Science.gov

Sample records for ultraviolet light disinfection

  1. Can pulsed xenon ultraviolet light systems disinfect aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection?

    PubMed

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Villamaria, Frank C; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Brown, Donna S; Liao, I-Chia; Stock, Eileen M; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E

    2015-04-01

    Whereas pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light no-touch disinfection systems are being increasingly used for room disinfection after patient discharge with manual cleaning, their effectiveness in the absence of manual disinfection has not been previously evaluated. Our study indicates that pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light systems effectively reduce aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection. These data are important for hospitals planning to adopt this technology as adjunct to routine manual disinfection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW (NEW ORLEANS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this state-of-the-art review is to examine the performance and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection for combined sewer overflow (CSO) applications. Topics presented include the use of UV light as a disinfecting agent, its practical applications, d...

  3. CHALLENGES OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW DISINFECTION BY ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article examines the performance and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Due to the negative impact of conventional water disinfectants on aquatic life, new agents (e.g., UV light) are being investigated for ...

  4. Disinfection of swine wastewater using chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone.

    PubMed

    Macauley, John J; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig D; Surampalli, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R

    2006-06-01

    Veterinary antibiotics are widely used at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to prevent disease and promote growth of livestock. However, the majority of antibiotics are excreted from animals in urine, feces, and manure. Consequently, the lagoons used to store these wastes can act as reservoirs of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is currently no regulation or control of these systems to prevent the spread of these bacteria and their genes for antibiotic resistance into other environments. This study was conducted to determine the disinfection potential of chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone against swine lagoon bacteria. Results indicate that a chlorine dose of 30 mg/L could achieve a 2.2-3.4 log bacteria reduction in lagoon samples. However, increasing the dose of chlorine did not significantly enhance the disinfection activity due to the presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria. The chlorine resistant bacteria were identified to be closely related to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. A significant percentage of lagoon bacteria were not susceptible to the four selected antibiotics: chlortetracycline, lincomycin, sulfamethazine and tetracycline (TET). However, the presence of both chlorine and TET could inactivate all bacteria in one lagoon sample. The disinfection potential of UV irradiation and ozone was also examined. Ultraviolet light was an effective bacterial disinfectant, but was unlikely to be economically viable due to its high energy requirements. At an ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the bacteria inactivation efficiency could reach 3.3-3.9 log.

  5. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Vilhunen, Sari; Särkkä, Heikki; Sillanpää, Mika

    2009-06-01

    The novel system of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) was studied in water disinfection. Conventional UV lamps, like mercury vapor lamp, consume much energy and are considered to be problem waste after use. UV LEDs are energy efficient and free of toxicants. This study showed the suitability of LEDs in disinfection and provided information of the effect of two emitted wavelengths and different test mediums to Escherichia coli destruction. Common laboratory strain of E. coli (K12) was used and the effects of two emitted wavelengths (269 and 276 nm) were investigated with two photolytic batch reactors both including ten LEDs. The effects of test medium were examined with ultrapure water, nutrient and water, and nutrient and water with humic acids. Efficiency of reactors was almost the same even though the one emitting higher wavelength had doubled optical power compared to the other. Therefore, the effect of wavelength was evident and the radiation emitted at 269 nm was more powerful. Also, the impact of background was studied and noticed to have only slight deteriorating effect. In the 5-min experiment, the bacterial reduction of three to four log colony-forming units (CFU) per cubic centimeter was achieved, in all cases. When turbidity of the test medium was greater, part of the UV radiation was spent on the absorption and reactions with extra substances on liquid. Humic acids can also coat the bacteria reducing the sensitivity of the cells to UV light. The lower wavelength was distinctly more efficient when the optical power is considered, even though the difference of wavelengths was small. The reason presumably is the greater absorption of DNA causing more efficient bacterial breakage. UV LEDs were efficient in E. coli destruction, even if LEDs were considered to have rather low optical power. The effect of wavelengths was noticeable but the test medium did not have much impact. This study found UV LEDs to be an optimal method for bacterial

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A RATIONALLY BASED DESIGN PROTOCOL FOR THE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DISINFECTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A protocol is demonstrated for the design and evaluation of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems based on a mathematical model. The disinfection model incorporates the system's physical dimensions, the residence time distribution of the reactor and dispersion characteristics, th...

  7. ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION STUDIES WITH CCL LISTED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resistance to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. The U.S. drinking water industry is interested in including UV light treatment as an amendment to conventional treatment for disinfecting water supplies. UV disi...

  8. Point-of-use water disinfection using ultraviolet and visible light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lui, Gough Yumu; Roser, David; Corkish, Richard; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-05-15

    Improvements in point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection technologies for remote and regional communities are urgently needed. Conceptually, UV-C light-emitting diodes (LEDs) overcome many drawbacks of low-pressure mercury tube based UV devices, and UV-A or visible light LEDs also show potential. To realistically evaluate the promise of LED disinfection, our study assessed the performance of a model 1.3 L reactor, similar in size to solar disinfection bottles. In all, 12 different commercial or semi-commercial LED arrays (270-740 nm) were compared for their ability to inactivate Escherichia coli K12 ATCC W3110 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 over 6h. Five log10 and greater reductions were consistently achieved using the 270, 365, 385 and 405 nm arrays. The output of the 310 nm array was insufficient for useful disinfection while 430 and 455 nm performance was marginal (≈ 4.2 and 2.3-log10s E. coli and E. faecalis over the 6h). No significant disinfection was observed with the 525, 590, 623, 660 and 740 nm arrays. Delays in log-phase inactivation of E. coli were observed, particularly with UV-A wavelengths. The radiation doses required for >3-log10 reduction of E. coli and E. faecalis differed by 10 fold at 270 nm but only 1.5-2.5 fold at 365-455 nm. Action spectra, consistent with the literature, were observed with both indicators. The design process revealed cost and technical constraints pertaining to LED electrical efficiency, availability and lifetime. We concluded that POU LED disinfection using existing LED technology is already technically possible. UV-C LEDs offer speed and energy demand advantages, while UV-A/violet units are safer. Both approaches still require further costing and engineering development. Our study provides data needed for such work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Portable Ultraviolet Light Surface-Disinfecting Devices for Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections: A Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    2018-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that patients contract while in the hospital that were neither present nor developing at the time of admission. In Canada an estimated 10% of adults with short-term hospitalization have HAIs. According to 2003 Canadian data, between 4% and 6% of these patients die from these infections. The most common HAIs in Ontario are caused by Clostridium difficile . The standard method of reducing and preventing these infections is decontamination of patient rooms through manual cleaning and disinfection. Several portable no-touch ultraviolet (UV) light systems have been proposed to supplement current hospital cleaning and disinfecting practices. We searched for studies published from inception of UV disinfection technology to January 23, 2017. We compared portable UV surface-disinfecting devices used together with standard hospital room cleaning and disinfecting versus standard hospital cleaning and disinfecting alone. The primary outcome was HAI from C. difficile . Other outcomes were combined HAIs, colonization (i.e., carrying an infectious agent without exhibiting disease symptoms), and the HAI-associated mortality rate. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to rate the quality of evidence of included studies. We also performed a 5-year budget impact analysis from the hospital's perspective. This assessment was limited to portable devices and did not examine wall mounted devices, which are used in some hospitals. The database search for the clinical review yielded 10 peer-reviewed publications that met eligibility criteria. Three studies focused on mercury UV-C-based technology, seven on pulsed xenon UV technology. Findings were either inconsistent or produced very low-quality evidence using the GRADE rating system. The intervention was effective in reducing the rate of the composite outcome of HAIs (combined) and colonization (but quality of evidence was low). For the review

  10. Portable Ultraviolet Light Surface-Disinfecting Devices for Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic-Jokic, Milica; Kabali, Conrad; Li, Chunmei; Higgins, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Background Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that patients contract while in the hospital that were neither present nor developing at the time of admission. In Canada an estimated 10% of adults with short-term hospitalization have HAIs. According to 2003 Canadian data, between 4% and 6% of these patients die from these infections. The most common HAIs in Ontario are caused by Clostridium difficile. The standard method of reducing and preventing these infections is decontamination of patient rooms through manual cleaning and disinfection. Several portable no-touch ultraviolet (UV) light systems have been proposed to supplement current hospital cleaning and disinfecting practices. Methods We searched for studies published from inception of UV disinfection technology to January 23, 2017. We compared portable UV surface-disinfecting devices used together with standard hospital room cleaning and disinfecting versus standard hospital cleaning and disinfecting alone. The primary outcome was HAI from C. difficile. Other outcomes were combined HAIs, colonization (i.e., carrying an infectious agent without exhibiting disease symptoms), and the HAI-associated mortality rate. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to rate the quality of evidence of included studies. We also performed a 5-year budget impact analysis from the hospital's perspective. This assessment was limited to portable devices and did not examine wall mounted devices, which are used in some hospitals. Results The database search for the clinical review yielded 10 peer-reviewed publications that met eligibility criteria. Three studies focused on mercury UV-C–based technology, seven on pulsed xenon UV technology. Findings were either inconsistent or produced very low-quality evidence using the GRADE rating system. The intervention was effective in reducing the rate of the composite outcome of HAIs (combined) and colonization (but quality of evidence

  11. Photovoltaic powered ultraviolet and visible light-emitting diodes for sustainable point-of-use disinfection of drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Gough Yumu; Roser, David; Corkish, Richard; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Jagals, Paul; Stuetz, Richard

    2014-09-15

    For many decades, populations in rural and remote developing regions will be unable to access centralised piped potable water supplies, and indeed, decentralised options may be more sustainable. Accordingly, improved household point-of-use (POU) disinfection technologies are urgently needed. Compared to alternatives, ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection is very attractive because of its efficacy against all pathogen groups and minimal operational consumables. Though mercury arc lamp technology is very efficient, it requires frequent lamp replacement, involves a toxic heavy metal, and their quartz envelopes and sleeves are expensive, fragile and require regular cleaning. An emerging alternative is semiconductor-based units where UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are powered by photovoltaics (PV). Our review charts the development of these two technologies, their current status, and challenges to their integration and POU application. It explores the themes of UV-C-LEDs, non-UV-C LED technology (e.g. UV-A, visible light, Advanced Oxidation), PV power supplies, PV/LED integration and POU suitability. While UV-C LED technology should mature in the next 10 years, research is also needed to address other unresolved barriers to in situ application as well as emerging research opportunities especially UV-A, photocatalyst/photosensitiser use and pulsed emission options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the pulsed xenon ultraviolet light no-touch disinfection system effective on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the absence of manual cleaning?

    PubMed

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Villamaria, Frank C; Restrepo, Marcos I; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Liao, I-Chia; Stock, Eileen M; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been shown to survive on ambient surfaces for extended periods of time. Leftover MRSA environmental contamination in a hospital room places future patients at risk. Manual disinfection supplemented by pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) light disinfection has been shown to greatly decrease the MRSA bioburden in hospital rooms. However, the effect of PX-UV in the absence of manual disinfection has not been evaluated. Rooms that were previously occupied by a MRSA-positive patient (current colonization or infection) were selected for the study immediately postdischarge. Five high-touch surfaces were sampled, before and after PX-UV disinfection, in each hospital room. The effectiveness of the PX-UV device on the concentration of MRSA was assessed employing a Wilcoxon signed-rank test for all 70 samples with MRSA in 14 rooms, as well as by surface location. The final analysis included 14 rooms. Before PX-UV disinfection there were a total of 393 MRSA colonies isolated from the 5 high-touch surfaces. There were 100 MRSA colonies after disinfection by the PX-UV device and the overall reduction was statistically significant (P < .01). Our study results suggest that PX-UV light effectively reduces MRSA colony counts in the absence of manual disinfection. These findings are important for hospital and environmental services supervisors who plan to adapt new technologies as an adjunct to routine manual disinfection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ultraviolet disinfection of potable water

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.L.

    Because of upcoming surface and groundwater regulations regarding the control of microbiological and chemical contaminants, there is a need to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for primary disinfection of potable water supplies. Data is presented on microbicidal wavelengths of UV and distribution of energy output for low and medium-pressure arc lamps. Both systems were found to perform equally well for inactivating microorganisms, but each had distinct advantages in different applications. Approximate dosages for 90% inactivation of selected microorganisms by UV is presented in a table. Cost analysis for disinfection is presented in two tables as wellmore » as the advantages and disadvantages of UV disinfection. 38 refs.« less

  14. Evaluation of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet light device for isolation room disinfection in a United Kingdom hospital.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Ian; Madeloso, Rosie; Nagaratnam, Wijayaratnam; Villamaria, Frank; Stock, Eileen; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen transmission from contaminated surfaces can cause hospital-associated infections. Although pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) light devices have been shown to decrease hospital room bioburden in the United States, their effectiveness in United Kingdom (UK) hospitals is less understood. Forty isolation rooms at the Queens Hospital (700 beds) in North London, UK, were sampled for aerobic bacteria after patient discharge, after manual cleaning with a hypochlorous acid-troclosene sodium solution, and after PX-UV disinfection. PX-UV device efficacy on known organisms was tested by exposing inoculated agar plates in a nonpatient care area. Turnaround times for device usage were recorded, and a survey of hospital staff for perceptions of the device was undertaken. After PX-UV disinfection, the bacterial contamination measured in colony forming units (CFU) decreased by 78.4%, a 91% reduction from initial bioburden levels prior to terminal cleaning. PX-UV exposure resulted in a 5-log CFU reduction for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) on spiked plates. The average device turnaround time was 1 hour, with minimal impact on patient throughput. Ward staff were enthusiastic about device deployment, and device operators reported physical comfort in usage. PX-UV use decreased bioburden in patient discharge rooms and on agar plates spiked with MDROs. The implementation of the PX-UV device was well received by hospital cleaning and ward staff, with minimal disruption to patient flow. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultraviolet Light Disinfection in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    adenovirus, Giardia lamblia, Giardia muris , and Cryptosporidium parvum. Adenovirus was evaluated because it is considered the most resistant to...7 reproduce cannot infect and are thereby inactivated. Subsequently, when evaluating UV disinfection capability, Giardia cyst and...0.25 to 20 NTU resulted in a 0.8-log and 0.5-log decrease in inactivation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia , respectively (reference 3). The type of

  16. Comparison of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and low-pressure mercury-arc lamps for disinfection of water.

    PubMed

    Sholtes, Kari A; Lowe, Kincaid; Walters, Glenn W; Sobsey, Mark D; Linden, Karl G; Casanova, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm were evaluated to determine the inactivation kinetics of bacteria, viruses, and spores compared to low-pressure (LP) UV irradiation. Test microbes were Escherichia coli B, a non-enveloped virus (MS-2), and a bacterial spore (Bacillus atrophaeus). For LP UV, 4-log10 reduction doses were: E. coli B, 6.5 mJ/cm(2); MS-2, 59.3 mJ/cm(2); and B. atrophaeus, 30.0 mJ/cm(2). For UV LEDs, the 4-log10 reduction doses were E. coli B, 6.2 mJ/cm(2); MS-2, 58 mJ/cm(2); and B. atrophaeus, 18.7 mJ/cm(2). Microbial inactivation kinetics of the two UV technologies were not significantly different for E. coli B and MS-2, but were different for B. atrophaeus spores. UV LEDs at 260 nm are at least as effective for inactivating microbes in water as conventional LP UV sources and should undergo further development in treatment systems to disinfect drinking water.

  17. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m3 d−1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L−1; n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L−1), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L−1) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  18. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Hladik, Michelle L; Vajda, Alan M; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Douville, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m(3) d(-1) design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration=2.7 μg L(-1); n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration=4.5 μg L(-1)), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration=1.4 μg L(-1)) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative proportions of

  19. Evaluation of a teflon based ultraviolet light system on the disinfection of water in a textile air washer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.; Whisnant, R.B.

    The report provides an in-depth evaluation of an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection unit as applied to the treatment of cooling water in a textile air washer system. The UV unit tests used a teflon tube to transport the aquatic phase. The unit reduced microbial populations and maintained an average level of 10,000 Colony formed unites/mL for the 6-month testing period, without the addition of biocides. No cleaning or other maintenance was required of the wetted surfaces during the testing period. Slime deposits observed on walls of the air washer during chemical treatment were also eliminated. The UV unit can be utilizedmore » on both cooling towers and air washers without extensive installation.« less

  20. Disinfection of low quality wastewaters by ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zukovs, G.; Kollar, J.; Monteith, H.D.

    1986-03-01

    Pilot-scale disinfection of simulated combined sewer overflow (CSO) by ultraviolet light (UV) and by high-rate chlorination were compared. Disinfection efficiency was evaluated over a range of dosages and contact times for fecal coliforms, enterococci, P. Aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp. Fecal coliform were reduced 3.0 to 3.2 logs at a UV dose of approximately 350,000..mu.. W s/cm/sup 2/. High-rate chlorination, at a contact time of 2.0 minutes and total residual chlorine concentration of approximately 25 mg/L (as Cl/sub 2/), reduced fecal coliforms by 4.0 logs. Pathogens were reduced to detection limits by both processes. Neither photoreactivation nor regrowth occurred int hemore » disinfected effluents. The estimated capital costs of CSO disinfection by UV irradiation were consistently higher than for chlorination/dechlorination; operation and maintenance costs were similar. 19 references.« less

  1. Evaluation of an automated ultraviolet-C light disinfection device and patient hand hygiene for reduction of pathogen transfer from interactive touchscreen computer kiosks.

    PubMed

    Alhmidi, Heba; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Piedrahita, Christina T; John, Amrita R; Donskey, Curtis J

    2018-04-01

    Touchscreens are a potential source of pathogen transmission. In our facility, patients and visitors rarely perform hand hygiene after using interactive touchscreen computer kiosks. An automated ultraviolet-C touchscreen disinfection device was effective in reducing bacteriophage MS2, bacteriophage ϕX174, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile spores inoculated onto a touchscreen. In simulations, an automated ultraviolet-C touchscreen disinfection device alone or in combination with hand hygiene reduced transfer of the viruses from contaminated touchscreens to fingertips. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water: particle size effects.

    PubMed

    Winward, G P; Avery, L M; Stephenson, T; Jefferson, B

    2008-02-01

    The impact of water quality on the ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water was investigated with reference to urban water reuse. Direct UV disinfection of grey water did not meet the stringent California State Title 22 criteria for unrestricted urban water reuse due to the presence of particulate material ranging from < 1 to > or = 2000 microm in size. Grey water was manipulated by settling to produce fractions of varying particle size distributions and blending was employed post-disinfection to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs). The efficacy of UV disinfection was found to be linked to the particle size of the grey water fractions. The larger particle size fractions with a mean particle size of 262 microm and above were observed to shield more coliforms from UV light than did the smaller particles with a mean particle size below 119 microm. Up to 70% of total coliforms in the larger particle size fractions were particle-associated following a UV dose (fluence) of 260 mJ.cm(-2) and would remain undetected by standard coliform enumeration techniques. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and recommendations made for grey water treatment to ensure removal of particle-associated indicator bacteria and pathogens prior to UV disinfection.

  3. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  4. Equivalency testing of ultraviolet disinfection for wastewater reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, J.A.; Jacangelo, J.G.; Laine, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    UV light disinfection was shown to continuously provide microbial inactivation equivalent to chlorine while reducing the formation of known carcinogenic disinfection by-products and the formation of chronic whole effluent toxicity. This was the first study to demonstrate UV`s performance relative to chlorination over an extended timeframe at a full-scale facility treating to meet the most stringent California reclamation standards.

  5. Evaluating the impact of LED bulb development on the economic viability of ultraviolet technology for disinfection.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A S; MacAdam, Jitka; Autin, Olivier; Jefferson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) technologies have been very successful in disinfection applications due to their ability to inactivate microorganisms without producing harmful disinfection by-products. However, there have been a number of concerns associated with the use of conventional UV systems such as hazardous mercury content, high capital investment and reduced electrical efficiency. These concerns have set limitations for the use of UV processes. The study evaluates the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology as an alternative UV source over the last 5 years, analyses the projections provided by the researchers and UV LED manufacturers and presents the information in a cost model with the aim to predict the timeline at which UV LED will compete with traditional UV low pressure high output technology in the commercial market at full-scale residential and industrial disinfection applications.

  6. Transmitting and reflecting diffuser. [for ultraviolet light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Burcher, E. E.; Kopia, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A near-Lambertian diffuser is described which transmits and reflects ultraviolet light. An ultraviolet grade fused silica substrate is coated with vaporized fuse silica. The coating thickness is controlled, one thickness causing ultraviolet light to diffuse and another thickness causing ultraviolet light to reflect a near Lambertian pattern.

  7. Evaluation of an ultraviolet room disinfection protocol to decrease nursing home microbial burden, infection and hospitalization rates.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Christine R; Taneli, Yavuz; Neiman, Tammy; Dyer, Elaine M; Arzaga, Alvin Jason A; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2017-03-03

    The focus of nursing home infection control procedures has been on decreasing transmission between healthcare workers and residents. Less evidence is available regarding whether decontamination of high-touch environmental surfaces impacts infection rates or resident outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine if ultraviolet disinfection is associated with changes in: 1) microbial counts and adenosine triphosphate counts on high-touch surfaces; and 2) facility wide nursing home acquired infection rates, and infection-related hospitalization. The study was conducted in one 160-bed long-term care facility. Following discharge of each resident, their room was cleaned and then disinfected using a newly acquired ultraviolet light disinfection device. Shared living spaces received weekly ultraviolet light disinfection. Thirty-six months of pretest infection and hospitalization data were compared with 12 months of posttest data. Pre and posttest cultures were taken from high-touch surfaces, and luminometer readings of adenosine triphosphate were done. Nursing home acquired infection rates were analyzed relative to hospital acquired infection rates using analysis of variance procedures. Wilcoxon signed rank tests, The Cochran's Q, and Chi Square were also used. There were statistically significant decreases in adenosine triphosphate readings on all high-touch surfaces after cleaning and disinfection. Culture results were positive for gram-positive cocci or rods on 33% (n = 30) of the 90 surfaces swabbed at baseline. After disinfectant cleaning, 6 of 90 samples (7.1%) tested positive for a gram-positive bacilli, and after ultraviolet disinfection 4 of the 90 samples (4.4%) were positive. There were significant decreases in nursing home acquired relative to hospital-acquired infection rates for the total infections (p = .004), urinary tract infection rates (p = .014), respiratory system infection rates (p = .017) and for rates of infection of the skin

  8. Ultraviolet disinfection of water for small water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. A.; Seabloom, R. W.; Dewalle, F. B.; Wetzler, T. F.; Engeset, J.

    1985-07-01

    In the study ultraviolet radiation was considered as an alternative means of disinfection of small drinking water supplies. A major impetus for the study was the large increase in waterborne disease episodes in the United States whose etiologic agent, Giardia lamblia, was found to be highly resistant to conventional chlorination. While the germicidal effect of sunlight has long been known, it has been found that artificial UV radiation with a wavelength of 253.7 nm, can be produced by low pressure mercury vapor lamps. The inactivation of microorganisms by UV radiation is based upon photochemical reactions in DNA which result in errors in the coding system. Inactivation of microorganisms due to exposure to UV is proportional to the intensity multiplied by the time of exposure.

  9. Ultraviolet radiation as disinfection for fish surgical tools

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA

    Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelomic cavity of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When fish are implanted consecutively, as in large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. To determine the efficacy for this application, ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used to disinfect surgical tools exposed to one of four aquatic organismsmore » that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, causative agents of furunculosis, coldwater disease, bacterial kidney disease, and saprolegniasis (water mold), respectively. Four experiments were conducted to address the question of UV efficacy. In the first experiment, forceps were exposed to the three bacteria at three varying concentrations. After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods – 2, 5, or 15 min. UV radiation exposures at all durations were effective at killing all three bacteria on forceps at the highest bacteria concentrations. In the second experiment, stab scalpels, sutures, and needle holders were exposed to A. salmonicida using the same methodology as used in Experiment 1. UV radiation exposure at 5 and 15 min was effective at killing A. salmonicida on stab scalpels and sutures but not needle holders. In the third experiment, S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV radiation was effective at killing the water mold at all three exposure durations. Collectively, this study shows that UV

  10. ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION OF A SECONDARY EFFLUENT: MEASUREMENT OF DOSE AND EFFECTS OF FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of wastewater secondary effluent was investigated in a two-phase study to develop methods for measuring UV dose and to determine the effects of filtration on UV disinfection. The first phase of this study involved a pilot plant study comparing filtra...

  11. Saturn's Rings in Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Saturn's Rings in Ultraviolet Light Credit: NASA and E. Karkoschka (University of Arizona) The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute conducts Hubble science operations. Goddard is responsible for HST project management, including mission and science operations, servicing missions, and all associated development activities. To learn more about the Hubble Space Telescope go here: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/main/index.html

  12. Experimental adaptation of human echovirus 11 to ultraviolet radiation leads to resistance to disinfection and ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Carratalà, Anna; Shim, Hyunjin; Zhong, Qingxia; Bachmann, Virginie; Jensen, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ultraviolet light in the UVC range is a commonly used disinfectant to control viruses in clinical settings and water treatment. However, it is currently unknown whether human viral pathogens may develop resistance to such stressor. Here, we investigate the adaptation of an enteric pathogen, human echovirus 11, to disinfection by UVC, and characterized the underlying phenotypic and genotypic changes. Repeated exposure to UVC lead to a reduction in the UVC inactivation rate of approximately 15 per cent compared to that of the wild-type and the control populations. Time-series next-generation sequencing data revealed that this adaptation to UVC was accompanied by a decrease in the virus mutation rate. The inactivation efficiency of UVC was additionally compromised by a shift from first-order to biphasic inactivation kinetics, a form of ‘viral persistence’ present in the UVC resistant and control populations. Importantly, populations with biphasic inactivation kinetics also exhibited resistance to ribavirin, an antiviral drug that, as UVC, interferes with the viral replication. Overall, the ability of echovirus 11 to adapt to UVC is limited, but it may have relevant consequences for disinfection in clinical settings and water treatment plants. PMID:29225923

  13. Evaluation of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection system to decrease bacterial contamination in operating rooms.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ghantoji, Shashank S; Stibich, Mark; Fleming, Jason B; Segal, Cindy; Ware, Kathy M; Chemaly, Roy F

    2017-10-10

    Environmental cleanliness is one of the contributing factors for surgical site infections in the operating rooms (ORs). To decrease environmental contamination, pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV), an easy and safe no-touch disinfection system, is employed in several hospital environments. The positive effect of this technology on environmental decontamination has been observed in patient rooms and ORs during the end-of-day cleaning but so far, no study explored its feasibility between surgical cases in the OR. In this study, 5 high-touch surfaces in 30 ORs were sampled after manual cleaning and after PX-UV intervention mimicking between-case cleaning to avoid the disruption of the ORs' normal flow. The efficacy of a 1-min, 2-min, and 8-min cycle were tested by measuring the surfaces' contaminants by quantitative cultures using Tryptic Soy Agar contact plates. We showed that combining standard between-case manual cleaning of surfaces with a 2-min cycle of disinfection using a portable xenon pulsed ultraviolet light germicidal device eliminated at least 70% more bacterial load after manual cleaning. This study showed the proof of efficacy of a 2-min cycle of PX-UV in ORs in eliminating bacterial contaminants. This method will allow a short time for room turnover and a potential reduction of pathogen transmission to patients and possibly surgical site infections.

  14. Study on a New Ultraviolet Sterilizer to the Surface Disinfection of the Ultrasound Probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui Qiu; Chen, Yu Hao; Yi, Liang; Yin, Jin; Gao, Qiong; Song, Jiang Nan; Li, Shi Kang; Chen, Pei Hou; Guo, Gui Ping

    2018-02-01

    We studied the disinfection effect of a new ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer and its utilization on ultrasound probe surfaces. Carrier quantitative germicidal tests, simulated on-the-spot trials, and organic substance influence tests were used to carry out experimental observation. Artificially infected probes were disinfected using the sterilizer or a germicidal lamp for comparison. The total number and types of bacteria were determined and identified. Our results demonstrated the sterilizer had the best disinfection effect among three different disinfection methods in hospital. The sterilizer has been used in a hospital setting for 2 years with no notable damage to the ultrasound probe instrument. It has the advantages of fast disinfection, high disinfection effect, and good compatibility with the ultrasound instrument, worthy of being a promoted application in medical institutions. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultraviolet light-an FDA approved technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ultraviolet Light (254 nm) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved nonthermal intervention technology that can be used for decontamination of food and food contact surfaces. Ultraviolet light is a green technology that leaves no chemical residues. Results from our laboratory indicate that ex...

  16. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps.

    PubMed

    Sliney, David H; Gilbert, David W; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315-400 nm), "black-light," electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV "Black-light" ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products.

  17. U.S. EPA's Ultraviolet Disinfection Technologies Demonstration Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will give a background on USEPA's Disinfection Technologies Demonstration Study. This will include regulatory background, science background, goals of the project, and ultimate expected outcome of the project. This presentation will preceed a panel discussion ...

  18. MAHLI Calibration Target in Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-07

    During pre-flight testing in March 2011, the Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI camera on NASA Mars rover Curiosity took this image of the MAHLI calibration target under illumination from MAHLI two ultraviolet LEDs light emitting diodes.

  19. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps

    PubMed Central

    Sliney, David H.; Gilbert, David W.; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315–400 nm), “black-light,” electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV “Black-light” ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products. PMID:27043058

  20. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  1. Photocatalytic disinfection of surfaces with copper doped Ti02 nanotube coatings illuminated by ceiling mounted fluorescent light.

    PubMed

    Koklic, Tilen; Pintarič, Štefan; Zdovc, Irena; Golob, Majda; Umek, Polona; Mehle, Alma; Dobeic, Martin; Štrancar, Janez

    2018-01-01

    High economic burden is associated with foodborne illnesses. Different disinfection methods are therefore employed in food processing industry; such as use of ultraviolet light or usage of surfaces with copper-containing alloys. However, all the disinfection methods currently in use have some shortcomings. In this work we show that copper doped TiO2 nanotubes deposited on existing surfaces and illuminated with ceiling mounted fluorescent lights can retard the growth of Listeria Innocua by 80% in seven hours of exposure to the fluorescent lights at different places in a food processing plant or in the laboratory conditions with daily reinocuation and washing. The disinfection properties of the surfaces seem to depend mainly on the temperature difference of the surface and the dew point, where for the maximum effectiveness the difference should be about 3 degrees celsius. The TiO2 nanotubes have a potential to be employed for an economical and continuous disinfection of surfaces.

  2. Photocatalytic disinfection of surfaces with copper doped Ti02 nanotube coatings illuminated by ceiling mounted fluorescent light

    PubMed Central

    Koklic, Tilen; Pintarič, Štefan; Zdovc, Irena; Golob, Majda; Umek, Polona; Mehle, Alma; Dobeic, Martin; Štrancar, Janez

    2018-01-01

    High economic burden is associated with foodborne illnesses. Different disinfection methods are therefore employed in food processing industry; such as use of ultraviolet light or usage of surfaces with copper-containing alloys. However, all the disinfection methods currently in use have some shortcomings. In this work we show that copper doped TiO2 nanotubes deposited on existing surfaces and illuminated with ceiling mounted fluorescent lights can retard the growth of Listeria Innocua by 80% in seven hours of exposure to the fluorescent lights at different places in a food processing plant or in the laboratory conditions with daily reinocuation and washing. The disinfection properties of the surfaces seem to depend mainly on the temperature difference of the surface and the dew point, where for the maximum effectiveness the difference should be about 3 degrees celsius. The TiO2 nanotubes have a potential to be employed for an economical and continuous disinfection of surfaces. PMID:29768464

  3. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  4. Role of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in infection control and environmental cleaning.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Zubair; Yassin, Mohamed H

    2013-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is capable of disinfecting surfaces, water and air. The UV technology was used for many years. However, safer and more effective delivery systems of UV radiation, make it a very useful option for disinfection. Effective disinfection of environmental surfaces is a key step in the prevention of spread of infectious agents. The traditional manual cleaning is essential in assuring adequate elimination of contamination. However, terminal cleaning is frequently suboptimal or unpredictable in many circumstances. UV-C radiation is an adjunctive disinfectant new technology that could kill a wide array of microorganisms including both vegetative and spore forming pathogens. The technology is getting more affordable and has produced consistent reproducible significant reduction of bacterial contamination.

  5. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    DOEpatents

    Manos, Dennis M.; Diggs, Jessie; Ametepe, Joseph D.

    2002-01-29

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  6. Scatter Measurements Made With Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthon, Erik W.

    1985-09-01

    The quality of optical surfaces is generally evaluated by how much light (normally visible light) is scattered by the surface. Most optical glasses and many coating materials are completely opaque to ultraviolet light (253.7 nm). Ultraviolet light tends to scatter much more than visible light. Scatter measurements made with ultraviolet light are therefore very sensitive and the scatter from second surfaces and from the interior (bulk) of the optical material is eliminated by the opacity. A novel scattermeter that operates with ultraviolet light has been developed. The construction and operation of this scattermeter will be described. Cleaning soon becomes the limiting factor when measuring the surfaces with very low level of scatter. Sensitivity to repeated cleaning has been investigated. Different surfaces are compared and uniformity of surfaces is measured by mapping a surface area with an x-y stage. Polished glass surfaces generally have much higher scatter than natural glass surfaces (fire polished, drawn or floated surfaces). Very low scatter levels have been found on thin drawn glass.

  7. Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater by chlorination, ultraviolet, and ozonation disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yao; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the inactivation of two antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)-sul1 and tetG, and the integrase gene of class 1 integrons-intI1 by chlorination, ultraviolet (UV), and ozonation disinfection. Inactivation of sul1, tetG, and intI1 underwent increased doses of three disinfectors, and chlorine disinfection achieved more inactivation of ARGs and intI1 genes (chlorine dose of 160 mg/L with contact time of 120 min for 2.98-3.24 log reductions of ARGs) than UV irradiation (UV dose of 12,477 mJ/cm(2) for 2.48-2.74 log reductions of ARGs) and ozonation disinfection (ozonation dose of 177.6 mg/L for 1.68-2.55 log reductions of ARGs). The 16S rDNA was more efficiently removed than ARGs by ozone disinfection. The relative abundance of selected genes (normalized to 16S rDNA) increased during ozonation and with low doses of UV and chlorine disinfection. Inactivation of sul1 and tetG showed strong positive correlations with the inactivation of intI1 genes (for sul1, R (2)  = 0.929 with p < 0.01; for tetG, R (2)  = 0.885 with p < 0.01). Compared to other technologies (ultraviolet disinfection, ozonation disinfection, Fenton oxidation, and coagulation), chlorination is an alternative method to remove ARGs from wastewater effluents. At a chlorine dose of 40 mg/L with 60 min contact time, the selected genes inactivation efficiency could reach 1.65-2.28 log, and the cost was estimated at 0.041 yuan/m(3).

  8. Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS 2 nanofilms and visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chong; Kong, Desheng; Hsu, Po -Chun

    Here, solar energy is readily available in most climates and can be used for water purification. However, solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS) mostly relies on ultraviolet light, which represents only 4% of total solar energy, and this leads to slow treatment speed. The development of new materials that can harvest visible light for water disinfection, and speed up solar water purification, is therefore highly desirable. Here, we show that few-layered vertically aligned MoS 2 (FLV-MoS 2) films can be used to harvest the whole spectrum of visible light (~ 50% of solar energy) and achieve highly efficient water disinfection.more » The bandgap of MoS 2 was increased from 1.3 eV to 1.55 eV by decreasing the domain size, which allowed the FLV-MoS 2 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for bacterial inactivation in water. The FLV-MoS 2 showed ~15 times better log inactivation efficiency of indicator bacteria compared to bulk MoS 2, and much faster inactivation of bacteria under both visible light and sunlight illumination compared to widely used TiO 2. Moreover, by using a 5 nm copper film on top of the FLV-MoS 2 as a catalyst to facilitate electron-hole pair separation and promote the generation of ROS, the disinfection rate was further increased 6 fold. With our approach, we achieved water disinfection of >99.999% inactivation of bacteria in 20 minutes with a small amount of material (1.6 mg/L) under simulated visible light.« less

  9. Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS 2 nanofilms and visible light

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Chong; Kong, Desheng; Hsu, Po -Chun; ...

    2016-08-15

    Here, solar energy is readily available in most climates and can be used for water purification. However, solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS) mostly relies on ultraviolet light, which represents only 4% of total solar energy, and this leads to slow treatment speed. The development of new materials that can harvest visible light for water disinfection, and speed up solar water purification, is therefore highly desirable. Here, we show that few-layered vertically aligned MoS 2 (FLV-MoS 2) films can be used to harvest the whole spectrum of visible light (~ 50% of solar energy) and achieve highly efficient water disinfection.more » The bandgap of MoS 2 was increased from 1.3 eV to 1.55 eV by decreasing the domain size, which allowed the FLV-MoS 2 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for bacterial inactivation in water. The FLV-MoS 2 showed ~15 times better log inactivation efficiency of indicator bacteria compared to bulk MoS 2, and much faster inactivation of bacteria under both visible light and sunlight illumination compared to widely used TiO 2. Moreover, by using a 5 nm copper film on top of the FLV-MoS 2 as a catalyst to facilitate electron-hole pair separation and promote the generation of ROS, the disinfection rate was further increased 6 fold. With our approach, we achieved water disinfection of >99.999% inactivation of bacteria in 20 minutes with a small amount of material (1.6 mg/L) under simulated visible light.« less

  10. Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chong; Kong, Desheng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yuan, Hongtao; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Liu, Yayuan; Wang, Haotian; Wang, Shuang; Yan, Kai; Lin, Dingchang; Maraccini, Peter A.; Parker, Kimberly M.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Cui, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Solar energy is readily available in most climates and can be used for water purification. However, solar disinfection of drinking water mostly relies on ultraviolet light, which represents only 4% of the total solar energy, and this leads to a slow treatment speed. Therefore, the development of new materials that can harvest visible light for water disinfection, and so speed up solar water purification, is highly desirable. Here we show that few-layered vertically aligned MoS2 (FLV-MoS2) films can be used to harvest the whole spectrum of visible light (∼50% of solar energy) and achieve highly efficient water disinfection. The bandgap of MoS2 was increased from 1.3 to 1.55 eV by decreasing the domain size, which allowed the FLV-MoS2 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for bacterial inactivation in the water. The FLV-MoS2 showed a ∼15 times better log inactivation efficiency of the indicator bacteria compared with that of bulk MoS2, and a much faster inactivation of bacteria under both visible light and sunlight illumination compared with the widely used TiO2. Moreover, by using a 5 nm copper film on top of the FLV-MoS2 as a catalyst to facilitate electron-hole pair separation and promote the generation of ROS, the disinfection rate was increased a further sixfold. With our approach, we achieved water disinfection of >99.999% inactivation of bacteria in 20 min with a small amount of material (1.6 mg l-1) under simulated visible light.

  11. Institutional Tuberculosis Transmission. Controlled Trial of Upper Room Ultraviolet Air Disinfection: A Basis for New Dosing Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mphaphlele, Matsie; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S; Jensen, Paul A; Rudnick, Stephen N; van Reenen, Tobias H; Pagano, Marcello A; Leuschner, Wilhelm; Sears, Tim A; Milonova, Sonya P; van der Walt, Martie; Stoltz, Anton C; Weyer, Karin; Nardell, Edward A

    2015-08-15

    Transmission is driving the global tuberculosis epidemic, especially in congregate settings. Worldwide, natural ventilation is the most common means of air disinfection, but it is inherently unreliable and of limited use in cold climates. Upper room germicidal ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection with air mixing has been shown to be highly effective, but improved evidence-based dosing guidelines are needed. To test the efficacy of upper room germicidal air disinfection with air mixing to reduce tuberculosis transmission under real hospital conditions, and to define the application parameters responsible as a basis for proposed new dosing guidelines. Over an exposure period of 7 months, 90 guinea pigs breathed only untreated exhaust ward air, and another 90 guinea pigs breathed only air from the same six-bed tuberculosis ward on alternate days when upper room germicidal air disinfection was turned on throughout the ward. The tuberculin skin test conversion rates (>6 mm) of the two chambers were compared. The hazard ratio for guinea pigs in the control chamber converting their skin test to positive was 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-8.6), with an efficacy of approximately 80%. Upper room germicidal UV air disinfection with air mixing was highly effective in reducing tuberculosis transmission under hospital conditions. These data support using either a total fixture output (rather than electrical or UV lamp wattage) of 15-20 mW/m(3) total room volume, or an average whole-room UV irradiance (fluence rate) of 5-7 μW/cm(2), calculated by a lighting computer-assisted design program modified for UV use.

  12. Comparison of two whole-room ultraviolet irradiation systems for enhanced disinfection of contaminated hospital patient rooms.

    PubMed

    Ali, S; Yui, S; Muzslay, M; Wilson, A P R

    2017-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light decontamination systems are being used increasingly to supplement terminal disinfection of patient rooms. However, efficacy may not be consistent in the presence of soil, especially against Clostridium difficile spores. To demonstrate in-use efficacy of two whole-room UV decontamination systems against three hospital pathogens with and without soil. For each system, six patient rooms were decontaminated with UV irradiation (enhanced disinfection) following manual terminal cleaning. Total aerobic colony counts of surface contamination were determined by spot-sampling 15 environmental sites before and after terminal disinfection and after UV irradiation. Efficacy against biological indicator coupons (stainless-steel discs) was performed for each system using test bacteria (10 6  cfu EMRSA-15 variant A, carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae) or spores (10 5  cfu C. difficile 027), incorporating low soiling [0.03% bovine serum albumin (BSA)], heavy soiling (10% BSA) or synthetic faeces (C. difficile only) placed at five locations in the room. UV disinfection eliminated contamination after terminal cleaning in 8/14 (57%) and 11/14 (79%) sites. Both systems demonstrated 4-5 log 10 reductions in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and K. pneumoniae at low soiling. Lower and more variable log 10 reductions were achieved when heavy soiling was present. Between 0.1 and 4.8 log 10 reductions in C. difficile spores were achieved with low but not heavy soil challenge. Terminal disinfection should be performed on all surfaces prior to UV decontamination. In-house validation studies should be considered to ensure optimal positioning in each room layout and sufficient cycle duration to eliminate target pathogens. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of hospital room surface disinfection using a novel ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator.

    PubMed

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Gibbs, Shawn G; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Schmid, Kendra K; Lowe, John J

    2016-09-01

    The estimated 721,800 hospital acquired infections per year in the United States have necessitated development of novel environmental decontamination technologies such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, portable UVGI generator (the TORCH, ChlorDiSys Solutions, Inc., Lebanon, NJ) to disinfect surface coupons composed of plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, chrome-plated light switch cover, and a porcelain tile that were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Each surface type was placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room and treated by 10-min ultraviolet-C (UVC) exposures using the TORCH with doses ranging from 0-688 mJ/cm(2) between sites. Organism reductions were compared with untreated surface coupons as controls. Overall, UVGI significantly reduced MRSA by an average of 4.6 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 77% inactivation, p < 0.0001) and VRE by an average of 3.9 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 65% inactivation, p < 0.0001). MRSA on bedrail was reduced significantly (p < 0.0001) less than on other surfaces, while VRE was reduced significantly less on chrome (p = 0.0004) and stainless steel (p = 0.0012) than porcelain tile. Organisms out of direct line of sight of the UVC generator were reduced significantly less (p < 0.0001) than those directly in line of sight. UVGI was found an effective method to inactivate nosocomial pathogens on surfaces evaluated within the hospital environment in direct line of sight of UVGI treatment with variation between organism and surface types.

  14. GALEX 1st Light Far Ultraviolet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-28

    This image was taken May 21 and 22, 2003 by NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image was made from data gathered by the far ultraviolet channel of the spacecraft camera during the mission first light milestone. It shows about 400 celestial objects

  15. Impact of pulsed xenon ultraviolet light on hospital-acquired infection rates in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Pedro G; Dale, Charles R; Simmons, Sarah; Stibich, Mark; Licitra, Carmelo M

    2016-03-01

    The role of contaminated environments in the spread of hospital-associated infections has been well documented. This study reports the impact of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet no-touch disinfection system on infection rates in a community care facility. This study was conducted in a community hospital in Southern Florida. Beginning November 2012, a pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection system was implemented as an adjunct to traditional cleaning methods on discharge of select rooms. The technology uses a xenon flashlamp to generate germicidal light that damages the DNA of organisms in the hospital environment. The device was implemented in the intensive care unit (ICU), with a goal of using the pulsed xenon ultraviolet system for disinfecting all discharges and transfers after standard cleaning and prior to occupation of the room by the next patient. For all non-ICU discharges and transfers, the pulsed xenon ultraviolet system was only used for Clostridium difficile rooms. Infection data were collected for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, C difficile, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). The intervention period was compared with baseline using a 2-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. In non-ICU areas, a significant reduction was found for C difficile. There was a nonsignificant decrease in VRE and a significant increase in methicillin-resistant S aureus. In the ICU, all infections were reduced, but only VRE was significant. This may be because of the increased role that environment plays in the transmission of this pathogen. Overall, there were 36 fewer infections in the whole facility and 16 fewer infections in the ICU during the intervention period than would have been expected based on baseline data. Implementation of pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection is associated with significant decreases in facility-wide and ICU infection rates. These outcomes suggest that enhanced environmental disinfection plays a role in the risk mitigation of hospital

  16. Mechanisms of ultraviolet disinfection and chlorination of Escherichia coli: Culturability, membrane permeability, metabolism, and genetic damage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Limei; Zhang, Chongmiao; Xu, Pengcheng; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2018-03-01

    Traditional culture methods may underestimate the tolerance of microorganisms to disinfectants because of the existence of viable but nonculturable or sublethally injured cells after disinfection. The selection of a strict method is crucial for the evaluation of disinfection performance. The actions of 2 typical disinfectants - ultraviolet (UV) and chlorine - on the fecal indicator Escherichia coli were investigated by the detection of culturability, membrane permeability, metabolic activity, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). During UV disinfection, the irreversible damages in the cell membrane and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were negligible at low UV doses (<80mJ/cm 2 ). However, membrane permeability was damaged at low doses of chlorine (<5mg/L), leading to leakage of cellular ATP. Our study showed that a slight lesion in DNA was detected even at high doses of UV (400mJ/cm 2 ) and chlorine (>5mg/L) treatments. The decay of mRNA was more rapid than that of DNA. The degradation level of mRNA depended on the choice of target genes. After exposure to 50mJ/cm 2 UV dose or 5mg/L chlorine for 30min, the DNA damage repair function (RecA mRNA) was inhibited. The mRNA involved in the DNA damage repair function can be a potential indicator of bacterial viability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Differential toxicity of drinking water disinfected with combinations of ultraviolet radiation and chlorine.

    PubMed

    Plewa, Michael J; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Metz, Deborah H; Kashinkunti, Ramesh; Jamriska, Katherine J; Meyer, Maria

    2012-07-17

    Alternative technologies to disinfect drinking water such as ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are becoming more widespread. The benefits of UV disinfection include reduced risk of microbial pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and reduced production of regulated drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The objective of this research was to determine if mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity varied in response to different chlorination protocols with and without polychromatic medium pressure UV (MPUV) and monochromatic low pressure UV (LPUV) disinfection technologies. The specific aims were to analyze the mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of concentrated organic fractions from source water before and after chlorination and to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the concentrated organic fractions from water samples treated with UV alone or UV before or after chlorination. Exposure of granular activated carbon-filtered Ohio River water to UV alone resulted in the lowest levels of mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. With combinations of UV and chlorine, the lowest levels of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were observed with MPUV radiation. The best combined UV plus chlorine methodology that generated the lowest cytotoxicity and genotoxicity employed chlorination first followed by MPUV radiation. These data may prove important in the development of multibarrier methods of pathogen inactivation of drinking water, while limiting unintended toxic consequences.

  18. GALEX 1st Light Far Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image was taken May 21 and 22 by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image was made from data gathered by the far ultraviolet channel of the spacecraft camera during the mission's 'first light' milestone. It shows about 400 celestial objects, appearing in blue, detected over a 3-minute, 20-second period in the constellation Hercules.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer's first light images are dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Hercules region was directly above Columbia when it made its last contact with NASA Mission Control on February 1, over the skies of Texas.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer launched on April 28 on a mission to map the celestial sky in the ultraviolet and determine the history of star formation in the universe over the last 10 billion years.

  19. Visible light powered self-disinfecting coatings for influenza viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Ding; Qi, Hangfei; Wu, Ting-Ting; Yan, Ming; Sun, Ren; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-04-01

    Influenza A viruses, the pathogens responsible for the recent swine flu outbreak and many historical pandemics, remain a threat to the public health. We report herein the fabrication of self-disinfecting surfaces from photoactive building nanocrystals, which can inactivate influenza viruses rapidly, spontaneously and continuously under visible light illumination.Influenza A viruses, the pathogens responsible for the recent swine flu outbreak and many historical pandemics, remain a threat to the public health. We report herein the fabrication of self-disinfecting surfaces from photoactive building nanocrystals, which can inactivate influenza viruses rapidly, spontaneously and continuously under visible light illumination. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD, UV-Vis absorbance, TEM, AFM of as-prepared nanocrystals and as-fabricated self-disinfecting surfaces, disinfection of influenza A virus by TiO2 (P25) with UV irradiation as reference control, photoinactivation of influenza A virus envelope proteins and photoinactivation of trypsin. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30388d

  20. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOEpatents

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  1. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.; Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

  2. Experimental study on the disinfection efficiencies of a continuous-flow ultrasound/ultraviolet baffled reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Guo, Hao; Li, Zifu; Zhao, Junyuan; Yun, Yupan

    2015-11-01

    A self-designed continuous-flow ultrasound/ultraviolet (US/UV) baffled reactor was tested in this work, and the disinfection efficiency of secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was investigated in terms of the different locations of ultrasonic transducers inside the reactor under similar input power densities and specific energy consumptions. Results demonstrated that the two-stage simultaneous US/UV irradiation in both chambers 2 and 3 at a flow rate of 1200 L/h performed excellent disinfection efficiency. It achieved an average feacal coliforms concentration of 201±78 colony forming unit (CFU)/L in the effluent and an average of (4.24±0.26) log10 reduction. Thereafter, 8 days of continuous operation was performed under such a condition. A total of 31 samples were taken, and all the samples were analyzed in triplicate for feacal coliforms analysis. Experimental results showed that feacal coliforms concentrations remained at about 347±174 CFU/L under the selected optimum disinfection condition, even if the influent concentrations fluctuated from 3.97×10(5) to 3.57×10(6) CFU/L. This finding implied that all effluents of continuous-flow-baffled-reactor with simultaneous US/UV disinfection could meet the requirements of the discharge standard of pollutants for municipal WWTP (GB 18918-2002) Class 1-A (1000 CFU/L) with a specific energy consumption of 0.219 kWh/m(3). Therefore, the US/UV disinfection process has great potential for practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical Devices; General Hospital and Personal Use Devices; Classification of the Ultraviolet Radiation Chamber Disinfection Device. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is classifying the ultraviolet (UV) radiation chamber disinfection device into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the UV radiation chamber disinfection device classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  4. Impact of Ultraviolet Light on Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rasnik K

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is a disorder of the melanocytes that results in a dynamic spectrum of skin depigmentation. Its etiology is complex and multifactorial, with data supporting several different hypotheses. Given its prominent phenotype, vitiligo has a significant negative impact on quality of life. Coupled with the chronic and incurable nature of the disease, this presents a formidable treatment challenge. Several treatment modalities have been instituted over the years, with varying efficacy. This chapter focuses on the use of ultraviolet light in vitiligo as an established therapeutic option.

  5. Elimination of disinfection byproduct formation potential in reclaimed water during solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Qian-Yuan, Wu; Chao, Li; Ye, Du; Wen-Long, Wang; Huang, Huang; Hong-Ying, Hu

    2016-05-15

    Ecological storage of reclaimed water in ponds and lakes is widely applied in water reuse. During reclaimed water storage, solar light can degrade pollutants and improve water quality. This study investigated the effects of solar light irradiation on the disinfection byproduct formation potential in reclaimed water, including haloacetonitriles (HANs), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), trihalomethanes (THMs), haloketones (HKs) and chloral hydrate (CH). Natural solar light significantly decreased the formation potential of HANs, TCNM, and HKs in reclaimed water, but had a limited effect on the formation potential of THMs and CH. Ultraviolet (UV) light in solar radiation played a dominant role in the decrease of the formation potential of HANs, TCNM and HKs. Among the disinfection byproducts, the removal kinetic constant of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) with irradiation dose was much larger than those for dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP), trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) and TCNM. During solar irradiation, fluorescence spectra intensities of reclaimed water also decreased significantly. The removal of tyrosine (Tyr)-like and tryptophan (Trp)-like protein fluorescence spectra intensity volumes was correlated to the decrease in DCAN formation potential. Solar irradiation was demonstrated to degrade Trp, Tyr and their DCAN formation potential. The photolysis products of Trp after solar irradiation were detected as kynurenine and tryptamine, which had chloroform, CH and DCAN formation potential lower than those of Trp. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Cysts from UV Light-Disinfected Wastewater Effluent Using a Nude BALB/c Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Durigan, Mauricio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan of public health interest that causes gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. In the city of Campinas in southeast Brazil, giardiasis is endemic, and this pathogen is detected at high concentrations in wastewater effluents, which are potential reservoirs for transmission. The Samambaia wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Campinas employs an activated sludge system for sewage treatment and ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection of effluents. To evaluate this disinfection process with respect to inactivating G. duodenalis cysts, two sample types were investigated: (i) effluent without UV disinfection (EFL) and (ii) effluent with UV disinfection (EFL+UV). Nude immunodeficient BALB/c mice were intragastrically inoculated with a mean dose of 14 cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from effluent from this WWTP, EFL, or EFL+UV. All animals inoculated with G. duodenalis cysts developed the infection, but animals inoculated with UV-exposed cysts released a lower average concentration of cysts in their faeces than animals inoculated with cysts that were not UV disinfected. Trophozoites were also observed in both groups of animals. These findings suggest that G. duodenalis cysts exposed to UV light were damaged but were still able to cause infection. PMID:27335858

  7. A pulsed light system for the disinfection of flow through water in the presence of inorganic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Mary; Rowan, Neil

    2015-06-01

    The use of ultraviolet (UV) light for water disinfection has become increasingly popular due to on-going issues with drinking water and public health. Pulsed UV light has proved to be an effective form of inactivating a range of pathogens including parasite species. However, there are limited data available on the use of pulsed UV light for the disinfection of flowing water in the absence or presence of inorganic contaminants commonly found in water sources. Here, we report on the inactivation of test species including Bacillus endospores following pulsed UV treatment as a flow through system. Significant levels of inactivation were obtained for both retention times tested. The presence of inorganic contaminants iron and/or manganese did affect the rate of disinfection, predominantly resulting in an increase in the levels of inactivation at certain UV doses. The findings of this study suggest that pulsed UV light may provide a method of water disinfection as it successfully inactivated bacterial cells and bacterial endospores in the absence and presence of inorganic contaminants.

  8. Time Effectiveness of Ultraviolet C Light (UVC) Emitted by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in Reducing Stethoscope Contamination.

    PubMed

    Messina, Gabriele; Fattorini, Mattia; Nante, Nicola; Rosadini, Daniele; Serafini, Andrea; Tani, Marco; Cevenini, Gabriele

    2016-09-23

    Today it is well demonstrated that stethoscopes can be as contaminated as hands, which are a recognized source of Health-Care Associated Infections (HCAIs). Ultraviolet C (UVC) light has proven disinfection capacity and the innovative UVC technology of Light Emitting Diode (LED) shows several potential benefits. To verify whether the use of UVC LEDs is effective and reliable in stethoscope membrane disinfection after prolonged use, a pre-post intervention study was conducted. A total of 1668 five-minute cycles were performed on two UVC LEDs to simulate their use; thereafter, their disinfection capacity was tested on stethoscope membranes used on a previously auscultated volunteer. Then, a further 1249 cycles were run and finally the LEDs were tested to assess performance in reducing experimental contamination by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli on the stethoscope membrane. Baseline volunteer contamination identified 104 Colony Forming Units (CFUs) while treated Petri dishes had 12 and 15 CFUs (p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) were also found relating to the reduction of specific bacteria: in particular, after treatment no CFU were observed for S. aureus and E. coli. UVC LEDs demonstrated the capacity to maintain high levels of disinfection after more than 240 h of use and they were effective against common microorganisms that are causative agents of HCAIs.

  9. Time Effectiveness of Ultraviolet C Light (UVC) Emitted by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in Reducing Stethoscope Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Gabriele; Fattorini, Mattia; Nante, Nicola; Rosadini, Daniele; Serafini, Andrea; Tani, Marco; Cevenini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Today it is well demonstrated that stethoscopes can be as contaminated as hands, which are a recognized source of Health-Care Associated Infections (HCAIs). Ultraviolet C (UVC) light has proven disinfection capacity and the innovative UVC technology of Light Emitting Diode (LED) shows several potential benefits. To verify whether the use of UVC LEDs is effective and reliable in stethoscope membrane disinfection after prolonged use, a pre-post intervention study was conducted. A total of 1668 five-minute cycles were performed on two UVC LEDs to simulate their use; thereafter, their disinfection capacity was tested on stethoscope membranes used on a previously auscultated volunteer. Then, a further 1249 cycles were run and finally the LEDs were tested to assess performance in reducing experimental contamination by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli on the stethoscope membrane. Baseline volunteer contamination identified 104 Colony Forming Units (CFUs) while treated Petri dishes had 12 and 15 CFUs (p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) were also found relating to the reduction of specific bacteria: in particular, after treatment no CFU were observed for S. aureus and E. coli. UVC LEDs demonstrated the capacity to maintain high levels of disinfection after more than 240 h of use and they were effective against common microorganisms that are causative agents of HCAIs. PMID:27669273

  10. Photomorphogenic responses to ultraviolet-B light.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gareth I

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UV-B) light regulates numerous aspects of plant metabolism, morphology and physiology through the differential expression of hundreds of genes. Photomorphogenic responses to UV-B are mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Considerable progress has been made in understanding UVR8 action: the structural basis of photoreceptor function, how interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 initiates signaling and how REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS proteins negatively regulate UVR8 action. In addition, recent research shows that UVR8 mediates several responses through interaction with other signaling pathways, in particular auxin signaling. Nevertheless, many aspects of UVR8 action remain poorly understood. Most research to date has been undertaken with Arabidopsis, and it is important to explore the functions and regulation of UVR8 in diverse plant species. Furthermore, it is essential to understand how UVR8, and UV-B signaling in general, regulates processes under natural growth conditions. Ultraviolet B regulates the expression of many genes through UVR8-independent pathways, but the activity and importance of these pathways in plants growing in sunlight are poorly understood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode Use in Advanced Oxidation Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    or medium pressure mercury lamps , but UV light emitting diodes ( LEDs ) have the capacity to be used for water disinfection also. Traditional mercury...based upon the phosphors that are selected and used to coat the inside of the glass tube from which these lamps are produced. A UV LED is...Research has demonstrated the ability to use UV LEDs in place of mercury lamps to achieve the same 7 disinfection capacity, and limited research has

  12. Far-ultraviolet spectral changes of titanium dioxide with gold nanoparticles by ultraviolet and visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Ichiro; Kurawaki, Yuji

    2018-05-01

    Attenuated total reflectance spectra including the far-ultraviolet (FUV, ≤ 200 nm) region of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with and without gold (Au) nanoparticles were measured. A newly developed external light-irradiation system enabled to observe spectral changes of TiO2 with Au nanoparticles upon light irradiations. Absorption in the FUV region decreased and increased by the irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light, respectively. These spectral changes may reflect photo-induced electron transfer from TiO2 to Au nanoparticles under ultraviolet light and from Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under visible light, respectively.

  13. Surface processing: existing and potential applications of ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Solid foods represent optimal matrices for ultraviolet processing with effects well beyond nonthermal surface disinfection. UV radiation favors hormetic response in plant tissues and degradation of toxic compound on the product surface. Photoinduced reactions can also provide unexplored possibilities to steer structure and functionality of food biopolymers. The possibility to extensively exploit this technology will depend on availability of robust information about efficacious processing conditions and adequate strategies to completely and homogeneously process food surface.

