in November 2001, when the Space Shuttle Columbia visits Hubble on a routine service mission. The test will ensure that the new arrays are solid and vibration free before they are installed on orbit. The test will be conducted at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Because of the array's size, the facility's special features, and ESA's longstanding experience with Hubble's solar arrays, ESTEC is the only place in the world the test can be performed. This test is the latest chapter in a longstanding partnership between ESA and NASA on the Hubble Space Telescope. The Large Space Simulator at ESTEC, ESA's world-class test facility, features a huge vacuum chamber containing a bank of extremely bright lights that simulate the Sun's intensity - including sunrise and sunset. By exposing the solar wing to the light and temperature extremes of Hubble's orbit, engineers can verify how the new set of arrays will act in space. Hubble orbits the Earth once every 90 minutes. During each orbit, the telescope experiences 45 minutes of searing sunlight and 45 minutes of frigid darkness. This test will detect any tiny vibrations, or jitters, caused by these dramatic, repeated changes. Even a small amount of jitter can affect Hubble's sensitive instruments and interfere with observations. Hubble's first set of solar arrays experienced mild jitter and was replaced in 1993 with a much more stable pair. Since that time, advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of even more efficient arrays. In 2001, NASA will take advantage of these improvements, by fitting Hubble with a third-generation set of arrays. Though smaller, this new set generates more power than the previous

  14. Space Station Freedom Solar Array tension mechanism development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allmon, Curtis; Haugen, Bert

    1994-01-01

    A tension mechanism is used to apply a tension force to the Space Station Freedom Solar Array Blanket. This tension is necessary to meet the deployed frequency requirement of the array as well as maintain the flatness of the flexible substrate solar cell blanket. The mechanism underwent a series of design iterations before arriving at the final design. This paper discusses the design and testing of the mechanism.

  15. Computer Modelling and Simulation of Solar PV Array Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Nalin Kumar

    2003-02-01

    The main objective of my PhD research work was to study the behaviour of inter-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The approach involved the construction of mathematical models to investigate different types of research problems related to the energy yield, fault tolerance, efficiency and optimal sizing of inter-connected solar PV array systems. My research work can be divided into four different types of research problems: 1. Modeling of inter-connected solar PV array systems to investigate their electrical behavior, 2. Modeling of different inter-connected solar PV array networks to predict their expected operational lifetimes, 3. Modeling solar radiation estimation and its variability, and 4. Modeling of a coupled system to estimate the size of PV array and battery-bank in the stand-alone inter-connected solar PV system where the solar PV system depends on a system providing solar radiant energy. The successful application of mathematics to the above-m entioned problems entailed three phases: 1. The formulation of the problem in a mathematical form using numerical, optimization, probabilistic and statistical methods / techniques, 2. The translation of mathematical models using C++ to simulate them on a computer, and 3. The interpretation of the results to see how closely they correlated with the real data. Array is the most cost-intensive component of the solar PV system. Since the electrical performances as well as life properties of an array are highly sensitive to field conditions, different characteristics of the arrays, such as energy yield, operational lifetime, collector orientation, and optimal sizing were investigated in order to improve their efficiency, fault-tolerance and reliability. Three solar cell interconnection configurations in the array - series-parallel, total-cross-tied, and bridge-linked, were considered. The electrical characteristics of these configurations were investigated to find out one that is comparatively less susceptible to

  16. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  17. Demonstration of transparent solar array module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the design, development, fabrication and testing of IR transparent solar array modules. Three modules, consisting of a baseline design using back surface reflector cells, and two modules using gridded back contact, IR transparent cells, were subjected to vacuum thermal balance testing to verify analytical predictions of lower operating emperature and increased efficiency. As a result of this test program, LMSC has verified that a significant degree of IR transparency can be designed into a flexible solar array. Test data correlates with both steady state and transient thermal analysis.

  18. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baktur, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.

  19. Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultra-lightweight arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Kevin; Willenberg, Harvey J.

    2009-11-01

    Space solar power shows great promise for future energy sources worldwide. Most central power stations operate with power capacity of 1000 MW or greater. Due to launch size limitations and specific power of current, rigid solar arrays, the largest solar arrays that have flown in space are around 50 kW. Thin-film arrays offer the promise of much higher specific power and deployment of array sizes up to several MW with current launch vehicles. An approach to early commercial applications for space solar power to distribute power to charge hand-held, mobile battery systems by wireless power transmission (WPT) from thin-film solar arrays in quasi-stationary orbits will be presented. Four key elements to this prototype will be discussed: (1) Space and near-space testing of prototype wireless power transmission by laser and microwave components including WPT space to space and WPT space to near-space HAA transmission demonstrations; (2) distributed power source for recharging hand-held batteries by wireless power transmission from MW space solar power systems; (3) use of quasi-geostationary satellites to generate electricity and distribute it to targeted areas; and (4) architecture and technology for ultra-lightweight thin-film solar arrays with specific energy exceeding 1 kW/kg. This approach would yield flight demonstration of space solar power and wireless power transmission of 1.2 MW. This prototype system will be described, and a roadmap will be presented that will lead to still higher power levels.

  20. Extremely Black Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Solar Steam Generation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhe; Wang, Huimin; Jian, Muqiang; Li, Yanshen; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Mingchao; Wang, Chunya; Wang, Qi; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Quan-Shui; Zhang, Yingying

    2017-08-30

    The unique structure of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array makes it behave most similarly to a blackbody. It is reported that the optical absorptivity of an extremely black VACNT array is about 0.98-0.99 over a large spectral range of 200 nm-200 μm, inspiring us to explore the performance of VACNT arrays in solar energy harvesting. In this work, we report the highly efficient steam generation simply by laminating a layer of VACNT array on the surface of water to harvest solar energy. It is found that under solar illumination the temperature of upper water can significantly increase with obvious water steam generated, indicating the efficient solar energy harvesting and local temperature rise by the thin layer of VACNTs. We found that the evaporation rate of water assisted by VACNT arrays is 10 times that of bare water, which is the highest ratio for solar-thermal-steam generation ever reported. Remarkably, the solar thermal conversion efficiency reached 90%. The excellent performance could be ascribed to the strong optical absorption and local temperature rise induced by the VACNT layer, as well as the ultrafast water transport through the VACNT layer due to the frictionless wall of CNTs. Based on the above, we further demonstrated the application of VACNT arrays in solar-driven desalination.

  1. Thermal/Dynamic Characterization Test of the Solar Array Panel for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Kathleen; Hershfeld, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has experienced a problem maintaining pointing accuracy during emergence of the spacecraft from the Earth's shadow. The problem has been attributed to the rapid thermal gradient that develops when the heat from the Sun strikes the cold solar arrays. The thermal gradient causes the solar arrays to deflect or bend and this motion is sufficient to disturb the pointing control system. In order to alleviate this problem, a new design for the solar arrays has been fabricated. These new solar arrays will replace the current solar arrays during a future Hubble servicing mission. The new solar arrays have been designed so that the effective net motion of the center of mass of each panel is essentially zero. Although the solar array thermal deflection problem has been studied extensively over a period of years, a full scale test of the actual flight panels was required in order to establish confidence in the analyses. This test was conducted in the JPL Solar Simulation Facility in April, 1999. This presentation will discuss the objectives and methods of the test and present some typical test data.

  2. Development of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore G.; Krumweide, Duane; Gaddy, Edward; Katz, Ira

    2000-01-01

    The results of design, analysis, and qualification of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panel are described. The objective of the ECSA design is to provide an electrostatic environment that does not interfere with sensitive instruments on scientific spacecraft. The ECSA design uses large, ITO-coated coverglasses that cover multiple solar cells, an aperture grid that covers the intercell areas, stress-relieved interconnects for connecting the aperture grid to the coverglasses, and edge clips to provides an electromagnetically shielded enclosure for the solar array active circuitry. Qualification coupons were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic response, conductivity, and survivability to launch acoustic and thermal cycling environments simulating LEO and GEO missions. The benefits of reducing solar panel interaction with the space environment are also discussed.

  3. Study program for encapsulation materials interface for low-cost solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.; Mansfeld, F. B.; Kendig, M.; Leung, C.

    1981-01-01

    The service integrity of the bonded interface in solar cell modules used in solar arrays is addressed. The development of AC impedance as a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methodology for solar arrays is reported along with development of corrosion models and materials selection criteria for corrosion resistant interfaces.

  4. Thermal cycle testing of Space Station Freedom solar array blanket coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, David A.; Schieman, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Lewis Research Center is presently conducting thermal cycle testing of solar array blanket coupons that represent the baseline design for Space Station Freedom. Four coupons were fabricated as part of the Photovoltaic Array Environment Protection (PAEP) Program, NAS 3-25079, at Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The objective of the testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array welded interconnect design within the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array welded interconnect design within a low earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycling environment. Secondary objectives include the observation and identification of potential failure modes and effects that may occur within the solar array blanket coupons as a result of thermal cycling. The objectives, test articles, test chamber, performance evaluation, test requirements, and test results are presented for the successful completion of 60,000 thermal cycles.

  5. Atomic Oxygen Durability Testing of an International Space Station Solar Array Validation Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkapa, Mark J.; Stidham, Curtis; Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Ma, David H.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An International Space Station solar array validation coupon was exposed in a directed atomic oxygen beam for space environment durability testing at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Exposure to atomic oxygen and intermittent tensioning of the solar array were conducted to verify the solar array#s durability to low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and to the docking threat of plume loading both of which are anticipated over its expected mission life of fifteen years. The validation coupon was mounted on a specially designed rotisserie. The rotisserie mounting enabled the solar and anti-solar facing side of the array to be exposed to directed atomic oxygen in a sweeping arrival process replicating space exposure. The rotisserie mounting also enabled tensioning, in order to examine the durability of the array and its hinge to simulated plume loads. Flash testing to verify electrical performance of the solar array was performed with a solar simulator before and after the exposure to atomic oxygen and tensile loading. Results of the flash testing indicated little or no degradation in the solar array#s performance. Photographs were also taken of the array before and after the durability testing and are included along with comparisons and discussions in this report. The amount of atomic oxygen damage appeared minor with the exception of a very few isolated defects. There were also no indications that the simulated plume loadings had weakened or damaged the array, even though there was some erosion of Kapton due to atomic oxygen attack. Based on the results of this testing, it is apparent that the International Space Station#s solar arrays should survive the low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment and docking threats which are anticipated over its expected mission life.

  6. Experimental Study of Arcing on High-voltage Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris; Galofaro, Joel; Ferguson, Dale

    2005-01-01

    The main obstacle to the implementation of a high-voltage solar array in space is arcing on the conductor-dielectric junctions exposed to the surrounding plasma. One obvious solution to this problem would be the installation of fully encapsulated solar arrays which were not having exposed conductors at all. However, there are many technological difficulties that must be overcome before the employment of fully encapsulated arrays will turn into reality. An alternative solution to raise arc threshold by modifications of conventionally designed solar arrays looks more appealing, at least in the nearest future. A comprehensive study of arc inception mechanism [1-4] suggests that such modifications can be done in the following directions: i) to insulate conductor-dielectric junction from a plasma environment (wrapthrough interconnects); ii) to change a coverglass geometry (overhang); iii) to increase a coverglass thickness; iiii) to outgas areas of conductor-dielectric junctions. The operation of high-voltage array in LEO produces also the parasitic current power drain on the electrical system. Moreover, the current collected from space plasma by solar arrays determines the spacecraft floating potential that is very important for the design of spacecraft and its scientific apparatus. In order to verify the validity of suggested modifications and to measure current collection five different solar array samples have been tested in large vacuum chamber. Each sample (36 silicon based cells) consists of three strings containing 12 cells connected in series. Thus, arc rate and current collection can be measured on every string independently, or on a whole sample when strings are connected in parallel. The heater installed in the chamber provides the possibility to test samples under temperature as high as 80 C that simulates the LEO operational temperature. The experimental setup is described below.

  7. Experimental Study of Arcing on High-Voltage Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris; Galofaro, Joel; Ferguson, Dale

    2003-01-01

    The main obstacle to the implementation of a high-voltage solar array in space is arcing on the conductor-dielectric junctions exposed to the surrounding plasma. One obvious solution to this problem would be the installation of fully encapsulated solar arrays which were not having exposed conductors at all. However, there are many technological difficulties that must be overcome before the employment of fully encapsulated arrays will turn into reality. An alternative solution to raise arc threshold by modifications of conventionally designed solar arrays looks more appealing, at least in the nearest future. A comprehensive study of arc inception mechanism suggests that such modifications can be done in the following directions: 1) To insulate conductor-dielectric junction from a plasma environment (wrapthrough interconnects); 2) To change a coverglass geometry (overhang); 3) To increase a coverglass thickness; 4) To outgas areas of conductor-dielectric junctions. The operation of high-voltage array in LEO produces also the parasitic current power drain on the electrical system. Moreover, the current collected from space plasma by solar arrays determines the spacecraft floating potential that is very important for the design of spacecraft and its scientific apparatus. In order to verify the validity of suggested modifications and to measure current collection five different solar array samples have been tested in a large vacuum chamber. Each sample (36 silicon based cells) consists of three strings containing 12 cells connected in series. Thus, arc rate and current collection can be measured on every string independently, or on a whole sample when strings are connected in parallel. The heater installed in the chamber provides the possibility to test samples under temperature as high as 80 C that stimulates the LEO operational temperature. The experimental setup is described below.

  8. A 928 sq m (10000 sq ft) solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    As the power requirements for space vehicles increases, the area of solar arrays that convert solar energy to usable electrical power increases. The requirements for a 928 sq m (10,000 sq ft) array, its design, and a full-scale demonstration of one quadrant (232 sq m (2500 sq ft)) deployed in a one-g field are described.

  9. Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

  10. Mission applications for advanced photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; West, John L.; Chave, Robert G.; Mcgee, David P.; Yen, Albert S.

    1990-01-01

    The suitability of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) for future space missions was examined by considering the impact on the spacecraft system in general. The lightweight flexible blanket array system was compared to rigid arrays and a radio-isotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) static power source for a wide range of assumed future earth orbiting and interplanetary mission applications. The study approach was to establish assessment criteria and a rating scheme, identify a reference mission set, perform the power system assessment for each mission, and develop conclusions and recommendations to guide future APSA technology development. The authors discuss the three selected power sources, the assessment criteria and rating definitions, and the reference missions. They present the assessment results in a convenient tabular format. It is concluded that the three power sources examined, APSA, conventional solar arrays, and RTGs, can be considered to complement each other. Each power technology has its own range of preferred applications.

  11. Design of a 7kW power transfer solar array drive mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    With the availability of the Shuttle and the European launcher, Ariane, there will be a continuing trend towards large payload satellite missions requiring high-power, high-inertia, flexible solar arrays. The need arises for a solar array drive with a large power transfer capability which can rotate these solar arrays without disturbing the satellite body pointing. The modular design of such a Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) which is capable of transferring 7kW of power or more is described. Total design flexibility has been achieved, enabling different spacecraft power requirements to be accommodated within the SADM design.

  12. Solar Array and Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-07

    ISS036-E-047951 (7 Sept. 2013) --- Backdropped by a blue and white part of Earth and the blackness of space, International Space Station solar array panels are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member aboard the station.

  13. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  14. Reliability analysis of the solar array based on Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianing, Wu; Shaoze, Yan

    2011-07-01

    The solar array is an important device used in the spacecraft, which influences the quality of in-orbit operation of the spacecraft and even the launches. This paper analyzes the reliability of the mechanical system and certifies the most vital subsystem of the solar array. The fault tree analysis (FTA) model is established according to the operating process of the mechanical system based on DFH-3 satellite; the logical expression of the top event is obtained by Boolean algebra and the reliability of the solar array is calculated. The conclusion shows that the hinges are the most vital links between the solar arrays. By analyzing the structure importance(SI) of the hinge's FTA model, some fatal causes, including faults of the seal, insufficient torque of the locking spring, temperature in space, and friction force, can be identified. Damage is the initial stage of the fault, so limiting damage is significant to prevent faults. Furthermore, recommendations for improving reliability associated with damage limitation are discussed, which can be used for the redesigning of the solar array and the reliability growth planning.

  15. Method for forming a solar array strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. I.; Yasui, R. K. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A flexible solar array strip is formed by a method which lends itself to automatic production techniques. Solder pads are deposited on printed circuitry deposited on a flexible structure. The resultant substrate is stored on a drum from which it is withdrawn and incrementally advanced along a linear path. Solderless solar cells are serially transported into engagement with the pads which are then heated in order to attach the cells to the circuitry. Excess flux is cleaned from the cells which are encapsulated in a protective coating. The resultant array is then spirally wound on a drum.

  16. Thermal Cycling of Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) Test Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) project was a joint US/Russian effort to build a photovoltaic (PV) solar array and deliver it to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA is currently being used to increase the electrical power on Mir and provide PV array performance data in support of Phase 1 of the International Space Station (ISS), which will use arrays based on the same solar cells used in the MCSA. The US supplied the photovoltaic power modules (PPMs) and provided technical and programmatic oversight while Russia provided the array support structures and deployment mechanism and built and tested the array. In order to ensure that there would be no problems with the interface between US and Russian hardware, an accelerated thermal life cycle test was performed at NASA Lewis Research Center on two representative samples of the MCSA. Over an eight-month period (August 1994 - March 1995), two 15-cell MCSA solar array 'mini' panel test articles were simultaneously put through 24,000 thermal cycles (+80 C to -100 C), equivalent to four years on-orbit. The test objectives, facility, procedure and results are described in this paper. Post-test inspection and evaluation revealed no significant degradation in the structural integrity of the test articles and no electrical degradation, not including one cell damaged early as an artifact of the test and removed from consideration. The interesting nature of the performance degradation caused by this one cell, which only occurred at elevated temperatures, is discussed. As a result of this test, changes were made to improve some aspects of the solar cell coupon-to-support frame interface on the flight unit. It was concluded from the results that the integration of the US solar cell modules with the Russian support structure would be able to withstand at least 24,000 thermal cycles (4 years on-orbit).

  17. The advanced photovoltaic solar array program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, R. M.; Stella, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    The background and development status of an ultralightweight flexible-blanket flatpack, fold-out solar array is presented. It is scheduled for prototype demonstration in late 1989. The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) design represents a critical intermediate milestone of the goal of 300 W/kg at beginning-of-life (BOL) with specific performance characteristics of 130 W/kg (BOL) and 100 W/kg at end-of-life (EOL) for a 10-year geosynchronous geostationary earth orbit 10-kW (BOL) space power system. The APSA wing design is scalable over a power range of 2 to 15 kW and is suitable for a full range of missions including Low Earth Orbit (LEO), orbital transfer from LEO to geostationary earth orbit and interplanetary flight.

  18. Silicon-fiber blanket solar-cell array concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    Proposed economical manufacture of solar-cell arrays involves parallel, planar weaving of filaments made of doped silicon fibers with diffused radial junction. Each filament is a solar cell connected either in series or parallel with others to form a blanket of deposited grids or attached electrode wire mesh screens.

  19. NREL Adds Solar Array Field to Help Inform Consumers | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    PV modules at NREL's new solar array field. Workers install PV modules just north of the NREL parking be Added Each Year Once completed, the new solar array field will house four rows of PV modules. The the lifetime of a PV system, and that increases the per-kilowatt-hour cost of generating solar

  20. Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Rigid Panel Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.

  1. Ultrahigh Detective Heterogeneous Photosensor Arrays with In-Pixel Signal Boosting Capability for Large-Area and Skin-Compatible Electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehyun; Kim, Jaekyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Lee, Myungwon; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2016-04-01

    An ultra-thin and large-area skin-compatible heterogeneous organic/metal-oxide photosensor array is demonstrated which is capable of sensing and boosting signals with high detectivity and signal-to-noise ratio. For the realization of ultra-flexible and high-sensitive heterogeneous photosensor arrays on a polyimide substrate having organic sensor arrays and metal-oxide boosting circuitry, solution-processing and room-temperature alternating photochemical conversion routes are applied. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Arcing rates for High Voltage Solar Arrays - Theory, experiment, and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Cho, Mengu; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    All solar arrays have biased surfaces that can be exposed to the space environment. It has been observed that when the array bias is less than a few hundred volts negative, then the exposed conductive surfaces may undergo arcing in the space plasma. A theory for arcing is developed on these high voltage solar arrays that ascribes the arcing to electric field runaway at the interface of the plasma, conductor, and solar cell dielectric. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for the High Voltage Solar Array experiment that will fly on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) in 1994. The theory was compared in detail with the experiment and shown to give a reasonable explanation for the data. The combined theory and ground experiments were then used to develop predictions for the SFU flight.

  3. Solar Array at Very High Temperatures: Ground Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Solar array design for any spacecraft is determined by the orbit parameters. For example, operational voltage for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is limited by significant differential charging due to interactions with low temperature plasma. In order to avoid arcing in LEO, solar array is designed to generate electrical power at comparatively low voltages (below 100 V) or to operate at higher voltages with encapsulated of all suspected discharge locations. In Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) differential charging is caused by energetic electrons that produce differential potential between coverglass and conductive spacecraft body in a kilovolt range. In such a case, weakly conductive layer over coverglass (ITO) is one of possible measures to eliminate dangerous discharges on array surface. Temperature variations for solar arrays in both orbits are measured and documented within the range of -150 C +110 C. This wide interval of operational temperatures is regularly reproduced in ground tests with radiative heating and cooling inside shroud with flowing liquid nitrogen. The requirements to solar array design and tests turn out to be more complicated when planned trajectory crosses these two orbits and goes closer to Sun. Conductive layer over coverglass causes sharp increase in parasitic current collected from LEO plasma, high temperature may cause cracks in encapsulating material (RTV), radiative heating of coupon in vacuum chamber becomes practically impossible above 150 C, conductivities of glass and adhesive go up with temperature that decrease array efficiency, and mechanical stresses grow up to critical magnitudes. A few test arrangements and respective results are presented in current paper. Coupons were tested against arcing in simulated LEO and GEO environments under elevated temperatures up to 200 C. The dependence of leakage current on temperature was measured, and electrostatic cleanness was verified for coupons with antireflection (AR) coating over ITO

  4. Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding has been used to join silicon solar cells to borosilicate glass without the aid of any organic binders or adhesives. The results of this investigation have been to demonstrate, without question, the feasibility of this process as an encapsulation technique. The potential of ESB for terrestrial solar arrays was clearly shown. The process is fast, reproducible, and produces a permanent bond between glass and silicon that is stronger than the silicon itself. Since this process is a glass sealing technique requiring no organics it makes moisture tight sealing of solar cells possible.

  5. Impact of Solar Array Designs on High Voltage Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Piszczor, Mike; ONeill, Mark

    2006-01-01

    As power levels of advanced spacecraft climb above 25 kW, higher solar array operating voltages become attractive. Even in today s satellites, operating spacecraft buses at 100 V and above has led to arcing in GEO communications satellites, so the issue of spacecraft charging and solar array arcing remains a design problem. In addition, micrometeoroid impacts on all of these arrays can also lead to arcing if the spacecraft is at an elevated potential. For example, tests on space station hardware disclosed arcing at 75V on anodized A1 structures that were struck with hypervelocity particles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) plasmas. Thus an understanding of these effects is necessary to design reliable high voltage solar arrays of the future, especially in light of the Vision for Space Exploration of NASA. In the future, large GEO communication satellites, lunar bases, solar electric propulsion missions, high power communication systems around Mars can lead to power levels well above 100 kW. As noted above, it will be essential to increase operating voltages of the solar arrays well above 80 V to keep the mass of cabling needed to carry the high currents to an acceptable level. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to discuss various solar array approaches, to discuss the results of testing them at high voltages, in the presence of simulated space plasma and under hypervelocity impact. Three different types of arrays will be considered. One will be a planar array using thin film cells, the second will use planar single or multijunction cells and the last will use the Stretched Lens Array (SLA - 8-fold concentration). Each of these has different approaches for protection from the space environment. The thin film cell based arrays have minimal covering due to their inherent radiation tolerance, conventional GaAs and multijunction cells have the traditional cerium-doped microsheet glasses (of appropriate thickness) that are usually attached with Dow Corning DC 93-500 silicone

  6. Photovoltaic solar array technology required for three wide scale generating systems for terrestrial applications: rooftop, solar farm, and satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Three major options for wide-scale generation of photovoltaic energy for terrestrial use are considered: (1) rooftop array, (2) solar farm, and (3) satellite station. The rooftop array would use solar cell arrays on the roofs of residential or commercial buildings; the solar farm would consist of large ground-based arrays, probably in arid areas with high insolation; and the satellite station would consist of an orbiting solar array, many square kilometers in area. The technology advancement requirements necessary for each option are discussed, including cost reduction of solar cells and arrays, weight reduction, resistance to environmental factors, reliability, and fabrication capability, including the availability of raw materials. The majority of the technology advancement requirements are applicable to all three options, making possible a flexible basic approach regardless of the options that may eventually be chosen. No conclusions are drawn as to which option is most advantageous, since the feasibility of each option depends on the success achieved in the technology advancement requirements specified.

  7. Solar array electrical performance assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Brisco, Holly

    1993-01-01

    Electrical power for Space Station Freedom will be generated by large Photovoltaic arrays with a beginning of life power requirement of 30.8 kW per array. The solar arrays will operate in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) over a design life of fifteen years. This paper provides an analysis of the predicted solar array electrical performance over the design life and presents a summary of supporting analysis and test data for the assigned model parameters and performance loss factors. Each model parameter and loss factor is assessed based upon program requirements, component analysis, and test data to date. A description of the LMSC performance model, future test plans, and predicted performance ranges are also given.

  8. Solar array electrical performance assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Brisco, Holly

    1993-01-01

    Electrical power for Space Station Freedom will be generated by large photovoltaic arrays with a beginning of life power requirement of 30.8 kW per array. The solar arrays will operate in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) over a design life of fifteen years. This paper provides an analysis of the predicted solar array electrical performance over the design life and presents a summary of supporting analysis and test data for the assigned model parameters and performance loss factors. Each model parameter and loss factor is assessed based upon program requirements, component analysis and test data to date. A description of the LMSC performance model future test plans and predicted performance ranges are also given.

  9. Science with the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Gary, Dale E.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Chen, Bin; White, Stephen M.; Hurford, Gordon J.; McTiernan, James; Hickish, Jack; Yu, Sijie; Nelin, Kjell B.

    2017-08-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is a solar-dedicated radio array that makes images and spectra of the full Sun on a daily basis. Our main science goals are to understand the basic physics of solar activity, such as how the Sun releases stored magnetic energy on timescales of seconds, and how that solar activity, in the form of solar flares and coronal mass ejections, influences the Earth and near-Earth space environment, through disruptions of communication and navigation systems, and effects on satellites and systems on the ground. The array, which is composed out of thirteen 2.1 m dishes and two 27 m dishes (used only for calibration), has a footprint of 1.1 km EW x 1.2 km NS and it is capable of producing, every second, microwave images at two polarizations and 500 science channels spanning the 1-18 GHz frequency range. Such ability to make multi-frequency images of the Sun in this broad range of frequencies, with a frequency dependent resolution ranging from ˜53” at 1 GHz to ˜3”at 18 GHz, is unique in the world. Here we present an overview of the EOVSA instrument and a first set of science-quality active region and solar flare images produced from data taken during April 2017.This research is supported by NSF grant AST-1615807 and NASA grant NNX14AK66G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  10. Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches. [for spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Lindena, S.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of five potential approaches that can be utilized to detect the maximum power point of a solar array while sustaining operations at or near maximum power and without endangering stability or causing array voltage collapse. The approaches studied included: (1) dynamic impedance comparator, (2) reference array measurement, (3) onset of solar array voltage collapse detection, (4) parallel tracker, and (5) direct measurement. The study analyzed the feasibility and adaptability of these approaches to a future solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission, and, specifically, to a comet rendezvous mission. Such missions presented the most challenging requirements to a spacecraft power subsystem in terms of power management over large solar intensity ranges of 1.0 to 3.5 AU. The dynamic impedance approach was found to have the highest figure of merit, and the reference array approach followed closely behind. The results are applicable to terrestrial solar power systems as well as to other than SEP space missions.

  11. Pegasus ICON Solar Array Illumination Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-04

    A solar array illumination test is performed on NASA's Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) in a clean room inside Building 1555 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on May 4, 2018. The test checks for any imperfections and confirms that the solar arrays are functioning properly. The explorer will launch on June 15, 2018, from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (June 14 in the continental United States) on Orbital ATK's Pegasus XL rocket, which is attached to the company's L-1011 Stargazer aircraft. ICON will study the frontier of space - the dynamic zone high in Earth's atmosphere where terrestrial weather from below meets space weather above. The explorer will help determine the physics of Earth's space environment and pave the way for mitigating its effects on our technology, communications systems and society.

  12. Pegasus ICON Solar Array Illumination Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-04

    A solar array illumination test is performed on NASA's Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) in a clean room on May 4, 2018, inside Building 1555 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The test checks for any imperfections and confirms that the solar arrays are functioning properly. The explorer will launch on June 15, 2018, from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (June 14 in the continental United States) on Orbital ATK's Pegasus XL rocket, which is attached to the company's L-1011 Stargazer aircraft. ICON will study the frontier of space - the dynamic zone high in Earth's atmosphere where terrestrial weather from below meets space weather above. The explorer will help determine the physics of Earth's space environment and pave the way for mitigating its effects on our technology, communications systems and society.

  13. Pegasus ICON Solar Array Illumination Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-04

    NASA's Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) is prepared for a solar array illumination test in a clean room inside Building 1555 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on May 4, 2018. The test checks for any imperfections and confirms that the solar arrays are functioning properly. The explorer will launch on June 15, 2018, from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (June 14 in the continental United States) on Orbital ATK's Pegasus XL rocket, which is attached to the company's L-1011 Stargazer aircraft. ICON will study the frontier of space - the dynamic zone high in Earth's atmosphere where terrestrial weather from below meets space weather above. The explorer will help determine the physics of Earth's space environment and pave the way for mitigating its effects on our technology, communications systems and society.

  14. Pegasus ICON Solar Array Illumination Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-04

    Technicians prepare NASA's Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) for a solar array illumination test in a clean room inside Building 1555 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on May 4, 2018. The test checks for any imperfections and confirms that the solar arrays are functioning properly. The explorer will launch on June 15, 2018, from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (June 14 in the continental United States) on Orbital ATK's Pegasus XL rocket, which is attached to the company's L-1011 Stargazer aircraft. ICON will study the frontier of space - the dynamic zone high in Earth's atmosphere where terrestrial weather from below meets space weather above. The explorer will help determine the physics of Earth's space environment and pave the way for mitigating its effects on our technology, communications systems and society.