  14. Effect of peracetic acid, ultraviolet radiation, nanofiltration-chlorine in the disinfection of a non conventional source of water (Tula Valley).

    PubMed

    Trujillo, J; Barrios, J A; Jimenez, B

    2008-01-01

    Water supply for human consumption requires certain quality that reduces health risks to consumers. In this sense, the process of disinfection plays an important role in the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms. Even though chlorination is the most applied process based on its effectiveness and cost, its application is being questioned considering the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Therefore, alternative disinfectants are being evaluated and some treatment processes have been proposed to remove DBPs precursors (organic matter. This paper reports the results of disinfection of a non conventional source of water (aquifer recharged unintentionally with raw wastewater) with peracetic acid (PAA) and ultraviolet radiation (UV) as well as nanofiltration (NF) followed by chlorination to produce safe drinking water. The results showed that a dose of 2 mg/L PAA was needed to eliminate total and faecal coliforms. For UV light, a dose of 12.40 mWs/cm2 reduced total and faecal coliforms below the detection limit. On the other hand, chlorine demand of water before NF was 1.1-1.3 mg/L with a trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of 118.62 microg/L, in contrast with chlorination after NF where the demand was 0.5 mg/L and THMFP of 17.64 microg/L. The recommended scheme is nanofiltration + chlorination.

  15. Solar light irradiation significantly reduced cytotoxicity and disinfection byproducts in chlorinated reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Xue; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2017-11-15

    Chlorinated reclaimed water is widely used for landscaping and recreational purposes, resulting in human exposure to toxic disinfection byproducts. Although the quality of chlorinated reclaimed water might be affected by sunlight during storage, the effects of solar light irradiation on the toxicity remain unknown. This study investigated the changes in cytotoxicity and total organic halogen (TOX) of chlorinated reclaimed water exposed to solar light. Irradiation with solar light for 12 h was found to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of chlorinated reclaimed water by about 75%, with ultraviolet light being responsible for the majority of this reduction. Chlorine residual in reclaimed water tended to increase the cytotoxicity, and the synergy between solar light and free chlorine could not enhance the reduction of cytotoxicity. Adding hydroxyl radical scavengers revealed that the contribution of hydroxyl radical to cytotoxicity reduction was limited. Solar light irradiation concurrently reduced TOX. The low molecular weight (<1 kDa) fraction was the major contributor of cytotoxicity and TOX in chlorinated reclaimed water. Detoxification of the low molecular weight fraction by light irradiation was mainly a result of TOX dehalogenation, while detoxification of the high molecular weight (>1 kDa) fraction was probably caused by photoconversion from high toxic TOX to low toxic TOX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Light shield and cooling apparatus. [high intensity ultraviolet lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, T. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A light shield and cooling apparatus was developed for a high intensity ultraviolet lamp including water and high pressure air for cooling and additional apparatus for shielding the light and suppressing the high pressure air noise.

  17. Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode Optical Power Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    radicals and use the radicals to break down hazardous chemicals. The second project that will be referenced is the drinking water disinfection ...measurements to understand the voltage needed to maximize the UV LEDs performance for the disinfection of drinking water and the production of...way to produce safe drinking water is not only a priority of almost every residential community in the United States, but the Department of Defense

  18. Assessing point-of-use ultraviolet disinfection for safe water in urban developing communities.

    PubMed

    Barstow, Christina K; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Residents of urban developing communities often have a tap in their home providing treated and sometimes filtered water but its microbial quality cannot be guaranteed. Point-of-use (POU) disinfection systems can provide safe drinking water to the millions who lack access to clean water in urban communities. While many POU systems exist, there are several concerns that can lead to low user acceptability, including low flow rate, taste and odor issues, high cost, recontamination, and ineffectiveness at treating common pathogens. An ultraviolet (UV) POU system was constructed utilizing developing community-appropriate materials and simple construction techniques based around an inexpensive low-wattage, low pressure UV bulb. The system was tested at the bench scale to characterize its hydrodynamic properties and microbial disinfection efficacy. Hydraulically the system most closely resembled a plug flow reactor with minor short-circuiting. The system was challenge tested and validated for a UV fluence of 50 mJ/cm(2) and greater, over varying flow rates and UV transmittances, corresponding to a greater than 4 log reduction of most pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa of public health concern. This study presents the designed system and testing results to demonstrate the potential architecture of a low-cost, open-source UV system for further prototyping and field-testing.

  19. Disinfection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Schiavano, Giuditta Fiorella; De Santi, Mauro; Sisti, Maurizio; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio

    2017-09-13

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are resistant to conventional water treatments, and are opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in hospitalized patients. The aim of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet UV-C lamp treatment against Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water. Ultraviolet treatments (0-192 mJ/cm 2 ) were performed using UV lamp immerged onto cylindrical glass tubes containing artificially contaminated water. The results showed that susceptibility to UV varied considerably according to the strains and the diameter of the tube. With a dose of 32 mJ/cm 2 , a significant inactivation (p < .05) of 3 log (99.9%) or more was obtained in only 5 of the 14 strains. To obtain a complete inactivation of all strains an irradiation of 192 mJ/cm 2 was needed, a dose that is much higher than the limits recommended by the international standards for UV disinfection of drinking water. In conclusion, it may be difficult to standardize a UV dose for the elimination of waterborne mycobacteria.

  20. Novel Ultraviolet Light Absorbing Polymers For Optical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddi, Namassivaya; Yamada, Akira; Dunks, Gary B.

    1988-07-01

    Ultraviolet light absorbing monomers have been developed that can be copolymerized with acrylates. The composition of the resultant stable copolymers can be adjusted to totally block the transmission of light below about 430 nm. Fabrication of lenses from the materials is accomplished by lathe cutting and injection molding procedures. These ultraviolet light absorbing materials are non-mutagenic and non-toxic and are currently being used in intraocular lenses.

  1. Saturn's E Ring in Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Visible from Earth only at times of ring plane crossing, Saturn's tenuous E Ring was discovered during the 1966 crossings and imaged again in 1980. From these observations, its color is known to be distinctively blue. The E Ring was captured in ultraviolet light for the first time in this image taken with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera on 9 August 1995. Five individual images taken with a broadband 3000 A filter were combined, amounting to a total exposure time of 2200 sec. Shorter exposure images were also obtained with blue, red and infrared filters in order to characterize the ring's color. The peak brightness of the E Ring occurs at 3.9 Saturn radii (235,000 km), coinciding with the orbit of Enceladus. In the HST images it can be traced out to a maximum distance of approximately 8 Rs (480,000 km). The vertical thickness of the ring, on the other hand, is smallest at Enceladus' orbit, with the ring puffing up noticeably at larger distances to 15,000 km or more thick. Also visible in this image, between the E Ring and the overexposed outermost part of the main rings near the lower edge of the frame, is the tenuous, thin, 6000 km-wide G Ring at 2.8 Rs (170,000 km). This is among the first earth-based observations of the G Ring, which was discovered by the Pioneer 11 spacecraft in 1979. Noticeably thinner than the E Ring and more neutral in color, the G Ring is thought to be composed of larger, macroscopic particles, and to pose a significant hazard to spacecraft. The faint diagonal band in the lower right part of the image is due to diffracted light from the heavily-overexposed planet. Credit: Phil Nicholson (Cornell University), Mark Showalter (NASA-Ames/Stanford) and NASA

  2. Water Treatment Using Advanced Ultraviolet Light Sources Final Report CRADA No. TC02089.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppes, W.; Oster, S.

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Teknichal Services, LLC (TkS), to develop water treatment systems using advanced ultraviolet light sources. The Russian institutes involved with this project were The High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) and Russian Institute of Technical Physics-Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF). HCEI and VNIIEF developed and demonstrated the potential commercial viability of short-wavelength ultraviolet excimer lamps under a Thrust 1 Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) Program. The goals of this collaboration were to demonstrate both the commercial viability of excilampbased watermore » disinfection and achieve further substantial operational improvement in the lamps themselves; particularly in the area of energy efficiency.« less

  3. Comparison of UV C light and chemicals for disinfection of surfaces in hospital isolation units.

    PubMed

    Andersen, B M; Bånrud, H; Bøe, E; Bjordal, O; Drangsholt, F

    2006-07-01

    To determine the bactericidal effect on surfaces of ceiling- and wall-mounted UV C (UVC) light (wavelength, 254 nm) in isolation units, compared with standard hospital environmental cleaning and chemical disinfection during final disinfection after patients are treated for infections. Microbial samples were obtained from surfaces in isolation units (patient room, anteroom, and bathroom) before and after irradiation with UVC, chloramine disinfection, and standard hospital environmental cleaning. Samples were tested using standard contact plates. Four identical, negative air-pressure isolation units (patient room, anteroom, and bathroom) with a defined number of ceiling- and wall-mounted UVC light units. The UVC distribution was monitored in one isolation unit after irradiation for approximately 40 minutes, corresponding to doses ranging from 160 J/m2 in a shadowed area to 19,230 J/m2 at the mostly highly exposed site (which is high enough to inactivate most bacterial organisms, including spores). UVC disinfection significantly reduced the number of bacteria on surfaces directly or indirectly exposed to UVC to a very low number, as did 5% chloramine disinfection alone (P<.001 for both). Completely shadowed areas in the isolation unit (eg, the bed rail, lockers, and mattresses) still required disinfection by chemicals. Disinfection with UVC light may significantly reduce environmental bacterial contamination and thereby protect the next patient housed in an isolation room. UVC disinfection may not be used alone but is a good addition to chemical disinfection.

  4. Evaluation of the Solar Water Disinfection Method Using an Ultraviolet Measurement Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, H.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water security is a growing problem for the population of planet Earth. According to WHO, more than 750 million people on our planet lack access to safe drinking water, resulting in approximately 502,000 diarrhoea deaths in 2012. In order to solve this problem, the Swiss water research institute, Eawag, has developed a method of solar water disinfection, called, "SODIS" The theory of SODIS is simple to understand: a clear plastic bottle filled with water is placed under full sunlight for at least 6 hours. The ultraviolet radiation kills the pathogens in the water, making the originally contaminated water safe for drinking. In order to improve this method, Helioz, an Austrian social enterprise, has created the WADI, a UV measurement device which determines when water is safe for drinking using the SODIS method. When using the WADI, the device should be placed under the sun and surrounded with bottles of water that need to be decontaminated. There is a UV sensor on the WADI, and since the bottles of water and the WADI will have equal exposure to sunlight, the WADI will be able to measure the impact of the sunlight on the contaminated water. This experiment tests the accuracy of the WADI device regarding the time interval needed for contaminated water to be disinfected. The experiment involves using the SODIS method to purify bottles of water contaminated with controlled samples of E. coli. Samples of the water are taken at different time intervals, and the E. coli levels are determined by growing the bacteria from the water samples on agar plates. Ultimately, this helps determine when the water is safe for drinking, and are compared against the WADI's measurements to test the reliability of the device.

  5. Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm after ultraviolet light-emitting diode treatment: a comparative study between ultraviolet C and ultraviolet B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test the inactivation efficiency of two different light-based treatments, namely ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages (24, 48, and 72 h grown). In our experiments, a type of AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms. The effectiveness of the UVB at 296 nm and UVC at 266 nm irradiations was quantified by counting colony-forming units. The survival of less mature biofilms (24 h grown) was studied as a function of UV-radiant exposure. All treatments were performed on three different biological replicates to test reproducibility. It was shown that UVB irradiation was significantly more effective than UVC irradiation in inactivating P. aeruginosa biofilms. UVC irradiation induced insignificant inactivation on mature biofilms. The fact that the UVB at 296 nm exists in daylight and has such disinfection ability on biofilms provides perspectives for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  6. Disinfection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, J. P.; Haas, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater disinfection for 1978. This review covers areas such as: (1) mechanisms of inactivation of negative microorganisms by chlorine and ozone; and (2) the effects of various treatment on over-all water quality. A list of 61 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the disinfection process in drinking water treatment is the inactivation of microbial pathogens. These pathogens comprise a diverse group of organisms which serve as the etiological agents of waterborne disease. Included in this group are bacterial, viral and ...

  8. Far-ultraviolet spectral changes of titanium dioxide with gold nanoparticles by ultraviolet and visible light.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Ichiro; Kurawaki, Yuji

    2018-05-15

    Attenuated total reflectance spectra including the far-ultraviolet (FUV, ≤200nm) region of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) with and without gold (Au) nanoparticles were measured. A newly developed external light-irradiation system enabled to observe spectral changes of TiO 2 with Au nanoparticles upon light irradiations. Absorption in the FUV region decreased and increased by the irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light, respectively. These spectral changes may reflect photo-induced electron transfer from TiO 2 to Au nanoparticles under ultraviolet light and from Au nanoparticles to TiO 2 under visible light, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of a low-cost, point-of-use, ultraviolet water disinfection technology.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Sarah A; Chakrabarti, Alicia R; Kaser, Forest M; Connelly, Lloyd G; Peletz, Rachel L; Reygadas, Fermin; Lang, Micah J; Kammen, Daniel M; Nelson, Kara L

    2008-03-01

    We describe a point-of-use (POU) ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology, the UV Tube, which can be made with locally available resources around the world for under $50 US. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to characterize the UV Tube's performance when treating a flowrate of 5 L/min. Based on biological assays with MS2 coliphage, the UV Tube delivered an average fluence of 900+/-80 J/m(2) (95% CI) in water with an absorption coefficient of 0.01 cm(-1). The residence time distribution in the UV Tube was characterized as plug flow with dispersion (Peclet Number = 19.7) and a mean hydraulic residence time of 36 s. Undesirable compounds were leached or produced from UV Tubes constructed with unlined ABS, PVC, or a galvanized steel liner. Lining the PVC pipe with stainless steel, however, prevented production of regulated halogenated organics. A small field study in two rural communities in Baja California Sur demonstrated that the UV Tube reduced E. coli concentrations to less than 1/100 ml in 65 out of 70 samples. Based on these results, we conclude that the UV Tube is a promising technology for treating household drinking water at the point of use.

  10. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOEpatents

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  11. Impact of pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection on surface contamination in a hospital facility's expressed human milk feed preparation area.

    PubMed

    Dippenaar, Ricky; Smith, Johan

    2018-02-23

    Expressed human milk (EHM) feed preparation areas represent a potential source of unintentional nosocomial infection. Daily disinfection of environmental surfaces remains an essential intervention to mitigate nosocomial infections. The inefficiency of conventional cleaning and disinfection contributes to an increased risk for the acquisition of multi-drug resistant pathogens. "Non touch" technologies such as the pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UVD) light device have documented sustained reduction in surface bacterial colonization and reduced cross contamination. The impact of a PX-UVD on surface colony forming units per square centimeter (cfu/cm 2 ) in feed preparation areas was evaluated following its implementation as standard care. A quasi-experimental study was performed documenting bacterial colonization from 6 high risk feed preparation areas in a community care hospital in South Africa. Pre and post conventional cleaning neutralizing rinse swabs were collected fortnightly over a 16 week control period prior to the introduction of the PX-UVD and compared to a matching set of samples for the PX-UVD period. A 90% reduction in total surface bioburden was noted from the control period (544 cfu/cm 2 ) compared to the corresponding PX-UVD period (50 cfu/cm 2 ). Sub -analysis of both the Pre-clean Control: Pre-clean PX-UVD counts as well as the Post-clean Control: Post-clean PX-UVD counts noted significant improvements (p < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement was noted between pre-and post-cleaning total surface bioburden following exposure to the PX-UVD (p = 0.0004). The introduction of the PX-UVD was associated with a sustained reduction in the pre clean bioburden counts with a risk trend (per week) 0.19, (95% CI [0.056, 0.67], p = 0.01). The use of a PX-UVD as adjunct to standard cleaning protocols was associated with a significant decrease in surface bioburden. The study demonstrated the inefficiency of conventional cleaning. Persistence

  12. Metagenomic insights into ultraviolet disinfection effects on antibiotic resistome in biologically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Jia, Shuyu; Huang, Kailong; Tang, Junying; Shi, Peng; Ye, Lin; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-09-15

    High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomic approaches were used to comprehensively investigate ultraviolet effects on the microbial community structure, and diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in biologically treated wastewater. After ultraviolet radiation, some dominant genera, like Aeromonas and Halomonas, in the wastewater almost disappeared, while the relative abundance of some minor genera including Pseudomonas and Bacillus increased dozens of times. Metagenomic analysis showed that 159 ARGs within 14 types were detectable in the samples, and the radiation at 500 mJ/cm(2) obviously increased their total relative abundance from 31.68 ppm to 190.78 ppm, which was supported by quantitative real time PCR. As the dominant persistent ARGs, multidrug resistance genes carried by Pseudomonas and bacitracin resistance gene bacA carried by Bacillus mainly contributed to the ARGs abundance increase. Bacterial community shift and MGEs replication induced by the radiation might drive the resistome alteration. The findings may shed new light on the mechanism behind the ultraviolet radiation effects on antibiotic resistance in wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Ultraviolet Disinfection in the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Sarah; Dale, Charles; Holt, James; Velasquez, Katie; Stibich, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The role of the environment in surgical site infections is surprisingly understudied. UV disinfection holds promise for reducing the level of contamination in operating rooms and thereby lowering the risk of infection for patients. Issues such as the frequency, amount and locations for UV disinfection to have an impact on the risk of surgical site infection are recently emerging in the literature. As technologies and knowledge improve, UV disinfection will have a role to play in operating rooms in the future.

  14. Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors for Disinfection in Drinking Water Systems - presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens found in source waters with the potential as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. For surface and groundwater sourced drinking water applications, the U.S. Environmental...

  15. GALEX 1st Light Near and Far Ultraviolet -100

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-28

    NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer took this image on May 21 and 22, 2003. The image was made from data gathered by the two channels of the spacecraft camera during the mission's "first light" milestone. It shows about 100 celestial objects in the constellation Hercules. The reddish objects represent those detected by the camera's near ultraviolet channel over a 5-minute period, while bluish objects were detected over a 3-minute period by the camera's far ultraviolet channel. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer's first light images are dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Hercules region was directly above Columbia when it made its last contact with NASA Mission Control on February 1, over the skies of Texas. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer launched on April 28 on a mission to map the celestial sky in the ultraviolet and determine the history of star formation in the universe over the last 10 billion years. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04281

  16. GALEX 1st Light Near Ultraviolet -50

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-28

    This image was taken May 21 and 22, 2003, by NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image was made from data gathered by the two channels of the spacecraft camera during the mission first light milestone.

  17. GALEX 1st Light Near Ultraviolet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-28

    This image was taken on May 21 and 22, 2003, by NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image was made from data gathered during the missions first light milestone, and shows celestial objects in the constellation Hercules.

  18. Effectiveness of automated ultraviolet-C light for decontamination of textiles inoculated with Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Smolle, C; Huss, F; Lindblad, M; Reischies, F; Tano, E

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare textiles are increasingly recognized as potential vehicles for transmission of hospital-acquired infections. This study tested the ability of an automated ultraviolet-C (UV-C) room disinfection device (Tru-D Smart UV-C) to decontaminate textiles inoculated with Enterococcus faecium in a clinical setting. Contaminated polycotton (50/50 polyester/cotton) swatches were distributed to predefined locations in a ward room and exposed to UV-C light. UV-C decontamination reduced E. faecium counts by a mean log 10 reduction factor of 1.37 (all P = 0.005, Wilcoxon signed rank test). UV-C decontamination may be a feasible adjunctive measure to conventional laundering to preserve the cleanliness of healthcare textiles in ward rooms. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventing Ultraviolet Light-Induced Damage: The Benefits of Antioxidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of fruit peels contain antioxidants that protect the bacterium "Escherichia coli" against damage induced by ultraviolet light. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals, thus preventing oxidative damage to cells and deoxyribonucleic acid. A high survival rate of UV-exposed cells was observed when grapefruit or grape peel extract was…

  20. MAHLI First Night Imaging of Martian Rock Under Ultraviolet Lighting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-24

    This image of a Martian rock dubbed Sayunei is illuminated by ultraviolet LEDs light emitting diodes is part of the first set of nighttime images taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imagery camera at the end of the robotic arm of NASA Mars rover Curiosity.

  1. Applications of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation disinfection in health care facilities: effective adjunct, but not stand-alone technology.

    PubMed

    Memarzadeh, Farhad; Olmsted, Russell N; Bartley, Judene M

    2010-06-01

    This review evaluates the applicability and relative contribution of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to disinfection of air in health care facilities. A section addressing the use of UVGI for environmental surfaces is also included. The germicidal susceptibility of biologic agents is addressed, but with emphasis on application in health care facilities. The balance of scientific evidence indicates that UVGI should be considered as a disinfection application in a health care setting only in conjunction with other well-established elements, such as appropriate heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; dynamic removal of contaminants from the air; and preventive maintenance in combination with through cleaning of the care environment. We conclude that although UVGI is microbiocidal, it is not "ready for prime time" as a primary intervention to kill or inactivate infectious microorganisms; rather, it should be considered an adjunct. Other factors, such as careful design of the built environment, installation and effective operation of the HVAC system, and a high level of attention to traditional cleaning and disinfection, must be assessed before a health care facility can decide to rely solely on UVGI to meet indoor air quality requirements for health care facilities. More targeted and multiparameter studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and incremental benefit of UVGI for mitigating reservoirs of microorganisms and ultimately preventing cross-transmission of pathogens that lead to health care-associated infections. (c) 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of coupled wavelength ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for inactivation of bacteria in subsea oil-field injection water.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yang; Chen, Daoyi; Wen, Diya

    2018-06-04

    The development of subsea injection water disinfection systems will enable the novel exploration of offshore oilfields. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) with peak wavelengths at 255 nm, 280 nm, 350 nm, and combinations of 255 nm and 350 nm, and 280 nm and 350 nm were investigated in this study to determine their efficiency at disinfecting saprophytic bacteria, iron bacteria, and sulfate reducing bacteria. Results show that UV-LEDs with peak wavelengths at 280 nm were the most practical in this domain because of their high performance in both energy-efficiency and reactivation suppression, although 255 nm UV-LEDs achieved an optimal germicidal effect in dose-based experiments. The use of combined 280 nm and 350 nm wavelengths also induced synergistic bactericidal effects on saprophytic bacteria. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Wastewater disinfection alternatives: chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid, and UV light.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M; Citterio, S; Nurizzo, C

    2007-11-01

    Disinfection tests were carried out at pilot scale to compare the disinfection efficiency of ozone, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), peracetic acid (PAA), and UV irradiation. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were monitored as reference microorganisms. Total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) were also enumerated by cytometry. At similar doses, NaOCl was more effective than PAA, and its action was less affected by contact time. The results obtained by ozonation were comparable for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and E. coli. On the contrary, some differences among the three indicators were observed for NaOCl, PAA, and UV. Differences increased with increasing values of the disinfectant concentration times contact time (C x t) and were probably the result of different initial counts, as total coliforms include fecal coliforms, which include E. coli. The UV irradiation lead to complete E. coli removals, even at low doses (10 to 20 mJ/cm2). Total heterotrophic bacteria appeared to be too wide a group to be a good disinfection indicator; no correlation was found among THB inactivation, dose, and contact time.

  4. The influence of the environment and clothing on human exposure to ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of clothing and the environment on human exposure to ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensity was measured, and air quality parameters were recorded in 2014 in Beijing, China. Three types of clothing (white polyester cloth, pure cotton white T-shirt, and pure cotton black T-shirt) were individually placed on a mannequin. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensities were measured above and beneath each article of clothing, and the percentage of ultraviolet light transmission through the clothing was calculated. (1) The ultraviolet light transmission was significantly higher through white cloth than through black cloth; the transmission was significantly higher through polyester cloth than through cotton. (2) The weather significantly influenced ultraviolet light transmission through white polyester cloth; transmission was highest on clear days and lowest on overcast days (ultraviolet A: P=0.000; ultraviolet B: P=0.008). (3) Air quality parameters (air quality index and particulate matter 2.5 and 10) were inversely related to the ultraviolet light intensity that reached the earth's surface. Ultraviolet B transmission through white polyester cloth was greater under conditions of low air pollution compared with high air pollution. Clothing color and material and different types of weather affected ultraviolet light transmission; for one particular cloth, the transmission decreased with increasing air pollution.

  5. The Influence of the Environment and Clothing on Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Light

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objection The aim of this study is to determine the effect of clothing and the environment on human exposure to ultraviolet light. Methods The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensity was measured, and air quality parameters were recorded in 2014 in Beijing, China. Three types of clothing (white polyester cloth, pure cotton white T-shirt, and pure cotton black T-shirt) were individually placed on a mannequin. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensities were measured above and beneath each article of clothing, and the percentage of ultraviolet light transmission through the clothing was calculated. Results (1) The ultraviolet light transmission was significantly higher through white cloth than through black cloth; the transmission was significantly higher through polyester cloth than through cotton. (2) The weather significantly influenced ultraviolet light transmission through white polyester cloth; transmission was highest on clear days and lowest on overcast days (ultraviolet A: P=0.000; ultraviolet B: P=0.008). (3) Air quality parameters (air quality index and particulate matter 2.5 and 10) were inversely related to the ultraviolet light intensity that reached the earth’s surface. Ultraviolet B transmission through white polyester cloth was greater under conditions of low air pollution compared with high air pollution. Conclusion Clothing color and material and different types of weather affected ultraviolet light transmission; for one particular cloth, the transmission decreased with increasing air pollution. PMID:25923778

  6. Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent with peracetic acid and ultraviolet combined treatment: a continuous-flow pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    González, Abelardo; Gehr, Ronald; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo

    2012-03-01

    Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using a continuous-flow combined peracetic acid/ultraviolet (PAA/UV) radiation system was evaluated. The purpose was to determine whether the maximum microbial content, established under Mexican standards for treated wastewaters meant for reuse--less than 240 most probable number fecal coliforms (FC)/100 mL--could be feasibly accomplished using either disinfectant individually, or the combined PAA/UV system. This meant achieving reduction of up to 5 logs, considering initial concentrations of 6.4 x 10(+6) to 5.8 x 10(+7) colony forming units/100 mL. During the tests performed under these experiments, total coliforms (TC) were counted because FC, at the most, will be equal to TC. Peracetic acid disinfection achieved less than 1.5 logs TC reduction when the C(t) x t product was less than 2.26 mg x minimum (min)/L; 3.8 logs for C(t) x t 4.40 mg x min/L; and 5.9 logs for C(t) x t 24.2 mg x min/L. In continuous-flow UV irradiation tests, at a low-operating flow (21 L/min; conditions which produced an average UV fluence of 13.0 mJ/cm2), the highest TC reduction was close to 2.5 logs. The only condition that produced a disinfection efficiency of approximately 5 logs, when both disinfection agents were used together, was the combined process dosing 30 mg PAA/L at a pilot plant flow of 21 L/min and contact time of 10 minutes to attain an average C(t) x t product of 24.2 mg x min/L and an average UV fluence of 13 mJ/cm2. There was no conclusive evidence of a synergistic effect when both disinfectants were employed in combination as compared to the individual effects achieved when used separately, but this does not take into account the nonlinearity (tailing-off) of the dose-response curve.

  7. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  8. Design Considerations for a Water Treatment System Utilizing Ultra-Violet Light Emitting Diodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR A WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM UTILIZING ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT EMITTING DIODES...the United States. ii AFIT-ENV-14-M-58 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR A WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM UTILIZING ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT EMITTING DIODES...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. iii AFIT-ENV-14-M-58 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR A WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM UTILIZING ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT EMITTING

  9. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfectionmore » process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.« less

  10. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfectionmore » process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.« less

  11. HUBBLE IDENTIFIES SOURCE OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT IN AN OLD GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope's exquisite resolution has allowed astronomers to resolve, for the first time, hot blue stars deep inside an elliptical galaxy. The swarm of nearly 8,000 blue stars resembles a blizzard of snowflakes near the core (lower right) of the neighboring galaxy M32, located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. Hubble confirms that the ultraviolet light comes from a population of extremely hot helium-burning stars at a late stage in their lives. Unlike the Sun, which burns hydrogen into helium, these old stars exhausted their central hydrogen long ago, and now burn helium into heavier elements. The observations, taken in October 1998, were made with the camera mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in ultraviolet light. The STIS field of view is only a small portion of the entire galaxy, which is 20 times wider on the sky. For reference, the full moon is 70 times wider than the STIS field-of-view. The bright center of the galaxy was placed on the right side of the image, allowing fainter stars to be seen on the left side of the image. These results are to be published in the March 1, 2000 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Thirty years ago, the first ultraviolet observations of elliptical galaxies showed that they were surprisingly bright when viewed in ultraviolet light. Before those pioneering UV observations, old groups of stars were assumed to be relatively cool and thus extremely faint in the ultraviolet. Over the years since the initial discovery of this unexpected ultraviolet light, indirect evidence has accumulated that it originates in a population of old, but hot, helium-burning stars. Now Hubble provides the first direct visual evidence. Nearby elliptical galaxies are thought to be relatively simple galaxies comprised of old stars. Because they are among the brightest objects in the Universe, this simplicity makes them useful for tracing the evolution of stars and galaxies. Credits: NASA and Thomas

  12. Deep ultraviolet light-emitting and laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Asif, Fatima; Muhtadi, Sakib

    2016-02-01

    Nearly all the air-water purification/polymer curing systems and bio-medical instruments require 250-300 nm wavelength ultraviolet light for which mercury lamps are primarily used. As a potential replacement for these hazardous mercury lamps, several global research teams are developing AlGaN based Deep Ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and DUV LED Lamps and Laser Diodes over Sapphire and AlN substrates. In this paper, we review the current research focus and the latest device results. In addition to the current results we also discuss a new quasipseudomorphic device design approach. This approach which is much easier to integrate in a commercial production setting was successfully used to demonstrate UVC devices on Sapphire substrates with performance levels equal to or better than the conventional relaxed device designs.

  13. Fragmentation of mercury compounds under ultraviolet light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkonen, E.; Hautala, L.; Jänkälä, K.

    2015-08-21

    Ultraviolet light induced photofragmentation of mercury compounds is studied experimentally with electron energy resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques and theoretically with computational quantum chemical methods. A high resolution photoelectron spectrum using synchrotron radiation is presented. Fragmentation of the molecule is studied subsequent to ionization to the atomic-mercury-like d orbitals. State dependent fragmentation behaviour is presented and specific reactions for dissociation pathways are given. The fragmentation is found to differ distinctly in similar orbitals of different mercury compounds.

  14. Interpretation of OAO-2 ultraviolet light curves of beta Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, J. L.; Lillie, C. F.; Hill, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Middle-ultraviolet light curves of beta Doradus, obtained by OAO-2, are presented along with other evidence indicating that the small additional bumps observed on the rising branches of these curves have their origin in shock-wave phenomena in the upper atmosphere of this classical Cepheid. A simple piston-driven spherical hydrodynamic model of the atmosphere is developed to explain the bumps, and the calculations are compared with observations. The model is found to be consistent with the shapes of the light curves as well as with measurements of the H-alpha radial velocities.

  15. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Quigley, Gerard P.

    1996-01-01

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  16. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  17. Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using peracetic acid or ultraviolet radiation for its reuse in public services.

    PubMed

    Julio, Flores R; Hilario, Terres-Peña; Mabel, Vaca M; Raymundo, López C; Arturo, Lizardi-Ramos; Ma Neftalí, Rojas-Valencia

    2015-03-01

    The disinfection of a continuous flow of an effluent from an advanced primary treatment (coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation) with or without posterior filtration, using either peracetic acid (PAA) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation was studied. We aimed to obtain bacteriological quality to comply with the microbiological standard established in the Mexican regulations for treated wastewater reuse (NOM-003-SEMARNAT-1997), i.e., less than 240 MPN (most probable number) FC/100 mL. The concentrations of PAA were 10, 15, and 20 mg/L, with contact times of 10, and 15 min. Fecal coliforms (FC) inactivation ranged from 0.93 up to 6.4 log units, and in all cases it reached the limits set by the mentioned regulation. Water quality influenced the PAA disinfection effectiveness. An efficiency of 91% was achieved for the unfiltered effluent, as compared to 99% when wastewater was filtered. UV radiation was applied to wastewater flows of 21, 30 and 39 L/min, with dosages from 1 to 6 mJ/cm². This treatment did not achieve the bacteriological quality required for treated wastewater reuse, since the best inactivation of FC was 1.62 log units, for a flow of 21 L/min of filtered wastewater and a UV dosage of 5.6 mJ/cm².

  18. Field efficacy evaluation and post-treatment contamination risk assessment of an ultraviolet disinfection and safe storage system.

    PubMed

    Reygadas, Fermin; Gruber, Joshua S; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-11-15

    Inconsistent use of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems reduces their potential health benefits. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is more convenient than some existing HWTS systems, but it does not provide post-treatment residual disinfectant, which could leave drinking water vulnerable to recontamination. In this paper, using as-treated analyses, we report on the field efficacy of a UV disinfection system at improving household drinking water quality in rural Mexico. We further assess the risk of post-treatment contamination from the UV system, and develop a process-based model to better understand household risk factors for recontamination. This study was part of a larger cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial, and the results complement previously published population-level results of the intervention on diarrheal prevalence and water quality. Based on the presence of Escherichia coli (proportion of households with ≥ 1 E. coli/100 mL), we estimated a risk difference of -28.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33.9%, -22.1%) when comparing intervention to control households; -38.6% (CI: -48.9%, -28.2%) when comparing post- and pre-intervention results; and -37.1% (CI: -45.2%, -28.9%) when comparing UV disinfected water to alternatives within the household. We found substantial increases in post-treatment E. coli contamination when comparing samples from the UV system effluent (5.0%) to samples taken from the storage container (21.1%) and drinking glasses (26.0%). We found that improved household infrastructure, additional extractions from the storage container, additional time from when the storage container was filled, and increased experience of the UV system operator were associated with reductions in post-treatment contamination. Our results suggest that the UV system is efficacious at improving household water quality when used as intended. Promoting safe storage habits is essential for an effective UV system dissemination. The drinking

  19. Effects of ultraviolet light on Hymenolepis diminuta ova and cysticercoids

    SciTech Connect

    McGavock, W.D.; Howard, K.E.

    The ova and cysticercoids of Hymenolepis diminuta were exposed to a 2537 A wave length of ultraviolet light for various time periods. Development was extremely impaired in the cysts which had been irradiated for 30 and 60 minutes. When these were administered to the final host no tapeworms developed. From 113 intermediate host beetle larvae fed with irradiated ova, only three cysticercoids were recovered. Development was impaired in both cases and the infective rate of irradiated ova and cysts of the least exposed groups was lower than that of the controls.

  20. Deep ultraviolet semiconductor light sources for sensing and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatalov, Max; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Gaska, Remis

    2009-09-01

    III-Nitride based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) rapidly penetrate into sensing market owing to several advantages over traditional UV sources (i.e. mercury, xenon and deuterium lamps). Small size, a wide choice of peak emission wavelengths, lower power consumption and reduced cost offer flexibility to system integrators. Short emission wavelength offer advantages for gas detection and optical sensing systems based on UV induced fluorescence. Large modulation bandwidth for these devices makes them attractive for frequency-domain spectroscopy. We will review present status of DUV LED technology and discuss recent advances in short wavelength emitters and high power LED lamps.

  1. Rapid water disinfection over a Ag/AgBr/covalent triazine-based framework composite under visible light.

    PubMed

    Li, Liuyi; Li, Xiaofen; Cheng, Zhi; Bi, Jinhong; Liang, Shijing; Zhang, Zizhong; Yu, Yan; Wu, Ling

    2018-05-22

    Development of visible-light-induced and rapid water disinfection is of significant importance. Covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) with pre-designable structures and favorable semiconductive behaviors hold great promise for photocatalytic water disinfection. Here, we report an Ag/AgBr/CTF composite with a layered structure, which serves as an efficient photocatalyst for rapid water disinfection. Water disinfection with >99.99% inactivation of Escherichia coli within 12 min was achieved by using a small amount of Ag/AgBr/CTF under visible light irradiation. The inactivation efficiency of Ag/AgBr/CTF was ∼10 times better than that of bare Ag/AgBr. Rapid water disinfection by the Ag/AgBr/CTF composite mainly results from the greatly improved generation of reactive oxygen species through the synergistic effects among the three components and the affinity of CTF to the cell wall of bacteria.

  2. The influence of oxidation reduction potential and water treatment processes on quartz lamp sleeve fouling in ultraviolet disinfection reactors.

    PubMed

    Wait, Isaac W; Johnston, Cliff T; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2007-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems are incorporated into drinking water production facilities because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial capabilities, and the minimal disinfection by-product formation that generally accompanies their use. Selection of an optimal location for a UV system within a drinking water treatment facility depends on many factors; a potentially important consideration is the effect of system location on operation and maintenance issues, including the potential for fouling of quartz surfaces. To examine the effect of system location on fouling, experiments were conducted at a groundwater treatment facility, wherein aeration, chlorination, and sand filtration were applied sequentially for treatment. In this facility, access to the water stream was available prior to and following each of the treatment steps. Therefore, it was possible to examine the effects of each of these unit operations on fouling dynamics within a UV system. Results indicated zero-order formation kinetics for the fouling reactions at all locations. Increases in oxidation reduction potential, caused by water treatment steps such as aeration and chlorination, increased the rate of sleeve fouling and the rate of irradiance loss within the reactor. Analysis of metals in the sleeve foulant showed that calcium and iron predominate, and relative comparisons of foulant composition to water chemistry highlighted a high affinity for incorporation into the foulant matrix for both iron and manganese, particularly after oxidizing treatment steps. Fouling behavior was observed to be in qualitative agreement with representations of the degree of saturation, relative to the metal:ligand combinations that are believed to comprise a large fraction of the foulants that accumulate on the surfaces of quartz jackets in UV systems used to treat water.

  3. Surface disinfection by exposure to germicidal UV light.

    PubMed

    Katara, G; Hemvani, N; Chitnis, S; Chitnis, V; Chitnis, D S

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed to design a simple model to check efficacy of germicidal UV tube, to standardise the position, distance and time for UV light and also to find out its efficacy against medically important bacteria, the bacterial spores and fungi. The microbial cultures tested included gram positive and gram negative bacteria, bacterial spores and fungal spores. The microbes streaked on solid media were exposed to UV light. The inactivation of the order of four logs was observed for bacteria. UV light can have efficient inactivation of bacteria up to a distance of eight feet on either side and exposure time of 30 minutes is adequate.

  4. Augmenting the antibiofilm efficacy of advanced noninvasive light activated disinfection with emulsified oxidizer and oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    George, Saji; Kishen, Anil

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the inclusion of an oxidizer and oxygen carrier in the photosensitization formulation would facilitate comprehensive disinfection of matured endodontic biofilm by light-activated disinfection (LAD). Photosensitizing formulations containing methylene blue (MB) and an oxygen carrier alone (perfluorodecahydronaphthalene) (PF1) or in combination with oxidizer (H(2)O(2)) (PF2) or their emulsions formed with triton-X100 (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) in different proportions (PF3 and PF4) were tested for photochemical properties and damage to the biofilm structure using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conventional chemomechanical preparation, LAD using MB in water, and LAD using MB in emulsion (PF4) were also conducted on 10-week-old Enterococcus faecalis biofilm within root canals. MB in emulsion (PF4) was overall the most effective photosensitizer formulation for photooxidation, generation of singlet oxygen (p = 0.001), and in disinfecting biofilm bacteria. Advanced noninvasive LAD using a photosensitizer formulation containing oxidizer and oxygen carrier disrupted the biofilm matrix and facilitated comprehensive inactivation of biofilm bacteria. This modified photosensitizer formulation will have potential advantages in endodontic disinfection.

  5. Disinfection of Airborne Organisms by Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Sunlight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    organisms deposited on surfaces, suspended in water , and contaminating food, all of which have been discussed elsewhere (Block, 2001). In contrast, the... water . Therefore, the primary means for organism inactivation in aerosols is ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Radiation from the sunlight is used as a...cortex is essential for reduction of the water content in the spore core and formation of a dormant spore. The cortex is degraded in spore

  6. Particle effects on ultraviolet disinfection of coliform bacteria in recycled water.

    PubMed

    Jolis, D; Lam, C; Pitt, P

    2001-01-01

    Pilot- and bench-scale coliform inactivation tests with UV irradiation were used to show how suspended solids remaining in filtered secondary effluent affect the efficiency of the UV disinfection process. Observed kinetic inactivation rates decreased with increasing suspended particle sizes of 7 microm or larger present in tertiary effluent. First-order inactivation rates estimated from collimated beam dose-response curves for discrete ranges of UV doses were substantially different, which should caution researchers not to compare inactivation data obtained with largely dissimilar UV doses or suspended particle distributions. A dose of approximately 800 J/m2 was identified as the minimum dose that will consistently meet the California wastewater reclamation coliform criterion when applied to in-line filtration effluent.

  7. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Miguel; Rojas, Elisa; Araya, María C; Calaf, Gloria M

    2015-10-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290-320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D.

  8. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production

    PubMed Central

    RIVAS, MIGUEL; ROJAS, ELISA; ARAYA, MARÍA C.; CALAF, GLORIA M.

    2015-01-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290–320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D. PMID:26622830

  9. Ultraviolet Light-Assisted Copper Oxide Nanowires Hydrogen Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihar, Nabihah; Tiong, Teck Yaw; Dee, Chang Fu; Ooi, Poh Choon; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Mohamed, Mohd Ambri; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2018-05-01

    We fabricated copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) ultraviolet (UV) light-assisted hydrogen gas sensor. The fabricated sensor shows promising sensor response behavior towards 100 ppm of H2 at room temperature and elevated temperature at 100 °C when exposed to UV light (3.0 mW/cm2). One hundred-cycle device stability test has been performed, and it is found that for sample elevated at 100 °C, the UV-activated sample achieved stability in the first cycle as compared to the sample without UV irradiation which needed about 10 cycles to achieve stability at the initial stage, whereas the sample tested at room temperature was able to stabilize with the aid of UV irradiation. This indicates that with the aid of UV light, after some "warming up" time, it is possible for the conventional CuO NW sensor which normally work at elevated temperature to function at room temperature because UV source is speculated to play a dominant role to increase the interaction of the surface of CuO NWs and hydrogen gas molecules absorbed after the light exposure.

  10. Ultraviolet Light-Assisted Copper Oxide Nanowires Hydrogen Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Sihar, Nabihah; Tiong, Teck Yaw; Dee, Chang Fu; Ooi, Poh Choon; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Mohamed, Mohd Ambri; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2018-05-15

    We fabricated copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) ultraviolet (UV) light-assisted hydrogen gas sensor. The fabricated sensor shows promising sensor response behavior towards 100 ppm of H 2 at room temperature and elevated temperature at 100 °C when exposed to UV light (3.0 mW/cm 2 ). One hundred-cycle device stability test has been performed, and it is found that for sample elevated at 100 °C, the UV-activated sample achieved stability in the first cycle as compared to the sample without UV irradiation which needed about 10 cycles to achieve stability at the initial stage, whereas the sample tested at room temperature was able to stabilize with the aid of UV irradiation. This indicates that with the aid of UV light, after some "warming up" time, it is possible for the conventional CuO NW sensor which normally work at elevated temperature to function at room temperature because UV source is speculated to play a dominant role to increase the interaction of the surface of CuO NWs and hydrogen gas molecules absorbed after the light exposure.

  11. A model for choosing an automated ultraviolet-C disinfection system and building a case for the C-suite: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Maureen; Vignari, Michelle; Bryce, Elizabeth; Johnson, Helen Boehm; Fauerbach, Loretta; Graham, Denise

    2017-03-01

    Environmental disinfection has become the new frontier in the ongoing battle to reduce the risk of health care-associated infections. Evidence demonstrating the persistent contamination of environmental surfaces despite traditional cleaning and disinfection methods has led to the widespread acceptance that there is both a need for reassessing traditional cleaning protocols and for using secondary disinfection technologies. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) disinfection is one type of no-touch technology shown to be a successful adjunct to manual cleaning in reducing environmental bioburden. The dilemma for the infection preventionist, however, is how to choose the system best suited for their facility among the many UV-C surface disinfection delivery systems available and how to build a case for acquisition to present to the hospital administration/C-suite. This article proposes an approach to these dilemmas based in part on the experience of 2 health care networks. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can the circadian system of a diurnal and a nocturnal rodent entrain to ultraviolet light?

    PubMed

    Hut, R A; Scheper, A; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Spectral measurements of sunlight throughout the day show close correspondence between the timing of above ground activity of the European ground squirrel and the presence of ultraviolet light in the solar spectrum. However, in a standard entrainment experiment ground squirrels show no entrainment to ultraviolet light, while Syrian hamsters do entrain under the same protocol. Presented transmittance spectra for lenses, corneas, and vitreous bodies may explain the different results of the entrainment experiment. We found ultraviolet light transmittance in the colourless hamster lens (50% cut-off at 341 nm), but not in the yellow ground squirrel lens (50% cut-off around 493 nm). Ultraviolet sensitivity in the ground squirrels based upon possible fluorescence mechanisms was not evident. Possible functions of ultraviolet lens filters in diurnal mammals are discussed, and compared with nocturnal mammals and diurnal birds. Species of the latter two groups lack ultraviolet filtering properties of their lenses and their circadian system is known to respond to ultraviolet light, a feature that does not necessarily has to depend on ultraviolet photoreceptors. Although the circadian system of several species responds to ultraviolet light, we argue that the role of ultraviolet light as a natural Zeitgeber is probably limited.

  13. Effect of automated ultraviolet C-emitting device on decontamination of hospital rooms with and without real-time observation of terminal room disinfection.

    PubMed

    Penno, Katie; Jandarov, Roman A; Sopirala, Madhuri M

    2017-11-01

    We studied the effectiveness of an ultraviolet C (UV-C) emitter in clinical settings and compared it with observed terminal disinfection. We cultured 22 hospital discharge rooms at a tertiary care academic medical center. Phase 1 (unobserved terminal disinfection) included cultures of 11 high-touch environmental surfaces (HTSs) after terminal room disinfection (AD) and after the use of a UV-C-emitting device (AUV). Phase 2 (observed terminal disinfection) included cultures before terminal room disinfection (BD), AD, and AUV. Zero-inflated Poisson regression compared mean colony forming units (CFU) between the groups. Two-sample proportion tests identified significance of the observed differences in proportions of thoroughly cleaned HTSs (CFU < 5). Significant P value was determined using the Bonferroni corrected threshold of α = .05/12 = .004. We obtained 594 samples. Risk of overall contamination was 0.48 times lower in the AUV group than in the AD group (P < .001), with 1.04 log 10 reduction. During phase 1, overall proportion of HTSs with <5 CFUs increased in AUV versus AD by 0.12 (P = .001). During phase 2, it increased in AD versus BD by 0.45 (P < .001), with no significant difference between AD and AUV (P = .02). Use of UV-C with standard cleaning significantly reduced microbial burden and improved the thoroughness of terminal disinfection. We found no further benefit to UV-C use if standard terminal disinfection was observed. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protocol for Determining Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode (UV-LED) Fluence for Microbial Inactivation Studies.

    PubMed

    Kheyrandish, Ataollah; Mohseni, Madjid; Taghipour, Fariborz

    2018-06-15

    Determining fluence is essential to derive the inactivation kinetics of microorganisms and to design ultraviolet (UV) reactors for water disinfection. UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are emerging UV sources with various advantages compared to conventional UV lamps. Unlike conventional mercury lamps, no standard method is available to determine the average fluence of the UV-LEDs, and conventional methods used to determine the fluence for UV mercury lamps are not applicable to UV-LEDs due to the relatively low power output, polychromatic wavelength, and specific radiation profile of UV-LEDs. In this study, a method was developed to determine the average fluence inside a water suspension in a UV-LED experimental setup. In this method, the average fluence was estimated by measuring the irradiance at a few points for a collimated and uniform radiation on a Petri dish surface. New correction parameters were defined and proposed, and several of the existing parameters for determining the fluence of the UV mercury lamp apparatus were revised to measure and quantify the collimation and uniformity of the radiation. To study the effect of polychromatic output and radiation profile of the UV-LEDs, two UV-LEDs with peak wavelengths of 262 and 275 nm and different radiation profiles were selected as the representatives of typical UV-LEDs applied to microbial inactivation. The proper setup configuration for microorganism inactivation studies was also determined based on the defined correction factors.

  15. Inactivation of indigenous coliform bacteria in unfiltered surface water by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Raymond E; Hofmann, Ron

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the potential for naturally occurring particles to protect indigenous coliform from ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in four surface waters. Tailing in the UV dose-response curve of the bacteria was observed in 3 of the 4 water samples after 1.3-2.6-log of log-linear inactivation, implying particle-related protection. The impact of particles was confirmed by comparing coliform UV inactivation data for parallel filtered (11 microm pore-size nylon filters) and unfiltered surface water. In samples from the Grand River (UVT: 65%/cm; 5.4 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) and the Rideau Canal (UVT: 60%/cm; 0.84 NTU), a limit of approximately 2.5 log inactivation was achieved in the unfiltered samples for a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 while both the filtered samples exhibited >3.4-log inactivation of indigenous coliform bacteria. The results suggest that particles as small as 11 microm, naturally found in surface water with low turbidity (<3NTU), are able to harbor indigenous coliform bacteria and offer protection from low-pressure UV light.

  16. Ultraviolet light exposure influences skin cancer in association with latitude.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Miguel; Araya, María C; Caba, Fresia; Rojas, Elisa; Calaf, Gloria M

    2011-04-01

    The increase in the amount of solar ultraviolet (UV) light that reaches the earth is considered to be responsible for the worldwide increase in skin cancer. It has been reported that excessive levels of UVA and UVB light have multiple effects, which can be harmful to humans. Experimental measurements were obtained using wide-band solar light YES biometers from 2006 to 2009 in Arica, Chile and from 2003 to 2006 in Valdivia, Chile, both instruments having been calibrated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and integrated into the Chilean Meteorological Organization network. To explain the possible effect of radiation on skin cancer, revised pathological reports in Arica and Valdivia were analyzed. In Arica, data on men and women were collected between 1997 and 1998-2002, and in Valdivia, between 1997-2000 and 2001-2007. In this study, comparative values of ultraviolet index (UVI) from the above datasets, were analyzed. Arica is a city located in the subtropical zone of northern Chile, 25 meters above sea level, with a latitude of 18˚49'S and a longitude of 70˚19'W. It has a microclimate characterized by stable meteorological conditions throughout the year, including low precipitation (<5 mm per decade), predictable winds, a high percentage of clear sky days and high ground reflectivity due to the presence of light sand. Due to its location near sea level, the population performs a great number of outdoor activities. Valdivia is a city located in the southern part of Chile, 19 meters above sea level with a latitude of 39˚38'S and a longitude of 73˚5'W. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between latitude and the risk of skin cancer in two cities with different latitudes. The incidence of skin cancer per 100,000 persons significantly (P<0.05) increased in both genders between the periods 1997-2000 and 2001-2007 in Arica. However, it decreased in men between the periods 1993-1997 and 1998-2002 in Valdivia. The results

  17. Probing Coagulation Behavior of Individual Aluminum Species for Removing Corresponding Disinfection Byproduct Precursors: The Role of Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, He; Hu, Chengzhi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation behavior of aluminum chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) for removing corresponding disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors was discussed in this paper. CHCl3, bromine trihalomethanes (THM-Br), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) formation potential yields were correlated with specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) values in different molecular weight (MW) fractions of humic substances (HS), respectively. Correlation analyses and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationships between SUVA and different DBP precursors. To acquire more structural characters of DBP precursors and aluminum speciation, freeze-dried precipitates were analyzed by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and C 1s, Al 2p X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that TCAA precursors (no MW limits), DCAA and CHCl3 precursors in low MW fractions (MW<30 kDa) had a relatively good relations with SUVA values. These DBP precursors were coagulated more easily by in situ Al13 of AlCl3 at pH 5.0. Due to relatively low aromatic content and more aliphatic structures, THM-Br precursors (no MW limits) and CHCl3 precursors in high MW fractions (MW>30 kDa) were preferentially removed by PACl coagulation with preformed Al13 species at pH 5.0. Additionally, for DCAA precursors in high MW fractions (MW>30 kDa) with relatively low aromatic content and more carboxylic structures, the greatest removal occurred at pH 6.0 through PACl coagulation with aggregated Al13 species. PMID:26824243

  18. Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; May, Brelon J.; Deitz, Julia I.

    Polarization engineered interband tunnel junctions (TJs) are integrated in nanowire ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs). A ∼6 V reduction in turn-on voltage is achieved by the integration of tunnel junction at the base of polarization doped nanowire UV LEDs. Moreover, efficient hole injection into the nanowire LEDs leads to suppressed efficiency droop in TJ integrated nanowire LEDs. The combination of both reduced bias voltage and increased hole injection increases the wall plug efficiency in these devices. More than 100 μW of UV emission at ∼310 nm is measured with external quantum efficiency in the range of 4–6 m%. The realization of tunnel junctionmore » within the nanowire LEDs opens a pathway towards the monolithic integration of cascaded multi-junction nanowire LEDs on silicon.« less

  19. High-Rate Disinfection Techniques for Combined Sewer Overflow (Proceedings Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH ), a...

  20. Effects of exposure to ultraviolet light on the development of Rana pipiens, the northern leopard frog

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.J.; Wofford, H.W.

    1996-10-01

    The increase in ultraviolet light intensity levels due to ozone depletion recently has been linked to the decline in amphibian population. In this experiment, eggs and larvae of Rana pipiens were subjected to differing amounts of ultraviolet radiation to determine the effects of ultraviolet light on the development of amphibian tadpoles. The total length, length of body without tail, and maximum width of each specimen was recorded for a month of the tadpoles` development, including several measurements after the ultraviolet exposures were concluded. It was found that ultraviolet exposure significantly reduced the size of the organisms in comparison with themore » control group in all three measured areas. Ultraviolet radiation altered the health and appearance of the exposed organisms and was lethal at large amounts. This experiment showed that ultraviolet radiation could cause many problems in developing amphibians. By slowing their development and physically weakening predation, thus contributing to a decline in overall population levels.« less

  1. Ultraviolet and short wavelength visible light exposure: why ultraviolet protection alone is not adequate.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Alan W; Citek, Karl; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The danger of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both the natural environment and artificial occupational settings has long been recognized by national and international standards committees and worker safety agencies. There is an increasing body of literature that suggests that protection from UV exposure is not enough. Unprotected exposure to the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum, termed the "blue light hazard", is gaining acceptance as a true risk to long-term visual health. Global standards and experts in the field are now warning that those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with high impact resistant lenses that provide 100% UV filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. The Skin Cancer Foundation has endorsed certain sunglasses as "product[s]...effective [as] UV filter[s] for the eyes and surrounding skin". However, such endorsement does not necessarily mean that the eyewear meets all the protective needs for outdoor use. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision, available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features.

  2. Optimized constants for an ultraviolet light-adjustable intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Conrad-Hengerer, Ina; Dick, H Burkhard; Hütz, Werner W; Haigis, Wolfgang; Hengerer, Fritz H

    2011-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations and to suggest adjusted constants for implantation of ultraviolet light-adjustable IOLs. Center for Vision Science, Ruhr University Eye Clinic, Bochum, Germany. Cohort study. Eyes with a visually significant cataract that had phacoemulsification with implantation of a light-adjustable IOL were evaluated. IOLMaster measurements were performed before phacoemulsification and IOL implantation and 4 weeks after surgery before the first adjustment of the IOL. The difference in the expected refraction and estimation error was studied. The study evaluated 125 eyes. Using the surgical constants provided by the manufacturer of the light-adjustable IOL, the SRK/T formula gave a more hyperopic refraction than the Hoffer Q and Holladay 1 formulas. The mean error of prediction was 0.93 diopter (D) ± 0.69 (SD), 0.91 ± 0.63 D, and 0.86 ± 0.65 D, respectively. The corresponding mean absolute error of prediction was 0.98 ± 0.61 D, 0.93 ± 0.61 D, and 0.90 ± 0.59 D, respectively. With optimized constants for the formulas, the mean error of prediction was 0.00 ± 0.63 D for Hoffer Q, 0.00 ± 0.64 D for Holladay 1, and 0.00 ± 0.66 D for SRK/T. The expected refraction after phacoemulsification and implantation of a light-adjustable IOL toward the hyperopic side of the desired refraction could be considered when using the optimized constants for all formulas. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a pulsed-xenon ultraviolet room disinfection device for impact on contamination levels of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare-acquired infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a significant cause of increased mortality, morbidity and additional health care costs in United States. Surface decontamination technologies that utilize pulsed xenon ultraviolet light (PPX-UV) may be effective at reducing microbial burden. The purpose of this study was to compare standard manual room-cleaning to PPX-UV disinfection technology for MRSA and bacterial heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) on high-touch surfaces in patient rooms. Methods Rooms vacated by patients that had a MRSA-positive polymerase chain reaction or culture during the current hospitalization and at least a 2-day stay were studied. 20 rooms were then treated according to one of two protocols: standard manual cleaning or PPX-UV. This study evaluated the reduction of MRSA and HPC taken from five high-touch surfaces in rooms vacated by MRSA-positive patients, as a function of cleaning by standard manual methods vs a PPX-UV area disinfection device. Results Colony counts in 20 rooms (10 per arm) prior to cleaning varied by cleaning protocol: for HPC, manual (mean = 255, median = 278, q1-q3 132–304) vs PPX-UV (mean = 449, median = 365, q1-q3 332–530), and for MRSA, manual (mean = 127; median = 28.5; q1-q3 8–143) vs PPX-UV (mean = 108; median = 123; q1-q3 14–183). PPX-UV was superior to manual cleaning for MRSA (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR] = 7; 95% CI <1-41) and for HPC (IRR = 13; 95% CI 4–48). Conclusion PPX-UV technology appears to be superior to manual cleaning alone for MRSA and HPC. Incorporating 15 minutes of PPX-UV exposure time to current hospital room cleaning practice can improve the overall cleanliness of patient rooms with respect to selected micro-organisms. PMID:24708734

  4. Evaluation of a pulsed-xenon ultraviolet room disinfection device for impact on contamination levels of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Quezada, Ricardo; Huber, Thomas W; Williams, Jason B; Zeber, John E; Copeland, Laurel A

    2014-04-07

    Healthcare-acquired infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a significant cause of increased mortality, morbidity and additional health care costs in United States. Surface decontamination technologies that utilize pulsed xenon ultraviolet light (PPX-UV) may be effective at reducing microbial burden. The purpose of this study was to compare standard manual room-cleaning to PPX-UV disinfection technology for MRSA and bacterial heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) on high-touch surfaces in patient rooms. Rooms vacated by patients that had a MRSA-positive polymerase chain reaction or culture during the current hospitalization and at least a 2-day stay were studied. 20 rooms were then treated according to one of two protocols: standard manual cleaning or PPX-UV. This study evaluated the reduction of MRSA and HPC taken from five high-touch surfaces in rooms vacated by MRSA-positive patients, as a function of cleaning by standard manual methods vs a PPX-UV area disinfection device. Colony counts in 20 rooms (10 per arm) prior to cleaning varied by cleaning protocol: for HPC, manual (mean = 255, median = 278, q1-q3 132-304) vs PPX-UV (mean = 449, median = 365, q1-q3 332-530), and for MRSA, manual (mean = 127; median = 28.5; q1-q3 8-143) vs PPX-UV (mean = 108; median = 123; q1-q3 14-183). PPX-UV was superior to manual cleaning for MRSA (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR] = 7; 95% CI <1-41) and for HPC (IRR = 13; 95% CI 4-48). PPX-UV technology appears to be superior to manual cleaning alone for MRSA and HPC. Incorporating 15 minutes of PPX-UV exposure time to current hospital room cleaning practice can improve the overall cleanliness of patient rooms with respect to selected micro-organisms.