  15. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Solar Array Parametric Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Jacobs, Mark K.; Ponnusamy, Deva

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study that had the objective to develop a model and parametrically determine the circumstances for which lightweight thin-film photovoltaic solar arrays would be more beneficial, in terms of mass and cost, than arrays using high-efficiency crystalline solar cells. Previous studies considering arrays with near-term thin-film technology for Earth orbiting applications are briefly reviewed. The present study uses a parametric approach that evaluated the performance of lightweight thin-film arrays with cell efficiencies ranging from 5 to 20 percent. The model developed for this study is described in some detail. Similar mass and cost trends for each array option were found across eight missions of various power levels in locations ranging from Venus to Jupiter. The results for one specific mission, a main belt asteroid tour, indicate that only moderate thin-film cell efficiency (approx. 12 percent) is necessary to match the mass of arrays using crystalline cells with much greater efficiency (35 percent multi-junction GaAs based and 20 percent thin-silicon). Regarding cost, a 12 percent efficient thin-film array is projected to cost about half is much as a 4-junction GaAs array. While efficiency improvements beyond 12 percent did not significantly further improve the mass and cost benefits for thin-film arrays, higher efficiency will be needed to mitigate the spacecraft-level impacts associated with large deployed array areas. A low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is briefly described. The paper concludes with the observation that with the characteristics assumed for this study, ultra-lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become a leading alternative for a wide variety of space missions.

  16. Transparent, Conductive Coatings Developed for Arc-Proof Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Transparent, conductive thin-film coatings have many potential applications where a surface must be able to dissipate electrical charges without sacrificing its optical properties. Such applications include automotive and aircraft windows, heat mirrors, optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, and solar cell array surfaces for space applications. Many spacecraft missions require that solar cell array surfaces dissipate charges in order to avoid damage such as electronic upsets, formation of pinholes in the protective coatings on solar array blankets, and contamination due to deposition of sputtered products. In tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center, mixed thin-films of sputter-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) that could be tailored to the desired sheet resistivity, showed transmittance values of greater than 90 percent. The samples evaluated were composed of mixed, thin-film ITO/MgF2 coatings, with a nominal thickness of 650 angstroms, deposited onto glass substrates. Preliminary results indicated that these coatings were durable to vacuum ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. These coatings show promise for use on solar array surfaces in polar low-Earth-orbit environments, where a sheet resistivity of less than 10(exp 8)/square is required, and in geosynchronous orbit environments, where a resistivity of less than 10(exp 9)/square is required.

  17. Solar array deployment from a spinning spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, A. H.; Gardner, J. B.; Lassen, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cylindrical drum, wrapped with flexible solar array of solar cells mounted on Mylar sheet, is held by two end-fittings with cable (under tension) passing through axel of drum. Drum is held to end-fittings by axial cable through drum axel; drum is released for deployment when cable is cut at each end and end-fittings spring outward.

  18. Gallium arsenide solar array subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a gallium arsenide space solar array. Four specific configurations were addressed: (1) a 250 KWe LEO mission - planer array; (2) a 250 KWe LEO mission - with concentration; (3) a 50 KWe GEO mission planer array; (4) a 50 KWe GEO mission - with concentration. For each configuration, a baseline system conceptual design was developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies were then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance, and hence life cycle costs.

  19. LIGHTWEIGHT INTEGRATED SOLAR ARRAY AND TRANSCEIVER

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-23

    JOHN CARR, RIGHT, CO-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR FOR NASA'S LIGHTWEIGHT INTEGRATED SOLAR ARRAY AND TRANSCEIVER PROJECT, TALKS WITH GREG LAUE, DIRECTOR OF AEROSPACE PRODUCTS FOR NEXOLVE, MANUFACTURER OF THE THIN-FILM TECHNOLOGY AND A PARTNER IN THE PROJECT.

  20. A review of the solar array manufacturing industry costing standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar array manufacturing industry costing standards model is designed to compare the cost of producing solar arrays using alternative manufacturing processes. Constructive criticism of the methodology used is intended to enhance its implementation as a practical design tool. Three main elements of the procedure include workbook format and presentation, theoretical model validity and standard financial parameters.

  1. Operational considerations of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    Issues affecting the long-term operational performance of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) are discussed, with particular attention given to circuit electrical integrity from shadowed and cracked cell modules. The successful integration of individual advanced array components provides a doubling of array specific performance from the previous NASA-developed advanced array (SAFE). Flight test modules both recently fabricated and under fabrication are described. The development of advanced high-performance blanket technology for future APSA enhancement is presented.

  2. Operational considerations of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Kurland, Richard M.

    Issues affecting the long-term operational performance of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) are discussed, with particular attention given to circuit electrical integrity from shadowed and cracked cell modules. The successful integration of individual advanced array components provides a doubling of array specific performance from the previous NASA-developed advanced array (SAFE). Flight test modules both recently fabricated and under fabrication are described. The development of advanced high-performance blanket technology for future APSA enhancement is presented.

  3. Solar Arrays for Low-Irradiance Low-Temperature and High-Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boca, Andreea (Principal Investigator); Stella, Paul; Kerestes, Christopher; Sharps, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This is the Base Period final report DRAFT for the JPL task 'Solar Arrays for Low-Irradiance Low-Temperature and High-Radiation Environments', under Task Plan 77-16518 TA # 21, for NASA's Extreme Environments Solar Power (EESP) project. This report covers the Base period of performance, 7/18/2016 through 5/2/2017.The goal of this project is to develop an ultra-high efficiency lightweight scalable solar array technology for low irradiance, low temperature and high-radiation (LILT/Rad) environments. The benefit this technology will bring to flight systems is a greater than 20 reduction in solar array surface area, and a six-fold reduction in solar array mass and volume. The EESP project objectives are summarized in the 'NRA Goal' column of Table 1. Throughout this report, low irradiance low temperature (LILT) refers to 5AU -125 C test conditions; beginning of life (BOL) refers to the cell state prior to radiation exposure; and end of life (EOL) refers to the test article condition after exposure to a radiation dose of 4e15 1MeV e(-)/cm(exp 2).

  4. Small- Geo Solar Array: New Generation Of Solar Arrays For Commercial Telecom Satellites For Power Ranges Between 2,5 KW And 7,5 KW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paarmann, Carola; Muller, Jens; Mende, Thomas; Borner, Carsten; Mascher, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of the ESA supported Artes 11 program a new generation of GEO telecommunication satellites is under development. This platform will cover the power range from 2 to 5 kW. ASTRIUM GmbH is contracted to develop and design the Solar Array for this platform. Furthermore the manufacturing and the qualification of a PFM wing for the first flight model is foreseen. The satellite platform, called Small-GEO, is developed under the responsibility of OHB System. This first Small-GEO satellite is designated to be delivered to HISPASAT for operation. The concept of ASTRIUM GmbH is to use all the experiences from the very successful EUROSTAR 2000+, EUROSTAR-3000 and the ALPHABUS platform and to adapt the technologies to the Small- GEO Solar Array. With the benefit of the huge in-orbit heritage of these programs, the remaining risks for the Small-GEO Solar Array can be minimized. The development of the Small-GEO Solar Array extends the ASTRIUM GmbH product portfolio by covering now the complete power range between 2 kW and 31 kW. This paper provides an overview of the different configurations, their main design features and parameters.

  5. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts which could satisfy the mission requirements were identified. The switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system for cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. Solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison for the reviewed missions.

  6. Spacecraft level impacts of integrating concentrator solar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.M.; Piszczor, M.F. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the results of a study to determine the impacts of integrating concentrator solar arrays on spacecraft design and performance. First, concentrator array performance is summarized for the AEC-Able/Entech SCARLET array, the Ioffe refractive and reflective concepts being developed in Russia, the Martin Marietta SLATS system, and other concentrator concepts that have been designed or developed. Concentrator array performance is compared to rigid and flex blanket planar array technologies at the array level. Then other impacts on the spacecraft are quantified. Conclusions highlight the most important results as they relate to recommended approaches in developing concentrator arrays formore » satellites.« less

  7. Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

  8. Photogrammetric Assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Arrays During the Second Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, C. A.; Dragg, J. L.; Snyder, M. W.; Gaunce, M. T.; Decker, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the photogrammetric assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays conducted by the NASA c Center Image Science and Analysis Group during Second Servicing Mission 2 (SM-2) on STS-82 in February 1997. Two type solar array analyses were conducted during the mission using Space Shuttle payload bay video: (1) measurement of solar array motion due to induced loads, and (2) measurement of the solar array static or geometric twist caused by the cumulative array loading. The report describes pre-mission planning and analysis technique development activities conducted to acquire and analyze solar array imagery data during SM-2. This includes analysis of array motion obtained during SM-1 as a proof-of-concept of the SM-2 measurement techniques. The report documents the results of real-time analysis conducted during the mission and subsequent analysis conducted post-flight. This report also provides a summary of lessons learned on solar array imagery analysis from SM-2 and recommendations for future on-orbit measurements applicable to HST SM-3 and to the International Space Station. This work was performed under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  9. Spacecraft Charging Current Balance Model Applied to High Voltage Solar Array Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Pour, Maria Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    Spacecraft charging induced by high voltage solar arrays can result in power losses and degradation of spacecraft surfaces. In some cases, it can even present safety issues for astronauts performing extravehicular activities. An understanding of the dominant processes contributing to spacecraft charging induced by solar arrays is important to current space missions, such as the International Space Station, and to any future space missions that may employ high voltage solar arrays. A common method of analyzing the factors contributing to spacecraft charging is the current balance model. Current balance models are based on the simple idea that the spacecraft will float to a potential such that the current collecting to the surfaces equals the current lost from the surfaces. However, when solar arrays are involved, these currents are dependent on so many factors that the equation becomes quite complicated. In order for a current balance model to be applied to solar array operations, it must incorporate the time dependent nature of the charging of dielectric surfaces in the vicinity of conductors1-3. This poster will present the factors which must be considered when developing a current balance model for high voltage solar array operations and will compare results of a current balance model with data from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit4 on board the International Space Station.

  10. Plasma Interaction with International Space Station High Voltage Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, John W.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is presently being assembled in low-earth orbit (LEO) operating high voltage solar arrays (-160 V max, -140 V typical with respect to the ambient atmosphere). At the station's present altitude, there exists substantial ambient plasma that can interact with the solar arrays. The biasing of an object to an electric potential immersed in plasma creates a plasma "sheath" or non-equilibrium plasma around the object to mask out the electric fields. A positively biased object can collect electrons from the plasma sheath and the sheath will draw a current from the surrounding plasma. This parasitic current can enter the solar cells and effectively "short out" the potential across the cells, reducing the power that can be generated by the panels. Predictions of collected current based on previous high voltage experiments (SAMPIE (Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment), PASP+ (Photovoltaic Array Space Power) were on the order of amperes of current. However, present measurements of parasitic current are on the order of several milliamperes, and the current collection mainly occurs during an "eclipse exit" event, i.e., when the space station comes out of darkness. This collection also has a time scale, t approx. 1000 s, that is much slower than any known plasma interaction time scales. The reason for the discrepancy between predictions and present electron collection is not understood and is under investigation by the PCU (Plasma Contactor Unit) "Tiger" team. This paper will examine the potential structure within and around the solar arrays, and the possible causes and reasons for the electron collection of the array.

  11. Solar Array at Very High Temperatures: Ground Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Solar array design for any spacecraft is determined by the orbit parameters. For example, operational voltage for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is limited by significant differential charging due to interactions with low temperature plasma. In order to avoid arcing in LEO, solar array is designed to generate electrical power at comparatively low voltages (below 100 volts) or to operate at higher voltages with encapsulation of all suspected discharge locations. In Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) differential charging is caused by energetic electrons that produce differential potential between the coverglass and the conductive spacecraft body in a kilovolt range. In such a case, the weakly conductive layer over coverglass, indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the possible measures to eliminate dangerous discharges on array surface. Temperature variations for solar arrays in both orbits are measured and documented within the range of minus150 degrees Centigrade to plus 1100 degrees Centigrade. This wide interval of operational temperatures is regularly reproduced in ground tests with radiative heating and cooling inside a shroud with flowing liquid nitrogen. The requirements to solar array design and tests turn out to be more complicated when planned trajectory crosses these two orbits and goes closer to the Sun. The conductive layer over coverglass causes a sharp increase in parasitic current collected from LEO plasma, high temperature may cause cracks in encapsulating (Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) material; radiative heating of a coupon in vacuum chamber becomes practically impossible above 1500 degrees Centigrade; conductivities of glass and adhesive go up with temperature that decrease array efficiency; and mechanical stresses grow up to critical magnitudes. A few test arrangements and respective results are presented in current paper. Coupons were tested against arcing in simulated LEO and GEO environments under elevated temperatures up to 2000 degrees

  12. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts were identified that could safisfy the mission requirements. These switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system on the basis of cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. For the missions reviewed, solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison.

  13. Design and development of a solar array drive. [a direct drive solar array pointing mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, T.; Standing, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a dry lubricated direct drive solar array pointing mechanism is discussed for use on the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS), MAROTS, European Communication Satellite (ECS), and others. Results of life testing the original prototype and the OTS mechanism are presented together with an appraisal of expected future development.

  14. Electrical performance comparison BSFR-/bifacial solar cell array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, U.; Reissmann, F.

    1986-11-01

    Conventional and bifacial solar arrays were compared on subsystem level using the Space Telescope-solar array mission as reference. Calculations show that the bifacial solar cell has a performance advantage of 18 to 21 percent. This is due to a 5 C average lower temperature of the bifacial cell at the same orbit conditions; the rearside albedo irradiation of 86 to 170 W/sqm (average of 180 deg and 0 deg orbit orientation respectively); and the fact that the temperature difference between the hot case (satellite between Earth and Sun) and the cold case (before eclipse) is lower for the bifacial cell than for the BSFR cell. This lower difference has the advantage that the operation point for the bifacial cells is closer to maximum voltage point over the orbit. Resistivity of the bifacial solar cells against particle radiation, and absorptivity of front and rearside of the bifacial cell for infrared radiation must be verified. Statistical deviations of the albedo intensity and spectrum are not known.

  15. Feasibility study of a 110 watt per kilogram lightweight solar array system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.; Stahle, C. V.; Schneider, A.; Hanson, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of a solar array panel subsystem which will produce 10,000 watts of electrical output at 1 A.U. with an overall beginning-of-life power-to-weight ratio of at least 110 watt/kg is reported. A description of the current baseline configuration which meets these requirements is presented. A parametric analysis of the single boom, two blanket planar solar array system was performed to arrive at the optimum system aspect ratio. A novel concept for the stiffening of a lightweight solar array by canting the solar cell blankets at a small angle to take advantage of the inherent in-plane stiffness to increase the symmetric out-of-plane frequency is introduced along with a preliminary analysis of the stiffening effect. A comparison of welded and soldered solar cell interconnections leads to the conclusion that welding is required on this ultralightweight solar array. The use of a boron/aluminum composite material in a BI-STEM type deployable boom is investigated as a possible advancement in the state-of-the-art.

  16. The Impact of Solar Arrays on Arid Soil Hydrology: Some Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Berli, M.; Koonce, J.; Shillito, R.; Dijkema, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Yu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Hot deserts are prime locations for solar energy generation but also recognized as particularly fragile environments. Minimizing the impact of facility-scale solar installations on desert environments is therefore of increasing concern. This study focuses on the impact of photovoltaic solar arrays on the water balance of arid soil underneath the array. The goal was to explore whether concentrated rainwater infiltration along the solar panel drip lines would lead to deeper infiltration and an increase in soil water storage in the long term. A two-dimensional HYDRUS model was developed to simulate rainwater infiltration into the soil within a photovoltaic solar array. Results indicate that rainwater infiltrates deeper below the drip lines compared to the areas between solar panels but only for coarse textured soil. Finer-textured soils redistribute soil moisture horizontally and the concentrating effect of solar panels on rainwater infiltration appears to be small.

  17. Integrally regulated solar array demonstration using an Intel 8080 microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrik, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A concept for regulating the voltage of a solar array by using a microprocessor to effect discrete voltage changes was demonstrated. Eight shorting switches were employed to regulate a simulated array at set-point voltages between 10,000 and 15,000 volts. The demonstration showed that the microprocessor easily regulated the solar array output voltage independently of whether or not the switched cell groups were binary sized in voltage. In addition, the microprocessor provided logic memory capability to perform additional tasks such as locating and insolating a faulty switch.

  18. Planetary and Deep Space Requirements for Photovoltaic Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Bennett, R. B.; Stella, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the majority of interplanetary spacecraft have been powered by nuclear sources. However, as the emphasis on smaller, low cost missions gains momentum, more deep space missions now being planned have baselined photovoltaic solar arrays due to the low power requirements (usually significantly less than 100 W) needed for engineering and science payloads. This will present challenges to the solar array builders, inasmuch as planetary requirements usually differ from earth orbital requirements. In addition, these requirements often differ greatly, depending on the specific mission; for example, inner planets vs. outer planets, orbiters vs. flybys, spacecraft vs. landers, and so on. Also, the likelihood of electric propulsion missions will influence the requirements placed on solar array developers. This paper will discuss representative requirements for a range of planetary and deep space science missions now in the planning stages. We have divided the requirements into three categories: Inner planets and the sun; outer planets (greater than 3 AU); and Mars, cometary, and asteroid landers and probes. Requirements for Mercury and Ganymede landers will be covered in the Inner and Outer Planets sections with their respective orbiters. We will also discuss special requirements associated with solar electric propulsion (SEP). New technology developments will be needed to meet the demanding environments presented by these future applications as many of the technologies envisioned have not yet been demonstrated. In addition, new technologies that will be needed reside not only in the photovoltaic solar array, but also in other spacecraft systems that are key to operating the spacecraft reliably with the photovoltaics.

  19. Advances in Radiation-Tolerant Solar Arrays for SEP Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    As the power levels of commercial communications satellites reach the 20 kWe and higher, new options begin to emerge for transferring the satellite from LEO to GEO. In the past electric propulsion has been demonstrated successfully for this mission - albeit under unfortunate circumstances when the kick motor failed. The unexpected use of propellant for the electric propulsion (EP) system compromised the life of that vehicle, but did demonstrate the viability of such an approach. Replacing the kick motor on a satellite and replacing that mass by additional propellant for the EP system as well as mass for additional revenue-producing transponders should lead to major benefits for the provider. Of course this approach requires that the loss in solar array power during transit of the Van Allen radiation belts is not excessive and still enables the 15 to 20 year mission life. In addition, SEP missions to Jupiter, with its exceptional radiation belts, would mandate a radiation-resistant solar array to compete with a radioisotope alternative. Several critical issues emerge as potential barriers to this approach: reducing solar array radiation damage, operating the array at high voltage (>300 V) for extended times for Hall or ion thrusters, designing an array that will be resistant to micrometeoroid impacts and the differing environmental conditions as the vehicle travels from LEO to GEO (or at Jupiter), producing an array that is light weight to preserve payload mass fraction - and to do this at a cost that is lower than today's arrays. This paper will describe progress made to date on achieving an array that meets all these requirements and is also useful for deep space electric propulsion missions.

  20. Low cost silicon solar cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, F. T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

  1. Feasibility study of a 110 watt per kilogram lightweight solar array system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.; Stahle, C. V.; Hanson, K. L.; Schneider, A.; Blomstrom, L. E.; Hansen, W. T.; Kirpich, A.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a 10,000 watt solar array panel which has a minimum power-to-mass ratio of 110 watt/kg is discussed. The application of this ultralightweight solar array to three possible missions was investigated. With the interplanetary mission as a baseline, the constraining requirements for a geosynchronous mission and for a manned space station mission are presented. A review of existing lightweight solar array system concepts revealed that changes in the system approach are necessary to achieve the specified 110 watt/kg goal. A comprehensive review of existing component technology is presented in the areas of thin solar cells, solar cell covers, welded interconnectors, substrates and deployable booms. Advances in the state-of-the-art of solar cell and deployable boom technology were investigated. System level trade studies required to select the optimum boom bending stiffness, system aspect ratio, bus voltage level, and solar cell circuit arrangement are reported. Design analysis tasks included the thermal analysis of the solar cell blanket, thermal stress analysis of the solar cell interconnectors/substrate, and the thermostructural loading of the deployed boom.

  2. The Damper Spring Unit of the Sentinel 1 Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doejaaren, Frans; Ellenbroek, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The Damper Spring Unit (DSU, see Figure 1) has been designed to provide the damping required to control the deployment speed of the spring driven solar array deployment in an ARA Mk3 or FRED based Solar Array in situations where the standard application of a damper at the root-hinge is not feasible. The unit consists of four major parts: a main bracket, an eddy current damper, a spring unit, an actuation pulley which is coupled via Kevlar cables to a synchro-pulley of a hinge. The damper slows down the deployment speed and prevents deployment shocks at deployment completion. The spring unit includes 4 springs which overcome the resistances of the damper and the specific DSU control cable loop. This means it can be added to any spring driven deployment system without major modifications of that system. Engineering models of the Sentinel 1 solar array wing have been built to identify the deployment behavior, and to help to determine the optimal pulley ratios of the solar array and to finalize the DSU design. During the functional tests, the behavior proved to be very sensitive for the alignment of the DSU. This was therefore monitored carefully during the qualification program, especially prior to the TV cold testing. During TV "Cold" testing the measured retarding torque exceeded the max. required value: 284 N-mm versus the required 247 N-mm. Although this requirement was not met, the torque balance analysis shows that the 284 N-mm can be accepted, because the spring unit can provide 1.5 times more torque than required. Some functional tests of the DSU have been performed without the eddy current damper attached. It provided input data for the ADAMS solar array wing model. Simulation of the Sentinel-1 deployment (including DSU) in ADAMS allowed the actual wing deployment tests to be limited in both complexity and number of tests. The DSU for the Sentinel-1 solar array was successfully qualified and the flight models are in production.

  3. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Project Accelerated Life Thermal Cycling Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) project was a joint U.S./Russian effort to build a photovoltaic (PV) solar array and deliver it to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA will be used to increase the electrical power on Mir and provide PV array performance data in support of Phase 1 of the International Space Station. The MCSA was brought to Mir by space shuttle Atlantis in November 1995. This report describes an accelerated thermal life cycle test which was performed on two samples of the MCSA. In eight months time, two MCSA solar array 'mini' panel test articles were simultaneously put through 24,000 thermal cycles. There was no significant degradation in the structural integrity of the test articles and no electrical degradation, not including one cell damaged early and removed from consideration. The nature of the performance degradation caused by this one cell is briefly discussed. As a result of this test, changes were made to improve some aspects of the solar cell coupon-to-support frame interface on the flight unit. It was concluded from the results that the integration of the U.S. solar cell modules with the Russian support structure would be able to withstand at least 24,000 thermal cycles (4 years on-orbit). This was considered a successful development test.

  4. ACTS Battery and Solar Array Assembly On-Orbit Measured Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is a NASA experimental communications satellite system designed to demonstrate on-orbit Ka-band communications and switching technologies that will be used by NASA and the commercial sector in the 21st century. The ACTS was launched on September 12, 1993, and has performed over 10 years of successful experimental operations. The purpose of this report is to describe the ACTS power subsystem and the ACTS solar array and battery assemblies located within the power subsystem and then to document on-orbit measured performance from launch to mission end on April 28, 2004. Solar array and battery performance data is presented, and respective conclusions are drawn. The total solar array power available to the spacecraft was measured each year at the same time, and battery voltage performance was measured twice per year at the same times during peak solar eclipse. At the highest spacecraft power demand, the ACTS uses approximately 1113 W of electrical power during the low-burstrate experiment to operate all six satellite subsystems. After 10 years of on-orbit operation, solar array available output power normal to the Sun measured 1508 W, which represents 395 W of excess margin. The ACTS batteries have successfully supported the ACTS experiment program for over 10 years and operated in excess of 900 charge and discharge cycles through 21 eclipse seasons.

  5. Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) Testbed and Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Dale E.; Nita, G. M.; Sane, N.

    2012-05-01

    NJIT is engaged in constructing a new solar-dedicated radio array, the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA), which is slated for completion in late 2013. An initial 3-antenna array, the EOVSA Subsystem Testbed (EST), is now in operation from 1-9 GHz based on three of the old OVSA antennas, to test certain design elements of the new array. We describe this instrument and show some results from recent solar flares observed with it. We also describe plans for an upcoming prototype of EOVSA, which will use three antennas of the new design over the full 1-18 GHz signal chain of the entirely new system. The EOVSA prototype will be in operation by late 2012. Highlights of the new design are ability to cover the entire 1-18 GHz in less than 1 s, simultaneous dual polarization, and improved sensitivity and stability. We discuss what can be expected from the prototype, and how it will compare with the full 13-antenna EOVSA. This work was supported by NSF grants AGS-0961867 and AST-0908344, and NASA grant NNX11AB49G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  6. Efficient structures for geosynchronous spacecraft solar arrays. Phase 1, 2 and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. R.; Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Structural concepts for deploying and supporting lightweight solar-array blankets for geosynchronous electrical power are evaluated. It is recommended that the STACBEAM solar-array system should be the object of further study and detailed evaluation. The STACBEAM system provides high stiffness at low mass, and with the use of a low mass deployment mechanism, full structural properties can be maintained throughout deployment. The stowed volume of the STACBEAM is acceptably small, and its linear deployment characteristic allows periodic attachments to the solar-array blanket to be established in the stowed configuration and maintained during deployment.

  7. Efficient structures for geosynchronous spacecraft solar arrays. Phase 1, 2 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, L. R.; Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    Structural concepts for deploying and supporting lightweight solar-array blankets for geosynchronous electrical power are evaluated. It is recommended that the STACBEAM solar-array system should be the object of further study and detailed evaluation. The STACBEAM system provides high stiffness at low mass, and with the use of a low mass deployment mechanism, full structural properties can be maintained throughout deployment. The stowed volume of the STACBEAM is acceptably small, and its linear deployment characteristic allows periodic attachments to the solar-array blanket to be established in the stowed configuration and maintained during deployment.

  8. Solar Array and Auroral Charging Studies of DMSP Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matias, Kelwin

    2013-01-01

    The SSJ electrostatic analyzers and the SSIES plasma instruments on the DMSP spacecraft in low Earth polar orbit can be used to conduct case studies of auroral and solar array charging. We will use a program written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) to evaluate questionable charging events in the SSJ records by comparing charging signatures in SSJ and SSIES data. In addition, we will assemble a number of case studies of solar array charging showing the signatures from the SSJ data and compare to the SSIES charging signatures. In addition we will use Satellite Tool Kit (STK) to propagate orbits, obtain solar intensity, and use to verify onset of charging with sunrise.

  9. Impact of Solar Array Position on ISS Vehicle Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John; Mikatarian, Ronald; Koontz, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), because of its large structure and high voltage solar arrays, has a complex plasma interaction with the ionosphere in low Earth orbit (LEO). This interaction of the ISS US Segment photovoltaic (PV) power system with the LEO ionospheric plasma produces floating potentials on conducting elements of the ISS structure relative to the local plasma environment. To control the ISS floating potentials, two Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) are installed on the Z1 truss. Each PCU discharges accumulated electrons from the Space Station structure, thus reducing the potential difference between the ISS structure and the surrounding charged plasma environment. Operations of the PCUs were intended to keep the ISS floating potential to 40 Volts (Reference 1). Exposed dielectric surfaces overlying conducting structure on the Space Station will collect an opposite charge from the ionosphere as the ISS charges. In theory, when an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember is tethered to structure via the crew safety tether or when metallic surfaces of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) come in contact with conducting metallic surfaces of the ISS, the EMU conducting components, including the perspiration-soaked crewmember inside, can become charged to the Space Station floating potential. The concern is the potential dielectric breakdown of anodized aluminum surfaces on the EMU producing an arc from the EMU to the ambient plasma, or nearby ISS structure. If the EMU arcs, an electrical current of an unknown magnitude and duration may conduct through the EVA crewmember, producing an unacceptable condition. This electrical current may be sufficient to startle or fatally shock the EVA crewmember (Reference 2). Hence, as currently defined by the EVA community, the ISS floating potential for all nominal and contingency EVA worksites and translation paths must have a magnitude less than 40 volts relative to the local ionosphere at all times during EVA

  10. Optimal Configuration of PV System with Different Solar Cell Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Sadayuki; Tani, Tatsuo

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is spreading steadily, and the dispersed PV array system is increasing from the architectural restrictions. In the case of dispersed array system, if the arrays are installed in a different azimuth or if the module that constitutes array is different, mismatching loss will be generated when a single inverter is used to convert the output of arrays, because of the difference of optimal operating voltage. The loss is related to the array configuration. However the relation between array configuration and power generation output is not clear. In order to avoid generation of mismatching loss, introducing a distributed inverter system such as string inverter system or AC modules system is considered. However it is not clear which is more advantageous between a distributed system and a concentrated system. In this paper, we verified the output characteristics of two different solar cell arrays with various strings, azimuths and tilt angles, and clarified the relation between array configuration and power generation output by the computer simulations. We also compared the distributed inverter system with the concentrated inverter system, and clarified the optimal configuration of PV system with different solar cell arrays.

  11. Impacts of Solar PV Arrays on Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagle, A.; Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.; Bickhart, R.

    2017-12-01

    The deployment of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is rapidly escalating. While PV can provide clean, renewable energy, there is uncertainty regarding its potential positive and/or negative impacts on the local environment. Specifically, its effects on the physicochemical properties of the underlying soil have not been systematically quantified. This study facilitates the discussion on the effects of PV installations related to the following questions: i. How do soil moisture, infiltration rates, total organic carbon, and nitrogen contents vary spatially under a PV array? ii. How do these physicochemical properties compare to undisturbed and adjacent land covered in native vegetation? iii. Are these variations statistically significant to provide insight on whether PV installations have beneficial or detrimental impacts on soil? We address these questions through field measurements of soil moisture, infiltration, grain particle size distribution, total organic carbon, and nitrogen content at a 1-MW solar PV array located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. We collect data via multiple transects underneath the PV array as as well as in an adjacent plot of undisturbed native vegetation. Measurements are taken at four positions under the solar panels; the east-facing edge, center area under the panel, west-facing edge, and interspace between panel rows to capture differences in sun exposure as well as precipitation runoff of panels. Measurements are collected before and after a precipitation event to capture differences in soil moisture and infiltration rates. Results of this work can provide insights for research fields associated with the co-location of agriculture and PV installations as well as the long term ecological impacts of solar energy development. Trends in physicochemical properties under and between solar panels can affect the viability of co-location of commercial crops in PV arrays, the

  12. Measurement of high-voltage and radiation-damage limitations to advanced solar array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidice, D. A.; Severance, P. S.; Keinhardt, K. C.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the reconfigured Photovoltaic Array Space Power (PASP) Plus experiment: its objectives, solar-array complement, and diagnostic sensors. Results from a successful spaceflight will lead to a better understanding of high-voltage and radiation-damage limitations in the operation of new-technology solar arrays.