  5. Novel cylindrical illuminator tip for ultraviolet light delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, HanQun; Haw, Thomas E.; Gregory, Kenton W.; Casperson, Lee W.

    1993-06-01

    The design, processing, and sequential testing of a novel cylindrical diffusing optical fiber tip for ultraviolet light delivery is described. This device has been shown to uniformly (+/- 15%) illuminate angioplasty balloons, 20 mm in length, that are used in an experimental photochemotherapeutic treatment of swine intimal hyperplasia. Our experiments show that uniform diffusing tips of < 400 micron diameter can be reliably constructed for this and other interstitial applications. Modeling results indicate that this design is scalable to smaller diameters. The diffusing tips are made by stripping the protective buffer and etching away the cladding over a length of 20 mm from the fiber tip and replacing it with a thin layer of optical epoxy mixed with Al2O3 powder. To improve the uniformity and ease of fabrication, we have evaluated a new device configuration where the tip is etched into a modified conical shape, and the distal end face is polished and then coated with an optically opaque epoxy. This is shown to uniformly scatter approximately 70% of the light launched into the fiber without forward transmission.

  6. Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Bajaj, Sanyam; Allerman, Andrew A.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2017-05-01

    We report on tunnel-injected deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) configured with a polarization engineered Al0.75Ga0.25 N/In0.2Ga0.8 N tunnel junction structure. Tunnel-injected UV LED structure enables n-type contacts for both bottom and top contact layers. However, achieving Ohmic contact to wide bandgap n-AlGaN layers is challenging and typically requires high temperature contact metal annealing. In this work, we adopted a compositionally graded top contact layer for non-alloyed metal contact and obtained a low contact resistance of ρc = 4.8 × 10-5 Ω cm2 on n-Al0.75Ga0.25 N. We also observed a significant reduction in the forward operation voltage from 30.9 V to 19.2 V at 1 kA/cm2 by increasing the Mg doping concentration from 6.2 × 1018 cm-3 to 1.5 × 1019 cm-3. Non-equilibrium hole injection into wide bandgap Al0.75Ga0.25 N with Eg>5.2 eV was confirmed by light emission at 257 nm. This work demonstrates the feasibility of tunneling hole injection into deep UV LEDs and provides a structural design towards high power deep-UV emitters.

  7. Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXVIII - Ultraviolet light curves for Alpha Lupi and BW Vulpeculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Photometric data from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on OAO-2 have been used to construct light curves at three ultraviolet wavelengths for Alpha Lup and at seven wavelengths for BW Vul. Both stars are well-known variables of the Beta Cephei (Beta Canis Majoris) type. The light curves for Alpha Lup are in good agreement with the radial-velocity period. A temperature variation of 400-500 K is derived. The BW Vul light curves confirm recent ephemerides based on a secularly varying period and show a stillstand near light maximum at some wavelengths. Both stars exhibit increasing light amplitude at the shortest ultraviolet wavelengths. There is little evidence for cycle-to-cycle variations on a time scale of the order of 1 day.

  8. Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hébert, N; Gagné, F; Cejka, P; Bouchard, B; Hausler, R; Cyr, D G; Blaise, C; Fournier, M

    2008-08-01

    Municipal sewage effluents are complex mixtures that are known to compromise the health condition of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various wastewater disinfection processes on the immune system of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The trout were exposed to a primary-treated effluent for 28 days before and after one of each of the following treatments: ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation and peracetic acid. Immune function was characterized in leucocytes from the anterior head kidney by the following three parameters: phagocytosis activity, natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) function and lymphocyte (B and T) proliferation assays. The results show that the fish mass to length ratio was significantly decreased for the primary-treated and all three disinfection processes. Exposure to the primary-treated effluent led to a significant increase in macrophage-related phagocytosis; the addition of a disinfection step was effective in removing this effect. Both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation in fish decreased dramatically in fish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to fish exposed to either the primary-treated effluent or to aquarium water. Stimulation of T lymphocytes proliferation was observed with the peracetic acid treatment group. In conclusion, the disinfection strategy used can modify the immune system in fish at the level of T lymphocyte proliferation but was effective to remove the effects on phagocytosis activity.

  9. The Inherent Visible Light Signature of an Intense Underwater Ultraviolet Light Source Due to Combined Raman and Fluorescence Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Humans cannot see ultraviolet light. The blue-sensitive cones in the retina would respond weakly to ultraviolet wavelengths if exposed to them, but...545, 1992. 3. C. S. Yentsch, and D. A. Phinney, " Autofluorescence and Raman scattering in the marine underwater environment," Ocean Optics X, SPIE

  10. Effectiveness of UV-C light irradiation on disinfection of an eSOS(®) smart toilet evaluated in a temporary settlement in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Fiona; Harelimana, Bertin; Ćurko, Josip; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Garcia, Hector A; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet germicidal (short wavelength UV-C) light was studied as surface disinfectant in an Emergency Sanitation Operation System(®) smart toilet to aid to the work of manual cleaning. The UV-C light was installed and regulated as a self-cleaning feature of the toilet, which automatically irradiate after each toilet use. Two experimental phases were conducted i.e. preparatory phase consists of tests under laboratory conditions and field testing phase. The laboratory UV test indicated that irradiation for 10 min with medium-low intensity of 0.15-0.4 W/m(2) could achieve 6.5 log removal of Escherichia coli. Field testing of the toilet under real usage found that UV-C irradiation was capable to inactivate total coliform at toilet surfaces within 167-cm distance from the UV-C lamp (UV-C dose between 1.88 and 2.74 mW). UV-C irradiation is most effective with the support of effective manual cleaning. Application of UV-C for surface disinfection in emergency toilets could potentially reduce public health risks.

  11. Skin β-endorphin mediates addiction to ultraviolet light

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Gillian L.; Robinson, Kathleen C.; Mao, Jianren; Woolf, Clifford J.; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Ultraviolet light is an established carcinogen yet evidence suggests that UV-seeking behavior has addictive features. Following UV exposure, epidermal keratinocytes synthesize Proopiomelanocortin that is processed to Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, inducing tanning. We show that in rodents another POMC-derived peptide, β-endorphin, is coordinately synthesized in skin, elevating plasma levels after low-dose UV. Increases in pain-related thresholds are observed, and reversed by pharmacologic opioid antagonism. Opioid blockade also elicits withdrawal signs after chronic UV exposure. This effect was sufficient to guide operant behavioral choices to avoidance of opioid withdrawal (conditioned place aversion). These UV-induced nociceptive and behavioral effects were absent in β-endorphin knockout mice and in mice lacking p53-mediated POMC induction in epidermal keratinocytes. While primordial UV addiction, mediated by the hedonic action of β-endorphin and anhedonic effects of withdrawal, may theoretically have enhanced evolutionary vitamin D biosynthesis, it now may contribute to the relentless rise in skin cancer incidence in man. PMID:24949966

  12. Ultraviolet refractometry using field-based light scattering spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dan; Choi, Wonshik; Sung, Yongjin; Oh, Seungeun; Yaqoob, Zahid; Park, YongKeun; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate refractive index measurement in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range is important for the separate quantification of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA in biology. This task is demanding and has not been fully exploited so far. Here we report a new method of measuring refractive index using field-based light scattering spectroscopy, which is applicable to any wavelength range and suitable for both solutions and homogenous objects with well-defined shape such as microspheres. The angular scattering distribution of single microspheres immersed in homogeneous media is measured over the wavelength range 260 to 315 nm using quantitative phase microscopy. By least square fitting the observed scattering distribution with Mie scattering theory, the refractive index of either the sphere or the immersion medium can be determined provided that one is known a priori. Using this method, we have measured the refractive index dispersion of SiO2 spheres and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions in the deep UV region. Specific refractive index increments of BSA are also extracted. Typical accuracy of the present refractive index technique is ≤0.003. The precision of refractive index measurements is ≤0.002 and that of specific refractive index increment determination is ≤0.01 mL/g. PMID:20372622

  13. Evaluation of an Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors for Disinfection in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens found in source waters with the potential as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. For surface and groundwater sourced drinking water applications, the U.S. Environmental...

  14. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes and bio-aerosol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davitt, Kristina M.

    Recent interest in compact ultraviolet (UV) light emitters has produced advances in material quality and device performance from aluminum-rich alloys of the nitride semiconductor system. The epitaxial growth of device structures from this material poses remarkable challenges, and state-of-the-art in semiconductor UV light sources at wavelengths shorter than 350 nm is currently limited to LEDs. A portion of the work presented in this thesis involves the design and characterization of UV LED structures, with particular focus on sub-300 nm LEDs which have only been demonstrated within the last four years. Emphasis has been placed on the integration of early devices with modest efficiencies and output powers into a practical, fluorescence-based bio-sensing instrument. The quality of AlGaInN and AlGaN-based materials is characterized by way of the performance of 340 nm and 290 nm LEDs respectively. A competitive level of device operation is achieved, although much room remains for improvement in the efficiency of light emission from this material system. A preliminary investigation of 300 nm LEDs grown on bulk AIN shows promising electrical and optical characteristics, and illustrates the numerous advantages that this native substrate offers to the epitaxy of wide bandgap nitride semiconductors. The application of UV LEDs to the field of bio-aerosol sensing is pursued by constructing an on-the-fly fluorescence detection system. A linear array of UV LEDs is designed and implemented, and the capability of test devices to excite native fluorescence from bacterial spores is established. In order to fully capitalize on the reduction in size afforded by LEDs, effort is invested in re-engineering the remaining sensor components. Operation of a prototype system for physically sorting bio-aerosols based on fluorescence spectra acquired in real-time from single airborne particles excited by a UV-LED array is demonstrated using the bio-fluorophores NADH and tryptophan. Sensor

  15. Drinking water treatment with ultraviolet light for travelers -- Evaluation of a mobile lightweight system.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Lisa F; Ritter, Klaus; Hillebrandt, David; Küpper, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The SteriPEN(®) is a handheld device for disinfecting water with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The manufacturer claims a reduction of at least 99.9% of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The present study intends to verify the general effectiveness of the device. Furthermore, the influence of bottle geometry and water movement is examined and the issue of user safety with regard to UV-C radiation is addressed. The device was applied on water containing a known number of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and the spore of Geobacillusstearothermophilus) and the survival rate was examined. Three different types of bottles commonly used among travelers served as test containers. All tests were conducted with and without agitating the water during irradiation. Furthermore, a spectral analysis was performed on the light of the device. The SteriPEN(®) reached a mean reduction of more than 99.99% of bacteria and 99.57% of the spores when applied correctly. However, the results of the trials without agitating the water only yielded a 94.98% germ reduction. The device's maximal radiation intensity lies at 254 nm which is the wavelength most efficient in inactivating bacteria. The UV-C fraction is filtered out completely by common bottle materials. However, when applied in larger containers a portion of the UV-C rays exits the water surface. If applied according to the instructions the device manages a satisfactory inactivation of bacteria. However, it bears the danger of user errors relevant to health. Therefore, education on the risks of incorrect application should be included in the travel medical consultation. Also there are still aspects that need to be subject to further independent research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Rui; Dai, Tianhong; Avci, Pinar; Jorge, Ana Elisa Serafim; de Melo, Wanessa CMA; Vecchio, Daniela; Huang, Ying-Ying; Gupta, Asheesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Prominent among these strategies, is a group of approaches which rely on light to deliver the killing blow. As is well known, ultraviolet light, particularly UVC (200–280nm), is germicidal, but it has not been much developed as an anti-infective approach until recently, when it was realized that the possible adverse effects to host tissue were relatively minor compared to its high activity in killing pathogens. Photodynamic therapy is the combination of non-toxic photosensitizing dyes with harmless visible light that together produce abundant destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain cationic dyes or photosensitizers have good specificity for binding to microbial cells while sparing host mammalian cells and can be used for treating many localized infections, both superficial and even deep-seated by using fiber optic delivered light. Many microbial cells are highly sensitive to killing by blue light (400–470 nm) due to accumulation of naturally occurring photosensitizers such as porphyrins and flavins. Near infrared light has also been shown to have antimicrobial effects against certain species. Clinical applications of these technologies include skin, dental, wound, stomach, nasal, toenail and other infections which are amenable to effective light delivery. PMID:24060701

  17. Ultraviolet light absorbers having two different chromophors in the same molecule

    DOEpatents

    Vogl, O.; Li, S.

    1983-10-06

    This invention relates to novel ultraviolet light absorbers having two chromophors in the same molecule, and more particularly to benzotriazole substituted dihydroxybenzophenones and acetophenones. More particularly, this invention relates to 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone which are particularly useful as an ultraviolet light absorbers.

  18. Effect of ultraviolet light on mood, depressive disorders and well-being.

    PubMed

    Veleva, Bistra I; van Bezooijen, Rutger L; Chel, Victor G M; Numans, Mattijs E; Caljouw, Monique A A

    2018-06-01

    Human and animal studies have shown that exposure to ultraviolet light can incite a chain of endocrine, immunologic, and neurohumoral reactions that might affect mood. This review focuses on the evidence from clinical trials and observational studies on the effect of ultraviolet light on mood, depressive disorders, and well-being. A search was made in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Psychinfo, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and Science Direct, and the references of key papers, for clinical trials and observational studies describing the effect of ultraviolet light applied to skin or eyes on mood, depressive disorders, and well-being. Of the seven studies eligible for this review, the effect of ultraviolet light on mood, depressive symptoms and seasonal affective disorders was positive in six of them. Of the seven studies, six demonstrated benefit of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and improvement in mood which supports a positive effect of ultraviolet light on mood. Because of the small number of the studies and their heterogeneity, more research is warranted to confirm and document this correlation. © 2018 The Authors. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Protection from visible light by commonly used textiles is not predicted by ultraviolet protection.

    PubMed

    Van den Keybus, Caroline; Laperre, Jan; Roelandts, Rik

    2006-01-01

    Interest is increasing in the prevention of acute and chronic actinic damage provided by clothing. This interest has focused mainly on protection against ultraviolet irradiation, but it has now also turned to protection against visible light. This change is mainly due to the action spectrum in the visible light range of some photodermatoses and the increasing interest in photodynamic therapy. The ultraviolet protection provided by commercially available textiles can be graded by determining an ultraviolet protection factor. Several methods have already been used to determine the ultraviolet protection factor. The fact that protection from visible light by textiles cannot be predicted by their ultraviolet protection makes the situation more complicated. This study attempts to determine whether or not the ultraviolet protection factor value of a particular textile is a good parameter for gauging its protection in the visible light range and concludes that a protection factor of textile materials against visible light needs to be developed. This development should go beyond the protection factor definition used in this article, which has some limitations, and should take into account the exact action spectrum for which the protection is needed.

  20. Light-induced pyroelectric effect as an effective approach for ultrafast ultraviolet nanosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaona; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Li, Zhaoling; Yang, Jin; Yi, Fang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide is potentially a useful material for ultraviolet detectors; however, a relatively long response time hinders practical implementation. Here by designing and fabricating a self-powered ZnO/perovskite-heterostructured ultraviolet photodetector, the pyroelectric effect, induced in wurtzite ZnO nanowires on ultraviolet illumination, has been utilized as an effective approach for high-performance photon sensing. The response time is improved from 5.4 s to 53 μs at the rising edge, and 8.9 s to 63 μs at the falling edge, with an enhancement of five orders in magnitudes. The specific detectivity and the responsivity are both enhanced by 322%. This work provides a novel design to achieve ultrafast ultraviolet sensing at room temperature via light-self-induced pyroelectric effect. The newly designed ultrafast self-powered ultraviolet nanosensors may find promising applications in ultrafast optics, nonlinear optics, optothermal detections, computational memories and biocompatible optoelectronic probes.

  1. Diode laser for endodontic treatment: investigations of light distribution and disinfection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Karl; Graser, Rainer; Udart, Martin; Kienle, Alwin; Hibst, Raimund

    2011-03-01

    Diode lasers are used in dentistry mainly for oral surgery and disinfection of root canals in endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to improve the laser induced bacteria inactivation in endodontic treatment. An essential prerequisite of the optimization of the irradiation process and device is the knowledge about the determinative factors of bacteria killing: light intensity? light dosis? temperature? In order to find out whether high power NIR laser bacterial killing is caused by a photochemical or a photothermal process we heated bacteria suspensions of E. coli K12 by a water bath and by a diode laser (940 nm) with the same temporal temperature course. Furthermore, bacteria suspensions were irradiated while the temperature was fixed by ice water. Killing of bacteria was measured via fluorescence labeling. In order to optimize the irradiation of the root canal, we designed special fiber tips with radial light emission characteristic by optical ray tracing simulations. Also, we calculated the resulting light distribution in dentin by voxelbased Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, we irradiated root canals of extracted human teeth using different fiber tip geometries and measured the resulting light and heat distribution by CCD-camera and thermography. Comparison of killing rates between laser and water based heating shows no significant differences, and irradiation of ice cooled suspensions has no substantial killing effect. Thus, the most important parameter for bacterial killing is the maximum temperature. Irradiation of root canals using fiber tips with radial light emission results in a more defined irradiated area with minor irradiation of the apex and higher intensity and therefore higher temperature increase on root canal surface. In conclusion, our experiments show that at least for E. coli bacteria inactivation by NIR laser irradiation is solely based on a thermal process and that heat distribution in root canal can be

  2. Photocatalytic comparison of Cu- and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2}/GF for bioaerosol disinfection under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr

    Photocatalysts, TiO{sub 2}/glass fiber (TiO{sub 2}/GF), Cu-doped TiO{sub 2}/glass fiber (Cu–TiO{sub 2}/GF) and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2}/glass fiber (Ag–TiO{sub 2}/GF), were synthesized by a sol–gel method. They were then used to disinfect Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in bioaerosols under visible light irradiation. TiO{sub 2}/GF did not show any significant disinfection effect. Both Cu and Ag acted as intermediate agents to enhance separation efficiency of electron–hole pairs of TiO{sub 2}, leading to improved photocatalytic activity of Cu–TiO{sub 2}/GF and Ag–TiO{sub 2}/GF under visible light. Cu in Cu–TiO{sub 2}/GF acted as a defective agent, increasing the internal quantummore » efficiency of TiO{sub 2}, while Ag in Ag–TiO{sub 2}/GF acted as a sensitive agent, enhancing the transfer efficiency of the electrons generated. The highest disinfection efficiencies of E. coli and S. aureus by Cu–TiO{sub 2}/GF were 84.85% and 65.21%, respectively. The highest disinfection efficiencies of E. coli and S. aureus by Ag–TiO{sub 2}/GF were 94.46% and 73.12%, respectively. Among three humidity conditions – 40±5% (dry), 60±5% (moderate), and 80±5% (humid) – the moderate humidity condition showed the highest disinfection efficiency for both E. coli and S. aureus. This study also showed that a Gram-negative bacterium (E. coli) were more readily disinfected by the photocatalysts than a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus). - Graphical abstract: Electron–hole pair separation mechanism of a metal-doped TiO{sub 2} system.« less

  3. Bacterial disinfection in a sunlight/visible-light-driven photocatalytic reactor by recyclable natural magnetic sphalerite.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingxing; Ng, Tsz Wai; Huang, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; An, Taicheng; Wong, Po Keung

    2017-01-01

    A 5-L reactor was designed and used to enhance the sunlight/visible-light-driven (VLD) photocatalytic disinfection efficiency towards Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli). Natural magnetic sphalerite (NMS) was used as the photocatalyst, which could be easily recycled by applying a magnetic field. Results showed that NMS with irradiation by the blue light emitting diode (LED) lamp could completely inactivate 1.5 × 10 5  cfu/mL of E. coli within 120 min in the first three runs. However, the inactivation efficiency of E. coli started to decrease in the 4th Run, while in the 5th run, the E. coli with the initial concentration of 5 logs was inactivated to 3.3 (blue-light) and 3.5 logs (sunlight), respectively. Moreover, the stability and deactivation mechanism of NMS during subsequent runs were also studied. The results showed that the decline of the photocatalytic activity was possibly attributed to adsorption of the bacterial decomposed compounds on the active sites. In addition, photocatalytic bactericidal mechanism of the NMS in the photocatalytic system was investigated by using multiple scavengers to remove the specific reactive species. Moreover, various Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Microbacterium barkeri, and Bacillus subtilis could also be efficiently inactivated in the photocatalytic system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF FLUORANTHENE TO FRESHWATER AND SALTWATER SPECIES UNDER FLUORESCENT AND ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute and chronic toxicity of fluoranthene was determined for a diverse group of freshwater and saltwater species under both standard laboratory fluorescent light and ultraviolet (UV) light test conditions. Acute tests with 21 species demonstrated that fluoranthene was not le...

  5. Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic bacteria disinfection by g-C3N4-AgBr.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun; Liang, Jialiang; Li, Mian; Tong, Meiping

    2017-04-01

    g-C 3 N 4 -AgBr was synthesized by depositing AgBr nanoparticles onto g-C 3 N 4 . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the as-synthesized photocatalysts. The disinfection activities towards representative Gram-negative strain E. coli and Gram-positive strain S. aureus were examined under visible light irradiation. Complete inactivation of 3×10 6 CFU/mL viable cell density was reached in 60min for E. coli and 150min for S. aureus, respectively. Ag + released from the photocatalysts did not contribute to the photocatalytic disinfection process. Direct contact of g-C 3 N 4 -AgBr composites and bacterial cells, as well as the presence of O 2 was indispensable for the cell inactivation. Photo-generated holes, surface bounded OH, and indirect generation of intracellular active species played important roles in disinfection process of g-C 3 N 4 -AgBr under visible light irradiation. The disruption of outside structure of cells as well as inner cell injury led to the inactivation. High pH condition led to increasing the cell disinfection due to the generation of surface bounded OH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model.

    PubMed

    Perna, J J; Mannix, M L; Rooney, J F; Notkins, A L; Straus, S E

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

  7. A role for calcium hydroxide and dolomite in water: acceleration of the reaction under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Hiroyasu; Tsujino, Hidekazu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Saito, Hiroshi; Kawase, Masaya

    2014-04-01

    Organic environmental pollutants are now being detected with remarkably high frequency in the aquatic environment. Photodegradation by ultraviolet light is sometimes used as a method for removing organic chemicals from water; however, this method is relatively inefficient because of the low degradation rates involved, and more efficient methods are under development. Here we show that the removal of various organic pollutants can be assisted by calcined dolomite in aqueous solution under irradiation with ultraviolet light. It was possible to achieve substantial removal of bisphenol A, chlorophenols, alkylphenols, 1-naphthol and 17β-estradiol. The major component of dolomite responsible for the removal was calcium hydroxide. Our results demonstrate that the use of calcium hydroxide with ultraviolet light irradiation can be a very effective method of rapidly removing organic environmental pollutants from water. This is a new role for calcium hydroxide and dolomite in water treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpesmore » simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.« less

  9. Characteristics of ultraviolet light and radicals formed by pulsed discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bing; Kunitomo, Shinta; Igarashi, Chiaki

    2006-09-01

    In this investigation, the ultraviolet light characteristics and OH radical properties produced by a pulsed discharge in water were studied. For the plate-rod reactor, it was found that the ultraviolet light energy has a 3.2% total energy injected into the reactor. The ultraviolet light changed with the peak voltage and electrode distance. UV characteristics in tap water and the distilled water are given. The intensity of the OH radicals was the highest for the 40 mm electrode distance reactor. In addition, the properties of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were also studied under arc discharge conditions. It was found that the OH radicals were in the ground state and the excited state when a pulsed arc discharge was used. The ozone was produced by the arc discharge even if the oxygen gas is not bubbled into the reactor. The ozone concentration produces a maximum value with treatment time.

  10. Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by Propidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods▿

    PubMed Central

    Wahman, David G.; Wulfeck-Kleier, Karen A.; Pressman, Jonathan G.

    2009-01-01

    Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure-culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture-independent methods, namely, Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were first verified with mixtures of heat-killed (nonviable) and non-heat-killed (viable) cells before a series of batch disinfection experiments with stationary-phase cultures (batch grown for 7 days) at pH 8.0, 25°C, and 5, 10, and 20 mg Cl2/liter monochloramine. Two data sets were generated based on the viability method used, either (i) LD or (ii) PMA-qPCR. These two data sets were used to estimate kinetic parameters for the delayed Chick-Watson disinfection model through a Bayesian analysis implemented in WinBUGS. This analysis provided parameter estimates of 490 mg Cl2-min/liter for the lag coefficient (b) and 1.6 × 10−3 to 4.0 × 10−3 liter/mg Cl2-min for the Chick-Watson disinfection rate constant (k). While estimates of b were similar for both data sets, the LD data set resulted in a greater k estimate than that obtained with the PMA-qPCR data set, implying that the PMA-qPCR viability measure was more conservative than LD. For N. europaea, the lag phase was not previously reported for culture-independent methods and may have implications for nitrification in drinking water distribution systems. This is the first published application of a PMA-qPCR method for disinfection kinetic model parameter estimation as well as its application to N. europaea or monochloramine. Ultimately, this PMA-qPCR method will allow evaluation of monochloramine disinfection kinetics for mixed-culture bacteria in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:19561179

  11. Sulfonated graphene oxide-ZnO-Ag photocatalyst for fast photodegradation and disinfection under visible light.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Ng, Kokseng; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-11-15

    Synthesis of efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst is urgent but challenging for environmental remediation. In this work, for the first time, the hierarchical plasmonic sulfonated graphene oxide-ZnO-Ag (SGO-ZnO-Ag) composites were prepared through nanocrystal-seed-directed hydrothermal method combining with polyol-reduction process. The results indicated that SGO-ZnO-Ag exhibited much faster rate in photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli), than ZnO, SGO-ZnO and ZnO-Ag. SGO-ZnO-Ag totally degraded RhB dye and kill 99% of E. coli within 20 min under visible light irradiation. The outstanding performances of SGO-ZnO-Ag were attributed to the synergetic merits of SGO sheets, ZnO nanorod arrays and Ag nanoparticles. Firstly, the light absorption ability of SGO-ZnO-Ag composite in the visible region was enhanced due to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag. In addition, the hierarchical structure of SGO-ZnO-Ag composite improved the incident light scattering and reflection. Furthermore, SGO sheets facilitated charge transfer and reduce electron-hole recombination rate. Finally, the tentative mechanism was proposed and verified by the photoluminescence (PL) measurement as well as the theoretical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. In view of above, this work paves the way for preparation of multi-component plasmonic composites and highlights the potential applications of SGO-ZnO-Ag in photocatalytic wastewater treatment field. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recording of individual identification information on dental prostheses using fluorescent material and ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshihito; Meinar, Ashrin N; Iwawaki, Yuki; Kashiwabara, Toshiya; Goto, Takaharu; Ito, Teruaki; Sakuma, Tetsuro; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The placement of individual identification on a prosthesis is very important for forensic dentistry and traceability. This article describes the unique naming/labeling of dentures with information for individual identification using a method in which information is invisible under natural light but visible under ultraviolet light-emitting diode/black light exposure. The use of laser beam machining with this method will enable the recording of a large amount of information.

  13. STUDIES ON BIOLUMINESCENCE : XVII. FLUORESCENCE AND INHIBITION OF LUMINESCENCE IN CTENOPHORES BY ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E N

    1925-01-20

    1. Small dumps of the luminous cells of Mnemiopsis cannot readily be stimulated mechanically but will luminesce on treatment with saponin solution. Larger groups of luminous cells (such as are connected with two paddle plates) luminesce on mechanical stimulation. This suggests that mechanical stimulation to luminesce occurs chiefly through a nerve mechanism which has been broken up in the small dumps of luminous tissue. 2. The smallest bits of luminous tissue, even cells freed from the animal by agitation, that will pass through filter paper, lose their power to luminesce in daylight and regain it (at least partially) in the dark. 3. Luminescence of the whole animal and of individual cells is suppressed by near ultra-violet light (without visible light). 4. Inhibition in ultra-violet light is not due to stimulation (by the ultra-violet light) of the animal to luminesce, thereby using up the store of photogenic material. 5. Animals stimulated mechanically several times and placed in ultra-violet light show a luminescence along the meridians in the same positions as the luminescence that appears on stimulation. This luminescence in the ultra-violet or "tonic luminescence," is not obtained with light adapted ctenophores and is interpreted to be a fluorescence of the product of oxidation of the photogenic material. 6. Marked fluorescence of the luminous organ of the glowworm (Photuris) and of the luminous slime of Chatopterus may be observed in ultra-violet but no marked fluorescence of the luminous substances of Cypridina is apparent. 7. Evidence is accumulating to show a close relation between fluorescent and chemiluminescent substances in animals, similar to that described for unsaturated silicon compounds and the Grignard reagents.

  14. Ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae: Comparison of OAO A-2, IUE, and Voyager Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji; Mccluskey, George E.; Silvis, Jeffery M. S.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Mccluskey, Carolina P. S.; Eaton, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    The six-band ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae obtained with the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) A-2 in 1970 exhibited a very unusual behavior. The secondary minimum deepened at shorter wavelength, indicating that one was not observing light variations caused primarily by the eclipses of two stars having a roughly Planckian energy distribution. It was then suggested that the light variations were caused by a viewing angle effect of an optically thick, ellipsoidal circumbinary gas cloud. Since 1978 beta Lyrae has been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. We have constructed ultraviolet light curves from the IUE archival data for comparison with the OAO A-2 results. We find that they are in substantial agreement with each other. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer was also used to observe this binary during a period covered by IUE observations. The Voyager results agree with those of the two other satellite observatories at wavelengths longer than about 1350 A. However, in the wavelength region shorter than the Lyman-alpha line at 1216 A, the light curves at 1085 and 965 A show virtually no light variation except an apparent flaring near phase 0.7, which is also in evidence at longer wavelengths. We suggest that the optically thick circumbinary gas cloud, which envelops the two stars completely, assumes a roughly spherical shape when observed at these shorter wavelengths.

  15. The interaction of ultraviolet light with Arctic sea ice during SHEBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, Donald K.

    The reflection, absorption and transmission of ultraviolet light by a sea-ice cover strongly impacts primary productivity, higher trophic components of the food web, and humans. Measurements of the incident irradiance at 305, 320, 340 and 380 nm and of the photosynthetically active radiation were made from April through September 1998 as part of the SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean program) field experiment in the Arctic Ocean. In addition, observations of snow depth and ice thickness were made at more than 100 sites encompassing a comprehensive range of conditions. The thickness observations were combined with a radiative transfer model to compute a time series of the ultraviolet light transmitted by the ice cover from April through September. Peak values of incident ultraviolet irradiance occurred in mid-June. Peak transmittance was later in the summer at the end of the melt season when the snow cover had completely melted, the ice had thinned and pond coverage was extensive. The fraction of the incident ultraviolet irradiance transmitted through the ice increased by several orders of magnitude as the melt season progressed. Ultraviolet transmittance was approximately a factor of ten greater for melt ponds than bare ice. Climate change has the potential to alter the amplitude and timing of the annual albedo cycle of sea ice. If the onset of melt occurs at increasingly earlier dates, ultraviolet transmittance will be significantly enhanced, with potentially deleterious biological impacts.

  16. Effect of some ultraviolet light absorbers on photo-stabilization of azadirachtin-A.

    PubMed

    Deota, P T; Upadhyay, P R; Patel, K B; Mehta, K J; Varshney, A K; Mehta, M H

    2002-10-01

    The effect of photo-stabilization of Azadirachtin-A (Aza-A) was examined when exposed to sunlight and ultraviolet light in the presence of four structurally different ultraviolet stabilizers namely 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and phenyl salicylate. The percentages of Aza-A recovered at different time intervals from slides exposed to different light conditions with and without UV stabilizers as well as kinetic studies indicated that the addition of phenyl salicylate in methanolic solution of Aza-A (in 1:1 mole ratio) provides the best photo-stabilization of Aza-A molecule among the four UV stabilizers studied.

  17. Calibration of optimal use parameters for an ultraviolet light-emitting diode in eliminating bacterial contamination on needleless connectors.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, M P; Drennan, S L; Cambronne, E D

    2015-06-01

    Needleless connectors may develop bacterial contamination and cause central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) despite rigorous application of best-practice. Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LED) are an emerging, increasingly affordable disinfection technology. We tested the hypothesis that a low-power UV LED could reliably eliminate bacteria on needleless central-line ports in a laboratory model of central-line contamination. Needleless central-line connectors were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. A 285 nm UV LED was used in calibrated fashion to expose contaminated connectors. Ports were directly applied to agar plates and flushed with sterile saline, allowing assessment of bacterial survival on the port surface and in simulated usage flow-through fluid. UV applied to needleless central-line connectors was highly lethal at 0·5 cm distance at all tested exposure times. At distances >1·5 cm both simulated flow-through and port surface cultures demonstrated significant bacterial growth following UV exposure. Logarithmic-phase S. aureus subcultures were highly susceptible to UV induction/maintenance dosing. Low-power UV LED doses at fixed time and distance from needleless central-line connector ports reduced cultivable S. aureus from >10(6) CFU to below detectable levels in this laboratory simulation of central-line port contamination. Low-power UV LEDs may represent a feasible alternative to current best-practice in connector decontamination. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Stray light correction of array spectroradiometer measurement in ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhifeng; Dai, Caihong; Wang, Yanfei; Li, Ling

    2018-02-01

    For most of the array spectroradiometer, stray light is significant in UV band. Stray light correction of a UV array spectroradiometer is investigated using optical filters. If a group of filters with continuous bandpass are chosen, stray light contribution due to all the bands can be obtained using a numerical algorithm. The array spectroradiometer with the stray light corrected is used to measure the spectral irradiance of several UV lamps. The measurement results are compared to a double monochromator spectroradiometer. When xenon lamp is the array spectroradiometer calibration lamp, after stray light correction, the difference can be improved from nearly 10% to 2.0% in UVC band. When tungsten lamp is the calibration lamp, the difference can be improved from around 90% to less than 20%.

  19. Survival of Poliovirus in Flowing Turbid Seawater Treated with Ultraviolet Light

    PubMed Central

    Hill, W. F.; Hamblet, F. E.; Akin, E. W.

    1967-01-01

    The effectiveness of a model ultraviolet (UV) radiation unit for treating flowing turbid seawater contaminated with poliovirus was determined. At a turbidity of 70 ppm, the observed survival ratios ranged from 1.9 × 10-3 (99.81% reduction) to 1.5 × 10-4 (99.98% reduction) at flow rates ranging from 25 to 15 liters/min; no virus was recovered at flow rates of 10 and 5 liters/min. At a turbidity of 240 ppm, the observed survival ratios ranged from 3.2 × 10-2 (96.80% reduction) to 2.1 × 10-4 (99.98% reduction) at flow rates ranging from 25 to 5 liters/min. As expected, turbidity had an adverse influence on the effectiveness of UV radiation; however, by adjusting the flow rate of the seawater through the treatment unit, adequate disinfection was shown to be predictable. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4291955

  20. Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, S.; Connie, A. T.; Dastjerdi, M. H. T.; Kong, X. H.; Wang, Q.; Djavid, M.; Sadaf, S.; Liu, X. D.; Shih, I.; Guo, H.; Mi, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Despite broad interest in aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) optoelectronic devices for deep ultraviolet (DUV) applications, the performance of conventional Al(Ga)N planar devices drastically decays when approaching the AlN end, including low internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) and high device operation voltages. Here we show that these challenges can be addressed by utilizing nitrogen (N) polar Al(Ga)N nanowires grown directly on Si substrate. By carefully tuning the synthesis conditions, a record IQE of 80% can be realized with N-polar AlN nanowires, which is nearly ten times higher compared to high quality planar AlN. The first 210 nm emitting AlN nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) were achieved, with a turn on voltage of about 6 V, which is significantly lower than the commonly observed 20 – 40 V. This can be ascribed to both efficient Mg doping by controlling the nanowire growth rate and N-polarity induced internal electrical field that favors hole injection. In the end, high performance N-polar AlGaN nanowire LEDs with emission wavelengths covering the UV-B/C bands were also demonstrated. PMID:25684335

  1. Feasibility of ultraviolet-light-emitting diodes as an alternative light source for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Levine, Lanfang H; Richards, Jeffrey T; Coutts, Janelle L; Soler, Robert; Maxik, Fred; Wheeler, Raymond M

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether ultraviolet-light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) could serve as an efficient photon source for heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO). An LED module consisting of 12 high-power UV-A (lambda max = 365 nm) LEDs was designed to be interchangeable with a UV-A fluorescent black light blue (BLB) lamp for a bench scale annular reactor packed with silica-titania composite (STC) pellets. Lighting and thermal properties of the module were characterized to assess its uniformity and total irradiance. A forward current (I(F)) of 100 mA delivered an average irradiance of 4.0 mW cm(-2) at a distance of 8 mm, which is equivalent to the maximum output of the BLB, but the irradiance of the LED module was less uniform than that of the BLB. The LED and BLB reactors were tested for the oxidization of ethanol (50 ppm(v)) in a continuous-flow-through mode with 0.94 sec residence time. At the same average irradiance, the UV-A LED reactor resulted in a lower CO2 production rate (19.8 vs. 28.6 nmol L(-1) s(-1)), lower ethanol removal (80% vs. 91%), and lower mineralization efficiency (28% vs. 44%) than the UV-A BLB reactor. Ethanol mineralization was enhanced with the increase of the irradiance at the catalyst surface. This result suggests that reduced ethanol mineralization in the LED reactor relative to the BLB reactor at the same average irradiance could be attributed to the nonuniform irradiance over the photocatalyst, that is, a portion of the catalyst was exposed to less than the average irradiance. The potential of UV-A LEDs may be fully realized by optimizing the light distribution over the catalyst and utilizing their instantaneous "on" and "off" feature for periodic irradiation. Nevertheless, our results also showed that the current UV-A LED module had the same wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 13% as that of the UV-A BLB, demonstrating that UV-A LEDs are a viable photon source both in terms of WPE and PCO efficiency.

  2. Feasibility of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes as an Alternative Light Source for Photocatalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Langanf H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Soler, Robert; Maxik, Fred; Coutts, Janelle; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) could serve as an alternative photon source efficiently for heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO). An LED module consisting of 12 high-power UV-A LEDs was designed to be interchangeable with a UV-A fluorescent black light blue (BLB) lamp in a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) packed bed annular reactor. Lighting and thermal properties were characterized to assess the uniformity and total irradiant output. A forward current of (I(sub F)) 100 mA delivered an average irradiance of 4.0 m W cm(exp -2), which is equivalent to the maximum output of the BLB, but the irradiance of the LED module was less uniform than that of the BLB. The LED- and BLB-reactors were tested for the oxidization of 50 ppmv ethanol in a continuous flow-through mode with 0.94 sec space time. At the same irradiance, the UV-A LED reactor resulted in a lower PCO rate constant than the UV-A BLB reactor (19.8 vs. 28.6 nM CO2 sec-I), and consequently lower ethanol removal (80% vs. 91%) and mineralization efficiency (28% vs. 44%). Ethanol mineralization increased in direct proportion to the irradiance at the catalyst surface. This result suggests that reduced ethanol mineralization in the LED- reactor could be traced to uneven irradiance over the photocatalyst, leaving a portion of the catalyst was under-irradiated. The potential of UV-A LEDs may be fully realized by optimizing the light distribution over the catalyst and utilizing their instantaneous "on" and "off' feature for periodic irradiation. Nevertheless, the current UV-A LED module had the same wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 13% as that of the UV-A BLB. These results demonstrated that UV-A LEDs are a viable photon source both in terms of WPE and PCO efficiency.

  3. Optical Microfiber Technology for Current, Temperature, Acceleration, Acoustic, Humidity and Ultraviolet Light Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, David G.; Monro, Tanya M.

    2017-01-01

    Optical microfibers possess excellent optical and mechanical properties that have been exploited for sensing. We highlight the authors’ recent work in the areas of current, temperature, acceleration, acoustic, humidity and ultraviolet-light sensing based on this exquisite technology, and the advantages and challenges of using optical microfibers are discussed. PMID:29283414

  4. Application of ultraviolet-C light on oranges for the inactivation of postharvest wound pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germicidal effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on the postharvest wound pathogens of citrus fruits namely Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were investigated. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated (4.00 – 4.50 log cfu/ orange) onto Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinens...

  5. Effect of Pulsed Ultraviolet Light and High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Antigenicity of Almond Protein Extracts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on reducing the IgE binding to the almond extracts, was studied using SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA probed with human plasma containing IgE antibodies to almond allergens, and a polyclonal antibody against almond ...

  6. Extending the use of ultraviolet light for fruit quality sorting in citrus packinghouses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Illumination with ultraviolet light (UV) is commonly used in citrus packinghouses as a means to aid in the identification and removal of decayed oranges from the packline. This technique is effective because areas of decay strongly fluoresce under UV illumination. It was observed that oranges often ...

  7. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis on food and food contact surfaces by ultraviolet light and freezing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, can occasionally be contracted as a naso-pharangeal or gastrointestinal illness through consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the use of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV-C) to inactivate a multi-isolate cocktail of avirulent Y. pestis on food an...

  8. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  9. Pulsed ultraviolet light reduces immunoglobulin E binding to atlantic white shrimp (litopenaeus setiferus).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To date, the only effective method to prevent allergic reactions to shellfish is complete avoidance; however, if processing methods could be employed to minimize shellfish allergens before products reach consumers, illness could be substantially lessened. Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food...

  10. Efficient water disinfection with Ag2WO4-doped mesoporous g-C3N4 under visible light.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Li, Yanan; Ma, Shuanglong; Wang, Pengfei; Hou, Qianlei; Han, Jingjing; Zhan, Sihui

    2017-09-15

    Ag 2 WO 4 /g-C 3 N 4 composite photocatalyst was synthesized by polymerization of thiourea and ammonia chloride combined with the deposition-precipitation method, which was applied as an efficient visible-light driven photocatalyst for inactivating Escherichia coli (E. coli). The physicochemical properties of these photocatalysts were systematically characterized by various techniques such as SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, BET, UV-vis DRS and PL. The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited outstandingly enhanced photocatalytic disinfection efficiency compared with that of pure g-C 3 N 4 and Ag 2 WO 4 under visible light. Furthermore, the optimal mass ratio of the Ag 2 WO 4 to g-C 3 N 4 was 5wt%, and a number of live bacteria could be completely inactivated with Ag 2 WO 4 (5%)/g-C 3 N 4 (100μg/mL) after 90min under visible light irradiation. The high disinfection efficiency is due to the synergetic effect between g-C 3 N 4 and Ag 2 WO 4 , including a good distribution of Ag 2 WO 4 particles on the surface of g-C 3 N 4 and an improved separation rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The enhanced disinfection mechanism was also investigated using photogenerated current densities and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Considering the bulk availability and excellent disinfection activity of Ag 2 WO 4 /g-C 3 N 4 composite, it is a promising solar-driven photocatalyst for cleaning the microbial contaminated water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Does infrared or ultraviolet light damage the lens?

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, P G; Talebizadeh, N; Yu, Z; Galichanin, K

    2016-01-01

    In daylight, the human eye is exposed to long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVR), visible radiation and short wavelength infrared radiation (IRR). Almost all the UVR and a fraction of the IRR waveband, respectively, left over after attenuation in the cornea, is absorbed in the lens. The time delay between exposure and onset of biological response in the lens varies from immediate-to-short-to-late. After exposure to sunlight or artificial sources, generating irradiances of the same order of magnitude or slightly higher, biological damage may occur photochemically or thermally. Epidemiological studies suggest a dose-dependent association between short wavelength UVR and cortical cataract. Experimental data infer that repeated daily in vivo exposures to short wavelength UVR generate photochemically induced damage in the lens, and that short delay onset cataract after UVR exposure is photochemically induced. Epidemiology suggests that daily high-intensity short wavelength IRR exposure of workers, is associated with a higher prevalence of age-related cataract. It cannot be excluded that this effect is owing to a thermally induced higher denaturation rate. Recent experimental data rule out a photochemical effect of 1090 nm in the lens but other wavelengths in the near IRR should be investigated. PMID:26768915

  12. Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices

    DOEpatents

    Schowalter, Leo J; Chen, Jianfeng; Grandusky, James R

    2015-02-24

    In various embodiments, a rigid lens is attached to a light-emitting semiconductor die via a layer of encapsulant having a thickness insufficient to prevent propagation of thermal expansion mismatch-induced strain between the rigid lens and the semiconductor die.

  13. The Effect of Ultraviolet Light on the "Liquid Wood"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Nedelcu; Sabina, Zǎgan; Ticuta, Negreanu-Pirjol; Remus, Zǎgan; Constantin, Cǎrausu

    2014-08-01

    To preserve resources, the goal is to use biobased materials containing the maximum possible amount of renewable biomass-based derivatives to secure a sustainable future. Bioplastics, biocomposites, biological fibres and related biomaterials will serve as substitutes for materials and products traditionally made from petroleum resources. To support this need, in 1998, Fraunhofer Institute of Chemistry and Tecnaro GmbH Company (founded by Jurgen Pfitzer and Helmut Nagele in Germany) investigated and developed a new compound made of wood components that can be processed as a thermoplastic material. It is well known that bioplastic and biocomposite materials represent another important group of bio-materials that include plastics reinforced with natural fibers and wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The aim of this research is to identify the behavior of "Liquid Wood" after UV irradiation. The materials used were Arbofill Fichte, Arboblend V2 Nature and Arboform L, V3 Nature. The samples were obtained by injection and the experimental study plan followed the Taguchi method with six input parameters and two levels for each of them. Three samples from each material were tested in an ultraviolet environment using different time of exposure in order to establish the material characteristics. After the irradiation process the material did not turn to yellow, which suggests that the composition of the sample liquid timber inhibitors have stability and the number of α-carbonyl (C = O) groups is sufficiently low. After the graphs analyzing can be inferred relatively similar performance of the samples in the first stage both UV and the VIS, indicating that the activity is almost absent. In UV is clearly observed the peak amplitude (maximum absorbance) at different wavelengths (λ). So, in terms of peak intensity the samples follow the order: Arboform L, V3 Nature; Arbofill Fichte and Arboblend V2 Nature.

  14. EDITORIAL: Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, David

    2004-12-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) [1] provides industry expectations for high volume computer chip fabrication a decade into the future. It provides expectations to anticipated performance and requisite specifications. While the roadmap provides a collective projection of what international industry expects to produce, it does not specify the technology that will be employed. Indeed, there are generally several competing technologies for each two or three year step forward—known as `nodes'. Recent successful technologies have been based on KrF (248 nm), and now ArF (193 nm) lasers, combined with ultraviolet transmissive refractive optics, in what are known as step and scan exposure tools. Less fortunate technologies in the recent past have included soft x-ray proximity printing and, it appears, 157 nm wavelength F2 lasers. In combination with higher numerical aperture liquid emersion optics, 193 nm is expected to be used for the manufacture of leading edge chip performance for the coming five years. Beyond that, starting in about 2009, the technology to be employed is less clear. The leading candidate for the 2009 node is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, however this requires that several remaining challenges, including sufficient EUV source power, be overcome in a timely manner. This technology is based on multilayer coated reflective optics [2] and an EUV emitting plasma. Following Moore's Law [3] it is expected, for example, that at the 2009 `32 nm node' (printable patterns of 32 nm half-pitch), isolated lines with 18 nm width will be formed in resist (using threshold effects), and that these will be further narrowed to 13 nm in transfer to metalized electronic gates. These narrow features are expected to provide computer chips of 19 GHz clock frequency, with of the order of 1.5 billion transistors per chip [1]. This issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains a cluster of eight papers addressing the critical

  15. Investigating the protective properties of milk phospholipids against ultraviolet light exposure in a skin equivalent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Ashley; Laubscher, Andrea; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Laiho, Lily H.

    2010-02-01

    Current research on bioactive molecules in milk has documented health advantages of bovine milk and its components. Milk Phospholipids, selected for this study, represent molecules with great potential benefit in human health and nutrition. In this study we used confocal reflectance and multiphoton microscopy to monitor changes in skin morphology upon skin exposure to ultraviolet light and evaluate the potential of milk phospholipids in preventing photodamage to skin equivalent models. The results suggest that milk phospholipids act upon skin cells in a protective manner against the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Similar results were obtained from MTT tissue viability assay and histology.

  16. Disinfection potential of ozone, ultraviolet-C and their combination in wash water for the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    PubMed

    Selma, María V; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María A; Gil, María I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the disinfection efficacy of ozone (O(3)) and UV-C illumination (UV), and their combination (O(3)-UV) for reducing microbial flora of fresh-cut onion, escarole, carrot, and spinach wash waters collected from the industry. Furthermore, the influence of water physicochemical parameters on the decontamination efficacy and the effect of these technologies on physicochemical quality of wash water were analyzed. O(3), UV, and O(3)-UV were effective disinfection treatments on vegetable wash water, with a maximum microbial reduction of 6.6 log CFU mL(-1) after 60 min treatment with O(3)-UV. However, maximum total microbial reductions achieved by UV and O(3) treatments after 60 min were 4.0 and 5.9 log CFU mL(-1), lower than by O(3)-UV treatment. Furthermore, turbidity of wash water was reduced significantly by O(3) and O(3)-UV treatments, while UV treatment did not affect the physicochemical quality of the water. Conclusions derived from this study illustrate that O(3) and O(3)-UV are alternatives to other sanitizers used in the fresh-cut washing processes. The use of these technologies would allow less frequent changing of spent water and the use of much lower sanitizer doses. Nevertheless, in specific applications such as carrot wash water, where levels of undesirable microbial and chemical constituents are lower than other vegetable wash water, UV treatment could be an appropriate treatment considering cost-effectiveness criteria.

  17. Chlorophyll derivatives enhance invertebrate red-light and ultraviolet phototaxis.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; Rossi, Leonardo; Salvetti, Alessandra; Marino, Attilio; Meloni, Gabriella; Mazzolai, Barbara; Ciofani, Gianni

    2017-06-13

    Chlorophyll derivatives are known to enhance vision in vertebrates. They are thought to bind visual pigments (i.e., opsins apoproteins bound to retinal chromophores) directly within the retina. Consistent with previous findings in vertebrates, here we show that chlorin e 6 - a chlorophyll derivative - enhances photophobicity in a flatworm (Dugesia japonica), specifically when exposed to UV radiation (λ = 405 nm) or red light (λ = 660 nm). This is the first report of chlorophyll derivatives acting as modulators of invertebrate phototaxis, and in general the first account demonstrating that they can artificially alter animal response to light at a behavioral level. Our findings show that the interaction between chlorophyll derivatives and opsins virtually concerns the vast majority of bilaterian animals, and also occurs in visual systems based on rhabdomeric (rather than ciliary) opsins.

  18. Probing of Hermean Exosphere by ultraviolet spectroscopy: Instrument presentation, calibration philosophy and first lights results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariscal, J. F.; Rouanet, N.; Maria, J. L.; Quémerais, E.; Mine, P. O.; Zuppella, P.; Suman, M.; Nicolosi, P.; Pelizzo, M. G.; Yoshikawa, I.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.

    2017-11-01

    PHEBUS (Probing of Hermean Exosphere by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy) is a double spectrometer for the Extreme Ultraviolet range (55-155 nm) and the Far Ultraviolet range (145-315 nm) dedicated to the characterization of Mercury's exosphere composition and dynamics, and surface-exosphere connections. PHEBUS is part of the ESA BepiColombo cornerstone mission payload devoted to the study of Mercury. The BepiColombo mission consists of two spacecrafts: the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) and the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) on which PHEBUS will be mounted. PHEBUS is a French-led instrument implemented in a cooperative scheme involving Japan (detectors), Russia (scanner) and Italy (ground calibration). Before launch, PHEBUS team want to perform a full absolute calibration on ground, in addition to calibrations which will be made in-flight, in order to know the instrument's response as precisely as possible. Instrument overview and calibration philosophy are introduced along with the first lights results observed by a first prototype.

  19. Comparative antifungal efficacy of light-activated disinfection and octenidine hydrochloride with contemporary endodontic irrigants.

    PubMed

    Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Akbulut, Makbule Bilge

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of light-activated disinfection (LAD) in comparison with contemporary root canal irrigation solutions: sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and a new wound antiseptic, octenidine hydrochloride. Seventy extracted teeth having single root canals were contaminated with Candida albicans for 14 days. The samples were divided into five experimental (n = 10) and two control (positive and negative) groups (n = 10): (1) LAD with toluidine blue O, (2) octenidine hydrochloride (OCT), (3) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (2.5% NaOCl), (4) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (5.25% NaOCl) and (5) 2% chlorhexidine. Five millilitres of each test solution was applied for 3 min, and irradiation time used for LAD was 30 s. After treatment, the dentin chips were collected from inner canal walls into vials containing phosphate buffered saline, vortexed, serially diluted, seeded on Tryptic Soy Agar plates and incubated (37 °C, 48 h). The number of colony-forming units was then counted. Differences between LAD group and positive control group were statistically significant (P < 0.05). All Candida cells were totally eliminated in root canals irrigated with OCT, 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine groups (CFU = 0). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, LAD had minimal antimicrobial effect on C. albicans when used 30 s, and further modifications in LAD protocol are required to improve its antifungal capability. A new wound antiseptic, octenidine hydrochloride, demonstrated better potential than LAD in elimination of Candida albicans cells and may be a promising alternative to NaOCl and chlorhexidine solutions in future.

  20. Blue Light and Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure from Infant Phototherapy Equipment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Bogi, Andrea; Picciolo, Francesco; Stacchini, Nicola; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Bellieni, Carlo V

    2015-01-01

    Phototherapy is the use of light for reducing the concentration of bilirubin in the body of infants. Although it has become a mainstay since its introduction in 1958, a better understanding of the efficacy and safety of phototherapy applications seems to be necessary for improved clinical practices and outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to Optical Radiation from different types of phototherapy devices in clinical use in Italy. During infant phototherapy the staff monitors babies periodically for around 10 min every hour, and fixation of the phototherapy beam light frequently occurs: almost all operators work within 30 cm of the phototherapy source during monitoring procedures, with most of them commonly working at ≤25 cm from the direct or reflected radiation beam. The results of this study suggest that there is a great variability in the spectral emission of equipments investigated, depending on the types of lamps used and some phototherapy equipment exposes operators to blue light photochemical retinal hazard. Some of the equipment investigated presents relevant spectral emission also in the UVA region. Taking into account that the exposure to UV in childhood has been established as an important contributing factor for melanoma risk in adults and considering the high susceptibility to UV-induced skin damage of the newborn, related to his pigmentary traits, the UV exposure of the infant during phototherapy should be "as low as reasonably achievable," considering that it is unnecessary to the therapy. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees: in particular, protective eyewear can be necessary during newborn assistance activities carried out in proximity of some sources. The engineering design of phototherapy equipment can be optimized. Specific requirements for photobiological safety of lamps used in the phototherapy equipment should be defined in the safety product standard for such

  1. Photocatalytic disinfection performance in virus and virus/bacteria system by Cu-TiO2 nanofibers under visible light.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Peng; Cheng, Can; Shi, Lei; Cheng, Rong; Yuan, Dong-Hai

    2018-06-01

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in water is a great threat to human health, and photocatalysis is promising for disinfection. However, the research on virus inactivation with visible-light photocatalysis is still limited, especially the coexistence of virus and its host bacteria. In this study, bacteriophage f2 and its host E. coil 285 were used as the model microorganisms, and the disinfection performance of prepared Cu-TiO 2 nanofibers under visible light was investigated. The result showed that the prepared Cu-TiO 2 nanofibers showed a brilliant ability in terms of removing bacteriophage f2 and E. coil 285 under visible light. Series experiments indicated that the initial pH didn't affect the photocatalytic disinfection performance significantly. In the certain range, the removal efficiency of bacteriophage f2 increased with the increase of catalyst dosage, light intensity and temperature, but decreased with the increase of initial virus concentration. In virus/bacteria mixed system, bacteriophage f2 exhibited stronger resistance to photocatalytic oxidation than E. coil 285, and the removal of bacteriophage f2 was obviously affected by being mixed with E. coil 285, while the removal of E. coil 285 almost remained unchanged after being mixed with bacteriophage f2. Further research proved that competitive adsorption in mixed system played a certain role in E. coli 285 inactivation, while the free reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in the bulk phase played a crucial role in phage f2 inactivation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar-light photocatalytic disinfection using crystalline/amorphous low energy bandgap reduced TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmin; Hwang, Hee Min; Wang, Luyang; Kim, Ikjoon; Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2016-01-01

    A generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from TiO2 under solar light has been long sought since the ROS can disinfect organic pollutants. We found that newly developed crystalline/amorphous reduced TiO2 (rTiO2) that has low energy bandgap can effectively generate ROS under solar light and successfully remove a bloom of algae. The preparation of rTiO2 is a one-pot and mass productive solution-process reduction using lithium-ethylene diamine (Li-EDA) at room temperature. Interestingly only the rutile phase of TiO2 crystal was reduced, while the anatase phase even in case of both anatase/rutile phased TiO2 was not reduced. Only reduced TiO2 materials can generate ROS under solar light, which was confirmed by electron spin resonance. Among the three different types of Li-EDA treated TiO2 (anatase, rutile and both phased TiO2), the both phased rTiO2 showed the best performance to produce ROS. The generated ROS effectively removed the common green algae Chlamydomonas. This is the first report on algae degradation under solar light, proving the feasibility of commercially available products for disinfection. PMID:27121120

  3. The role of visible light active TiO2 specimens on the solar photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli.

    PubMed

    Birben, Nazmiye Cemre; Tomruk, Ayse; Bekbolet, Miray

    2017-05-01

    Solar photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of novel visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysts was evaluated with the aim of assessing inactivation of Escherichia coli as the pathogen indicator organism present in drinking water. Influence of humic acid (HA) on the photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of the specified VLA TiO 2 specimens i.e., N-doped, Se-doped, and Se-N co-doped TiO 2 was also investigated. Photocatalytic disinfection efficiency was assessed by the enumeration of bacteria following selected irradiation periods. Degradation and compositional changes in organic matter (OM) was also tracked by means of UV-vis and advanced fluorescence spectroscopic (EEM features) parameters. Photocatalytic mineralization of the organic matter was followed by dissolved organic carbon contents. Presence of HA as a model organic compound of natural organic matter (NOM) displayed a retardation effect on solar photocatalytic abatement of E. coli. However, no distinctly different effect was observed under solar photolytic conditions due to the presence of HA. Regrowth of E. coli could not be assessed under the specified experimental conditions. A comparison was introduced with respect to the use of undoped TiO 2 P-25 as the photocatalyst.

  4. Visible-light-driven, water-surface-floating antimicrobials developed from graphitic carbon nitride and expanded perlite for water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Li, Yi; Shuai, Danmeng; Zhang, Wenlong; Niu, Lihua; Wang, Longfei; Zhang, Huanjun

    2018-05-28

    Waterborne pathogens, especially bacteria and viruses, pose significant health risks to the public, calling for the development of a sustainable, efficient, and robust disinfection strategy with reduced energy footprint and minimized byproduct formation. Here, we developed a sustainable photocatalytic composite for antimicrobial applications by integrating visible-light-responsive graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) with low-density porous expanded perlite (EP) mineral, and g-C 3 N 4 /EP-520 showed a high specific surface area of 45.3 m 2 /g and optimum performance for disinfection. g-C 3 N 4 /EP-520 achieved 8-log inactivation of E. coli and MS2 under 180 and 240 min visible-light irradiation without stirring, respectively. Water quality parameters were found to influence the disinfection performance of g-C 3 N 4 /EP-520: MS2 inactivation was promoted with the increase of dissolved oxygen (DO), proton concentration, salinity (NaCl), and hardness (Ca 2+ ). Importantly, g-C 3 N 4 /EP-520 could fully inactivate MS2 in a real source water sample with prolonged light irradiation, and negligible activity loss was observed in recycle use, demonstrating its viability and robustness for waterborne pathogen removal. Antimicrobial mechanisms of g-C 3 N 4 /EP-520 were systemically evaluated by radical scavenger addition, and revealed that the inactivation behavior was dependent on the type of microorganisms. Microscopic analyses confirmed that the destruction of bacterial cells and viral particles, leading to the inactivation of microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of long-wave ultraviolet light (UV-A) and medium-wave ultraviolet rays (UV-B) on human skin. Critical comparison].

    PubMed

    Raab, W

    1980-04-15

    When discussing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on human skin, one should carefully distinguish between the long wave ultraviolet light (UV-A) and the short wave radiations (UV-B and UV-C). Ultraviolet A induces immediate pigmentation but, if high energies are applied, a permanent pigmentation is elicited. This type of ultraviolet A-induced pigmentation has been called "spontaneous" pigmentation as no erythematous reaction is necessary to induce or accelerate melanine formation. Ultraviolet B provokes erythema and consecutive pigmentation. Upon chronic exposure, ultraviolet B causes the wellknown actinic damage of the skin and even provokes carcinoma. With exposures to the sunlight (global radiation), one should be most careful. The public must be informed extensively about the dangers of excessive sunbaths. The use of artificial "suns" with spectra between 260 and 400 nm is limited as it may cause the same type of damage as the global radiation. An exact schedule for use of artificial lamps is strongly recommended. After one cycle of exposures, an interruption is necessary until the next cycle of irradiations may start. Upon continual use for tanning of the skin, artificial lamps may provoke irreversible damage of the skin. Radiation sources with emission spectra of wavelengths between 315 and 400 nm exclusively are well suited for the induction of skin pigmentation (cosmetic use). Potent radiation such as UVASUN systems provoke a "pleasant" permanent pigmentation after exposures for less than one hour. The use of ultraviolet A (UV-A) does not carry any risk for the human skin.

  6. Optical effects of exposing intact human lenses to ultraviolet radiation and visible light.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Line; Eskildsen, Lars; Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Larsen, Michael

    2011-12-30

    The human lens is continuously exposed to high levels of light. Ultraviolet radiation is believed to play a causative role in the development of cataract. In vivo, however, the lens is mainly exposed to visible light and the ageing lens absorbs a great part of the short wavelength region of incoming visible light. The aim of the present study was to examine the optical effects on human lenses of short wavelength visible light and ultraviolet radiation. Naturally aged human donor lenses were irradiated with UVA (355 nm), violet (400 and 405 nm) and green (532 nm) lasers. The effect of irradiation was evaluated qualitatively by photography and quantitatively by measuring the direct transmission before and after irradiation. Furthermore, the effect of pulsed and continuous laser systems was compared as was the effect of short, intermediate and prolonged exposures. Irradiation with high intensity lasers caused scattering lesions in the human lenses. These effects were more likely to be seen when using pulsed lasers because of the high pulse intensity. Prolonged irradiation with UVA led to photodarkening whereas no detrimental effects were observed after irradiation with visible light. Irradiation with visible light does not seem to be harmful to the human lens except if the lens is exposed to laser irradiances that are high enough to warrant thermal protein denaturation that is more readily seen using pulsed laser systems.

  7. Ultraviolet light exposure and skin cancer in the city of Arica, Chile.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Miguel; Araya, María C; Durán, Viviava; Rojas, Elisa; Cortes, Juan; Calaf, Gloria M

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the amount of solar ultraviolet light that reaches the Earth is considered to be responsible for the worldwide increase in skin cancer. Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) light (290-320 nm) has multiple effects that can be harmful to human beings. The city of Arica in Chile receives high UV levels. This can explain the high prevalence of skin cancer in the Arica population. In the present study, pathological reports of skin cancer were collected from an Arica hospital and retrospectively examined to investigate the possible effects of UV radiation. Among the malignant skin tumor types, basocellular and spinocellular carcinomas were more common in men (44.4 and 16.6%, respectively) than in women (24.9 and 10.7%, respectively). Basocellular carcinoma was observed in individuals 40-79 years of age. The incidence of skin cancer significantly increased (P<0.05) between 2000 and 2006 per 100,000 population. The factor of incidence of skin cancer per 100,000 population significantly increased (P<0.05) between 1980 and 2000 in both genders, but was higher in men (0.79-1.99) than in women (0.63-1.56). The results of the study indicate a steady increase in the incidence of skin cancer in Arica, Chile, most probably due to the high levels of ultraviolet light to which individuals are exposed throughout the year, and the cumulative effect of this type of radiation on the skin.

  8. Proteobacteria become predominant during regrowth after water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Castro, Cristina; Macedo, Gonçalo; Silva, Adrian M T; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2016-12-15

    Disinfection processes aim at reducing the number of viable cells through the generation of damages in different cellular structures and molecules. Since disinfection involves unspecific mechanisms, some microbial populations may be selected due to resilience to treatment and/or to high post-treatment fitness. In this study, the bacterial community composition of secondarily treated urban wastewater and of surface water collected in the intake area of a drinking water treatment plant was compared before and 3-days after disinfection with ultraviolet radiation, ozonation or photocatalytic ozonation. The aim was to assess the dynamics of the bacterial communities during regrowth after disinfection. In all the freshly collected samples, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla (40-50% and 20-30% of the reads, respectively). Surface water differed from wastewater mainly in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria (17% and <5% of the reads, respectively). After 3-days storage at light and room temperature, disinfected samples presented a shift of Gammaproteobacteria (from 8 to 10% to 33-65% of the reads) and Betaproteobacteria (from 14 to 20% to 31-37% of the reads), irrespective of the type of water and disinfection process used. Genera such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter or Rheinheimera presented a selective advantage after water disinfection. These variations were not observed in the non-disinfected controls. Given the ubiquity and genome plasticity of these bacteria, the results obtained suggest that disinfection processes may have implications on the microbiological quality of the disinfected water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2016-01-01

    Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer's recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid) and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating "self-disinfecting" surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer "no-touch" (automated) decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm) light. These "no-touch" technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections. In conclusion, continued efforts to

  10. Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relaix, Sabrina; Bourgerette, Christian; Mitov, Michel

    2006-12-01

    It is shown that the natural ultraviolet light absorbing properties of the liquid crystal constituent during the photoinduced elaboration of a liquid crystalline gel induce the broadening of the reflection bandwidth. The polymer component is then included in a resin by preserving its spatial distribution, and transmission electron microscopy investigations of cross sections show the existence of a structure gradient, which is at the origin of the broadening phenomenon. Such reflectors may be of interest for reflective polarizer-free displays or smart windows for the control of solar light for which a broadband reflection is required.

  11. Real-time evaluation of two light delivery systems for photodynamic disinfection of Candida albicans biofilm in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, C. P.; Garcez, A. S.; Núñez, S. C.; Ribeiro, M. S.; Hamblin, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) combined with endodontic treatment has been recognized as an alternative approach to complement conventional root canal disinfection methods on bacterial biofilms. We developed an in vitro model of bioluminescent Candida albicans biofilm inside curved dental root canals and investigated the microbial reduction produced when different light delivery methods are employed. Each light delivery method was evaluated in respect to the light distribution provided inside curved root canals. After conventional endodontic preparation, teeth were sterilized before canals were contaminated by a bioluminescent strain of C. albicans (CEC789). Methylene blue (90 µM) was introduced into the canals and then irradiated (λ=660 nm, P=100 mW, beam diameter=2 mm) with laser tip either in contact with pulp chamber or within the canal using an optical diffuser fiber. Light distribution was evaluated by CCD camera, and microbial reduction was monitored through bioluminescence imaging. Our findings demonstrated that the bioluminescent C. albicans biofilm model had good reproducibility and uniformity. Light distribution in dental tissue was markedly dependent on the light delivery system, and this strategy was directly related to microbial destruction. Both light delivery systems performed significant fungal inactivation. However, when irradiation was performed with optical diffuser fiber, microbial burden reduction was nearly 100 times more effective. Bioluminescence is an interesting real-time analysis to endodontic C. albicans biofilm inactivation. APDT showed to be an effective way to inactivate C. albicans biofilms. Diffuser fibers provided optimized light distribution inside curved root canals and significantly increased APDT efficiency. PMID:25060900

  12. Light shift from ultraviolet to near infrared light: Cerenkov luminescence with gold nanocluster - near infrared (AuNc-NIR) conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Mun, Hyoyoung; Oh, Gyungseok; Ryu, Youngjae; Kim, Min-Gon; Chung, Euiheon

    2015-03-01

    Cerenkov luminescence (CL) is generated when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light in dielectric media. Recently CL imaging becomes an emerging technique with the use of radioisotopes. However, due to relatively weak blue light production and massive tissue attenuation, CL has not been applied widely. Therefore, we attempted to shift the CL emission to more near infrared (NIR) spectrum for better tissue penetration by using Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET). Gold nanoclusters were conjugated with NIR dye molecules (AuNc-IR820 and AuNc-ICG) to be activated with ultraviolet light. We found optimal conjugate concentrations of AuNc-NIR conjugates by spectroscopy system to generate maximal photon emission. When exposed by ultraviolet light, the emission of NIR light from the conjugates were verified. In quantitative analysis, AuNc-NIR conjugates emit brighter light signal than pure AuNc. This result implies that NIR fluorescent dyes (both IR820 and ICG) can be excited by the emission from AuNc. Following the above baseline experiment, we mixed F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) radioisotope to the AuNc- NIR conjugates, to confirm NIR emission induced from Cerenkov radiation. Long pass filter was used to block Cerenkov luminescence and to collect the emission from AuNc-NIR conjugates. Instead of one long exposure imaging with CCD, we used multiple frame scheme to eliminate gamma radiation strike in each frame prior to combination. In summary, we obtained NIR emission light from AuNc-NIR conjugated dyes that is induced from CL. We plan to perform in vivo small animal imaging with these conjugates to assess better tissue penetration.

  13. Investigation of Ultraviolet Light Curable Polysilsesquioxane Gate Dielectric Layers for Pentacene Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Shibao, Hideto; Nakahara, Yoshio; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) comprising 3-methacryloxypropyl groups was investigated as an ultraviolet (UV)-light curable gate dielectric-material for pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs). The surface of UV-light cured PSQ films was smoother than that of thermally cured ones, and the pentacene layers deposited on the UV-Iight cured PSQ films consisted of larger grains. However, carrier mobility of the TFTs using the UV-light cured PSQ films was lower than that of the TFTs using the thermally cured ones. It was shown that the cross-linker molecules, which were only added to the UV-light cured PSQ films, worked as a major mobility-limiting factor for the TFTs.

  14. Interactive lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light and bleomycin in yeast: synergism or antagonism?

    PubMed

    Lillo, O L; Severgnini, A A; Nunes, E M

    1997-11-01

    The mutagenic interactions of ultraviolet light and bleomycin in haploid populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed. Survival and mutation frequency as a function of different bleomycin concentrations after one conditioning dose of UV radiation were determined. Furthermore, corresponding interaction functions and sensitization factors were calculated. A synergistic interaction between UV light and bleomycin was shown for both lethal and mutagenic events when the cells were in nutrient broth during the treatments. Conversely, the interaction between UV light and bleomycin was antagonistic when the cells were in deionized water during the treatment. The magnitude of lethal and mutagenic interactions depends on dose, and thus presumably on the number of lesions. The observed interactions between UV light and bleomycin suggest that the mechanism that is most likely involved is the induction of repair systems with different error probabilities during the delay of cell division.

  15. Photo-degradation of clofibric acid by ultraviolet light irradiation at 185 nm.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhen; Lu, Shuguang; Chen, Nuo; Gu, Xiaogang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Fan, Ji; Lin, Kuangfei

    2009-01-01

    As a metabolite of lipid regulators, clofibric acid (CA) was investigated in this study for its ultraviolet (UV) degradation at monochromatic wavelength of 185 nm using Milli-Q water and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. The effects of CA initial concentration, solution pH, humic acid (HA), nitrate and bicarbonate anions on CA degradation performances were evaluated. All CA degradation patterns well fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The results showed that OH generated from water photolysis by UV185 irradiation was involved, resulting in indirect CA photolysis but contributed less to the whole CA removal when compared to the main direct photolysis process. Acid condition favored slightly to CA degradation and other constituents in solution, such as HA (5.0-100.0 mg L(-1)), nitrate and bicarbonate anions (1.0x10(-3) mol L(-1) and 0.1 mol L(-1)), had negative effects on CA degradation. When using real STP effluent CA degradation could reach 97.4% (without filtration) and 99.3% (with filtration) after 1 hr irradiation, showing its potential mean in pharmaceuticals removal in UV disinfection unit. Mineralization tests showed that rapid chloride ion release happened, resulting in no chlorinated intermediates accumulation, and those non-chlorinated intermediate products could further be nearly completely degraded to CO2 and H2O after 6 hrs.

  16. Enhanced light extraction efficiency of micro-ring array AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekele Fayisa, Gabisa; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Jungsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2017-09-01

    An effective approach to overcome inherently poor light extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is presented. We demonstrated the 5 × 5 array micro-ring DUV LED having an inclined sidewall at the outer perimeter and a p-GaN-removed inner circle of the micro-ring, together with MgF2/Al omnidirectional reflectors. The micro-ring array DUV LED shows remarkably higher light output power by 70% than the reference, consistent with the calculated result, as well as comparable turn-on and operational voltages, which are attributed to the effective extraction of strong transverse-magnetic polarized anisotropic emission and the reduction of the absorption loss by the p-GaN contact layer, simultaneously.

  17. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    PubMed

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  18. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M. S.; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720; Tilborg, J. van

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placementmore » of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.« less

  19. The reactivity of natural organic matter to disinfection by-products formation and its relation to specific ultraviolet absorbance.

    PubMed

    Kitis, M; Karanfil, T; Kilduff, J E; Wigton, A

    2001-01-01

    Five natural waters with a broad range of DOC concentrations were fractionated using various coal- and wood-based granular activated carbons (GAC) and alum coagulation. Adsorption and alum coagulation fractionated NOM solutions by preferentially removing components having high specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA). UV absorbing fractions of NOM were found to be the major contributors to DBP formation. SUVA appears to be an accurate predictor of reactivity with chlorine in terms of DBP yield; however, it was also found that low-SUVA components of NOM have higher bromine incorporation. SUVA has promise as a parameter for on-line monitoring and control of DBP formation in practical applications; however, the effects of bromide concentration may also need to be considered. Understanding how reactivity is correlated to SUVA may allow utilities to optimize the degree of treatment required to comply with DBP regulations. The reactive components that require removal, and the degree of treatment necessary to accomplish this removal, may be directly obtained from the relationship between SUVA removal and the degree of treatment (e.g., alum dose).

  20. Effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on erythema and pigmentation: a review.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Lindsay R; Almutawa, Fahad; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on cutaneous erythema, immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning are affected by a variety of factors. Some of these factors include the depth of cutaneous penetration of the specific wavelength, the individual skin type, and the absorption spectra of the different chromophores in the skin. UVB is an effective spectrum to induce erythema, which is followed by delayed tanning. UVA induces immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning. At high doses, UVA (primarily UVA2) can also induce erythema in individuals with skin types I-II. Visible light has been shown to induce erythema and a tanning response in dark skin, but not in fair skinned individuals. Infrared radiation produces erythema, which is probably a thermal effect. In this article we reviewed the available literature on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on the skin in regards to erythema and pigmentation. Much remains to be learned on the cutaneous effects of visible light and infrared radiation.

  1. Inactivation of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms using ultraviolet-A light in combination with ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Shirai, A; Watanabe, T; Matsuki, H

    2017-02-01

    The low energy of UV-A (315-400 nm) is insufficient for disinfection. To improve UV-A disinfection technology, we evaluated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) addition on disinfection by UV-A light-emitting diode (LED) (350-385 nm) against various food spoilers and pathogens (seven bacteria and four fungi species). Photoantimicrobial assays were performed at FA concentrations below the MIC. The MIC of the isomerized FA, consisting of 93% cis-form and 7% trans-form, was very similar to that of the commercially available FA (trans-form). Irradiation with UV-A (1·0 J cm -2 ) in the presence of 100 mg l -1 FA resulted in enhanced reducing of all of the tested bacterial strains. A combination of UV-A (10 J cm -2 ) and 1000 mg l -1 FA resulted in enhanced reducing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of the tested filamentous fungi. These results demonstrated that the combination of a short-term application of UV-A and FA at a low concentration yielded synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial activity, especially against bacteria. Microbial contamination is one of the most serious problems for foods, fruit and sugar thick juices. UV light is suitable for the nonthermal decontamination of food products by inactivating the contaminating micro-organisms. However, UV-A exposure is insufficient for disinfection. This study demonstrates that the combination of UV-A LED light (350-385 nm), which is not hazardous to human eyes and skin, and ferulic acid (FA), a known phytochemical and food additive, provides synergistic antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms. Therefore, FA addition to UV-A light treatment may be useful for improvement of UV-A disinfection technology to prevent food deterioration. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet light in the fungal pathogen causing white-nose syndrome of bats.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jonathan M; Drees, Kevin P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Lindner, Daniel L

    2018-01-02

    Bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has decimated North American hibernating bats since its emergence in 2006. Here, we utilize comparative genomics to examine the evolutionary history of this pathogen in comparison to six closely related nonpathogenic species. P. destructans displays a large reduction in carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes (CAZymes) and in the predicted secretome (~50%), and an increase in lineage-specific genes. The pathogen has lost a key enzyme, UVE1, in the alternate excision repair (AER) pathway, which is known to contribute to repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) light. Consistent with a nonfunctional AER pathway, P. destructans is extremely sensitive to UV light, as well as the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The differential susceptibility of P. destructans to UV light in comparison to other hibernacula-inhabiting fungi represents a potential "Achilles' heel" of P. destructans that might be exploited for treatment of bats with WNS.

  3. Selective protection of cultured human cells from the toxic effects of ultraviolet light by proflavine pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.R.; Little, J.B.

    1977-10-01

    Pretreatment of LICH human cells by nontoxic doses (0.1 to 5.0 ..mu..g/ml) of proflavine protects them from inactivation by ultraviolet light. The protection is acquired rapidly after exposure of cells to proflavine, with 50 percent of maximum protection being afforded within 5 min and cells being maximally protected by 20 min. Loss of protection follows similar kinetics upon removal of proflavine from the culture medium. Protection is selective and cannot be explained on the basis of proflavine absorption of uv light. Cellular survival curves after ultraviolet light for cells protected by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 ..mu..g/ml of proflavinemore » show that protection alters only the slope of the survival curve, not altering the quasi-threshold dose, D/sub q/. The D/sub 0/ varies from 4.8 J/m/sup 2/ for untreated cells to 10.5 J/m/sup 2/ for cells pretreated with 5 ..mu..g/ml. These data suggest the D/sub 0/ and D/sub q/ do not represent parameters of a single underlying process, manifested in a random stochastic manner, but may reflect different cellular mechanisms or responses to different DNA damage. Proflavine is selective in mitigating only those which predominate at uv doses greater than the D/sub q/.« less

  4. Simultaneous removal of NO and SO2 using vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV)/heat/peroxymonosulfate (PMS).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous removal process of SO 2 and NO from flue gas using vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV)/heat/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) in a VUV spraying reactor was proposed. The key influencing factors, active species, reaction products and mechanism of SO 2 and NO simultaneous removal were investigated. The results show that vacuum ultraviolet light (185 nm) achieves the highest NO removal efficiency and yield of and under the same test conditions. NO removal is enhanced at higher PMS concentration, light intensity and oxygen concentration, and is inhibited at higher NO concentration, SO 2 concentration and solution pH. Solution temperature has a double impact on NO removal. CO 2 concentration has no obvious effect on NO removal. and produced from VUV-activation of PMS play a leading role in NO removal. O 3 and ·O produced from VUV-activation of O 2 also play an important role in NO removal. SO 2 achieves complete removal under all experimental conditions due to its very high solubility in water and good reactivity. The highest simultaneous removal efficiency of SO 2 and NO reaches 100% and 91.3%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS ADENOVIRUS IN TERTIARY TREATED AND UV DISINFECTED WASTEWATER DURING A UV DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An infectious enteric adenovirus was isolated from urban wastewater receiving tertiary treatment and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of UV disinfection (low pressure, high intensity radiation) of total and fecal coliform bac...

  6. Discolouration of orthodontic adhesives caused by food dyes and ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Faltermeier, Andreas; Rosentritt, Martin; Reicheneder, Claudia; Behr, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Enamel discolouration after debonding of orthodontic attachments could occur because of irreversible penetration of resin tags into the enamel structure. Adhesives could discolour because of food dyes or ultraviolet irradiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour stability of adhesives during ultraviolet irradiation and exposure to food colourants. Four different adhesives were exposed in a Suntest CPS+ ageing device to a xenon lamp to simulate natural daylight (Transbond XT, Enlight, RelyX Unicem, and Meron Plus AC). Tomato ketchup, Coca Cola, and tea were chosen as the food colourants. After 72 hours of exposure, colour measurements were performed by means of a spectrophotometer according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* system and colour changes (DeltaE*) were computed. Statistical differences were investigated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Friedman test. Unsatisfactory colour stability after in vitro exposure to food colourants and ultraviolet light was observed for the conventional adhesive systems, Transbond XT and Enlight. RelyX Unicem showed the least colour change and the resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement (GIC), Meron Plus AC, the greatest colour change. The investigated adhesives seem to be susceptible to both internal and external discolouration. These in vitro findings indicate that the tested conventional adhesive systems reveal unsatisfactory colour stability which should be improved to avoid enamel discolouration.

  7. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from zinc oxide nanorods/deoxyribonucleic acid hybrid bio light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rohini Bhardwaj; Nagpal, Swati; Arora, Swati; Bhatnagar, Pramod Kumar; Mathur, Parmatma Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode using salmon deoxyribonucleic acid (sDNA)-cetyltrimethylammonium complex as an electron blocking layer and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods as emissive material was fabricated. UV emission, which was blue shifted up to 335 nm with respect to the band edge emission of 390 nm, was observed. This blue shift was caused due to accumulation of electrons in the conduction band of ZnO because of a high potential barrier existing at the sDNA/ZnO interface.

  8. Real-time evaluation of two light delivery systems for photodynamic disinfection of Candida albicans biofilm in curved root canals.

    PubMed

    Sabino, C P; Garcez, A S; Núñez, S C; Ribeiro, M S; Hamblin, M R

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) combined with endodontic treatment has been recognized as an alternative approach to complement conventional root canal disinfection methods on bacterial biofilms. We developed an in  vitro model of bioluminescent Candida albicans biofilm inside curved dental root canals and investigated the microbial reduction produced when different light delivery methods are employed. Each light delivery method was evaluated in respect to the light distribution provided inside curved root canals. After conventional endodontic preparation, teeth were sterilized before canals were contaminated by a bioluminescent strain of C. albicans (CEC789). Methylene blue (90 μM) was introduced into the canals and then irradiated (λ = 660 nm, P = 100 mW, beam diameter = 2 mm) with laser tip either in contact with pulp chamber or within the canal using an optical diffuser fiber. Light distribution was evaluated by CCD camera, and microbial reduction was monitored through bioluminescence imaging. Our findings demonstrated that the bioluminescent C. albicans biofilm model had good reproducibility and uniformity. Light distribution in dental tissue was markedly dependent on the light delivery system, and this strategy was directly related to microbial destruction. Both light delivery systems performed significant fungal inactivation. However, when irradiation was performed with optical diffuser fiber, microbial burden reduction was nearly 100 times more effective. Bioluminescence is an interesting real-time analysis to endodontic C. albicans biofilm inactivation. APDT showed to be an effective way to inactivate C. albicans biofilms. Diffuser fibers provided optimized light distribution inside curved root canals and significantly increased APDT efficiency.

  9. Effect of ultraviolet light on water- and fat-soluble vitamins in cow and goat milk.

    PubMed

    Guneser, O; Karagul Yuceer, Y

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of UV light and heat treatment on vitamins A, B(2), C, and E in cow and goat milk. Vitamins were analyzed by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Ultraviolet and pasteurization treatments caused loss in vitamin C in milk. Pasteurization did not have any significant effect on vitamin B(2). However, UV light treatment decreased the amount of vitamin B(2) after several passes of milk through the UV system. In addition, UV light treatment decreased the amount of vitamins A and E. Vitamins C and E are more sensitive to UV light. UV light sensitivities of vitamins were C>E>A>B(2). These results show that UV light treatment decreases the vitamin content in milk. Also, the number of passes through the UV system and the initial amount of vitamins in milk are important factors affecting vitamin levels. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The planarian TRPA1 homolog mediates extraocular behavioral responses to near-ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Taylor R; Beane, Wendy S

    2017-07-15

    Although light is most commonly thought of as a visual cue, many animals possess mechanisms to detect light outside of the eye for various functions, including predator avoidance, circadian rhythms, phototaxis and migration. Here we confirm that planarians (like Caenorhabditis elegans , leeches and Drosophila larvae) are capable of detecting and responding to light using extraocular photoreception. We found that, when either eyeless or decapitated worms were exposed to near-ultraviolet (near-UV) light, intense wild-type photophobic behaviors were still observed. Our data also revealed that behavioral responses to green wavelengths were mediated by ocular mechanisms, whereas near-UV responses were driven by extraocular mechanisms. As part of a candidate screen to uncover the genetic basis of extraocular photoreception in the planarian species Schmidtea mediterranea , we identified a potential role for a homolog of the transient receptor potential channel A1 ( TRPA1 ) in mediating behavioral responses to extraocular light cues. RNA interference (RNAi) to Smed-TrpA resulted in worms that lacked extraocular photophobic responses to near-UV light, a mechanism previously only identified in Drosophila These data show that the planarian TRPA1 homolog is required for planarian extraocular-light avoidance and may represent a potential ancestral function of this gene. TRPA1 is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and chemical irritants, including reactive oxygen species that are byproducts of UV-light exposure. Our results suggest that planarians possess extraocular photoreception and display an unconventional TRPA1-mediated photophobic response to near-UV light. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Influence of ultraviolet light irradiation on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel AISI 1015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazi, H. R.; Danaee, I.; Peykari, M.

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion of carbon steel in sodium chloride solution was studied under ultraviolet illumination using weight loss, polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current transient tests. The polarization test revealed an increase in the corrosion current density observed under UV illumination. The impedance spectroscopy indicated that the charge transfer resistance of the system was decreased by irradiation of UV light on a carbon steel electrode. The weight loss of carbon steel in solution increased under UV light, which confirms the results obtained from electrochemical measurements. We propose that the main effect of UV irradiation is on the oxide film, which forms on the surface. Thus, in presence of UV, the conductivity of oxide film might increase and lead to higher metal dissolution and corrosion rate.

  12. Lighting considerations in controlled environments for nonphotosynthetic plant responses to blue and ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    This essay will consider both physical and photobiological aspects of controlled environment lighting in the spectral region beginning in the blue and taken to the normal limit of the solar spectrum in the ultraviolet. The primary emphasis is directed to questions of plant response to sunlight. Measurement and computations used in radiation dosimetry in this part of the spectrum are also briefly treated. Because of interest in the ozone depletion problem, there has been some activity in plant UV-B research and there are several recent reviews available. Some aspects of growth chamber lighting as it relates to UV-B research were covered earlier. Apart from work related to the blue/UV-A receptor, less attention has been given to UV-A responses.

  13. Lighting considerations in controlled environments for nonphotosynthetic plant responses to blue and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, M.M.; Flint, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    This essay will consider both physical and photobiological aspects of controlled environment lighting in the spectral region beginning in the blue and taken to the normal limit of the solar spectrum in the ultraviolet. The primary emphasis is directed to questions of plant response to sunlight. Measurement and computations used in radiation dosimetry in this part of the spectrum are also briefly treated. Because of interest in the ozone depletion problem, there has been some activity in plant UV-B research and there are several recent reviews available. Some aspects of growth chamber lighting as it relates to UV-B research weremore » covered earlier. Apart from work related to the blue/UV-A receptor, less attention has been given to UV-A responses.« less

  14. New insight into the disinfection mechanism of Fusarium monoliforme and Aspergillus niger by TiO2 photocatalyst under low intensity UVA light.

    PubMed

    Pokhum, Chonlada; Viboonratanasri, Duangamon; Chawengkijwanich, Chamorn

    2017-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) photocatalytic reaction has great potential for the disinfection of harmful pathogens. However, the disinfection mechanisms of TiO 2 photocatalysis are not yet well-known for fungi and protozoa. In this work, the photocatalytic disinfection mechanism of Fusarium monoliforme and Aspergillus niger under low intensity UVA light (365nm, <10W/m 2 ) was studied at the ultrastructural level. Photocatalytic treatments showed that the photocatalytic oxidation of 10% TiO 2 based paint was efficacious in the complete disinfection of F. monoliforme under low intensity UVA light. No growth of F. monoliforme was observed on agar plate in the subsequent dark. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of F. monoliforme exposed to TiO 2 photocatalysis treatment showed a distinct damage to electron-dense outer cell wall, but not to an underlying electron-transparent layer cell wall. The TEM image revealed that the UVA-light only did not damage cell wall, cell membrane and cellular organelles. Unlike, A. niger was more sensitive to UVA-light. Serious destructions of cell membrane and cellular organelles were shown in A. niger exposed to UVA-light only and photocatalytic treatments. However, morphological change in A. niger cell wall was only observed in photocatalytic treatment. Changes to the outermost melanin like layer and cell wall of A. niger spore due to photocatalytic treatment were greatly apparent while the intracellular organelles of A. niger spore were not affected. Therefore, regrowth of A. niger on agar plate was expected from the germination of A. niger spore in the subsequent dark. These observations give a better understanding of the photocatalytic disinfection mechanism toward fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carrier Conduction and Light Emission by Modification of Poly(alkylfluorene) Interface under Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Yutaka; Kajii, Hirotake; Terashima, Daiki; Kusumoto, Yusuke

    2013-03-01

    Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) have been extensively studied for flexible electronics. The characteristics of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-dyl) (F8) modified by thermal or light are strongly dependent on the carrier transport and optical characteristics. We investigate all solution-processed OFETs with Ag nano-ink as gate electrodes patterned by Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (172 nm). Bi-layer gate insulators of amorphous fluoro-polymer CYTOP (Asahi Glass Corp.) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) were used. Top-gate-type OFETs with ITO source/drain electrode utilizing F8 or poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) as an active layer were fabricated, and investigated the carrier conduction and emission characteristic. Without VUV irradiation, both OFETs showed the ambipolar and light-emitting characteristics. On the other hand, F8 devices with VUV exhibited only p-type conduction. The quenching centers were generated in F8 layer by VUV irradiation, which are related to the electron trap sites at the interface. OFETs with F8BT showed both p- and n-type conduction even after VUV. F8BT suffers less damage by VUV and maintain light emission. Light emitting transistors were realized utilizing F8BT patterned by VUV irradiation. This research was partially supported financially by MEXT. The authors thank Harima Chemicals Inc. for providing Ag nano-ink.

  16. Ultraviolet light-responsive photorheological fluids: as a new class of smart fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Young; Kim, Ji-Sik; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo

    2017-05-01

    We present a comprehensive introduction to the photorheological (PR) fluids whose rheological behavior can be changed by ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 365 nm. When the PR fluid was exposed to UV light, the viscosity of the fluid decreased, while the viscosity recovered to its initial value when UV light was turned off, indicating that the viscosity of these types of fluids can be reversible and tunable by UV light. Contrary to conventional smart fluids, such as electrorheological and magnetorheological fluids, PR fluid does not suffer from a phase splitting problem because it exists in a single-phase solution. Additionally, the PR fluid does not require any contact component, such as electrodes, and electric wires that are essential components for conventional smart fluids. In this work, the PR fluids were synthesized by doping lecithin/sodium deoxycholate reverse micelles with a photo-chromic spiropyran compound. It is demonstrated that the viscosity changes of PR fluids can be induced by UV light, and their rheological properties are examined in detail. In addition, an example of tailoring rheological properties using photoluminescence was introduced for improved response time. One of the potential applications, such as microfluidic flow control using the PR fluids, is also briefly presented.

  17. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Efficient Photocatalytic Disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using C70-TiO2 Hybrid under Visible Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Kai; Dai, Ke; Walker, Sharon L.; Huang, Qiaoyun; Yin, Xixiang; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was achieved by using a C70 modified TiO2 (C70-TiO2) hybrid as a photocatalyst under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. Disinfection experiments showed that 73% of E. coli O157:H7 died within 2 h with a disinfection rate constant of k = 0.01 min−1, which is three times that measured for TiO2. The mechanism of cell death was investigated by using several scavengers combined with a partition system. The results revealed that diffusing hydroxyl radicals play an important role in the photocatalytically initiated bacterial death, and direct contact between C70-TiO2 hybrid and bacteria is not indispensable in the photocatalytic disinfection process. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of bacteria have little effect on the disinfection efficiency. Analyses of the inhibitory effect of C70-TiO2 thin films on E. coli O157:H7 showed a decrease of the bacterial concentration from 3 × 108 to 38 cfu mL−1 in the solution with C70-TiO2 thin film in the first 2 h of irradiation and a complete inhibition of the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in the later 24 h irradiation. PMID:27161821

  19. Efficient Photocatalytic Disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using C70-TiO2 Hybrid under Visible Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Kai; Dai, Ke; Walker, Sharon L.; Huang, Qiaoyun; Yin, Xixiang; Cai, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Efficient photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was achieved by using a C70 modified TiO2 (C70-TiO2) hybrid as a photocatalyst under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. Disinfection experiments showed that 73% of E. coli O157:H7 died within 2 h with a disinfection rate constant of k = 0.01 min-1, which is three times that measured for TiO2. The mechanism of cell death was investigated by using several scavengers combined with a partition system. The results revealed that diffusing hydroxyl radicals play an important role in the photocatalytically initiated bacterial death, and direct contact between C70-TiO2 hybrid and bacteria is not indispensable in the photocatalytic disinfection process. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of bacteria have little effect on the disinfection efficiency. Analyses of the inhibitory effect of C70-TiO2 thin films on E. coli O157:H7 showed a decrease of the bacterial concentration from 3 × 108 to 38 cfu mL-1 in the solution with C70-TiO2 thin film in the first 2 h of irradiation and a complete inhibition of the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in the later 24 h irradiation.

  20. Effect of Ultraviolet Light Irradiation Combined with Riboflavin on Different Bacterial Pathogens from Ocular Surface Infection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Liang, Qingfeng; Su, Guanyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhiqun; Liang, Hong; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    In order to study Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and riboflavin, twelve strains of Staphylococcus epidermis and twelve strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis. The growth situation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus under different experimental conditions was qualitatively observed. The number of colonies surviving bacteria was counted under different UV light power and different exposure time. The experiment showed that there was no inhibition effect on the growth of bacteria using riboflavin alone. In UV alone group and UV-riboflavin group, inhibition effect on the bacteria growth was found. The UV-riboflavin combination had better inhibition effect on bacteria than UV irradiation alone. The amount of bacteria in the UV-riboflavin group was decreased by 99.1%~99.5% and 54.8%~64.6% in the UV alone group, when the UV light power was 10.052 mW/cm 2 and the irradiation time was 30 min. Moreover, with the increase of the UV power or irradiation time, the survival rates of bacteria were rapidly reduced. Compared with Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermis was more easily to be killed under the action of UV light combined with riboflavin.

  1. Large enhancement of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN-based nanorod ultraviolet light-emitting diode structures.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han-Youl

    2014-02-04

    Light extraction efficiency (LEE) of AlGaN-based nanorod deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is numerically investigated using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. LEE of deep UV LEDs is limited by strong light absorption in the p-GaN contact layer and total internal reflection. The nanorod structure is found to be quite effective in increasing LEE of deep UV LEDs especially for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode. In the nanorod LED, strong dependence of LEE on structural parameters such as the diameter of a nanorod and the p-GaN thickness is observed, which can be attributed to the formation of resonant modes inside the nanorod structure. Simulation results show that, when the structural parameters of the nanorod LED are optimized, LEE can be higher than 50% and 60% for the transverse electric (TE) and TM modes, respectively. The nanorod structure is expected to be a good candidate for the application to future high-efficiency deep UV LEDs. PACS: 41.20.Jb; 42.72.Bj; 85.60.Jb.

  2. Large enhancement of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN-based nanorod ultraviolet light-emitting diode structures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Light extraction efficiency (LEE) of AlGaN-based nanorod deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is numerically investigated using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. LEE of deep UV LEDs is limited by strong light absorption in the p-GaN contact layer and total internal reflection. The nanorod structure is found to be quite effective in increasing LEE of deep UV LEDs especially for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode. In the nanorod LED, strong dependence of LEE on structural parameters such as the diameter of a nanorod and the p-GaN thickness is observed, which can be attributed to the formation of resonant modes inside the nanorod structure. Simulation results show that, when the structural parameters of the nanorod LED are optimized, LEE can be higher than 50% and 60% for the transverse electric (TE) and TM modes, respectively. The nanorod structure is expected to be a good candidate for the application to future high-efficiency deep UV LEDs. PACS 41.20.Jb; 42.72.Bj; 85.60.Jb PMID:24495598

  3. Defect-Enabled Electrical Current Leakage in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; ...

    2015-04-13

    The AlGaN materials system offers a tunable, ultra-wide bandgap that is exceptionally useful for high-power electronics and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics. Moseley et al. (pp. 723–726) investigate a structural defect known as an open-core threading dislocation or ''nanopipe'' that is particularly detrimental to devices that employ these materials. Furthermore, an AlGaN thin film was synthesized using metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Electrical current leakage is detected at a discrete point using a conductive atomic-force microscope (CAFM). However, no physical feature or abnormality at this location was visible by an optical microscope. The AlGaN thin film was then etched in hot phosphoric acid, andmore » the same location that was previously analyzed was revisited with the CAFM. The point that previously exhibited electrical current leakage had been decorated with a 1.1 μm wide hexagonal pit, which identified the site of electrical current leakage as a nanopipe and allows these defects to be easily observed by optical microscopy. Moreover, with this nanopipe identification and quantification strategy, the authors were able to correlate decreasing ultraviolet light-emitting diode optical output power with increasing nanopipe density.« less

  4. Disinfectants used for environmental disinfection and new room decontamination technology.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2013-05-01

    Environmental contamination plays an important role in the transmission of several key health care-associated pathogens. Effective and thorough cleaning/disinfecting of the patient environment is essential. Room decontamination units (such as ultraviolet-C and hydrogen peroxide systems) aid in reducing environmental contamination after terminal room cleaning and disinfection. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultraviolet-C light effect on physicochemical, bioactive, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota) beverages.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Carranza, Paola; Ruiz-López, Irving Israel; Pacheco-Aguirre, Francisco Manuel; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Ávila-Sosa, Raúl; Ochoa-Velasco, Carlos Enrique

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet-C light on physicochemical, bioactive, microbial, and sensory characteristics of carrot beverages. Beverages were formulated with different concentrations of carrot juice (60, 80, and 100% [v/v]) and treated with ultraviolet-C light at different flow rates (0, 0.5, 3.9, and 7.9 mL s(-1)) and times (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min), equivalent to ultraviolet-C dosages of 13.2, 26.4, 39.6, 52.8, and 79.2 J cm(-2) Total soluble solids, pH, and titratable acidity were not affected by the ultraviolet-C light treatment. Ultraviolet-C light significantly affected (p < 0.05) color parameters of pure juice; however, at low concentration of juice, total color change was slightly affected (ΔE = 2.0 ± 0.7). Phenolic compounds (4.1 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 0.3 mg of GAE 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (6.1 ± 0.4, 8.5 ± 0.4, and 9.4 ± 0.3 mg of Trolox 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) of carrot beverages were not affected by ultraviolet-C light treatment. Microbial kinetics showed that mesophiles were mostly reduced at high flow rates in carrot beverages with 60% of juice. Maximum logarithmic reductions for mesophiles and total coliforms were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.1, respectively, after 30 min of ultraviolet-C light processing. Beverages were well accepted (6-7) by judges who did not perceive the difference between untreated and Ultraviolet-C light treated beverages. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Al x Ga1‑ x N-based semipolar deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaike, Ryota; Ichikawa, Shuhei; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2018-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (UV) emission from Al x Ga1‑ x N-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on semipolar (1\\bar{1}02) (r-plane) AlN substrates is presented. The growth conditions are optimized. A high NH3 flow rate during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy yields atomically flat Al y Ga1‑ y N (y > x) on which Al x Ga1‑ x N/Al y Ga1‑ y N multiple quantum wells with abrupt interfaces and good periodicity are fabricated. The fabricated r-Al x Ga1‑ x N-based LED emits at 270 nm, which is in the germicidal wavelength range. Additionally, the emission line width is narrow, and the peak wavelength is stable against the injection current, so the semipolar LED shows promise as a UV emitter.

  7. Ultraviolet Light Curves of Gaia16apd in Superluminous Supernova Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstov, Alexey; Zhiglo, Andrey; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Sorokina, Elena; Kozyreva, Alexandra; Blinnikov, Sergei

    2017-08-01

    Observations of Gaia16apd revealed extremely luminous ultraviolet emission among superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Using radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we perform a comparison of UV light curves, color temperatures, and photospheric velocities between the most popular SLSN models: pair-instability supernova, magnetar, and interaction with circumstellar medium. We find that the interaction model is the most promising to explain the extreme UV luminosity of Gaia16apd. The differences in late-time UV emission and in color evolution found between the models can be used to link an observed SLSN event to the most appropriate model. Observations at UV wavelengths can be used to clarify the nature of SLSNe and more attention should be paid to them in future follow-up observations.

  8. Advanced Oxidation of Tartrazine and Brilliant Blue with Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert; Mudimbi, Patrick; Miller, Michael E.; Magnuson, Matthew; Willison, Stuart; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) coupled with hydrogen peroxide as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of two test chemicals. Brilliant Blue FCF consistently exhibited greater degradation than tartrazine, with 83% degradation after 300 minutes at the 100% duty cycle compared with only 17% degradation of tartrazine under the same conditions. These differences are attributable to the structural properties of the compounds. Duty cycle was positively correlated with the first-order rate constants (k) for both chemicals but, interestingly, negatively correlated with the normalized first-order rate constants (k/duty cycle). Synergistic effects of both hydraulic mixing and LED duty cycle were manifested as novel oscillations in the effluent contaminant concentration. Further, LED output and efficiency were dependent upon duty cycle and less efficient over time perhaps due to heating effects on semiconductor performance. PMID:28236826

  9. On the Hole Injection for III-Nitride Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Luping; Zhang, Yonghui; Xu, Shu; Bi, Wengang; Zhang, Zi-Hui; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-10-24

    The hole injection is one of the bottlenecks that strongly hinder the quantum efficiency and the optical power for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) with the emission wavelength smaller than 360 nm. The hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs is co-affected by the p-type ohmic contact, the p-type hole injection layer, the p-type electron blocking layer and the multiple quantum wells. In this report, we review a large diversity of advances that are currently adopted to increase the hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs. Moreover, by disclosing the underlying device physics, the design strategies that we can follow have also been suggested to improve the hole injection for DUV LEDs.

  10. On the Hole Injection for III-Nitride Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luping; Zhang, Yonghui; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-01-01

    The hole injection is one of the bottlenecks that strongly hinder the quantum efficiency and the optical power for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) with the emission wavelength smaller than 360 nm. The hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs is co-affected by the p-type ohmic contact, the p-type hole injection layer, the p-type electron blocking layer and the multiple quantum wells. In this report, we review a large diversity of advances that are currently adopted to increase the hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs. Moreover, by disclosing the underlying device physics, the design strategies that we can follow have also been suggested to improve the hole injection for DUV LEDs. PMID:29073738

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Light Curves Reveal Interesting Properties of CC Sculptoris and RZ Leonis

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Toloza, Odette

    2017-03-01

    Time-tag ultraviolet data obtained on the Hubble Space Telescope in 2013 reveal interesting variability related to the white dwarf spin in the two cataclysmic variables RZ Leo and CC Scl. RZ Leo shows a period at 220 s and its harmonic at 110 s, thus identifying it as a likely Intermediate Polar (IP). The spin signal is not visible in a short single night of ground-based data in 2016, but the shorter exposures in that data set indicate a possible partial eclipse. The much larger UV amplitude of the spin signal in the known IP CC Scl allows the spinmore » of 389 s, previously only seen at outburst, to be visible at quiescence. Spectra created from the peaks and troughs of the spin times indicate a hotter temperature of several thousand degrees during the peak phases, with multiple components contributing to the UV light.« less

  12. Effect of Ultraviolet Light Irradiation on Structure and Electrochemical Properties of Iron Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Hiroshi; Deng, Huihua; Oconer, Irmin S.; Ishikawa, Ikuo; Suzuki, Toshishige M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation (254 nm, 0.8 mW/cm2) on air-formed oxide films and passivated films on iron was investigated by electrochemical methods and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in particular with respect to surface micro/nanostructures and the surface protective property. An as-deposited film appeared uniformly flat after UV irradiation for 2-4 h, which is associated with a decrease in current density. UV irradiation for 1-4 h assisted N-dodecylhydroxamic acid (DHA) molecules to strongly bond to the air-formed oxide film. UV irradiation for 1 h led to the formation of a flat terrace of atomic resolution on a surface passivated at 800 mV for 15 min. However, it was difficult to observe a terrace wider than 3 nm on the passive film irradiated for 4 h.

  13. Ultraviolet Light Curves of Gaia16apd in Superluminous Supernova Models

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstov, Alexey; Zhiglo, Andrey; Nomoto, Ken’ichi

    2017-08-10

    Observations of Gaia16apd revealed extremely luminous ultraviolet emission among superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Using radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we perform a comparison of UV light curves, color temperatures, and photospheric velocities between the most popular SLSN models: pair-instability supernova, magnetar, and interaction with circumstellar medium. We find that the interaction model is the most promising to explain the extreme UV luminosity of Gaia16apd. The differences in late-time UV emission and in color evolution found between the models can be used to link an observed SLSN event to the most appropriate model. Observations at UV wavelengths can be used to clarify the naturemore » of SLSNe and more attention should be paid to them in future follow-up observations.« less

  14. Ultra-fast switching of light by absorption saturation in vacuum ultra-violet region.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Hitoki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Sato, Fumiya; Morimoto, Shunsuke; Kumagai, Taisuke; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Higashiya, Atsushi; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Hikaru; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2009-12-21

    Advances in free electron lasers producing high energy photons [Nat. Photonics 2(9), 555-559 (2008)] are expected to open up a new science of nonlinear optics of high energy photons. Specifically, lasers of photon energy higher than the plasma frequency of a metal can show new interaction features because they can penetrate deeply into metals without strong reflection. Here we show the observation of ultra-fast switching of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) light caused by saturable absorption of a solid metal target. A strong gating is observed at energy fluences above 6J/cm2 at wavelength of 51 nm with tin metal thin layers. The ratio of the transmission at high intensity to low intensity is typically greater than 100:1. This means we can design new nonlinear photonic devices such as auto-correlator and pulse slicer for the VUV region.

  15. Effects of Ag doping on the photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli in bioaerosol by Ag-TiO₂/GF under visible light.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2014-08-15

    Ag doped TiO2/glass fibers (Ag-TiO2/GF) were prepared and used for photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in an indoor air environment. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for microstructure, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) for optical properties and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine elemental state. The optimized weight fraction of TiO2 in the TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF) was 3%. The silver content in Ag/TiO2 was altered from 1% to 10% to investigate the optimal ratio of Ag doped on the TiO2/GF for the photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli. Doped Ag enhanced the electron-hole separation as well as charge transfer efficiency between the valance band and the conduction band of TiO2. The generated electron-hole pairs reacted with water and molecular oxygen to form strong oxidative radicals, which participated in the oxidation of organic components of E. coli, resulting in bacterial death. The photocatalytic disinfection activity under visible light increased with the increase in silver content up to 7.5% and then decreased slightly with further increasing Ag content. Among the three humidity conditions used in this study (40±5%, 60±5%, 80±5%), the highest disinfection ratio of E. coli by the photocatalytic system was observed in the intermediate humidity level followed by the high humidity level. Using the 7.5% Ag-TiO2/GF and the intermediate level of humidity (60±5%), the highest disinfection ratio and disinfection capacity of E. coli were 93.53% and 26 (CFU/s cm(2)), respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. UV Disinfection of Wastewater and Combined Sewer Overflows.

    PubMed

    Gibson, John; Drake, Jennifer; Karney, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater contains bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens that adversely affect the environment, human health, and economic activity. One way to mitigate these effects is a final disinfection step using ultraviolet light (UVL). The advantages of UVL disinfection, when compared to the more traditional chlorine, include no chlorinated by-products, no chemical residual, and relatively compact size. The design of most UV reactors is complex. It involves lamp selection, power supply design, optics, and hydraulics. In general, medium pressure lamps are more compact, powerful, and emit over a wider range of light than the more traditional low pressure lamps. Low pressure lamps, however, may be electrically more efficient. In UV disinfection, the fraction of surviving organisms (e.g. E. coli) will decrease exponentially with increasing UV dose. However, the level of disinfection that can be achieved is often limited by particle-associated organisms. Efforts to remove or reduce the effects of wastewater particles will often improve UV disinfection effectiveness. Regrowth, photoreactivation, or dark repair after UV exposure are sometimes cited as disadvantages of UV disinfection. Research is continuing in this area, however there is little evidence that human pathogens can photoreactivate in environmental conditions, at doses used in wastewater treatment. The UV disinfection of combined sewer overflows, a form of wet weather pollution, is challenging and remains largely at the research phase. Pre-treatment of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) with a cationic polymer to induce fast settling, and a low dose of alum to increase UV transmittance, has shown promise at the bench scale.

  17. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  18. Ocular media transmission of coral reef fish--can coral reef fish see ultraviolet light?

    PubMed

    Siebeck, U E; Marshall, N J

    2001-01-15

    Many coral reef fish are beautifully coloured and the reflectance spectra of their colour patterns may include UVa wavelengths (315-400 nm) that are largely invisible to the human eye (Losey, G. S., Cronin, T. W., Goldsmith, T. H., David, H., Marshall, N. J., & McFarland, W.N. (1999). The uv visual world of fishes: a review. Journal of Fish Biology, 54, 921-943; Marshall, N. J. & Oberwinkler, J. (1999). The colourful world of the mantis shrimp. Nature, 401, 873-874). Before the possible functional significance of UV patterns can be investigated, it is of course essential to establish whether coral reef fishes can see ultraviolet light. As a means of tackling this question, in this study the transmittance of the ocular media of 211 coral reef fish species was measured. It was found that the ocular media of 50.2% of the examined species strongly absorb light of wavelengths below 400 nm, which makes the perception of UV in these fish very unlikely. The remaining 49.8% of the species studied possess ocular media that do transmit UV light, making the perception of UV possible.

  19. Efficient photochemical generation of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides with ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, N. D.; Taha, Y. M.; Odame-Ankrah, C. A.; Huo, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Cairns, E.; Moussa, S. G.; Liggio, J.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Photochemical sources of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) are utilized in many atmospheric measurement techniques for calibration or to deliver an internal standard. Conventionally, such sources rely on phosphor-coated low-pressure mercury (Hg) lamps to generate the UV light necessary to photo-dissociate a dialkyl ketone (usually acetone) in the presence of a calibrated amount of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2). In this manuscript, a photochemical PAN source in which the Hg lamp has been replaced by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The output of the UV-LED source was analyzed by gas chromatography (PAN-GC) and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS). Using acetone, diethyl ketone (DIEK), diisopropyl ketone (DIPK), or di-n-propyl ketone (DNPK), respectively, the source produces peroxyacetic (PAN), peroxypropionic (PPN), peroxyisobutanoic (PiBN), or peroxy-n-butanoic nitric anhydride (PnBN) from NO in high yield (> 90%). Box model simulations with a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) were carried out to rationalize products yields and to identify side products. The use of UV-LED arrays offers many advantages over conventional Hg lamp setups, including greater light output over a narrower wavelength range, lower power consumption, and minimal generation of heat.

  20. Ultraviolet Light Enhances the Bovine Serum Albumin Fixation for Acid Fast Bacilli Stain

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pei-Yin; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fu, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi

    2014-01-01

    The use of a liquid culture system such as MGIT broth has greatly improved the sensitivity of isolating mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. Microscopic visualization of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the culture positive MGIT broth remains the first routine step for rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria. We modified an ultraviolet (UV) light fixation process to increase AFB cells adherence to the slide. The retained haze proportion of a 1-cm circle marked area on the smear slide was quantified after the staining procedure indicating the adherence degree of AFB cells. More AFB cells were preserved on the slide after exposure to UV light of either germicidal lamp or UV crosslinker in a time-dependent manner. We demonstrated both the bovine serum albumin (BSA) in MGIT media and UV light exposure were required for enhancing fixation of AFB cells. While applying to AFB stains for 302 AFB positive MGIT broths in clinics, more AFB cells were retained and observed on smear slides prepared by the modified fixation procedure rather than by the conventional method. The modified fixation procedure was thus recommended for improving the sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis of AFB cells in culture positive MGIT broth. PMID:24586725

  1. Near infrared and extreme ultraviolet light pulses induced modifications of ultrathin Co films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisielewski, Jan; Sveklo, Iosif; Kurant, Zbigniew; Bartnik, Andrzej; Jakubowski, Marcin; Dynowska, ElŻbieta; Klinger, Dorota; Sobierajski, Ryszard; Wawro, Andrzej; Maziewski, Andrzej

    2017-05-01

    We report on comparative study of magnetic properties of Pt/Co/Pt trilayers after irradiation with different light sources. Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt films were deposited by molecular beam epitaxy technique on sapphire (0001) substrates. Pt buffers were grown at room temperature (RT) and at 750°C (high temperature, HT). The samples were irradiated with a broad range of light energy densities (up to film ablation) using two different single pulse irradiation sources: (i) 40 fs laser with 800 nm wavelength and (ii) 3 ns laser-plasma source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) with the most intense emission centered at 11 nm. The light pulse-driven irreversible structural and as a consequence, magnetic modifications were investigated using polar magneto-optical Kerr effect-based microscopy and atomic and magnetic force microscopies. The light pulse-induced transitions from the out-of-plane to in-plane magnetization state, and from in-plane to out-of-plane, were observed for both types of samples and irradiation methods. Diagrams of the magnetic states as a function of the Co layer thickness and energy density of the absorbed femtosecond pulses were constructed for the samples with both the RT and HT buffers. The energy density range responsible for the creation of the out-of-plane magnetization was wider for the HT than for RT buffer. This is correlated with the higher (for HT) crystalline quality and much smoother Pt/Co surface deduced from the X-ray diffraction studies. Submicrometer magnetic domains were observed in the irradiated region while approaching the out-of-plane magnetization state. Changes of Pt/Co/Pt structures are discussed for both types of light pulses.

  2. Inactivation of Staphylococcus saprophyticus in chicken meat and exudate using high pressure processing, gamma radiation, and ultraviolet light

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stapylococcus saprophyticus is a common contaminant in foods and causes urinary tract infections in humans. Three nonthermal food safety intervention technologies used to improve the safety foods include high pressure processing (HPP), ionizing (gamma) radiation (GR), and ultraviolet light (UV-C). A...

  3. EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET-B LIGHT AND POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBON EXPOSURE ON SEA URCHIN DEVELOPMENT AND BACTERIAL BIOLUMINESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are relatively common contaminants of the Gulf of Mexico and may be activated to more toxic metabolites by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light. A marine bacterial bioassay system (Vibrio fischeri) which focused on the reduction of luciferase-mediate...

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  5. Responses of the picoprasinophyte Micromonas commoda to light and ultraviolet stress.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, Marie L; Guo, Jian; Ortiz, Alejandra C; van Baren, Marijke J; Tariq, Muhammad Akram; Partensky, Frédéric; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2017-01-01

    Micromonas is a unicellular marine green alga that thrives from tropical to polar ecosystems. We investigated the growth and cellular characteristics of acclimated mid-exponential phase Micromonas commoda RCC299 over multiple light levels and over the diel cycle (14:10 hour light:dark). We also exposed the light:dark acclimated M. commoda to experimental shifts from moderate to high light (HL), and to HL plus ultraviolet radiation (HL+UV), 4.5 hours into the light period. Cellular responses of this prasinophyte were quantified by flow cytometry and changes in gene expression by qPCR and RNA-seq. While proxies for chlorophyll a content and cell size exhibited similar diel variations in HL and controls, with progressive increases during day and decreases at night, both parameters sharply decreased after the HL+UV shift. Two distinct transcriptional responses were observed among chloroplast genes in the light shift experiments: i) expression of transcription and translation-related genes decreased over the time course, and this transition occurred earlier in treatments than controls; ii) expression of several photosystem I and II genes increased in HL relative to controls, as did the growth rate within the same diel period. However, expression of these genes decreased in HL+UV, likely as a photoprotective mechanism. RNA-seq also revealed two genes in the chloroplast genome, ycf2-like and ycf1-like, that had not previously been reported. The latter encodes the second largest chloroplast protein in Micromonas and has weak homology to plant Ycf1, an essential component of the plant protein translocon. Analysis of several nuclear genes showed that the expression of LHCSR2, which is involved in non-photochemical quenching, and five light-harvesting-like genes, increased 30 to >50-fold in HL+UV, but was largely unchanged in HL and controls. Under HL alone, a gene encoding a novel nitrite reductase fusion protein (NIRFU) increased, possibly reflecting enhanced N

  6. Responses of the picoprasinophyte Micromonas commoda to light and ultraviolet stress

    DOE PAGES

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Guo, Jian; Ortiz, Alejandra C.; ...

    2017-03-09

    Micromonas is a unicellular marine green alga that thrives from tropical to polar ecosystems. We investigated the growth and cellular characteristics of acclimated mid-exponential phase Micromonas commoda RCC299 over multiple light levels and over the diel cycle (14:10 hour light:dark). We also exposed the light:dark acclimated M. commoda to experimental shifts from moderate to high light (HL), and to HL plus ultraviolet radiation (HL+UV), 4.5 hours into the light period. Cellular responses of this prasinophyte were quantified by flow cytometry and changes in gene expression by qPCR and RNA-seq. While proxies for chlorophyll a content and cell size exhibited similarmore » diel variations in HL and controls, with progressive increases during day and decreases at night, both parameters sharply decreased after the HL+UV shift. Two distinct transcriptional responses were observed among chloroplast genes in the light shift experiments: i) expression of transcription and translation-related genes decreased over the time course, and this transition occurred earlier in treatments than controls; ii) expression of several photosystem I and II genes increased in HL relative to controls, as did the growth rate within the same diel period. However, expression of these genes decreased in HL+UV, likely as a photoprotective mechanism. RNA-seq also revealed two genes in the chloroplast genome, ycf2-like and ycf1-like, that had not previously been reported. The latter encodes the second largest chloroplast protein in Micromonas and has weak homology to plant Ycf1, an essential component of the plant protein translocon. Analysis of several nuclear genes showed that the expression of LHCSR2, which is involved in non-photochemical quenching, and five light-harvesting-like genes, increased 30 to >50-fold in HL+UV, but was largely unchanged in HL and controls. Under HL alone, a gene encoding a novel nitrite reductase fusion protein (NIRFU) increased, possibly reflecting enhanced N

  7. Responses of the picoprasinophyte Micromonas commoda to light and ultraviolet stress

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Guo, Jian; Ortiz, Alejandra C.