  13. Solar array strip and a method for forming the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. L.; Yasui, R. K. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A flexible solar array strip is formed by providing printed circuitry between flexible layers of a nonconductive material, depositing solder pads on the printed circuitry, and storing the resulting substrate on a drum from which it is then withdrawn and advanced along a linear path. Solderless solar cells are serially transported into engagement with the pads and are infrared radiation to melt the solder and attach the cells to the circuitry. Excess flux is cleaned from the solar cells which are then encapsulated in a protective coating. The resulting array is then wound on a drum.

  14. Development of the solar array deployment and drive system for the XTE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger; Ngo, Son

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) spacecraft is a NASA science low-earth orbit explorer-class satellite to be launched in 1995, and is an in-house Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project. It has two deployable aluminum honeycomb solar array wings with each wing being articulated by a single axis solar array drive assembly. This paper will address the design, the qualification testing, and the development problems as they surfaced of the Solar Array Deployment and Drive System.

  15. Deployment dynamics and control of large-scale flexible solar array system with deployable mast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Quan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Shao-Jing; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, deployment dynamics and control of large-scale flexible solar array system with deployable mast are investigated. The adopted solar array system is introduced firstly, including system configuration, deployable mast and solar arrays with several mechanisms. Then dynamic equation of the solar array system is established by the Jourdain velocity variation principle and a method for dynamics with topology changes is introduced. In addition, a PD controller with disturbance estimation is designed to eliminate the drift of spacecraft mainbody. Finally the validity of the dynamic model is verified through a comparison with ADAMS software and the deployment process and dynamic behavior of the system are studied in detail. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model is effective to describe the deployment dynamics of the large-scale flexible solar arrays and the proposed controller is practical to eliminate the drift of spacecraft mainbody.

  16. The arcing rate for a High Voltage Solar Array - Theory, experiment and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Cho, Mengu; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    All solar arrays have biased surfaces which can be exposed to the space environment. It has been observed that when the array bias is less than a few hundred volts negative then the exposed conductive surfaces may undergo arcing in the space plasma. A theory for arcing is developed on these high voltage solar arrays which ascribes the arcing to electric field runaway at the interface of the plasma, conductor and solar cell dielectric. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for the High Voltage Solar Array (HVSA) experiment which will fly on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) in 1994. The theory was compared in detail to the experiment and shown to give a reasonable explanation for the data. The combined theory and ground experiments were then used to develop predictions for the SFU flight.

  17. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  18. Micrometeorite Impact Test of Flex Solar Array Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H.; Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Hoang, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.

    2016-01-01

    Spacecraft with solar arrays operate throughout the near earth environment and are increasingly planned for outer planet missions. An often overlooked test condition for solar arrays that is applicable to these missions is micrometeorite impacts and possibly electrostatic discharge (ESD) events resulting from these impacts. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is partnering with Space Systems/Loral, LLC (SSL) to examine the results of simulated micrometeorite impacts on the electrical performance of an advanced, lightweight flexible solar array design. The test is performed at NASA MSFC's Microlight Gas Gun Facility. The SSL-provided coupons consist of three strings, each string with two solar cells in series. Five impacts will be induced at various locations on a powered test coupon under different string voltage (0 volts - 150 volts) and string current (1.1 amperes - 1.65 amperes) conditions. The maximum specified test voltage and current represent margins of 1.5 times for both voltage and current. The test parameters are chosen to demonstrate new array design robustness to any ESD event caused by plasma plumes resulting from a simulated micrometeorite impact. A second unpowered coupon will undergo two impacts: one impact on the front side and one impact on the back side. Following the impact testing, the second coupon will be exposed to a thermal cycle test to determine possible damage propagation and further electrical degradation due to thermally-induced stress. The setup, checkout, and results from the impact testing are discussed. The challenges for impact testing include precise coupon alignment to control impact location; pressure management during the impact process; and measurement of the true transient electrical response during impact on the powered coupon. Results from pre- and post-test visual and electrical functional testing are also discussed.

  19. Laboratory 15 kV high voltage solar array facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, J. C.; Gooder, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The laboratory high voltage solar array facility is a photoelectric power generating system. Consisting of nine modules with over 23,000 solar cells, the facility is capable of delivering more than a kilowatt of power. The physical and electrical characteristics of the facility are described.

  20. Solar XUV Imaging and Non-dispersive Spectroscopy for Solar-C Enabled by Scientific CMOS APS Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert A.; Lemen, J. R.; Shing, L.; Janesick, J.; Tower, J.

    2009-05-01

    Monolithic CMOS Advanced Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays are showing great promise as eventual replacements for the current workhorse of solar physics focal planes, the scientific CCD. CMOS APS devices have individually addressable pixels, increased radiation tolerance compared to CCDs, and require lower clock voltages, and thus lower power. However, commercially available CMOS chips, while suitable for use with intensifiers or fluorescent coatings, are generally not optimized for direct detection of EUV and X-ray photons. A high performance scientific CMOS array designed for these wavelengths will have significant new capabilities compared to CCDs, including the ability to read out small regions of the solar disk at high (sub sec) cadence, count single X-ray photons with Fano-limited energy resolution, and even operate at room temperature with good noise performance. Such capabilities will be crucial for future solar X-ray and EUV missions such as Solar-C. Sarnoff Corporation has developed scientific grade, monolithic CMOS arrays for X-ray imaging and photon counting. One prototype device, the "minimal" array, has 8 um pixels, is 15 to 25 um thick, is fabricated on high-resistivity ( 10 to 20 kohm-cm) Si wafers, and can be back-illuminated. These characteristics yield high quantum efficiency and high spatial resolution with minimal charge sharing among pixels, making it ideal for the detection of keV X-rays. When used with digital correlated double sampling, the array has demonstrated noise performance as low as 2 e, allowing single photon counting of X-rays over a range of temperatures. We report test results for this device in X-rays, and discuss the implications for future solar space missions.

  1. Heat Lamps Solder Solar Array Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, P. J.; Crouthamel, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Interconnection tabs in a nine-solar-cell array have been soldered simultaneously with radiant heat. Cells and tabs are held in position for soldering by sandwiching them between compliant silicone-rubber vacuum platen and transparent polyimide sealing membrane. Heat lamps warm cells, producing smooth, flat solder joints of high quality.

  2. Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Depending on TiO2 Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Dai, Si-Min; Zhu, Pei; Deng, Lin-Long; Xie, Su-Yuan; Cui, Qian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Ning; Lin, Hong

    2016-08-24

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with TiO2 materials have attracted much attention due to their high photovoltaic performance. Aligned TiO2 nanorods have long been used for potential application in highly efficient perovskite solar cells, but the previously reported efficiencies of perovskite solar cells based on TiO2 nanorod arrays were underrated. Here we show a solvothermal method based on a modified ketone-HCl system with the addition of organic acids suitable for modulation of the TiO2 nanorod array films to fabricate highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Photovoltaic measurements indicated that efficient nanorod-structured perovskite solar cells can be achieved with the length of the nanorods as long as approximately 200 nm. A record efficiency of 18.22% under the reverse scan direction has been optimized by avoiding direct contact between the TiO2 nanorods and the hole transport materials, eliminating the organic residues on the nanorod surfaces using UV-ozone treatment and tuning the nanorod array morphologies through addition of different organic acids in the solvothermal process.

  3. Solar Array Hysteresis and its Interaction with the MPPT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.; Baur, C.; Gomez-Carpintero, F.

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that solar cells have a capacitance in parallel which value changes with the voltage. Depending on the section arrangement on the Solar Array, the power conversion unit connected to it will see a smaller or larger capacitance value and will have to cope with its adverse effects. In the case of converters with an MPPT, this capacitance gives place to an hysteresis effect that might shift the tracking point, reducing the power extracted from the Solar Array. This paper explores the different sides of this issue, from capacitance modelling to the effects on the MPPT. Additionally, this paper analyses a similar interaction between MPPTs and commercial SAS.

  4. Development testing of the advanced photovoltaic solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.; Kurland, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The latest design, fabrication and testing details of a prototype wing are discussed. Estimates of array-level performance are presented as a function of power level and solar cell technology for geosynchronous orbit (GEO) missions and solar electric propulsion missions through the Van Allen radiation belts. Design concepts are discussed that would allow the wing to be self-retractable and restowable. To date all testing has verified the feasibility and mechanical/electrical integrity of the baseline design. The beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power estimate for a nominal 10-kW (BOL) array is about 138 W/kg, with corresponding end-of-life (EOL) performance of about 93 W/kg for a 10-year GEO mission.

  5. Solar observations with the prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Faria, C.; Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Madsen, F. H. R.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.

    The prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array BDA consists of 5 element alt-az mounted parabolic mesh type dishes of 4-meter diameter having base lines up to 220 meters in the E--W direction The array was put into regular operation at Cachoeira Paulista Brazil longitude 45 r 00 20 W and latitude 22 r 41 19 S This array operates in the frequency range of 1 2 -- 1 7 GHz Solar observations are carried at sim 1 4 GHz in transit and tracking modes Spatial fine structures superimposed on the one dimensional brightness map of the sun associated with active regions and or with solar activity and their time evolution will be presented In the second phase of the project the frequency range will be increased to 1 2 - 1 7 2 8 and 5 6 GHz Central part of the array will consist of 26 antennas with 4-meter diameter laid out randomically in the square of 256 by 256 meter with minimum and maximum base lines of 8 and 256 meters respectively Details of this array with imaging capabilities in snap shot mode for solar observations and procedure of the phase and amplitude calibrations will be presented The development of instrument will be completed by the beginning of 2008

  6. Improving solar-pumped laser efficiency by a ring-array concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibúrcio, Bruno D.; Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Matos, Rodrigo; Vistas, Cláudia R.

    2018-01-01

    We report here a compact pumping scheme for achieving large improvement in collection and conversion efficiency of a Nd:YAG solar-pumped laser by an innovative ring-array solar concentrator. An aspheric fused silica lens was used to further concentrate the solar radiation from the focal region of the 1.5-m-diameter ring-array concentrator to a 5.0-mm-diameter, 20-mm-length Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical-shaped pump cavity, enabling multipass pumping to the laser rod. 67.3-W continuous-wave solar laser power was numerically calculated, corresponding to 38.2-W / m2 solar laser collection efficiency, being 1.22 and 1.27 times more than the state-of-the-art records by both heliostat-parabolic mirror and Fresnel lens solar laser systems, respectively. 4.0% conversion efficiency and 0.021-W brightness figure of merit were also numerically obtained, corresponding to 1.25 and 1.62 times enhancement over the previous records, respectively. The influence of tracking error on solar laser output power was also analyzed.

  7. Study of multi-kilowatt solar arrays for Earth orbit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator (MCC) solar array concept is being developed with the objective of significantly reducing the recurring cost of multikilowatt solar arrays. The desired cost reduction is obtained as a result of using very small high efficiency solar cells in conjuction with low cost optics. The MCC single element concept incident slar radiation is reflected rom a primary parabolic reflector to a secondary hyperbolic reflector and finally to a 4 millimeter diameter solar cell. A light catcher cone is used to improve off axis performance. The solar cell is mounted to a heat fin. An element is approximately 13 millimeters thick which permits efficient launch stowage of the concentrator system panels without complex optical component deployments or retractions. The MCC elements are packed in bays within graphite epoxy frames and are electrically connected into appropriate series-parallel circuits. A MCC sngle element with a 21 sq cm entrance aperture and a 20 efficient, 0.25 sq cm gallium arsenide solar cell has the same power output as 30 sq cm of 11-percent efficiency (at 68 C) silicon solar cells.

  8. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  9. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-01

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  10. Latest developments in the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    In 1985, the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) Program was established to demonstrate a producible array system with a specific power greater than 130 W/kg at a 10-kW (BOL) power level. The latest program phase completed fabrication and initial functional testing of a prototype wing representative of a full-scale 5-kW (BOL) wing (except truncated in length to about 1 kW), with weight characteristics that could meet the 130-W/kg (BOL) specific power goal using thin silicon solar cell modules and weight-efficient structural components. The wing configuration and key design details are reviewed, along with results from key component-level and wing-level tests. Projections for future enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced solar cells and structural components are shown. Performance estimates are given for solar electric propulsion orbital transfer missions through the Van Allen radiation belts. The latest APSA program plans are presented.

  11. COMPASS Final Report: Enceladus Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) internal Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage design are documented in this report (Figure 1.1). The SEP Stage was designed to deliver a science probe to Saturn (the probe design was performed separately by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center s (GSFC) Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC)). The SEP Stage delivers the 2444 kg probe on a Saturn trajectory with a hyperbolic arrival velocity of 5.4 km/s. The design carried 30 percent mass, 10 percent power, and 6 percent propellant margins. The SEP Stage relies on the probe for substantial guidance, navigation and control (GN&C), command and data handling (C&DH), and Communications functions. The stage is configured to carry the probe and to minimize the packaging interference between the probe and the stage. The propulsion system consisted of a 1+1 (one active, one spare) configuration of gimbaled 7 kW NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion thrusters with a throughput of 309 kg Xe propellant. Two 9350 W GaAs triple junction (at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU), includes 10 percent margin) ultra-flex solar arrays provided power to the stage, with Li-ion batteries for launch and contingency operations power. The base structure was an Al-Li hexagonal skin-stringer frame built to withstand launch loads. A passive thermal control system consisted of heat pipes to north and south radiator panels, multilayer insulation (MLI) and heaters for the Xe tank. All systems except tanks and solar arrays were designed to be single fault tolerant.

  12. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period January through March 1978 is reported. It includes task reports on silicon material processing, large-area silicon sheet development, encapsulation materials testing and development, project engineering and operations, and manufacturing techniques, plus the steps taken to integrate these efforts.

  13. Convective Array Cooling for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Dolce, James (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A general characteristic of photovoltaics is that they increase in efficiency as their operating temperature decreases. Based on this principal, the ability to increase a solar aircraft's performance by cooling the solar cells was examined. The solar cells were cooled by channeling some air underneath the cells and providing a convective cooling path to the back side of the array. A full energy balance and flow analysis of the air within the cooling passage was performed. The analysis was first performed on a preliminary level to estimate the benefits of the cooling passage. This analysis established a clear benefit to the cooling passage. Based on these results a more detailed analysis was performed. From this cell temperatures were calculated and array output power throughout a day period were determined with and without the cooling passage. The results showed that if the flow through the cooling passage remained laminar then the benefit in increased output power more than offset the drag induced by the cooling passage.

  14. SKYLAB 1 SOLAR CELL ARRAY INSTALLATION IN VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    One of Skylab 1's solar cell arrays installed on the orbital space station in High Bay 2 of the Vehicle Assembly Building today. Skylab 2 in High Bay 1 in visible in the background. Each of the two solar cell arrays on the space station that will be deployed in orbit, is designed to provide 10,500 watts of power at 55 degrees centigrade while in the sunlight portion of each orbit. All power needed to operate the station and the Apollo Telescope mount will be taken from the arrays. The remainder of the power generated will be diverted to battery chargers which will keep the batteries at full charge and ready for use while the orbiting spacecraft cluster is in the Earth's shadow. Each array will have almost 1,177 square feet of surface area to turn sunlight into electrical power. Skylab 1 is schedule for launch April 30, 1973 and Skylab 2, carrying the astronauts Conrad, Kerwin and Weitz to dock with the space station and enter it to live and work for 28 days, will be launched a day later.

  15. PEP solar array definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The power extension package (PEP) is a solar array system that will be used on the space transportation system to augment the power of the Orbiter vehicle and to extend the time the vehicle may stay in orbit. The baseline configuration of the PEP is reviewed. The programmatic aspects of the design covering the development plan, the manufacturing facility plan and the estimated costs and risks are presented.

  16. OSIRIS-REx Solar Array Illumination Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-05

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, illumination testing is underway on the power-producing solar arrays for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  17. OSIRIS-REx Solar Array Illumination Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-05

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, illumination testing is underway on the power -producing solar arrays for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  18. Thruster array design approaches for a solar electric propulsion Encke Flyby mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Design approaches are described and evaluated for a mercury electron-bombardment ion thruster array. Such an array might be used on a solar electric interplanetary spacecraft that obtains electrical energy from large solar panels. Thruster array designs are described and evaluated as they would apply to an Encke Flyby mission. Besides several well known approaches, a new concept utilizing individual two-axis gimbal actuators on each thruster is described and shown to have many structural and thermal advantages.

  19. Development of a Solar Array Drive Assembly for CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passaretti, Mike; Hayes, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Small satellites and in particular CubeSats, have increasingly become more viable as platforms for payloads typically requiring much larger bus structures. As advances in technology make payloads and instruments for space missions smaller, lighter and more power efficient, a niche market is emerging from the university community to perform rapidly developed, low-cost missions on very small spacecraft - micro, nano, and picosatellites. In just the last few years, imaging, biological and new technology demonstration missions have been either proposed or have flown using variations of the CubeSat structure as a basis. As these missions have become more complex, and the CubeSat standard has increased in both size (number of cubes) and mass, available power has become an issue. Body-mounted solar cells provide a minimal amount of power; deployable arrays improve on that baseline but are still limited. To truly achieve maximum power, deployed tracked arrays are necessary. To this end, Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation, along with MMA of Nederland Colorado, has developed a solar array drive assembly (SADA) and deployable solar arrays specifically for CubeSat missions. In this paper, we discuss the development of the SADA.

  20. Solar Array Power Conditioning for a Spinning Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Antonio; Chirulli, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The conditioning of the output power from a solar array can mainly be achieved by the adoption of DET or MPPT based architecture. There are several factors that can orientate the choice of the system designer towards one solution or the other; some of them maybe inherent to the mission derived requirements (Illumination levels, EMC cleanliness, etc.), others come directly from a careful assessment of performances and losses of both power conditioner and solar array.Definition of the criteria on which basis the final choice is justified is important as they have to guarantee a clear determination of the available versus the required power in all those mission conditions identifiable as design drivers for the overall satellite system both in terms of mass and costs.Such criteria cannot just be simple theoretical enunciations of principles; nor the meticulous definition of them on a case by case basis for different types of missions as neither option gives a guarantee of being conclusive.The aim of this paper is then to suggest assessment steps and guidelines that can be considered generically valid for any mission case, starting from the exposition of the trade off activity performed in order to choose the power conditioning solution for a spinning satellite having unregulated power bus architecture. Calculations and numerical simulations have been made in order to establish the needed solar array surface in case of adoption of a DET or MPPT solution, taking into account temperature and illumination levels on the solar cells, as well as power losses and inefficiencies from the solar generator to the main power bus, in different mission phases. Particular attention has been taken in order to correctly evaluate the thermal effects on the rest of the spacecraft as function of the adopted power system regulation.

  1. Astronauts Akers and Thornton remove one of HST solar arrays during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-06

    STS061-95-075 (6 Dec 1993) --- Astronauts Kathryn C. Thornton and Thomas D. Akers work to remove one of the solar arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on the second of five extravehicular activity?s (EVA). The two space walkers later replaced both solar array panels. Part of Australia is in the background.

  2. Plasma Interactions with High Voltage Solar Arrays for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, T.; Horvater, M. A.; Vaughn, J.; Carruth, M. R.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Environmental Effects Group of NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting research into the effects of plasma interaction with high voltage solar arrays. These high voltage solar arrays are being developed for a direct drive Hall Effect Thruster propulsion system. A direct drive system configuration will reduce power system mass by eliminating a conventional power-processing unit. The Environmental Effects Group has configured two large vacuum chambers to test different high-voltage array concepts in a plasma environment. Three types of solar arrays have so far been tested, an International Space Station (ISS) planar array, a Tecstar planar array, and a Tecstar solar concentrator array. The plasma environment was generated using a hollow cathode plasma source, which yielded densities between 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) per cubic centimeter and electron temperatures of 0.5-1 eV. Each array was positioned in this plasma and biased in the -500 to + 500 volt range. The current collection was monitored continuously. In addition, the characteristics of arcing, snap over, and other features, were recorded. Analysis of the array performance indicates a time dependence associated with the current collection as well as a tendency for "conditioning" over a large number of runs. Mitigation strategies, to reduce parasitic current collection, as well as arcing, include changing cover-glass geometry and layout as well as shielding the solar cell edges. High voltage performance data for each of the solar array types tested will be presented. In addition, data will be provided to indicate the effectiveness of the mitigation techniques.

  3. Zarya Energy Balance Analysis: The Effect of Spacecraft Shadowing on Solar Array Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kolosov, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    The first element of the International Space Station (ISS). Zarya, was funded by NASA and built by the Russian aerospace company Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (KhSC). NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and KhSC collaborated in performing analytical predictions of the on-orbit electrical performance of Zarya's solar arrays. GRC assessed the pointing characteristics of and shadow patterns on Zarya's solar arrays to determine the average solar energy incident on the arrays. KHSC used the incident energy results to determine Zarya's electrical power generation capability and orbit-average power balance. The power balance analysis was performed over a range of solar beta angles and vehicle operational conditions. This analysis enabled identification of problems that could impact the power balance for specific flights during ISS assembly and was also used as the primary means of verifying that Zarya complied with electrical power requirements. Analytical results are presented for select stages in the ISS assembly sequence along with a discussion of the impact of shadowing on the electrical performance of Zarya's solar arrays.

  4. Low-cost solar array progress and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    It is pointed out that significant redirection has occurred in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaics Program, and thus in the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), since the 3rd European Communities Conference. The Silicon Materials Task has now the objective to sponsor theoretical and experimental research on silicon material refinement technology suitable for photovoltaic flat-plate solar arrays. With respect to the hydrochlorination reaction, a process proof of concept was completed through definition of reaction kinetics, catalyst, and reaction characteristics. In connection with the dichlorosilane chemical vapor desposition process, a preliminary design was completed of an experimental process system development unit with a capacity of 100 to 200 MT/yr of Si.Attention is also given to the silicon-sheet formation research area, environmental isolation research, the cell and module formation task, the engineering sciences area, and the module performance and failure analysis area.

  5. Feasibility study of a 200 watt per kilogram lightweight solar array system. [for interplanetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanhouse, R.; Cokonis, J.; Rayl, G.

    1976-01-01

    Progress in an investigation of the feasibility of designing a lightweight solar array with a power-to-weight ratio of 200 watts per kilogram is described. This solar array will produce 10,000 watts of electrical power at 1 A.U. at its beginning of life (BOL), and degrade less than 20% over a three year period in interplanetary flight. A review of existing lightweight solar array system concepts is presented along with discussion pertaining to their applicable technology as it relates to a 200 watt/kilogram array. Also presented is a discussion of the candidate development solar cells being considered, and various deployable boom concepts under investigation.

  6. Constellations Solar Array Design, Industrialization And In-Flight Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combet, Yannick; Clapper, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Constellations has become a recurring opportunities in Thales Alenia Space since 3 majors programs had been awarded: Globalstar was the pathfinder with 48 flight sets followed by O3b with 8 an the latest is Iridium Next with 81 models. For these 3 programs, the Solar Array is fully developed, validated and produced by Thales Alenia Space with major subcontractors. This new segment of the activity leads to new development, design and industrialization approaches. This paper describes the Solar Array design and the alternative to current approach build and applied with the following drivers: - the low recurring cost and mass of the flight hardware, with particular attention on the Solar Array, - high robustness for system integration and in-orbit operations, - a long mission duration (typically 15 years in LEO) leading to take into account high number of thermal cycles (60 to 72.000 cycles), - new production concept with strict schedule management, - design segmented in subassemblies to reduce the integration time as well as a improved trouble shooting management, - delivery rate up to 1 wing per week and after learning curve effect, a integration duration divided by 3 compared to current production, - a delivery of a qualified PFM solar array in 22 months including the design to producibility constrains, This demanding requirement for delivery scheme and cost target did not jeopardize the requirements and standards for space application. After a brief description of the way the main drivers have been considered, the paper presents the main features and performances of the subsystem and shows the main validation test results. The first launch was successful in October 2010 and the first in-orbit results are presented.

  7. Observations of Transient ISS Floating Potential Variations During High Voltage Solar Array Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.; Pour, Maria Z. A.; Swenson, Charles; Nishikawa, Ken-ichi; Krause, Linda Habash

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) continues to be a world-class space research laboratory after over 15 years of operations, and it has proven to be a fantastic resource for observing spacecraft floating potential variations related to high voltage solar array operations in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS floating potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU). In particular, rapid variations in ISS floating potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be recorded due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) pro- viding interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting transient floating potential variations with mission operations. These complex variations are not reproduced by current models and require further study to understand the underlying physical processes. In this paper we present some of the floating potential transients observed over the past few years along with the relevant space environment parameters and solar array operations data.

  8. TESS Solar Array Deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-21

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at the NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians test the solar array deploy panels on the agency's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The satellite is scheduled to launch atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. TESS is the next step in NASA's search for planets outside our solar system, known as exoplanets. TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission led and operated by MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Dr. George Ricker of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research serves as principal investigator for the mission. Additional partners include Orbital ATK, NASA’s Ames Research Center, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Space Telescope Science Institute. More than a dozen universities, research institutes and observatories worldwide are participants in the mission. NASA’s Launch Services Program is responsible for launch management.

  9. Solar Array Tracking Control

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, Alexander

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D) convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed atmore » compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  10. Options Studied for Managing Space Station Solar Array Electrical Hazards for Sequential Shunt Unit Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Levy, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. solar array strings on the International Space Station are connected to a sequential shunt unit (SSU). The job of the SSU is to shunt, or short, the excess current from the solar array, such that just enough current is provided downstream to maintain the 160-V bus voltage while meeting the power load demand and recharging the batteries. Should an SSU fail on-orbit, it would be removed and replaced with the on-orbit spare during an astronaut space walk or extravehicular activity (EVA) (see the photograph). However, removing an SSU during an orbit Sun period with input solar array power connectors fully energized could result in substantial hardware damage and/or safety risk to the EVA astronaut. The open-circuit voltage of cold solar-array strings can exceed 320 V, and warm solar-array strings could feed a short circuit with a total current level exceeding 240 A.

  11. Solar array maximum power tracking with closed-loop control of a 30-centimeter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    A new solar array/ion thruster system control concept has been developed and demonstrated. An ion thruster beam load is used to automatically and continuously operate an unregulated solar array at its maximum power point independent of variations in solar array voltage and current. Preliminary tests were run which verified that this method of control can be implemented with a few, physically small, signal level components dissipating less than two watts.

  12. Microprocessor control of multiple peak power tracking DC/DC converters for use with solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Martin E. (Inventor); Jermakian, Joel (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method and an apparatus is provided for efficiently controlling the power output of a solar cell array string or a plurality of solar cell array strings to achieve a maximum amount of output power from the strings under varying conditions of use. Maximum power output from a solar array string is achieved through control of a pulse width modulated DC/DC buck converter which transfers power from a solar array to a load or battery bus. The input voltage from the solar array to the converter is controlled by a pulse width modulation duty cycle, which in turn is controlled by a differential signal controller. By periodically adjusting the control voltage up or down by a small amount and comparing the power on the load or bus with that generated at different voltage values a maximum power output voltage may be obtained. The system is totally modular and additional solar array strings may be added to the system simply by adding converter boards to the system and changing some constants in the controller's control routines.

  13. The systems impact of a concentrated solar array on a Jupiter orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockey, D. E.; Bamford, R.; Hollars, M. G.; Klemetson, R. W.; Koerner, T. W.; Marsh, E. L.; Price, H.; Uphoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a study are presented suggesting that a Galileo Jupiter orbiting mission could be performed with a concentrated solar array power source. A baseline spacecraft design using concentrated arrays is given, and the overall spacecraft implications for attitude control, propulsion, power conditioning and the resultant spacecraft mass are examined. It is noted that while the concentrated array concept still requires extensive development effort, no insurmountable system level barriers preclude the use of a concentrated solar array on this difficult mission, with its stressing radiation environment, its lengthy periods of spacecraft shadowing as it passes behind Jupiter, and, finally, its large delta v burn required for orbital insertion.

  14. Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding technology, an encapsulation technique for terrestrial solar array was developed. The process produces full integral, hermetic bonds with no adhesives or pottants. Panels of six solar cells on a simple glass superstrate were produced. Electrostatic bonding for making the cell front contact was also developed. A metal mesh is trapped into contact with the cell front during the bonding process. Six cell panels using the bonded mesh as the only cell front contact were produced. The possibility of using lower cost glass, with a higher thermal expansion mismatch to silicon, by making lower temperature bonds is developed. However, this requires a planar surface cell.

  15. Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array Science and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.; Nita, G. M.; Fleishman, G. D.; McTiernan, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    The Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA) has been funded for major expansion, to create a university-based facility serving a broad scientific community, to keep the U.S. competitive in the field of solar radio physics. The project, funded by the National Science Foundation through the MRI-Recovery and Reinvestment program, will result in a world-class facility for scientific research at microwave radio frequencies (1-18 GHz) in solar and space weather physics. The project also includes an exciting program of targeted astronomical science. The solar science to be addressed focuses on the magnetic structure of the solar corona, on transient phenomena resulting from magnetic interactions, including the sudden release of energy and subsequent particle acceleration and heating, and on space weather phenomena. The project will support the scientific community by providing open data access and software tools for analysis of the data, to exploit synergies with on-going solar research in other wavelength bands. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) will upgrade OVSA from its current complement of 7 antennas to a total of 15 by adding 8 new antennas, and will reinvest in the existing infrastructure by replacing the existing control systems, signal transmission, and signal processing with modern, far more capable and reliable systems based on new technology developed for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The project will be completed in time to provide solar-dedicated observations during the upcoming solar maximum in 2013 and beyond. We will detail the new science addressed by the expanded array, and provide an overview of the expected data products.