    Micromonas is a unicellular marine green alga that thrives from tropical to polar ecosystems. We investigated the growth and cellular characteristics of acclimated mid-exponential phase Micromonas commoda RCC299 over multiple light levels and over the diel cycle (14:10 hour light:dark). We also exposed the light:dark acclimated M. commoda to experimental shifts from moderate to high light (HL), and to HL plus ultraviolet radiation (HL+UV), 4.5 hours into the light period. Cellular responses of this prasinophyte were quantified by flow cytometry and changes in gene expression by qPCR and RNA-seq. While proxies for chlorophyll a content and cell size exhibited similarmore » diel variations in HL and controls, with progressive increases during day and decreases at night, both parameters sharply decreased after the HL+UV shift. Two distinct transcriptional responses were observed among chloroplast genes in the light shift experiments: i) expression of transcription and translation-related genes decreased over the time course, and this transition occurred earlier in treatments than controls; ii) expression of several photosystem I and II genes increased in HL relative to controls, as did the growth rate within the same diel period. However, expression of these genes decreased in HL+UV, likely as a photoprotective mechanism. RNA-seq also revealed two genes in the chloroplast genome, ycf2-like and ycf1-like, that had not previously been reported. The latter encodes the second largest chloroplast protein in Micromonas and has weak homology to plant Ycf1, an essential component of the plant protein translocon. Analysis of several nuclear genes showed that the expression of LHCSR2, which is involved in non-photochemical quenching, and five light-harvesting-like genes, increased 30 to >50-fold in HL+UV, but was largely unchanged in HL and controls. Under HL alone, a gene encoding a novel nitrite reductase fusion protein (NIRFU) increased, possibly reflecting enhanced N

  8. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  9. Employing the conventional edge-lighting technology into ultraviolet-range: a preliminary study by optical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linchao; Belloni, Paola; Möller, Knut

    2011-10-01

    Within the framework of a project conducted together with an industrial partner, a self-disinfecting operation interface with a glass panel is being developed. The concept of self-disinfection is based on the exploitation of the photocatalytical effect induced by a TiO2-coating on the glass surface under UV(A) light, which would make the touch screen antimicrobial. High-power UV-LEDs instead of conventional UV-lamps have been employed as light source. The main goal and challenge of the optical design is to generate an efficient and preferably homogeneous UV field on the TiO2-coated side while keeping the UV-LEDs concealed, i.e. invisible to the user. Therefore common backlighting systems have been used as reference and modified to meet the concrete requirements. Primary analysis and optical simulations have been performed with the software LightTools®. Several patterns for light redirection (i.e. 3D-spherical texture, 3D-rectangular texture and 2D-circular serigraph) have been investigated, compared and evaluated. Finally the pattern design which both fulfills all the predefined boundary conditions and simultaneously reduces the costs has been chosen.

  10. Pulsed ultraviolet light reduces immunoglobulin E binding to Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Sandra; Yang, Wade; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa), and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source) for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract.

  11. Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S; Orton, S; Leparc, G F; Garcia-Rubio, L H; Potter, R L

    1999-10-01

    A new blood typing technology based on ultraviolet (UV) and visible light spectroscopy (UV/visible spectroscopy) has been developed. Blood groups and types are determined by quantifying reproducible changes in the UV and visible light spectra of blood in the presence of agglutinating antibodies. Samples of red cells in the presence and absence of agglutinating antibodies were examined by UV/visible spectroscopy. Blood groups and types were determined by comparing the optical density spectra obtained between 665 and 1000 nm. These comparisons generate numbers (agglutination index) ranging from 0 to 100, with smaller numbers corresponding to lack of agglutination and larger numbers corresponding to agglutination. The optical density of agglutinated blood is dramatically different from that of unagglutinated blood. The agglutination index derived from the relative slopes of the spectra is an objective indicator of agglutination strength. An agglutination index greater than 17 consistently and accurately established blood group- and type-specific agglutination. The method accurately predicted A, B, and O blood groups, and D type in over 275 samples. Scattering theory-based calculations of relative volumes of red cells before and after agglutination show a direct correlation with the agglutination index and provide the theoretical basis of the analysis. This quantitative technique is reproducible and has the potential for automation.

  12. Efficient photochemical generation of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, N. D.; Taha, Y. M.; Odame-Ankrah, C. A.; Huo, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Cairns, E.; Moussa, S. G.; Liggio, J.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2015-07-01

    Photochemical sources of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) are utilized in many atmospheric measurement techniques for calibration or to deliver an internal standard. Conventionally, such sources rely on phosphor-coated low-pressure mercury (Hg) lamps to generate the UV light necessary to photo-dissociate a dialkyl ketone (usually acetone) in the presence of a calibrated amount of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2). In this manuscript, a photochemical PAN source in which the Hg lamp has been replaced by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The output of the UV-LED source was analyzed by gas chromatography (PAN-GC) and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS). Using acetone, diethyl ketone (DIEK), diisopropyl ketone (DIPK), or di-n-propyl ketone (DNPK), respectively, the source produces peroxyacetic (PAN), peroxypropionic (PPN), peroxyisobutanoic (PiBN), or peroxy-n-butanoic nitric anhydride (PnBN) from NO in high yield (> 90 %). Box model simulations with a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) were carried out to rationalize product yields and to identify side products. The present work demonstrates that UV-LED arrays are a viable alternative to current Hg lamp setups.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of attosecond light vortices in the extreme ultraviolet

    DOE PAGES

    Géneaux, R.; Camper, A.; Auguste, T.; ...

    2016-08-30

    Infrared and visible light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) are currently thoroughly studied for their extremely broad applicative prospects, among which are quantum information, micromachining and diagnostic tools. Here we extend these prospects, presenting a comprehensive study for the synthesis and full characterization of optical vortices carrying OAM in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) domain. We confirm the upconversion rules of a femtosecond infrared helically phased beam into its high-order harmonics, showing that each harmonic order carries the total number of OAM units absorbed in the process up to very high orders (57). This allows us to synthesize and characterizemore » helically shaped XUV trains of attosecond pulses. To demonstrate a typical use of these new XUV light beams, we show our ability to generate and control, through photoionization, attosecond electron beams carrying OAM. Furthermore, these breakthroughs pave the route for the study of a series of fundamental phenomena and the development of new ultrafast diagnosis tools using either photonic or electronic vortices.« less

  14. Synthesis and characterization of attosecond light vortices in the extreme ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Géneaux, R.; Camper, A.; Auguste, T.; Gobert, O.; Caillat, J.; Taïeb, R.; Ruchon, T.

    2016-01-01

    Infrared and visible light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) are currently thoroughly studied for their extremely broad applicative prospects, among which are quantum information, micromachining and diagnostic tools. Here we extend these prospects, presenting a comprehensive study for the synthesis and full characterization of optical vortices carrying OAM in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) domain. We confirm the upconversion rules of a femtosecond infrared helically phased beam into its high-order harmonics, showing that each harmonic order carries the total number of OAM units absorbed in the process up to very high orders (57). This allows us to synthesize and characterize helically shaped XUV trains of attosecond pulses. To demonstrate a typical use of these new XUV light beams, we show our ability to generate and control, through photoionization, attosecond electron beams carrying OAM. These breakthroughs pave the route for the study of a series of fundamental phenomena and the development of new ultrafast diagnosis tools using either photonic or electronic vortices. PMID:27573787

  15. Exciplex formation and electroluminescent absorption in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Tao; Wei, Bin

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the formation of exciplex and electroluminescent absorption in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diodes (UV OLEDs) using different heterojunction structures. It is found that an energy barrier of over 0.3 eV between the emissive layer (EML) and adjacent transport layer facilitates exciplex formation. The electron blocking layer effectively confines electrons in the EML, which contributes to pure UV emission and enhances efficiency. The change in EML thickness generates tunable UV emission from 376 nm to 406 nm. In addition, the UV emission excites low-energy organic function layers and produces photoluminescent emission. In UV OLED, avoiding the exciplex formation and averting light absorption can effectively improve the purity and efficiency. A maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.2% with a UV emission peak of 376 nm is realized. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61136003 and 61275041) and the Guangxi Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2012GXNSFBA053168).

  16. Characterizing mid-ultraviolet to optical light curves of nearby type IIn supernovae

    DOE PAGES

    de la Rosa, Janie; Roming, Pete; Pritchard, Tyler; ...

    2016-03-21

    Here, we present early mid-ultraviolet and optical observations of Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) observed from 2007 to 2013. Our results focus on the properties of UV light curves: peak absolute magnitudes, temporal decay, and color evolution. During early times, this sample demonstrates that UV light decays faster than optical, and each event transitions from a predominantly UV-bright phase to an optically bright phase. In order to understand early UV behavior, we generate and analyze the sample's blackbody luminosity, temperature, and radius as the SN ejecta expand and cool. Since most of our observations were detected post maximum luminosity, wemore » introduce a method for estimating the date of peak magnitude. When our observations are compared based on filter, we find that even though these SNe IIn vary in peak magnitudes, there are similarities in UV decay rates. We use a simple semi-analytical SN model in order to understand the effects of the explosion environment on our UV observations. Understanding the UV characteristics of nearby SNe IIn during an early phase can provide valuable information about the environment surrounding these explosions, leading us to evaluating the diversity of observational properties in this subclass.« less

  17. Highly ultraviolet transparent textured indium tin oxide thin films and the application in light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zimin; Zhuo, Yi; Tu, Wenbin; Ma, Xuejin; Pei, Yanli; Wang, Chengxin; Wang, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Various kinds of materials have been developed as transparent conductors for applications in semiconductor optoelectronic devices. However, there is a bottleneck that transparent conductive materials lose their transparency at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and could not meet the demands for commercial UV device applications. In this work, textured indium tin oxide (ITO) is grown and its potential to be used at UV wavelengths is explored. It is observed that the pronounced Burstein-Moss effect could widen the optical bandgap of the textured ITO to 4.7 eV. The average transmittance in UVA (315 nm-400 nm) and UVB (280 nm-315 nm) ranges is as high as 94% and 74%, respectively. The excellent optical property of textured ITO is attributed to its unique structural property. The compatibility of textured ITO thin films to the device fabrication is demonstrated on 368-nm nitride-based light emitting diodes, and the enhancement of light output power by 14.8% is observed compared to sputtered ITO.

  18. A sensitive ultraviolet light photodiode based on graphene-on-zinc oxide Schottky junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Teng-Fei; Wu, Guo-An; Wang, Jiu-Zhen; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Deng-Yue; Wang, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Jing-Bo; Wang, Jia-Mu; Luo, Lin-Bao

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present a simple ultraviolet (UV) light photodiode by transferring a layer of graphene film on single-crystal ZnO substrate. The as-fabricated heterojunction exhibited typical rectifying behavior, with a Schottky barrier height of 0.623 eV. Further optoelectronic characterization revealed that the graphene-ZnO Schottky junction photodiode displayed obvious sensitivity to 365-nm light illumination with good reproducibility. The responsivity and photoconductive gain were estimated to be 3×104 A/W and 105, respectively, which were much higher than other ZnO nanostructure-based devices. In addition, it was found that the on/off ratio of the present device can be considerably improved from 2.09 to 12.1, when the device was passivated by a layer of AlOx film. These results suggest that the present simply structured graphene-ZnO UV photodiode may find potential application in future optoelectronic devices.

  19. Ultraviolet Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view

    This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra.

    Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form.

    The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue.

    What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms.

    The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials.

    The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of

  20. Synergistic effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment combined with UV irradiation for secondary effluent disinfection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Li, Zifu; Xie, Lanlan; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Tingting

    2013-11-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficiency is often affected by suspended solids (SS). Given their high concentration or large particle size, SS can scatter UV light and provide shielding for bacteria. Thus, ultrasound is often employed as a pre-treatment process to improve UV disinfection. This work investigated the synergistic effect of ultrasound combined with UV for secondary effluent disinfection. Bench-scale experiments were conducted in using samples obtained from secondary sedimentation tanks. These tanks belonged to three wastewater treatment plants in Beijing that use different kinds of biological treatment methods. Several parameters may contribute to the changes in the efficiency of ultrasound and UV disinfection. Thus, the frequency and energy density of ultrasound, as well as the SS, were investigated. Results demonstrated that samples which have relatively higher SS concentrations or higher percentages of larger particles have less disinfection efficiency using UV disinfection alone. However, the presence of ultrasound could improve the disinfection efficiency because it has synergistic effect. Changes in the particle size distribution and SS concentration notably affected the efficiency of UV disinfection. The efficiency of Escherichia coli elimination can be decreased by 1.2 log units as the SS concentration increases from 16.9 mg/l to 25.4 mg/l at a UV energy density of 40 mJ/cm(2). UV disinfection alone reduced the E. coli population by 3.4 log units. However, the synergistic disinfection of ultrasound and UV could reach 5.4 log units during the reduction of E. coli at a 40 kHz frequency and an energy density of 2.64 kJ/l. The additional synergistic effect is 1.1 log units. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of ultraviolet light exposure against survival of Listeria monocytogenes on conveyor belts.

    PubMed

    Morey, Amit; McKee, Shelly R; Dickson, James S; Singh, Manpreet

    2010-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been repeatedly isolated from foods and food-processing facilities including food contact surfaces such as conveyor belts (CB). CBs are often difficult to clean and require rigorous sanitation programs for decontamination. Ultraviolet (UV) light has exhibited microbicidal properties on food contact surfaces and this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of UV against L. monocytogenes on CB made of different materials. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 3A, 4A, 4B, and 4C) was made to give a suspension of approximately 10(7) CFU/mL. CBs made from four different types of materials, (1) Ropanyl DM 8/2 A2 + 04 (belt 1), (2) Volta FRMW-3.0 (belt 2), (3) Volta FRMB-3.0 (belt 3), and (4) Ropanyl DM (belt 4), were inoculated with 1 mL of the four-strain cocktail (approximately 10(7) CFU/mL) of the bacterial suspension. CBs were treated with UV light (254 nm) for 1 and 3 sec at 5.53 and 5.95 mW/cm(2). Three replications of the experiments were conducted. Two-way analysis of variance of survival populations of L. monocytogenes showed that bacterial counts were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) on all belt types irrespective of UV light intensities and times of exposure. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced (p < 0.05) to below detection limits on belts 1, 2, and 3 after exposure to 5.95 mW/cm(2) UV light intensity for 3 sec. L. monocytogenes-inoculated CBs that were exposed to 5.53 mW/cm(2) showed higher (p < 0.05) survival populations of L. monocytogenes compared with 5.95 mW/cm(2) on all the four CBs. Belt 4 showed survival populations of L. monocytogenes ranging from 1.42 to 1.73 log(10) CFU/cm(2) after UV light treatment for 1 and 3 sec. UV light can be effectively used to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on CBs.

  2. Light transmission and ultraviolet protection of contact lenses under artificial illumination.

    PubMed

    Artigas, José M; Navea, Amparo; García-Domene, M Carmen; Gené, Andrés; Artigas, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    To determine the spectral transmission of contact lenses (CLs), with and without an ultraviolet (UV) filter to evaluate their capacity for protection under UV radiation from artificial illumination (incandescent, fluorescent, xenon (Xe) lamps, or white LEDs (light-emitting diode)). The transmission curves of nine soft CLs were obtained by using a PerkinElmer Lambda 35 UV-vis spectrophotometer. A CIE standard was used for the emission spectra of incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and Xe lamps and white LEDs were measured by using an International Light Technologies ILT-950 spectroradiometer. Five of the nine soft CLs analysed state that they incorporate UV filters, but the other four do not specify anything in this regard. The spectral transmission of all the CLs studied is excellent in the visible region. The CLs with UV filters filter out this radiation more or less effectively. Xe lamps emit a part in the UV region. Incandescent, fluorescent and white LEDs do not emit at all in the UV. Incorporating UV filters is important when the illumination is from a Xe lamp since this light source emits in the UV region. This, however, does not occur with incandescent and fluorescent lamps or white LEDs. The CLs that do incorporate UV filters meet all the standard requirements that the U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has for UV-blocking CLs Class II (OcularScience, CooperVision and Neolens), and AcuvueMoist and HydronActifresh400 even comply with the stricter Class I. The CLs without UV filters let UVA, UVB and even some UVC through. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Riboflavin and ultraviolet light reduce the infectivity of Babesia microti in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Tonnetti, Laura; Thorp, Aaron M; Reddy, Heather L; Keil, Shawn D; Goodrich, Raymond P; Leiby, David A

    2013-04-01

    Babesia microti is the parasite most frequently transmitted by blood transfusion in the United States. Previous work demonstrated the efficacy of riboflavin (RB) and ultraviolet (UV) light to inactivate B.microti in apheresis plasma and platelet units. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of RB and UV light to reduce the levels of B.microti in whole blood (WB). WB units were spiked with B. microti-infected hamster blood. Spearman-Karber methods were used to calculate infectivity of each sample in terms of hamster infectious dose 50% (HID50 ) value. After RB addition, the units were illuminated with 80 J/mLRBC UV light. Two samples were collected: one before illumination and one after illumination. The samples were serially diluted and dilutions injected into a group of five naive hamsters. Four weeks postinoculation (PI), blood was collected from the animals and evaluated by microscopic observation. One pilot study showed a good dose response in the animals and demonstrated that sample infectivity could be calculated in terms of an HID50 . Three additional replicates were performed in the same manner as the pilot study, but with fewer dilutions. Infectivity values were consistent between the experiments and were used to calculate log reduction. The posttreatment reduction of B. microti for all the experiments was more than 5 log. The data collected indicate that use of RB and UV is able to decrease the parasite load in WB units thus reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted B. microti from blood components containing B. microti-infected RBCs. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. Persistence of Vibrio vulnificus in tissues of Gulf Coast oysters, Crassostrea virginica, exposed to seawater disinfected with UV light.

    PubMed

    Tamplin, M L; Capers, G M

    1992-05-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium which can cause opportunistic infections in humans consuming raw Gulf Coast oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Although V. vulnificus is known as a ubiquitous organism in the Gulf of Mexico, its ecological relationship with C. virginica has not been adequately defined. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that V. vulnificus is a persistent microbial flora of oysters and unamenable to traditional methods of controlled purification, such as UV light depuration. Experimental depuration systems consisted of aquaria containing temperature-controlled seawater treated with UV light and 0.2-microns-pore-size filtration. V. vulnificus was enumerated in seawater, oyster shell biofilms, homogenates of whole oyster meats, and tissues including the hemolymph, digestive region, gills, mantle, and adductor muscle. Results showed that depuration systems conducted at temperatures greater than 23 degrees C caused V. vulnificus counts to increase in oysters, especially in the hemolymph, adductor muscle, and mantle. Throughout the process, depuration water contained high concentrations of V. vulnificus, indicating that the disinfection properties of UV radiation and 0.2-microns-pore-size filtration were less than the rate at which V. vulnificus was released into seawater. Approximately 10(5) to 10(6) V. vulnificus organisms were released from each oyster per hour, with 0.05 to 35% originating from shell surfaces. These surfaces contained greater than 10(3) V. vulnificus organisms per cm2. In contrast, when depuration seawater was maintained at 15 degrees C, V. vulnificus was not detected in seawater and multiplication in oyster tissues was inhibited.

  5. Disinfection and healing effects of 222-nm UVC light on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in mouse wounds.

    PubMed

    Narita, Kouji; Asano, Krisana; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Tatsushi; Hamblin, Michael R; Dai, Tianhong; Nakane, Akio

    2018-01-01

    UVC radiation is known to be highly germicidal. However, exposure to 254-nm-UVC light causes DNA lesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in human cells, and can induce skin cancer after long-term repeated exposures. It has been reported that short wavelength UVC is absorbed by proteins in the membrane and cytosol, and fails to reach the nucleus of human cells. Hence, irradiation with 222-nm UVC might be an optimum combination of effective disinfection and biological safety to human cells. In this study, the biological effectiveness of 222-nm UVC was investigated using a mouse model of a skin wound infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Irradiation with 222-nm UVC significantly reduced bacterial numbers on the skin surface compared with non-irradiated skin. Bacterial counts in wounds evaluated on days 3, 5, 8 and 12 after irradiation demonstrated that the bactericidal effect of 222-nm UVC was equal to or more effective than 254-nm UVC. Histological analysis revealed that migration of keratinocytes which is essential for the wound healing process was impaired in wounds irradiated with 254-nm UVC, but was unaffected in 222-nm UVC irradiated wounds. No CPD-expressing cells were detected in either epidermis or dermis of wounds irradiated with 222-nm UVC, whereas CPD-expressing cells were found in both epidermis and dermis irradiation with 254-nm UVC. These results suggest that 222-nm UVC light may be a safe and effective way to reduce the rate of surgical site and other wound infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar Photothermal Disinfection using Broadband-Light Absorbing Gold Nanoparticles and Carbon Black.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Stephanie; Li, Chuanhao; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2018-01-02

    A simple heat treatment, perhaps the most globally recognized point-of-use water sterilization method, is seemingly effective against all major pathogens of concern, but bulk water boiling is not energy efficient or sustainable. Herein, we present the first application of solar-to-thermal converting nanomaterials for the direct inactivation of bacteria and viruses in drinking water through the application of Au nanorods, carbon black, and Au nanorod-carbon black composite materials as light absorbers. With broad absorption bands spanning the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, at sufficient concentrations, these nanoparticles induce multiple scattering events, increasing photon absorption probability and concentrating the light within a small spatial domain, leading to localized, intense heating that inactivates microorganisms in close proximity. Moving toward practical device design, we have developed a facile silane immobilization approach to fabricate films with densely packed layers of photothermal nanomaterials. Our results suggest that upon irraditaion with simulated solar light, these films can thermally inactivate bacteria and viruses, as demonstrated through the inactivation of surrogate organisms Escherichia coli K-12, and bacteriophages MS2 and PR772.

  7. Upper-Room Ultraviolet Light and Negative Air Ionization to Prevent Tuberculosis Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Escombe, A. Roderick; Moore, David A. J; Gilman, Robert H; Navincopa, Marcos; Ticona, Eduardo; Mitchell, Bailey; Noakes, Catherine; Martínez, Carlos; Sheen, Patricia; Ramirez, Rocio; Quino, Willi; Gonzalez, Armando; Friedland, Jon S; Evans, Carlton A

    2009-01-01

    Background Institutional tuberculosis (TB) transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV) lights and negative air ionization for preventing airborne TB transmission using a guinea pig air-sampling model to measure the TB infectiousness of ward air. Methods and Findings For 535 consecutive days, exhaust air from an HIV-TB ward in Lima, Perú, was passed through three guinea pig air-sampling enclosures each housing approximately 150 guinea pigs, using a 2-d cycle. On UV-off days, ward air passed in parallel through a control animal enclosure and a similar enclosure containing negative ionizers. On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the ward, and a third animal enclosure alone received ward air. TB infection in guinea pigs was defined by monthly tuberculin skin tests. All guinea pigs underwent autopsy to test for TB disease, defined by characteristic autopsy changes or by the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs. 35% (106/304) of guinea pigs in the control group developed TB infection, and this was reduced to 14% (43/303) by ionizers, and to 9.5% (29/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.0001 compared with the control group). TB disease was confirmed in 8.6% (26/304) of control group animals, and this was reduced to 4.3% (13/303) by ionizers, and to 3.6% (11/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.03 compared with the control group). Time-to-event analysis demonstrated that TB infection was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 27; p < 0.0001) and by UV lights (log-rank 46; p < 0.0001). Time-to-event analysis also demonstrated that TB disease was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 3.7; p = 0.055) and by UV lights (log-rank 5.4; p = 0.02). An alternative analysis using an airborne infection model demonstrated that ionizers prevented 60% of

  8. Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitters Based on (Al,Ga)N/GaN Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu-Han

    Deep ultraviolet (UV) light sources are useful in a number of applications that include sterilization, medical diagnostics, as well as chemical and biological identification. However, state-of-the-art deep UV light-emitting diodes and lasers made from semiconductors still suffer from low external quantum efficiency and low output powers. These limitations make them costly and ineffective in a wide range of applications. Deep UV sources such as lasers that currently exist are prohibitively bulky, complicated, and expensive. This is typically because they are constituted of an assemblage of two to three other lasers in tandem to facilitate sequential harmonic generation that ultimately results in the desired deep UV wavelength. For semiconductor-based deep UV sources, the most challenging difficulty has been finding ways to optimally dope the (Al,Ga)N/GaN heterostructures essential for UV-C light sources. It has proven to be very difficult to achieve high free carrier concentrations and low resistivities in high-aluminum-containing III-nitrides. As a result, p-type doped aluminum-free III-nitrides are employed as the p-type contact layers in UV light-emitting diode structures. However, because of impedance-mismatch issues, light extraction from the device and consequently the overall external quantum efficiency is drastically reduced. This problem is compounded with high losses and low gain when one tries to make UV nitride lasers. In this thesis, we provide a robust and reproducible approach to resolving most of these challenges. By using a liquid-metal-enabled growth mode in a plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy process, we show that highly-doped aluminum containing III-nitride films can be achieved. This growth mode is driven by kinetics. Using this approach, we have been able to achieve extremely high p-type and n-type doping in (Al,Ga)N films with high aluminum content. By incorporating a very high density of Mg atoms in (Al,Ga)N films, we have been able to

  9. Ultraviolet Extensions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-16

    This ultraviolet image from NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra.

  10. Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, J.; Knabe, K.; Kim, K. H.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2005-02-01

    Polarization-resolved electroluminescence studies of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were performed. The LEDs were fabricated on nitride materials grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrates (0001). Transverse electric (TE) polarization dominates in the InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) blue LEDs (λ'=458nm), whereas transverse magnetic (TM) polarization is dominant in the AlInGaN QW UV LEDs (λ=333nm). For the case of edge emission in blue LEDs, a ratio (r=I⊥/I ‖) of about 1.8:1 was observed between the EL intensities with polarization E ⊥c (TE mode) and E ‖c (TM mode), which corresponds to a degree of polarization ˜0.29. The UV LEDs exhibit a ratio r of about 1:2.3, corresponding to a degree of polarization ˜0.4. This is due to the fact that the degree of polarization of the bandedge emission of the AlxInyGa1-x -yN active layer changes with Al concentration. The low emission efficiency of nitride UV LEDs is partly related to this polarization property. Possible consequences and ways to enhance UV emitter performances related to this unique polarization property are discussed.

  11. Ultraviolet light and laser irradiation enhances the antibacterial activity of glucosamine-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Saravanan; Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Ahn, Sang Jung; Yun, Kyusik

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a novel method for the synthesis of glucosamine-functionalized gold nanoparticles (GlcN-AuNPs) using biocompatible and biodegradable glucosamine for antibacterial activity. GlcN-AuNPs were prepared using different concentrations of glucosamine. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized for surface plasmon resonance, surface morphology, fluorescence spectroscopy, and antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AuNPs, GlcN-AuNPs, and GlcN-AuNPs when irradiated by ultraviolet light and laser were investigated and compared with the MIC of standard kanamycin using Escherichia coli by the microdilution method. Laser-irradiated GlcN-AuNPs exhibited significant bactericidal activity against E. coli. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopic analysis supported the cell death mechanism in the presence of GlcN-AuNP-treated bacteria. Further, morphological changes in E. coli after laser treatment were investigated using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The overall results of this study suggest that the prepared nanoparticles have potential as a potent antibacterial agent for the treatment of a wide range of disease-causing bacteria. PMID:26345521

  12. Surface hole gas enabled transparent deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianping; Gao, Ying; Zhou, Ling; Gil, Young-Un; Kim, Kyoung-Min

    2018-07-01

    The inherent deep-level nature of acceptors in wide-band-gap semiconductors makes p-ohmic contact formation and hole supply difficult, impeding progress for short-wavelength optoelectronics and high-power high-temperature bipolar electronics. We provide a general solution by demonstrating an ultrathin rather than a bulk wide-band-gap semiconductor to be a successful hole supplier and ohmic contact layer. Free holes in this ultrathin semiconductor are assisted to activate from deep acceptors and swept to surface to form hole gases by a large electric field, which can be provided by engineered spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations. Experimentally, a 6 nm thick AlN layer with surface hole gas had formed p-ohmic contact to metals and provided sufficient hole injection to a 280 nm light-emitting diode, demonstrating a record electrical-optical conversion efficiency exceeding 8.5% at 20 mA (55 A cm‑2). Our approach of forming p-type wide-band-gap semiconductor ohmic contact is critical to realizing high-efficiency ultraviolet optoelectronic devices.

  13. Prevalence of sun protection behaviors in Hispanic youth residing in a high ultraviolet light environment.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles

    2018-01-01

    Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Xeroderma pigmentosum variants have a slow recovery of DNA synthesis after irradiation with ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.; Thomas, G.H.; Park, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Human cells (normal and xeroderma pigmentosum variant) irradiated with ultraviolet light and pulse-labelled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine underwent transient decline and recovery of molecular weights of newly synthesized DNA and rates of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation. The ability to synthesize normal-sized DNA recovered more rapidly in both cell types than thymidine incorporation. During recovery cells steadily increased in their ability to replicate normal-sized DNA on damaged templates. The molecular weight versus time curves fitted exponential functions with similar rate constants in normal and heterozygous xeroderma pigmentosum cells, but with a slower rate in two xeroderma pigmentosum variant cell lines. Caffeine added duringmore » the post-irradiation period eliminated the recovery of molecular weights in xeroderma pigmentosum variant but not in normal cells. The recovery of the ability to synthesize normal-sized DNA represents a combination of a number of cellular regulatory processes, some of which are constitutive, and one of which is altered in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant such that recovery becomes slow and caffeine sensitive.« less

  15. CITIUS: An infrared-extreme ultraviolet light source for fundamental and applied ultrafast science

    SciTech Connect

    Grazioli, C.; Gauthier, D.; Ivanov, R.

    2014-02-15

    We present the main features of CITIUS, a new light source for ultrafast science, generating tunable, intense, femtosecond pulses in the spectral range from infrared to extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The XUV pulses (about 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} photons/pulse in the range 14-80 eV) are produced by laser-induced high-order harmonic generation in gas. This radiation is monochromatized by a time-preserving monochromator, also allowing one to work with high-resolution bandwidth selection. The tunable IR-UV pulses (10{sup 12}-10{sup 15} photons/pulse in the range 0.4-5.6 eV) are generated by an optical parametric amplifier, which is driven by a fraction of the same laser pulse thatmore » generates high order harmonics. The IR-UV and XUV pulses follow different optical paths and are eventually recombined on the sample for pump-probe experiments. We also present the results of two pump-probe experiments: with the first one, we fully characterized the temporal duration of harmonic pulses in the time-preserving configuration; with the second one, we demonstrated the possibility of using CITIUS for selective investigation of the ultra-fast dynamics of different elements in a magnetic compound.« less

  16. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis on food and food contact surfaces by ultraviolet light and freezing.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2015-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, can occasionally be contracted as a naso-pharyngeal or gastrointestinal illness through consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the use of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV-C) to inactivate a multi-isolate cocktail of avirulent Y. pestis on food and food contact surfaces was investigated. When a commercial UV-C conveyor was used (5 mW/cm(2)/s) 0.5 J/cm(2) inactivated >7 log of the Y. pestis cocktail on agar plates. At 0.5 J/cm(2), UV-C inactivated ca. 4 log of Y. pestis in beef, chicken, and catfish, exudates inoculated onto high density polypropylene or polyethylene, and stainless steel coupons, and >6 log was eliminated at 1 J/cm(2). Approximately 1 log was inactivated on chicken breast, beef steak, and catfish fillet surfaces at a UV-C dose of 1 J/cm(2). UV-C treatment prior to freezing of the foods did not increase the inactivation of Y. pestis over freezing alone. These results indicate that routine use of UV-C during food processing would provide workers and consumers some protection against Y. pestis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Vitiligo Working Group recommendations for narrowband ultraviolet B light phototherapy treatment of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Al-Jamal, Mohammed; Hamzavi, Iltefat H; Harris, John E; Leone, Giovanni; Cabrera, Raúl; Lim, Henry W; Pandya, Amit G; Esmat, Samia M

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of vitiligo with narrowband ultraviolet B light (NBUVB) is an important component of the current standard of care. However, there are no consistent guidelines regarding the dosing and administration of NBUVB in vitiligo, reflected by varied treatment practices around the world. To create phototherapy recommendations to facilitate clinical management and identify areas requiring future research. The Vitiligo Working Group (VWG) Phototherapy Committee addressed 19 questions regarding the administration of phototherapy over 3 conference calls. Members of the Photomedicine Society and a group of phototherapy experts were surveyed regarding their phototherapy practices. Based on comparison and analysis of survey results, expert opinion, and discussion held during conference calls, expert recommendations for the administration of NBUVB phototherapy in vitiligo were created. There were several areas that required further research before final recommendations could be made. In addition, no standardized methodology was used during literature review and to assess the strength of evidence during the development of these recommendations. This set of expert recommendations by the VWG is based on the prescribing practices of phototherapy experts from around the world to create a unified, broadly applicable set of recommendations on the use of NBUVB in vitiligo. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of near-ultraviolet light on mutations, intragenic and intergenic recombinations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Machida, I; Saeki, T; Nakai, S

    1986-03-01

    The effects of far (254 nm) and near (290-350 nm) ultraviolet (UV) light on mutations, intragenic and intergenic recombinations were compared in diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At equivalent survival levels there was not much difference in the induction of nonsense and missense mutations between far- and near-UV radiations. However, frameshift mutations were induced more frequently by near-UV than by far-UV radiation. Near-UV radiation induced intragenic recombination (gene conversion) as efficiently as far-UV radiation and the induced levels were similar in both radiations at equitoxic doses. A strikingly higher frequency was observed for the intergenic recombination induced by near-UV radiation than by far-UV radiation when compared at equivalent survival levels. Photoreactivation reduced the frequency only slightly in far-UV induced intergenic recombination and not at all in near-UV induction. These results indicate that near-UV damage involves strand breakage in addition to pyrimidine dimers and other lesions induced, whereas far-UV damage consists largely of photoreactivable lesions, pyrimidine dimers, and near-UV induced damage is more efficient for the induction of crossing-over.

  19. Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Tin Ions for AN Extreme Ultraviolet Light Source for Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torretti, Francesco; Windberger, Alexander; Ubachs, Wim; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Versolato, Oscar; Ryabtsev, Alexander; Borschevsky, Anastasia; Berengut, Julian; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose

    2017-06-01

    Laser-produced tin plasmas are the prime candidates for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light around 13.5 nm in nanolithographic applications. This light is generated primarily by atomic transitions in highly charged tin ions: Sn^{8+}-Sn^{14+}. Due to the electronic configurations of these charge states, thousands of atomic lines emit around 13.5 nm, clustered in a so-called unresolved transition array. As a result, accurate line identification becomes difficult in this regime. Nevertheless, this issue can be circumvented if one turns to the optical: with far fewer atomic states, only tens of transitions take place and the spectra can be resolved with far more ease. We have investigated optical emission lines in an electron-beam-ion-trap (EBIT), where we managed to charge-state resolve the spectra. Based on this technique and on a number of different ab initio techniques for calculating the level structure, the optical spectra could be assigned [1,2]. As a conclusion the assignments of EUV transitions in the literature require corrections. The EUV and optical spectra are measured simultaneously in the controlled conditions of the EBIT as well as in a droplet-based laser-produced plasma source providing information on the contribution of Sn^{q+} charge states to the EUV emission. [1] A. Windberger, F. Torretti, A. Borschevsky, A. Ryabtsev, S. Dobrodey, H. Bekker, E. Eliav, U. Kaldor, W. Ubachs, R. Hoekstra, J.R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, O.O. Versolato, Analysis of the fine structure of Sn^{11+} - Sn^{14+} ions by optical spectroscopy in an electron beam ion trap, Phys. Rev. A 94, 012506 (2016). [2] F. Torretti, A. Windberger, A. Ryabtsev, S. Dobrodey, H. Bekker, W. Ubachs, R. Hoekstra, E.V. Kahl, J.C. Berengut, J.R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, O.O. Versolato, Optical spectroscopy of complex open 4d-shell ions Sn^{7+} - Sn^{10+}, arXiv:1612.00747

  20. Assessment of Levels of Ultraviolet A Light Protection in Automobile Windshields and Side Windows.

    PubMed

    Boxer Wachler, Brian S

    2016-07-01

    Ultraviolet A (UV-A) light is associated with the risks of cataract and skin cancer. To assess the level of UV-A light protection in the front windshields and side windows of automobiles. In this cross-sectional study, 29 automobiles from 15 automobile manufacturers were analyzed. The outside ambient UV-A radiation, along with UV-A radiation behind the front windshield and behind the driver's side window of all automobiles, was measured. The years of the automobiles ranged from 1990 to 2014, with an average year of 2010. The automobile dealerships were located in Los Angeles, California. Amount of UV-A blockage from windshields and side windows. The average percentage of front-windshield UV-A blockage was 96% (range, 95%-98% [95% CI, 95.7%-96.3%]) and was higher than the average percentage of side-window blockage, which was 71% (range, 44%-96% [95% CI, 66.4%-75.6%]). The difference between these average percentages is 25% (95% CI, 21%-30% [P < .001]). A high level of side-window UV-A blockage (>90%) was found in 4 of 29 automobiles (13.8%). The level of front-windshield UV-A protection was consistently high among automobiles. The level of side-window UV-A protection was lower and highly variable. These results may in part explain the reported increased rates of cataract in left eyes and left-sided facial skin cancer. Automakers may wish to consider increasing the degree of UV-A protection in the side windows of automobiles.

  1. Laboratory measurement of the absorption coefficient of riboflavin for ultraviolet light (365 nm).

    PubMed

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Popp, Max; Seiler, Theo; Spoerl, Eberhard; Mrochen, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is an increasingly used treatment technique for stabilizing the cornea in keratoconus. Cross-linking (polymerization) between collagen fibrils is induced by riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet light (365 nm). Although reported to reach a constant value at higher riboflavin concentrations, the Lambert-Beer law predicts a linear increase in the absorption coefficient. This work was carried out to determine absorption behavior at different riboflavin concentrations and to further investigate the purported plateau absorption coefficient value of riboflavin and to identify possible bleaching effects. The Lambert-Beer law was used to calculate the absorption coefficient at various riboflavin concentrations. The following investigated concentrations of riboflavin solutions were prepared using a mixture of 0.5% riboflavin and 20% Dextran T500 dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution: 0%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04%, 0.05%, 0.06%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%, and were investigated with and without aperture plate implementation. An additional test series measured the transmitted power at selected riboflavin concentrations over time. In diluted solutions, a linear correlation exists between the absorption coefficient and riboflavin concentration. The absorption coefficient reaches a plateau, but this occurs at a higher riboflavin concentration (0.1%) than previously reported (just above 0.04%). Transmitted light power increases over time, indicating a bleaching effect of riboflavin. The riboflavin concentration can be effectively varied as a treatment parameter in a considerably broader range than previously thought. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Riboflavin and ultraviolet light for pathogen reduction of murine cytomegalovirus in blood products.

    PubMed

    Keil, Shawn D; Saakadze, Natia; Bowen, Richard; Newman, James L; Karatela, Sulaiman; Gordy, Paul; Marschner, Susanne; Roback, John; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Two studies were performed to test the effectiveness of riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light treatment (Mirasol PRT, Terumo BCT) against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The first study utilized immune-compromised mice to measure the reduction of cell-free MCMV. A second study used a murine model to evaluate the ability of Mirasol PRT to prevent transfusion-transmitted (TT)-MCMV infection. Human plasma was inoculated with MCMV and then treated with Mirasol PRT. The viral titer was measured using an infectious dose 50% assay in nude mice. Mice were euthanized on Day 10 posttransfusion, and their spleens were tested for the presence of MCMV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mirasol PRT was also evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing TT-MCMV in platelets (PLTs) stored in PLT additive solution. PLTs were inoculated with either cell-associated MCMV or cell-free MCMV and then treated with Mirasol PRT. Mice were transfused with treated or untreated product and were euthanized 14 days posttransfusion. Blood and spleens were assayed for MCMV DNA by real-time-PCR. Using nude mice to titer MCMV, a modest 2.1-log reduction was observed in plasma products after Mirasol PRT treatment. TT-MCMV was not observed in the mouse transfusion model when either cell-free or cell-associated MCMV was treated with Mirasol PRT; MCMV transmission was uniformly observed in mice transfused with untreated PLTs. These results suggest that using riboflavin and UV light treatment may be able to reduce the occurrence of transmission of human CMV from infectious PLTs and plasma units. © 2014 AABB.

  3. Ultraviolet light treatment for the restoration of age-related degradation of titanium bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Hori, Norio; Ueno, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takeo; Yamada, Masahiro; Att, Wael; Okada, Shunsaku; Ohno, Akinori; Aita, Hideki; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    To examine the bioactivity of differently aged titanium (Ti) disks and to determine whether ultraviolet (UV) light treatment reverses the possible adverse effects of Ti aging. Ti disks with three different surface topographies were prepared: machined, acid-etched, and sandblasted. The disks were divided into three groups: disks tested for biologic capacity immediately after processing (fresh surfaces), disks stored under dark ambient conditions for 4 weeks, and disks stored for 4 weeks and treated with UV light. The protein adsorption capacity of Ti was examined using albumin and fibronectin. Cell attraction to Ti was evaluated by examining migration, attachment, and spreading behaviors of human osteoblasts on Ti disks. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by examining alkaline phosphatase activity, the expression of bone-related genes, and mineralized nodule area in the culture. Four-week-old Ti disks showed = or < 50% protein adsorption after 6 hours of incubation compared with fresh disks, regardless of surface topography. Total protein adsorption for 4-week-old surfaces did not reach the level of fresh surfaces, even after 24 hours of incubation. Fifty percent fewer human osteoblasts migrated and attached to 4-week-old surfaces compared with fresh surfaces. Alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression, and mineralized nodule area were substantially reduced on the 4-week-old surfaces. The reduction of these biologic parameters was associated with the conversion of Ti disks from superhydrophilicity to hydrophobicity during storage for 4 weeks. UV-treated 4-week-old disks showed even higher protein adsorption, osteoblast migration, attachment, differentiation, and mineralization than fresh surfaces, and were associated with regenerated superhydrophilicity. Time-related degradation of Ti bioactivity is substantial and impairs the recruitment and function of human osteoblasts as compared to freshly prepared Ti surfaces, suggesting a "biologic aging

  4. Disinfection capacity of PuriLens contact lens cleaning unit against Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Thomas S; Hyon, Joon Young; Song, Jae Kyung; Reviglio, Victor E; Spahr, Harry T; O'Brien, Terrence P

    2004-01-01

    The PuriLens contact lens system is indicated for cleaning and disinfection of soft (hydrophilic) contact lenses by means of subsonic agitation to remove lens deposits and microorganisms, and ultraviolet irradiation of the storage solution for disinfection. The capacity of the PuriLens system to disinfect storage solutions contaminated with known concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acanthamoeba species was evaluated. An in vitro assessment of the antibacterial and antiparasitic efficacy of the PuriLens system was performed. Separated batches of the storage solution for the cleansing system were contaminated with stock strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. A comparison of the microbiologic content was made between the solution before and after the cycle. The PuriLens system effectively eradicated S. aureus and P. aeruginosa organisms after a 15-minute cycle. However, viable cysts of acanthamoeba were recovered in the solution after the 15-minute cycle. The PuriLens system is highly efficient in protecting against contamination with common bacterial ocular pathogens. Acanthamoeba cysts, however, can survive in the solution or contact lens bath undergoing integrated subsonic debridement and indirect ultraviolet light disinfection. Use of chemical disinfecting solutions that contain agents such as chlorhexidine or other cationic antiseptics may be advisable in conjunction with use of the PuriLens device, especially in high-risk settings.

  5. Utilization and impact of a pulsed-xenon ultraviolet room disinfection system and multidisciplinary care team on Clostridium difficile in a long-term acute care facility.

    PubMed

    Miller, Renee; Simmons, Sarah; Dale, Charles; Stachowiak, Julie; Stibich, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Health care-associated transmission of Clostridium difficile has been well documented in long-term acute care facilities. This article reports on 2 interventions aimed at reducing the transmission risk: multidisciplinary care teams and no-touch pulsed-xenon disinfection. C difficile transmission rates were tracked over a 39-month period while these 2 interventions were implemented. After a baseline period of 1 year, multidisciplinary teams were implemented for an additional 1-year period with a focus on reducing C difficile infection. During this time, transmission rates dropped 17% (P = .91). In the following 15-month period, the multidisciplinary teams continued, and pulsed-xenon disinfection was added as an adjunct to manual cleaning of patient rooms and common areas. During this time, transmission rates dropped 57% (P = .02). These results indicate that the combined use of multidisciplinary teams and pulsed-xenon disinfection can have a significant impact on C difficile transmission rates in long-term care facilities. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Light interaction in sapphire/MgF2/Al triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors in AlGaN-based near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keon Hwa; Moon, Yong-Tae; Song, June-O; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2015-01-01

    This study examined systematically the mechanism of light interaction in the sapphire/MgF2/Al triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors (ODR) and its effects on the light output power in near ultraviolet light emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) with the ODR. The light output power of NUV-LEDs with the triple-layer ODR structure increased with decreasing surface roughness of the sapphire backside in the ODR. Theoretical modeling of the roughened surface suggests that the dependence of the reflectance of the triple-layer ODR structure on the surface roughness can be attributed mainly to light absorption by the Al nano-structures and the trapping of scattered light in the MgF2 layer. Furthermore, the ray tracing simulation based upon the theoretical modeling showed good agreement with the measured reflectance of the ODR structure in diffuse mode. PMID:26010378

  7. Light interaction in sapphire/MgF2/Al triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors in AlGaN-based near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon Hwa; Moon, Yong-Tae; Song, June-O; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2015-05-26

    This study examined systematically the mechanism of light interaction in the sapphire/MgF2/Al triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors (ODR) and its effects on the light output power in near ultraviolet light emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) with the ODR. The light output power of NUV-LEDs with the triple-layer ODR structure increased with decreasing surface roughness of the sapphire backside in the ODR. Theoretical modeling of the roughened surface suggests that the dependence of the reflectance of the triple-layer ODR structure on the surface roughness can be attributed mainly to light absorption by the Al nano-structures and the trapping of scattered light in the MgF2 layer. Furthermore, the ray tracing simulation based upon the theoretical modeling showed good agreement with the measured reflectance of the ODR structure in diffuse mode.

  8. DNA's Encounter with Ultraviolet Light: An Instinct for Self-Preservation?

    PubMed

    Barlev, Adam; Sen, Dipankar

    2018-02-20

    Photochemical modification is the major class of environmental damage suffered by DNA, the genetic material of all free-living organisms. Photolyases are enzymes that carry out direct photochemical repair (photoreactivation) of covalent pyrimidine dimers formed in DNA from exposure to ultraviolet light. The discovery of catalytic RNAs in the 1980s led to the "RNA world hypothesis", which posits that early in evolution RNA or a similar polymer served both genetic and catalytic functions. Intrigued by the RNA world hypothesis, we set out to test whether a catalytic RNA (or a surrogate, a catalytic DNA) with photolyase activity could be contemplated. In vitro selection from a random-sequence DNA pool yielded two DNA enzymes (DNAzymes): Sero1C, which requires serotonin as an obligate cofactor, and UV1C, which is cofactor-independent and optimally uses light of 300-310 nm wavelength to repair cyclobutane thymine dimers within a gapped DNA substrate. Both Sero1C and UV1C show multiple turnover kinetics, and UV1C repairs its substrate with a quantum yield of ∼0.05, on the same order as the quantum yields of certain classes of photolyase enzymes. Intensive study of UV1C has revealed that its catalytic core consists of a guanine quadruplex (G-quadruplex) positioned proximally to the bound substrate's thymine dimer. We hypothesize that electron transfer from photoexcited guanines within UV1C's G-quadruplex is responsible for substrate photoreactivation, analogous to electron transfer to pyrimidine dimers within a DNA substrate from photoexcited flavin cofactors located within natural photolyase enzymes. Though the analogy to evolution is necessarily limited, a comparison of the properties of UV1C and Sero1C, which arose out of the same in vitro selection experiment, reveals that although the two DNAzymes comparably accelerate the rate of thymine dimer repair, Sero1C has a substantially broader substrate repertoire, as it can repair many more kinds of pyrimidine dimers than

  9. Effect of incubation temperature and pH on the recovery of Bacillus weihenstephanensis spores after exposure to a peracetic acid-based disinfectant or to pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Trunet, C; Mtimet, N; Mathot, A-G; Postollec, F; Leguérinel, I; Couvert, O; Carlin, F; Coroller, L

    2018-04-12

    The recovery at a range of incubation temperatures and pH of spores of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 exposed to a peracetic acid-based disinfectant (PABD) or to pulsed light was estimated. Spores of B. weihenstephanensis were produced at 30 °C and pH 7.00, at 30 °C and pH 5.50, or at 12 °C and pH 7.00. The spores were treated with a commercial peracetic acid-based disinfectant at 80 mg·mL -1 for 0 to 200 min at 18 °C or by pulsed light at fluences ranging between 0.4 and 2.3 J·cm -2 for pulsed light treatment. After each treatment, the spores were incubated on nutrient agar at 12 °C, 30 °C or 37 °C, or at pH 5.10, 6.00 or 7.40. Incubation temperature during recovery had a significant impact only near the recovery limits, beyond which surviving spores previously exposed to a PABD or to pulsed light were not able to form colonies. In contrast, a decrease in pH of the recovery nutrient agar had a progressive impact on the ability of spores to form colonies. The time to first log reduction after PABD treatment was 29.5 ± 0.7 min with recovery at pH 7.40, and was tremendously shortened 5.1 ± 0.2 min with recovery at pH 5.10. Concerning the fluence necessary for the first log reduction, it was 1.5 times higher when the spores were recovered at pH 6.00 compared to a recovery at pH 5.10. The impact of recovery temperature and pH can be described with a mathematical model using cardinal temperature and pH as parameters. These effects of temperature and pH on recovery of Bacillus weihenstephanensis spores exposed to a disinfectant combining peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, or pulsed light are similar, although these treatments are of different natures. Sporulation temperature or pH did not impact resistance to the peracetic acid-based disinfectant or pulsed light. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramoto, Yoshihiko; Kimura, Masahiro; Nouda, Suguru

    2014-06-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have started replacing UV lamps. The power per LED of high-power LED products has reached 12 W (14 A), which is 100 times the values observed ten years ago. In addition, the cost of these high-power LEDs has been decreasing. In this study, we attempt to understand the technologies and potential of UV-LEDs.

  11. A Novel Mechanism for the Pathogenesis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Resulting from Early Exposure to Ultraviolet Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    entering the circulation, and traveling throughout the body may be a new behavior of epidermal stem cells. We proposed that sunburn following...response to sunburn . We address the following question: Do hair follicle stem cells migrate from the skin following sunburn as a consequence of ultraviolet...light induced inflammation? Our hypothesis is that sunburn makes the hair follicles stem cells leave the skin and enter the blood circulation, and

  12. Effects of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) on microbial and enzyme inactivation of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Akgün, Merve Pelvan; Ünlütürk, Sevcan

    2017-11-02

    In this study, the effects of Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) on the inactivation of E. coli K12 (ATCC 25253), an indicator organism of E. coli O157:H7, and polyphneoloxidase (PPO) in cloudy apple juice (CAJ) were investigated. The clear (AJ) and cloudy apple juice were exposed to UV rays for 40min by using a UV device composed of four UV-LEDs with peak emissions at 254 and 280nm and coupled emissions as follows: 254/365, 254/405, 280/365, 280/405 and 254/280/365/405nm. UV-LEDs at 254nm achieved 1.6±0.1 log 10 CFU/mL inactivation of E. coli K12 at UV dose of 707.2mJ/cm 2 . The highest inactivation of E. coli K12 (2.0±0.1log 10 CFU/mL and 2.0±0.4log 10 CFU/mL) was achieved when the cloudy apple juice was treated with both 280nm and 280/365nm UV-LEDs. For clear apple juice the highest inactivation 4.4log 10 CFU/mL obtained for E. coli K12 was achieved using 4 lamps emitting light at 280nm for 40min exposure time. For the same treatment time, the experiments using a combination of lamps emitting light at 280 and 365nm (2lamp/2lamp) were resulted in 3.9±0.2log 10 CFU/mL reductions. UV-A and UV-C rays in combination showed a better inactivation effect on PPO than UV-C rays used separately. Residual activity of PPO in CAJ was reduced to 32.58% when treated with UV-LED in combination of UV-C (280nm) and UV-A (365nm) rays. Additionally, the total color change (ΔE) of CAJ subjected to combined UV-LED irradiation at 280/365nm was the lowest compared to other studied processing conditions. This study provides key implications for the future application of UV-LEDs to fruit juice pasteurization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Sven; Gliech, Stefan; Duparré, Angela

    2005-10-01

    An instrumentation for total and angle-resolved scattering (ARS) at 193 and 157 nm has been developed at the Fraunhofer Institute in Jena to meet the severe requirements for scattering analysis of deep- and vacuum-ultraviolet optical components. Extremely low backscattering levels of 10^-6 for the total scattering measurements and more than 9 orders of magnitude dynamic range for ARS have been accomplished. Examples of application extend from the control of at-wavelength scattering losses of superpolished substrates with rms roughness as small as 0.1 nm to the detection of volume material scattering and the study into the scattering of multilayer coatings. In addition, software programs were developed to model the roughness-induced light scattering of substrates and thin-film coatings.

  14. [Reliability and reproducibility of the Fitzpatrick phototype scale for skin sensitivity to ultraviolet light].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Guillermo; Nova, John; Arias, Nilsa; Peña, Bibiana

    2008-12-01

    The Fitzpatrick phototype scale has been used to determine skin sensitivity to ultraviolet light. The reliability of this scale in estimating sensitivity permits risk evaluation of skin cancer based on phototype. Reliability and changes in intra and inter-observer concordance was determined for the Fitzpatrick phototype scale after the assessment methods for establishing the phototype were standardized. An analytical study of intra and inter-observer concordance was performed. The Fitzpatrick phototype scale was standardized using focus group methodology. To determine intra and inter-observer agreement, the weighted kappa statistical method was applied. The standardization effect was measured using the equal kappa contrast hypothesis and Wald test for dependent measurements. The phototype scale was applied to 155 patients over 15 years of age who were assessed four times by two independent observers. The sample was drawn from patients of the Centro Dermatol6gico Federico Lleras Acosta. During the pre-standardization phase, the baseline and six-week inter-observer weighted kappa were 0.31 and 0.40, respectively. The intra-observer kappa values for observers A and B were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. After the standardization process, the baseline and six-week inter-observer weighted kappa values were 0.77, and 0.82, respectively. Intra-observer kappa coefficients for observers A and B were 0.78 and 0.82. Statistically significant differences were found between coefficients before and after standardization (p<0.001) in all comparisons. Following a standardization exercise, the Fitzpatrick phototype scale yielded reliable, reproducible and consistent results.

  15. Reduced ultraviolet light transmission increases insecticide longevity in protected culture raspberry production.

    PubMed

    Leach, Heather; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are large protective structures used for season extension of many crops, including raspberries. These structures are often covered in plastic films to reduce and diffuse ultraviolet light transmission for pest and disease control, but this may also affect the photodegradation and efficacy of pesticides applied under these tunnels. We compared the residue levels of ten insecticides under three tunnel plastics with varying levels of UV transmission and open field conditions. Raspberry plants placed in research-scale tunnels were treated with insecticides and residues on fruit and foliage were monitored for one or two weeks in early 2015 and early and late 2016. Plastics that reduce UV transmission resulted in 50% greater residues of some insecticides compared to transparent plastics, and 60% compared to uncovered tunnels. This increased persistence of residues was evident within 1 day and remained consistently higher for up to 14 days. This pattern was demonstrated for multiple insecticides, including bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and spinosad. In contrast, the insecticide malathion degraded rapidly regardless of the plastic treatment, indicating less sensitivity to photodegradation. Bioassays using insecticide-treated leaves that were under UV-blocking plastic revealed higher mortality of the invasive fruit pest, Drosophila suzukii, compared to leaves that were uncovered. This indicates that the activity of pesticides under high tunnels covered in UV-reducing plastics may be prolonged, allowing for fewer insecticide applications and longer intervals between sprays. This information can be used to help optimize pest control in protected culture berry production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultraviolet light protection by a sunscreen prevents interferon-driven skin inflammation in cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Sabine; Graef, Medina; Patsinakidis, Nikolaos; Landmann, Aysche; Surber, Christian; Wenzel, Joerg; Kuhn, Annegret

    2014-07-01

    Irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light is an important exacerbating factor in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and induces various effects in the skin of patients with the disease, such as cell death and inflammation. Recently, we demonstrated the ability of a broad-spectrum sunscreen to prevent UV-induced damage both in patients with CLE and healthy controls (HCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the UV-dependent activation of interferon (IFN)-driven inflammation in CLE can also be prevented by application of the sunscreen. In 20 patients with different subtypes of CLE and 10 HCs, defined areas on the upper back were treated with a broad-spectrum liposomal sunscreen 20 min prior to a combined standardized UVA/UVB irradiation. Immunohistological analyses using antibodies directed against MxA, CD11c, CD123 and CD68 were performed from skin biopsies taken from areas before UV irradiation as well as from sunscreen-treated and sunscreen-untreated areas 24 and 72 h after UV irradiation. The expression of MxA was completely prevented by the sunscreen applied prior to UV irradiation in CLE patients and HCs. Additionally, sunscreen protection significantly diminished the number of the CD11c- and CD123-positive dendritic cells, which are suggested to be a major source of type I/III IFNs, in UV-irradiated skin of patients with CLE. Moreover, the application of the sunscreen prevented the increase in CD68-positive macrophages in both groups 72 h after UV irradiation. The data of this study demonstrate that UV protection reduces lesional tissue damage and inhibits the typical IFN-driven inflammatory response in CLE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Light-induced absorption and its relaxation under illumination of continuous wave ultraviolet light in Mn-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Youwen; Kitamura, Kenji; Takekawa, Shunji

    2005-04-01

    The steady-state light-induced absorption and the temporal relaxation behavior under illumination of cw ultraviolet light in Mn-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} with different crystal compositions are investigated. The ultraviolet-light-induced absorption has been assigned to small polarons Nb{sub Li}{sup 4+} by measuring the absorption spectra at room temperature. The dependences of relaxation behaviors (time constant and stretching factor) of light-induced absorption on various illumination conditions (intensity, polarization) and temperature are presented, which are very different from those observed in Fe-doped LiNbO{sub 3} illuminated with highly intense light pulse, though the temporal relaxation follows the same stretched-exponential decay behavior in both cases. Themore » results are explained reasonably by using the model of distance-dependent electron transition probabilities between localized deep traps and small polarons without any additional assumptions, and discussed to tailor doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} crystals for two-color holographic recording with cw laser light.« less

  18. The Development of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes on p-SiC Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummer, Gordon

    Ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are promising light sources for purification, phototherapy, and resin curing applications. Currently, commercial UV LEDs are composed of AlGaN-based n-i-p junctions grown on sapphire substrates. These devices suffer from defects in the active region, inefficient p-type doping, and poor light extraction efficiency. This dissertation addresses the development of a novel UV LED device structure, grown on p-SiC substrates. In this device structure, the AlGaN-based intrinsic (i) and n-layers are grown directly on the p-type substrate, forming a p-i-n junction. The intrinsic layer (active region) is composed of an AlN buffer layer followed by three AlN/Al0.30Ga0.70N quantum wells. After the intrinsic layer, the n-layer is formed from n-type AlGaN. This device architecture addresses the deficiencies of UV LEDs on sapphire substrates while providing a vertical device geometry, reduced fabrication complexity, and improved thermal management. The device layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The material properties were optimized by considering varying growth conditions and by considering the role of the layer within the device. AlN grown at 825 C and with a Ga surfactant yielded material with screw dislocation density of 1x10 7 cm-2 based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. AlGaN alloys grown in this work contained compositional inhomogeneity, as verified by high-resolution XRD, photoluminescence, and absorption measurements. Based on Stokes shift measurements, the degree of compositional inhomogeneity was correlated with the amount of excess Ga employed during growth. Compositional inhomogeneity yields carrier localizing potential fluctuations, which are advantages in light emitting device layers. Therefore, excess Ga growth conditions were used to grow AlN/Al0.30Ga0.70N quantum wells (designed using a wurtzite k.p model) with 35% internal quantum efficiency. Potential fluctuations limit the mobility of carriers

  19. Formation of the thioester, N,S-diacetylcysteine, from acetaldehyde and N,N'-diacetylcystine in aqueous solution with ultraviolet light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    The thioester, N,S-diacetylcysteine, is formed during the illumination of phosphate buffered (pH 7.0) aqueous solutions of acetaldehyde and N,N'-diacetylcystine with ultraviolet light. The yield of N,S-diacetylcysteine relative to N-acetylcysteine and unidentified products progressively increases as ultraviolet light below 239 nm, 253 nm and 281 nm is cut off with optical filters. When ultraviolet light below 320 nm is removed with an optical filter, there is no detectable reaction. Illumination of 0.025 M N,N'-diacetylcystine with 0.5 M and 1.0 M acetaldehyde with filtered ultraviolet light gives, respectively, 20% and 80% yields of N,S-diacetylcysteine. In the reaction with 1.0 M acetaldehyde, N-acetylcysteine forms early in the reaction and later decreases with its conversion to N,S-diacetylcysteine. The prebiotic significance of these reactions is discussed.