  16. A simple method for verifying the deployment of the TOMS-EP solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppersmith, James R.; Ketchum, Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) mission relies upon a successful deployment of the spacecraft's solar arrays. Several methods of verification are being employed to ascertain the solar array deployment status, with each requiring differing amounts of data. This paper describes a robust attitude-independent verification method that utilizes telemetry from the coarse Sun sensors (CSS's) and the three-axis magnetometers (TAM's) to determine the solar array deployment status - and it can do so with only a few, not necessarily contiguous, points of data. The method developed assumes that the solar arrays are deployed. Telemetry data from the CSS and TAM are converted to the Sun and magnetic field vectors in spacecraft body coordinates, and the angle between them is calculated. Deployment is indicated if this angle is within a certain error tolerance of the angle between the reference Sun and magnetic field vectors. Although several other methods can indicate a non-deployed state, with this method there is a 70% confidence level in confirming deployment as well as a nearly 100% certainty in confirming a non-deployed state. In addition, the spacecraft attitude (which is not known during the first orbit after launch) is not needed for this algorithm because the angle between the Sun and magnetic field vectors is independent of the spacecraft attitude. This technique can be applied to any spacecraft with a TAM and with CSS's mounted on the solar array(s).

  17. Interaction of a solar array with an ion thruster due to the charge-exchange plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    The generation of a charge exchange plasma by a thruster, the transport of this plasma to the solar array, and the interaction of the solar array with the plasma after it arrives are all described. The generation of this plasma is described accurately from thruster geometry and operating conditions. The transport of the charge exchange plasma was studied experimentally with a 15 cm thruster. A model was developed for simple thruster array configurations. A variety of experiments were surveyed for the interaction of the plasma at the solar array.

  18. A High-Efficiency Si Nanowire Array/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-12-01

    A low-cost Si nanowire array/perovskite hybrid solar cell is proposed and simulated. The solar cell consists of a Si p-i-n nanowire array filled with CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , in which both the nanowires and perovskite absorb the incident light while the nanowires act as the channels for transporting photo-generated electrons and holes. The hybrid structure has a high absorption efficiency in a broad wavelength range of 300~800 nm. A large short-circuit current density of 28.8 mA/cm 2 and remarkable conversion efficiency of 13.3% are obtained at a thin absorber thickness of 1.6 μm, which are comparable to the best results of III-V nanowire solar cells.

  19. Thermoelastic analysis of solar cell arrays and their material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, M. A.; Rowe, W. M.; Yasui, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A thermoelastic stress analysis procedure is reported for predicting the thermally induced stresses and failures in silicon solar cell arrays. A prerequisite for the analysis is the characterization of the temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties of the solar cell materials. Extensive material property testing was carried out in the temperature range -200 to +200 C for the filter glass, P- and N-type silicon, interconnector metals, solder, and several candidate silicone rubber adhesives. The analysis procedure is applied to several solar cell array design configurations. Results of the analysis indicate the optimum design configuration, with respect to compatible materials, effect of the solder coating, and effect of the interconnector geometry. Good agreement was found between results of the analysis and the test program.

  20. Hardened Solar Array High Temperature Adhesive.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    SHERWOOO. D SASIU.IS F3361S-0-C-201S UNCLASSI ED 1AC-SCG-IOOIIR AFVAL-TR-OL-201? NLm,,hinii EhhhEE11I1 AFWAL-TR-81- 2017 i : HARDENED SOLAR ARRAY D HIGH...Tg and as a consequence forms a film on the container and also precipitates as tacky waxlike particles, rather than the desired flocullated

  1. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, N.; Iasiello, M.; Naso, V.

    2015-11-01

    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics®. Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared.

  2. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of glass encapsulation that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems are discussed. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the low-cost solar array project goals for arrays: (1) a low degradation rate, (2) high reliability, (3) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (4) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (5) a production capacity of 500,000 kW/yr. The glass design areas discussed include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties, and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  3. Better Thermal Insulation in Solar-Array Laminators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.; Knox, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Glass marbles improve temperature control. Modified vacuum laminator for photovoltaic solar arrays includes thermal insulation made of conventional glass marbles. Marbles serve as insulation for temperature control of lamination process at cure temperatures as high as 350 degrees F. Used to replace original insulation made of asbestos cement.

  4. Parametric study of two planar high power flexible solar array concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garba, J. A.; Kudija, D. A.; Zeldin, B.; Costogue, E. N.

    1978-01-01

    The design parameters examined were: frequency, aspect ratio, packaging constraints, and array blanket flatness. Specific power-to-mass ratios for both solar arrays as a function of array frequency and array width were developed and plotted. Summaries of the baseline design data, developed equations, the computer program operation, plots of the parameters, and the process for using the information as a design manual are presented.

  5. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  6. Active Control of Solar Array Dynamics During Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brant A.; Woo, Nelson; Kraft, Thomas G.; Blandino, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans require spacecraft to undergo potentially significant maneuvers (or dynamic loading events) with large solar arrays deployed. Therefore there is an increased need to understand and possibly control the nonlinear dynamics in the spacecraft system during such maneuvers. The development of a nonlinear controller is described. The utility of using a nonlinear controller to reduce forces and motion in a solar array wing during a loading event is demonstrated. The result is dramatic reductions in system forces and motion during a 10 second loading event. A motion curve derived from the simulation with the closed loop controller is used to obtain similar benefits with a simpler motion control approach.

  7. By-Pass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By-Pass diodes are a key design feature of solar arrays and system design must be robust against local heating, especially with implementation of larger solar cells. By-Pass diode testing was performed to aid thermal model development for use in future array designs that utilize larger cell sizes that result in higher string currents. Testing was performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon provided by SSL. Test conditions were vacuum with cold array backside using discrete by-pass diode current steps of 0.25 A ranging from 0 A to 2.0 A.

  8. LIGHTWEIGHT INTEGRATED SOLAR ARRAY AND TRANSCEIVER

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-23

    JOHN CARR, CO-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR FOR NASA'S LIGHTWEIGHT INTEGRATED SOLAR ARRAY AND TRANSCEIVER PROJECT, KNEELS TO SHOW HOW ONE OF THE THIN-FILM SIDES OR "PETALS" IN WHICH PHOTO-VOLTAIC CELLS ARE EMBEDDED, IS FOLDED AND STOWED BEFORE LAUNCH. LOOKING ON DURING A DEMONSTRATION AFTER TESTING AT NEXOLVE, ARE LES JOHNSON, LEFT, ALSO CO-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR, AND DARREN BOYD, RIGHT, THE RADIO FREQUENCY LEAD FOR THE PROJECT.

  9. Concept Definition Study for In-Space Structural Characterization of a Lightweight Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Jones, Thomas W.; Spellman, Regina; Scott, Willis; Mockensturm, Eric M.; Liddle, Donn; Oshel, Ed; Snyder, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A Concept Definition Study (CDS) was conducted to develop a proposed "Lightweight High-Voltage Stretched-Lens Concentrator Solar Array Experiment" under NASA's New Millennium Program Space Technology-6 (NMP ST-6) activity. As part of a multi-organizational team, NASA Langley Research Center's role in this proposed experiment was to lead Structural Characterization of the solar array during the flight experiment. In support of this role, NASA LaRC participated in the CDS to de.ne an experiment for static, dynamic, and deployment characterization of the array. In this study, NASA LaRC traded state-of-the-art measurement approaches appropriate for an in-space, STS-based flight experiment, provided initial analysis and testing of the lightweight solar array and lens elements, performed a lighting and photogrammetric simulation in conjunction with JSC, and produced an experiment concept definition to meet structural characterization requirements.

  10. P6 Truss solar array, SABB and PV Radiator seen during EVA 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-03

    Photograph documenting the P6 Truss Solar Array Wing (SAW), Mast Canisters, Photovoltaic (PV) Radiator and Solar Array Blanket Boxes (SABB) as seen by the STS-114 crew during the third of three Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) of the mission. Part of the orbiter Discovery's nosecone is visible in the upper right of the frame.

  11. EOL performance comparison of GaAs/Ge and Si BSF/R solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    EOL power estimates for solar array designs are significantly influenced by the predicted degradation due to charged particle radiation. New radiation-induced power degradation data for GaAs/Ge solar arrays applicable to missions ranging from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) and compares these results to silicon BSF/R arrays. These results are based on recently published radiation damage coefficients for GaAs/Ge cells. The power density ratio (GaAs/Ge to Si BSF/R) was found to be as high as 1.83 for the proton-dominated worst-case altitude of 7408 km medium Earth orbit (MEO). Based on the EOL GaAs/Ge solar array power density results for MEO, missions which were previously considered infeasible may be reviewed based on these more favorable results. The additional life afforded by using GaAs/Ge cells is an important factor in system-level trade studies when selecting a solar cell technology for a mission and needs to be considered. The data presented supports this decision since the selected orbits have characteristics similar to most orbits of interest.

  12. High Voltage Solar Array ARC Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.; Carruth, M. R.; Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2003-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (112HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration "trigger" arcs as well as long duration "sustained" arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of vo!tage, (current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (>300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  13. High Voltage Solar Array Arc Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Todd; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.; Ferguson, D.; Kerslake, T. W.; Peterson, T.; Snyder, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (D2HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration trigger arcs as well as long duration sustained arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of voltage, current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (greater than 300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  14. Ultraflexible nanoelectronic probes form reliable, glial scar–free neural integration

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Lan; Wei, Xiaoling; Zhao, Zhengtuo; Siegel, Jennifer J.; Potnis, Ojas; Tuppen, Catherine A; Lin, Shengqing; Kazmi, Shams; Fowler, Robert A.; Holloway, Stewart; Dunn, Andrew K.; Chitwood, Raymond A.; Xie, Chong

    2017-01-01

    Implanted brain electrodes construct the only means to electrically interface with individual neurons in vivo, but their recording efficacy and biocompatibility pose limitations on scientific and clinical applications. We showed that nanoelectronic thread (NET) electrodes with subcellular dimensions, ultraflexibility, and cellular surgical footprints form reliable, glial scar–free neural integration. We demonstrated that NET electrodes reliably detected and tracked individual units for months; their impedance, noise level, single-unit recording yield, and the signal amplitude remained stable during long-term implantation. In vivo two-photon imaging and postmortem histological analysis revealed seamless, subcellular integration of NET probes with the local cellular and vasculature networks, featuring fully recovered capillaries with an intact blood-brain barrier and complete absence of chronic neuronal degradation and glial scar. PMID:28246640

  15. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  16. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 4: High-efficiency solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leipold, M.; Cheng, L.; Daud, T.; Mokashi, A.; Burger, D.; Christensen, E. (Editor); Murry, J. (Editor); Bengelsdorf, I. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The High Efficiency Solar Cell Task was assigned the objective of understanding and developing high efficiency solar cell devices that would meet the cost and performance goals of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The need for research dealing with high efficiency devices was considered important because of the role efficiency plays in reducing price per watt of generated energy. The R&D efforts conducted during the 1982 to 1986 period are summarized to provide understanding and control of energy conversion losses associated with crystalline silicon solar cells. New levels of conversion efficiency were demonstrated. Major contributions were made both to the understanding and reduction of bulk and surface losses in solar cells. For example, oxides, nitrides, and polysilicon were all shown to be potentially useful surface passivants. Improvements in measurement techniques were made and Auger coefficients and spectral absorption data were obtained for unique types of silicon sheets. New modelling software was developed including a program to optimize a device design based on input characteristics of a cell.

  17. Method of fabricating a solar cell array

    DOEpatents

    Lazzery, Angelo G.; Crouthamel, Marvin S.; Coyle, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.

  18. Spoked wheels to deploy large surfaces in space-weight estimates for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. F.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Preiswerk, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    Extensible booms were used to deploy and support solar cell arrays of varying areas. Solar cell array systems were built with one or two booms to deploy and tension a blanket with attached cells and bussing. A segmented and hinged rim supported by spokes joined to a common hub is described. This structure can be compactly packaged and deployed.

  19. Supporting Structures for Flat Solar-Cell Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Strong supporting structures for flat solar photovoltaic arrays built with such commonly available materials as wood and galvanized steel sheet. Structures resist expected static loads from snow and ice as well as dynamic loads from winds and even Earthquake vibrations. Supporting structure uses inexpensive materials. Parts prefabricated to minimize assembly work in field.

  20. Reliability analysis method of a solar array by using fault tree analysis and fuzzy reasoning Petri net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Xie, Liyang

    2011-12-01

    To address the impact of solar array anomalies, it is important to perform analysis of the solar array reliability. This paper establishes the fault tree analysis (FTA) and fuzzy reasoning Petri net (FRPN) models of a solar array mechanical system and analyzes reliability to find mechanisms of the solar array fault. The index final truth degree (FTD) and cosine matching function (CMF) are employed to resolve the issue of how to evaluate the importance and influence of different faults. So an improvement reliability analysis method is developed by means of the sorting of FTD and CMF. An example is analyzed using the proposed method. The analysis results show that harsh thermal environment and impact caused by particles in space are the most vital causes of the solar array fault. Furthermore, other fault modes and the corresponding improvement methods are discussed. The results reported in this paper could be useful for the spacecraft designers, particularly, in the process of redesigning the solar array and scheduling its reliability growth plan.

  1. Impact of LDEF photovoltaic experiment findings upon spacecraft solar array design and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leighton E.

    1993-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells (solar cells) and other solar array materials were flown in a variety of locations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). With respect to the predicted leading edge, solar array experiments were located at 0 degrees (row 9), 30 degrees (row 8) and 180 degrees (row 3). Postflight estimates of location of the experiments with respect to the velocity vector add 8.1 degrees to these values. Experiments were also located on the Earth end of the LDEF longitudinal axis. Types and magnitudes of detrimental effects differ between the locations with some commonality. Postflight evaluation of the solar array experiments reveal that some components/materials are very resistant to the environment to which they were exposed while others need protection, modification, or replacement. Interaction of materials with atomic oxygen (AO), as an area of major importance, was dramatically demonstrated by LDEF results. Information gained from the LDEF flight allows array developers to set new requirements for on-going and future technology and flight component development.

  2. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies

  3. The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) technology status and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1985, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory initiated the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program. The program objective is to demonstrate a producible array system by the early 1990s with a specific performance of at least 130 W/kG (beginning-of-life) as an intermediate milestone towards the long range goal of 300 W/kG. The APSA performance represents an approximately four-fold improvement over existing rigid array technology and a doubling of the performance of the first generation NASA/OAST SAFE flexible blanket array of the early 1980s.

  4. Aeroheating Thermal Model Correlation for Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; George, Benjamin E.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Spacecraft made use of aerobraking to gradually reduce its orbit period from a highly elliptical insertion orbit to its final science orbit. Aerobraking produces a high heat load on the solar arrays, which have a large surface area exposed to the airflow and relatively low mass. To accurately model the complex behavior during aerobraking, the thermal analysis needed to be tightly coupled to the spatially varying, time dependent aerodynamic heating. Also, the thermal model itself needed to accurately capture the behavior of the solar array and its response to changing heat load conditions. The correlation of the thermal model to flight data allowed a validation of the modeling process, as well as information on what processes dominate the thermal behavior. Correlation in this case primarily involved detailing the thermal sensor nodes, using as-built mass to modify material property estimates, refining solar cell assembly properties, and adding detail to radiation and heat flux boundary conditions. This paper describes the methods used to develop finite element thermal models of the MGS solar array and the correlation of the thermal model to flight data from the spacecraft drag passes. Correlation was made to data from four flight thermal sensors over three of the early drag passes. Good correlation of the model was achieved, with a maximum difference between the predicted model maximum and the observed flight maximum temperature of less than 5%. Lessons learned in the correlation of this model assisted in validating a similar model and method used for the Mars Odyssey solar array aeroheating analysis, which were used during onorbit operations.

  5. Antenna and solar arrays from Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    View of antenna and solar arrays (with an Earth limb in the background) taken from a window in the Russian Soyuz spacecraft currently docked to the International Space Station. Photo taken by an Expedition 36 crewmember. Per Twitter message: View out the window to the right of my seat in Soyuz while docked to ISS.

  6. The Murchison Widefield Array: solar science with the low frequency SKA Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Oberoi, D.; Cairns, I.; Donea, A.; Duffin, R.; Arcus, W.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Bunton, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A.; deSouza, L.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; R, Goeke; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Herne, D.; Hewitt, J. N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kennewell, J. A.; Kincaid, B. B.; Koenig, R.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Ord, S. M.; Pathikulangara, J.; Prabu, T.; Remillard, R. A.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Salah, J. E.; Sault, R. J.; Udaya-Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Stevens, J.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2013-06-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array is a low frequency (80 - 300 MHz) SKA Precursor, comprising 128 aperture array elements (known as tiles) distributed over an area of 3 km diameter. The MWA is located at the extraordinarily radio quiet Murchison Radioastronomy Observatory in the mid-west of Western Australia, the selected home for the Phase 1 and Phase 2 SKA low frequency arrays. The MWA science goals include: 1) detection of fluctuations in the brightness temperature of the diffuse redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionisation; 2) studies of Galactic and extragalactic processes based on deep, confusion-limited surveys of the full sky visible to the array; 3) time domain astrophysics through exploration of the variable radio sky; and 4) solar imaging and characterisation of the heliosphere and ionosphere via propagation effects on background radio source emission. This paper concentrates on the capabilities of the MWA for solar science and summarises some of the solar science results to date, in advance of the initial operation of the final instrument in 2013.

  7. Powering the future - a new generation of high-performance solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Freddy; Caswell, Doug; Signorini, Carla

    2007-08-01

    Funded by ESA's Advanced Research in Telecommunication (ARTES) programme, Thales Alenia Space has developed a new generation of high-power ultra-lightweight solar arrays for telecommunications satellites. Thanks to close cooperation with its industrial partners in Europe, the company has generically qualified a solar array io meet market needs. Indeed, three flight projects were already using the new design as qualification was completed. In addition, the excellent mechanical and thermal behaviour of the new panel structure are contributing to other missions such as Pleïades and LISA Pathfinder.

  8. Discussion on the solar concentrating thermoelectric generation using micro-channel heat pipe array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiqiang; Feng, Wei; Jin, Yi; Chen, Xiao; Ji, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Heat pipe is a high efficient tool in solar energy applications. In this paper, a novel solar concentrating thermoelectric generation using micro-channel heat pipe array (STEG-MCHP) was presented. The flat-plate micro-channel heat pipe array not only has a higher heat transfer performance than the common heat pipe, but also can be placed on the surface of TEG closely, which can further reduce the thermal resistance between the heat pipe and the TEG. A preliminary comparison experiment was also conducted to indicate the advantages of the STEG-MCHP. The optimization based on the model verified by the experiment was demonstrated, and the concentration ratio and selective absorbing coating area were also discussed. In addition, the cost analysis was also performed to compare between the STEG-MCHP and the common solar concentrating TEGs in series. The outcome showed that the solar concentrating thermoelectric generation using micro-channel heat pipe array has the higher electrical efficiency and lower cost, which may provide a suitable way for solar TEG applications.

  9. Preliminary Results from the Flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the OAST-2 mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.

  10. Lightweight Battery Charge Regulator Used to Track Solar Array Peak Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.; Button, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    A battery charge regulator based on the series-connected boost regulator (SCBR) technology has been developed for high-voltage spacecraft applications. The SCBR regulates the solar array power during insolation to prevent battery overcharge or undercharge conditions. It can also be used to provide regulated battery output voltage to spacecraft loads if necessary. This technology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. The high-voltage SCBR shown in the photograph has demonstrated power densities of over 1000 watts per kilogram (W/kg). Using four 150-W dc-dc converter modules, it can process 2500 W of power at 120 Vdc with a minimum input voltage of 90 Vdc. Efficiency of the SCBR was 94 to 98 percent over the entire operational range. Internally, the unit is made of two separate SCBR s, each with its own analog control circuitry, to demonstrate the modularity of the technology. The analog controllers regulate the output current and incorporate the output voltage limit with active current sharing between the two units. They also include voltage and current telemetry, on/off control, and baseplate temperature sensors. For peak power tracking, the SCBR was connected to a LabView-based data acquisition system for telemetry and control. A digital control algorithm for tracking the peak power point of a solar array was developed using the principle of matching the source impedance with the load impedance for maximum energy transfer. The algorithm was successfully demonstrated in a simulated spacecraft electrical system at the Boeing PhantomWorks High Voltage Test Facility in Seattle, Washington. The system consists of a 42-string, high-voltage solar array simulator, a 77-cell, 80-ampere-hour (A-hr) nickel-hydrogen battery, and a constant power-load module. The SCBR and the LabView control algorithm successfully tracked the solar array peak

  11. The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, R. M.; Stella, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper continues the status reporting of the development of an ultraweight flexible blanket, flatlpack, fouldout solar array testbed wing that was presented at the First and Second European Space Power Conferences. To date a testbed wing has been built and subjected to a variety of critical functional tests before and after exposrue to simulated launch environments.

  12. Proceedings of the Low-Cost Solar Array Wafering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of silicon ingot wafering for low cost solar arrays were discussed. Fixed and free abrasive sawing wire, ID, and multiblade sawing, materials, mechanisms, characterization, and innovative concepts were considered.

  13. Solar Array Panels and Earths Horizon during Expedition 13

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-24

    ISS013-E-64485 (24 July 2006) --- Earth's horizon and station solar array panels are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 13 crewmember from a window on the International Space Station.

  14. Light management in perovskite solar cells and organic LEDs with microlens arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana; Park, Joong -Mok; ...

    2017-04-28

    Here, we demonstrate enhanced absorption in solar cells and enhanced light emission in OLEDs by light interaction with a periodically structured microlens array. We simulate n-i-p perovskite solar cells with a microlens at the air-glass interface, with rigorous scattering matrix simulations. The microlens focuses light in nanoscale regions within the absorber layer enhancing the solar cell. Optimal period of ~700 nm and microlens height of ~800-1000 nm, provides absorption (photocurrent) enhancement of 6% (6.3%). An external polymer microlens array on the air-glass side of the OLED generates experimental and theoretical enhancements >100%, by outcoupling trapped modes in the glass substrate.

  15. Clearance Analysis of Node 3 Aft CBM to the Stowed FGB Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, the ISS Vehicle Configuration Office began considering the relocation of the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) to the aft facing Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) on Node 3 to open a berthing location for visiting vehicles on the Node 1 nadir CBM. In this position, computer-aided design (CAD) models indicated that the aft end of the PMM would be only a few inches from the stowed Functional Cargo Block (FGB) port solar array. To validate the CAD model clearance analysis, in the late summer of 2011 the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to determine the true geometric relationship between the on-orbit aft facing Node 3 CBM and the FGB port solar array. The desired measurements could be computed easily by photogrammetric analysis if current imagery of the ISS hardware were obtained. Beginning in the fall of 2011, ISAG used the Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) program to design a way to acquire imagery of the aft face of Node 3, the aft end-cone of Node 1, the port side of pressurized mating adapter 1 (PMA1), and the port side of the FGB out to the tip of the port solar array using cameras on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This was complicated by the need to thread the SSRMS under the truss, past Node 3 and the Cupola, and into the space between the aft side of Node 3 and the FGB solar array to acquire more than 100 images from multiple positions. To minimize the number of SSRMS movements, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) would be attached to the SSRMS. This would make it possible to park the SPDM in one position and acquire multiple images by changing the viewing orientation of the SPDM body cameras using the pan/tilt units on which the cameras are mounted. Using this implementation concept, ISAG identified four SSRMS/SPDM positions from which all of the needed imagery could be acquired. Based on a photogrammetric simulation, it was estimated that the location of the FGB solar array could be

  16. Solar panels offer array of hope.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The installation of what is believed to be the largest array of solar thermal panels currently in use at a UK NHS hospital has taken place at an ideal time for the facility in question, Harlow's Princess Alexandra Hospital, with the hospital's gas bill alone having risen by 153% over the past nine months thanks to soaring energy prices, and the estates department keen to mitigate the effects in any way possible. Jonathan Baillie reports.

  17. Ultra-low-mass flexible planar solar arrays using 50-micron-thick solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Rayl, G.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design study has been completed which has shown the feasibility of ultra-low-mass planar solar arrays with specific power of 200 watts/kilogram. The beginning of life (BOL) power output of the array designs would be 10 kW at 1 astronomical unit (AU) and a 55C deg operating temperature. Two designs were studied: a retractable rollout design and a non-retractable fold-out. The designs employed a flexible low-mass blanket and low-mass structures. The blanket utilized 2 x 2 cm high-efficiency (13.5% at 28C deg AM0), ultra-thin (50 micron), silicon solar cells protected by thin (75 micron) plastic encapsulants. The structural design utilized the 'V'-stiffened approach which allows a lower mass boom to be used. In conjunction with the conceptual design, modules using the thin cells and plastic encapsulant were designed and fabricated.

  18. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  19. Bonding machine for forming a solar array strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Downing, R. G.; Middleton, O.; Mueller, R. L.; Yasui, R. K.; Cairo, F. J.; Person, J. K. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A machine is described for attaching solar cells to a flexable substrate on which printed circuitry has been deposited. The strip is fed through: (1) a station in which solar cells are elevated into engagement with solder pads for the printed circuitry and thereafter heated by an infrared lamp; (2) a station at which flux and solder residue is removed; (3) a station at which electrical performance of the soldered cells is determined; (4) a station at which an encapsulating resin is deposited on the cells; (5) a station at which the encapsulated solar cells are examined for electrical performance; and (6) a final station at which the resulting array is wound on a takeup drum.

  20. Preliminary results from the flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials, and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.

  1. Medium-term follow-up after deployment of ultraflex expandable metallic stents to manage endobronchial pathology.

    PubMed

    Madden, Brendan P; Park, John E S; Sheth, Abhijat

    2004-12-01

    Between March 1997 and March 2004 we deployed 80 Ultraflex metallic expandable stents (Boston Scientific, Waterson, MA) in 69 patients under direct vision using rigid bronchoscopy. We report our medium- to long-term experience in patients for whom these stents were deployed. To date 15 patients have been followed for more than 1 year (median 41 months, range 12 to 83 months) after stent deployment. Indications for stenting in these patients were neoplasia (5), stricture (5), airway malacia (1), iatrogenic tracheal tear (1), and compression from an aortic aneurysm (1), a right interrupted aortic arch (1), and a right brachiocephalic artery aneurysm with tracheomalacia (1). Ten tracheal stents (9 covered, 1 uncovered) and 10 bronchial stents (8 uncovered, 2 covered) were inserted, and 5 patients received two stents. Five of these patients experienced no long-term problems. Complications included troublesome halitosis (5), which was difficult to treat despite various antibiotic regimes; granulation tissue formation above and below the stent that was successfully treated with low-power Nd:YAG laser therapy (7); and metal fatigue (1). We did not encounter stent migration. We conclude that Ultraflex expandable metallic stents have an important role in the management of selected patients with diverse endobronchial pathologies and are well tolerated in the long-term. Although associated granulation tissue can be successfully treated with Nd:YAG laser, halitosis can be a difficult problem to address.

  2. The proposed NRAO millimeter array and its use for solar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Mukul R.

    1986-01-01

    A brief summary is given of the proposed National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Millimeter Array discussed at a workshop held in Green Bank, W. Va., September 30 to October 2, 1985. A brief description of the solar studies that can be made with such an array is provided.

  3. Experimental simulation of space plasma interactions with high voltage solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillwell, R. P.; Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Operating high voltage solar arrays in the space environment can result in anomalously large currents being collected through small insulation defects. Tests of simulated defects have been conducted in a 45-cm vacuum chamber with plasma densities of 100,000 to 1,000,000/cu cm. Plasmas were generated using an argon hollow cathode. The solar array elements were simulated by placing a thin sheet of polyimide (Kapton) insulation with a small hole in it over a conductor. Parameters tested were: hole size, adhesive, surface roughening, sample temperature, insulator thickness, insulator area. These results are discussed along with some preliminary empirical correlations.

  4. The advantages of the high voltage solar array for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    The high voltage solar array (HVSA) offers improvements in efficiency, weight, and reliability for the electric propulsion power system. The basic HVSA technology involves designing the solar array to deliver power in the form required by the ion thruster. This paper delves into conventional power processes and problems associated with ion thruster operation using SERT II experience for examples. In this light, the advantages of the HVSA concept for electric propulsion are presented. Tests conducted operating the SERT II thruster system in conjunction with HVSA are discussed. Thruster operation was observed to be normal and in some respects improved.

  5. SOLARTRAK. Solar Array Tracking Control

    SciTech Connect

    Manish, A.B.; Dudley, J.

    1995-06-01

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D) convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed atmore » compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board`s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  6. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2017-04-01

    Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO2 nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO2-NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO2 NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO2/perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO2-NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  7. Brazilian Decimetre Array (Phase-1): Initial solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Kathiravan, C.; Suryanarayana, G. S.

    An East-West one-dimensional radio interferometer array consisting of 5 parabolic dish antennas has been set-up at Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (Longitude: 45°0'20″W, Latitude: 22°41'19″S) for observations of Sun and some of the strong sidereal sources by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil. This is Phase-1 of the proposed Brazilian Decimetre Array (BDA) and can be operated at any frequency in the range 1.2-1.7 GHz. The instrument is functional since November 2004 onwards at 1.6 GHz. The angular and temporal resolution at the above frequency range are ˜3' and 100 ms, respectively. We present here the initial solar observations carried out with this array.

  8. Efficiency improvement of silicon solar cells enabled by ZnO nanowhisker array coating

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An efficient antireflection coating is critical for the improvement of silicon solar cell performance via increased light coupling. Here, we have grown well-aligned ZnO nanowhisker (NW) arrays on Czochralski silicon solar cells by a seeding-growth two-step process. It is found that the ZnO NWs have a great effect on the macroscopic antireflection effect and, therefore, improves the solar cell performance. The ZnO NW array-coated solar cells display a broadband reflection suppression from 500 to 1,100 nm, and the minimum reflectance smaller than 3% can easily be achieved. By optimizing the time of ZnO NW growth, it has been confirmed that an increase of 3% relatively in the solar cell efficiency can be obtained. These results are quite interesting for the application of ZnO nanostructure in the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. PMID:22704578

  9. A users evaluation of SAMIS. [Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    SAMIS, the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation computer program was developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) to provide a method whereby manufacturers or potential manufacturers of photovoltaics could simulate a solar industry using their own particular approach. This paper analyzes the usefulness of SAMIS to a growing photovoltaic industry and clearly illustrates its limitations as viewed by an industrial user.

  10. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  11. Test plane uniformity analysis for the MSFC solar simulator lamp array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was made on the solar simulator lamp array. It is an array of 405 tungsten halogen lamps with Fresnel lenses to achieve the required spectral distribution and collimation. A computer program was developed to analyze lamp array performance at the test plane. Measurements were made on individual lamp lens combinations to obtain data for the computer analysis. The analysis indicated that the performance of the lamp array was about as expected, except for a need to position the test plane within 2.7 m of the lamp array to achieve the desired 7 percent uniformity of illumination tolerance.

  12. Periodically Aligned Si Nanopillar Arrays as Efficient Antireflection Layers for Solar Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Periodically aligned Si nanopillar (PASiNP) arrays were fabricated on Si substrate via a silver-catalyzed chemical etching process using the diameter-reduced polystyrene spheres as mask. The typical sub-wavelength structure of PASiNP arrays had excellent antireflection property with a low reflection loss of 2.84% for incident light within the wavelength range of 200–1,000 nm. The solar cell incorporated with the PASiNP arrays exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ~9.24% with a short circuit current density (JSC) of ~29.5 mA/cm2 without using any extra surface passivation technique. The high PCE of PASiNP array-based solar cell was attributed to the excellent antireflection property of the special periodical Si nanostructure. PMID:21124636

  13. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 5: The 1950 Osaka solar grating array proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Ishiguro, Masato; Nakamura, Tsuko

    2017-04-01

    In November 1950, a paper was presented at the 5th Annual Assembly of the Physical Society of Japan that outlined the plan for a radio frequency grating array, designed to provide high-resolution observations of solar radio emission at 3.3 GHz. This short paper provides details of the invention of this array, which occurred independently of W.N. Christiansen's invention of the solar grating array in Australia at almost the same time.

  14. Amorphous silicon cell array powered solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1985-01-01

    An array of an even number of amorphous silicon solar cells are serially connected between first and second terminals of opposite polarity. The terminals are connected to one input terminal of a DC motor whose other input terminal is connected to the mid-cell of the serial array. Vane elements are adjacent the end cells to selectively shadow one or the other of the end cells when the array is oriented from a desired attitude relative to the sun. The shadowing of one cell of a group of cells on one side of the mid-cell reduces the power of that group substantially so that full power from the group of cells on the other side of the mid-cell drives the motor to reorient the array to the desired attitude. The cell groups each have a full power output at the power rating of the motor. When the array is at the desired attitude the power output of the two groups of cells balances due to their opposite polarity so that the motor remains unpowered.

  15. Evaluation of concentrated space solar arrays using computer modeling. [for spacecraft propulsion and power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockey, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A general approach is developed for predicting the power output of a concentrator enhanced photovoltaic space array. A ray trace routine determines the concentrator intensity arriving at each solar cell. An iterative calculation determines the cell's operating temperature since cell temperature and cell efficiency are functions of one another. The end result of the iterative calculation is that the individual cell's power output is determined as a function of temperature and intensity. Circuit output is predicted by combining the individual cell outputs using the single diode model of a solar cell. Concentrated array characteristics such as uniformity of intensity and operating temperature at various points across the array are examined using computer modeling techniques. An illustrative example is given showing how the output of an array can be enhanced using solar concentration techniques.

  16. The Solar Array Photovoltaic Assembly for the INSAT 4CR Spacecraft Design, Development and In-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Joseph; Sudhakar, M.; Agarwal, Anil; Sankaran, M.; Mudramachary, P.

    2008-09-01

    The INSAT 4CR spacecraft, the third in the INSAT 4 series of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)'s Communication satellite program, is a high power communication satellite in Geo- stationary Earth Orbit (GEO), configured using the ISRO I2K bus. The primary power is provided by two-wing sun tracking, deployable solar array and the eclipse load requirement is supported by two 70 Ah nickel hydrogen batteries. The power output of the solar array is regulated by Sequential Switching Shunt Regulators to 42V±0.5V. The salient feature of the solar array design is that it uses the new generation multi junction solar cells for all the four panels of size 2.54m x 1.525m to meet the higher power requirement with the available array area. The solar panel fabrication process with the Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) solar cells from M/s. EMCORE, USA, has been demonstrated for the GEO life cycle through qualification coupon fabrication and testing.This paper describes the INSAT 4CR solar array photovoltaic assemblies design, layout optimization and realization of the Flight Model (FM) panels. It focuses on the power generation prediction, electrical performance measurement under Large Area Pulsed Sun Simulator (LAPSS) and verification of the ground level test results. The indigenously built Geostationary Launch Vehicle (GSLV F04) has successfully launched the INSAT 4CR spacecraft into the orbit on September 2nd, 2007. This paper also presents the analysis of telemetry data to validate the initial phase in-orbit performance of the solar array with prediction.

  17. Molecular Substrate Alteration by Solar Wind Radiation Documented on Flown Genesis Mission Array Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Stansbery, Eileen K.

    2006-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft sampling arrays were exposed to various regimes of solar wind during flight that included: 313.01 days of high-speed wind from coronal holes, 335.19 days of low-speed inter-stream wind, 191.79 days of coronal mass ejections, and 852.83 days of bulk solar wind at Lagrange 1 orbit. Ellipsometry measurements taken at NASA s Johnson Space Center show that all nine flown array materials from the four Genesis regimes have been altered by solar wind exposure during flight. These measurements show significant changes in the optical constant for all nine ultra-pure materials that flew on Genesis when compared with their non-flight material standard. This change in the optical constant (n and k) of the material suggests that the molecular structure of the all nine ultra-pure materials have been altered by solar radiation. In addition, 50 samples of float-zone and czochralski silicon bulk array ellipsometry results were modeled with an effective medium approximation layer (EMA substrate layer) revealing a solar radiation molecular damage zone depth below the SiO2 native oxide layer ranging from 392 to 613 . This bulk solar wind radiation penetration depth is comparable to the depth of solar wind implantation depth of Mg measured by SIMS and SARISA.

  18. Deployment/retraction ground testing of a large flexible solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    The simulated zero-gravity ground testing of the flexible fold-up solar array consisting of eighty-four full-size panels (.368 m x .4 m each) is addressed. Automatic, hands-off extension, retraction, and lockup operations are included. Three methods of ground testing were investigated: (1) vertical testing; (2) horizontal testing, using an overhead water trough to support the panels; and (3) horizontal testing, using an overhead track in conjunction with a counterweight system to support the panels. Method 3 was selected as baseline. The wing/assembly vertical support structure, the five-tier overhead track, and the mast-element support track comprise the test structure. The flexible solar array wing assembly was successfully extended and retracted numerous times under simulated zero-gravity conditions.

  19. The ARA Mark 3 solar array design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanHassel, Rob H. A.

    1996-01-01

    The ARA (Advanced Rigid Array) Mark3 solar array of Fokker Space BV is currently in its final stages of qualification (wing tests to be completed in March, 1996; unit/part tests in April, 1996). With regard to its predecessor, the ARA Mark2, the design has not only been improved in terms of mechanical and electrical performance, but also with regard to production cost and throughput time. This 'state of the art' array is designed to fit the needs of a wide variety of geostationary telecommunications satellites and is qualified for launch on the complete range of medium/large size commercial launchers (Ariane IV & V, Atlas, Delta, Proton, Long March, H2). The first mission to fly the new ARA Mk3 array is Hot Bird 2 (customer: Eutelsat, prime contractor: Matra Marconi Space; launch: mid-1996). In this configuration, its end of life (EOL) power-to-mass ratio is 42 W/kg, with an operational life of more than 12 years. The main mechanisms on a solar array are typically found in the deployment system and in the hold down and release system. During the design and development phase of these mechanisms, extensive engineering and qualification tests have been performed. This paper presents the key design features of these mechanisms and the improvements that were made with regard to their predecessors. It also describes the qualification philosophy on unit/part and wing level. Finally, some of the development items that turned out to be critical, as well as the lessons learned from them, are discussed.

  20. Commerical (terrestrial) and modified solar array design studies for low cost, low power space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, J. C.; Riley, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The suitability of commercial (terrestrial) solar arrays for use in low Earth orbit is examined. It is shown that commercial solar arrays degrade under thermal cycling because of material flexure, and that certain types of silicones used in the construction of these arrays outgas severely. Based on the results, modifications were made. The modified array retains the essential features of typical commercial arrays and can be easily built by commercial fabrication techniques at low cost. The modified array uses a metal tray for containment, but eliminates the high outgassing potting materials and glass cover sheets. Cells are individually mounted with an adhesive and individually covered with glass cover slips, or clear plastic tape. The modified array is found to withstand severe thermal cycling for long intervals of time.

  1. Validation Report for the EO-1 Lightweight Flexible Solar Array Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Bernie; Lyons, John; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The controlled deployment of the Lightweight Flexible Solar Array (LFSA) experiment using the shape memory alloy release and deployment system has been demonstrated. Work remains to be done in increasing the efficiency of Copper Indium Diselinide (CIS) terminations to the flexible harness that carries current from the array to the I-V measurement electronics.

  2. Space Station Solar Array Joint Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Allmon, Curtis; Reznik, Carter; McFatter, Justin; Davis, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    In Oct 2007 the International Space Station (ISS) crew noticed a vibrating camera in the vicinity of Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). It had less than 5 months of run time when the anomaly was observed. This approximately 3.2 meter diameter bearing joint supports solar arrays that power the station critical to its operation. The crew performed an EVA to identify what was causing the vibration. It was discovered that one of the 3 bearing tracks of this unconventional bearing had significant spalling damage. This paper discusses the SARJ's unique bearing design and the vulnerability in its design leading to the observed anomaly. The design of a SARJ vacuum test rig is also described along with the results of a life test that validated the proposed repair should extend the life of the SARJ a minimum of 18 years on-orbit.

  3. Features of the solar array drive mechanism for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostenkamp, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The solar array drive mechanism for the Space Telescope embodies several features not customarily found on solar array drives. Power and signal transfer is achieved by means of a flexible wire harness for which the chosen solution, consisting of 168 standard wires, is described. The torque performance data of the harness over its temperature range are presented. The off load system which protects the bearings from the launch loads is released by a trigger made from Nitinol, the memory alloy. The benefits of memory alloy and the caveats for the design are briefly discussed. The design of the off load system is described and test experience is reported.

  4. Conceptual design study of concentrator enhanced solar arrays for space applications Volume 2: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Concentrator concepts which utilize Kapton mirror material were evaluated and selected for solar array use due to their zero mass. All concepts considered employed thin silicon solar cells. Design requirements for the concentrator were: the cell temperature was not to exceed 150 C; the concentrators were to produce illumination of the array within 15% of being perfectly uniform; the concentrators were to operate while misaligned as much as 5 degrees with the solar axis. Concentrator designs along with mirror structure and configurations are discussed and comparisons are made for optimal space applications.

  5. Method of construction of a multi-cell solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Routh, D. E.; Hollis, B. R., Jr.; Feltner, W. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The method of constructing a high voltage, low power, multicell solar array is described. A solar cell base region is formed in a substrate such as but not limited to silicon or sapphire. A protective coating is applied on the base and a patterned etching of the coating and base forms discrete base regions. A semiconductive junction and upper active region are formed in each base region, and defined by photolithography. Thus, discrete cells which are interconnected by metallic electrodes are formed.

  6. Discarded solar array panel removed from Hubble Space telescope

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-06

    STS061-95-031 (6 Dec 1993) --- The damaged solar array panel removed from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is backdropped over northern Sudan. Astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, just out of frame at top right, watched the panel after releasing it moments earlier.

  7. Design of a solar array simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Steve J.; Sable, Dan M.; Lee, Fred C.; Cho, Bo H.

    1992-01-01

    The present spacecraft solar array simulator addresses both dc and ac characteristics as well as changes in illumination and temperature and performance degradation over the course of array service life. The computerized control system used allows simulation of a complete orbit cycle, in addition to automated diagnostics. The simulator is currently interfaced with the NASA EOS testbed.

  8. Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Fragments Post-Recovery Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allton, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    The Genesis solar wind sample return mission spacecraft was launched with 271 whole and 30 half hexagonally-shaped collectors. At 65 cm2 per hexagon, the total collection area was 18,600 cm2. These 301 collectors were comprised of 9 materials mounted on 5 arrays, each of which was exposed to a specific regime of the solar wind. Thoughtfully, collectors exposed to a specific regime were made of a unique thickness: bulk solar wind (700 μm thick), transient solar wind associated with coronal mass ejection (650 μm), high speed solar wind from coronal holes (600 μm), and interstream low-speed solar wind (550 μm). Thus, it is easy to distinguish the solar wind regime sampled by measuring the fragment thickness. Nearly 10,000 fragments have been enumerated, constituting about 20% of the total area. The sapphire-based hexagons survived better than the silicon hexagons as seen in the percent pre-flight whole collectors compared to the percent of recovered fragments in 10 to 25 mm size range. Silicon-based collectors accounted for 57% of the hexagons flown but 18% of the recovered fragments. However, a) gold coating on sapphire accounted for 12% flown and 27% of the recovered; b) aluminum coating on sapphire for 9% flown and 25% of the recovered; c) silicon coating on sapphire for 7% flown and 18% of the recovered; and d) sapphire for 7% flown and 10% of the recovered. Due to the design of the array frames, many of the recovered fragments were trapped in baffles very near their original location and were relatively protected from outside debris. Collector fragments are coated with particulate debris, and there is evidence that a thin molecular film was deposited on collector surfaces during flight. Therefore, in addition to allocations distributed for solar wind science analysis, poorer quality samples have been used in specimen cleaning tests.

  9. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  10. Modeling, Simulation, and Control of a Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle in Near-Earth Vicinity Including Solar Array Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzberger, Kevin (Inventor); Hojnicki, Jeffery (Inventor); Manzella, David (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and control software that integrates the complexities of solar array models, a space environment, and an electric propulsion system into a rigid body vehicle simulation and control model is provided. A rigid body vehicle simulation of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle may be created using at least one solar array model, at least one model of a space environment, and at least one model of a SEP propulsion system. Power availability and thrust profiles may be determined based on the rigid body vehicle simulation as the SEP vehicle transitions from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a higher orbit or trajectory. The power availability and thrust profiles may be displayed such that a user can use the displayed power availability and thrust profiles to determine design parameters for an SEP vehicle mission.

  11. Atomic Oxygen Exposure of Polyimide Foam for International Space Station Solar Array Wing Blanket Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Albyn, K. C.; Watts, E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Onorbit photos of the International Space Station (ISS) solar array blanket box foam pad assembly indicate degradation of the Kapton film covering the foam, leading to atomic oxygen (AO) exposure of the foam. The purpose of this test was to determine the magnitude of particulate generation caused by low-Earth orbital environment exposure of the foam and also by compression of the foam during solar array wing retraction. The polyimide foam used in the ISS solar array wing blanket box assembly is susceptible to significant AO erosion. The foam sample in this test lost one-third of its mass after exposure to the equivalent of 22 mo onorbit. Some particulate was generated by exposure to simulated orbital conditions and the simulated solar array retraction (compression test). However, onorbit, these particles would also be eroded by AO. The captured particles were generally <1 mm, and the particles shaken free of the sample had a maximum size of 4 mm. The foam sample maintained integrity after a compression load of 2.5 psi.

  12. The concentration principle applied to spaceborne solar arrays. Application to the coorbiting platform mission: Studies synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laget, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies that led to selection of the distributed concentration biplane concept for the solar cell generator to be flown on the coorbiting platform mission, and the major characteristics of such a spaceborne solar array are summarized. It is concluded that there is not a considerable interest in concentration either for array area reduction or cost reduction, although improvements of 15% for both domains are feasible. Only predevelopment activities to verify concentrator performances and system studies to assess respective importance of cost and area saving may increase the level of interest of concentrator solar arrays for this kind of mission.

  13. Flight performance of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Powe, J. S.; Smith, Marcie

    1987-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) solar panel power output capability has degraded much more severely than has the power output capability of solar panels that have operated in earth-orbiting spacecraft for comparable periods of time. The incidence of solar proton events recorded by the spacecraft's scientific instruments accounts for this phenomenon only in part. It cannot explain two specific forms of anomalous behavior observed: 1) a variation of output per spin with roll angle, and 2) a gradual degradation of the maximum output. Analysis indicates that the most probable cause of the first anomaly is that the solar cells underneath the spacecraft's magnetometer boom have been damaged by a reverse biasing of the cells that occurs during pulsed shadowing of the cells by the boom as the spacecraft rotates. The second anomaly might be caused by the effects on the solar array of substances from the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  14. Surface voltage gradient role in high voltage solar array-plasma interaction: Center Director's discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A large amount of experimental and analytical effort has been directed toward understanding the plasma sheath growth and discharge phenomena which lead to high voltage solar array-space plasma interactions. An important question which has not been addressed is how the surface voltage gradient on such an array may affect these interactions. The results of this study indicate that under certain conditions, the voltage gradient should be taken into account when evaluating the effect on a solar array operating in a plasma environment.

  15. Design and development of a brushless, direct drive solar array reorientation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessee, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    This report covers the design and development of the laboratory model, and is essentially a compilation of reports covering the system and its various parts. To enhance completeness, the final report of Phase 1 covering circuit development of the controller is also included. A controller was developed for a brushless, direct-drive, single axis solar array reorientation system for earth-pointed, passively-stabilized spacecraft. A control systems was designed and breadboard circuits were built and tested for performance. The controller is designed to take over automatic control of the array on command after the spacecraft is stabilized in orbit. The controller will orient the solar array to the sun vector and automatically track to maintain proper orientation. So long as the orbit is circular, orientation toward the sun is maintained even though the spacecraft goes into the shadow of the earth. Particular attention was given in the design to limit reaction between the array and the spacecraft.

  16. Integrated dynamic analysis simulation of space stations with controllable solar arrays (supplemental data and analyses)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrichs, J. A.; Fee, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Space station and solar array data and the analyses which were performed in support of the integrated dynamic analysis study. The analysis methods and the formulated digital simulation were developed. Control systems for space station altitude control and solar array orientation control include generic type control systems. These systems have been digitally coded and included in the simulation.

  17. HST Solar Arrays photographed by Electronic Still Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This close-up view of one of two Solar Arrays (SA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC), and downlinked to ground controllers soon afterward. Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  18. Optimal Space Station solar array gimbal angle determination via radial basis function neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Daniel J.; Oezguener, Uemit; Graham, Ronald E.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for excessive plume impingement loads on Space Station Freedom solar arrays, caused by jet firings from an approaching Space Shuttle, is addressed. An artificial neural network is designed to determine commanded solar array beta gimbal angle for minimum plume loads. The commanded angle would be determined dynamically. The network design proposed involves radial basis functions as activation functions. Design, development, and simulation of this network design are discussed.

  19. Final Technical Report, City of Brockton Solar Brightfield: Deploying a Solar Array on a Brockton Brownfield

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Lori

    The City of Brockton, Massachusetts sought to install New England’s largest solar array at a remediated brownfield site on Grove Street. The 425-kilowatt solar photovoltaic array – or “Brightfield” – was installed in an urban park setting along with interpretive displays to maximize the educational opportunities. The “Brightfield” project included 1,395 310-Watt solar panels connected in “strings” that span the otherwise unusable 3.7-acre site. The project demonstrated that it is both technically and economically feasible to install utility scale solar photovoltaics on a capped landfill site. The US Department of Energy conceived the Brightfields program in 2000, and Brockton’s Brightfieldmore » is the largest such installation nationwide. Brockton’s project demonstrated that while it was both technically and economically feasible to perform such a project, the implementation was extremely challenging due to the state policy barriers, difficulty obtaining grant funding, and level of sophistication required to perform the financing and secure required state approvals. This demonstration project can be used as a model for other communities that wish to implement “Brownfields to Brightfields” projects; 2) implementing utility scale solar creates economies of scale that can help to decrease costs of photovoltaics; 3) the project is an aesthetic, environmental, educational and economic asset for the City of Brockton.« less

  20. High-voltage Array Ground Test for Direct-drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Development is underway on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for direct drive electric propulsion. These SLA performance attributes closely match the critical needs of solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems, which may be used for "space tugs" to fuel-efficiently transport cargo from low earth orbit (LEO) to low lunar orbit (LLO), in support of NASA s robotic and human exploration missions. Later SEP systems may similarly transport cargo from the earth-moon neighborhood to the Mars neighborhood. This paper will describe the SLA SEP technology, discuss ground tests already completed, and present plans for future ground tests and future flight tests of SLA SEP systems.

  1. Assessment of SEPS solar array technology for orbital service module application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Work performed in the following assessment areas on the SEPS solar array is reported: (1) requirements definition, (2) electrical design evaluation, (3) mechanical design evaluation, and (4) design modification analysis. General overall assessment conclusions are summarized. There are no known serious design limitations involved in the implementation of the recommended design modifications. A section of orbiter and array engineering drawings is included.

  2. Using the sun analog sensor (SAS) data to investigate solar array yoke motion on the GOES-8 and -9 spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phenneger, Milton; Knack, Jennifer L.

    1996-10-01

    The GOES-8 and -9 Sun analog sensor (SAS) flight data is analyzed to evaluate the attitude motion environment of payloads mounted on the solar array. The work was performed in part to extend analysis in progress to support the solar x-ray imager to be flown on the GOES-M. The SAS is a two axis sensor mounted on the x-ray sensor pointing (XRP) module to measure the east/west error angle between the SUn and the solar array normal and to provide a north south error angle for automatic solar pointing of the x-ray sensor by the XRP. The goal was to search for evidence of solar array vibrational modes in the 2 Hz and 0.5 Hz range and to test the predicted amplitudes. The results show that the solar array rotates at the rate of the mean Sun with unexpected oscillation periods of 5.6 minutes, 90 minutes, and 1440 minutes originating from the two 16.1 gear drive train stages between the solar array drive stepper motor and the solar array yoke. The higher frequency oscillations are detected as random noise at the 1/16 Hz telemetry sampling rate of the SAS. This supports the preflight predictions for the high frequency modes but provide s no detailed measurement of the frequency as expected for this data period. In addition to this the data indicates that the solar array is responding unexpectedly to GOES imager instrument blackbody calibration events.

  3. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  4. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSoucie, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans/initial results.

  5. Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays for efficient perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xinlian; Wang, Yanqing; Cui, Zhendong; Li, Long; Shi, Chengwu

    2018-05-01

    To improve the electron transportation in TiO2 nanorod arrays and charge separation in the interface of TiO2/perovskite, Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 200 nm, diameter of 11 nm and areal density of 1050 μm-2 were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and the influence of Y/Ti molar ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% in the hydrothermal grown solutions on the growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays was investigated. The results revealed that the appropriate Y/Ti molar ratios can increase the areal density of the corresponding TiO2 nanorod arrays and improve the charge separation in the interface of the TiO2/perovskite. The Y-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells with the Y/Ti molar ratio of 3% exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.11% along with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 22.50 mA cm-2 and fill factor (FF) of 76.16%, while the un-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells gave a PCE of 16.42% along with Voc of 1.04 V, Jsc of 21.66 mA cm-2 and FF of 72.97%.

  6. Polyoxometalate-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode materials for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Sun, Zhixia; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Xu, Lin; Li, Na

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we prepared for the first time the TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) photoanode with polyoxometalate(POMs)-modified TiO2 electron-transport layer for improving the performance of zinc phthalocyanine(ZnPc)-sensitized solar cells. The as-prepared POMs/TNAs/ZnPc composite photoanode exhibited higher photovoltaic performances than the TNAs/ZnPc photoanode, so that the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device based on the POMs/TNAs/ZnPc photoanode displayed a notable improvement of 45%. These results indicated that the POMs play a key role in reducing charge recombination in phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells, together with TiO2 nanotube arrays being helpful for electron transport. The mechanism of the performance improvement was demonstrated by the measurements of electrochemical impedance spectra and open-circuit voltage decay curves. Although the resulting performance is still below that of the state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cells, this study presents a new insight into improving the power conversion efficiency of phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells via polyoxometalate-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode.

  7. Studies of encapsulant materials for terrestrial solar-cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, D. C. (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    Study 1 of this contract is entitled ""Evaluation of World Experience and Properties of Materials for Encapsulation of Terrestrial Solar-Cell Arrays.'' The approach of this study is to review and analyze world experience and to compile data on properties of encapsulants for photovoltaic cells and for related applications. The objective of the effort is to recommend candidate materials and processes for encapsulating terrestrial photovoltaic arrays at low cost for a service life greater than 20 years. The objectives of Study 2, ""Definition of Encapsulant Service Environments and Test Conditions,'' are to develop the climatic/environmental data required to define the frequency and duration of detrimental environmental conditions in a 20-year array lifetime and to develop a corresponding test schedule for encapsulant systems.

  8. Modeling of parasitic current collection by solar arrays in low-earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, V.A.; Gardner, B.M.; Guidice, D.A.

    1996-11-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a model of the electron current collected by solar arrays from the ionospheric plasma. This model will assist spacecraft designers in minimizing the impact of plasma interactions on spacecraft operations as they move to higher-voltage solar arrays. The model was developed by first examining in detail the physical processes of importance and then finding an analytic fit to the results over the parameter range of interest. The analytic model is validated by comparison with flight data from the Photovoltaic Array for Space Power Plus diagnostics (PASP Plus) flight experiment [D. A. Guidice,more » 34{ital th} {ital Aerospace} {ital Sciences} {ital Meeting} {ital and} {ital Exhibit}, Reno, NV, 1996, AIAA 96-0926 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, DC, 1996)]. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  9. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  10. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  11. High Current ESD Test of Advanced Triple Junction Solar Array Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie

    2015-01-01

    A test was conducted on an Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) coupon that was part of a risk reduction effort in the development of a high-powered solar array design by SSL. The ATJ coupon was a small, 4-cell, two-string configuration that has served as the basic test coupon design used in previous SSL environmental aging campaigns. The coupon has many attributes of the flight design; e.g., substrate structure with graphite face sheets, integrated by-pass diodes, cell interconnects, RTV grout, wire routing, etc. The objective of the present test was to evaluate the performance of the coupon after being subjected to induced electrostatic discharge testing at two string voltages (100 V, 150 V) and four array current (1.65 A, 2.0 A, 2.475 A, and 3.3 A). An ESD test circuit, unique to SSL solar array design, was built that simulates the effect of missing cells and strings in a full solar panel with special primary arc flashover circuitry. A total of 73 primary arcs were obtained that included 7 temporary sustained arcs (TSA) events. The durations of the TSAs ranged from 50 micros to 2.9 ms. All TSAs occurred at a string voltage of 150 V. Post-test Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS), Dark I-V, and By-Pass Diode tests showed that no degradation occurred due to the TSA events. In addition, the post-test insulation resistance measured was > 50 G-ohms between cells and substrate. These test results indicate a robust design for application to a high-current, high-power mission application.

  12. High Current ESD Test of Advanced Triple Junction Solar Array Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H.; Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Hoang, B.; Wong, F.

    2014-01-01

    A test was conducted on an Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) coupon that was part of a risk reduction effort in the development of a high-powered solar array design by SSL. The ATJ coupon was a small, 4-cell, two-string configuration that has served as the basic test coupon design used in previous SSL environmental aging campaigns. The coupon has many attributes of the flight design; e.g., substrate structure with graphite face sheets, integrated by-pass diodes, cell interconnects, RTV grout, wire routing, etc. The objective of the present test was to evaluate the performance of the coupon after being subjected to induced electrostatic discharge testing at two string voltages (100 V, 150 V) and four array current (1.65 A, 2.0 A, 2.475 A, and 3.3 A). An ESD test circuit, unique to SSL solar array design, was built that simulates the effect of missing cells and strings in a full solar panel with special primary arc flashover circuitry. A total of 73 primary arcs were obtained that included 7 temporary sustained arcs (TSA) events. The durations of the TSAs ranged from 50 µs to 2.9 ms. All TSAs occurred at a string voltage of 150 V. Post-test Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS), Dark I-V, and By-Pass Diode tests showed that no degradation occurred due to the TSA events. In addition, the post-test insulation resistance measured was > 50 G-ohms between cells and substrate. These test results indicate a robust design for application to a high-current, high-power mission application.

  13. Solar Array Mast Imagery Discussion for ISIW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgo, Gary

    2017-01-01

    SAW Mast inspection background: In 2012, NASA's Flight Safety Office requested the Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) office determine the probability of damage to the Solar Array Wing (SAW) mast based on the exposure over the life time of the ISS program. As part of the risk mitigation of the potential MMOD strikes. ISS Program office along with the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) began developing methods for imaging the structural components of the Mast.

  14. Highly efficient and completely flexible fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Zhibin; Yu, Jiefeng; Wu, Hongwei; Shang, Jian; Wang, Dan; Hou, Shaocong; Fu, Yongping; Wu, Kai; Zou, Dechun

    2012-02-01

    A type of highly efficient completely flexible fiber-shaped solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube array is successfully prepared. Under air mass 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) illumination conditions, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell approaches 7%, the highest among all fiber-shaped cells based on TiO2 nanotube arrays and the first completely flexible fiber-shaped DSSC. The fiber-shaped solar cell demonstrates good flexibility, which makes it suitable for modularization using weaving technologies.A type of highly efficient completely flexible fiber-shaped solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube array is successfully prepared. Under air mass 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) illumination conditions, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell approaches 7%, the highest among all fiber-shaped cells based on TiO2 nanotube arrays and the first completely flexible fiber-shaped DSSC. The fiber-shaped solar cell demonstrates good flexibility, which makes it suitable for modularization using weaving technologies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11532h

  15. View of Solar Array Panels taken during Expedition 16

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-09

    ISS016-E-015496 (9 Dec. 2007) --- Solar array panels of the International Space Station are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 16 crewmember (out of frame) from a window on the station. The blackness of space and airglow of Earth's horizon provide the backdrop for the scene.

  16. Closed Loop solar array-ion thruster system with power control circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, R. P. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A power control circuit connected between a solar array and an ion thruster receives voltage and current signals from the solar array. The control circuit multiplies the voltage and current signals together to produce a power signal which is differentiated with respect to time. The differentiator output is detected by a zero crossing detector and, after suitable shaping, the detector output is phase compared with a clock in a phase demodulator. An integrator receives no output from the phase demodulator when the operating point is at the maximum power but is driven toward the maximum power point for non-optimum operation. A ramp generator provides minor variations in the beam current reference signal produced by the integrator in order to obtain the first derivative of power.

  17. Modeling and Flight Data Analysis of Spacecraft Dynamics with a Large Solar Array Paddle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Takanori; Maeda, Ken; Hoshino, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24 2006 and has been operated successfully since then. This satellite has the attitude dynamics characterized by three large flexible structures, four large moving components, and stringent attitude/pointing stability requirements. In particular, it has one of the largest solar array paddles. Presented in this paper are flight data analyses and modeling of spacecraft attitude motion induced by the large solar array paddle. On orbit attitude dynamics was first characterized and summarized. These characteristic motions associated with the solar array paddle were identified and assessed. These motions are thermally induced motion, the pitch excitation by the paddle drive, and the role excitation. The thermally induced motion and the pitch excitation by the paddle drive were modeled and simulated to verify the mechanics of the motions. The control law updates implemented to mitigate the attitude vibrations are also reported.