  20. All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Agrawal, Amit; Abashin, Maxim; Chau, Kenneth J; Lezec, Henri J

    2013-05-23

    Decades ago, Veselago predicted that a material with simultaneously negative electric and magnetic polarization responses would yield a 'left-handed' medium in which light propagates with opposite phase and energy velocities--a condition described by a negative refractive index. He proposed that a flat slab of left-handed material possessing an isotropic refractive index of -1 could act like an imaging lens in free space. Left-handed materials do not occur naturally, and it has only recently become possible to achieve a left-handed response using metamaterials, that is, electromagnetic structures engineered on subwavelength scales to elicit tailored polarization responses. So far, left-handed responses have typically been implemented using resonant metamaterials composed of periodic arrays of unit cells containing inductive-capacitive resonators and conductive wires. Negative refractive indices that are isotropic in two or three dimensions at microwave frequencies have been achieved in resonant metamaterials with centimetre-scale features. Scaling the left-handed response to higher frequencies, such as infrared or visible, has been done by shrinking critical dimensions to submicrometre scales by means of top-down nanofabrication. This miniaturization has, however, so far been achieved at the cost of reduced unit-cell symmetry, yielding a refractive index that is negative along only one axis. Moreover, lithographic scaling limits have so far precluded the fabrication of resonant metamaterials with left-handed responses at frequencies beyond the visible. Here we report the experimental implementation of a bulk metamaterial with a left-handed response to ultraviolet light. The structure, based on stacked plasmonic waveguides, yields an omnidirectional left-handed response for transverse magnetic polarization characterized by a negative refractive index. By engineering the structure to have a refractive index close to -1 over a broad angular range, we achieve Veselago

  1. Monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by propidium monoazide quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture independent methods: (1) LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ (LD) and (2) propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were f...

  2. [Decrease of spontaneous mutations in Haemophilus influenzae caused by transformation with its own DNA irradiated with near-ultraviolet light].

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Hernández, E; Cabrera-Juárez, E

    1992-01-01

    Transforming DNA containing the streptomycin resistance marker, was irradiated for 8 h with broad near ultraviolet light (325-400 nm) at pH 4.8, and the inactivation kinetics determined. After selection of streptomycin resistant transformants, they were grown until a turbidity of 150-200 Klett units. In these cultures we looked for new markers coming from the irradiated transforming DNA. We looked and found the novobiocin resistance marker and one that conveys to protoporphyrin IX utilization, measured as an increase in the mutation frequency of these markers in the streptomycin resistant population. In other experiments, we found a decline in spontaneous mutation frequency for the same markers in the cells transformed with irradiated DNA. This last finding rises the possibility of alterations on the mutator genes as a result of near ultraviolet irradiation.

  3. Ba2Mg(BO3)2:Bi3+ - A new phosphor with ultraviolet light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarasimhan, N.; Jayakiruba, S.; Prabhavathi, K.

    2017-10-01

    Ultraviolet light emission was observed in a new Ba2Mg(BO3)2:Bi3+ phosphor. Bi3+ substitution for Ba2+ in the lattice was supplemented with K+ to maintain the charge neutrality. The samples of the formula Ba2-2xBixKxMg(BO3)2 [x = 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05] synthesized by solid state reaction were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction for their phase formation. Raman and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques were used to obtain information on the vibrational modes and optical properties, respectively. The room temperature photoluminescence measurements revealed an ultraviolet emission at 370 nm when excited using 304 nm wavelength and the Stokes shift is 5868 cm-1.

  4. High-space resolution imaging plate analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from tin laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Murakami, Takehiro; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Atarashi, Hironori; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nagai, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°). We ablated a tin target by high-energy lasers (1064 nm Nd:YAG, 1010 and 1011 W/cm2) to generate the EUV light. The europium ions in the IP were trapped in a higher energy state from exposure to EUV light and high-energy species. The light intensity was angular dependent; therefore excitation of the IP depends on the angle, and so highly informative about the LPP. We obtained high-space resolution (345 μm, 0.2°) angular distribution and grazing spectrometer (5-20 nm grate) data simultaneously at different target to IP distances (103 mm and 200 mm). Two laser systems and IP types (BAS-TR and BAS-SR) were also compared. The cosine fitting values from the IP data were used to calculate the CE to be 1.6% (SD ± 0.2) at 13.5 nm 2% bandwidth. Finally, a practical assessment of IPs and a damage issue are disclosed.

  5. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    PubMed

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro evaluation of color change in maxillofacial elastomer through the use of an ultraviolet light absorber and a hindered amine light stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc H; Scarbecz, Mark; Gary, John J

    2004-05-01

    External prostheses composed of silicone elastomers exhibit an unwanted color change over time. This study evaluated color stability when an ultraviolet light absorber and hindered amine light stabilizer were mixed in the maxillofacial elastomer containing either organic or inorganic pigments. The materials used were an RTV silicone elastomer, 1 natural inorganic dry-earth pigment (burnt sienna) and 2 synthesized organic pigments (hansa yellow and alizarin red), ultraviolet light absorber (UVA) and hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS). Specimens (n=160) were fabricated in a custom mold and randomly assigned and exposed to weathering sites in Miami and Phoenix for approximately 3 months. Eight test groups (2 of each 4 material types with or without additives) of 10 specimens each were assigned to each site. L*, a*, b* readings were obtained before and after weathering from a spectrocolorimeter. Nonpigmented elastomers served as the control. Three-factor ANOVA was conducted to examine interaction effects between weathering sites, specimen type, and the presence of additive (alpha=.05). Overall color change (Delta E) and change in color coordinates (Delta L*, Delta a*, Delta b*) of specimen groups with and without additive were analyzed with independent sample t tests. In specimen groups with the additives (UVA and HALS), color change decreased significantly (P<.05) in burnt sienna and hansa yellow in Phoenix and in the control and hansa yellow in Miami. Additives did not affect color change in the alizarin red group. UVA and HALS were shown to be effective in retarding color change in some circumstances.

  7. Use of photo-Fenton's reaction by 400-nm LED light for endodontic disinfection: A preliminary in vitro study on Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Lagori, Giuseppe; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Merigo, Elisabetta

    2017-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges in endodontics is the complete disinfection of root canals. In addition to mechanical preparation, the technique traditionally also involves channel disinfection with other agents such as sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, or a combination of these. Some bacterial species are particularly resistant to eradication. Using Enterococcus faecalis in this preliminary study, we tested the bactericidal effectiveness of the Fenton reaction and the photo-Fenton reaction using an LED light with a 400-nm wavelength. Discs of hydroxyapatite were incubated in brain-heart broth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. After 4days, they were decontaminated with different bactericidal agents, including some with proven and well-known efficacy (5% sodium hypochlorite and 3% hydrogen peroxide) and other treatments using solutions of 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 0.15% iron gluconate (Fenton reaction) plus LED light at a Fluence of 4.0J/cm 2 (photo-Fenton reaction). The photo-Fenton reaction demonstrated comparable performance to that of sodium hypochlorite in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. High Mobility Flexible Amorphous IGZO Thin-Film Transistors with a Low Thermal Budget Ultra-Violet Pulsed Light Process.

    PubMed

    Benwadih, M; Coppard, R; Bonrad, K; Klyszcz, A; Vuillaume, D

    2016-12-21

    Amorphous, sol-gel processed, indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transistors on plastic substrate with a printable gate dielectric and an electron mobility of 4.5 cm 2 /(V s), as well as a mobility of 7 cm 2 /(V s) on solid substrate (Si/SiO 2 ) are reported. These performances are obtained using a low temperature pulsed light annealing technique. Ultraviolet (UV) pulsed light system is an innovative technique compared to conventional (furnace or hot-plate) annealing process that we successfully implemented on sol-gel IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) made on plastic substrate. The photonic annealing treatment has been optimized to obtain IGZO TFTs with significant electrical properties. Organic gate dielectric layers deposited on this pulsed UV light annealed films have also been optimized. This technique is very promising for the development of amorphous IGZO TFTs on plastic substrates.

  9. High-power AlGaN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zengcheng; Liu, Legong; Huang, Yingnan; Sun, Qian; Feng, Meixin; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Hanmin; Yang, Hui

    2017-07-01

    High-power AlGaN-based 385 nm near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVA-LEDs) grown on Si(111) substrates are reported. The threading dislocation (TD) density of AlGaN was reduced by employing an Al-composition step-graded AlN/AlGaN multilayer buffer. V-shaped pits were intentionally incorporated into the active region to screen the carriers from the nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs) around the TDs and to facilitate hole injection. The light extraction efficiency was enhanced by the surface roughening of a thin-film (TF) vertical chip structure. The as-fabricated TF-UVA-LED exhibited a light output power of 960 mW at 500 mA, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 59.7%.

  10. Indium gallium nitride-based ultraviolet, blue, and green light-emitting diodes functionalized with shallow periodic hole patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun; Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Lerondel, Gilles; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the improvement in the light output power of indium gallium nitride (InGaN)-based ultraviolet (UV), blue, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by fabricating shallow periodic hole patterns (PHPs) on the LED surface through laser interference lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. Noticeably, different enhancements were observed in the light output powers of the UV, blue, and green LEDs with negligible changes in the electrical properties in the light output power versus current and current versus voltage curves. In addition, confocal scanning electroluminescence microscopy is employed to verify the correlation between the enhancement in the light output power of the LEDs with PHPs and carrier localization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Light propagation through the PHPs on the UV, blue, and green LEDs is simulated using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to confirm the experimental results. Finally, we suggest optimal conditions of PHPs for improving the light output power of InGaN LEDs based on the experimental and theoretical results. PMID:28374856

  11. Indium gallium nitride-based ultraviolet, blue, and green light-emitting diodes functionalized with shallow periodic hole patterns.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun; Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Lerondel, Gilles; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2017-04-04

    In this study, we investigated the improvement in the light output power of indium gallium nitride (InGaN)-based ultraviolet (UV), blue, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by fabricating shallow periodic hole patterns (PHPs) on the LED surface through laser interference lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. Noticeably, different enhancements were observed in the light output powers of the UV, blue, and green LEDs with negligible changes in the electrical properties in the light output power versus current and current versus voltage curves. In addition, confocal scanning electroluminescence microscopy is employed to verify the correlation between the enhancement in the light output power of the LEDs with PHPs and carrier localization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Light propagation through the PHPs on the UV, blue, and green LEDs is simulated using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to confirm the experimental results. Finally, we suggest optimal conditions of PHPs for improving the light output power of InGaN LEDs based on the experimental and theoretical results.

  12. The vitamin D hypothesis revisited: race-based disparities in birth outcomes in the United States and ultraviolet light availability.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M

    2014-04-15

    Skin color has been proposed to contribute to race-based health disparities in the United States because of differences in ultraviolet (UV) light-induced vitamin D synthesis. The prediction of this hypothesis, herein named the UVD hypothesis, is that racial disparities in health outcomes are correlated with UV light availability. This paper investigates whether UV light availability is associated with disparities in the rates of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) between whites and blacks, because these outcomes are thought to be influenced by vitamin D status and to shape disease risk in later life. Data on LBW and PTB from 2007 (n = 2,825,620 births) were compared with data on UV light exposure across the United States. Contrary to the predictions of the UVD hypothesis, LBW and PTB rate disparities were greatest in states with the highest UV light exposure. Notably, income inequality was positively and significantly related to LBW and PTB disparities, even after controlling for UV light availability. The results of this analysis demonstrate that there is a significant environmental gradient in racial disparities in birth outcomes in the United States, but other social or environmental factors associated with living in the southern United States are likely stronger contributors to disparities in birth outcomes than UV light-induced vitamin D status.

  13. Heavy Mg-doping of (Al,Ga)N films for potential applications in deep ultraviolet light-emitting structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y. H.; Towe, E.

    2018-03-01

    Doping of high aluminum-containing (Al,Ga)N thin films has remained a challenging problem that has hindered progress in the development of deep ultraviolet light-emitters. This paper reports on the synthesis and use of heavily doped (Al,Ga)N films in deep ultraviolet (˜274 nm) light-emitting structures; these structures were synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy under liquid-metal growth conditions that facilitate the incorporation of extremely high density of Mg dopant impurities (up to 5 × 1019 cm-3) into aluminum-rich (Al,Ga)N thin films. Prototypical light-emitting diode structures incorporating Al0.7Ga0.3N films doped with Mg impurities that ionize to give free hole carrier concentrations of up to 6 × 1017 cm-3 exhibit external quantum efficiencies of up 0.56%; this is an improvement from previous devices made from molecular beam epitaxy-grown materials. This improvement is believed to be due to the high hole carrier concentration enabled by the relatively low activation energy of 220 meV compared to the expected values of 408-507 meV for Al0.7Ga0.3N films.

  14. Ultraviolet-C light inactivation of Penicillium expansum on fruit surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the influence of fruit surface morphology on ultraviolet-C (UV-C 254 nm) inactivation of microorganisms is required for designing effective treatment systems. In this study, we analyzed UV-C inactivation of Penicillium expansum that was inoculated onto the surface of organic fruits. Re...

  15. Antioxidant characterization and sensory evaluation during storage of ultraviolet-B light exposed baby carrots (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baby carrot processing induces wounding stress activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), enhancing its nutrient content by increasing synthesis of secondary metabolites. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure further promotes the formation of soluble phenolic compounds, significantly increasing antiox...

  16. EFFECTS OF LABORATORY ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AND NATURAL SUNLIGHT ON SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT OF RANA PIPIENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation have been proposed as a possible factor contributing to seeming increases in hindlimb malformations in anuran amphibians in North America. A primary purpose of this study was to reproduce results from an earlier experiment in which Ran...

  17. Interactions of Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate with Light Induced Chemical Reactions in Aquatic Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet radiation that reach the surface of North American aquatic environments. Concurrent changes in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in changes in stratification and precipitation that ar...

  18. Ultraviolet laser ablation as technique for defect repair of GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Thorsten; Kunzer, Michael; Pfeuffer, Alexander; Binder, Michael; Wagner, Joachim

    2018-03-01

    Defect repair of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by ultraviolet laser micromachining is reported. Percussion and helical drilling in GaN by laser ablation were investigated using 248 nm nanosecond and 355 nm picosecond pulses. The influence of laser ablation including different laser parameters on electrical and optical properties of GaN-based LED chips was evaluated. The results for LEDs on sapphire with transparent conductive oxide p-type contact on top as well as for thin-film LEDs are reported. A reduction of leakage current by up to six orders in magnitude and homogeneous luminance distribution after proper laser defect treatment were achieved.

  19. Abnormal hump in capacitance-voltage measurements induced by ultraviolet light in a-IGZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Yu-Ching; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Hua-Mao; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng; Chen, Guan-Fu; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Tai, Ya-Hsiang; Hung, Yu-Ju; Huang, Shin-Ping; Yang, Chung-Yi; Chou, Wu-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the generation of abnormal capacitance for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-InGaZnO4) thin-film transistors after being subjected to negative bias stress under ultraviolet light illumination stress (NBIS). At various operation frequencies, there are two-step tendencies in their capacitance-voltage curves. When gate bias is smaller than threshold voltage, the measured capacitance is dominated by interface defects. Conversely, the measured capacitance is dominated by oxygen vacancies when gate bias is larger than threshold voltage. The impact of these interface defects and oxygen vacancies on capacitance-voltage curves is verified by TCAD simulation software.

  20. Isolation and characterization of ultraviolet light-sensitive mutants of the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asato, Y.

    1972-01-01

    Three independently isolated ultraviolet light sensitive (uvs) mutants of Anacystis nidulans were characterized. Strain uvs-1 showed the highest sensitivity to UV by its greatly reduced photoreactivation capacity following irradiation. Pretreatment with caffeine suppressed the dark-survival curve of strain uvs-1, thus indicating the presence of excision enzymes involved in dark repair. Under 'black' and 'white' illumination, strain uvs-1 shows photorecovery properties comparable with wild-type cultures. Results indicate that strains uvs-1, uvs-35, and uvs-88 are probably genetically distinct UV-sensitive mutants.

  1. Ultraviolet Enceladus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-23

    Looking beyond Saturn's south pole, this was the Cassini spacecraft's view of the distant, icy moon Enceladus on July 28, 2004. The planet itself shows few obvious features at these ultraviolet wavelengths, due to scattering of light by molecules of the gases high in the atmosphere. Enceladus is 499 kilometers (310 miles) wide. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of 7.4 million kilometers (4.6 million miles) from Saturn through a filter sensitive to ultraviolet wavelengths of light. The image scale is 44 kilometers (27 miles) per pixel of Saturn. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06483

  2. 'No touch' technologies for environmental decontamination: focus on ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems.

    PubMed

    Weber, David J; Kanamori, Hajime; Rutala, William A

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews 'no touch' methods for disinfection of the contaminated surface environment of hospitalized patients' rooms. The focus is on studies that assessed the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) light devices, hydrogen peroxide systems, and self-disinfecting surfaces to reduce healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The contaminated surface environment in hospitals plays an important role in the transmission of several key nosocomial pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., Clostridium difficile, Acinetobacter spp., and norovirus. Multiple clinical trials have now demonstrated the effectiveness of UV light devices and hydrogen peroxide systems to reduce HAIs. A limited number of studies have suggested that 'self-disinfecting' surfaces may also decrease HAIs. Many studies have demonstrated that terminal cleaning and disinfection with germicides is often inadequate and leaves environmental surfaces contaminated with important nosocomial pathogens. 'No touch' methods of room decontamination (i.e., UV devices and hydrogen peroxide systems) have been demonstrated to reduce key nosocomial pathogens on inoculated test surfaces and on environmental surfaces in actual patient rooms. Further UV devices and hydrogen peroxide systems have been demonstrated to reduce HAI. A validated 'no touch' device or system should be used for terminal room disinfection following discharge of patients on contact precautions. The use of a 'self-disinfecting' surface to reduce HAI has not been convincingly demonstrated.

  3. Artificial sunlight and ultraviolet light induced photo-epoxidation of propylene over V-Ti/MCM-41 photocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van-Huy; Bai, Hsunling

    2014-01-01

    Summary The light irradiation parameters, including the wavelength spectrum and intensity of light source, can significantly influence a photocatalytic reaction. This study examines the propylene photo-epoxidation over V-Ti/MCM-41 photocatalyst by using artificial sunlight (Xe lamp with/without an Air Mass 1.5 Global Filter at 1.6/18.5 mW·cm−2) and ultraviolet light (Mercury Arc lamp with different filters in the range of 0.1–0.8 mW·cm−2). This is the first report of using artificial sunlight to drive the photo-epoxidation of propylene. Over V-Ti/MCM-41 photocatalyst, the propylene oxide (PO) formation rate is 193.0 and 112.1 µmol·gcat −1·h−1 with a PO selectivity of 35.0 and 53.7% under UV light and artificial sunlight, respectively. A normalized light utilization (NLU) index is defined and found to correlate well with the rate of both PO formation and C3H6 consumption in log–log scale. The light utilization with a mercury arc lamp is better than with a xenon lamp. The selectivity to PO remains practically unchanged with respect to NLU, suggesting that the photo-epoxidation occurs through the same mechanism under the conditions tested in this study. PMID:24991493

  4. Stability of the Stevia-Derived Sweetener Rebaudioside A in Solution as Affected by Ultraviolet Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiewen; Bell, Leonard N

    2017-04-01

    Rebaudioside A is a natural noncaloric high-potency sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. With rebaudioside A use increasing in foods, understanding the factors affecting its stability is necessary. This project evaluated the degradation rate constants of rebaudioside A in water, 0.1 M phosphate buffer, and 0.1 M citrate buffer at pH 3 and 7 as a function of ultraviolet (UV) light intensity (365 nm, 0 μW/cm 2 for dark conditions, 27 μW/cm 2 for low intensity, and 190 μW/cm 2 for high intensity) at 32.5 °C. Rebaudioside A stability was adversely affected by light exposure. The pseudo-1st-order degradation rate constants increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing light intensity in all solutions. Under dark conditions, rebaudioside A in phosphate buffers was more susceptible to breakdown than in water and citrate buffers at both pH levels. However, exposure to UV light resulted in rebaudioside A degradation occurring approximately 10 times faster in citrate than in phosphate buffers at both pH levels. The sensitivity of rebaudioside A to UV light was greater in citrate buffers than in water or phosphate buffers. The use of light-protective packaging for beverages containing rebaudioside A will improve its stability. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Stress-Induced Sleep After Exposure to Ultraviolet Light Is Promoted by p53 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    DeBardeleben, Hilary K; Lopes, Lindsey E; Nessel, Mark P; Raizen, David M

    2017-10-01

    Stress-induced sleep (SIS) in Caenorhabditis elegans is important for restoration of cellular homeostasis and is a useful model to study the function and regulation of sleep. SIS is triggered when epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates the ALA neuron, which then releases neuropeptides to promote sleep. To further understand this behavior, we established a new model of SIS using irradiation by ultraviolet C (UVC) light. While UVC irradiation requires ALA signaling and leads to a sleep state similar to that induced by heat and other stressors, it does not induce the proteostatic stress seen with heat exposure. Based on the known genotoxic effects of UVC irradiation, we tested two genes, atl-1 and cep-1 , which encode proteins that act in the DNA damage response pathway. Loss-of-function mutants of atl-1 had no defect in UVC-induced SIS but a partial loss-of-function mutant of cep-1 , gk138 , had decreased movement quiescence following UVC irradiation. Germline ablation experiments and tissue-specific RNA interference experiments showed that cep-1 is required somatically in neurons for its effect on SIS. The cep-1 ( gk138 ) mutant suppressed body movement quiescence controlled by EGF, indicating that CEP-1 acts downstream or in parallel to ALA activation to promote quiescence in response to ultraviolet light. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Rapid diagnosis of sensitivity to ultraviolet light in fibroblasts from dermatologic disorders, with particular reference to xeroderma pigmentosum

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.; Thomas, G.H.

    1988-04-01

    A rapid and simple method for determining the sensitivity of human fibroblasts to ultraviolet light is described. As an alternative to the colony formation assay, this method can be used for the rapid diagnosis of ultraviolet light sensitivity in fibroblasts from photosensitive disorders. The method is based on growth of small numbers of cells in 1-cm wells of culture trays for 4 or more days after irradiation and determination of cell survival by the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine. D37 values (the dose at which 37% of the control level of incorporation remains) obtained from this procedure showed the same relativemore » sensitivity of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts as was obtained by colony formation. Untransformed and SV40-transformed fibroblasts, which have different growth rates and different responses to high cell densities, gave different D37 values by this assay in culture trays as compared with colony formation. Comparison of relative sensitivities to irradiation should therefore be made only between cell types with similar growth characteristics. The similar sensitivity of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cells to mitomycin C was also determined by this culture tray method. By increasing cell density at the beginning of the experiments, a greater capacity of group C compared with group D fibroblasts for recovery from potentially lethal damage was also detected.« less

  7. Mapping the solar wind HI outflow velocity in the inner heliosphere by coronagraphic ultraviolet and visible-light observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolei, S.; Susino, R.; Sasso, C.; Bemporad, A.; Andretta, V.; Spadaro, D.; Ventura, R.; Antonucci, E.; Abbo, L.; Da Deppo, V.; Fineschi, S.; Focardi, M.; Frassetto, F.; Giordano, S.; Landini, F.; Naletto, G.; Nicolini, G.; Nicolosi, P.; Pancrazzi, M.; Romoli, M.; Telloni, D.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the capability of mapping the solar wind outflow velocity of neutral hydrogen atoms by using synergistic visible-light and ultraviolet observations. We used polarised brightness images acquired by the LASCO/SOHO and Mk3/MLSO coronagraphs, and synoptic Lyα line observations of the UVCS/SOHO spectrometer to obtain daily maps of solar wind H I outflow velocity between 1.5 and 4.0 R⊙ on the SOHO plane of the sky during a complete solar rotation (from 1997 June 1 to 1997 June 28). The 28-days data sequence allows us to construct coronal off-limb Carrington maps of the resulting velocities at different heliocentric distances to investigate the space and time evolution of the outflowing solar plasma. In addition, we performed a parameter space exploration in order to study the dependence of the derived outflow velocities on the physical quantities characterising the Lyα emitting process in the corona. Our results are important in anticipation of the future science with the Metis instrument, selected to be part of the Solar Orbiter scientific payload. It was conceived to carry out near-sun coronagraphy, performing for the first time simultaneous imaging in polarised visible-light and ultraviolet H I Lyα line, so providing an unprecedented view of the solar wind acceleration region in the inner corona. The movie (see Sect. 4.2) is available at https://www.aanda.org

  8. Micronucleated erythrocytes in newborns of rat dams exposed to ultraviolet-A light during pregnancy; protection by ascorbic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zamora-Perez, Ana L; Martínez-González, María A; Muñoz de Haro, Ilse A; Pérez-Navarro, Adhoksaja E; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha P

    2015-04-01

    Pregnant hairless rat dams were exposed to ultraviolet-A light (UVA) to induce micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in their fetuses. The control group was exposed to conventional light; the experimental groups were exposed to UVA (365nm) during gestational days 16-21. In some cases, ascorbic acid (Asc) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 15 until delivery. Dams were sampled at 48-h intervals during gestation, from day 16 until delivery. Blood was also obtained from neonates at birth; MNE, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were scored. Increased MNE and MNPCE were observed in neonates born to mothers exposed to UVA for 40, 80 or 160min, compared to the control group. Asc treatment reduced MNE and MNPCE induction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultraviolet/blue light-emitting diodes based on single horizontal ZnO microrod/GaN heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Du, Chia-Fong; Lee, Chen-Hui; Cheng, Chao-Tsung; Lin, Kai-Hsiang; Sheu, Jin-Kong; Hsu, Hsu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    We report electroluminescence (EL) from single horizontal ZnO microrod (MR) and p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes under forward and reverse bias. EL spectra were composed of two blue emissions centered at 431 and 490 nm under forward biases, but were dominated by a ultraviolet (UV) emission located at 380 nm from n-ZnO MR under high reverse biases. Light-output-current characteristic of the UV emission reveals that the rate of radiative recombination is faster than that of the nonradiative recombination. Highly efficient ZnO excitonic recombination at reverse bias is caused by electrons tunneling from deep-level states near the n-ZnO/p-GaN interface to the conduction band in n-ZnO.

  10. Ultraviolet/blue light-emitting diodes based on single horizontal ZnO microrod/GaN heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report electroluminescence (EL) from single horizontal ZnO microrod (MR) and p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes under forward and reverse bias. EL spectra were composed of two blue emissions centered at 431 and 490 nm under forward biases, but were dominated by a ultraviolet (UV) emission located at 380 nm from n-ZnO MR under high reverse biases. Light-output-current characteristic of the UV emission reveals that the rate of radiative recombination is faster than that of the nonradiative recombination. Highly efficient ZnO excitonic recombination at reverse bias is caused by electrons tunneling from deep-level states near the n-ZnO/p-GaN interface to the conduction band in n-ZnO. PMID:25232299

  11. The electronics in fluorescent bulbs and light emitting diodes (LED), rather than ultraviolet radiation, cause increased malignant melanoma incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users.

    PubMed

    Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, Dave

    2018-07-01

    The epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has a number of facets that do not fit with sunlight and ultraviolet light as the primary etiologic agents. Indoor workers have higher incidence and mortality rates of CMM than outdoor workers; CMM occurs in body locations never exposed to sunlight; CMM incidence is increasing in spite of use of UV blocking agents and small changes in solar radiation. Installation of two new fluorescent lights in the milking parlor holding area of a Minnesota dairy farm in 2015 caused an immediate drop in milk production. This lead to measurement of body amperage in humans exposed to modern non-incandescent lighting. People exposed to old and new fluorescent lights, light emitting diodes (LED) and compact fluorescent lights (CFL) had body amperage levels above those considered carcinogenic. We hypothesize that modern electric lighting is a significant health hazard, a carcinogen, and is causing increasing CMM incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users. These lights generate dirty electricity (high frequency voltage transients), radio frequency (RF) radiation, and increase body amperage, all of which have been shown to be carcinogenic. This could explain the failure of ultraviolet blockers to stem the malignant melanoma pandemic. Tanning beds and non-incandescent lighting could be made safe by incorporating a grounded Faraday cage which allows passage of ultraviolet and visible light frequencies and blocks other frequencies. Modern electric lighting should be fabricated to be electrically clean. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of ZnO-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite for photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria and detoxification of cyanide under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Karunakaran, C., E-mail: karunakaranc@rediffmail.com; Abiramasundari, G.; Gomathisankar, P.

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} ZnO-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite, obtained by modified ammonia-evaporation-induced synthetic method, absorbs visible light. {yields} ZnO-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles catalyze bacteria disinfection and cyanide detoxification under sunlight. {yields} ZnO-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite is selective in photocatalysis. -- Abstract: ZnO-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was prepared by modified ammonia-evaporation-induced synthetic method. It was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray, UV-visible diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence and electrochemical impedance spectroscopies. Incorporation of ZnO leads to visible light absorption, larger charge transfer resistance and lower capacitance. The nanocomposite effectively catalyzes the inactivation of E. coli under visible light. Further,more » the prepared nanocomposite displays selective photocatalysis. While its photocatalytic efficiency to detoxify cyanide with visible light is higher than that of TiO{sub 2} P25, its efficiency to degrade methylene blue, sunset yellow and rhodamine B dyes under UV-A light is less than that of TiO{sub 2} P25.« less

  13. Integrated chemical treatment of municipal wastewater using waste hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Malik, Amir Haider; Rashid, Naim; Wu, Donglei

    Dilemmas like water shortage, rapid industrialization, growing human population and related issues have seriously affected human health and environmental sustainability. For conservation and sustainable use of our water resources, innovative methods for wastewater treatment are continuously being explored. Advance Oxidation Processes (AOPs) show a promising approach to meet specific objectives of municipal wastewater treatment (MWW). The MWW samples were pretreated with Al 2(SO 4) 4·8H 2O (Alum) at different doses 4, 8, 12-50 mg/L to enhance the sedimentation. The maximum COD removal was observed at alum treatments in range of 28-32 mg/L without increasing total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS were found to increase when the alum dose was increased from 32-40 mg/L. In the present study, the optimum alum dose of 30 mg/L for 3 h of sedimentation and subsequent integrated H 2O 2/UV treatment was applied (using 2.5 mL/L of 40% waste H 2O 2 and 35% fresh H 2O 2 separately). Organic and inorganic pollutants, contributing towards chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity and total dissolved solids were degraded by H 2O 2/UV. About 93% COD, 90% BOD and 83% turbidity reduction occurred when 40% waste H 2O 2 was used. When using fresh H 2O 2, 63% COD, 68% BOD and 86% turbidity reduction was detected. Complete disinfection of coliform bacteria occurred by using 40% H 2O 2/UV. The most interesting part of this research was to compare the effectiveness of waste H 2O 2 with fresh H 2O 2. Waste H 2O 2 generated from an industrial process of disinfection was found more effective in the treatment of MWW than fresh 35% H 2O 2.

  14. Improvement of electrical and optical properties of p-GaN Ohmic metals under ultraviolet light irradiation annealing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, S.W.; Yoon, S.K.; Kwak, J.S.

    2006-05-15

    We report the improvement of electrical and optical properties of p-GaN Ohmic metals, ZnNi(10 nm)/Au(10 nm), by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. After UV light irradiation, the specific contact resistance of p-GaN decreased slightly from 2.99x10{sup -4} to 2.54x10{sup -4} {omega} cm{sup 2}, while the transmittance of the contact layer increased form 75% to 85% at a wavelength of 460 nm. In addition, the forward voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode chip at 20 mA decreased from 3.55 to 3.45 V, and the output power increased form 18 to 25 mW by UV light irradiation. The low resistance and high transmittance ofmore » the p-GaN Ohmic metals are attributed to the reduced Shottky barrier by the formation of gallium oxide and the increased oxidation of p-Ohmic metals, respectively, due to ozone generated form oxygen during UV light irradiation.« less

  15. Coupling a versatile aerosol apparatus to a synchrotron: Vacuum ultraviolet light scattering, photoelectron imaging, and fragment free mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jinian; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R.

    2006-04-01

    An aerosol apparatus has been coupled to the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This apparatus has multiple capabilities for aerosol studies, including vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light scattering, photoelectron imaging, and mass spectroscopy of aerosols. By utilizing an inlet system consisting of a 200μm orifice nozzle and aerodynamic lenses, aerosol particles of ˜50nm-˜1μm in diameter can be sampled directly from atmospheric pressure. The machine is versatile and can probe carbonaceous aerosols generated by a laboratory flame, nebulized solutions of biological molecules, hydrocarbon aerosol reaction products, and synthesized inorganic nanoparticles. The sensitivity of this apparatus is demonstrated by the detection of nanoparticles with VUV light scattering, photoelectron imaging, and charged particle detection. In addition to the detection of nanoparticles, the thermal vaporization of aerosols on a heater tip leads to the generation of intact gas phase molecules. This phenomenon coupled to threshold single photon ionization, accessible with tunable VUV light, allows for fragment-free mass spectrometry of complex molecules. The initial experiments with light scattering, photoelectron imaging, and aerosol mass spectrometry reported here serve as a demonstration of the design philosophy and multiple capabilities of the apparatus.

  16. Determination of the Effects of Medium Composition on the Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by the Propidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various media compositions (phosphate 1-50 mM; ionic strength 2.8-150 meq/L) significantly affected Nitrosomonas europaea monochloramine disinfection kinetics determined by Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) methods (lag coefficient 37-490...

  17. Violet light causes photodegradation of wood beyond the zone affected by ultraviolet radiation

    Treesearch

    Yutaka Kataoka; Makoto Kiguchi; R. Sam Williams; Philip D. Evans

    2007-01-01

    The limited penetration of wood by light explains why the weathering of wood exposed outdoors is a surface phenomenon. Wood is rapidly degraded by short-wave-length UV radiation, but the penetration of light into wood is positively correlated with its wavelength. Hence, subsurface degradation is likely to be caused by longer-wavelength light that still has sufficient...

  18. Antimicrobial effect of three disinfecting agents on Resilon cones and their effect on surface topography: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chandrappa, Mahesh Martur; Meharwade, Prasanna Mahadevasa; Srinivasan, Raghu; Bhandary, Shreetha; Nasreen, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and 2% peracetic acid (PAA) in disinfecting Resilon cones and to evaluate topographical changes microscopically under scanning electron microscope (SEM) after rapid chemical disinfection. Resilon cones were disinfected in an ultraviolet (UV) light chamber for 20 min and contaminated by immersing in a microbial suspension of Enterococcus faecalis for 30 min. The contaminated cones were then immersed in the 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX, and 2% PAA for 1 min, 5 min, and 10 min, separately. The cones were then incubated at 37°C in thioglycollate broth for 7 days and examined for turbidity. The samples showing turbidity were subcultured on blood agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Gram staining was done to confirm that the cultured bacteria were E. faecalis. Surface changes of disinfected Resilon cones were evaluated under SEM. The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann-Whitney U-test. In eliminating E. faecalis, 5.25% NaOCl was most effective followed by 2% PAA and 2% CHX. Topographic examination of tested Resilon cones revealed some surface deposits after disinfection with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX, whereas 2% PAA caused surface erosion. In disinfecting Resilon cones, 5.25% NaOCl is most effective followed by 2% PAA and 2% CHX.

  19. Inactivation of Ebola virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in platelet concentrates and plasma by ultraviolet C light and methylene blue plus visible light, respectively.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, Markus; Gravemann, Ute; Handke, Wiebke; Tolksdorf, Frank; Reichenberg, Stefan; Müller, Thomas H; Seltsam, Axel

    2018-05-06

    Ebola virus (EBOV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been identified as potential threats to blood safety. This study investigated the efficacy of the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets and THERAFLEX MB-Plasma pathogen inactivation systems to inactivate EBOV and MERS-CoV in platelet concentrates (PCs) and plasma, respectively. PCs and plasma were spiked with high titers of cell culture-derived EBOV and MERS-CoV, treated with various light doses of ultraviolet C (UVC; THERAFLEX UV-Platelets) or methylene blue (MB) plus visible light (MB/light; THERAFLEX MB-Plasma), and assessed for residual viral infectivity. UVC reduced EBOV (≥4.5 log) and MERS-CoV (≥3.7 log) infectivity in PCs to the limit of detection, and MB/light decreased EBOV (≥4.6 log) and MERS-CoV (≥3.3 log) titers in plasma to nondetectable levels. Both THERAFLEX UV-Platelets (UVC) and THERAFLEX MB-Plasma (MB/light) effectively reduce EBOV and MERS-CoV infectivity in platelets and plasma, respectively. © 2018 AABB.

  20. Characterization and imaging of nanostructured materials using tabletop extreme ultraviolet light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Robert; Knobloch, Joshua; Frazer, Travis; Tanksalvala, Michael; Porter, Christina; Bevis, Charles; Chao, Weilun; Abad Mayor, Begoña.; Adams, Daniel; Mancini, Giulia F.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    2018-03-01

    Using a tabletop coherent extreme ultraviolet source, we extend current nanoscale metrology capabilities with applications spanning from new models of nanoscale transport and materials, to nanoscale device fabrication. We measure the ultrafast dynamics of acoustic waves in materials; by analyzing the material's response, we can extract elastic properties of films as thin as 11nm. We extend this capability to a spatially resolved imaging modality by using coherent diffractive imaging to image the acoustic waves in nanostructures as they propagate. This will allow for spatially resolved characterization of the elastic properties of non-isotropic materials.

  1. Photo-enhanced toxicity of fluoranthene to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms at different larval ages and ultraviolet light intensities.

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-05-01

    Significant increases in toxicity have been observed as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in aquatic organisms. Early life stage aquatic organisms are predicted to be more susceptible to PAH photo-enhanced toxicity as a result of their translucence and tendency to inhabit shallow littoral or surface waters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of varying ages of larval mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to photo-enhanced toxicity and to examine the correlation between photo-enhanced toxicity and organism pigmentation. Organisms were exposed to fluoranthene and artificial UV light at different larval ages and results were compared using median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the lethal time-to-death (LT50s). In addition, a high UV light intensity, short-duration (4-h) experiment was conducted at approximately 24 W/m(2) of ultraviolet radiation A (UV-A) and compared with a low-intensity, long-duration (12-h) experiment at approximately 8 W/m(2) of UV-A. The results indicated decreased toxicity with increasing age for all larval organisms. The amount of organism pigmentation was correlated with observed LC50 and LT50 values. High-intensity short-duration exposure resulted in greater toxicity than low-intensity long-duration UV treatments for mysid shrimp, inland silverside, and sheepshead minnow. Data from these experiments suggest that toxicity is dependent on age, pigmentation, UV light intensity, and fluoranthene concentration. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Ultraviolet-B component of sunlight stimulates photosynthesis and flavonoid accumulation in variegated Plectranthus coleoides leaves depending on background light.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Marija; Morina, Filis; Milić, Sonja; Zechmann, Bernd; Albert, Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Veljović Jovanović, Sonja

    2015-05-01

    We used variegated Plectranthus coleoides as a model plant with the aim of clarifying whether the effects of realistic ultraviolet-B (UV-B) doses on phenolic metabolism in leaves are mediated by photosynthesis. Plants were exposed to UV-B radiation (0.90 W m(-2) ) combined with two photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensities [395 and 1350 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) , low light (LL) and high light (HL)] for 9 d in sun simulators. Our study indicates that UV-B component of sunlight stimulates CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, depending on background light. UV-B-specific induction of apigenin and cyanidin glycosides was observed in both green and white tissues. However, all the other phenolic subclasses were up to four times more abundant in green leaf tissue. Caffeic and rosmarinic acids, catechin and epicatechin, which are endogenous peroxidase substrates, were depleted at HL in green tissue. This was correlated with increased peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities and increased ascorbate content. The UV-B supplement to HL attenuated antioxidative metabolism and partly recovered the phenolic pool indicating stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In summary, we propose that ortho-dihydroxy phenolics are involved in antioxidative defence in chlorophyllous tissue upon light excess, while apigenin and cyanidin in white tissue have preferentially UV-screening function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Glass-Based Transparent Conductive Electrode: Its Application to Visible-to-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Lee, Byeong Ryong; Park, Ju Hyun; Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Tae Geun

    2016-12-28

    Nitride-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) are promising replacements for conventional UV lamps. However, the external quantum efficiency of UV LEDs is much lower than for visible LEDs due to light absorption in the p-GaN contact and electrode layers, along with p-AlGaN growth and doping issues. To minimize such absorption, we should obtain direct ohmic contact to p-AlGaN using UV-transparent ohmic electrodes and not use p-GaN as a contact layer. Here, we propose a glass-based transparent conductive electrode (TCE) produced using electrical breakdown (EBD) of an AlN thin film, and we apply the thin film to four (Al)GaN-based visible and UV LEDs with thin buffer layers for current spreading and damage protection. Compared to LEDs with optimal ITO contacts, our LEDs with AlN TCEs exhibit a lower forward voltage, higher light output power, and brighter light emission for all samples. The ohmic transport mechanism for current injection and spreading from the metal electrode to p-(Al)GaN layer via AlN TCE is also investigated by analyzing the p-(Al)GaN surface before and after EBD.

  4. The effectiveness of riboflavin and ultraviolet light pathogen reduction technology in eliminating Trypanosoma cruzi from leukoreduced whole blood.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Alcover, M Magdalena; Riera, Cristina; Fisa, Roser

    2017-06-01

    The parasitic Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. Other infection routes, both in endemic and in nonendemic areas, include organ and marrow transplantation, congenital transmission, and blood transfusion. Asymptomatic chronic chagasic individuals may have a low and transient parasitemia in peripheral blood and, consequently, they can unknowingly transmit the disease via blood transfusion. Riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light pathogen reduction is a method to reduce pathogen transfusion transmission risk based on damage to the pathogen nucleic acids. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of this technology for the elimination of T. cruzi parasites in artificially contaminated whole blood units (WBUs) and thus for decreasing the risk of T. cruzi transfusion transmission. The contaminated WBUs were leukoreduced by filtration and treated with riboflavin and UV light. The level of pathogen reduction was quantified by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a viability assay. The RNA (cDNA) quantification of the parasites showed a more than 99% reduction of viable T. cruzi parasites after leukoreduction and a complete reduction (100%) after the riboflavin and UV light treatment. Riboflavin and UV light treatment and leukoreduction used in conjunction appears to eliminate significant amounts of viable T. cruzi in whole blood. Both strategies could complement other blood bank measures already implemented to prevent the transmission of T. cruzi via blood transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Self-monitoring of water quality in sewer systems using absorbance of ultraviolet and visible light.

    PubMed

    Ruban, G; Ruperd, Y; Laveau, B; Lucas, E

    2001-01-01

    Continuous pollution measurement is interesting to optimize the operation of sanitary facilities as well as to minimize the stormwater discharges. An experimental study was carried out for the determination of Suspended Solids (SS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations in combined sewers using ultraviolet and visible absorbances. The maintenance of the measurement system requires six hours a month for the cleaning of the hydraulic feeding system and adjustment of the optical device. The feeding system developed increased the representativeness and reliability of the pollution measurement, but needs to be validated on other measurement sites. The determination of SS concentrations from visible absorbances requires 2 calibration curves for dry and rainy weather respectively. The corresponding accuracies appear satisfactory when compared with the results of standard sampling/laboratory analysis. The accuracy of COD determination from ultraviolet absorbance is less satisfactory, but could perhaps be improved taking into account another parameter. Then the optical measurement of SS and COD is interesting to determine average or long term pollution loads, for example the yearly impact of urban stormwater discharges. With this kind of continuous and on-line measurement, it is possible to react with short delay to unexpected phenomena which could damage the environment or water treatment efficiency.

  6. Optimizing laser produced plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Photon sources produced by laser beams with moderate laser intensities, up to 1014 W/cm2, are being developed for many industrial applications. The performance requirements for high volume manufacture devices necessitate extensive experimental research supported by theoretical plasma analysis and modeling predictions. We simulated laser produced plasma sources currently being developed for several applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography using 13.5% ± 1% nm bandwidth, possibly beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography using 6.× nm wavelengths, and water-window microscopy utilizing 2.48 nm (La-α) and 2.88 nm (He-α) emission. We comprehensively modeled plasma evolution from solid/liquid tin, gadolinium, and nitrogen targets as three promising materials for the above described sources, respectively. Results of our analysis for plasma characteristics during the entire course of plasma evolution showed the dependence of source conversion efficiency (CE), i.e., laser energy to photons at the desired wavelength, on plasma electron density gradient. Our results showed that utilizing laser intensities which produce hotter plasma than the optimum emission temperatures allows increasing CE for all considered sources that, however, restricted by the reabsorption processes around the main emission region and this restriction is especially actual for the 6.× nm sources.

  7. Measuring User Compliance and Cost Effectiveness of Safe Drinking Water Programs: A Cluster-Randomized Study of Household Ultraviolet Disinfection in Rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reygadas, Fermín; Gruber, Joshua S; Dreizler, Lindsay; Nelson, Kara L; Ray, Isha

    2018-03-01

    Low adoption and compliance levels for household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) technologies have made it challenging for these systems to achieve measurable health benefits in the developing world. User compliance remains an inconsistently defined and poorly understood feature of HWTS programs. In this article, we develop a comprehensive approach to understanding HWTS compliance. First, our Safe Drinking Water Compliance Framework disaggregates and measures the components of compliance from initial adoption of the HWTS to exclusive consumption of treated water. We apply this framework to an ultraviolet (UV)-based safe water system in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Mexico. Second, we evaluate a no-frills (or "Basic") variant of the program as well as an improved (or "Enhanced") variant, to test if subtle changes in the user interface of HWTS programs could improve compliance. Finally, we perform a full-cost analysis of both variants to assess their cost effectiveness (CE) in achieving compliance. We define "compliance" strictly as the habit of consuming safe water. We find that compliance was significantly higher in the groups where the UV program variants were rolled out than in the control groups. The Enhanced variant performed better immediately postintervention than the Basic, but compliance (and thus CE) degraded with time such that no effective difference remained between the two versions of the program.

  8. Effect of ultraviolet light on fatigue of lead zirconate titanate thin-film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Esayan, S.; Safari, A.; Ramesh, R.

    1994-07-01

    Fatigue of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin-film capacitors was studied under UV light (He-Cd laser, λ=325 nm). The remanent polarization of the PZT film capacitors increased upon light illumination. Fatigue resistance was also improved under UV light. During fatigue test, the change in polarization of PZT films upon UV light illumination increased gradually with cycling. These results were examined within the framework of the polarization screening model, which is suggested as an essential process for fatigue. This leads to a conclusion that more charged defects are involved in the fatigue process through internal screening of polarization.

  9. Simultaneously Enhancing Light Emission and Suppressing Efficiency Droop in GaN Microwire-Based Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by the Piezo-Phototronic Effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingfu; Peng, Wenbo; Yu, Ruomeng; Zou, Haiyang; Dai, Yejing; Zi, Yunlong; Wu, Changsheng; Li, Shuti; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-14

    Achievement of p-n homojuncted GaN enables the birth of III-nitride light emitters. Owing to the wurtzite-structure of GaN, piezoelectric polarization charges present at the interface can effectively control/tune the optoelectric behaviors of local charge-carriers (i.e., the piezo-phototronic effect). Here, we demonstrate the significantly enhanced light-output efficiency and suppressed efficiency droop in GaN microwire (MW)-based p-n junction ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) by the piezo-phototronic effect. By applying a -0.12% static compressive strain perpendicular to the p-n junction interface, the relative external quantum efficiency of the LED is enhanced by over 600%. Furthermore, efficiency droop is markedly reduced from 46.6% to 7.5% and corresponding droop onset current density shifts from 10 to 26.7 A cm -2 . Enhanced electrons confinement and improved holes injection efficiency by the piezo-phototronic effect are revealed and theoretically confirmed as the physical mechanisms. This study offers an unconventional path to develop high efficiency, strong brightness and high power III-nitride light sources.

  10. Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffuse attenuation of solar light (Kd, m−1) determines the percentage of light penetrating the water column and available for benthic organisms. Therefore, Kd can be used as an index of water quality for coastal ecosystems that are dependent on photosynthesis, such as the coral ...

  11. Near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with transparent conducting layer of gold-doped multi-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chu-Young; Choe, Minhyeok; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Takhee; Lim, Wantae; Kim, Sung-Tae; Park, Seong-Ju

    2013-03-01

    We report on gold (Au)-doped multi-layer graphene (MLG), which can be used as a transparent conducting layer in near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs). The optical output power of NUV-LEDs with thermally annealed Au-doped MLG was increased by 34% compared with that of NUV-LEDs with a bare MLG. This result is attributed to the reduced sheet resistance and the enhanced current injection efficiency of NUV-LEDs by the thermally annealed Au-doped MLG film, which shows high transmittance in NUV and UV regions and good adhesion of Au-doped MLG on p-GaN layer of NUV-LEDs.

  12. Enhanced Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes by p-GaN Micro-Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Ke-Xiong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Song, Shi-Wei; Yang, De-Chao; Shen, Ren-Sheng; Liu, Yang; Xia, Xiao-Chuan; Luo, Ying-Min; Du, Guo-Tong

    2014-02-01

    Near-ultraviolet (UV) InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The scanning electronic microscope image shows that the p-GaN micro-rods are formed above the interface of p-AlGaN/p-GaN due to the rapid growth rate of p-GaN in the vertical direction. The p-GaN micro-rods greatly increase the escape probability of photons inside the LED structure. Electroluminescence intensities of the 372 nm UV LED lamps with p-GaN micro rods are 88% higher than those of the flat surface LED samples.

  13. High efficiency single Ag nanowire/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Xu, P.

    2015-02-02

    We report a high efficiency single Ag nanowire (NW)/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED). The device demonstrates deep UV free exciton electroluminescence at 362.5 nm. The dominant emission, detectable at ultralow (<1 μA) forward current, does not exhibit any shifts when the forward current is increased. External quantum efficiency (EQE) as high as 0.9% is achieved at 25 μA current at room temperature. Experiments and simulation analysis show that devices fabricated with thinner Ag NWs have higher EQE. However, for very thin Ag NWs (diameter < 250 nm), this trend breaks down due to heat accumulation in the NWs. Our simple device architecturemore » offers a potentially cost-effective scheme to fabricate high efficiency Schottky junction-based UV-LEDs.« less

  14. A fiber optic, ultraviolet light-emitting diode-based, two wavelength fluorometer for monitoring reactive adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Granz, Christopher D.; Whitten, James E., E-mail: James-Whitten@uml.edu; Schindler, Bryan J.

    Construction and use of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode-based fluorometer for measuring photoluminescence (PL) from powder samples with a fiber optic probe is described. Fluorescence at two wavelengths is detected by miniature photomultiplier tubes, each equipped with a different band pass filter, whose outputs are analyzed by a microprocessor. Photoluminescent metal oxides and hydroxides, and other semiconducting nanoparticles, often undergo changes in their emission spectra upon exposure to reactive gases, and the ratio of the PL intensities at two wavelengths is diagnostic of adsorption. Use of this instrument for reactive gas sensing and gas filtration applications is illustrated by measuring changesmore » in the PL ratio for zirconium hydroxide and zinc oxide particles upon exposure to air containing low concentrations of sulfur dioxide.« less

  15. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervin, Shahab; Oh, Seung Kyu; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jeomoh; Pouladi, Sara; Lee, Sung-Nam; Li, Xiaohang; Kwak, Joon Seop; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    We report a new route to improve quantum efficiencies of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent with concave curvatures. Furthermore, an efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  16. The role of commercial tanning beds and ultraviolet A light in the treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Su, Johanna; Pearce, Daniel J; Feldman, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    Phototherapy is an effective, safe psoriasis treatment administered via office-based units or home devices. There is controversy over the use of commercial tanning beds; ultraviolet B (UVB) has documented efficacy although commercial beds emit largely UVA. To determine the efficacy of UVA and the role of commercial tanning beds in treating psoriasis. A literature search of UVA and commercial tanning was performed. UVA can be effective for psoriasis, but achieving the high doses required may not be practical. Tanning beds do emit UVB although amounts are variable. Because of variability in UVA and UVB output in different tanning bulbs, it is difficult to predict response rates using commercial tanning beds. UVA can be used to treat psoriasis but may not be practical. Commercial tanning beds, emitting both UVA and UVB, have a role in treating psoriasis as an alternative to office-based therapy.

  17. Construction, alignment, and implementation of an acousto-optical deflector-based system for patterned uncaging with ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Civillico, Eugene F; Shoham, Shy; O'Connor, Daniel H; Sarkisov, Dmitry V; Wang, Samuel S-H

    2012-08-01

    The method of patterned photoactivation is a natural fit for the study of neuronal dendritic integration. Photoactivatable molecules that influence a wide range of extracellular and intracellular neurophysiological functions are available. The choice of photosensitive molecules depends on the research question and will influence the design of the experimental apparatus. An acousto-optical deflector (AOD)-based system can be used for rapid ultraviolet (UV) photolysis in arbitrary spatial and temporal patterns. Photolysis-activated "caged" diffusible molecules or newer light-sensitive membrane proteins can be used in this system. This protocol describes the addition of a UV beam for uncaging to a homebuilt two-photon microscope. The goal is to get UV light from the light source (laser) to the approximate center of the objective's back aperture, passing through a pair of perpendicularly oriented AODs along the way. The protocol also describes the fine alignment of the UV beam and the implementation of AOD-based beam steering. Performing the final alignment with the beam passing through the AODs will ensure that the system is optimized for the idiosyncrasies of the crystals.

  18. Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuewei; Jamal-Eddine, Zane; Akyol, Fatih; Bajaj, Sanyam; Johnson, Jared M.; Calderon, Gabriel; Allerman, Andrew A.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Hwang, Jinwoo; Rajan, Siddharth

    2018-02-01

    We report on the high efficiency tunnel-injected ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) emitting at 287 nm. Deep UV LED performance has been limited by the severe internal light absorption in the p-type contact layers and low electrical injection efficiency due to poor p-type conduction. In this work, a polarization engineered Al0.65Ga0.35N/In0.2Ga0.8N tunnel junction layer is adopted for non-equilibrium hole injection to replace the conventionally used direct p-type contact. A reverse-graded AlGaN contact layer is further introduced to realize a low resistance contact to the top n-AlGaN layer. This led to the demonstration of a low tunnel junction resistance of 1.9 × 10-3 Ω cm2 obtained at 1 kA/cm2. Light emission at 287 nm with an on-wafer peak external quantum efficiency of 2.8% and a wall-plug efficiency of 1.1% was achieved. The measured power density at 1 kA/cm2 was 54.4 W/cm2, confirming the efficient hole injection through interband tunneling. With the benefits of the minimized internal absorption and efficient hole injection, a tunnel-injected UV LED structure could enable future high efficiency UV emitters.

  19. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission.

  20. Single-layer graphene/titanium oxide cubic nanorods array/FTO heterojunction for sensitive ultraviolet light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Feng-Xia; Wang, Jiu-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Lin, Yi; Liang, Lin; Gao, Yang; Luo, Lin-Bao

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report on the fabrication of a sensitive ultraviolet photodetector (UVPD) by simply transferring single-layer graphene (SLG) on rutile titanium oxide cubic nanorod (TiO2NRs) array. The cubic TiO2NRs array with strong light trapping effect was grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass through a hydrothermal approach. The as-assembled UVPD was very sensitive to UV light illumination, but virtually blind to white light illumination. The responsivity and specific detectivity were estimated to be 52.1 A/W and 4.3 × 1012 Jones, respectively. What is more, in order to optimize device performance of UVPD, a wet-chemistry treatment was then employed to reduce the high concentration of defects in TiO2NRs during hydrothermal growth. It was found that the UVPD after treatment showed obvious decrease in sensitivity, but the response speed (rise time: 80 ms, fall time: 160 ms) and specific detectivity were substantially increased. It is also found that the speicific detectivity was imporoved by six-fold to 3.2 × 1013 Jones, which was the best result in comparison with previously reported TiO2 nanostructures or thin film based UVPDs. This totality of this study shows that the present SLG/TiO2NR/FTO UVPD may find potential application in future optoelectronic devices and systems.

  1. 234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Ooi, Yu Kee; Islam, S. M.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) AlN-delta-GaN quantum well (QW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission wavelengths of 234 nm and 246 nm are proposed and demonstrated in this work. Our results reveal that the use of AlN-delta-GaN QW with ˜1-3 monolayer GaN delta-layer can achieve a large transverse electric (TE)-polarized spontaneous emission rate instead of transverse magnetic-polarized emission, contrary to what is observed in conventional AlGaN QW in the 230-250 nm wavelength regime. The switching of light polarization in the proposed AlN-delta-GaN QW active region is attributed to the rearrangement of the valence subbands near the Γ-point. The light radiation patterns obtained from angle-dependent electroluminescence measurements for the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-grown 234 nm and 246 nm AlN-delta-GaN QW LEDs show that the photons are mainly emitted towards the surface rather than the edge, consistent with the simulated patterns achieved by the finite-difference time-domain modeling. The results demonstrate that the proposed AlN-delta-GaN QWs would potentially lead to high-efficiency TE-polarized surface-emitting DUV LEDs.

  2. Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul M.; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Johnson, Jessica A.; Todd, Christopher M.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread bat fatalities at industrial wind turbines are a conservation issue with the potential to inhibit efficient use of an abundant source of energy. Bat fatalities can be reduced by altering turbine operations, but such curtailment decreases turbine efficiency. If additional ways of reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines were available such tradeoffs might not be needed. Based on the facts that bats perceive distant objects primarily through vision and can see in very dim lighting conditions, and the possibility that bats might interact with turbines after approaching them as they would trees, we propose a novel method of reducing bat activity at wind turbines: illumination of the structure with dim light. As a first step toward assessing this approach, we illuminated trees with dim flickering ultraviolet (UV) light in areas frequented by Hawaiian hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus semotus, an endangered subspecies affected by wind turbines. We used a repeated-measures design to quantify bat activity near trees with acoustic detectors and thermal video cameras in the presence and absence of UV illumination, while concurrently monitoring insect numbers. Results indicate that dim UV reduces bat activity despite an increase in insect numbers. Experimental treatment did not completely inhibit bat activity near trees, nor did all measures of bat activity show statistically significant differences due to high variance in bat activity among sites. However, the observed decreases in bat activity with dim UV illumination justify further testing of this method as a means to reduce bat fatalities at wind turbines.