  18. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introducemore » quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.« less

  19. TESS Spacecraft Solar Panel Array Deployment Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-21

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at the NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, one of the solar panels is being deployed on the agency's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Technicians are preparing to deploy the second solar array. The satellite is scheduled to launch atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. TESS is the next step in NASA's search for planets outside our solar system, known as exoplanets. TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission led and operated by MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Dr. George Ricker of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research serves as principal investigator for the mission. Additional partners include Orbital ATK, NASA’s Ames Research Center, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Space Telescope Science Institute. More than a dozen universities, research institutes and observatories worldwide are participants in the mission. NASA’s Launch Services Program is responsible for launch management.

  20. Advanced Thin Film Solar Arrays for Space: The Terrestrial Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne; Flood, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    As in the case for single crystal solar cells, the first serious thin film solar cells were developed for space applications with the promise of better power to weight ratios and lower cost. Future science, military, and commercial space missions are incredibly diverse. Military and commercial missions encompass both hundreds of kilowatt arrays to tens of watt arrays in various earth orbits. While science missions also have small to very large power needs there are additional unique requirements to provide power for near sun missions and planetary exploration including orbiters, landers, and rovers both to the inner planets and the outer planets with a major emphasis in the near term on Mars. High power missions are particularly attractive for thin film utilization. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the Moon or Mars, space based lasers or radar, or large Earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or potentially beaming power to the Earth itself. This paper will discuss the current state of the art of thin film solar cells and the synergy with terrestrial thin film photovoltaic evolution. It will also address some of the technology development issues required to make thin film photovoltaics a viable choice for future space power systems.

  1. Design of DSP-based high-power digital solar array simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Zhilong; Tong, Weichao; Feng, Jian; Ji, Yibo

    2013-12-01

    To satisfy rigid performance specifications, a feedback control was presented for zoom optical lens plants. With the increasing of global energy consumption, research of the photovoltaic(PV) systems get more and more attention. Research of the digital high-power solar array simulator provides technical support for high-power grid-connected PV systems research.This paper introduces a design scheme of the high-power digital solar array simulator based on TMS320F28335. A DC-DC full-bridge topology was used in the system's main circuit. The switching frequency of IGBT is 25kHz.Maximum output voltage is 900V. Maximum output current is 20A. Simulator can be pre-stored solar panel IV curves.The curve is composed of 128 discrete points .When the system was running, the main circuit voltage and current values was feedback to the DSP by the voltage and current sensors in real-time. Through incremental PI,DSP control the simulator in the closed-loop control system. Experimental data show that Simulator output voltage and current follow a preset solar panels IV curve. In connection with the formation of high-power inverter, the system becomes gridconnected PV system. The inverter can find the simulator's maximum power point and the output power can be stabilized at the maximum power point (MPP).

  2. MIR Solar Array Return Experiment: Power Performance Measurements and Molecular Contamination Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James; Kinard, William; Brinker, David; Scheiman, David; Banks, Bruce; Albyn, Keith; Hornung, Steve; See, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A solar array segment was recently removed from the Mir core module and returned for ground-based analysis. The segment, which is similar to the ones the Russians have provided for the FGB and Service Modules, was microscopically examined and disassembled by US and Russian science teams. Laboratory analyses have shown the segment to he heavily contaminated by an organic silicone coating, which was converted to an organic silicate film by reactions with atomic oxygen within the. orbital flight environment. The source of the contaminant was a silicone polymer used by the Russians as an adhesive and bonding agent during segment construction. During its life cycle, the array experienced a reduction in power performance from approx. 12%, when it was new and first deployed, to approx. 5%, when it was taken out of service. However, current-voltage measurements of three contaminated cells and three pristine, Russian standard cells have shown that very little degradation in solar array performance was due to the silicate contaminants on the solar cell surfaces. The primary sources of performance degradation is attributed to "thermal hot-spotting" or electrical arcing; orbital debris and micrometeoroid impacts; and possibly to the degradation of the solar cells and interconnects caused by radiation damage from high energy protons and electrons.

  3. HST Solar Arrays photographed by Electronic Still Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view, backdropped against the blackness of space shows one of two original Solar Arrays (SA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The scene was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC), and downlinked to ground controllers soon afterward. Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  4. Thermal Performance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array-3 During the Disturbance Verification Test (DVT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Daniel H.; Skladany, Lynn M.; Prats, Benito D.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is one of NASA's most productive astronomical observatories. Launched in 1990, the HST continues to gather scientific data to help scientists around the world discover amazing wonders of the universe. To maintain HST in the fore front of scientific discoveries, NASA has routinely conducted servicing missions to refurbish older equipment as well as to replace existing scientific instruments with better, more powerful instruments. In early 2002, NASA will conduct its fourth servicing mission to the HST. This servicing mission is named Servicing Mission 3B (SM3B). During SM3B, one of the major refurbishment efforts will be to install new rigid-panel solar arrays as a replacement for the existing flexible-foil solar arrays. This is necessary in order to increase electrical power availability for the new scientific instruments. Prior to installing the new solar arrays on HST, the HST project must be certain that the new solar arrays will not cause any performance degradations to the observatory. One of the major concerns is any disturbance that can cause pointing Loss of Lock (LOL) for the telescope. While in orbit, the solar-array temperature transitions quickly from sun to shadow. The resulting thermal expansion and contraction can cause a "mechanical disturbance" which may result in LOL. To better characterize this behavior, a test was conducted at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Large Space Simulator (LSS) thermal-vacuum chamber. In this test, the Sun simulator was used to simulate on-orbit effects on the solar arrays. This paper summarizes the thermal performance of the Solar Array-3 (SA3) during the Disturbance Verification Test (DVT). The test was conducted between 26 October 2000 and 30 October 2000. Included in this paper are: (1) brief description of the SA3's components and its thermal design; (2) a summary of the on-orbit temperature predictions; (3) pretest thermal preparations; (4) a

  5. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    In 1987, our consortium pioneered the application of normal incidence multilayer X-ray optics to solar physics by obtaining the first high resolution narrow band, "thermally differentiated" images of the corona', using the emissions of the Fe IX/Fe X complex at ((lambda)lambda) approx. 171 A to 175 A, and He II Lyman (beta) at 256 A. Subsequently, we developed a rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) that pioneered multi-thermal imaging of the solar atmosphere, using high resolution narrow band X-ray, EUV and FUV optical systems. Analysis of MSSTA observations has resulted in four significant insights into the structure of the solar atmosphere: (1) the diameter of coronal loops is essentially constant along their length; (2) models of the thermal and density structure of polar plumes based on MSSTA observations have been shown to be consistent with the thesis that they are the source of high speed solar wind streams; (3) the magnetic structure of the footpoints of polar plumes is monopolar, and their thermal structure is consistent with the thesis that the chromosphere at their footpoints is heated by conduction from above; (4) coronal bright points are small loops, typically 3,500 - 20,000 km long (5 sec - 30 sec); their footpoints are located at the poles of bipolar magnetic structures that are are distinguished from other network elements by having a brighter Lyman a signature. Loop models derived for 26 bright points are consistent with the thesis that the chromosphere at their footpoints is heated by conduction from the corona.

  6. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L. Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M.; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M. Collins, Leslie; G. Newell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment. PMID:27922592

  7. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M Collins, Leslie; G Newell, Richard

    2016-12-06

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  8. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L. Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M.; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M. Collins, Leslie; G. Newell, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  9. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  10. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  11. Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver. [Improving Electrical Power and Communication Capabilities in Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) project will leverage several existing and on-going efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the design, development, fabrication, and test of a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaics for power generation and antenna elements for communication, are embedded. Photovoltaics is a method for converting solar energy into electricity using semiconductor materials. The system will provide higher power generation with a lower mass, smaller stowage volume, and lower cost than the state of the art solar arrays, while simultaneously enabling deployable antenna concepts.

  12. Parasitic current collection by PASP Plus solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Victoria Ann; Gardner, Barbara M.

    1995-01-01

    Solar cells at potentials positive with respect to a surrounding plasma collect electrons. Current is collected by the exposed high voltage surfaces: the interconnects and the sides of the solar cells. This current is a drain on the array power that can be significant for high-power arrays. In addition, this current influences the current balance that determines the floating potential of the spacecraft. One of the objectives of the Air Force (PL/GPS) PASP Plus (Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics) experiment is an improved understanding fo parasitic current collection. We have done computer modeling of parasitic current collection and have examined current collection flight data from the first year of operations. Prior to the flight we did computer modeling to improve our understanding of the physical processes that control parasitic current collection. At high potentials, the current rapidly rises due to a phenomenon called snapover. Under snapover conditions, the equilibrium potential distribution across the dielectric surface is such that part of the area is at potentials greater than the first crossover of the secondary yield curve. Therefore, each incident electron generates more than one secondary electron. The net effect is that the high potential area and the collecting area increase. We did two-dimensional calculations for the various geometries to be flown. The calculations span the space of anticipated plasma conditions, applied potential, and material parameters. We used the calculations and early flight data to develop an analytic formula for the dependence of the current on the primary problem variables. The analytic formula was incorporated into the EPSAT computer code. EPSAT allows us to easily extend the results to other conditions. PASP Plus is the principal experiment integrated onto the Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiments (APEX) satellite bus. The experiment is testing twelve different solar array designs. Parasitic

  13. Transparent, conformable, active multielectrode array using organic electrochemical transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonryung; Kim, Dongmin; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Nagase, Masae; Sekino, Masaki; Malliaras, George G; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Someya, Takao

    2017-10-03

    Mechanically flexible active multielectrode arrays (MEA) have been developed for local signal amplification and high spatial resolution. However, their opaqueness limited optical observation and light stimulation during use. Here, we show a transparent, ultraflexible, and active MEA, which consists of transparent organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and transparent Au grid wirings. The transparent OECT is made of Au grid electrodes and has shown comparable performance with OECTs with nontransparent electrodes/wirings. The transparent active MEA realizes the spatial mapping of electrocorticogram electrical signals from an optogenetic rat with 1-mm spacing and shows lower light artifacts than noise level. Our active MEA would open up the possibility of precise investigation of a neural network system with direct light stimulation.

  14. Age Induced Effects on ESD Characteristics of Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2012-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons provided by Space Systems/Loral were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined space environment exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is performing electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels [ISO-11221]. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of four cells constructed to form two strings. The ESD tests were performed at the beginning-of-life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point until end-of-life (EOL) at 15 years. The space environmental exposure sequence consisted of ultra-violet radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and Xenon ion thruster plume erosion. This paper describes the ESD test setup and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Arc inception voltage results along with ESD test behavior from the BOL condition through the 15th year age condition are discussed. In addition, results from a Xenon plasma plume exposure test with an EOL coupon under the full ESD test condition will be discussed.

  15. Integrated dynamic analysis simulation of space stations with controllable solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrichs, J. A.; Fee, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology is formulated and presented for the integrated structural dynamic analysis of space stations with controllable solar arrays and non-controllable appendages. The structural system flexibility characteristics are considered in the dynamic analysis by a synthesis technique whereby free-free space station modal coordinates and cantilever appendage coordinates are inertially coupled. A digital simulation of this analysis method is described and verified by comparison of interaction load solutions with other methods of solution. Motion equations are simulated for both the zero gravity and artificial gravity (spinning) orbital conditions. Closed loop controlling dynamics for both orientation control of the arrays and attitude control of the space station are provided in the simulation by various generic types of controlling systems. The capability of the simulation as a design tool is demonstrated by utilizing typical space station and solar array structural representations and a specific structural perturbing force. Response and interaction load solutions are presented for this structural configuration and indicate the importance of using an integrated type analysis for the predictions of structural interactions.

  16. Space Station on-orbit solar array loads during assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofranian, S.; Fujii, E.; Larson, C. R.

    This paper is concerned with the closed-loop dynamic analysis of on-orbit maneuvers when the Space Shuttle is fully mated to the Space Station Freedom. A flexible model of the Space Station in the form of component modes is attached to a rigid orbiter and on-orbit maneuvers are performed using the Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System jets. The traditional approach for this type of problems is to perform an open-loop analysis to determine the attitude control system jet profiles based on rigid vehicles and apply the resulting profile to a flexible Space Station. In this study a closed-loop Structure/Control model was developed in the Dynamic Analysis and Design System (DADS) program and the solar array loads were determined for single axis maneuvers with various delay times between jet firings. It is shown that the Digital Auto Pilot jet selection is affected by Space Station flexibility. It is also shown that for obtaining solar array loads the effect of high frequency modes cannot be ignored.

  17. High Current ESD Test of Advanced Triple Junction Solar Array Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Testing was conducted on an Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) coupon that was part of a risk reduction effort in the development of a high-powered solar array design by Space Systems/Loral, LLC (SSL). The ATJ coupon was a small, 4-cell, two-string configuration that has served as the basic test coupon design used in previous SSL environmental aging campaigns. The coupon has many attributes of the flight design; e.g., substrate structure with graphite face sheets, integrated by-pass diodes, cell interconnects, RTV grout, wire routing, etc. The objective of the present test was to evaluate the performance of the coupon after being subjected to induced electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing at two string voltages (100 V, 150 V) and four array currents (1.65 A, 2.0 A, 2.475 A, and 3.3 A). An ESD test circuit, unique to SSL solar array design, was built that simulates the effect of missing cells and strings in a full solar panel with special primary arc flashover circuitry. A total of 73 primary arcs were obtained that included 7 temporary sustained arcs (TSA) events. The durations of the TSAs ranged from 50 micro-seconds to 2.75 milli-seconds. All TSAs occurred at a string voltage of 150 V. Post-test Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS), Dark I-V, and By-Pass Diode tests showed that no degradation occurred due to the TSA events. In addition, the post-test insulation resistance measured was > 50 G-ohms between cells and substrate. These test results indicate a robust design for application to a high-current, high-power mission.

  18. Hubble Space telescope thermal cycle test report for large solar array samples with BSFR cells (Sample numbers 703 and 704)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble space telescope (HST) solar array was designed to meet specific output power requirements after 2 years in low-Earth orbit, and to remain operational for 5 years. The array, therefore, had to withstand 30,000 thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. The ability of the array to meet this requirement was evaluated by thermal cycle testing, in vacuum, two 128-cell solar cell modules that exactly duplicated the flight HST solar array design. Also, the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit was evaluated by performing a cold-roll test using one module.

  19. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOEpatents

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  20. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University assist in guiding the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) as it is hoisted over a platform for solar array installation in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The ACE observatory will contribute to the understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  1. Reduction of solar vector magnetograph data using a microMSP array processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kineke, Jack

    1990-01-01

    The processing of raw data obtained by the solar vector magnetograph at NASA-Marshall requires extensive arithmetic operations on large arrays of real numbers. The objectives of this summer faculty fellowship study are to: (1) learn the programming language of the MicroMSP Array Processor and adapt some existing data reduction routines to exploit its capabilities; and (2) identify other applications and/or existing programs which lend themselves to array processor utilization which can be developed by undergraduate student programmers under the provisions of project JOVE.

  2. Current Results From The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper continues the status reporting of the ultralightweight flexible blanket, flatpack, foldout solar array testbed wing that was presented at the previous Meeting. The test bed wing has been built and subjected to a variety of critical functional tests after exposure to simulated launch environments.

  3. On the thermoelastic analysis of solar cell arrays and related material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, M. A.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    Accurate prediction of failure of solar cell arrays requires accuracy in the computation of thermally induced stresses. This was accomplished by using the finite element technique. Improved procedures for stress calculation were introduced together with failure criteria capable of describing a wide range of ductile and brittle material behavior. The stress distribution and associated failure mechanisms in the N-interconnect junction of two solar cell designs were then studied. In such stress and failure analysis, it is essential to know the thermomechanical properties of the materials involved. Measurements were made of properties of materials suitable for the design of lightweight arrays: microsheet-0211 glass material for the solar cell filter, and Kapton-H, Kapton F, Teflon, Tedlar, and Mica Ply PG-402 for lightweight substrates. The temperature-dependence of the thermal coefficient of expansion for these materials was determined together with other properties such as the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, and the stress-strain behavior up to failure.

  4. Reliability apportionment approach for spacecraft solar array using fuzzy reasoning Petri net and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Xie, Liyang; Gao, Peng

    2012-07-01

    The reliability apportionment of spacecraft solar array is of significant importance for spacecraft designers in the early stage of design. However, it is difficult to use the existing methods to resolve reliability apportionment problem because of the data insufficiency and the uncertainty of the relations among the components in the mechanical system. This paper proposes a new method which combines the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation with fuzzy reasoning Petri net (FRPN) to accomplish the reliability apportionment of the solar array. The proposed method extends the previous fuzzy methods and focuses on the characteristics of the subsystems and the intrinsic associations among the components. The analysis results show that the synchronization mechanism may obtain the highest reliability value and the solar panels and hinges may get the lowest reliability before design and manufacturing. Our developed method is of practical significance for the reliability apportionment of solar array where the design information has not been clearly identified, particularly in early stage of design.

  5. In-Space Structural Validation Plan for a Stretched-Lens Solar Array Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Jones, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes in-space structural validation plans for a proposed Space Shuttle-based flight experiment. The test article is an innovative, lightweight solar array concept that uses pop-up, refractive stretched-lens concentrators to achieve a power/mass density of at least 175 W/kg, which is more than three times greater than current capabilities. The flight experiment will validate this new technology to retire the risk associated with its first use in space. The experiment includes structural diagnostic instrumentation to measure the deployment dynamics, static shape, and modes of vibration of the 8-meter-long solar array and several of its lenses. These data will be obtained by photogrammetry using the Shuttle payload-bay video cameras and miniature video cameras on the array. Six accelerometers are also included in the experiment to measure base excitations and small-amplitude tip motions.

  6. Highly efficient ultrathin-film amorphous silicon solar cells on top of imprinted periodic nanodot arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Wensheng, E-mail: yws118@gmail.com; Gu, Min, E-mail: mgu@swin.edu.au; Tao, Zhikuo

    2015-03-02

    The addressing of the light absorption and conversion efficiency is critical to the ultrathin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. We systematically investigate ultrathin a-Si:H solar cells with a 100 nm absorber on top of imprinted hexagonal nanodot arrays. Experimental evidences are demonstrated for not only notable silver nanodot arrays but also lower-cost ITO and Al:ZnO nanodot arrays. The measured external quantum efficiency is explained by the simulation results. The J{sub sc} values are 12.1, 13.0, and 14.3 mA/cm{sup 2} and efficiencies are 6.6%, 7.5%, and 8.3% for ITO, Al:ZnO, and silver nanodot arrays, respectively. Simulated optical absorption distribution shows high lightmore » trapping within amorphous silicon layer.« less

  7. Solar Array Panels With Dust-Removal Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Stephen; Mardesich, Nick; Spence, Brian; White, Steve

    2004-01-01

    It has been proposed to incorporate piezoelectric vibrational actuators into the structural supports of solar photovoltaic panels, for the purpose of occasionally inducing vibrations in the panels in order to loosen accumulated dust. Provided that the panels were tilted, the loosened dust would slide off under its own weight. Originally aimed at preventing obscuration of photovoltaic cells by dust accumulating in the Martian environment, the proposal may also offer an option for the design of solar photovoltaic panels for unattended operation at remote locations on Earth. The figure depicts a typical lightweight solar photovoltaic panel comprising a backside grid of structural spars that support a thin face sheet that, in turn, supports an array of photovoltaic cells on the front side. The backside structure includes node points where several spars intersect. According to the proposal, piezoelectric buzzers would be attached to the node points. The process of designing the panel would be an iterative one that would include computational simulation of the vibrations by use of finite- element analysis to guide the selection of the vibrational frequency of the actuators and the cross sections of the spars to maximize the agitation of dust.

  8. Low concentration ratio solar array structural configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbandian, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The design and structural properties of a low concentration ratio solar array are discussed. The assembled module consists of six interconnected containers which are compactly stowed in a volume of 3.24 m(3) for delivery to orbit by the shuttle. The containers deploy in accordian fashion into a rectangular area of 19.4 x 68 meters and can be attached to the user spacecraft along the longitudinal centerline of the end container housing. Five rotary incremental actuators requiring about 8 watts each will execute the 180-degree rotation at each joint. Deployable masts (three per side) are used to extend endcaps from the housing in both directions. Each direction is extended by three masts requiring about 780 watts for about 27 minutes. Concentrator elements are extended by the endcaps and are supported by cable systems that are connected between the housings and endcaps. These power generating elements contain reflector panels which concentrate light onto the solar panels consisting of an aluminum radiator with solar cells positioned within the element base formed by the reflectors. A flat wire harness collects the power output of individual elements for transfer to the module container housing harnesses.

  9. High power solar array switching regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.; Cassinelli, J.; Valgora, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that spacecraft utilization projections for the 1980s and beyond show a trend toward extended lifetimes and larger electric power systems. The need for improved power management and energy transfer arising in connection with this trend has resulted in the conduction of a Solar Array Switching Power Management study. A description is presented of initial development work performed in the study, taking into account the characteristics for three mission classes. Attention is given to the manned LEO platform (250-kW average load), the unmanned GEO platform (50-kW average load), and an ion propulsion orbit transfer vehicle (50- to 250 kW load).

  10. Conceptual approach study of a 200 watt per kilogram solar array, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayl, G. J.; Speight, K. M.; Stanhouse, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two alternative designs were studied; one a retractable rollout design and the other a nonretractable foldout configuration. An end of life (EOL) power for either design of 0.79 beginning of life (BOL) is predicted based on one solar flare during a 3 year interplanetary mission. Both array configurations incorporate the features of flexible substrates and cover sheets. A power capacity of 10 kilowatt is achieved in a blanket area of 76 sq m with an area utilization factor of 0.8. A single array consists of two identical solar cell blankets deployed concurrently by a single, coilable longeron boom. An out of plane angle of 8-1/4 deg is maintained between the two blankets so that the inherent inplane stiffness of the blankets may be used to obtain out of plane stiffness. This V-stiffened design results in a 67% reduction in the stiffness requirement for the boom. Since boom mass scales with stiffness, a lower requirement on boom stiffness results in a lower mass for the boom. These solar arrays are designed to be compatible with the shuttle launch environment and shuttle cargo bay size limitations.

  11. STS-120 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski Repairs ISS Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  12. STS-120 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski Repairs ISS Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  13. HST Solar Arrays photographed by Electronic Still Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This medium close-up view of one of two original Solar Arrays (SA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC), and downlinked to ground controllers soon afterward. This view shows the cell side of the minus V-2 panel. Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  14. Port side of the P6 Solar Array during the first attempt to retract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-13

    S116-E-05789 (13 Dec. 2006) --- This digital still image was taken by a crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery of a kink that occurred in the port-side P6 solar array during the first attempt to retract that array on Dec. 13. The crew later extended the array and cleared this kink. The slow retraction of the array was then begun again with similar retraction and extension cycles repeated as the day progressed.

  15. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    An ongoing preliminary design effort directed toward a low-concentration-ratio photovoltaic array system based on 1984 technology and capable of delivering multi-hundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 80 kW to 172 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pryamidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of 0.5 meters x 0.5 meters. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. The configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  16. Ultralow-mass solar-array designs for Halley's comet rendezvous mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Rayl, G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design study results of photovoltaic arrays capable of powering a Halley's comet rendezvous mission. This mission would be Shuttle-launched, employ a unique form of propulsion (ion drive) which requires high power levels for operation, and operate at distances between 0.6 and 4.5 AU. These requirements make it necessary to develop arrays with extremely high power-to-mass ratio (200 W/kg). In addition, the dual requirements of providing ion thruster power as well as housekeeping power leads to the development of unique methods for mode switching. Both planar and variable-concentrator-enhanced array concepts using ultrathin (50 micron) high-efficiency (up to 12.5%) silicon solar cells coupled with thin (75 micron) plastic encapsulants are considered. In order to satisfy the Shuttle launch environment it was necessary to provide novel methods of both storing and deploying these arrays.

  17. Light-trapping surface coating with concave arrays for efficiency enhancement in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daiming; Wang, Qingkang

    2018-08-01

    Light trapping is particularly important because of the desire to produce low-cost solar cells with the thinnest possible photoactive layers. Herein, along the research line of "optimization →fabrication →characterization →application", concave arrays were incorporated into amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell for lifting its photoelectric conversion efficiency. In advance, based on rigorous coupled wave analysis method, optics simulations were performed to obtain the optimal period of 10 μm for concave arrays. Microfabrication processes were used to etch concave arrays on glass, and nanoimprint was devoted to transfer the pattern onto polymer coatings with a high fidelity. Spectral characterizations prove that the concave-arrays coating enjoys excellent the light-trapping behaviors, by reducing the reflectance to 7.4% from 8.6% of bare glass and simultaneously allowing a high haze ratio of ∼ 70% in 350-800 nm. Compared with bare cell, the concave-arrays coating based amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell possesses the improving photovoltaic performances. Relative enhancements are 3.46% and 3.57% in short circuit current and photoelectric conversion efficiency, respectively. By the way, this light-trapping coating is facile, low-cost and large-scale, and can be straightforward introduced in other ready-made solar devices.

  18. Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Vertical ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays that are transferred onto ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates using a simple peel-off process. The solar cells demonstrate an energy conversion efficiency of 0.44% with good bending tolerance. This technique paves a new route for building large-scale cost-effective flexible photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:27502660

  19. The effect of solar array degradation on electric propulsion spacecraft performance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.; Bourke, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Current estimates of solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft performance are based upon a solar-array output power which is degraded by approximately 10-13% to account for possible losses caused by proton, electron and micrometeorite damage. Past studies have used a worst case analysis in which the maximum degradation was taken to occur at the beginning of the mission. This paper presents a comparison of mission studies using a hypothetical exponential decrease in power with time, with those using a sudden degradation of solar power. These comparisons indicate that the performance gain by using a time varying degradation during the mission is quite small for outbound missions in the solar system. In addition an indication of the power allocation strategy to be followed during a mission is presented.

  20. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W.; Mcdonald, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1975, the U.S. Government contracted the Jet Propulsion Lab. to develop, by 1985, in conjunction with industry, the photovoltaics (PV) module and array technology required for widespread use of photovoltaics as a significant terrestrial energy source. As a result, a project that eventually became known as the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was formed to manage an industry, university, and Government team to perform the necessary research and development. The original goals were to achieve widespread commercial use of PV modules and arrays through the development of technology that would allow them to be profitably sold for $1.07/peak watts (1985 dollars). A 10% module conversion efficiency and a 20 year lifetime were also goals. It is intended that the executive summary provide the means by which one can gain a perspective on 11 years of terrestrial photovoltaic research and development conducted by the FSA Project.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells with vertically aligned TiO2 nanowire arrays grown on carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2014-02-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) have received widespread attention from solar cell and related optoelectronics scientists. The controllable synthesis of ordered TNW arrays on arbitrary substrates would benefit both fundamental research and practical applications. Herein, vertically aligned TNW arrays in situ grown on carbon fiber (CF) substrates through a facile, controllable, and seed-assisted thermal process is presented. Also, hierarchical TiO2 -nanoparticle/TNW arrays were prepared that favor both the dye loading and depressed charge recombination of the CF/TNW photoanode. An impressive conversion efficiency of 2.48 % (under air mass 1.5 global illumination) and an apparent efficiency of 4.18 % (with a diffuse board) due to the 3D light harvesting of the wire solar cell were achieved. Moreover, efficient and inexpensive wire solar cells made from all-CF electrodes and completely flexible CF-based wire solar cells were demonstrated, taking into account actual application requirements. This work may provide an intriguing avenue for the pursuit of lightweight, cost-effective, and high-performance flexible/wearable solar cells. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Neural Network for Positioning Space Station Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Ronald E.; Lin, Paul P.

    1994-01-01

    As a shuttle approaches the Space Station Freedom for a rendezvous, the shuttle's reaction control jet firings pose a risk of excessive plume impingement loads on Freedom solar arrays. The current solution to this problem, in which the arrays are locked in a feathered position prior to the approach, may be neither accurate nor robust, and is also expensive. An alternative solution is proposed here: the active control of Freedom's beta gimbals during the approach, positioning the arrays dynamically in such a way that they remain feathered relative to the shuttle jet most likely to cause an impingement load. An artificial neural network is proposed as a means of determining the gimbal angles that would drive plume angle of attack to zero. Such a network would be both accurate and robust, and could be less expensive to implement than the current solution. A network was trained via backpropagation, and results, which compare favorably to the current solution as well as to some other alternatives, are presented. Other training options are currently being evaluated.

  3. Application of a silicon photodiode array for solar edge tracking in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. S.; Mayo, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) elevation sunsensor is described. This system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned, monolithic charge coupled device. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the HALOE science instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration, and then maintain the science IFOV four arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 0.7 micrometer operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability. The HALOE instrument is a gas correlation radiometer that is now being developed by NASA Langley Research Center for the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite.

  4. Point-Focus Concentration Compact Telescoping Array: Extreme Environments Solar Power Base Phase Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEachen, Michael E.; Murphy, Dave; Meinhold, Shen; Spink, Jim; Eskenazi, Mike; O'Neill, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Orbital ATK, in partnership with Mark ONeill LLC (MOLLC), has developed a novel solar array platform, PFC-CTA, which provides a significant advance in performance and cost reduction compared to all currently available space solar systems. PFC refers to the Point Focus Concentration of light provided by MOLLCs thin, flat Fresnel optics. These lenses focus light to a point of approximately 100 times the intensity of the ambient light, onto a solar cell of approximately 125th the size of the lens. CTA stands for Compact Telescoping Array, which is the solar array blanket structural platform originally devised by NASA and currently being advanced by Orbital ATK and partners under NASA and AFRL funding to a projected TRL 5+ by late-2018.The NASA Game Changing Development Extreme Environment Solar Power (EESP) Base Phase study has enabled Orbital ATK to refine component designs, perform component level and system performance analyses, and test prototype hardware of the key elements of PFC-CTA, and increased the TRL of PFC-specific technology elements to TRL 4. Key performance metrics currently projected are as follows: Scalability from 5 kW to 300 kW per wing (AM0); Specific Power 500 Wkg (AM0); Stowage Efficiency 100 kWm3; 5:1 margin on pointing tolerance vs. capability; 50 launched cost savings; Wide range of operability between Venus and Saturn by active andor passive thermal management.

  5. Multiscale Study of Plasmonic Scattering and Light Trapping Effect in Silicon Nanowire Array Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung

    2017-02-02

    Nanometallic structures that support surface plasmons provide new ways to confine light at deep-subwavelength scales. The effect of light scattering in nanowire array solar cells is studied by a multiscale approach combining classical electromagnetic (EM) and quantum mechanical simulations. A photovoltaic device is constructed by integrating a silicon nanowire array with a plasmonic silver nanosphere. The light scatterings by plasmonic element and nanowire array are obtained via classical EM simulations, while current-voltage characteristics and optical properties of the nanowire cells are evaluated quantum mechanically. We found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic device is substantially improved due to the local field enhancement of the plasmonic effect and light trapping by the nanowire array. In addition, we showed that there exists an optimal nanowire number density in terms of optical confinement and solar cell PCE.

  6. Integration of Organic Electrochemical and Field-Effect Transistors for Ultraflexible, High Temporal Resolution Electrophysiology Arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonryung; Kim, Dongmin; Rivnay, Jonathan; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Lonjaret, Thomas; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Yawo, Hiromu; Sekino, Masaki; Malliaras, George G; Someya, Takao

    2016-11-01

    Integration of organic electrochemical transistors and organic field-effect transistors is successfully realized on a 600 nm thick parylene film toward an electrophysiology array. A single cell of an integrated device and a 2 × 2 electrophysiology array succeed in detecting electromyogram with local stimulation of the motor nerve bundle of a transgenic rat by a laser pulse. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Transparent, conformable, active multielectrode array using organic electrochemical transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonryung; Kim, Dongmin; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Nagase, Masae; Sekino, Masaki; Malliaras, George G.; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Someya, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Mechanically flexible active multielectrode arrays (MEA) have been developed for local signal amplification and high spatial resolution. However, their opaqueness limited optical observation and light stimulation during use. Here, we show a transparent, ultraflexible, and active MEA, which consists of transparent organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and transparent Au grid wirings. The transparent OECT is made of Au grid electrodes and has shown comparable performance with OECTs with nontransparent electrodes/wirings. The transparent active MEA realizes the spatial mapping of electrocorticogram electrical signals from an optogenetic rat with 1-mm spacing and shows lower light artifacts than noise level. Our active MEA would open up the possibility of precise investigation of a neural network system with direct light stimulation. PMID:28923928

  8. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  9. Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna for High Bandwidth Cubesats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Dorothy; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna (ISARA) mission will demonstrate a reflectarray antenna that increases downlink data rates for Cube- Sats from the existing baseline rate of 9.6 kilobits per second (kbps) to more than 100 megabits per second (Mbps). The ISARA spacecraft is slated for launch no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  10. Solar array model corrections from Mars Pathfinder lander data

    SciTech Connect

    Ewell, R.C.; Burger, D.R.

    1997-12-31

    The MESUR solar array power model initially assumed values for input variables. After landing early surface variables such as array tilt and azimuth or early environmental variables such as array temperature can be corrected. Correction of later environmental variables such as tau versus time, spectral shift, dust deposition, and UV darkening is dependent upon time, on-board science instruments, and ability to separate effects of variables. Engineering estimates had to be made for additional shadow losses and Voc sensor temperature corrections. Some variations had not been expected such as tau versus time of day, and spectral shift versus time of day.more » Additions needed to the model are thermal mass of lander petal and correction between Voc sensor and temperature sensor. Conclusions are: the model works well; good battery predictions are difficult; inclusion of Isc and Voc sensors was valuable; and the IMP and MAE science experiments greatly assisted the data analysis and model correction.« less

  11. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  12. Silicon material task - Low cost solar array project /JPL/DOE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the silicon material task of the low-cost solar array project, which has the objective of establishing a silicon production capability equivalent to 500 mW per year at a price less than 10 dollars/kg (1975 dollars) in 1986. The task program is divided into four phases: technical feasibility, scale-up studies (the present phase), experimental process system development units, and implementation of large-scale production plants, and it involves the development of processes for two groups of materials, that is, semiconductor grade and solar cell grade. In addition, the effects of impurities on solar cell performance are being investigated. Attention is given to problem areas of the task program, such as environmental protection, material compatibility between the reacting chemicals and materials of construction of the equipment, and waste disposal.

  13. Photoelectric array detectors for use at XUV wavelengths. [for Spacelab solar-physics facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of photoelectric detector systems for use at visible-light, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths are briefly reviewed in the context of the needs of the Spacelab solar-physics facilities. Photoelectric array detectors for use at XUV wavelengths between 90 and 1500 A are described, and their use in the ESA Grazing-Incidence Solar Telescope (GRIST) facility is discussed.

  14. TRMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Basic requirement of 978.59 watts per Panel output @ 58.9 volts B.O.L. was met on an average basis per agreement with NASA. Lower grade Cells were used on the shadowed Panel (Boom shadow) to maximize available power to the Spacecraft. The average output @ 58.9 volts was 991 watts. The outputs of the four t4) Panels ranged from 960 to 1,022 watts. The Panels successfully passed environmental testing at TRW to the contract specification and subsequent testing at NASA which involved output measurements at elevated temperatures. As this type of Array had never previously been built by TRW (aluminum Substrate with 4 cm x 4.4 cm GaAs Cells), the TRMM Program was a development effort combined with a Qual and Flight production effort. The most significant technical problem was Cell cracking during Qual thermal cycling. The cracking problem was determined to be generic within our Solar Array factory in the application of GaAs Cells to our designs. As a result, a TRW funded manufacturing process verification panel (known as the Manufacturing Verification Panel) was built to demonstrate our ability to properly apply GaAs Cells. The original Qual Panel comprised three (3) design variations with respect to Coverglass-to-Cell and Cell-to-Substrate adhesives. The intent was to qualify multiple designs in case one or more failed. When two of the three combinations failed due to excessive Cell breakage during thermal cycling, NASA was reluctant to allow Flight production based on the one remaining good Qual Panel Quadrant. This issue was pivotal for continuing the contract. Facts and recommendations are as follows: (1) The cause of the excessive cracking was never determined. and (2) The areas where the excessive cracking occurred utilized DC93-500 glassing adhesive which was NASA approved, and had been widely used by TRW on a multitude of projects.

  15. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  16. Investigation Results on Solar Array Thermal & Electrical Imbalance Phenomenon on Power Systems Equipped with MPPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, F.; Samaniego, B.; Soriano, T.; Beaufils, G.; Fernandez Lisbona, E.; Dettlaff, K.; Jensen, H.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal / electrical imbalance phenomenon on the satellite solar arrays is a common issue inherent to the negative thermal voltage coefficient of the triple junction cells, which is usually already taken into account with basic precautions on the solar panel layout.In the frame of the ESA TRP study "Investigation on Solar Array thermal and electrical imbalance phenomenon on power systems equipped with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)" performed by Airbus Defence & Space (former Astrium Toulouse and Ottobrunn) and TERMA, in-depth analyses were conducted for the first time to better understand and characterize the secondary maximum power point phenomenon for various representative mission cases, whether in Earth vicinity or not. With the help of a newly developed detailed thermo-electrical coupled solver and a wide range of solar cell characterizations in flux and temperature, multiple sets of simulations were run to simulate realistic solar panel characteristics.The study showed that no secondary false maximum power point can be created on the solar panel characteristic IV curve for missions around Earth vicinity, at the sole exception of critical shadowing cases. Furthermore, the same conclusions apply for missions up to Mars orbit. The only potential threats come from the missions further than Mars (typically Jupiter missions) where various very high heterogeneities could lead to multiple maxima. This is deeply linked to the LILT (low illumination low temperature) conditions applied to the current solar cell triple junction characteristics and shape. Moreover, thermo-electrical imbalances that do not create secondary power point can still seriously grieve the solar array power output performances. This power loss can however be accurately assessed by the newly developed solver in support of in-development missions like Juice.

  17. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  18. New set of solar arrays deployed on Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-09

    STS061-99-002 (2-13 Dec 1993) --- The new set of solar array panels deployed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is backdropped against the blackness of space and a widely cloud-covered area on Earth. The 70mm frame was exposed by one of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's seven crew members on the aft flight deck.

  19. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  20. P6 Truss, starboard PV solar array wing deployment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-03

    STS097-373-005 (3 December 2000) --- Backdropped against the blackness of space, the deployment of International Space Station (ISS) solar array was photographed with a 35mm camera by astronaut Carlos I. Noriega, mission specialist. Part of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) attached to astronaut Joseph R. Tanner, mission specialist, is visible at bottom center. Tanner and Noriega went on to participate together in three separate space walks.

  1. Current Approach in Surface Plasmons for Thin Film and Wire Array Solar Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Keya; Guo, Zhongyi; Liu, Shutian; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmons, which exist along the interface of a metal and a dielectric, have been proposed as an efficient alternative method for light trapping in solar cells during the past ten years. With unique properties such as superior light scattering, optical trapping, guide mode coupling, near field concentration, and hot-electron generation, metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures can be tailored to a certain geometric design to enhance solar cell conversion efficiency and to reduce the material costs. In this article, we review current approaches on different kinds of solar cells, such as crystalline silicon (c-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film solar cells, organic solar cells, nanowire array solar cells, and single nanowire solar cells. PMID:28793457

  2. Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism: Design, Build and Environmental Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nigel; Ferris, Mark; Scheidegger, Noemy

    2015-09-01

    The development of the Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism (BSADM) presented in this paper is a demonstration of SSTL’s innovation and pragmatic approach to spacecraft systems engineering and rapid development duration. The BSADM (Fig. 1) is designed to orient a solar array wing towards the sun, using its first rotation axis to track the sun, and its second rotation axis to compensate for the satellite orbit and attitude changes needed for a successful payload operation. The BSADM design approach - based on the use of heritage components where possible and focusing resource on key design requirements - led to the rapid design, manufacture and test of the new mechanism with a qualification model (flight representative proof mechanism), followed by the manufacture and test of a number of flight model BSADMs, all completed and delivered within 18 months to service the need of current and future SSTL missions. A job not only well done, but done efficiently - the SSTL way.

  3. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  4. Deployment and retraction of a cable-driven solar array: Testing and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P.; Pellegrino, S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates three critical areas in cable-driven rigid-panel solar arrays: First, the variation of deployment and retraction cable tensions due to friction at the hinges; Second, the change in deployment dynamics associated with different deployment histories; Third, the relationship between the level of pre-tension in the closed contact loops and the synchronization of deployment. A small scale model array has been made and tested, and its behavior has been compared to numerical simulations.

  5. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and very large array observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The research deals mainly with Very Large Array and Solar Maximum Mission observations of the ubiquitous coronal loops that dominate the structure of the low corona. As illustrated, the observations of thermal cyclotron lines at microwave wavelengths provide a powerful new method of accurately specifying the coronal magnetic field strength. Processes are delineated that trigger solar eruptions from coronal loops, including preburst heating and the magnetic interaction of coronal loops. Evidence for coherent burst mechanisms is provided for both the Sun and nearby stars, while other observations suggest the presence of currents that may amplify the coronal magnetic field to unexpectedly high levels. The existence is reported of a new class of compact, variable moving sources in regions of apparently weak photospheric field.

  6. Self-assembled hybrid polymer-TiO2 nanotube array heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Karthik; Mor, Gopal K; Prakasam, Haripriya E; Varghese, Oomman K; Grimes, Craig A

    2007-11-20

    Films comprised of 4 microm long titanium dioxide nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodizing Ti foils in an ethylene glycol based electrolyte. A carboxylated polythiophene derivative was self-assembled onto the TiO2 nanotube arrays by immersing them in a solution of the polymer. The binding sites of the carboxylate moiety along the polymer chain provide multiple anchoring sites to the substrate, making for a stable rugged film. Backside illuminated liquid junction solar cells based on TiO2 nanotube films sensitized by the self-assembled polymeric layer showed a short-circuit current density of 5.5 mA cm-2, a 0.7 V open circuit potential, and a 0.55 fill factor yielding power conversion efficiencies of 2.1% under AM 1.5 sun. A backside illuminated single heterojunction solid state solar cell using the same self-assembled polymer was demonstrated and yielded a photocurrent density as high as 2.0 mA cm-2. When a double heterojunction was formed by infiltrating a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and C60-methanofullerene into the self-assembled polymer coated nanotube arrays, a photocurrent as high as 6.5 mA cm-2 was obtained under AM 1.5 sun with a corresponding efficiency of 1%. The photocurrent action spectra showed a maximum incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 53% for the liquid junction cells and 25% for the single heterojunction solid state solar cells.

  7. Two-dimensional photonic crystal arrays for polymer:fullerene solar cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sungho; Han, Jiyoung; Do, Young Rag; Kim, Hwajeong; Yim, Sanggyu; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2011-11-18

    We report the application of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) array substrates for polymer:fullerene solar cells of which the active layer is made with blended films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The 2D PC array substrates were fabricated by employing a nanosphere lithography technique. Two different hole depths (200 and 300 nm) were introduced for the 2D PC arrays to examine the hole depth effect on the light harvesting (trapping). The optical effect by the 2D PC arrays was investigated by the measurement of optical transmittance either in the direction normal to the substrate (direct transmittance) or in all directions (integrated transmittance). The results showed that the integrated transmittance was higher for the 2D PC array substrates than the conventional planar substrate at the wavelengths of ca. 400 nm, even though the direct transmittance of 2D PC array substrates was much lower over the entire visible light range. The short circuit current density (J(SC)) was higher for the device with the 2D PC array (200 nm hole depth) than the reference device. However, the device with the 2D PC array (300 nm hole depth) showed a slightly lower J(SC) value at a high light intensity in spite of its light harvesting effect proven at a lower light intensity.

  8. Structure duplicating problem with solar array wing number one on Skylab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-05

    S73-27406 (5 June 1973) --- This structure duplicates the current problem with solar array wing number one on Skylab. The wing is being held against the side of the Orbital Workshop by what appears to be a strip of metal from the Meteoroid shield. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Views of the starboard P6 Truss solar array during STS-97

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-05

    STS097-702-070 (3 December 2000) --- An astronaut inside Endeavour's crew cabin used a handheld 70mm camera to expose this frame of the International Space Station's starboard solar array wing panel, backdropped against an Earth horizon scene.

  10. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2003-07-22

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: ##EQU1## wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  11. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory Engineer Cliff Willey (kneeling) and Engineering Assistant Jim Hutcheson from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  12. Highly efficient and completely flexible fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube array.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhibin; Yu, Jiefeng; Wu, Hongwei; Shang, Jian; Wang, Dan; Hou, Shaocong; Fu, Yongping; Wu, Kai; Zou, Dechun

    2012-02-21

    A type of highly efficient completely flexible fiber-shaped solar cell based on TiO(2) nanotube array is successfully prepared. Under air mass 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)) illumination conditions, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell approaches 7%, the highest among all fiber-shaped cells based on TiO(2) nanotube arrays and the first completely flexible fiber-shaped DSSC. The fiber-shaped solar cell demonstrates good flexibility, which makes it suitable for modularization using weaving technologies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. The Use, Evolution and Lessons Learnt of Deployable Static Solar Array Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Mark; Haslehurst, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the mechanisms incorporated into SSTL's static deployable arrays; namely the sprung-hinges and hold down and release mechanism (HDRM). Combined, the HDRM and hinges form the hold down release system (HDRS). The deployable static solar array HDRS has been successfully used on several missions, first launched upon the DMC-CFESAT spacecraft in 2007 for a U.S. customer (Figure 1), and later used on DMC-UK2 and EXACTVIEW-1 launched in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The simple, robust and low-cost solution HDRS has been evident in allowing missions to satisfy an ever increasing power demand, allowing the solar arrays to increase in size and have a preferable sun angle for increased cell efficiency. The system is now being employed on the first mission out of SSTL's U.S. office (SST-US) on the Orbital Test Bed platform. This paper shall cover details of the original design and development program, problems incurred on latter missions, and evolution of the HDRS for the present Orbital Test Bed mission. Both the original development and recent evolutions have taken place in rapid timescales, to satisfy the high-turnaround of SSTL missions.

  14. Lessons Learned in the Flight Qualification of the S-NPP and NOAA-20 Solar Array Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, Daniel; Sexton, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Deployable solar arrays are the energy source used on almost all Earth orbiting spacecraft and their release and deployment are mission-critical; fully testing them on the ground is a challenging endeavor. The 8 meter long deployable arrays flown on two sequential NASA weather satellites were each comprised of three rigid panels almost 2 meters wide. These large panels were deployed by hinges comprised of stacked constant force springs, eddy current dampers, and were restrained through launch by a set of four releasable hold-downs using shape memory alloy release devices. The ground qualification testing of such unwieldy deployable solar arrays, whose design was optimized for orbital operations, proved to be quite challenging and provides numerous lessons learned. A paperwork review and follow-up inspection after hardware storage determined that there were negative torque margins and missing lubricant, this paper will explain how these unexpected issues were overcome. The paper will also provide details on how the hinge subassemblies, the fully-assembled array, and mechanical ground support equipment were subsequently improved and qualified for a follow-on flight with considerably less difficulty. The solar arrays built by Ball Aerospace Corp. for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1) satellite (now NOAA-20) were both successfully deployed on-obit and are performing well.

  15. Lessons Learned in the Flight Qualification of the S-NPP and NOAA-20 Solar Array Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, Adam; Helfrich, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Deployable solar arrays are the energy source used on almost all Earth orbiting spacecraft and their release and deployment are mission-critical; fully testing them on the ground is a challenging endeavor. The 8 meter long deployable arrays flown on two sequential NASA weather satellites were each comprised of three rigid panels almost 2 meters wide. These large panels were deployed by hinges comprised of stacked constant force springs, eddy current dampers, and were restrained through launch by a set of four releasable hold-downs using shape memory alloy release devices. The ground qualification testing of such unwieldy deployable solar arrays, whose design was optimized for orbital operations, proved to be quite challenging and provides numerous lessons learned. A paperwork review and follow-up inspection after hardware storage determined that there were negative torque margins and missing lubricant, this paper will explain how these unexpected issues were overcome. The paper will also provide details on how the hinge subassemblies, the fully-assembled array, and mechanical ground support equipment were subsequently improved and qualified for a follow-on flight with considerably less difficulty. The solar arrays built by Ball Aerospace Corp. for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1) satellite (now NOAA-20) were both successfully deployed on-obit and are performing well.

  16. Electrostatic Discharge Testing of Carbon Composite Solar Array Panels for Use in the Jovian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Nelson W.; Dawson, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is currently considering a mission to investigate the moons of Jupiter. When designing a spacecraft for this type of mission, there are a number of engineering challenges, especially if the mission chooses to utilize solar arrays to provide the spacecraft power. In order for solar arrays to be feasible for the mission, their total mass needed to fit within the total budget for the mission, which strongly suggested the use of carbon composite facesheets on an aluminum core for the panel structure. While these composite structures are a good functional substitution for the metallic materials they replace, they present unique challenges when interacting with the harsh Jovian space environment. As a composite material, they are composed of more than one material and can show different base properties depending in differing conditions. Looking at the electrical properties, in an Earth-based environment the carbon component of the composite dominates the response of the material to external stimulus. Under these conditions, the structures strongly resembles a conductor. In the Jovian environment, with temperatures reaching 50K and under the bombardment from energetic electrons, the non-conducting pre-preg binding materials may come to the forefront and change the perceived response. Before selecting solar arrays as the baseline power source for a mission to Jupiter, the response of the carbon composites to energetic electrons while held at cryogenic temperatures needed to be determined. A series of tests were devised to exam the response of a sample solar array panel composed of an M55J carbon weave layup with an RS-3 pre-preg binder. Test coupons were fabricated and exposed to electrons ranging from 10 keV to 100 keV, at 1 nA/cm2, while being held at cryogenic temperatures. While under electron bombardment, electrical discharges were observed and recorded with the majority of discharges occurring with electron energies of 25 keV. A decrease in temperature to liquid

  17. Characteristics of arc currents on a negatively biased solar cell array in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    The time dependence of the emitted currents during arcing on solar cell arrays is being studied. The arcs are characterized using three parameters: the voltage change of the array during the arc (i.e., the charge lost), the peak current during the arc, and the time constant describing the arc current. This paper reports the dependence of these characteristics on two array parameters, the interconnect bias voltage and the array capacitance to ground. It was found that the voltage change of the array during an arc is nearly equal to the bias voltage. The array capacitance, on the other hand, influences both the peak current and the decay time constant of the arc. Both of these characteristics increase with increasing capacitance.

  18. Development of a ninety string solar array simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasek, Thomas E.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    1991-01-01

    A power source was developed to support testing for the Space Station Freedom Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC Testbed. The intent was to simulate as closely as possible the steady-state and transient responses of a solar array. Several breadboards and one thermal prototype were built and tested. Responses were successfully verified and improved upon during successive breadboards. The completed 90-string simulator consists of four power MOSFETs, four 25 watt source resistors, and four 250 watt drain source bypass resistors per string, in addition to the control circuitry.

  19. Status of wraparound contact solar cells and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.; Young, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Solar cells with wraparound contacts provide the following advantages in array assembly: (1) eliminate the need for discretely formed, damage susceptible series tabs; (2) eliminate the n gap problem by allowing the use of uniform covers over the entire cell surface; (3) allow a higher packing factor by reducing the additional series spacing formly required for forming, and routing the series tab; and (4) allow the cell bonding to the interconnect system to be a single-side function wherein series contacts can be made at the same time parallel contracts are made.

  20. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  1. Atomic oxygen degradation of Intelsat 4-type solar array interconnects: Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Cross, J. B.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Kirkendahl, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A Hughes 506 type communication satellite belonging to the Intelsat organization was marooned in low Earth orbit on March 14, 1990, following failure of the Titan third stage to separate properly. The satellite, Intelsat VI, was designed for service in geosynchronous orbit and contains several material configurations which are susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen. Analysis showed the silver foil interconnects in the satellite photovoltaic array to be the key materials issue because the silver is exposed directly to the atomic oxygen ram flux. The results are reported of atomic oxygen degradation testing of Intelsat VI type silver foil interconnects both as virgin material and in a configured solar cell element. Test results indicate that more than 80 pct. of the original thickness of silver in the Intelsat VI solar array interconnects should remain after completion of the proposed Space Shuttle rescue and/or reboost mission.

  2. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzshen@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-05-28

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The keymore » lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.« less

  3. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave replace Solar Array Drive Electronics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-09

    STS061-102-010 (9 Dec 1993) --- Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and F. Story Musgrave team to replace one of two Solar Array Drive Electronics (SADE) units on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Musgrave is standing on a foot restraint mounted on the end of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm. The black object, in upper left corner, is part of the window frame, through which this 70mm frame was exposed, inside Endeavour's cabin.

  4. Study of multi-kW solar arrays for Earth orbit application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Low cost low Earth orbit (LOW) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) Solar Array concepts in the 300 to 1000 kW range which could be reduced to hardware in the mid 1980's, are identified. Size scaling factors and longer life demands are recognized as the prime drivers for the designs if low life cycle costs for energy are to be achieved. Technology is identified which requires further development in order to assure component readiness and availability. Use of the low concentration ratio (CR) concentrator, which uses gallium arsenide solar cells for both LEO and GEO applications, is recommended.

  5. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  6. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, Luca; Gröbner, Julian; Hülsen, Gregor; Bachmann, Luciano; Blumthaler, Mario; Dubard, Jimmy; Khazova, Marina; Kift, Richard; Hoogendijk, Kees; Serrano, Antonio; Smedley, Andrew; Vilaplana, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers (ASRMs) are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines and characterization methods have been developed to improve solar UV measurements with ASRMs, and support to the end user community has been provided. In order to assess the quality of 14 end user ASRMs, a solar UV intercomparison was held on the measurement platform of the World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) in Davos, Switzerland, from 10 to 17 July 2014. The results of the blind intercomparison revealed that ASRMs, currently used for solar UV measurements, show a large variation in the quality of their solar UV measurements. Most of the instruments overestimate the erythema-weighted UV index - in particular at large solar zenith angles - due to stray light contribution in the UV-B range. The spectral analysis of global solar UV irradiance further supported the finding that the uncertainties in the UV-B range are very large due to stray light contribution in this wavelength range. In summary, the UV index may be detected by some commercially available ASRMs within 5 % compared to the world reference spectroradiometer, if well characterized and calibrated, but only for a limited range of solar zenith angles. Generally, the tested instruments are not yet suitable for solar UV measurements for the entire range between 290 and 400 nm under all atmospheric conditions.

  7. Flat-plate solar array project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: Ten years of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, a Government-sponsored photovoltaics project, was initiated in January 1975 (previously named the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project) to stimulate the development of PV systems for widespread use. Its goal then was to develop PV modules with 10% efficiency, a 20-year lifetime, and a selling price of $0.50 per peak watt of generating capacity (1975 dollars). It was recognized that cost reduction of PV solar-cell and module manufacturing was the key achievement needed if PV power systems were to be economically competitive for large-scale terrestrial use.

  8. SOLAR OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING THE SUPER-TRANSITION-ARRAY METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D., E-mail: menahem.krief@mail.huji.ac.il

    A new opacity model has been developed based on the Super-Transition-Array (STA) method for the calculation of monochromatic opacities of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The atomic code, named STAR (STA-Revised), is described and used to calculate spectral opacities for a solar model implementing the recent AGSS09 composition. Calculations are carried out throughout the solar radiative zone. The relative contributions of different chemical elements and atomic processes to the total Rosseland mean opacity are analyzed in detail. Monochromatic opacities and charge-state distributions are compared with the widely used Opacity Project (OP) code, for several elements near the radiation–convection interface. STARmore » Rosseland opacities for the solar mixture show a very good agreement with OP and the OPAL opacity code throughout the radiation zone. Finally, an explicit STA calculation was performed of the full AGSS09 photospheric mixture, including all heavy metals. It was shown that, due to their extremely low abundance, and despite being very good photon absorbers, the heavy elements do not affect the Rosseland opacity.« less

  9. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  10. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-10-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  11. High Current ESD Test of Advanced Triple Junction Solar Array Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Testing was conducted on an Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) coupon that was part of a risk reduction effort in the development of a high-powered solar array design by Space Systems Loral, LLC (SSL). The ATJ coupon was a small, 4-cell, two-string configuration of flight-type design that has served as the basic test coupon design used in previous SSL environmental aging campaigns. The objective of the present test was to evaluate the performance of the coupon after being subjected to induced electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing at two string voltages (100 V, 150 V) and four string currents (1.65 A, 2.0 A, 2.475 A, and 3.3 A). An ESD test circuit, unique to SSL solar array design, was built that simulates the effect of missing cells and strings in a full solar panel with special primary arc flashover circuitry. A total of 73 primary arcs were obtained that included 7 temporary sustained arcs (TSA) events. The durations of the TSAs ranged from 50 micro-seconds to 2.75 milli-seconds. All TSAs occurred at a string voltage of 150 V. Post-ESD functional testing showed that no degradation occurred due to the TSA events. These test results point to a robust design for application to a high-current, high-power mission.

  12. Calibration of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array multilayer mirrors and XUV filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Maxwell J.; Willis, Thomas D.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Deforest, Craig E.; Jackson, Lisa; Lindblom, Joakim; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), a rocket-borne solar observatory, was successfully flown in May, 1991, obtaining solar images in eight XUV and FUV bands with 12 compact multilayer telescopes. Extensive measurements have recently been carried out on the multilayer telescopes and thin film filters at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. These measurements are the first high spectral resolution calibrations of the MSSTA instruments. Previous measurements and/or calculations of telescope throughputs have been confirmed with greater accuracy. Results are presented on Mo/Si multilayer bandpass changes with time and experimental potassium bromide and tellurium filters.

  13. Ordered CdTe/CdS Arrays for High-Performance Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubía, David; López, Cesar; Rodríguez, Mario; Escobedo, Arev; Oyer, Sandra; Romo, Luis; Rogers, Scott; Quiñónez, Stella; McClure, John

    2007-12-01

    The deposition of uniform arrays of CdTe/CdS heterostructures suitable for solar cells via close-spaced sublimation is presented. The approach used to create the arrays consists of two basic steps: the deposition of a patterned growth mask on CdS, and the selective-area deposition of CdTe. CdTe grains grow selectively on the CdS but not on the SiO2 due to the differential surface mobility between the two surfaces. Furthermore, the CdTe mesas mimic the size and shape of the window opening in the SiO2. Measurements of the current density in the CdTe were high at 28 mA/cm2. To our knowledge, this is the highest reported current density for these devices. This implies that either the quantum efficiency is very high or the electrons generated throughout the CdTe are being concentrated by the patterned structure analogous to solar concentration. The enhancement in crystal uniformity and the relatively unexplored current concentration phenomenon could lead to significant performance improvements.

  14. Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism: Design, Build and Environmental Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidegger, Noemy; Ferris, Mark; Phillips, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism (BSADM) presented in this paper is a demonstration of SSTL's unique space manufacturing approach that enables performing rapid development cycles for cost-effective products that meet ever-challenging mission requirements: The BSADM is designed to orient a solar array wing towards the sun, using its first rotation axis to track the sun, and its second rotation axis to compensate for the satellite orbit and attitude changes needed for a successful payload operation. The tight development schedule, with manufacture of 7 Flight Models within 1.5 year after kick-off, is offset by the risk-reduction of using qualified key component-families from other proven SSTL mechanisms. This allowed focusing the BSADM design activities on the mechanism features that are unique to the BSADM, and having an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) built 8 months after kick-off. The EQM is currently undergoing a full environmental qualification test campaign. This paper presents the BSADM design approach that enabled meeting such a challenging schedule, its design particularities, and the ongoing verification activities.

  15. Solar array module plasma interactions experiment (SAMPIE) - Science and technology objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. B.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    The solar array module plasma interactions experiment (SAMPIE) is an approved NASA flight experiment manifested for Shuttle deployment in early 1994. The SAMPIE experiment is designed to investigate the interaction of high voltage space power systems with ionospheric plasma. To study the behavior of solar cells, a number of solar cell coupons (representing design technologies of current interest) will be biased to high voltages to measure both arcing and current collection. Various theories of arc suppression will be tested by including several specially modified cell coupons. Finally, SAMPIE will include experiments to study the basic nature of arcing and current collection. This paper describes the rationale for a space flight experiment, the measurements to be made, and the significance of the expected results. A future paper will present a detailed discussion of the engineering design.