  3. Effects of shock waves, ultraviolet light, and electric fields from pulsed discharges in water on inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Xin, Yanbin; Zhu, Xiaomei; Gao, Zhiying; Yan, Zhiyu; Ohshima, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the bacterial inactivation effects of shock waves, ultraviolet (UV) light, and electric field produced by high-voltage pulsed discharge in liquid with needle-plate configurations were studied. The contributions of each effect on the bacterial killing ratio in the discharge process were obtained individually by modifying reactor type and usage of glass, quartz, and black balloons. The results showed that the location from the discharge center axis significantly influenced the effects of shock waves and electric fields, although the effect of UV light was not affected by the location in the reactor. The effects of shock waves and electric fields were improved by decreasing the distance from the discharge center axis. Under this experimental condition, the effects of shock waves, UV light, and electric fields produced by discharges on bacterial inactivation were approximately 36.1%, 30.8%, 12.7%, respectively. Other contributions seemed to be due to activated species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Two pathogen reduction technologies--methylene blue plus light and shortwave ultraviolet light--effectively inactivate hepatitis C virus in blood products.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Eike; Gravemann, Ute; Friesland, Martina; Doerrbecker, Juliane; Müller, Thomas H; Pietschmann, Thomas; Seltsam, Axel

    2013-05-01

    Contamination of blood products with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause infections resulting in acute and chronic liver diseases. Pathogen reduction methods such as photodynamic treatment with methylene blue (MB) plus visible light as well as irradiation with shortwave ultraviolet (UVC) light were developed to inactivate viruses and other pathogens in plasma and platelet concentrates (PCs), respectively. So far, their inactivation capacities for HCV have only been tested in inactivation studies using model viruses for HCV. Recently, a HCV infection system for the propagation of infectious HCV in cell culture was developed. Inactivation studies were performed with cell culture-derived HCV and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a model for HCV. Plasma units or PCs were spiked with high titers of cell culture-grown viruses. After treatment of the blood units with MB plus light (Theraflex MB-Plasma system, MacoPharma) or UVC (Theraflex UV-Platelets system, MacoPharma), residual viral infectivity was assessed using sensitive cell culture systems. HCV was sensitive to inactivation by both pathogen reduction procedures. HCV in plasma was efficiently inactivated by MB plus light below the detection limit already by 1/12 of the full light dose. HCV in PCs was inactivated by UVC irradiation with a reduction factor of more than 5 log. BVDV was less sensitive to the two pathogen reduction methods. Functional assays with human HCV offer an efficient tool to directly assess the inactivation capacity of pathogen reduction procedures. Pathogen reduction technologies such as MB plus light treatment and UVC irradiation have the potential to significantly reduce transfusion-transmitted HCV infections. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Efficacy of on-farm use of ultraviolet light for inactivation of bacteria in milk for calves.

    PubMed

    Gelsinger, S L; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Van Saun, R J; Wolfgang, D R; Burns, C M; Lysczek, H R

    2014-05-01

    Ultraviolet light is being employed for bacterial inactivation in milk for calves; however, limited evidence is available to support the claim that UV light effectively inactivates bacteria found in milk. Thus, the objective of this observational study was to investigate the efficacy of on-farm UV light treatment in reducing bacteria populations in waste milk used for feeding calves. Samples of nonsaleable milk were collected from 9 Pennsylvania herds, twice daily for 15 d, both before and after UV light treatment (n=60 samples per farm), and analyzed for standard plate count, coliforms, noncoliform, gram-negative bacteria, environmental and contagious streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus count, and total solids percentage, and log reduction and percentage log reduction were calculated. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure in SAS. In all bacteria types, samples collected after UV treatment contained significantly fewer bacteria compared with samples collected before UV treatment. Weighted least squares means for log reduction (percentage log reduction) were 1.34 (29%), 1.27 (58%), 1.48 (53%), 1.85 (55%), 1.37 (72%), 1.92 (63%), 1.07 (33%), and 1.67 (82%) for standard plate count, coliforms, noncoliform, gram-negative bacteria, environmental and contagious streptococci, Strep. agalactiae, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Staph. aureus, respectively. A percentage log reduction greater than 50% was achieved in 6 of 8 bacteria types, and 43 and 94% of samples collected after UV treatment met recommended bacterial standards for milk for feeding calves. Based on these results, UV light treatment may be effective for some, but not all bacteria types found in nonsaleable waste milk. Thus, farmers should take into account the bacteria types that may need to be reduced when considering the purchase of a UV-treatment system. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  6. A Semitransparent Inorganic Perovskite Film for Overcoming Ultraviolet Light Instability of Organic Solar Cells and Achieving 14.03% Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijie; Zhang, Jingwen; Xu, Guiying; Xue, Rongming; Li, Yaowen; Zhou, Yinhua; Hou, Jianhui; Li, Yongfang

    2018-05-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) can be unstable under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. To address this issue and enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE), an inorganic-perovskite/organic four-terminal tandem solar cell (TSC) based on a semitransparent inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite solar cell (pero-SC) as the top cell and an OSC as bottom cell is constructed. The high-quality CsPbBr 3 photoactive layer of the planar pero-SC is prepared with a dual-source vacuum coevaporation method, using stoichiometric precursors of CsBr and PbBr 2 with a low evaporation rate. The resultant opaque planar pero-SC exhibits an ultrahigh open-circuit voltage of 1.44 V and the highest reported PCE of 7.78% for a CsPbBr 3 -based planar pero-SC. Importantly, the devices show no degradation after 120 h UV light illumination. The related semitransparent pero-SC can almost completely filter UV light and well maintain photovoltaic performance; it additionally shows an extremely high average visible transmittance. When it is used to construct a TSC, the top pero-SC acting as a UV filter can utilize UV light for photoelectric conversion, avoiding the instability problem of UV light on the bottom OSC that can meet the industrial standards of UV-light stability for solar cells, and leading to the highest reported PCE of 14.03% for the inorganic-perovskite/organic TSC. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Differential Sensitivity of Fruit Pigmentation to Ultraviolet Light between Two Peach Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun; Dong, Weiqi; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Bo; Allan, Andrew C.; Lin-Wang, Kui; Chen, Kunsong; Xu, Changjie

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins provide nutritional benefits and are responsible for red coloration in many fruits. Light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach (Prunus persica). However, some cultivars show differential sensitivity to light. In the present study, ‘Hujingmilu (HJ),’ a naturally deeply colored cultivar, and ‘Yulu (YL),’ showing low pigmentation, were used to study the mechanism underlying UV-light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Both UVA and UVB induced fruit pigmentation of ‘HJ,’ but ‘YL’ was only sensitive to UVB. Transcriptomic analyses showed over 5000 genes were differentially expressed by pairwise comparisons of RNA libraries isolated from tissue of each cultivar treated with darkness, UVA and UVB. Twenty-three genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified from the transcriptome data, which were coordinately up-regulated during accumulation of anthocyanins, and down-regulated in the dark. Altered expression of several light receptors, as well as CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC10 (COP10) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 homolog (HYH), and a specific anthocyanin transporter glutathione S-transferase (GST), in ‘YL’ fruit appears to be responsible for the insensitivity to UVA of this cultivar. Expression profiles of several transcription factors of the families MYB, bHLH, bZIP and NAC were highly correlated with those of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The study provides a valuable overview of the underlying molecular mechanisms of UV-light induced anthocyanin response using peach cultivars with differing light sensitivities. PMID:28943881

  8. Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Simon, R R; Borzelleca, J F; DeLuca, H F; Weaver, C M

    2013-06-01

    Wild mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin D. The presence of vitamin D in mushrooms is attributed to sunlight exposure, which catalyzes the conversion of fungal ergosterol to vitamin D2 via a series of photochemical/thermal reactions. Mushroom growers now incorporate UV light treatments during processing to produce mushrooms with levels of vitamin D that compare to those in wild mushrooms. Presented herein is a comprehensive review of information relevant to the safety of introducing vitamin D mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, to the food supply. Historical reference to the use of UV light for production of vitamin D is discussed, and studies evaluating the nutritional value and safety of vitamin D mushrooms are reviewed. Traditional safety evaluation practices for food additives are not applicable to whole foods; therefore, the application of substantial equivalence and history-of-safe-use is presented. It was demonstrated that vitamin D in mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, are equivalent to vitamin D in mushrooms exposed to sunlight, and that UV light has a long-history of safe use for production of vitamin D in food. Vitamin D mushrooms produced using UV light technologies were therefore considered safe and suitable for introduction to the marketplace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Far-infrared-light shadowgraphy for high extraction efficiency of extreme ultraviolet light from a CO2-laser-generated tin plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukuma, Hiraku; Hosoda, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yosuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Kodama, Takeshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    The two-color, double-pulse method is an efficient scheme to generate extreme ultraviolet light for fabricating the next generation semiconductor microchips. In this method, a Nd:YAG laser pulse is used to expand a several-tens-of-micrometers-scale tin droplet, and a CO2 laser pulse is subsequently directed at the expanded tin vapor after an appropriate delay time. We propose the use of shadowgraphy with a CO2 laser probe-pulse scheme to optimize the CO2 main-drive laser. The distribution of absorption coefficients is derived from the experiment, and the results are converted to a practical absorption rate for the CO2 main-drive laser.

  10. Inactivation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in ground chicken meat using high pressure processing and gamma radiation, and in purge and chicken meat surfaces by ultraviolet light

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are common contaminants in meat and poultry. Nonthermal food safety intervention technologies used to improve safety and shelf-life of both human and pet foods can include high pressure processing (HPP), ionizing (gamma) radiation (GR), and ultraviolet light (UV...

  11. Effects of combination of ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, native microbial loads, and quality of button mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are prone to microbial spoilage and browning during growing and processing. Ultraviolet light (UV-C) has been used as an alternative technology to chemical sanitizers for food products. Hydrogen peroxide is classified as generally recognized as safe for use in foods as a bleaching and ant...

  12. Visible light neutralizes the effect produced by ultraviolet radiation in proteins.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, J Horacio; Mercado-Uribe, Hilda

    2017-02-01

    The damage produced by UV-C radiation (100-280nm) in organisms and cells is a well known fact. The main reactions of proteins to UV-C radiation consist in the alteration of their secondary structures, exposure of hydrophobic residues, unfolding and aggregation. Furthermore, it has been found that electromagnetic radiation of lower energy (visible light, where wavelengths are between 400 and 750nm) also induces different disturbances in biomolecules. For instance, it has been observed that blue visible light from emitting diodes (LEDs) produces severe damage in murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells, and it can be even more harmful for some organisms than UV radiation. Recently, it has been found that the exposure of proteins to green and red light produces conformational changes, considerably increasing their cohesion enthalpies. This is presumably due to the strengthening of the hydrogen bonds and the formation of new ones. Therefore, it seems that visible light acts contrary to what it is observed for UV-C: instead of unfolding the proteins it folds them further, halting the damage produced by UV-C. This can be understood if we consider the modification of the folding energy-landscape; visible light induces the descent of the proteins into deeper states impeding the unfolding produced by UV-C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural properties of Al/Mo/SiC multilayers with high reflectivity for extreme ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min-Hui; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe; Meltchakov, Evgueni; Delmotte, Franck; Galtayries, Anouk

    2010-09-13

    We present the results of an optical and chemical, depth and surface study of Al/Mo/SiC periodic multilayers, designed as high reflectivity coatings for the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) range. In comparison to the previously studied Al/SiC system, the introduction of Mo as a third material in the multilayer structure allows us to decrease In comparison to the previously studied Al/SiC system with a reflectance of 37% at near normal incidence around 17 nm, the introduction of Mo as a third material in the multilayer structure allows us to decrease the interfacial roughness and achieve an EUV reflectivity of 53.4%, measured with synchrotron radiation. This is the first report of a reflectivity higher than 50% around 17 nm. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements are performed on the Al/Mo/SiC system in order to analyze the individual layers within the stack. ToF-SIMS and XPS results give evidence that the first SiC layer is partially oxidized, but the O atoms do not reach the first Mo and Al layers. We use these results to properly describe the multilayer stack and discuss the possible reasons for the difference between the measured and simulated EUV reflectivity values.

  14. Computational On-Chip Imaging of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules using Ultraviolet Light.

    PubMed

    Daloglu, Mustafa Ugur; Ray, Aniruddha; Gorocs, Zoltan; Xiong, Matthew; Malik, Ravinder; Bitan, Gal; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-09

    Significant progress in characterization of nanoparticles and biomolecules was enabled by the development of advanced imaging equipment with extreme spatial-resolution and sensitivity. To perform some of these analyses outside of well-resourced laboratories, it is necessary to create robust and cost-effective alternatives to existing high-end laboratory-bound imaging and sensing equipment. Towards this aim, we have designed a holographic on-chip microscope operating at an ultraviolet illumination wavelength (UV) of 266 nm. The increased forward scattering from nanoscale objects at this short wavelength has enabled us to detect individual sub-30 nm nanoparticles over a large field-of-view of >16 mm 2 using an on-chip imaging platform, where the sample is placed at ≤0.5 mm away from the active area of an opto-electronic sensor-array, without any lenses in between. The strong absorption of this UV wavelength by biomolecules including nucleic acids and proteins has further enabled high-contrast imaging of nanoscopic aggregates of biomolecules, e.g., of enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, abnormal aggregation of which is linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - a fatal neurodegenerative disease. This UV-based wide-field computational imaging platform could be valuable for numerous applications in biomedical sciences and environmental monitoring, including disease diagnostics, viral load measurements as well as air- and water-quality assessment.

  15. A novel CD4-conjugated ultraviolet light-activated photocatalyst inactivates HIV-1 and SIV efficiently.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koushi; Sugiyama, Takahiro; Kato, Shinji; Kondo, Yoichi; Ageyama, Naohide; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Iwata, Misao; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we found that the electric potential derived from the redox reaction of ultraviolet (UV)-illuminated CD4-conjugated titanium dioxide (TiO2) inactivated a wide range of high-titered primary HIV-1 isolates, regardless of virus co-receptor usage or genetic clade. In vitro incubation of HIV-1 isolates with CD4-conjugated TiO2 (CD4-TiO2) followed by UV illumination led to inhibition of viral infectivity in both H9 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as to the complete inactivation of plasma virions from HIV-1-infected individuals. Treatment with a newly established extra-corporeal circulation system with the photocatalyst in rhesus macaques completely inactivated plasma virus in the system and effectively reduced the infectious plasma viral load. Furthermore, plasma viremia and infectious viral loads were controlled following a second therapeutic photocatalyst treatment during primary SIV(mac239) infection of macaques. Our findings suggest that this therapeutic immunophysical strategy may help control human immunodeficiency viral infection in vivo.

  16. Computational On-Chip Imaging of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules using Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daloglu, Mustafa Ugur; Ray, Aniruddha; Gorocs, Zoltan; Xiong, Matthew; Malik, Ravinder; Bitan, Gal; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Significant progress in characterization of nanoparticles and biomolecules was enabled by the development of advanced imaging equipment with extreme spatial-resolution and sensitivity. To perform some of these analyses outside of well-resourced laboratories, it is necessary to create robust and cost-effective alternatives to existing high-end laboratory-bound imaging and sensing equipment. Towards this aim, we have designed a holographic on-chip microscope operating at an ultraviolet illumination wavelength (UV) of 266 nm. The increased forward scattering from nanoscale objects at this short wavelength has enabled us to detect individual sub-30 nm nanoparticles over a large field-of-view of >16 mm2 using an on-chip imaging platform, where the sample is placed at ≤0.5 mm away from the active area of an opto-electronic sensor-array, without any lenses in between. The strong absorption of this UV wavelength by biomolecules including nucleic acids and proteins has further enabled high-contrast imaging of nanoscopic aggregates of biomolecules, e.g., of enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, abnormal aggregation of which is linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - a fatal neurodegenerative disease. This UV-based wide-field computational imaging platform could be valuable for numerous applications in biomedical sciences and environmental monitoring, including disease diagnostics, viral load measurements as well as air- and water-quality assessment.

  17. Solid state direct bonding of polymers by vacuum ultraviolet light below 160 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Takatoki

    2017-10-01

    This work investigated the application of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to the bonding of various substrates, including glass, polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin polymer (COP), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). This method has the advantage of being able to bond various substrates without the application of heat or adhesives, and therefore may be very useful in the fabrication of micro/nanoscale structures composed of polymers. In contrast to previous applications of this technique, the present study used VUV radiation at wavelengths at and below 160 nm so as to take advantage of the higher energy in this range. Bonding was assessed based on measuring the shear stress of various test specimens subjected to VUV irradiation and then pressed together, and a number of analytical methods were also employed to examine the irradiated surfaces in order to elucidate the morphological and chemical changes following VUV treatment. These analyses included water contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Poor bonding was identified between combinations consisting of PMMA/PC, PMMA/COP, PMMA/PMMA, PMMA/glass, and PC/COP, whereas all other combinations resulted in successful bonding with the bonding stress values such as PC/PC = 2.0 MPa, PC/glass = 10.7 MPa and COP/COP = 1.7 MPa, respectively.

  18. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S. M.; Wahbee, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Materials and Methods: Comfrey extracts (1% w/v) were prepared using distilled water, ethanol, and methanol. They were exposed to wavelengths of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C for 10 min. The principal peak on the UV-spectroscopy scanning, the flavonoids, reducing power, and the allantoin levels were determined before and after irradiation. Results: UV irradiation reduces the magnitude of the principle peak at 355 nm wavelength of the aqueous infusion and methanol extracts. It improves the levels of flavonoids and reducing power of the aqueous extracts and increases the levels of allanotoin in aqueous and methanol extracts. Conclusions: UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient of comfrey extracted with methanol, whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power, and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols. PMID:28894626

  19. Light Pollution in Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrum: Effect on Different Visual Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    In general terms, lighting research has been focused in the development of artificial light with the purpose of saving energy and having more durable lamps. However, the consequences that artificial night lighting could bring to the human being and living organisms have become an important issue recently. Light pollution represents a significant problem to both the environment and human health causing a disruption of biological rhythms related not only to the visible spectrum, but also to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the lamps emit across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, all photobiological species may be exposed to another type of light pollution. By comparing five different lamps, the present study attempts to evaluate UV radiative fluxes relative to what humans and two species of insects perceive as sky glow level. We have analyzed three atmospheric situations: clear sky, overcast sky and evolving precipitable water content. One important finding suggests that when a constant illuminance of urban spaces has to be guaranteed the sky glow from the low pressure sodium lamps has the most significant effect to the visual perception of the insects tested. But having the fixed number of luminaires the situation changes and the low pressure sodium lamp would be the best choice for all three species. The sky glow effects can be interpreted correctly only if the lamp types and the required amount of scotopic luxes at the ground are taken into account simultaneously. If these two factors are combined properly, then the ecological consequences of sky glow can be partly reduced. The results of this research may be equally useful for lighting engineers, architects, biologists and researchers who are studying the effects of sky glow on humans and biodiversity. PMID:23441205

  20. Light pollution in ultraviolet and visible spectrum: effect on different visual perceptions.

    PubMed

    Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    In general terms, lighting research has been focused in the development of artificial light with the purpose of saving energy and having more durable lamps. However, the consequences that artificial night lighting could bring to the human being and living organisms have become an important issue recently. Light pollution represents a significant problem to both the environment and human health causing a disruption of biological rhythms related not only to the visible spectrum, but also to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the lamps emit across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, all photobiological species may be exposed to another type of light pollution. By comparing five different lamps, the present study attempts to evaluate UV radiative fluxes relative to what humans and two species of insects perceive as sky glow level. We have analyzed three atmospheric situations: clear sky, overcast sky and evolving precipitable water content. One important finding suggests that when a constant illuminance of urban spaces has to be guaranteed the sky glow from the low pressure sodium lamps has the most significant effect to the visual perception of the insects tested. But having the fixed number of luminaires the situation changes and the low pressure sodium lamp would be the best choice for all three species. The sky glow effects can be interpreted correctly only if the lamp types and the required amount of scotopic luxes at the ground are taken into account simultaneously. If these two factors are combined properly, then the ecological consequences of sky glow can be partly reduced. The results of this research may be equally useful for lighting engineers, architects, biologists and researchers who are studying the effects of sky glow on humans and biodiversity.

  1. Nanometer-scale ablation using focused, coherent extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray light

    DOEpatents

    Menoni, Carmen S [Fort Collins, CO; Rocca, Jorge J [Fort Collins, CO; Vaschenko, Georgiy [San Diego, CA; Bloom, Scott [Encinitas, CA; Anderson, Erik H [El Cerrito, CA; Chao, Weilun [El Cerrito, CA; Hemberg, Oscar [Stockholm, SE

    2011-04-26

    Ablation of holes having diameters as small as 82 nm and having clean walls was obtained in a poly(methyl methacrylate) on a silicon substrate by focusing pulses from a Ne-like Ar, 46.9 nm wavelength, capillary-discharge laser using a freestanding Fresnel zone plate diffracting into third order is described. Spectroscopic analysis of light from the ablation has also been performed. These results demonstrate the use of focused coherent EUV/SXR light for the direct nanoscale patterning of materials.

  2. Clinical studies of the High-Intensity Narrow-Spectrum light Environmental Decontamination System (HINS-light EDS), for continuous disinfection in the burn unit inpatient and outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Bache, Sarah E; Maclean, Michelle; MacGregor, Scott J; Anderson, John G; Gettinby, George; Coia, John E; Taggart, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients and prevention of contamination from exogenous sources including the hospital environment is becoming increasingly emphasised. The High-Intensity Narrow-Spectrum light Environmental Decontamination System (HINS-light EDS) is bactericidal yet safe for humans, allowing continuous disinfection of the environment surrounding burn patients. Environmental samples were collected from inpatient isolation rooms and the outpatient clinic in the burn unit, and comparisons were then made between the bacterial contamination levels observed with and without use of the HINS-light EDS. Over 1000 samples were taken. Inpatient studies, with sampling carried out at 0800 h, demonstrated a significant reduction in the average number of bacterial colonies following HINS-light EDS use of between 27% and 75%, (p<0.05). There was more variation when samples were taken at times of increased activity in the room. Outpatient studies during clinics demonstrated a 61% efficacy in the reduction of bacterial contamination on surfaces throughout the room during the course of a clinic (p=0.02). The results demonstrate that use of the HINS-light EDS allows efficacious bacterial reductions over and above that achieved by standard cleaning and infection control measures in both inpatient and outpatient settings in the burn unit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Visualization under ultraviolet light enhances 100-fold the sensitivity of peroxidase-stained blots.

    PubMed

    Domingo, A; Marco, R

    1989-10-01

    As described in this article, visualization and/or photography under uv light of 4-chloro-1-naphthol-developed, peroxidase-marked immunoblots allows an increase in sensitivity of more than 100 times over the apparent staining results observable under normal visible white light. This increase in sensitivity can be obtained with the minimal additional requirement of an uv lamp, with the actual chloronaphthol staining procedure remaining unaltered and thereby allowing the monitoring of specific reactions with much smaller quantities of antigen or antibodies. Substantial shortening of the procedure is another advantage, making it possible to complete in 20 min or even less a procedure usually requiring 3 to 6 h. The phenomenon depends on the uv absorption and the fluorescence quenching properties of the products of the peroxidase reaction. The absorption spectra of the membranes with or without peroxidase products indicate that an intermediate in the peroxidase reaction is responsible for the absorption under uv light. This intermediate accumulates under conditions where the final product absorbing in the visible light has not begun to be produced, thus explaining the large increase in sensitivity. The behaviors of three types of membranes, nitrocellulose, nylon, and Immobilon (PVDF), are compared. Due to its lower uv absorption, PVDF gives by far the best results, followed by nitrocellulose.

  4. The role of graphene formed on silver nanowire transparent conductive electrode in ultra-violet light emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Seula; Min, Kyung Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Min; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Myung Jong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a highly reliable transparent conductive electrode (TCE) that integrates silver nanowires (AgNWs) and high-quality graphene as a protecting layer. Graphene with minimized defects and large graphene domains has been successfully obtained through a facile two-step growth approach. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) were fabricated with AgNWs or hybrid electrodes where AgNWs were combined with two-step grown graphene (A-2GE) or conventional one-step grown graphene (A-1GE). The device performance and reliability of the UV-LEDs with three different electrodes were compared. The A-2GE offered high figure of merit owing to the excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance. As a consequence, the UV-LEDs made with A-2GE demonstrated reduced forward voltage, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) intensity, and alleviated efficiency droop. The effects of joule heating and UV light illumination on the electrode stability were also studied. The present findings prove superior performance of the A-2GE under high current injection and continuous operation of UV LED, compared to other electrodes. From our observation, the A-2GE would be a reliable TCE for high power UV-LEDs. PMID:27387274

  5. Inactivation of carotenoid-producing and albino strains of Neurospora crassa by visible light, blacklight, and ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, P L; Tuveson, R W; Sargent, M L

    1976-01-01

    Suspensions of Neurospora crassa conidia were inactivated by blacklight (BL) radiation (300 to 425 nm) in the absence of exogenous photosensitizing compounds. Carotenoid-containing wild-type conidia were less sensitive to BL radiation than albino conidia, showing a dose enhancement factor (DEF) of 1.2 for dose levels resulting in less than 10% survival. The same strains were about equally sensitive to shortwave ultraviolet (UV) inactivation. The kinetics of BL inactivation are similar to those of photodynamic inactivation by visible light in the presence of a photosensitizing dye (methylene blue). Only limited inactivation by visible light in the absence of exogenous photosensitizers was observed. BL and UV inactivations are probably caused by different mechanisms since wild-type conidia are only slightly more resistant to BL radiation (DEF = 1.2 at 1.0% survival) than are conidia from a UV-sensitive strain (upr-1, uvs-3). The BL-induced lethal lesions are probably no cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers since BL-inactivated Haemophilus influenzae transforming deoxyribonucleic acid is not photoreactivated by N. crassa wild-type enzyme extracts, whereas UV-inactivated transforming deoxyribonucleic acid is photoreactivable with this treatment. PMID:128556

  6. The role of graphene formed on silver nanowire transparent conductive electrode in ultra-violet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Seula; Min, Kyung Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Min; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Myung Jong

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a highly reliable transparent conductive electrode (TCE) that integrates silver nanowires (AgNWs) and high-quality graphene as a protecting layer. Graphene with minimized defects and large graphene domains has been successfully obtained through a facile two-step growth approach. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) were fabricated with AgNWs or hybrid electrodes where AgNWs were combined with two-step grown graphene (A-2GE) or conventional one-step grown graphene (A-1GE). The device performance and reliability of the UV-LEDs with three different electrodes were compared. The A-2GE offered high figure of merit owing to the excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance. As a consequence, the UV-LEDs made with A-2GE demonstrated reduced forward voltage, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) intensity, and alleviated efficiency droop. The effects of joule heating and UV light illumination on the electrode stability were also studied. The present findings prove superior performance of the A-2GE under high current injection and continuous operation of UV LED, compared to other electrodes. From our observation, the A-2GE would be a reliable TCE for high power UV-LEDs.

  7. Whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light: quality assessment of all blood components produced by the buffy coat method.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Peter; Culibrk, Brankica; Karwal, Simrath; Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Bu, Daniel; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Goodrich, Raymond P; Devine, Dana V

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are currently licensed for use with platelet (PLT) and plasma components. Treatment of whole blood (WB) would be of benefit to the blood banking community by saving time and costs compared to individual component treatment. However, no paired, pool-and-split study directly assessing the impact of WB PI on the subsequently produced components has yet been reported. In a "pool-and-split" study, WB either was treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light or was kept untreated as control. The buffy coat (BC) method produced plasma, PLT, and red blood cell (RBC) components. PLT units arising from the untreated WB study arm were treated with riboflavin and UV light on day of production and compared to PLT concentrates (PCs) produced from the treated WB units. A panel of common in vitro variables for the three types of components was used to monitor quality throughout their respective storage periods. PCs derived from the WB PI treatment were of significantly better quality than treated PLT components for most variables. RBCs produced from the WB treatment deteriorated earlier during storage than untreated units. Plasma components showed a 3% to 44% loss in activity for several clotting factors. Treatment of WB with riboflavin and UV before production of components by the BC method shows a negative impact on all three blood components. PLT units produced from PI-treated WB exhibited less damage compared to PLT component treatment. © 2014 AABB.

  8. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I.

    2016-01-14

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage ismore » not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].« less

  9. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Edward I. Cole, Jr.

    2016-01-12

    In this study, laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes(LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increasedmore » leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopyanalysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].« less

  10. Long-term lithium-ion battery performance improvement via ultraviolet light treatment of the graphite anode

    DOE PAGES

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Sheng, Yangping; ...

    2016-01-01

    Effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on dried graphite anodes were investigated in terms of the cycle life of lithium ion batteries. The time variations for the UV treatment were 0 (no treatment), 20, 40, and 60 minutes. UV-light-treated graphite anodes were assembled for cycle life tests in pouch cells with pristine Li 1.02Ni 0.50Mn 0.29Co 0.19O 2 (NMC 532) cathodes. UV treatment for 40 minutes resulted in the highest capacity retention and the lowest resistance after the cycle life testing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements on the graphite anodes showed changes in surface chemistry and wetting aftermore » the UV treatment. XPS also showed increases in solvent products and decreases in salt products on the SEI surface when UV-treated anodes were used. In conclusion, the thickness of the surface films and their compositions on the anodes and cathodes were also estimated using survey scans and snapshots from XPS depth profiles.« less

  11. Low-threshold voltage ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on (Al,Ga)N metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu-Han; Towe, Elias

    2017-12-01

    Al-rich III-nitride-based deep-ultraviolet (UV) (275-320 nm) light-emitting diodes are plagued with a low emission efficiency and high turn-on voltages. We report Al-rich (Al,Ga)N metal-insulator-semiconductor UV light-emitting Schottky diodes with low turn-on voltages of <3 V, which are about half those of typical (Al,Ga)N p-i-n diodes. Our devices use a thin AlN film as the insulator and an n-type Al0.58Ga0.42N film as the semiconductor. To improve the efficiency, we inserted a GaN quantum-well structure between the AlN insulator and the n-type Al x Ga1- x N semiconductor. The benefits of the quantum-well structure include the potential to tune the emission wavelength and the capability to confine carriers for more efficient radiative recombination.

  12. CR-39 (PADC) Reflection and Transmission of Light in the Ultraviolet-Near-Infrared (UV-NIR) Range.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Nathan B J; McLauchlin, Christopher; Dodge, Kenneth; McGarrah, James E; Padalino, Stephen J; McCluskey, Michelle; Sangster, T C; McLean, James G

    2018-04-01

    The spectral reflection (specular and diffuse) and transmission of Columbia Resin 39 (CR-39) were measured for incoherent light with wavelengths in the range of 200-2500 nm. These results will be of use for the optical characterization of CR-39, as well as in investigations of the chemical modifications of the polymer caused by ultraviolet (UV) exposure. A Varian Cary 5000 was used to perform spectroscopy on several different thicknesses of CR-39. With proper analysis for the interdependence of reflectance and transmittance, results are consistent across all samples. The reflectivity from each CR-39-air boundary reveals an increase in the index of refraction in the near-UV. Absorption observations are consistent with the Beer-Lambert law. Strong absorption of UV light of wavelength shorter than 350 nm suggests an optical band gap of 3.5 eV, although the standard analysis is not conclusive. Absorption features observed in the near infrared are assigned to molecular vibrations, including some that are new to the literature.

  13. Fyn is a redox sensor involved in solar ultraviolet light-induced signal transduction in skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-E; Roh, E; Lee, M H; Yu, D H; Kim, D J; Lim, T-G; Jung, S K; Peng, C; Cho, Y-Y; Dickinson, S; Alberts, D; Bowden, G T; Einspahr, J; Stratton, S P; Curiel-Lewandrowski, C; Bode, A M; Lee, K W; Dong, Z

    2016-08-04

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a major etiological factor in skin carcinogenesis, with solar UV-stimulated signal transduction inducing pathological changes and skin damage. The primary sensor of solar UV-induced cellular signaling has not been identified. We use an experimental system of solar simulated light (SSL) to mimic solar UV and we demonstrate that Fyn is a primary redox sensor involved in SSL-induced signal transduction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by SSL exposure directly oxidize Cys488 of Fyn, resulting in increased Fyn kinase activity. Fyn oxidation was increased in mouse skin after SSL exposure and Fyn-knockout mice formed larger and more tumors compared with Fyn wild-type mice when exposed to SSL for an extended period of time. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Fyn and cells in which Fyn expression was knocked down were resistant to SSL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, cells expressing mutant Fyn (C448A) were resistant to SSL-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that Fyn acts as a regulatory nexus between solar UV, ROS and signal transduction during skin carcinogenesis.

  14. Protein oxidative changes in whole and skim milk after ultraviolet or fluorescent light exposure.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D; Pecora, R P; Radici, P M; Kivatinitz, S C

    2010-11-01

    We investigated how protein changes occur, at the primary or higher structural levels, when proteins are exposed to UV or fluorescent (FL) light while in the complex matrix, milk. Whole milk (WM) or skim milk (SM) samples were exposed to FL or UV light from 0 to 24h at 4°C. Protein oxidation was evaluated by the formation of protein carbonyls (PC), dityrosine bond (DiTyr), and changes in molecular weight (protein fragmentation and polymerization). Oxidative changes in AA residues were measured by PC. Dityrosine and N'-formylkynurenine (NFK), a carbonylation derivative of Trp, were measured by fluorometry. Protein carbonyls increased as a function of irradiation time for both WM and SM. The initial rate for PC formation by exposure to FL light (0.25 or 0.27 nmol/h for WM and SM, respectively) was slower than that following exposure to UV light (1.95 or 1.20 nmol/h, respectively). The time course of NFK formation resembled that of PC. After 24h of UV exposure, SM had significantly higher levels of NFK than did WM. In contrast, WM samples irradiated with UV had higher levels of DiTyr than did SM samples, indicating different molecular pathways. The formation of intra- or intermolecular DiTyr bonds could be indicative of changes in the tertiary structure or oligomerization of proteins. The existence of NFK suggests the occurrence of protein fragmentation. Thus, proteolysis and oligomerization were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. After 24h of exposing WM to UV or FL light, all the proteins were affected by both types of light, as evidenced by loss of material in most of the bands. Aggregates were produced only by UV irradiation. Hydrolysis by pepsin and enzyme-induced coagulation by rennet were performed to evaluate altered biological properties of the oxidized proteins. No effect on pepsin digestion or rennet coagulation was found in irradiated SM or WM. The oxidative status of proteins in milk and dairy products is of interest to the dairy industry and

  15. Comparison of homeopathic globules prepared from high and ultra-high dilutions of various starting materials by ultraviolet light spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabine D; Wolf, Ursula

    2016-02-01

    Homeopathic globules are commonly used in clinical practice, while research focuses on liquid potencies. Sequential dilution and succussion in their production process has been proposed to change the physico-chemical properties of the solvent(s). It has been reported that aqueous potencies of various starting materials showed significant differences in ultraviolet light transmission compared to controls and between different dilution levels. The aim of the present study was to repeat and expand these experiments to homeopathic globules. Globules were specially produced for this study by Spagyros AG (Gümligen, Switzerland) from 6 starting materials (Aconitum napellus, Atropa belladonna, phosphorus, sulfur, Apis mellifica, quartz) and for 6 dilution levels (6x, 12x, 30c, 200c, 200CF (centesimal discontinuous fluxion), 10,000CF). Native globules and globules impregnated with solvents were used as controls. Globules were dissolved in ultrapure water, and absorbance in the ultraviolet range was measured. The average absorbance from 200 to 340nm was calculated and corrected for differences between measurement days and instrumental drift. Statistically significant differences were found for A. napellus, sulfur, and A. mellifica when normalized average absorbance of the various dilution levels from the same starting material (including control and solvent control globules) was compared. Additionally, absorbance within dilution levels was compared among the various starting materials. Statistically significant differences were found among 30c, 200c and 200CF dilutions. This study has expanded previous findings from aqueous potencies to globules and may indicate that characteristics of aqueous high dilutions may be preserved and detectable in dissolved globules. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Preventing skin cancer: findings of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services On reducing Exposure to Ultraviolet Light.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani

    2003-10-17

    Rates of skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States, are increasing. The most preventable risk factor for skin cancer is unprotected ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Seeking to identify effective approaches to reducing the incidence of skin cancer by improving individual and community efforts to reduce unprotected UV exposure, the Task Force on Community Preventive Services conducted systematic reviews of community interventions to reduce exposure to ultraviolet light and increase protective behaviors. The Task Force found sufficient evidence to recommend two interventions that are based on improvements in sun protective or "covering-up" behavior (wearing protective clothing including long-sleeved clothing or hats): educational and policy approaches in two settings--primary schools and recreational or tourism sites. They found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of a range of other population-based interventions and recommended additional research in these areas: educational and policy approaches in child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, recreational or tourism sites for children, and workplaces; interventions conducted in health-care settings and targeted to both providers and children's parents or caregivers; media campaigns alone; and community wide multicomponent interventions. This report also presents additional information regarding the recommended community interventions, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, provides resources for further information, and provides information that can help in applying the interventions locally. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force conducted a systematic review of counseling by primary care clinicians to prevent skin cancer (CDC. Counseling to prevent skin cancer: recommendation and rationale of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. MMWR 2003;52[No. RR-15]:13-17), which is also included in this issue, the first jointly released findings from the Task Force on Community

  17. Glucocorticoid effects on contact hypersensitivity and on the cutaneous response to ultraviolet light in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.M.; Walberg, J.A.; Bradlow, H.L.

    1988-03-01

    A single exposure to 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation (UV) can systemically suppress experimental sensitization to the simple allergen 2,4-dinitro, 1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) in the mouse. We show here that topical application at the site of irradiation of the 21-oic acid methyl ester derivative of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide (TAme) prevents UV suppression of sensitization. That is, mice painted with TAme at the site of UV exposure developed normal contact hypersensitivity (CH); mice exposed to UV only, like mice treated with the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), failed to be sensitized by DNCB applied to a distal site. TAme is inactivatedmore » rapidly by plasma esterases, so its effect is thought to be confined to the skin. Apparently, TAme blocked the cutaneous signal(s) for systemic suppression of CH. Histologically, irradiated skin exhibited mild inflammation and hyperproliferation, but these effects were greatly exaggerated and prolonged in the UV + TAme-treated skin, independent of sensitization at the distal site. The infiltrate consisted mostly of neutrophils and lacked the round cells characteristic of cell-mediated immunity. Apparently, normal immune suppression by UV prevented this vigorous reaction to irradiated skin. Applied together with DNCB. TAme blocked sensitization. It also prevented response to challenge by DNCB in previously sensitized animals. However, unlike the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), Budesonide or Beclomethasone diproprionate, each of which can penetrate the epidermis in active form, TAme had no effect on sensitization when applied at a distal site. Likewise, TAme did not affect plasma B (17-desoxycortisol) levels, whereas the other three compounds reduced plasma B tenfold, as expected of compounds causing adrenal-pituitary suppression.« less

  18. Characterization of ultraviolet light cured polydimethylsiloxane films for low-voltage, dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpper, Tino; Wohlfender, Fabian; Weiss, Florian; Osmani, Bekim; Müller, Bert

    2016-04-01

    The reduction the operation voltage has been the key challenge to realize of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) for many years - especially for the application fields of robotics, lens systems, haptics and future medical implants. Contrary to the approach of manipulating the dielectric properties of the electrically activated polymer (EAP), we intend to realize low-voltage operation by reducing the polymer thickness to the range of a few hundred nanometers. A study recently published presents molecular beam deposition to reliably grow nanometer-thick polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. The curing of PDMS is realized using ultraviolet (UV) radiation with wavelengths from 180 to 400 nm radicalizing the functional side and end groups. The understanding of the mechanical properties of sub-micrometer-thin PDMS films is crucial to optimize DEAs actuation efficiency. The elastic modulus of UV-cured spin-coated films is measured by nano-indentation using an atomic force microscope (AFM) according to the Hertzian contact mechanics model. These investigations show a reduced elastic modulus with increased indentation depth. A model with a skin-like SiO2 surface with corresponding elastic modulus of (2.29 +/- 0.31) MPa and a bulk modulus of cross-linked PDMS with corresponding elastic modulus of (87 +/- 7) kPa is proposed. The surface morphology is observed with AFM and 3D laser microscopy. Wrinkled surface microstructures on UV-cured PDMS films occur for film thicknesses above (510 +/- 30) nm with an UV-irradiation density of 7.2 10-4 J cm-2 nm-1 at a wavelength of 190 nm.

  19. Nearly temperature-independent ultraviolet light emission intensity of indirect excitons in hexagonal BN microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichibu, Shigefusa F.; Ishikawa, Youichi; Kominami, Hiroko; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2018-02-01

    The radiative performance of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) was assessed by the spatio-time-resolved luminescence measurements on its microcrystals (MCs) annealed in an O2 gas ambient. The MCs exhibited distinct deep ultraviolet luminescence peaks higher than 5.7 eV, although h-BN is an indirect bandgap semiconductor. The result indicates a strong interaction between the indirect excitons (iXs) and LO/TO (and LA/TA) phonons at T points of the Brillouin zone. Such phonon replicas of free iXs and a luminescence band at 4.0 eV showed negligible thermal quenching, most probably assisted by the strong excitonic effect, enhanced phonon scattering, and formation of a surface BxOy layer that prevents excitons from surface recombination by the thermal excitation. Conversely, the luminescence band between 5.1 and 5.7 eV, which seems to consist of LO/TO phonon replicas of iXs localized at a certain structural singularity that are further scattered by multiple TO phonons at K points and another two emission peaks that originate from the singularity, showed the thermal quenching. In analogy with GaN and AlGaN, cation vacancy complexes most likely act as native nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs). In the present case, vacancy complexes that contain a boron vacancy (VB), such as divacancies with a nitrogen vacancy (VN), VBVN, are certain to act as NRCs. In this instance, iXs delocalized from the singularity are likely either captured by NRCs or the origin of the 4.0 eV-band; the latter is assigned to originate from a carbon on the N site or a complex between VB and an oxygen on the N site.

  20. Ultraviolet light propagation under low visibility atmospheric conditions and its application to aircraft landing aid.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Claire; Durand, Gérard; Roblin, Antoine

    2006-12-20

    Light scattering in the atmosphere by particles and molecules gives rise to an aureole surrounding the source image that tends to reduce the contrast of the source with respect to the background. However, UV scattering phase functions of the haze droplets present a very important forward peak. The spreading of a detected signal in the UV is not as important as in the case of a clear atmosphere where Rayleigh scattering predominates. This physical property has to be taken into account to evaluate the potential of UV radiation as an aircraft landing aid under low visibility conditions. Different results characterizing UV runway lights, simulations of UV radiation propagation in the atmosphere, and the use of a simple detection algorithm applied to one particular sensor are presented.

  1. Effect of caffeine on the ultraviolet light induction of SV40 virus from transformed hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, G.B.; Kleinman, L.F.; Little, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of caffeine on the uv light induction of SV40 virus from two transformed hamster cell lines heterogeneous for the induction of infectious virus was studied. The amount of virus induced was significantly increased in both cell lines when exposure to uv light was followed by treatment with caffeine. Caffeine in the absence of uv irradiation did not stimulate virus induction, nor did it stimulate SV40 replication in a lytic infection. There was an apparent difference in the concentrations of caffeine which maximally stimulated SV40 virus induction in the two cell lines. This effect could not be explained bymore » differences in cell survival after exposure to uv light and caffeine. Since caffeine is known to cause the accumulation of gaps formed in DNA during postreplication repair of uv-irradiated rodent cells, our results support the hypothesis that the formation of gaps or breaks in DNA is an important early step in virus induction.« less

  2. Low cost batch fabrication of microdevices using ultraviolet light-emitting diode photolithography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Neam Heng; Swamy, Varghese; Ramakrishnan, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state technology has enabled the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in lithography systems due to their low cost, low power requirement, and higher efficiency relative to the traditional mercury lamp. Uniform irradiance distribution is essential for photolithography to ensure the critical dimension (CD) of the feature fabricated. However, light illuminated from arrays of LEDs can have nonuniform irradiance distribution, which can be a problem when using LED arrays as a source to batch-fabricate multiple devices on a large wafer piece. In this study, the irradiance distribution of an UV LED array was analyzed, and the separation distance between light source and mask optimized to obtain maximum irradiance uniformity without the use of a complex lens. Further, employing a diffuser glass enhanced the fabrication process and the CD loss was minimized to an average of 300 nm. To assess the performance of the proposed technology, batch fabrication of surface acoustic wave devices on lithium niobate substrate was carried out, and all the devices exhibited identical insertion loss of -18 dB at a resonance frequency of 39.33 MHz. The proposed low-cost UV lithography setup can be adapted in academic laboratories for research and teaching on microdevices.

  3. Modification of mutagenesis initiated by ultraviolet light through posttreatment of bacteria with basic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Witkin, E M

    1961-12-01

    Post treatment with basic dyes, in concentrations that retard cell division, was found to influence the tnduction of mutations to prototrophy by UV light in a tyrosine-requirtng strain of E.Coli. Pyronin, which is unique among the dyes in tts selective affinity for RNA, was found to duplicate the effects of chloramphenicol or amino acfd deprtvatfon in causfng the rapid and irreversible loss of potential prototrophs (mutation frequency decline, or MFD). Acriflavtne, methyl green. crystal violet, methylene blue, and toluidine blue, all of which are known to combine with DNA, delay or retard the occurrence of MFD under conditions of aminomore » acid deprivation. When acriflavine is removed from its combination with cellular components by the addition of an excess of sodium deoxyrtbonucleate, MFD begins promptly. The same basic dyes that delay MFD were also found to interfere with the fixation of mutations (MF) in an amino acid- enriched medium, and to cause marked enhancement of the mutagenic potency of low doses of UV light. While showing no independent mutagenic activity for unirradiated bacteria, all the dyes except pyronin increased the yield of induced mutations signtficantly when added to the enriched medium upon which trradiated bacteria were incubated.These results were interpreted as evidence that UV light initiates mutagenesis by producing unstable changas directly in genic DNA. MFD is interpreted as a repair process, blocked by the machinery of RNA and protein synthesis and by the presence of certain basic dyes.« less

  4. Printable Top-Gate-Type Polymer Light-Emitting Transistors with Surfaces of Amorphous Fluoropolymer Insulators Modified by Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajii, Hirotake; Terashima, Daiki; Kusumoto, Yusuke; Ikezoe, Ikuya; Ohmori, Yutaka

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the fabrication and electrical and optical properties of top-gate-type polymer light-emitting transistors with the surfaces of amorphous fluoropolymer insulators, CYTOP (Asahi Glass) modified by vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV) treatment. The surface energy of CYTOP, which has a good solution barrier property was increased by VUV irradiation, and the gate electrode was fabricated by solution processing on the CYTOP film using the Ag nano-ink. The influence of VUV irradiation on the optical properties of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) films with various gate insulators was investigated to clarify the passivation effect of gate insulators. It was found that the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film prevented the degradation of the F8BT layer under VUV irradiation because the PMMA film can absorb VUV. The solution-processed F8BT device with multilayer PMMA/CYTOP insulators utilizing a gate electrode fabricated using the Ag nano-ink exhibited both the ambipolar characteristics and yellow-green emission.

  5. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changmin; Shen, Chao; Cozzan, Clayton; Farrell, Robert M; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Ooi, Boon S; DenBaars, Steven P

    2017-07-24

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021¯)  substrate emitting at 410 nm was used for the transmitter. The measured modulation bandwidth of the LD was 1 GHz, which was limited by the avalanche photodetector. The emission from the NUV LD and the RGB phosphor combination measured a color rendering index (CRI) of 79 and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4050 K, indicating promise of this approach for creating high quality white lighting. Using this configuration, data was successfully transmitted at a rate of more than 1 Gbps. This NUV laser-based system is expected to have lower background noise from sunlight at the LD emission wavelength than a system that uses a blue LD due to the rapid fall off in intensity of the solar spectrum in the NUV spectral region.

  6. In vivo viability of stored red blood cells derived from riboflavin plus ultraviolet light-treated whole blood.

    PubMed

    Cancelas, Jose A; Rugg, Neeta; Fletcher, Dana; Pratt, P Gayle; Worsham, D Nicole; Dunn, Susan K; Marschner, Susanne; Reddy, Heather L; Goodrich, Raymond P

    2011-07-01

    A novel system using ultraviolet (UV) light and riboflavin (Mirasol System, CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) to fragment nucleic acids has been developed to treat whole blood (WB), aiming at the reduction of potential pathogen load and white blood cell inactivation. We evaluated stored red blood cell (RBC) metabolic status and viability, in vitro and in vivo, of riboflavin/UV light-treated WB (IMPROVE study). The study compared recovery and survival of RBCs obtained from nonleukoreduced WB treated using three different UV light energies (22, 33, or 44 J/mL(RBC)). After treatment, WB from 12 subjects was separated into components and tested at the beginning and end of component storage. After 42 days of storage, an aliquot of RBCs was radiolabeled and autologously reinfused into subjects for analysis of 24-hour recovery and survival of RBCs. Eleven subjects completed the in vivo study. No device-related adverse events were observed. By Day 42 of storage, a significant change in the concentrations of sodium and potassium was observed. Five subjects had a 24-hour RBC recovery of 75% or more with no significant differences among the energy groups. RBC t(1/2) was 24 ± 9 days for the combined three groups. Significant correlations between 24-hour RBC recovery and survival, hemolysis, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and CO(2) levels were observed. This study shows that key RBC quality variables, hemolysis, and ATP concentration may be predictive of their 24-hour recovery and t(1/2) survival. These variables will now be used to assess modifications to the system including storage duration, storage temperature, and appropriate energy dose for treatment. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Concerning the production of free radicals in proteins by ultraviolet light.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Androes, G. M.; Gloria, H. R.; Reinisch, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The response to UV light of several solid proteins and model compounds has been studied in vacuum and at low temperature, using electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. The results indicate that the details of amino acid composition and sequence, and the tertiary structure of a protein are important in determining both the rate of, and the mechanism for, the production of free radicals, and in determining the conditions under which sulfur-type radicals can be produced. The results presented are related to enzyme inactivation and to the UV stability of proteins generally.

  8. An ultraviolet light induced bacteriophage in Beneckea gazogenes. [organism growth on precambrian earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambler, M.; Margulis, L.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of UV and high intensity irradiation on microorganisms growing under conditions prevalent during the early Precambrian Aeon are examined. The study employed the anaerobic red pigmented marine vibrio, Beneckea gazogenes (Harwood, 1978), using an extreme UV sensitivity of 2537 A, extensive cell lysis, and commitant production of bacteriophage induced by the UV light. Three types of white mutant, pink colony mutant, and red wild type isolates of B gazogenes were grown showing differential irradiation sensitivity and phage particles from all three lysates were collected and examined.

  9. Induction of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutants in human cells by ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Rocchi, P.; Ferreri, A.M.; Capucci, A.

    1981-01-01

    Stable spontaneous mutants resistant to the protein synthesis inhibitor diphtheria toxin (DT) have been selected in human cell line EUE at a very low frequency (less than 8 x 10(-6)). U.v.-induced mutation has been quantitatively measured: treatment of cells with u.v. light increased the frequencies of diphtheria toxin resistant (DTr) mutants up to 1000-fold. The maximum recovery of DTr mutants was observed after a short expression period, for all u.v. doses tested, and was followed by a decrease in mutation frequency on subsequent passages.

  10. Induction of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutants in human cells by ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Rocchi, P.; Ferreri, A.M.; Capucci, A.

    1981-01-01

    Stable spontaneous mutants resistant to the protein synthesis inhibitor diphtheria toxin (DT) have been selected in human cell line EUE at a very low frequency (< 8 x 10/sup -6/). U.v.-induced mutation has been quantitatively measured: treatment of cells with u.v. light increased the frequencies of diphtheria toxin resistant (DTsup(r)) mutants up to 1000-fold. The maximum recovery of DTsup(r) mutants was observed after a short expression period, for all u.v. doses tested, and was followed by a decrease in mutation frequency on subsequent passages.

  11. Determination of the Effects of Medium Composition on the Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by the Propidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wahman, David G.; Schrantz, Karen A.; Pressman, Jonathan G.

    2010-01-01

    Various medium compositions (phosphate, 1 to 50 mM; ionic strength, 2.8 to 150 meq/liter) significantly affected Nitrosomonas europaea monochloramine disinfection kinetics, as determined by the Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) methods (lag coefficient, 37 to 490 [LD] and 91 to 490 [PMA-qPCR] mg·min/liter; Chick-Watson rate constant, 4.0 × 10−3 to 9.3 × 10−3 [LD] and 1.6 × 10−3 to 9.6 × 10−3 [PMA-qPCR] liter/mg·min). Two competing effects may account for the variation in disinfection kinetic parameters: (i) increasing kinetics (disinfection rate constant [k] increased, lag coefficient [b] decreased) with increasing phosphate concentration and (ii) decreasing kinetics (k decreased, b increased) with increasing ionic strength. The results support development of a standard medium for evaluating disinfection kinetics in drinking water. PMID:20952645

  12. Uveal melanoma in relation to ultraviolet light exposure and host factors.

    PubMed

    Holly, E A; Aston, D A; Char, D H; Kristiansen, J J; Ahn, D K

    1990-09-15

    We conducted a case-control interview study among 1277 subjects (407 patients, 870 controls selected by using random digit dial) in 11 western United States to determine whether uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma shared common risk factors. After adjustment for other factors, the risk of uveal melanoma was increased for those with green, gray, or hazel eyes [relative risk (RR) = 2.5, P less than 0.001] or blue eyes (RR = 2.2, P less than 0.001) when compared to brown. A tendency to sunburn after 0.5 h midday summer sun exposure increased risk for uveal melanoma (burn with tanning RR = 1.5, P = 0.02; burn with little tanning RR = 1.8, P less than 0.001; burn with no tanning RR = 1.7, P = 0.002); as did exposure to UV or black lights (RR = 3.7, P = 0.003); and welding burn, sunburn of the eye, or snow blindness (RR = 7.2, P less than 0.001). An association with uveal melanoma was also noted with an increasing number of large nevi (P = 0.04 for trend), although the individual risk estimates were not remarkable. These data suggest that host factors and exposure to UV light are risk factors for uveal melanoma.

  13. An environmental disinfection odyssey: evaluation of sequential interventions to improve disinfection of Clostridium difficile isolation rooms.

    PubMed

    Sitzlar, Brett; Deshpande, Abhishek; Fertelli, Dennis; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sethi, Ajay K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE. Effective disinfection of hospital rooms after discharge of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is necessary to prevent transmission. We evaluated the impact of sequential cleaning and disinfection interventions by culturing high-touch surfaces in CDI rooms after cleaning. DESIGN. Prospective intervention. SETTING. A Veterans Affairs hospital. INTERVENTIONS. During a 21-month period, 3 sequential tiered interventions were implemented: (1) fluorescent markers to provide monitoring and feedback on thoroughness of cleaning facility-wide, (2) addition of an automated ultraviolet radiation device for adjunctive disinfection of CDI rooms, and (3) enhanced standard disinfection of CDI rooms, including a dedicated daily disinfection team and implementation of a process requiring supervisory assessment and clearance of terminally cleaned CDI rooms. To determine the impact of the interventions, cultures were obtained from CDI rooms after cleaning and disinfection. RESULTS. The fluorescent marker intervention improved the thoroughness of cleaning of high-touch surfaces (from 47% to 81% marker removal; P < .0001). Relative to the baseline period, the prevalence of positive cultures from CDI rooms was reduced by 14% (P=.024), 48% (P <.001), and 89% (P=.006) with interventions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. During the baseline period, 67% of CDI rooms had positive cultures after disinfection, whereas during interventions periods 1, 2, and 3 the percentages of CDI rooms with positive cultures after disinfection were reduced to 57%, 35%, and 7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. An intervention that included formation of a dedicated daily disinfection team and implementation of a standardized process for clearing CDI rooms achieved consistent CDI room disinfection. Culturing of CDI rooms provides a valuable tool to drive improvements in environmental disinfection.

  14. Ultraviolet stress delays chromosome replication in light/dark synchronized cells of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus PCC9511

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is very abundant in warm, nutrient-poor oceanic areas. The upper mixed layer of oceans is populated by high light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes, which despite their tiny genome (~1.7 Mb) seem to have developed efficient strategies to cope with stressful levels of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. At a molecular level, little is known yet about how such minimalist microorganisms manage to sustain high growth rates and avoid potentially detrimental, UV-induced mutations to their DNA. To address this question, we studied the cell cycle dynamics of P. marinus PCC9511 cells grown under high fluxes of visible light in the presence or absence of UV radiation. Near natural light-dark cycles of both light sources were obtained using a custom-designed illumination system (cyclostat). Expression patterns of key DNA synthesis and repair, cell division, and clock genes were analyzed in order to decipher molecular mechanisms of adaptation to UV radiation. Results The cell cycle of P. marinus PCC9511 was strongly synchronized by the day-night cycle. The most conspicuous response of cells to UV radiation was a delay in chromosome replication, with a peak of DNA synthesis shifted about 2 h into the dark period. This delay was seemingly linked to a strong downregulation of genes governing DNA replication (dnaA) and cell division (ftsZ, sepF), whereas most genes involved in DNA repair (such as recA, phrA, uvrA, ruvC, umuC) were already activated under high visible light and their expression levels were only slightly affected by additional UV exposure. Conclusions Prochlorococcus cells modified the timing of the S phase in response to UV exposure, therefore reducing the risk that mutations would occur during this particularly sensitive stage of the cell cycle. We identified several possible explanations for the observed timeshift. Among these, the sharp decrease in transcript levels of the dnaA gene

  15. The effects of two different doses of ultraviolet-A light exposure on nitric oxide metabolites and cardiorespiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Chris; McIlvenna, Luke C; Liddle, Luke; Burleigh, Mia; Weller, Richard B; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Muggeridge, David J; Easton, Chris

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated different doses of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light on plasma nitric oxide metabolites and cardiorespiratory variables. Ten healthy male participants completed three experimental conditions, 7 days apart. Participants were exposed to no light (CON); 10 J cm 2 (15 min) of UV-A light (UVA10) and 20 J cm 2 (30 min) of UV-A light (UVA20) in a randomized order. Plasma nitrite [NO 2 - ] and nitrate [NO 3 - ] concentrations, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded before, immediately after exposure and 30 min post-exposure. Whole body oxygen utilization ([Formula: see text]), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and skin temperature were recorded continuously. None of the measured parameters changed significantly during CON (all P > 0.05). [Formula: see text] and RMR were significantly reduced immediately after UVA10 (P < 0.05) despite no change in plasma [NO 2 - ] (P > 0.05). Immediately after exposure to UVA20, plasma [NO 2 - ] was higher (P = 0.014) and [Formula: see text] and RMR tended to be lower compared to baseline (P = 0.06). There were no differences in [NO 2 - ] or [Formula: see text] at the 30 min time point in any condition. UV-A exposure did not alter systolic BP, diastolic BP or MAP (all P > 0.05). UV-A light did not alter plasma [NO 3 - ] at any time point (all P > 0.05). This study demonstrates that a UV-A dose of 20 J cm 2 is necessary to increase plasma [NO 2 - ] although a smaller dose is capable of reducing [Formula: see text] and RMR at rest. Exposure to UV-A did not significantly reduce BP in this cohort of healthy adults. These data suggest that exposure to sunlight has a meaningful acute impact on metabolic function.

  16. Silicon nanoparticle-ZnS nanophosphors for ultraviolet-based white light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupca, Matthew; Nayfeh, Osama M.; Hoang, Tuan; Nayfeh, Munir H.; Alhreish, Bahjat; Boparai, Jack; AlDwayyan, Abdullah; AlSalhi, Mohamad

    2012-10-01

    Present red phosphor converters provide spectra dominated by sharp lines and suffer from availability and stability issues which are not ideal for color mixing in display or solid state lighting applications. We examine the use of mono dispersed 3 nm silicon nanoparticles, with inhomogeneously broadened red luminescence as an effective substitute for red phosphors. We tested a 3-phase hybrid nanophosphor consisting of ZnS:Ag, ZnS:Cu,Au,Al, and nanoparticles. Correlated color temperature is examined under UV and LED pumping in the range 254, 365-400 nm. The temperature is found reasonably flat for the longer wavelengths and drops for the shorter wavelengths while the color rendering index increases. The photo stability of the phosphors relative to the silicon nanoparticles is recorded. The variation in the temperature is analyzed in terms of the strength of inter-band-gap transition and continuum band to band transitions.

  17. Solid-state laser source of narrowband ultraviolet B light for skin disease care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Aleksandr A.; Chu, Hong

    2013-03-01

    We report about the development of all-solid-state laser source of narrowband UV-B light for medical applications. The device is based on a gain-switched Ti: Sapphire laser with volume Bragg grating, pumped at 532 nm and operating at 931.8 nm, followed by a third harmonic generator and a fiber optic beam homogenizer. The maximum available pulse energy exceeded 5 mJ at 310.6 nm, with a pulse repetition rates of 50 Hz. The output characteristics satisfy the medical requirements for psoriasis and vitiligo treatment. A new optical scheme for third harmonic generation enhancement at moderate levels of input intensities is proposed and investigated. As a result, 40% harmonic efficiency was obtained, when input pulse power was only 300 kW.