  16. A high efficiency dual-junction solar cell implemented as a nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuqing; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2013-01-14

    In this work, we present an innovative design of a dual-junction nanowire array solar cell. Using a dual-diameter nanowire structure, the solar spectrum is separated and absorbed in the core wire and the shell wire with respect to the wavelength. This solar cell provides high optical absorptivity over the entire spectrum due to an electromagnetic concentration effect. Microscopic simulations were performed in a three-dimensional setup, and the optical properties of the structure were evaluated by solving Maxwell's equations. The Shockley-Queisser method was employed to calculate the current-voltage relationship of the dual-junction structure. Proper design of the geometrical and material parameters leads to an efficiency of 39.1%.

  17. Combined Space Environmental Exposure Tests of Multi-Junction GaAs/Ge Solar Array Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Corey, Ron; Gardiner, George; Funderburk, Victor V.; Gahart, Richard; Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The purpose of this test program is to understand the changes and degradation of the solar array panel components, including its ESD mitigation design features in their integrated form, after multiple years (up to 15) of simulated geosynchronous space environment. These tests consist of: UV radiation, electrostatic discharge (ESD), electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume exposures. The solar radiation was produced using a Mercury-Xenon lamp with wavelengths in the UV spectrum ranging from 230 to 400 nm. The ESD test was performed in the inverted-gradient mode using a low-energy electron (2.6 - 6 keV) beam exposure. The ESD test also included a simulated panel coverglass flashover for the primary arc event. The electron/proton radiation exposure included both 1.0 MeV and 100 keV electron beams simultaneous with a 40 keV proton beam. The thermal cycling included simulated transient earth eclipse for satellites in geosynchronous orbit. With the increasing use of ion thruster engines on many satellites, the combined environmental test also included ion thruster exposure to determine whether solar array surface erosion had any impact on its performance. Before and after each increment of environmental exposures, the coupons underwent visual inspection under high power magnification and electrical tests that included characterization by LAPSS, Dark I-V, and electroluminescence. This paper discusses the test objective, test methodologies, and preliminary results after 5 years of simulated exposure.

  18. Astronaut Story Musgrave during deployment of solar array panels on HST

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-09

    STS061-48-027 (9 Dec 1993) --- Astronaut F. Story Musgrave moves about in the Space Shuttle Endeavour's cargo bay during the deployment of the solar array panels on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the final of five STS-61 space walks. The left hand of astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman appears at lower left corner.

  19. A transient plasticity study and low cycle fatigue analysis of the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic solar array blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.; Liao, Mei-Hwa; Morris, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom photovoltaic solar array blanket assembly is comprised of several layers of materials having dissimilar elastic, thermal, and mechanical properties. The operating temperature of the solar array, which ranges from -75 to +60 C, along with the material incompatibility of the blanket assembly components combine to cause an elastic-plastic stress in the weld points of the assembly. The weld points are secondary structures in nature, merely serving as electrical junctions for gathering the current. The thermal mechanical loading of the blanket assembly operating in low earth orbit continually changes throughout each 90 min orbit, which raises the possibility of fatigue induced failure. A series of structural analyses were performed in an attempt to predict the fatigue life of the solar cell in the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic array blanket. A nonlinear elastic-plastic MSC/NASTRAN analysis followed by a fatigue calculation indicated a fatigue life of 92,000 to 160,000 cycles for the solar cell weld tabs. Additional analyses predict a permanent buckling phenomenon in the copper interconnect after the first loading cycle. This should reduce or eliminate the pulling of the copper interconnect on the joint where it is welded to the silicon solar cell. It is concluded that the actual fatigue life of the solar array blanket assembly should be significantly higher than the calculated 92,000 cycles, and thus the program requirement of 87,500 cycles (orbits) will be met. Another important conclusion that can be drawn from the overall analysis is that, the strain results obtained from the MSC/NASTRAN nonlinear module are accurate to use for low-cycle fatigue analysis, since both thermal cycle testing of solar cells and analysis have shown higher fatigue life than the minimum program requirement of 87,500 cycles.

  20. Demonstration of the advanced photovoltaic solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, R. M.; Stella, P. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) design is reviewed. The testing results and performance estimates are summarized. The APSA design represents a critical intermediate milestone for the NASA Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology (OAET) goal of 300 W/kg at Beginning Of Life (BOL), with specific performance characteristics of 130 W/kg (BOL) and 100 W/kg at End Of Life (EOL) for a 10 year geosynchronous (GEO) 10 kW (BOL) space power system. The APSA wing design is scalable over a power range of 1 to 15 kW and is suitable for a full range of missions including Low Earth Orbit (LEO), orbital transfer from LEO to GEO and interplanetary out to 5 AU.

  1. Chemical Vapor Deposition for Ultra-lightweight Thin-film Solar Arrays for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H.; Lau, Janice E.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Duraj, Stan A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power, (W/kg). The use of a polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer for thin film solar cells is considered as the next generation photovoltaic devices. A key technical issues outlined in the 2001 U.S. Photovoltaic Roadmap, is the need to develop low cost, high throughput manufacturing for high-efficiency thin film solar cells. At NASA GRC we have focused on the development of new single-source-precursors (SSPs) and their utility to deposit the chalcopyrite semi-conducting layer (CIS) onto flexible substrates for solar cell fabrication. The syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering is described. Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate the SSPs can be used in a spray CVD process, for depositing CIS at reduced temperatures, which display good electrical properties, suitable for PV devices.

  2. Design of a GaAs/Ge Solar Array for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

  3. Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    1995-03-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

  4. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 3: Silicon sheet: Wafers and ribbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briglio, A.; Dumas, K.; Leipold, M.; Morrison, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the Silicon Sheet Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was the development of one or more low cost technologies for producing silicon sheet suitable for processing into cost-competitive solar cells. Silicon sheet refers to high purity crystalline silicon of size and thickness for fabrication into solar cells. Areas covered in the project were ingot growth and casting, wafering, ribbon growth, and other sheet technologies. The task made and fostered significant improvements in silicon sheet including processing of both ingot and ribbon technologies. An additional important outcome was the vastly improved understanding of the characteristics associated with high quality sheet, and the control of the parameters required for higher efficiency solar cells. Although significant sheet cost reductions were made, the technology advancements required to meet the task cost goals were not achieved.

  5. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. The panel on which they are working is identical to the panel (one of four) seen in the foreground on the ACE spacecraft. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low- energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  6. The concentration principle applied to spaceborne solar arrays. AGORA mission: Studies synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laget, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies that led to selection of the distributed 25 kW SARA LOUVRE concept for the solar cell generator to be flown on the AGORA asteroid mission, and the major characteristics of such a spaceborne solar array are summarized. In the SARA LOUVRE concept, a parabolic cross section reflector concentrates incident light over the rear face of the identical, preceding reflector dish. The whole set of reflectors is pivotally commanded, thus compensating the effects of depointing. Geometric concentration factor is 10. End of life power level at 2.5 AU is 4.5 kW.

  7. Summary of flat-plate solar array project documentation: Abstracts of published documents, 1975-1986, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of final reports, or the latest quarterly or annual, of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Contractor of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in-house activities are presented. Also presented is a list of proceedings and publications, by author, of work connected with the project. The aim of the program has been to stimulate the development of technology that will enable the private sector to manufacture and widely use photovoltaic systems for the generation of electricity in residential, commercial, industrial, and Government applications at a cost per watt that is competitive with utility generated power. FSA Project activities have included the sponsoring of research and development efforts in silicon refinement processes, advanced silicon sheet growth techniques, higher efficiency solar cells, solar cell/module fabrication processes, encapsulation, module/array engineering and reliability, and economic analyses.

  8. Technology for Solar Array Production on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon, aluminum, and glass are the primary raw materials that will be required for production of solar arrays on the moon. A process sequence is proposed for producing these materials from lunar regolith is proposed, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. Fluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O. Aluminum, calcium oxide, and magnesium oxide are recovered to manufacture structural materials and glass.

  9. Pre-Flight Dark Forward Electrical Testing of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.; Hoffman, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. After final assembly in Russia, the MCSA was shipped to the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the summer of 1995 and launched to Mir in November 1995. Program managers were concerned of the potential for MCSA damage during the transatlantic shipment and the associated handling operations. To address this concern, NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) developed an innovative dark-forward electrical test program to assess the gross electrical condition of each generator following shipment from Russia. The use of dark test techniques, which allow the array to remain in the stowed configuration, greatly simplifies the checkout of large area solar arrays. MCSA dark electrical testing was successfully performed at KSC in July 1995 following transatlantic shipment. Data from this testing enabled engineers to quantify the effects of potential MCSA physical damage that would degrade on-orbit electrical performance. In this paper, an overview of the principles and heritage of photovoltaic array dark testing is given. The specific MCSA dark test program is also described including the hardware, software, testing procedures and test results. The current-voltage (4) response of both solar cell circuitry and by-pass diode circuitry was obtained. To guide the development of dark test hardware, software and procedures, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the dark 4 responses of generators with a variety of feasible damage modes. By comparing the actual test data with the predictions, the physical condition of the generator could be inferred. Based on this data analysis, no electrical short-circuits or open-circuits were detected. This suggested the MCSA did not sustain physical damage that affected electrical performance during handling and shipment from Russia to the US. Good

  10. Evaluation of scenario-specific modeling approaches to predict plane of array solar irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Moslehi, Salim; Reddy, T. Agami; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2017-12-20

    Predicting thermal or electric power output from solar collectors requires knowledge of solar irradiance incident on the collector, known as plane of array irradiance. In the absence of such a measurement, plane of array irradiation can be predicted using relevant transposition models which essentially requires diffuse (or beam) radiation to be to be known along with total horizontal irradiation. The two main objectives of the current study are (1) to evaluate the extent to which the prediction of plane of array irradiance is improved when diffuse radiation is predicted using location-specific regression models developed from on-site measured data as againstmore » using generalized models; and (2) to estimate the expected uncertainties associated with plane of array irradiance predictions under different data collection scenarios likely to be encountered in practical situations. These issues have been investigated using monitored data for several U.S. locations in conjunction with the Typical Meteorological Year, version 3 database. An interesting behavior in the Typical Meteorological Year, version 3 data was also observed in correlation patterns between diffuse and total radiation taken from different years which seems to attest to a measurement problem. Furthermore, the current study was accomplished under a broader research agenda aimed at providing energy managers the necessary tools for predicting, scheduling, and controlling various sub-systems of an integrated energy system.« less

  11. Evaluation of scenario-specific modeling approaches to predict plane of array solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moslehi, Salim; Reddy, T. Agami; Katipamula, Srinivas

    Predicting thermal or electric power output from solar collectors requires knowledge of solar irradiance incident on the collector, known as plane of array irradiance. In the absence of such a measurement, plane of array irradiation can be predicted using relevant transposition models which essentially requires diffuse (or beam) radiation to be to be known along with total horizontal irradiation. The two main objectives of the current study are (1) to evaluate the extent to which the prediction of plane of array irradiance is improved when diffuse radiation is predicted using location-specific regression models developed from on-site measured data as againstmore » using generalized models; and (2) to estimate the expected uncertainties associated with plane of array irradiance predictions under different data collection scenarios likely to be encountered in practical situations. These issues have been investigated using monitored data for several U.S. locations in conjunction with the Typical Meteorological Year, version 3 database. An interesting behavior in the Typical Meteorological Year, version 3 data was also observed in correlation patterns between diffuse and total radiation taken from different years which seems to attest to a measurement problem. Furthermore, the current study was accomplished under a broader research agenda aimed at providing energy managers the necessary tools for predicting, scheduling, and controlling various sub-systems of an integrated energy system.« less

  12. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  13. Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    photovoltaic (PV) system to use a maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) to increase... photovoltaic (PV) system to use a maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) to increase the power output of the solar array. Currently, most military... MPPT ) is an optimizing circuit that is used in conjunction with photovoltaic (PV) arrays to achieve the maximum delivery of power from the array

  14. Inverted Silicon Nanopencil Array Solar Cells with Enhanced Contact Structures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoguang; Shu, Lei; Lin, Hao; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Xiu, Fei; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-09-27

    Although three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells have attracted extensive research attention due to their superior broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting properties, majority of them are still suffered from complicated fabrication processes as well as disappointed photovoltaic performances. Here, we employed our newly-developed, low-cost and simple wet anisotropic etching to fabricate hierarchical silicon nanostructured arrays with different solar cell contact design, followed by systematic investigations of their photovoltaic characteristics. Specifically, nano-arrays with the tapered tips (e.g. inverted nanopencils) are found to enable the more conformal top electrode deposition directly onto the nanostructures for better series and shunt conductance, but its insufficient film coverage at the basal plane would still restrict the charge carrier collection. In contrast, the low-platform contact design facilitates a substantial photovoltaic device performance enhancement of ~24%, as compared to the one of conventional top electrode design, due to the shortened current path and improved lateral conductance for the minimized carrier recombination and series resistance. This enhanced contact structure can not only maintain excellent photon-trapping behaviors of nanostructures, but also help to eliminate adverse impacts of these tapered nano-morphological features on the contact resistance, providing further insight into design consideration in optimizing the contact geometry for high-performance nanostructured photovoltaic devices.

  15. Inverted Silicon Nanopencil Array Solar Cells with Enhanced Contact Structures

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoguang; Shu, Lei; Lin, Hao; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Xiu, Fei; Ho, Johnny C.

    2016-01-01

    Although three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells have attracted extensive research attention due to their superior broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting properties, majority of them are still suffered from complicated fabrication processes as well as disappointed photovoltaic performances. Here, we employed our newly-developed, low-cost and simple wet anisotropic etching to fabricate hierarchical silicon nanostructured arrays with different solar cell contact design, followed by systematic investigations of their photovoltaic characteristics. Specifically, nano-arrays with the tapered tips (e.g. inverted nanopencils) are found to enable the more conformal top electrode deposition directly onto the nanostructures for better series and shunt conductance, but its insufficient film coverage at the basal plane would still restrict the charge carrier collection. In contrast, the low-platform contact design facilitates a substantial photovoltaic device performance enhancement of ~24%, as compared to the one of conventional top electrode design, due to the shortened current path and improved lateral conductance for the minimized carrier recombination and series resistance. This enhanced contact structure can not only maintain excellent photon-trapping behaviors of nanostructures, but also help to eliminate adverse impacts of these tapered nano-morphological features on the contact resistance, providing further insight into design consideration in optimizing the contact geometry for high-performance nanostructured photovoltaic devices. PMID:27671709

  16. Develop Silicone Encapsulation Systems for Terrestrial Silicon Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study for Task 3 of the Low Cost Solar Array Project, directed toward the development of a cost effective encapsulation system for photovoltaic modules using silicon based materials, are reported. Results of the following are discussed: (1) weather-ometer stressing vs. weathering history of silicon and silicon modified materials; (2) humidity/temperature cycling exposure; (3) exposure at high humidity/high temperature; (4) outdoor exposure stress; (5) thermal cycling stress; and (6) UV screening agents. The plans for the next quarter are outlined.

  17. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells. Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: 10 years of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The objectives were to develop the flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) array technologies required for large-scale terrestrial use late in the 1980s and in the 1990s; advance crystalline silicon PV technologies; develop the technologies required to convert thin-film PV research results into viable module and array technology; and to stimulate transfer of knowledge of advanced PV materials, solar cells, modules, and arrays to the PV community. Progress reached on attaining these goals, along with future recommendations are discussed.

  18. A summary report on the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachare, R.; Moacanin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings and technical discussions of a workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers (TCP) for solar cell applications are reported. This is in support of the Device Research Task of the Flat-Flate Solar Array Project. The workshop took place on January 11 and 12, 1985, in Santa Barbara, California. Participants included university and industry researchers. The discussions focused on the electronic and optical properties of TCP, and on experimental issues and problems that should be addressed for high-efficiency solar cell application.

  19. Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna for High Bandwidth Cubesats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Dorothy; Agasid, Elwood Floyd; Ardila, David R.; Hunter, Roger C.; Baker, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna (ISARA) mission will demonstrate a reflectarray antenna that increases downlink data rates for CubeSats from the existing baseline rate of 9.6 kilobits per second (kbps) to more than100 megabits per second (Mbps). A secondary payload called the CubeSat Multispectral Observation System (CUMULOS), is an experimental remote sensing payload also being demonstrated on this mission. A launch date for the ISARA spacecraft is currently pending.

  20. Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2. Low-cost Solar Array Project, Task 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, M.

    1978-01-01

    Work was done to verify the technological readiness of a select process sequence with respect to satisfying the Low Cost Solar Array Project objectives of meeting the designated goals of $.50 per peak watt in 1986 (1975 dollars). The sequence examined consisted of: (1) 3 inches diameter as-sawn Czochralski grown 1:0:0 silicon, (2) texture etching, (3) ion implanting, (4) laser annealing, (5) screen printing of ohmic contacts and (6) sprayed anti-reflective coatings. High volume production projections were made on the selected process sequence. Automated processing and movement of hardware at high rates were conceptualized to satisfy the PROJECT's 500 MW/yr capability. A production plan was formulated with flow diagrams integrating the various processes in the cell fabrication sequence.

  1. Fixed Nadir Focus Concentrated Solar Power Applying Reflective Array Tracking Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, B.; DAMayanti, A. M.; Murdani, A.; Habibi, I. I. A.; Wakidah, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The Sun is one of the most potential renewable energy develoPMent to be utilized, one of its utilization is for solar thermal concentrators, CSP (Concentrated Solar Power). In CSP energy conversion, the concentrator is as moving the object by tracking the sunlight to reach the focus point. This method need quite energy consumption, because the unit of the concentrators has considerable weight, and use large CSP, means the existence of the usage unit will appear to be wider and heavier. The addition of weight and width of the unit will increase the torque to drive the concentrator and hold the wind gusts. One method to reduce energy consumption is direct the sunlight by the reflective array to nadir through CSP with Reflective Fresnel Lens concentrator. The focus will be below the nadir direction, and the position of concentrator will be fixed position even the angle of the sun’s elevation changes from morning to afternoon. So, the energy concentrated maximally, because it has been protected from wind gusts. And then, the possibility of dAMage and changes in focus construction will not occur. The research study and simulation of the reflective array (mechanical method) will show the reflective angle movement. The distance between reflectors and their angle are controlled by mechatronics. From the simulation using fresnel 1m2, and efficiency of solar energy is 60.88%. In restriction, the intensity of sunlight at the tropical circles 1KW/peak, from 6 AM until 6 PM.

  2. ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, and a remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density of approximately 20.1 mA/cm2 was recorded, which could attribute to the relatively direct pathways for transportation of electrons provided by ZnO nanosheet arrays as well as the direct contact between ZnO and weaved titanium wires. These results indicate that CdS/ZnO nanostructures on weaved titanium wires would open a novel possibility for applications of low-cost solar cells. PMID:24618047

  3. X-ray performance of 0.18 µm CMOS APS test arrays for solar observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dryer, B. J.; Holland, A. D.; Jerram, P.; Sakao, Taro

    2012-07-01

    Solar-C is the third generation solar observatory led by JAXA. The accepted ‘Plan-B’ payload calls for a radiation-hard solar-staring photon-counting x-ray spectrometer. CMOS APS technology offers advantages over CCDs for such an application such as increased radiation hardness and high frame rate (instrument target of 1000 fps). Looking towards the solution of a bespoke CMOS APS, this paper reports the x-ray spectroscopy performance, concentrating on charge collection efficiency and split event analysis, of two baseline e2v CMOS APSs not designed for x-ray performance, the EV76C454 and the Ocean Colour Imager (OCI) test array. The EV76C454 is an industrial 5T APS designed for machine vision, available back and front illuminated. The OCI test arrays have varying pixel design across the chips, but are 4T, back illuminated and have thin low-resistivity and thick high-resistivity variants. The OCI test arrays’ pixel variants allow understanding of how pixel design can affect x-ray performance.

  4. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar active regions with the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and the Very Large Array (VLA) have been obtained and analyzed. Combined results enhance the scientific return for beyond that expeted from using either SMM or VLA alone. A total of two weeks of simultaneous SMM/VLA data were obtained. The multiple wavelength VLA observations were used to determine the temperature and magnetic structure at different heights within coronal loops. These data are compared with simultaneous SMM observations. Several papers on the subject are in progress. They include VLA observations of compact, transient sources in the transition region; simultaneous SMM/VLA observations of the coronal loops in one active region and the evolution of another one; and sampling of the coronal plasma using thermal cyclotron lines (magnetic field - VLA) and soft X ray spectral lines (electron density and electron temperaure-SMM).

  5. Concept, Design, and Prototyping of XSAS: A High Power Extendable Solar Array for CubeSat Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senatore, Patrick; Klesh, Andrew; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; McKague, Darren; Cutler, James

    2010-01-01

    CubeSats have proven themselves as a reliable and cost-effective method to perform experiments in space, but they are highly constrained by their specifications and size. One such constraint is the average continuous power, about 5 W, which is available to the typical CubeSat. To improve this constraint, we have developed the eXtendable Solar Array System (XSAS), a deployable solar array prototype in a CubeSat package, which can provide an average 23 W of continuous power. The prototype served as a technology demonstrator for the high risk mechanisms needed to release, deploy, and control the solar array. Aside from this drastic power increase, it is in the integration of each mechanism, their application within the small CubeSat form-factor, and the inherent passive control benefit of the deployed geometry that make XSAS a novel design. In this paper, we discuss the requirements and design process for the XSAS system and mechanical prototype, and provide qualitative and quantitative results from numerical simulations and prototype tests. We also discuss future work, including an upcoming NASA zero-gravity flight campaign, to further improve on XSAS and prepare it for future launch opportunities.

  6. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  7. Test results for electron beam charging of flexible insulators and composites. [solar array substrates, honeycomb panels, and thin dielectric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staskus, J. V.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1979-01-01

    Flexible solar-array substrates, graphite-fiber/epoxy - aluminum honeycomb panels, and thin dielectric films were exposed to monoenergetic electron beams ranging in energy from 2 to 20 keV in the Lewis Research Center's geomagnetic-substorm-environment simulation facility to determine surface potentials, dc currents, and surface discharges. The four solar-array substrate samples consisted of Kapton sheet reinforced with fabrics of woven glass or carbon fibers. They represented different construction techniques that might be used to reduce the charge accumulation on the array back surface. Five honeycomb-panel samples were tested, two of which were representative of Voyager antenna materials and had either conductive or nonconductive painted surfaces. A third sample was of Navstar solar-array substrate material. The other two samples were of materials proposed for use on Intelsat V. All the honeycomb-panel samples had graphite-fiber/epoxy composite face sheets. The thin dielectric films were 2.54-micrometer-thick Mylar and 7.62-micrometer-thick Kapton.

  8. High-Voltage High-Energy Stretched Lens Array Square-Rigger (SLASR) for Direct-Drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; O'Neill, Mark J.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Development is underway on a unique high-voltage, high energy solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array Square-Rigger (SLASR) for direct drive electric propulsion. The SLASR performance attributes closely match the critical needs of solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems, which may be used for space tugs to fuel efficiently transport cargo from low earth orbit (LEO) to low lunar orbit (LLO), in support of NASA's robotic and human exploration missions. Later SEP systems may similarly transport cargo from the earth-moon neighborhood to the Mars neighborhood. This paper will describe the SLASR technology, discuss SLASR developments and ground testing, and outline plans for future SLASR technology maturation.

  9. High-Voltage High-Energy Stretched Lens Array Square-Rigger (SLASR) for Direct-Drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; O'Neill, Mark; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Development is underway on a unique high-voltage, high-energy solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array Square-Rigger (SLASR) for direct drive electric propulsion. The SLASR performance attributes closely match the critical needs of solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems, which may be used for space tugs to fuel-efficiently transport cargo from low earth orbit (LEO) to low lunar orbit (LLO), in support of NASA s robotic and human exploration missions. Later SEP systems may similarly transport cargo from the earth-moon neighborhood to the Mars neighborhood. This paper will describe the SLASR technology, discuss SLASR developments and ground testing, and outline plans for future SLASR technology maturation.

  10. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100kW application. Volume 2: Drawings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, S. J.; French, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system based on 1984 technology and capable of delivering multi-hundred kilowatts (300 kW to 100 kW range) in low Earth orbit. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of 0.5 meters x 0.5 meters. Drawings for the preliminary design configuration and for the test hardware that was fabricated for design evaluation and test are provided.

  11. Second set of solar arrays on the ISS during Expedition 13 / STS-115 Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-14

    S115-E-06052 (14 Sept. 2006) --- Space Shuttle Atlantis astronauts spread a second set of wings for the International Space Station today. The new solar arrays were fully extended at 7:44 a.m. (CDT). The new arrays span a total of 240 feet and have a width of 38 feet. They are attached to the station's newest component, the P3/P4 integrated truss segment. The installation of the P3/P4, which occurred Tuesday, and the deployment of the arrays set the stage for future expansion of the station.

  12. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and anTenna (LISA-T) Big Power for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a space power system using lightweight, flexible photovoltaic devices originally developed for use here on Earth to provide low cost power for spacecraft. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and anTenna (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. The LISA-T system is deployable, building upon NASA's expertise in developing thin-film deployable solar sails such the one being developed for the Near Earth Asteroid Scout project which will fly in 2018. One of the biggest challenges for the NEA Scout, and most other spacecraft, is power. There simply isn't enough of it available, thus limiting the range of operation of the spacecraft from the Sun (due to the small surface area available for using solar cells), the range of operation from the Earth (low available power with inherently small antenna sizes tightly constrain the bandwidth for communication), and the science (you can only power so many instruments with limited power). The LISA-T has the potential to mitigate each of these limitations, especially for small spacecraft. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between their need for power and robust communications with the requirements of the science or engineering payload they are developed to fly. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft and CubeSats. The problem is that these CubeSats can usually only generate between 7W and 50W of power. The power that can be generated by the LISA-T ranges from tens of watts to several hundred watts, at a much higher mass and stowage efficiency. A matrix of options are in development, including planar (pointed) and omnidirectional (non-pointed) arrays. The former is seeking the highest performance possible while the

  13. Phoenix Mars Lander with Solar Arrays Open

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Strategies on solar observation of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) band-1 receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiong, Chau-Ching; Chiang, Po-Han; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Huang, Yau-De

    2016-07-01

    ALMA covering 35-950 GHz is the largest existing telescope array in the world. Among the 10 receiver bands, Band-1, which covers 35-50 GHz, is the lowest. Due to its small dimension and its time-variant frequency-dependent gain characteristics, current solar filter located above the cryostat cannot be applied to Band-1 for solar observation. Here we thus adopt new strategies to fulfill the goals. Thanks to the flexible dc biasing scheme of the HEMT-based amplifier in Band-1 front-end, bias adjustment of the cryogenic low noise amplifier is investigated to accomplish solar observation without using solar filter. Large power handling range can be achieved by the de-tuning bias technique with little degradation in system performance.

  15. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  16. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  17. Development of a model of space station solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosela, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    Space structures, such as the space station solar arrays, must be extremely lightweight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a control system. The tension preload in the blanket of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomena known as grounding, or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. The grounding phenomena is examined in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. Various techniques are used for developing new stiffness matrices from the rigorous solutions of the differential equations, including the solution of the directed force problem. A new directed force stiffness matrix developed by the author provides all the rigid body capabilities for the beam in space.

  18. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Crystal Gowth for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A Workshop on Crystal Growth for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells was held December 3 and 4, 1984, in San Diego, California. The Workshop offered a day and a half of technical presentations and discussions and an afternoon session that involved a panel discussion and general discussion of areas of research that are necessary to the development of materials for high-efficiency solar cells. Topics included the theoretical and experimental aspects of growing high-quality silicon crystals, the effects of growth-process-related defects on photovoltaic devices, and the suitability of various growth technologies as cost-effective processes. Fifteen invited papers were presented, with a discussion period following each presentation. The meeting was organized by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These Proceedings are a record of the presentations and discussions, edited for clarity and continuity.

  19. Qualification of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Solar Array Deployment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Jon

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) solar arrays are placed into orbital configuration by a complex deployment system. Its two wings each comprise twin seven square solar panels located by a twelve foot articulated boom. The four spring-driven hinge lines per wing are rate-limited by viscous dampers. The wings are stowed against the spacecraft kinematically, and released by five pyrotechnically-actuated mechanisms. Since deployment failure would be catastrophic, a total of 17 deployment tests were completed to qualify the system for the worst cast launch environment. This successful testing culminated in the flawless deployment of the solar arrays on orbit, 15 minutes after launch in November 1997. The custom gravity negation system used to perform deployment testing is modular to allow its setup in several locations, including the launch site in Japan. Both platform and height can be varied, to meet the requirements of the test configuration and the test facility. Its air pad floatation system meets tight packaging requirements, allowing installation while stowed against the spacecraft without breaking any flight interfaces, and avoiding interference during motion. This system was designed concurrently with the deployment system, to facilitate its installation, to aid in the integration of the flight system to the spacecraft, while demonstrating deployment capabilities. Critical parameters for successful testing were alignment of deployment axes and tables to gravity, alignment of table seams to minimize discontinuities, and minimizing pressure drops in the air supply system. Orbital performance was similar to that predicted by ground testing.

  20. Detection of very long period solar free oscillations in ambient seismic array noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, R.; Pavlis, G. L.; Thomson, D. J.; Vernon, F.

    2017-12-01

    For nearly two decades long-period seismologists have been aware that the Earth's free oscillations are in a constant state of excitement, even in the absence of large earthquakes. This phenomenon is now called the "Earth's hum," and much research has been done to determine what generates this hum. Here we examine a hypothesis first put forward by Thomson et al. in 2007 that a portion of the hum's energy comes from the sun. They hypothesized that solar free oscillations couple into the solid Earth, likely through electromagnetic processes, and produce signals that are observable in the frequency domain. If this is true, then at least some measurement of helioseismic oscillations may be possible using relatively cheap, ground-based instruments rather than spacecraft. In this project we attempt to improve upon previous studies by producing spectra from seismic arrays, rather than a single station. We use data from two arrays: The Homestake Mine 3D array in Lead, SD, and the Pinyon Flats array, which has seismometers in boreholes drilled into bedrock. Both have exceptionally low noise levels at ultra long periods and show easily visible earth tides on horizontal component data filtered to below the microseism band. In the Homestake data, below 500 μHz we have found evidence of what we suggest may be closely spaced solar g-mode lines. Such modes are produced by a density inversion at the top of the solar core. There is no sign of these modes in the Pinyon Flats data, but we find this is likely due to the signal-to-noise ratio of those data, which is significantly lower than Homestake. Significance tests of bands below 500 μHz indicate with probability levels as high as 40σ that these lines are not the result of random processes. Critical examination of our processing steps for sources of bias indicate that the observed line structure is not a processing artifact.