  18. Ultraviolet-C Light for Treatment of Candida albicans Burn Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Zhao, Jie; St. Denis, Tyler G; Wu, Qiuhe; Xia, Yumin; Huang, Liyi; Sharma, Sulbha K; d’Enfert, Christophe; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Burn patients are at high risk of invasive fungal infections, which are a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and related expense exacerbated by the emergence of drug resistant fungal strains. In this study, we investigated the use of UVC light (254-nm) for the treatment of Candida albicans infection in mouse third degree burns. In-vitro studies demonstrated that UVC could selectively kill the pathogenic yeast C. albicans compared to a normal keratinocyte cell line in a light exposure dependent manner. A mouse model of chronic C. albicans infection in non-lethal 3rd degree burns was developed. The C. albicans strain was stably transformed with a version of the Gaussia princeps luciferase gene that allowed real-time bioluminescence imaging of the progression of C. albicans infection. UVC treatment with a single exposure carried out on day 0 (30 minutes post-infection) gave an average 2.16-log10-unit (99.2%) loss of fungal luminescence when 2.92 J/cm2 UVC had been delivered, while UVC 24-hours post-infection gave 1.94-log10-unit (95.8%) reduction of fungal luminescence after 6.48 J/cm2. Statistical analysis demonstrated that UVC treatment carried out both on both day 0 and day 1 significantly reduced the fungal bioburden of infected burns. UVC was found to be superior to a topical antifungal drug, nystatin cream. UVC was tested on normal mouse skin and no gross damage was observed 24 hours after 6.48 J/cm2. DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) were observed by immunofluorescence in normal mouse skin immediately after a 6.48 J/cm2 UVC exposure, but the lesions were extensively repaired at 24-hours after UVC exposure. PMID:21208209

  19. Effect of ultraviolet light irradiation and sandblasting treatment on bond strengths between polyamide and chemical-cured resin.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Yuya; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation and sandblasting treatment on the shear bond strength between polyamide and chemical-cured resin. Three types of commercial polyamides were treated using UV irradiation, sandblasting treatment, and a combining sandblasting and UV irradiation. The shear bond strength was measured and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Comparing shear bond strengths without surface treatment, from 4.1 to 5.7 MPa, the UV irradiation significantly increased the shear bond strengths except for Valplast, whose shear bond strengths ranged from 5.2 to 9.3 MPa. The sandblasting treatment also significantly increased the shear bond strengths (8.0 to 11.4 MPa). The combining sandblasting and UV irradiation significantly increased the shear bond strengths (15.2 to 18.3 MPa) comparing without surface treatment. This combined treatment was considered the most effective at improving the shear bond strength between polyamide and chemical-cured resin.

  20. Efficacy of Ultraviolet (UV-C) Light in a Thin-Film Turbulent Flow for the Reduction of Milkborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Crook, Jennifer A; Rossitto, Paul V; Parko, Jared; Koutchma, Tatiana; Cullor, James S

    2015-06-01

    Nonthermal technologies are being investigated as viable alternatives to, or supplemental utilization, with thermal pasteurization in the food-processing industry. In this study, the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-C light on the inactivation of seven milkborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) was evaluated. The pathogens were suspended in ultra-high-temperature whole milk and treated at UV doses between 0 and 5000 J/L at a flow rate of 4300 L/h in a thin-film turbulent flow-through pilot system. Of the seven milkborne pathogens tested, L. monocytogenes was the most UV resistant, requiring 2000 J/L of UV-C exposure to reach a 5-log reduction. The most sensitive bacterium was S. aureus, requiring only 1450 J/L to reach a 5-log reduction. This study demonstrated that the survival curves were nonlinear. Sigmoidal inactivation curves were observed for all tested bacterial strains. Nonlinear modeling of the inactivation data was a better fit than the traditional log-linear approach. Results obtained from this study indicate that UV illumination has the potential to be used as a nonthermal method to reduce microorganism populations in milk.

  1. ZnO-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes and nanostructures fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Miin-Jang; Yang, Jer-Ren; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated ZnO-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD), demonstrating that ALD is one of the noteworthy techniques to prepare high-quality ZnO required for ultraviolet (UV) photonic devices. Here, we review our recent investigations on different ZnO-based heterojunction LEDs such as n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDS, n-ZnO:Al/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-GaN LEDS, n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN LEDs, n-ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/p-SiC(4H) LEDs, and also on ZnO-based nanostructures including ZnO quantum dots embedded in SiO2 nanoparticle layer, ZnO nanopillars on sapphire substrates, Al-doped ZnO films on sapphire substrate and highly (0 0 0 1)-oriented ZnO films on amorphous glass substrate. The latest investigation also demonstrated p-type ZnO:P films prepared on amorphous silica substrates, which allow us to fabricate ZnO-based homojunction LEDs. These devices and structures were studied by x-ray diffraction and various analytical electron microscopy observations as well as electric and electro-optical measurements.

  2. Organ culture of mammalian skin and the effects of ultraviolet light and testosterone on melanocyte morphology and function

    SciTech Connect

    Glimcher, M.E.; Garcia, R.I.; Szab'o, G.

    1978-05-01

    Scrotal skin of black Long-Evans rats and human thigh skin were maintained in vitro as organ cultures for as long as 14 days, and examined histologically using the combined skin splitting and Dopa techniques. Selected rat skin cultures received testosterone in the culture medium and/or were irradiated with ultraviolet light (290 to 320 nm uvl). With increased time in culture, scrotal melanocytes round up and there is an increase in epidermal pigmentation. Human skin behaves similarly; after eight days in vitro human melanocytes also become rounded, but remain strongly Dopa-positive. Addition of exogenous testosterone to cultured rat skin maintains dendriticmore » morphology of melanocytes, but cell body size is still reduced. uvl irradiation stimulates melanocytes in rat skin cultures, maintaining their dendritic morphology and increasing epidermal and dermal pigmentation. Cultured skin receiving both uvl and testosterone illustrates a synergistic effect. Electron microscopic examination of cultured rat skin shows the presence of large melanosome complexes in keratinocytes, much larger than those found in vivo. Melanocytes appear to be active as they contain an extensive Golgi zone, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and melanosomes in various stages of formation. Dermis contained many dermal melanocytes and macrophages laden with melanosomes, correlating with the increased visible dermal pigmentation in vitro. This uvl stimulation of melanocytes in our skin organ cultures contrasts with the lack of melanogenic stimulation found in melanoma cell cultures. Our findings suggest that the intact epidermal melanin unit may be necessary for uvl stimulation of melanocytes.« less

  3. Redundancy of mammalian Y family DNA polymerases in cellular responses to genomic DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Jacob G.; Temviriyanukul, Piya; Wit, Niek; Delbos, Frédéric; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Jacobs, Heinz; de Wind, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Short-wave ultraviolet light induces both mildly helix-distorting cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and severely distorting (6–4) pyrimidine pyrimidone photoproducts ((6–4)PPs). The only DNA polymerase (Pol) that is known to replicate efficiently across CPDs is Polη, a member of the Y family of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases. Phenotypes of Polη deficiency are transient, suggesting redundancy with other DNA damage tolerance pathways. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of the temporal requirements of Y-family Pols ι and κ as backups for Polη in (i) bypassing genomic CPD and (6–4)PP lesions in vivo, (ii) suppressing DNA damage signaling, (iii) maintaining cell cycle progression and (iv) promoting cell survival, by using mouse embryonic fibroblast lines with single and combined disruptions in these Pols. The contribution of Polι is restricted to TLS at a subset of the photolesions. Polκ plays a dominant role in rescuing stalled replication forks in Polη-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, both at CPDs and (6–4)PPs. This dampens DNA damage signaling and cell cycle arrest, and results in increased survival. The role of relatively error-prone Pols ι and κ as backups for Polη contributes to the understanding of the mutator phenotype of xeroderma pigmentosum variant, a syndrome caused by Polη defects. PMID:25170086

  4. Rectified photocurrent in a planar ITO/graphene/ITO photodetector on SiC by local irradiation of ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junwei; Guo, Liwei; Huang, Jiao; Mao, Qi; Guo, Yunlong; Jia, Yuping; Peng, Tonghua; Chen, Xiaolong

    2017-10-01

    A rectified photocurrent behaviour is demonstrated in a simple planar structure of ITO-graphene-ITO formed on a SiC substrate when an ultraviolet (UV) light is locally incident on one of the edges between the graphene and ITO electrode. The photocurrent has similar characteristics as those of a vertical structure graphene/semiconductor junction photodiode, but is clearly different from those found in a planar structure metal-graphene-metal device. Furthermore, the device behaves multi-functionally as a photodiode with sensitive UV photodetection capability (responsivity of 11.7 mA W-1 at 0.3 V) and a self-powered UV photodetector (responsivity of 4.4 mA W-1 at zero bias). Both features are operative in a wide dynamic range and with a fast speed of response in about gigahertz. The linear I-V behaviour with laser power at forward bias and cutoff at reverse bias leads to a conceptual photodiode, which is compatible with modern semiconductor planar device architecture. This paves a potential way to realize ultrafast graphene planar photodiodes for monolithic integration of graphene-based devices on the same SiC substrate.

  5. Effect of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens on survival of ultraviolet light-inactivated herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Dokko, H.; Min, P.S.; Cherrick, H.M.

    1991-04-01

    Low doses of ultraviolet (UV) light, x-rays, photodynamic treatment, or aflatoxins increase the survival of UV-irradiated virus in cells. This effect is postulated to occur by enhancement of the error-prone cellular repair function, which could also be associated with oncogenic cell transformation. The present study was designed to investigate whether treatment of green monkey kidney cells with water extract of snuff (snuff extract), benzo(a)pyrene, nicotine, or tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines would result in enhanced survival of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus (HSV). Exposure of the cells with snuff extract, benzo(a)pyrene, N'-nitrosonornicotine, or 4-(N-methyl-N'-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone resulted in an enhancement of survival of UV-irradiated HSV typemore » 1 compared with the control whereas exposure of the cells with nicotine did not. These data indicate that the water-extractable component of snuff and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens increase the cellular repair mechanism and provides for increased survival of UV-irradiated HSV.« less

  6. Treatment of platelets with riboflavin and ultraviolet light mediates complement activation and suppresses monocyte interleukin-12 production in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Loh, Y S; Dean, M M; Johnson, L; Marks, D C

    2015-11-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) and storage may alter the immunomodulatory capacity of platelets (PLTs). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PI (Riboflavin and ultraviolet light treatment) and storage on the capacity of PLTs to induce cytokine responses in recipient inflammatory cells. A pool and split design was used to prepare untreated and PI-treated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs). Samples were taken on days 2 and 7 postcollection and incubated with ABO/RhD-matched fresh whole blood for 6 h with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The intracellular production of IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and MIP-1β in monocytes and neutrophils was assessed using flow cytometry. Complement proteins in PLT supernatants were measured using a cytometric bead array. PLTs and PLT supernatant (both untreated and PI-treated) resulted in modulation of intracellular MIP-1β and IL-12 production in monocytes. Compared to untreated PLTs, PI-treated PLTs resulted in significantly lower LPS-induced monocyte IL-12 production (day 7). The concentration of C3a and C5a (and their desArg forms) was significantly increased in PLT supernatants following PI. PI results in decreased LPS-induced monocyte IL-12 production and increased complement activation. The association between platelet-induced complement activation and IL-12 production warrants further investigation. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; ...

    2015-03-01

    Current-voltage (IV) characteristics of two AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with differing densities of open-core threading dislocations (nanopipes) are analyzed. A three-diode circuit is simulated to emulate the IV characteristics of the DUV-LEDs, but is only able to accurately model the lower leakage current, lower nanopipe density DUV-LED. It was found that current leakage through the nanopipes in these structures is rectifying, despite nanopipes being previously established as inherently n-type. Using defect-sensitive etching, the nanopipes are revealed to terminate within the p-type GaN capping layer of the DUV-LEDs. The circuit model is modified to account for another p-nmore » junction between the n-type nanopipes and the p-type GaN, and an excellent fit to the IV characteristics of the leaky DUV-LED is achieved.« less

  8. Tempe Waste Water Degradation Using TiO2-N/Bentonite alginate Granule Photocatalyst with Ultraviolet Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirun Nisaa', Aldila; Wardhani, Sri; Purwonugroho, Danar; Darjito

    2018-01-01

    Tempe waste water stew has high ammonia concentration which causes odor due to polluting by anaerobic decay. Free ammonia in the waste has exceeded the limit, thus endangering the aquatic environment. This research aims to determine the activity of photocatalyst granule TiO2-N/bentonite-alginate as decomposers of compounds in the photodegradation process. Photodegradation is the decomposition process of compounds by semiconductors with light. Results expected includes the photocatalyst activity of TiO2-N/bentonite-alginate granule produced by ultraviolet rays is known based on the effect of dopant N concentration on the catalyst and the effect of photocatalytic ratio toward tempe waste water. Methods proposed in this research are activation of bentonite using H2SO4 0.8 M, TiO2-N synthesize by sonication method with urea as the source of N, then TiO2-N impregnation into bentonite. Photocatalyst in granule form synthesized with alginate was then dripped with syringe pump into 3% (w/v) CaCl2. The photocatalyst characterization will be performed using XRD. The optimum tempe waste water degradation at the concentration of TiO2-N 0.4 (g/g) bentonite is 53.66%. The ratio of photocatalyst and tempe waste water, optimum at 150 mg of photocatalyst with 25 mL of waste equal to 53.66%.

  9. Modularized and water-cooled photo-catalyst cleaning devices for aquaponics based on ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Henglong; Lung, Louis; Wei, Yu-Chien; Huang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zi-Yu; Chou, Yu-Yang; Lin, Anne-Chin

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of applying ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LED's) as triggering sources of photo-catalyst based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-coating specifically for water-cleaning process in an aquaponics system was designed and proposed. The aquaponics system is a modern farming system to integrate aquaculture and hydroponics into a single system to establish an environmental-friendly and lower-cost method for farming fish and vegetable all together in urban area. Water treatment in an aquaponics system is crucial to avoid mutual contamination. we proposed a modularized watercleaning device composed of all commercially available components and parts to eliminate organic contaminants by using UV-LED's for TiO2 photo-catalyst reaction. This water-cleaning module consisted of two coaxial hollowed cylindrical pipes can be submerged completely in water for water treatment and cooling UV-LED's. The temperature of the UV-LED after proper thermal management can be reduced about 16% to maintain the optimal operation condition. Our preliminary experimental result by using Methylene Blue solution to simulate organic contaminants indicated that TiO2 photo-catalyst triggered by UV-LED's can effectively decompose organic compound and decolor Methylene Blue solution.

  10. Semi-transparent all-oxide ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on ZnO/NiO-core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Ting-Ting; Wu, Di; Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Tian, Yong-Tao; Li, Xin-Jian; Du, Guo-Tong

    2016-05-01

    Semi-transparent all-oxide light-emitting diodes based on ZnO/NiO-core/shell nanowire structures were prepared on double-polished c-Al2O3 substrates. The entire heterojunction diode showed an average transparency of ~65% in the ultraviolet and visible regions. Under forward bias, the diode displayed an intense ultraviolet emission at ~382 nm, and its electroluminescence performance was remarkable in terms of a low emission onset, acceptable operating stability, and the ability to optically excite emissive semiconductor nanoparticle chromophores.Semi-transparent all-oxide light-emitting diodes based on ZnO/NiO-core/shell nanowire structures were prepared on double-polished c-Al2O3 substrates. The entire heterojunction diode showed an average transparency of ~65% in the ultraviolet and visible regions. Under forward bias, the diode displayed an intense ultraviolet emission at ~382 nm, and its electroluminescence performance was remarkable in terms of a low emission onset, acceptable operating stability, and the ability to optically excite emissive semiconductor nanoparticle chromophores. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07236k

  11. Inactivation of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enterica on Blueberries in Water Using Ultraviolet Light.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuhan; Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-07-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) has antimicrobial effects, but the shadowing effect has limited its application. In this study, a novel setup using UV processing in agitated water was developed to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on blueberries. Blueberries were dip- or spot-inoculated with E. coli or Salmonella. Blueberries inoculated with E. coli were treated for 2 to 10 min with UV directly (dry UV) or immersed in agitated water during UV treatment (wet UV). E. coli was most easily killed on spot-inoculated blueberries with a 5.2-log reduction after 10-min wet UV treatment. Dip-inoculated blueberries were the most difficult to be decontaminated with only 1.6-log reduction after 10-min wet UV treatment. Wet UV treatment generally showed higher efficacies than dry UV treatment, achieving an average of 1.4 log more reduction for spot-inoculated blueberries. For dip-inoculated blueberries, chlorine washing and UV treatments were less effective, achieving <2 log reductions of E. coli. Thus, the efficacy of combinations of wet UV with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), levulinic acid, or chlorine was evaluated. Inoculated blueberries were UV-treated while being immersed in agitated water containing 100 ppm SDS, 0.5% levulinic acid or 10 ppm chlorine. The 3 chemicals did not significantly enhance the wet UV treatment. Findings of this study suggest that UV treatment could be used as an alternative to chlorine washing for blueberries and potentially for other fresh produce. A novel UV light system for decontamination of blueberries in water was developed and evaluated. Results demonstrated that the decontamination efficacy of this system was generally as effective as chlorine washing, indicating that it could potentially be used as an alternative to chlorine washing for blueberries and other fresh produce. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in biofilms by pulsed ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Nedra L; Banerjee, Pratik

    2015-06-10

    The inactivation of biofilms formed by pathogenic bacteria on ready-to-eat and minimally processed fruits and vegetables by nonthermal processing methods is critical to ensure food safety. Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV) light has shown promise in the surface decontamination of liquid, powdered, and solid foods. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of PUV light treatment on nascent biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of food packaging materials, such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and fresh produce, such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves, was investigated. The formation of biofilms on Romaine lettuce leaves and LDPE films was confirmed by crystal violet and Alcian blue staining methods. Inactivation of cells in the biofilm was determined by standard plating procedures, and by a luminescence-based bacterial cell viability assay. Upon PUV treatment of 10 s at two different light source to sample distances (4.5 and 8.8 cm), viable cell counts of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 in biofilms on the lettuce surface were reduced by 0.6-2.2 log CFU mL(-1) and 1.1-3.8 log CFU mL(-1), respectively. On the LDPE surface, the efficiency of inactivation of biofilm-encased cells was slightly higher. The maximum values for microbial reduction on LDPE were 2.7 log CFU mL(-1) and 3.9 log CFU mL(-1) for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Increasing the duration of PUV light exposure resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in biofilm formation by both organisms. The results also revealed that PUV treatment was more effective at reducing E. coli biofilms compared with Listeria biofilms. A moderate increase in temperature (~7-15°C) was observed for both test materials. PUV is an effective nonthermal intervention method for surface decontamination of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes on fresh produce and packaging materials.

  13. New formaldehyde base disinfectants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; Lindell, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    Preparations of formaldehyde in various organic liquids - ethylene glycol, glycerol, and propylene glycol - serve as effective disinfectants towards microbial vegetative cells and spores. This disinfection is a temperature-dependent process and is manifest when these formaldehyde base disinfectants are dissolved in water. The irritating vapors associated with formaldehyde disinfection are not present in either of these new formaldehyde base disinfectants or in aqueous solutions of them.

  14. Lattice-matched double dip-shaped BAlGaN/AlN quantum well structures for ultraviolet light emission devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Ahn, Doyeol

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet light emission characteristics of lattice-matched BxAlyGa1-x-y N/AlN quantum well (QW) structures with double AlGaN delta layers were investigated theoretically. In contrast to conventional single dip-shaped QW structure where the reduction effect of the spatial separation between electron and hole wave functions is negligible, proposed double dip-shaped QW shows significant enhancement of the ultraviolet light emission intensity from a BAlGaN/AlN QW structure due to the reduced spatial separation between electron and hole wave functions. The emission peak of the double dip-shaped QW structure is expected to be about three times larger than that of the conventional rectangular AlGaN/AlN QW structure.

  15. Structure of the replication fork in ultraviolet light-irradiated human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro-Stone, M; Schumacher, R I; Meneghini, R

    1979-01-01

    The DNA extracted from xeroderma pigmentosum human fibroblasts previously irradiated with 12.5 J/m2 of UV light and pulse-labeled for 45 min with radioactive and (or) heavy precursors, was used to determine the structural characteristics of the replication fork. Density equilibrium centrifugation experiments showed that a fork moved 6 micrometer in 45 min and bypassed 3 pyrimidine dimers in both strands. The same length was covered in 15-20 min in control cells. The delay in irradiated cells was apparently due to pyrimidine dimers acting as temporary blocks to the fork movement. Evidence for this interpretation comes from kinetics of incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, which show that the time necessary to attain a new stable level of DNA synthesis in irradiated cells is equivalent to that required for the replication fork to cover the interdimer distance in one strand. On the other hand, the action of S1 nuclease on DNA synthesized soon after irradiation gives rise to a bimodal distribution in neutral sucrose gradients, one peak corresponding to 43 X 10(6) daltons and the other to 3 X 10(6) daltons. These two DNA species are generated by the attack of the S1 nuclease on single-stranded regions associated with the replication fork. A possible explanation for these results is given by a model according to which there is a delayed bypass of the dimer in the leading strand and the appearance of gaps opposite pyrimidine dimers in the lagging strand, as a direct consequence of the discontinuous mode of DNA replication. In terms of the model, the DNA of 43 X 10(6) daltons corresponds to the leading strand, linked to the unreplicated branch of the forks, whereas the piece of 3 X 10(6) daltons is the intergap DNA coming from the lagging strand. Pulse and chase experiments reveal that the low molecular weight DNA grows in a pattern that suggests that more than one gap may be formed per replication fork. PMID:233582

  16. Structure of the replication fork in ultraviolet light-irradiated human cells.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Stone, M; Schumacher, R I; Meneghini, R

    1979-08-01

    The DNA extracted from xeroderma pigmentosum human fibroblasts previously irradiated with 12.5 J/m2 of UV light and pulse-labeled for 45 min with radioactive and (or) heavy precursors, was used to determine the structural characteristics of the replication fork. Density equilibrium centrifugation experiments showed that a fork moved 6 micrometer in 45 min and bypassed 3 pyrimidine dimers in both strands. The same length was covered in 15-20 min in control cells. The delay in irradiated cells was apparently due to pyrimidine dimers acting as temporary blocks to the fork movement. Evidence for this interpretation comes from kinetics of incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, which show that the time necessary to attain a new stable level of DNA synthesis in irradiated cells is equivalent to that required for the replication fork to cover the interdimer distance in one strand. On the other hand, the action of S1 nuclease on DNA synthesized soon after irradiation gives rise to a bimodal distribution in neutral sucrose gradients, one peak corresponding to 43 X 10(6) daltons and the other to 3 X 10(6) daltons. These two DNA species are generated by the attack of the S1 nuclease on single-stranded regions associated with the replication fork. A possible explanation for these results is given by a model according to which there is a delayed bypass of the dimer in the leading strand and the appearance of gaps opposite pyrimidine dimers in the lagging strand, as a direct consequence of the discontinuous mode of DNA replication. In terms of the model, the DNA of 43 X 10(6) daltons corresponds to the leading strand, linked to the unreplicated branch of the forks, whereas the piece of 3 X 10(6) daltons is the intergap DNA coming from the lagging strand. Pulse and chase experiments reveal that the low molecular weight DNA grows in a pattern that suggests that more than one gap may be formed per replication fork.

  17. Susceptibility of Vaccinia Virus to Chemical Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Tércia Moreira Ludolfo; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Coelho Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the cause of bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonotic disease that affects dairy cows and milkers. Some chemical disinfectants have been used on farms affected by BV to disinfect cow teats and milkers' hands. To date, there is no information about the efficacy of disinfectants against VACV. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the virucidal activity of some active disinfectants commonly used in the field. Sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium combined with chlorhexidine, and quaternary ammonium combined with glutaraldehyde were effective in inactivating the virus at all concentrations tested. Iodine and quaternary ammonium as the only active component were partially effective. The presence of bovine feces as organic matter and light decreased the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite. These results show that an appropriated disinfection and asepsis of teats and hands may be helpful in the control and prevention of BV and other infections with VACV. PMID:21734141

  18. Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki

    2012-12-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

  19. Assessment of a portable handheld UV light device for the disinfection of viruses and bacteria in water.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Naranjo, Jaime E; Gerba, Charles P

    2013-06-01

    Effective individual microbiological water purifiers are needed for consumption of untreated water sources by campers, emergency use, military, and in developing counties. A handheld UV light device was tested to assess if it could meet the virus reduction requirements established by the United State Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation and the World Health Organization. The device was found capable of inactivating at least 4 log₁₀ of poliovirus type 1, rotavirus SA-11 and MS-2 virus in 500 mL volumes of general case test water. But in the presence of high turbidity and organic matter, filtration was necessary to achieve a 4 log₁₀ reduction of the test viruses.

  20. Ultraviolet Light Surface Treatment as an Environmentally Benign Process for Production, Maintenance and Repair of Military Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2002-02-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-speed, environmentally benign, dry surface treatment method for production, and repair of military composite structures using ultraviolet (UV) light in ambient air. The potential advantage of this method is that it would eliminate volatile organic wastes (VOCs), reduce or eliminate the use of solutions and detergents, and provide a robust surface that would enhance or eliminate the use of solutions and detergents, and provide a robust surface that would enhance the wetting and spreading of paints, coatings and adhesives on polymeric and inorganic surfaces treated by this method. A manufacturing base for UV production equipment is in place although not for this application. There is a need for development of an environmentally friendly, cost effective as well as a robust surface treatment method that can clean a surface as well as create a beneficial chemistry for painting and produce optimum adhesive bonding of polymers, polymer composites and metal surfaces. With this in mind, three main technical objectives were sought in the work. The first objective was to determine the usefulness of UV and UV/O(3) to surface treatments to clean and chemically modify the surface of typical PMCs used in DOD systems. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of this surface preparation for production and/or repair of adhesively bonded, painted and/or coated polymer matrix composite structures. Finally, a determination of the environmental and performance benefits of this method as a new environmentally benign processing method for the production and/or re air of adhesively SERDP, SERDP collection, robust surface, polymeric surface, inorganic surface, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions.

  1. Psoralen and Ultraviolet A Light Treatment Directly Affects Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signal Transduction by Altering Plasma Membrane Packing*

    PubMed Central

    Van Aelst, Britt; Devloo, Rosalie; Zachée, Pierre; t'Kindt, Ruben; Sandra, Koen; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Compernolle, Veerle; Feys, Hendrik B.

    2016-01-01

    Psoralen and ultraviolet A light (PUVA) are used to kill pathogens in blood products and as a treatment of aberrant cell proliferation in dermatitis, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and graft-versus-host disease. DNA damage is well described, but the direct effects of PUVA on cell signal transduction are poorly understood. Because platelets are anucleate and contain archetypal signal transduction machinery, they are ideally suited to address this. Lipidomics on platelet membrane extracts showed that psoralen forms adducts with unsaturated carbon bonds of fatty acyls in all major phospholipid classes after PUVA. Such adducts increased lipid packing as measured by a blue shift of an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe in model liposomes. Furthermore, the interaction of these liposomes with lipid order-sensitive proteins like amphipathic lipid-packing sensor and α-synuclein was inhibited by PUVA. In platelets, PUVA caused poor membrane binding of Akt and Bruton's tyrosine kinase effectors following activation of the collagen glycoprotein VI and thrombin protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1. This resulted in defective Akt phosphorylation despite unaltered phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate levels. Downstream integrin activation was furthermore affected similarly by PUVA following PAR1 (effective half-maximal concentration (EC50), 8.4 ± 1.1 versus 4.3 ± 1.1 μm) and glycoprotein VI (EC50, 1.61 ± 0.85 versus 0.26 ± 0.21 μg/ml) but not PAR4 (EC50, 50 ± 1 versus 58 ± 1 μm) signal transduction. Our findings were confirmed in T-cells from graft-versus-host disease patients treated with extracorporeal photopheresis, a form of systemic PUVA. In conclusion, PUVA increases the order of lipid phases by covalent modification of phospholipids, thereby inhibiting membrane recruitment of effector kinases. PMID:27687726

  2. Interactions between ultraviolet light and MC1R and OCA2 variants are determinants of childhood nevus and freckle phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Barón, Anna E.; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Gonzalez, Victoria; Aalborg, Jenny; Terzian, Tamara; Stiegmann, Regan A.; C.Torchia, Enrique; Berwick, Marianne; Dellavalle, Robert P.; G.Morelli, Joseph; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Crane, Lori A.; Box, Neil F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Melanocytic nevi (moles) and freckles are well known biomarkers of melanoma risk, and they are influenced by similar ultraviolet (UV) light exposures and genetic susceptibilities to those that increase melanoma risk. Nevertheless, the selective interactions between UV exposures and nevus and freckling genes remain largely undescribed. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study from ages 6 through 10 in 477 Colorado children who had annual information collected for sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and full body skin exams. MC1R and HERC2/OCA2 rs12913832 were genotyped and linear mixed models were used to identify main and interaction effects. Results All measures of sun exposure (chronic, sunburns and waterside vacations) contributed to total nevus counts, and cumulative chronic exposure acted as the major driver of nevus development. Waterside vacations strongly increased total nevus counts in children with rs12913832 blue eye color alleles and facial freckling scores in those with MC1R red hair color variants. Sunburns increased numbers of larger nevi (≥2 mm) in subjects with certain MC1R and rs12913832 genotypes. Conclusions Complex interactions between different UV exposure profiles and genotype combinations determine nevus numbers and size, and the degree of facial freckling. Impact Our findings emphasize the importance of implementing sun-protective behavior in childhood regardless of genetic make-up; although children with particular genetic variants may benefit from specifically targeted preventive measures to counteract their inherent risk of melanoma. Moreover, we demonstrate, for the first time, that longitudinal studies are a highly powered tool to uncover new gene-environment interactions that increase cancer risk. PMID:25410285

  3. Electrospraying and ultraviolet light curing of nanometer-thin polydimethylsiloxane membranes for low-voltage dielectric elastomer transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmani, Bekim; Töpper, Tino; Siketanc, Matej; Kovacs, Gabor M.; Müller, Bert

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs) have attracted interest as actuators, sensors, and even as self-sensing actuators for applications in medicine, soft robotics, and microfluidics. To reach strains of more than 10 %, they currently require operating voltages of several hundred volts. In medical applications for artificial muscles, however, their operation is limited to a very few tens of volts, which implies high permittivity materials and thin-film structures. Such micro- or nanostructures can be prepared using electro-spraying, a cost-effective technique that allows upscaling using multiple nozzles for the fabrication of silicone films down to nanometer thickness. Deposition rates of several micrometers per hour have already been reached. It has been recently demonstrated that such membranes can be fabricated by electro-spraying and subsequent ultraviolet light irradiation. Herein, we introduce a relatively fast deposition of a dimethyl silicone copolymer fluid that contains mercaptopropyl side chains in addition to the methyl groups. Its elastic modulus was tuned with the irradiation dose of the 200 W Hg-Xe lamp. We also investigated the formation of elastomer films, using polymer concentrations in ethyl acetate of 1, 2, 5 and 10 vol%. After curing, the surface roughness was measured by means of atomic force microscopy. This instrument also enabled us to determine the average elastic modulus out of, for example, 400 nanoindentation measurements, using a spherical tip with a radius of 500 nm. The elastomer films were cured for a period of less than one minute, a speed that makes it feasible to combine electro-spraying and in situ curing in a single process step for fabricating low-voltage, multilayer DETs.

  4. Caffeine toxicity is inversely related to DNA repair in simian virus 40-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum cells irradiated with ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Human cells transformed by simian virus 40 (SV40) are more sensitive to killing by ultraviolet light when grown in caffeine after irradiation. The degree of sensitization at 2 mM caffeine (expressed as the ratio of the 37% survival dose for control cells divided by the 37% survival dose for cells grown in caffeine, i.e., the dose modification factor) was approximately 1.9 in transformed normal cells and 3.8-5.8 in excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) groups A, C, and D cells. A large dose modification factor of 12 was observed in a transformed XP variant cell line. Chinese hamster ovary cells were notmore » significantly different from transformed normal human cells, with a maximum dose modification factor of 1.5. Two radioresistant XP revertants that do not excise cyclobutane dimers gave different responses; one resembled its group A parent in being sensitized by caffeine, and one did not. These results can be interpreted on the basis of a single hypothesis that cells are killed as a result of attempts to replicate damaged DNA. Increased replication rates caused by transformation, increased numbers of replication forks in DNA caused by caffeine, and increased numbers of damaged sites ahead of replication forks in excision-defective cells are all processes that will consequently increase killing according to this hypothesis. A corollary is that the XP variant may be highly sensitized to caffeine because of excision defects at the DNA replication forks, an idea that may be important in designing cloning strategies for the XP variant gene.« less

  5. Treatment of blood with a pathogen reduction technology using ultraviolet light and riboflavin inactivates Ebola virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cap, Andrew P; Pidcoke, Heather F; Keil, Shawn D; Staples, Hilary M; Anantpadma, Manu; Carrion, Ricardo; Davey, Robert A; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Taylor, Audra L; Gonzales, Richard; Patterson, Jean L; Goodrich, Raymond P

    2016-03-01

    Transfusion of plasma from recovered patients after Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection, typically called "convalescent plasma," is an effective treatment for active disease available in endemic areas, but carries the risk of introducing other pathogens, including other strains of EBOV. A pathogen reduction technology using ultraviolet light and riboflavin (UV+RB) is effective against multiple enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that are similar in structure to EBOV. We hypothesized that UV+RB is effective against EBOV in blood products without activating complement or reducing protective immunoglobulin titers that are important for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Four in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of UV+RB on green fluorescent protein EBOV (EBOV-GFP), wild-type EBOV in serum, and whole blood, respectively, and on immunoglobulins and complement in plasma. Initial titers for Experiments 1 to 3 were 4.21 log GFP units/mL, 4.96 log infectious units/mL, and 4.23 log plaque-forming units/mL. Conditions tested in the first three experiments included the following: 1-EBOV-GFP plus UV+RB; 2-EBOV-GFP plus RB only; 3-EBOV-GFP plus UV only; 4-EBOV-GFP without RB or UV; 5-virus-free control plus UV only; and 6-virus-free control without RB or UV. UV+RB reduced EBOV titers to nondetectable levels in both nonhuman primate serum (≥2.8- to 3.2-log reduction) and human whole blood (≥3.0-log reduction) without decreasing protective antibody titers in human plasma. Our in vitro results demonstrate that the UV+RB treatment efficiently reduces EBOV titers to below limits of detection in both serum and whole blood. In vivo testing to determine whether UV+RB can improve convalescent blood product safety is indicated. © 2016 AABB.

  6. Pathogen inactivation by riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination accelerates the red blood cell storage lesion and promotes eryptosis.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Syed M; Chen, Deborah; Schubert, Peter; Perruzza, Darian L; Bhakta, Varsha; Devine, Dana V; Sheffield, William P

    2017-03-01

    Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination (Mirasol) effectively reduces the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. This treatment is currently licensed for only platelets and plasma products, while its application to whole blood (WB) to generate pathogen-inactivated red blood cells (RBCs) is under development. RBC storage lesion, constituting numerous morphologic and biochemical changes, influences RBC quality and limits shelf life. Stored RBCs further show enhanced susceptibility to RBC programmed cell death (eryptosis) characterized by increased cytosolic Ca 2+ -provoked membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Using a "pool-and-split" approach, we examined multiple variables of RBC storage lesion and eryptosis in RBC units, derived from Mirasol-treated or untreated WB, after 4 to 42 days of storage, under blood bank conditions. In comparison to untreated RBC units, Mirasol treatment significantly altered membrane microvesiculation, supernatant hemoglobin, osmotic fragility, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but did not influence membrane CD47 expression and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Mirasol-treated RBCs showed significantly higher PS exposure after 42, but not after not more than 21, days of storage, which was accompanied by enhanced cytosolic Ca 2+ activity, ceramide abundance, and oxidative stress, but not p38 kinase activation. Mirasol treatment significantly augmented PS exposure, Ca 2+ entry, and protein kinase C activation after energy depletion, a pathophysiologic cell stressor. Mirasol-treated RBCs were, however, more resistant to cell shrinkage. Prolonged storage of Mirasol-treated RBCs significantly increases the proportion of eryptotic RBCs, while even short-term storage enhances the susceptibility of RBCs to stress-induced eryptosis, which could reduce posttransfusion RBC recovery in patients. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Effect of photoactivated disinfection with a light-emitting diode on bacterial species and biofilms associated with periodontitis and peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Eick, Sigrun; Markauskaite, Giedre; Nietzsche, Sandor; Laugisch, Oliver; Salvi, Giovanni E; Sculean, Anton

    2013-05-01

    To determine the effect of photoactivated disinfection (PAD) using toluidine blue and a light-emitting diode (LED) in the red spectrum (wave length at 625-635 nm) on species associated with periodontitis and peri-implantitis and bacteria within a periodontopathic biofilm. Sixteen single microbial species including 2 Porphyromonas gingivalis and 2 Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and a multispecies mixture consisting of 12 species suspended in saline without and with 25% human serum were exposed to PAD. Moreover, single-species biofilms consisting of 2 P. gingivalis and 2 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains and a multi-species biofilm on 24-well-plates, grown on titanium discs and in artificial periodontal pockets were exposed to PAD with and without pretreatment with 0.25% hydrogen peroxide. Changes in the viability were determined by counting the colony forming units (cfu). PAD reduced the cfu counts in saline by 1.42 log₁₀ after LED application for 30s and by 1.99 log₁₀ after LED application for 60s compared with negative controls (each p<0.001). Serum did not inhibit the efficacy of PAD. PAD reduced statistically significantly (p<0.05) the cfu counts of the P. gingivalis biofilms. The viability of the A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms and the multi-species biofilms was statistically significantly decreased when PAD was applied after a pretreatment with 0.25% hydrogen peroxide. The biofilm formed in artificial pockets was more sensitive to PAD with and without pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide compared with those formed on titanium discs. PAD using a LED was effective against periodontopathic bacterial species and reduced viability in biofilms but was not able to completely destroy complex biofilms. The use of PAD following pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide resulted in an additional increase in the antimicrobial activity which may represent a new alternative to treat periodontal and peri-implant infections thus warranting further testing in clinical

  8. Characterisation of ultraviolet-absorbing recalcitrant organics in landfill leachate for treatment process optimisation.

    PubMed

    Keen, Olya S

    2017-03-01

    Organics in leachate from municipal solid waste landfills are notoriously difficult to treat by biological processes. These organics have high ultraviolet absorbance and can interfere with the ultraviolet disinfection process at the wastewater treatment plant that receives leachate if the leachate flow contribution is large enough. With more wastewater treatment plants switching to ultraviolet disinfection, landfills face increased pressure to treat leachate further. This study used size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet/Vis spectrophotometry to characterise the bulk organic matter in raw landfill leachate and the biorecalcitrant organic matter in biologically treated leachate from the same site. The results indicate that biorecalcitrant organics have the polyphenolic absorbance peak at 280 nm, fluorescence peak at 280 nm excitation and 315 nm emission, and molecular size range of 1000-7000 Da, all of which are consistent with lignin. The lignin-like nature of biorecalcitrant leachate organics is supported by the fact that 30%-50% of municipal solid waste consists of plant debris and paper products. These findings shed light on the nature of biorecalcitrant organics in leachate and will be useful for the design of leachate treatment processes and further research on leachate treatment methods.

  9. Field-testing UV disinfection of drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.; Drescher, A.; Greene, D.

    A recently invented device, ``UV Waterworks,`` uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. Its novel features are: low cost, robust design, rapid disinfection, low electricity use, low maintenance, high flow rate and ability to work with unpressurized water sources. The device could service a community of 1,000 persons, at an annual total cost of less than 10 US cents per person. UV Waterworks has been successfully tested in the laboratory. Limited field trials of an early version of the device were conducted in India in 1994--95. Insights from these trials led to the present design. Extended field trials ofmore » UV Waterworks, initiated in South Africa in February 1997, will be coordinated by the South African Center for Essential Community Services (SACECS), with technical and organizational support from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (both US). The first of the eight planned sites of the year long trial is an AIDS hospice near Durban. Durban metro Water and LBNL lab-tested a UV Waterworks unit prior to installing it at the hospice in August, 1997. The authors describe the field test plans and preliminary results from Durban.« less

  10. Simultaneous multi-wavelength ultraviolet excited single-phase white light emitting phosphor Ba1-x(Zr,Ti)Si3O9:xEu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenzhen; Liu, Guanghui; Ni, Jia; Liu, Wanlu; Liu, Qian

    2018-05-01

    A kind of novel compound Ba1-x(Zr,Ti)Si3O9:xEu simultaneously activated by different-valence Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions has been successfully synthesized. The existence of Ti4+-O2- charge transfer (CT) transitions in Ba1-xZrSi3O9:xEu is proved by the photoluminescence spectra and first principle calculations, and the Ti4+ ions come from the impurities in commercial ZrO2 raw materials. Under the excitation of multi-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (λEX = 392, 260, 180 nm), Ba1-xZrSi3O9:xEu (x = 0.15) can directly emit nearly white light. The coexistence of multiple luminescent centers and the energy transfer among Zr4+-O2- CT state, Ti4+-O2- CT state, Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions play important roles in the white light emission. Ba1-xZrSi3O9:xEu (x = 0.15) has good thermal stability, in particular, the intensity of emission spectrum (λEX = 392 nm) at 150 °C is ∼96% of that at room temperature. In general, the multi-wavelength ultraviolet-excited single-phase white light emitting phosphor Ba1-x(Zr,Ti)Si3O9:xEu possesses a promise for applications in white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), agriculture, medicine and other photonic fields.

  11. Comparison of UV-LED and low pressure UV for water disinfection: Photoreactivation and dark repair of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Wen-Long; Huo, Zheng-Yang; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2017-12-01

    Studies on ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) water disinfection have shown advantages, such as safety, flexible design, and lower starting voltages. However, information about reactivation after UV-LED disinfection is limited, which is an important issue of UV light-based technology. In this study, the photoreactivation and dark repair of Escherichia coli after UV-LEDs and low pressure (LP) UV disinfection were compared. Four UV-LED units, 265 nm, 280 nm, the combination of 265 + 280 (50%), and 265 + 280 (75%) were tested. 265 nm LEDs was more effective than 280 nm LEDs and LP UV lamps for E. coli inactivation. No synergic effect for disinfection was observed from the combination of 265 and 280 nm LEDs. 265 nm LEDs had no different reactivation performances with that of LP UV, while 280 nm LEDs could significantly repress photoreactivation and dark repair at a low irradiation intensity of 6.9 mJ/cm 2 . Furthermore, the UV-induced damage of 280 nm LEDs was less repaired which was determined by endonuclease sensitive site (ESS) assay. The impaired protein activities by 280 nm LEDs might be one of the reasons that inhibited reactivation. A new reactivation rate constant, K max , was introduced into the logistic model to simulate the reactivation data, which showed positive relationship with the maximum survival ratio and was more reasonable to interpret the results of photoreactivation and dark repair. This study revealed the distinct roles of different UV lights in disinfection and reactivation, which is helpful for the future design of UV-LED equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. VERIFICATION OF HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the critical components of the USEPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program for two specific technologies categories: ultraviolet disinfection technologies for treating combined sewer overflow (CSO) and sanitary sewer overflow (SSO), and; induction m...

  13. VERIFICATION OF HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the critical components of the USEPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program for two specific technologies categories: ultraviolet disinfection technologies for treating combined sewer overflow (CSO) and sanitary sewer overflow (SSO), and; and mechani...

  14. Evaluation of Combined Peracetic acid and UV treatment for Disinfection of Secondary Wastewater Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the combined application of Peracetic acid and ultraviolet radiation as alternative disinfectant agents to the traditional chlorination of wastewater effluents. Various pathogens (E. coli, enterococci and fecal coliforms) were eval...

  15. General Theories of Chemical Disinfection and Sterlization of Sludge. Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lawrence K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The early history of disinfection and sterilization, physical methods, electron irradiation, sonic and supersonic waves, alpha, beta, gamma, cathode, x-rays, and ultraviolet radiation, and heating and freezing are covered. (BB)

  16. MONITORING FOR AEROMONAS SPECIES AFTER TREATMENT WITH COMMON DRINKING WATER DISINFECTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. To free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was determined. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Experiments using free chlorine indicated that the Aeromonas spp. ...

  17. Review of electrotechnologies used in the disinfection of water and wastewater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    VandeVenter, L.W.

    This report provides an overview of the disinfection practices used in water and wastewater treatment. Chlorine historically has been the disinfectant of choice for both water and wastewater, but with increased research and more stringent regulations, other disinfectants, namely ozone and ultraviolet irradiation, are being considered. The report summarizes the present and future applications of these technologies and defines possible opportunities for Demand- Side Management (DSM).

  18. Review of electrotechnologies used in the disinfection of water and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    VandeVenter, L.W.

    This report provides an overview of the disinfection practices used in water and wastewater treatment. Chlorine historically has been the disinfectant of choice for both water and wastewater, but with increased research and more stringent regulations, other disinfectants, namely ozone and ultraviolet irradiation, are being considered. The report summarizes the present and future applications of these technologies and defines possible opportunities for Demand- Side Management (DSM).

  19. Development of ultraviolet- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain optical coherence tomography and in situ measurements of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Heijiro; Nakamura, Sohichiro

    2015-07-01

    We have developed ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) that enables in situ imaging of human skin with an arbitrary wavelength in the UV-visible-light region (370-800 nm). We alleviated the computational burden for each color OCT image by physically dispersing the irradiating light with a color filter. The system consists of SD-OCT with multicylindrical lenses; thus, mechanical scanning of the mirror or stage is unnecessary to obtain an OCT image. Therefore, only a few dozens of milliseconds are necessary to obtain single-image data. We acquired OCT images of one subject's skin in vivo and of a skin excision ex vivo for red (R, 650±20 nm), green (G, 550±20 nm), blue (B, 450±20 nm), and UV (397±5 nm) light. In the visible-light spectrum, R light penetrated the skin and was reflected at a lower depth than G or B light. On the skin excision, we demonstrated that UV light reached the dermal layer. We anticipated that basic knowledge about the spectral properties of human skin in the depth direction could be acquired with this system.

  20. Development of ultraviolet- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain optical coherence tomography and in situ measurements of human skin.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Heijiro; Nakamura, Sohichiro

    2015-07-01

    We have developed ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) that enables in situ imaging of human skin with an arbitrary wavelength in the UV-visible-light region (370-800 nm). We alleviated the computational burden for each color OCT image by physically dispersing the irradiating light with a color filter. The system consists of SD-OCT with multicylindrical lenses; thus, mechanical scanning of the mirror or stage is unnecessary to obtain an OCT image. Therefore, only a few dozens of milliseconds are necessary to obtain single-image data. We acquired OCT images of one subject's skin in vivo and of a skin excision ex vivo for red (R, 650 ± 20 nm), green (G, 550 ± 20 nm), blue (B, 450 ± 20 nm), and UV (397 ± 5 nm) light. In the visible-light spectrum, R light penetrated the skin and was reflected at a lower depth than G or B light. On the skin excision, we demonstrated that UV light reached the dermal layer. We anticipated that basic knowledge about the spectral properties of human skin in the depth direction could be acquired with this system.

  1. Improved Turn-On and Operating Voltages in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guo-Dong; Taniguchi, Manabu; Tamari, Naoki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro

    2017-10-01

    While good ohmic contact formation has been achieved on both p-GaN and n-AlGaN surfaces, the turn-on and operating voltages of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) remain very high. We find that this critical problem is mainly caused by the large difference between the annealing temperatures required for ohmic contact formation on the p-GaN and high Al-fraction n-AlGaN surfaces. We studied the effects of the high-temperature annealing treatments required for n-ohmic contact formation on the subsequent p-ohmic contact formation process in DUV-LEDs. The results show that post-annealing treatment at high temperature is necessary to form an ohmic contact on n-Al0.7Ga0.3N, but a treatment temperature of 900°C or more could cause severe degradation of the specific contact resistivity and the bulk resistivity of p-GaN. We conclude that 900°C is the optimum temperature to form an ohmic contact on n-Al0.7Ga0.3N in DUV-LEDs, where p-GaN and n-Al0.7Ga0.3N act as the p- and n-ohmic contact layers, respectively. We also found that the specific contact resistivity of p-GaN can be reduced by an additional low-temperature annealing treatment after the high-temperature annealing step; this effect can be attributed to the enhancement of the hole concentration in the p-GaN surface contact region. Finally, DUV-LEDs that emit at 280 nm were fabricated using four different annealing treatments during processing. A considerable reduction in the series resistance and thereby in the operating voltage was confirmed using the annealing process proposed above, consisting of a high-temperature anneal at 900°C followed by a low-temperature anneal at 500°C for 3 min.

  2. Side effects from intense pulsed light: Importance of skin pigmentation, fluence level and ultraviolet radiation-A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F; Beerwerth, Frank; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans C; Paasch, Uwe; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on IPL-induced side effects. The study was a blinded, randomized intra-individual controlled trial including 16 healthy subjects with Fitzpatrick Skin Types (FST) II-V. Three test areas were each divided into four sites, randomized to a single IPL exposure of 22, 34, 46 J/cm 2 or triple stacking of 46 J/cm 2 . Areas were subsequently randomized to no UVR or single solar-simulated UVR exposure of 3 Standard Erythema Dose at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL. Each area had a corresponding control, resulting in 15 treatment sites. Follow-up visits were scheduled up to 4 weeks after IPL. Outcome measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL induced a wide range of skin reactions, including erythema (87% of subjects), purpura (27%), blisters (20%), edema (13%), crusting (13%), hyper- (60%), and hypopigmentation (20%). Darker skin pigmentation and increasing IPL fluence were determinants for IPL-induced side effects (P ≤ 0.002), while a single exposure of UVR did not exacerbate side effects (P ≥ 0.180). Clinical findings were confirmed objectively by reflectance spectrometry and qualitatively by histological changes in skin architecture, inflammatory infiltration, and pigmentation. Marker of cellular DNA damage, that is, p53, did not increase after IPL (P ≥ 0.24). Skin pigmentation and IPL fluence are major determinants of side effects after IPL exposure, while a single exposure to three SED of UVR at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL

  3. Application of water-assisted ultraviolet light in combination of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide to inactivate Salmonella on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuanghuan; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-09-18

    With the demand for fresh produce increases in recent decades, concerns for microbiological safety of fresh produce are also raised. To identify effective ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for fresh produce decontamination, we first determined the effect of three forms of UV treatment, dry UV (samples were treated by UV directly), wet UV (samples were dipped in water briefly and then exposed to UV), and water-assisted UV (samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water) on inactivation of Salmonella inoculated on tomatoes and fresh-cut lettuce. In general, the water-assisted UV treatment was found to be the most effective for both produce items. Chlorine and hydrogen peroxide were then tested to determine whether they could be used to enhance the decontamination efficacy of water-assisted UV treatment and prevent transfer of Salmonella via wash water by completely eliminating it. Neither of them significantly enhanced water-assisted UV inactivation of Salmonella on tomatoes. Chlorine significantly improved the decontamination effectiveness of the water-assisted UV treatment for baby-cut carrots and lettuce, but not for spinach. In general, the single water-assisted UV treatment and the combined treatment of water-assisted UV and chlorine were similar or more effective than the chlorine washing treatment. In most of the cases, no Salmonella was detected in the wash water when the single water-assisted UV treatment was used to decontaminate tomatoes. In a few cases when Salmonella was detected in the wash water, the populations were very low,≤2CFU/mL, and the wash water contained an extremely high level of organic load and soil level. Therefore, the single water-assisted UV treatment could potentially be used as an environmentally friendly and non-chemical alternative to chlorine washing for tomatoes after validation in industrial scale. For lettuce, spinach and baby-cut carrots, the combined treatment of water-assisted UV treatment and chlorine

  4. Antimicrobial effect of three disinfecting agents on Resilon cones and their effect on surface topography: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappa, Mahesh Martur; Meharwade, Prasanna Mahadevasa; Srinivasan, Raghu; Bhandary, Shreetha; Nasreen, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and 2% peracetic acid (PAA) in disinfecting Resilon cones and to evaluate topographical changes microscopically under scanning electron microscope (SEM) after rapid chemical disinfection. Materials and Methods: Resilon cones were disinfected in an ultraviolet (UV) light chamber for 20 min and contaminated by immersing in a microbial suspension of Enterococcus faecalis for 30 min. The contaminated cones were then immersed in the 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX, and 2% PAA for 1 min, 5 min, and 10 min, separately. The cones were then incubated at 37°C in thioglycollate broth for 7 days and examined for turbidity. The samples showing turbidity were subcultured on blood agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Gram staining was done to confirm that the cultured bacteria were E. faecalis. Surface changes of disinfected Resilon cones were evaluated under SEM. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann–Whitney U-test. Result: In eliminating E. faecalis, 5.25% NaOCl was most effective followed by 2% PAA and 2% CHX. Topographic examination of tested Resilon cones revealed some surface deposits after disinfection with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX, whereas 2% PAA caused surface erosion. Conclusion: In disinfecting Resilon cones, 5.25% NaOCl is most effective followed by 2% PAA and 2% CHX. PMID:27099418

  5. Light-activated disinfection using a light-emitting diode lamp in the red spectrum: clinical and microbiological short-term findings on periodontitis patients in maintenance. A randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mongardini, Claudio; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Pilloni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Eradication or suppression of pathogens is a major goal in periodontal therapy. Due to the increase in antibiotic resistance, the need of new disinfection therapies is raising. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has demonstrated anti-infective potential. No data are available on the use of light-emitting diode (LED) lights as the light source in PDT. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological and clinical adjunctive outcome of a new photodynamic LED device, compared to scaling and root planing in periodontitis patients in maintenance [supportive periodontal therapy (SPT)]. In this masked, split-mouth design study, 30 treated chronic periodontitis subjects (mean age, 46.2 years; 13 males) in SPT were included. Two residual interdental sites with probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 5 mm in two opposite quadrants, with positive bleeding on probing (BOP) and comparable periodontal breakdown, were selected. PPD, BOP and subgingival microbiological samples for real-time PCR analysis (Carpegen® PerioDiagnostics, Carpegen GmbH, Münster, Germany) were recorded at baseline and 1 week after treatment. Scaling and root planing was performed under local anesthesia. Randomly one of the sites was selected to receive adjunctive photodynamic therapy by inserting a photosensitizer (toluidine blue O solution) and exposing it to a LED light in the red spectrum (Fotosan, CMS Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark), according to the manufacturer's instructions. After 1 week, 73 % of the control sites and 27 % of the test sites were still BOP+. These differences compared to baseline values and in-between groups were statistically significantly different (p < 0.001). Mean PPD decreased from 5.47 mm (±0.68) to 4.73 mm (±0.74, p < 0.001) in control sites and from 5.63 mm (±0.85) to 4.43 mm (±1.25, p < 0.001, test vs control p = 0.01) in the test group. Microbiologically, higher reductions of relative proportions of red complex bacteria were observed in test sites (68.1 vs. 4.1 %; p = 0

  6. 282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peng; Yan, Jianchang; Wang, Junxi; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Chong; Wei, Tongbo; Cong, Peipei; Zhang, Yiyun; Zeng, Jianping; Tian, Yingdong; Sun, Lili; Yan, Qingfeng; Li, Jinmin; Fan, Shunfei; Qin, Zhixin

    2013-06-01

    We first report AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) prepared through a nanosphere lithography technique. The AlN coalescence thickness on NPSS is only 3 μm due to AlN's nano-scaled lateral growth, which also leads to low dislocation densities in AlN and epi-layers above. On NPSS, the light-output power of a 282-nm UV-LED reaches 3.03 mW at 20 mA with external quantum efficiency of 3.45%, exhibiting 98% better performance than that on flat sapphire. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence reveals this significant enhancement to be a combination of higher internal quantum efficiency and higher light extraction efficiency.

  7. Note: a novel vacuum ultraviolet light source assembly with aluminum-coated electrodes for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Keqing; Liu, Chengyuan; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2014-04-01

    A novel vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source assembly (VUVLSA) for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometer has been described. The VUVLSA composes of a Krypton lamp and a pair of disk electrodes with circular center cavities. The two interior surfaces that face the photoionization region were aluminum-coated. VUV light can be reflected back and forth in the photoionization region between the electrodes, thus the photoionization efficiency can be greatly enhanced. The performances of two different shaped electrodes, the coated double flat electrodes (DFE), and double conical electrodes, were studied. We showed that the signal amplification of coated DFE is around 4 times higher than that of uncoated electrodes without VUV light reflection. The relationship between the pressure of ionization chamber and mass signal enhancement has also been studied.

  8. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used...

  13. Ester-free cross-linker molecules for ultraviolet-light-cured polysilsesquioxane gate dielectric layers of organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shuichi; Nakahara, Yoshio; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    Pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated with ultraviolet-light (UV)-cured polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) gate dielectric layers using cross-linker molecules with or without ester groups. To polymerize PSQ without ester groups, thiol-ene reaction was adopted. The TFTs fabricated with PSQ layers comprising ester-free cross-linkers showed a higher carrier mobility than the TFTs with PSQ layers cross-linked with ester groups, which had large electric dipole moments that limited the carrier mobility. It was demonstrated that the thiol-ene reaction is more suitable than the conventional radical reaction for UV-cured PSQ with small dielectric constant.

  14. Design and bidding of UV disinfection equipment -- Case study

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurek, M.

    1998-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems are being widely considered for application to treated wastewaters, in lieu of conventional chlorination facilities. The number of UV systems operating in the US was approximately 50 in 1984. In 1990 there were over 500 systems, a ten-fold increase. The use of UV disinfection has increased since 1990, and will likely to increase in the future. It is anticipated that as many chlorine disinfection facilities reach their useful life, most of them will be replaced with UV disinfection systems. Several manufacturers offer different UV disinfection equipment. Each offers something different for the designer. There are alsomore » different approaches used in estimating the number of lamps needed for the disinfection system. The lack of standardization in determination of the number of lamps for a UV system poses problems for the designer. Such was the case during the design of the disinfection system for the Watertown, SD Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWRP). The purpose of this paper is to present a case study for the design and bidding of UV disinfection equipment.« less

  15. Ultraviolet colors of W Ursae Majoris - Gravity darkening, temperature differences, and the cause of W-type light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Wu, C.-C.; Rucinski, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents photometry of the prototype W UMa binary system in three ultraviolet bands with the ANS satellite. It was found that W UMa has low-gravity darkening beta of 0.03; that temperature differences between the components not established by gravity darkening are insignificant; and that the bolometric albedo is not very large. It was also found that W UMa is limb-darkened in the ultraviolet region, and that the inner hemisphere of the less massive component is hotter than that predicted by gravity darkening and the reflection effect. It was concluded that about 20% of the surface area of the component responsible for large gravity darkening is covered by dark spots distributed uniformly in the longitudinal direction. An observational value of the convective darkening exponent of 0.054 plus or minus 0.02 is proposed.

  16. Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of ultraviolet light on the degradation of organic compounds: a possible explanation for the absence of organic matter on Mars.

    PubMed

    Oro, J; Holzer, G

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of the top layer of the Martian regolith at the two Viking landing sites did not reveal any indigenous organic compounds. However the existence of such compounds at deeper layers cannot be ruled out. Cosmochemical considerations indicate various potential sources for organic matter on Mars, such as comets and meteorites. Its disappearance from the top layer could be caused by degradation processes on the surface of the planet. Possible destructive agents include ultraviolet light, oxygen and metal oxides. In this study we tested the stability of a sample of the Murchison meteorite and various organic substances which have been detected in carbonaceous chondrites, such as glycine, adenine and naphthalene, to the action of ultraviolet light. The compounds were adsorbed on powdered quartz and on California desert soil and were irradiated in the presence or absence of oxygen. The organic content, before and after irradiation, was measured by carbon elementary analysis, UV-absorption, amino acid analysis o